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Sample records for bipolar outflow sources

  1. Star formation and the nature of bipolar outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, Frank H.; Ruden, Steven P.; Lada, Charles J.; Lizano, Susana

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a simple physical model for the bipolar molecular outflows that frequently accompany star formation. The model forges an intrinsic link between the bipolar flow phenomenon and the process of star formation, and it helps to explain many of the systematics known for existing sources.

  2. A Well-Defined Bipolar Outflow Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Patel, Nimesh

    1992-12-01

    A well-defined "eggplant-shaped" thin shell is revealed in the Mon R2 central core region by CO and (13) CO J=1-0 maps obtained with QUARRY. This thin shell outlines the extended blue lobe of the massive bipolar outflow. The projected length and width of the shell are about 5.7 pc and 2.5 pc respectively, and the averaged projected thickness of the shell is ~ 0.3 pc. The shape of this shell can be satisfactorily accounted for quantitatively in terms of limb-brightening within the framework of the Shu et al shell model with radially directed wind, although the model seems to be oversimplified with respect to the complexity that our data reveal. The outflow shell's symmetry axis is estimated to be inclined by ~ 70(deg) with respect to the line of sight. We suggest that the coincident blue- and red-shifted emission and the bending of the red-shifted lobe are the result of the red-shifted shell being compressed, rather than having a second bipolar outflow aligned roughly perpendicular to the axis of the first bipolar outflow.

  3. Shocked molecular hydrogen in the bipolar outflow NGC 2071

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Michael G.; Geballe, T. R.; Brand, P. W. J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Maps of the emission from the v = 1-0 S(1) line of molecular hydrogen in the bipolar outflow of NGC 2071 are presented. The line emission is shown to peak at six positions distributed irregularly along two lobes which are parallel to, but offset about 20 arcsec from, the lobes of the high-velocity CO-line emission. The energetics and composition of the high-velocity gas support a model in which the driving agent is a bipolar atomic wind which arises from the vicinity of the central IR sources and shocks the surrounding molecular cloud, evacuating a cavity within it.

  4. H_2 bipolar emission associated with the quadrupolar molecular outflow in L723

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, Javier; Eiroa, Carlos

    1999-06-01

    We present near-infrared images of the quadrupolar CO outflow in L723, formed by two lobe pairs of different size. Bipolar molecular hydrogen line emission is detected, approximately centered on the Class 0 source L723 VLA2. One of the observed H_2 nebulosities coincides with the Herbig-Haro object HH 223. The H_2 bipolar outflow is projected against the large lobe pair of the quadrupolar CO outflow. Position angles of the H_2 and HH emissions, large CO lobe pair and the thermal radio jet VLA2 are similar and also close to the magnetic field direction in the region. All these phenomena are likely powered by the young protostellar object L723 VLA2. Our near-infrared images do not show any near-ir counterpart of the smaller CO pair, whose origin and driving source remain unclear.

  5. (abstract) A Test of the Theoretical Models of Bipolar Outflows: The Bipolar Outflow in Mon R2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xie, Taoling; Goldsmith, Paul; Patel, Nimesh

    1993-01-01

    We report some results of a study of the massive bipolar outflow in the central region of the relatively nearby giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2. We make a quantative comparison of our results with the Shu et al. outflow model which incorporates a radially directed wind sweeping up the ambient material into a shell. We find that this simple model naturally explains the shape of this thin shell. Although Shu's model in its simplest form predicts with reasonable parameters too much mass at very small polar angles, as previously pointed out by Masson and Chernin, it provides a reasonable good fit to the mass distribution at larger polar angles. It is possible that this discrepancy is due to inhomogeneities of the ambient molecular gas which is not considered by the model. We also discuss the constraints imposed by these results on recent jet-driven outflow models.

  6. Bipolar Molecular Outflows and Hot Cores in Glimpse Extended Green Objects (EGOs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyganowski, C. J.; Brogan, C. L.; Hunter, T. R.; Churchwell, E.; Zhang, Q.

    2011-03-01

    We present high angular resolution Submillimeter Array and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy observations of two GLIMPSE Extended Green Objects (EGOs)—massive young stellar object (MYSO) outflow candidates identified based on their extended 4.5 μm emission in Spitzer images. The millimeter observations reveal bipolar molecular outflows, traced by high-velocity 12CO(2-1) and HCO+(1-0) emission, coincident with the 4.5 μm lobes in both sources. SiO(2-1) emission confirms that the extended 4.5 μm emission traces active outflows. A single dominant outflow is identified in each EGO, with tentative evidence for multiple flows in one source (G11.92-0.61). The outflow driving sources are compact millimeter continuum cores, which exhibit hot core spectral line emission and are associated with 6.7 GHz Class II CH3OH masers. G11.92-0.61 is associated with at least three compact cores: the outflow driving source, and two cores that are largely devoid of line emission. In contrast, G19.01-0.03 appears as a single MYSO. The difference in multiplicity, the comparative weakness of its hot core emission, and the dominance of its extended envelope of molecular gas all suggest that G19.01-0.03 may be in an earlier evolutionary stage than G11.92-0.61. Modeling of the G19.01-0.03 spectral energy distribution suggests that a central (proto)star (M ~ 10 M sun) has formed in the compact millimeter core (M gas ~12-16 M sun), and that accretion is ongoing at a rate of ~10-3 M sun year-1. Our observations confirm that these EGOs are young MYSOs driving massive bipolar molecular outflows and demonstrate that considerable chemical and evolutionary diversity are present within the EGO sample.

  7. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS15398-3359

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes K.

    2015-08-01

    The Class 0 protostar IRAS 15398-3359 is located in the Lupus I cloud at a distance of 155 pc. The source is known to harbour a molecular outflow, but the region has not attracted much interest until recently. IRAS 15398 is known to show interesting chemical signatures and being one of the very nearby, young outflow sources makes it an excellent target for detailed studies of the gas kinematics of different species.We present observations of several molecular species, carried out with the Submillimeter Array and ALMA, towards the IRAS 15398 outflow. The analysis of CO emission show obvious signs of episodic mass ejections, with a dynamical time scale between the knots in the jet, of the order 100 years. This is consistent with recent ALMA results where luminosity outbursts are estimated to occur on similar time-scales. The physical properties of the outflow, such as mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy and mass-loss rate are estimated at relatively low values. We argue that this source is of a very young age, possibly younger than ~1000 years. This is consistent with recent studies of the kinematics of the inner envelope/disk. The observed line profiles were compared to full 3D radiative transfer models of the source, constructed with the Line Modelling Engine (LIME). The observed line shapes can only be understood when considering several distinctly different physical components, viz. the outflow cavity, the infalling envelope and the surrounding cloud material. This allows us to put quantitative constraints on the kinematics of the material close to the central source.

  8. Impacts of pure shocks in the BHR71 bipolar outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusdorf, A.; Riquelme, D.; Anderl, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Codella, C.; Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Graf, U. U.; Kristensen, L. E.; Leurini, S.; Parise, B.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Ricken, O.; Güsten, R.

    2015-03-01

    Context. During the formation of a star, material is ejected along powerful jets that impact the ambient material. This outflow regulates star formation by e.g. inducing turbulence and heating the surrounding gas. Understanding the associated shocks is therefore essential to the study of star formation. Aims: We present comparisons of shock models with CO, H2, and SiO observations in a "pure" shock position in the BHR71 bipolar outflow. These comparisons provide an insight into the shock and pre-shock characteristics, and allow us to understand the energetic and chemical feedback of star formation on Galactic scales. Methods: New CO (Jup = 16, 11, 7, 6, 4, 3) observations from the shocked regions with the SOFIA and APEX telescopes are presented and combined with earlier H2 and SiO data (from the Spitzer and APEX telescopes). The integrated intensities are compared to a grid of models that were obtained from a magneto-hydrodynamical shock code, which calculates the dynamical and chemical structure of these regions combined with a radiative transfer module based on the "large velocity gradient" approximation. Results: The CO emission leads us to update the conclusions of our previous shock analysis: pre-shock densities of 104 cm-3 and shock velocities around 20-25 km s-1 are still constrained, but older ages are inferred (~4000 years). Conclusions: We evaluate the contribution of shocks to the excitation of CO around forming stars. The SiO observations are compatible with a scenario where less than 4% of the pre-shock SiO belongs to the grain mantles. We infer outflow parameters: a mass of 1.8 × 10-2 M⊙ was measured in our beam, in which a momentum of 0.4 M⊙ km s-1 is dissipated, corresponding to an energy of 4.2 × 1043 erg. We analyse the energetics of the outflow species by species. Comparing our results with previous studies highlights their dependence on the method: H2 observations only are not sufficient to evaluate the mass of outflows.

  9. Multiwavelength Spectroscopy of the Bipolar Outflow from Cepheus E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Michael D.; Froebrich, Dirk; Eislöffel, Jochen

    2003-07-01

    Cepheus E is the site of an exceptional example of a protostellar outflow with a very young dynamical age and extremely high near-infrared luminosity. We combine molecular spectroscopic data from the submillimeter to the near-infrared in order to interpret the rotational excitation of CO and the rovibrational excitation of H2. We conclude that C-type shocks with a paraboloidal bow shock geometry can simultaneously explain all the molecular excitations. Extinction accounts for the deviation of the column densities from local thermodynamic equilibrium. A difference in the extinction between the red- and blueshifted outflow lobes may account for the measured flux difference. The outflow is deeply embedded in a clump of density 105 cm-3, yet a good fraction of atomic hydrogen, about 40%, is required to explain the excitation and statistical equilibrium. We propose that this atomic component arises, self-consistently, from the dissociated gas at the apex of the leading bow shocks and the relatively long molecule reformation time. At least 20 bow shocks are required in each lobe, although these may be subdivided into smaller bows and turbulent shocked regions. The total outflow mechanical power and cooling amounts to over 30 Lsolar, almost half the source's bolometric luminosity. Nevertheless, only about 6% of the clump mass has been set in outward motion by the outflow, allowing a collapse to continue. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  10. DETECTION OF A BIPOLAR MOLECULAR OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY A CANDIDATE FIRST HYDROSTATIC CORE

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Chen Xuepeng; Arce, Hector G.; Bourke, Tyler L.; Schnee, Scott; Enoch, Melissa L.

    2011-11-20

    We present new 230 GHz Submillimeter Array observations of the candidate first hydrostatic core Per-Bolo 58. We report the detection of a 1.3 mm continuum source and a bipolar molecular outflow, both centered on the position of the candidate first hydrostatic core. The continuum detection has a total flux density of 26.6 {+-} 4.0 mJy, from which we calculate a total (gas and dust) mass of 0.11 {+-} 0.05 M{sub Sun} and a mean number density of 2.0 {+-} 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} cm{sup -3}. There is some evidence for the existence of an unresolved component in the continuum detection, but longer-baseline observations are required in order to confirm the presence of this component and determine whether its origin lies in a circumstellar disk or in the dense inner envelope. The bipolar molecular outflow is observed along a nearly due east-west axis. The outflow is slow (characteristic velocity of 2.9 km s{sup -1}), shows a jet-like morphology (opening semi-angles {approx}8 Degree-Sign for both lobes), and extends to the edges of the primary beam. We calculate the kinematic and dynamic properties of the outflow in the standard manner and compare them to several other protostars and candidate first hydrostatic cores with similarly low luminosities. We discuss the evidence both in support of and against the possibility that Per-Bolo 58 is a first hydrostatic core, and we outline future work needed to further evaluate the evolutionary status of this object.

  11. Neutral stellar winds that drive bipolar outflows in low-mass protostars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lizano, Susana; Heiles, Carl; Koo, Bon-Ghul; Shu, Frank H.; Rodriguez, Luis F.

    1988-01-01

    The Arecibo radio telescope at the 21-cm line of atomic hydrogen has been used to detect a neutral atomic wind in the bipolar flow source HH 7-11. An atomic mass of about 0.015 solar associated with the rapidly flowing gas is deduced. The stellar mass-loss rate is roughly 3 x 10 to the -6th solar mass/yr if the crossing time of the decelerating wind is 5000 yr. The excess emission in the H I line core gives a total duration of the outflow of about 70,000 yr. A detailed analysis of the H I line shape yields a reasonable deceleration rate for the atomic wind if the stellar wind continuously entrains ambient molecular gas as it propagates from the protostar. A stellar wind with the described characteristics and a terminal velocity of 170 km/s would be more than sufficient to drive the known extended CO bipolar outflow in HH 7-11.

  12. Near-infrared polarization in the bipolar outflow OH 0739-14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shure, Mark; Sellgren, K.; Jones, T. J.; Klebe, D.

    1995-01-01

    We present linear polarization observations of the bipolar outlfow source OH 0739-14 from 1.2 to 3.6 micrometers. The high levels of polarization (approximatly 47% in the bipolar lobes) and the angles of the vectors in the outflow lobes imply that the 1.2-3.6 micrometer polarization is due to single scattering by dust grains of light from the central source or from its immediate vicinity. Our polarization measurements, combined with phase-lag measurements of variability in the nebula by Kastner et al. (1992), tightly constrain the inclination angle i between the bipolar axis and the plane of the sky to be 35 deg less than or = i less than or = 37 deg. We observe the percentage polarization of the bipolar lobes to be constant with wavelength from 1.2 to 3.6 micrometers, which rules out any significant contribution by unpolarized emission, such as tiny grain emission, to the 3.6 micrometer emission. We propose to explain the K-L' color of the nebula as due to illumination by both the central star and by thermal emission from dust in a surrounding circumstellar shell with a dust temperature of 600-1000 K. Using this model, we find a relatively high minimum scattering optical depth at 3.75 micrometers of tau omega greater than 0.1. This is difficult to reconcile with Rayleigh scattering, which would then imply optically thick scattering at wavelengths of 1.2 and 1.65 micrometers, in constrast to the observations. We also find that the albedo of the grains at 3.75 micrometers and probably at 2.2 micrometers is higher than predicted for normal interstellar grains.

  13. SPITZER AND NEAR-INFRARED OBSERVATIONS OF A NEW BIPOLAR PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW IN THE ROSETTE MOLECULAR CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Ybarra, Jason E.; Lada, Elizabeth A.; Fleming, Scott W.; Balog, Zoltan; Phelps, Randy L.

    2010-05-01

    We present and discuss Spitzer and near-infrared H{sub 2} observations of a new bipolar protostellar outflow in the Rosette Molecular Cloud. The outflow is seen in all four InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) bands and partially as diffuse emission in the MIPS 24 {mu}m band. An embedded MIPS 24 {mu}m source bisects the outflow and appears to be the driving source. This source is coincident with a dark patch seen in absorption in the 8 {mu}m IRAC image. Spitzer IRAC color analysis of the shocked emission was performed from which thermal and column density maps of the outflow were constructed. Narrowband near-infrared (NIR) images of the flow reveal H{sub 2} emission features coincident with the high temperature regions of the outflow. This outflow has now been given the designation MHO 1321 due to the detection of NIR H{sub 2} features. We use these data and maps to probe the physical conditions and structure of the flow.

  14. SMA observations towards the compact, short-lived bipolar water maser outflow in the LkHα234 region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girart, J. M.; Torrelles, J. M.; Estalella, R.; Curiel, S.; Anglada, G.; Gómez, J. F.; Carrasco-González, C.; Cantó, J.; Rodríguez, L. F.; Patel, N. A.; Trinidad, M. A.

    2016-10-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) 1.35 mm subarcsecond angular resolution observations towards the LkHα234 intermediate-mass star-forming region. The dust emission arises from a filamentary structure of ˜5 arcsec (˜4500 au) enclosing VLA 1-3 and MM 1, perpendicular to the different outflows detected in the region. The most evolved objects are located at the southeastern edge of the dust filamentary structure and the youngest ones at the northeastern edge. The circumstellar structures around VLA 1, VLA 3, and MM 1 have radii between ˜200 and ˜375 au and masses in the ˜0.08-0.3 M⊙ range. The 1.35 mm emission of VLA 2 arises from an unresolved (r ≲ 135 au) circumstellar disc with a mass of ˜0.02 M⊙. This source is powering a compact (˜4000 au), low radial velocity (˜7 km s-1) SiO bipolar outflow, close to the plane of the sky. We conclude that this outflow is the `large-scale' counterpart of the short-lived, episodic, bipolar outflow observed through H2O masers at much smaller scales (˜180 au), and that has been created by the accumulation of the ejection of several episodic collimated events of material. The circumstellar gas around VLA 2 and VLA 3 is hot (˜130 K) and exhibits velocity gradients that could trace rotation. There is a bridge of warm and dense molecular gas connecting VLA 2 and VLA 3. We discuss the possibility that this bridge could trace a stream of gas between VLA 3 and VLA 2, increasing the accretion rate on to VLA 2 to explain why this source has an important outflow activity.

  15. A Massive Bipolar Outflow and a Dusty Torus with Large Grains in the Preplanetary Nebula IRAS 22036+5306

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Young, K.; Patel, N. A.; Sanchez Contreras, C.; Morris, M.

    2006-01-01

    We report high angular resolution (approx.1") CO J=3-2 interferometric mapping using the Submillimeter Array (SMA) of IRAS 22036+5306 (I22036), a bipolar preplanetary nebula (PPN) with knotty jets discovered in our HST snapshot survey of young PPNs. In addition, we have obtained supporting lower resolution (approx.10") CO and 13CO J=1-0 observations with the Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) interferometer, as well as optical long-slit echelle spectra at the Palomar Observatory. The CO J=3-2 observations show the presence of a very fast (approx.220 km/s), highly collimated, massive (0.03 Solar Mass) bipolar outflow with a very large scalar momentum (about 10(exp 39) g cm/s), and the characteristic spatiokinematic structure of bow shocks at the tips of this outflow. The H(alpha) line shows an absorption feature blueshifted from the systemic velocity by approx.100 km/s, which most likely arises in neutral interface material between the fast outflow and the dense walls of the bipolar lobes at low latitudes. The fast outflow in I22036, as in most PPNs, cannot be driven by radiation pressure. We find an unresolved source of submillimeter (and millimeter-wave) continuum emission in I22036, implying a very substantial mass (0.02-0.04 Solar Mass) of large (radius > or approx.1 mm), cold (< or approx.50 K) dust grains associated with I22036's toroidal waist. We also find that the C-13/C-12 ratio in I22036 is very high (0.16), close to the maximum value achieved in equilibrium CNO nucleosynthesis (0.33). The combination of the high circumstellar mass (i.e., in the extended dust shell and the torus) and the high C-13/C-12 ratio in I22036 provides strong support for this object having evolved from a massive (> or approx.4 Solar Mass) progenitor in which hot-bottom-burning has occurred.

  16. Discovery of an Extremely Wide-angle Bipolar Outflow in AFGL 5142

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tie; Zhang, Qizhou; Kim, Kee-Tae; Wu, Yuefang; Lee, Chang-Won; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Li, Di; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Chen, Huei-Ru; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Wang, Ke; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Qin, Sheng-Li; Mardones, Diego; Cho, Se-Hyung

    2016-06-01

    Most bipolar outflows are associated with individual young stellar objects and have small opening angles. Here we report the discovery of an extremely wide-angle (˜180°) bipolar outflow (“EWBO”) in a cluster forming region AFGL 5142 from low-velocity emission of the HCN (3-2) and HCO+ (3-2) lines. This bipolar outflow is along a north-west to south-east direction with a line of sight flow velocity of about 3 km s-1 and is spatially connected to the high-velocity jet-like outflows. It seems to be a collection of low-velocity material entrained by the high-velocity outflows due to momentum feedback. The total ejected mass and mass loss rate due to both high-velocity jet-like outflows and the “EWBO” are ˜24.5 M ⊙ and ˜1.7 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1, respectively. Global collapse of the clump is revealed by the “blue profile” in the HCO+ (1-0) line. A hierarchical network of filaments was identified in NH3 (1, 1) emission. Clear velocity gradients of the order of 10 km s-1 pc-1 are found along filaments, indicating gas inflow along the filaments. The sum of the accretion rate along filaments and mass infall rate along the line of sight is ˜3.1 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1, which exceeds the total mass loss rate, indicating that the central cluster is probably still gaining mass. The central cluster is highly fragmented and 22 condensations are identified in 1.1 mm continuum emission. The fragmentation process seems to be determined by thermal pressure and turbulence. The magnetic field may not play an important role in fragmentation.

  17. Bipolar Outflows Properties from Class 0/I protostars in Perseus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De La Rosa, Oscar A.; Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES) Program

    2017-01-01

    The Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES) program is a key project by the Submillimeter Array (SMA) telescope that is observing the 70 youngest protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud. From SMA CO(2-1) and continuum observations, we investigate correlations among the YSOs properties, including outflow opening angles, ages, luminosities, envelope masses, and temperatures. No discernable pattern between measured angle versus bolometric temperature was found, independent of the mass or luminosity. These results indicate that the evolutionary sequence is more chaotic than originally predicted in Arce & Sargent (2006).

  18. From bipolar to quadrupolar - The collimation processes of the Cepheus A outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torrelles, Jose M.; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Ho, Paul T. P.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Canto, Jorge

    1993-01-01

    Results of new K-band observations of the (1, 1) and (2, 2) ammonia lines toward Cepheus A are reported. The lines are mapped with approximately 2 arcsec of angular resolution and 0.3 km/s of velocity resolution. A sensitivity of 10 mJy has been achieved. The observations reveal details of the spatial and kinematics structure of the ambient high-density gas. It is suggested that the interstellar high-density gas is diverting and redirecting the outflow in the sense that the quadrupolar structure of the molecular outflow is produced by the interaction with the ammonia condensationss, with Cep A-1 and Cep A-3 splitting in two halves, respectively the blue- and redshifted lobes of an east-west bipolar molecular outflow.

  19. IONIZED OUTFLOWS FROM COMPACT STEEP SPECTRUM SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan; Kewley, Lisa E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Massive outflows are known to exist, in the form of extended emission-line regions (EELRs), around about one-third of powerful FR II radio sources. We investigate the origin of these EELRs by studying the emission-line regions around compact-steep-spectrum (CSS) radio galaxies that are younger (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} yr old) versions of the FR II radio galaxies. We have searched for and analyzed the emission-line regions around 11 CSS sources by taking integral field spectra using Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph on Gemini North. We fit the [O III] {lambda}5007 line and present the velocity maps for each detected emission-line region. We find, in most cases, that the emission-line regions have multi-component velocity structures with different velocity dispersions and/or flux distributions for each component. The velocity gradients of the emission-line gas are mostly well aligned with the radio axis, suggesting a direct causal link between the outflowing gas and the radio jets. The complex velocity structure may be a result of different driving mechanisms related to the onset of the radio jets. We also present the results from the line-ratio diagnostics we used to analyze the ionization mechanism of the extended gas, which supports the scenario where the emission-line regions are ionized by a combination of active galactic nucleus radiation and shock excitation.

  20. OH 1720-MHz lines as tracers of bipolar outflows in the vicinity of Class I methanol masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litovchenko, I. D.; Bayandina, O. S.; Alakoz, A. V.; Val'tss, I. E.; Larionov, G. M.; Mukha, D. V.; Nabatov, A. S.; Konovalenko, A. A.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Alekseev, E. V.; Nikolaenko, V. S.; Kulishenko, V. F.; Odintsov, S. A.

    2012-07-01

    A sample of Class I methanol masers (MMI) has been surveyed at 1720 MHz to search for possible associations between MMI and 1720-MHz OH masers, which should be formed by the same collisional pumping mechanism. If the model for methanol masers is correct, the sample should contain a statistically significant number of 1720-MHz OH masers at the positions of MMI. The observations were conducted on the 70-meter radio telescope of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (NASU). The results show that ˜50% of 72 MMI are associated with OH emission at 1720 MHz. In many sources, strong absorption lines are also observed. In most cases, the OH (1720) lines are narrow (linewidths of <2 km/s) suggesting they may be maser lines. The OH column densities obtained from Gaussian fitting of these narrow OH lines are, on average, 1.5 × 1017 cm-2. TheH2 density in the emitting medium reaches 107 cm-3 if the region of the OH (1720) emission has been subject to interaction with a bipolar-outflow front. This is sufficient to excite MMI, and the presence of narrow, possibly masing OH (1720) lines at the MMI velocities indicates the likely presence of shocks from bipolar outflows in the vicinity of the maser condensations, supporting models in which these molecules are collisionally pumped.

  1. Optically thick outflows in ultraluminous supersoft sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urquhart, R.; Soria, R.

    2016-02-01

    Ultraluminous supersoft sources (ULSs) are defined by a thermal spectrum with colour temperatures ˜0.1 keV, bolometric luminosities ˜ a few 1039 erg s-1, and almost no emission above 1 keV. It has never been clear how they fit into the general scheme of accreting compact objects. To address this problem, we studied a sample of seven ULSs with extensive Chandra and XMM-Newton coverage. We find an anticorrelation between fitted temperatures and radii of the thermal emitter, and no correlation between bolometric luminosity and radius or temperature. We compare the physical parameters of ULSs with those of classical supersoft sources, thought to be surface-nuclear-burning white dwarfs, and of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs), thought to be super-Eddington stellar-mass black holes. We argue that ULSs are the sub-class of ULXs seen through the densest wind, perhaps an extension of the soft-ultraluminous regime. We suggest that in ULSs, the massive disc outflow becomes effectively optically thick and forms a large photosphere, shrouding the inner regions from our view. Our model predicts that when the photosphere expands to ≳ 105 km and the temperature decreases below ≈50 eV, ULSs become brighter in the far-UV but undetectable in X-rays. Conversely, we find that harder emission components begin to appear in ULSs when the fitted size of the thermal emitter is smallest (interpreted as a shrinking of the photosphere). The observed short-term variability and absorption edges are also consistent with clumpy outflows. We suggest that the transition between ULXs (with a harder tail) and ULSs (with only a soft thermal component) occurs at blackbody temperatures of ≈150 eV.

  2. HIGH-RESOLUTION CO OBSERVATION OF THE CARBON STAR CIT 6 REVEALING THE SPIRAL STRUCTURE AND A NASCENT BIPOLAR OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie

    2015-11-20

    CIT 6 is a carbon star in the transitional phase from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebulae (pPNs). Observational evidences of two point sources in the optical, circumstellar arc segments in an HC{sub 3}N line emission, and a bipolar nebula in near-infrared provide strong support for the presence of a binary companion. Hence, CIT 6 is very attractive for studying the role of companions in the AGB–pPN transition. We have carried out high-resolution {sup 12}CO J = 2–1 and {sup 13}CO J = 2–1 observations of CIT 6 with the Submillimeter Array combined with the Submillimeter Telescope (single-dish) data. The {sup 12}CO channel maps reveal a spiral-shell pattern connecting the HC{sub 3}N segments in a continuous form and an asymmetric outflow corresponding to the near-infrared bipolar nebula. Rotation of the {sup 12}CO channel peak position may be related to the inner spiral winding and/or the bipolar outflow. An eccentric orbit binary is suggested for the presence of an anisotropic mass loss to the west and a double spiral pattern. The lack of interarm emission to the west may indicate a feature corresponding to the periastron passage of a highly eccentric orbit of the binary. Spatially averaged radial and spectral profiles of {sup 12}CO J = 2–1 and {sup 13}CO J = 2–1 are compared with simple spherical radiative transfer models, suggesting a change of {sup 12}CO/{sup 13}CO abundance ratio from ∼30 to ∼50 inward in the CSE of CIT 6. The millimeter continuum emission is decomposed into extended dust thermal emission (spectral index ∼ −2.4) and compact emission from radio photosphere (spectral index ∼ −2.0)

  3. High-resolution CO Observation of the Carbon Star CIT 6 Revealing the Spiral Structure and a Nascent Bipolar Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie

    2015-11-01

    CIT 6 is a carbon star in the transitional phase from the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) to the protoplanetary nebulae (pPNs). Observational evidences of two point sources in the optical, circumstellar arc segments in an HC3N line emission, and a bipolar nebula in near-infrared provide strong support for the presence of a binary companion. Hence, CIT 6 is very attractive for studying the role of companions in the AGB-pPN transition. We have carried out high-resolution 12CO J = 2-1 and 13CO J = 2-1 observations of CIT 6 with the Submillimeter Array combined with the Submillimeter Telescope (single-dish) data. The 12CO channel maps reveal a spiral-shell pattern connecting the HC3N segments in a continuous form and an asymmetric outflow corresponding to the near-infrared bipolar nebula. Rotation of the 12CO channel peak position may be related to the inner spiral winding and/or the bipolar outflow. An eccentric orbit binary is suggested for the presence of an anisotropic mass loss to the west and a double spiral pattern. The lack of interarm emission to the west may indicate a feature corresponding to the periastron passage of a highly eccentric orbit of the binary. Spatially averaged radial and spectral profiles of 12CO J = 2-1 and 13CO J = 2-1 are compared with simple spherical radiative transfer models, suggesting a change of 12CO/13CO abundance ratio from ˜30 to ˜50 inward in the CSE of CIT 6. The millimeter continuum emission is decomposed into extended dust thermal emission (spectral index ˜ -2.4) and compact emission from radio photosphere (spectral index ˜ -2.0).

  4. Bipolar gas outflow from the nova V458 Vul

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goranskij, V. P.; Barsukova, E. A.; Fatkhullin, T. A.

    2010-06-01

    Classical nova V458 Vul (N Vul 2007 No.1) was detected as a supersoft X-ray source by the Swift XRT (ATel#1246, #1603). This star is interesting with its spectral class change: features of Fe II class nova completely changed by features of He/N class in the SSS phase (T.N. Tarasova, IBVS No.5807). We performed spectral observations of V458 Vul with the Russian 6-m telescope BTA and spectral camera SCORPIO on 2010 June 9.84 UT.

  5. Multiple outflows in the bipolar planetary nebula M1-16: A molecular line study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahai, Raghvendra; Wootten, Alwyn; Schwarz, Hugo E.; Wild, W.

    1994-01-01

    Extensive observations of the molecular gas in the young, compact planetary nebula M1-16 have been made, using the Swedish-ESO-Submillimeter Telescope. A map of the CO J = 2-1 emission shows that the molecular envelope contains both a slow and a fast outflow with expansion velocities of 19 km/s and greater than 34 km/s, respectively. The slow outflow is mildly elliptical, while the fast molecular outflow is bipolar. This fast outflow is roughly aligned with the very fast outflows recently found in the optical, while the long axis of the slow elliptical outflow is roughly orthogonal to the optical outflow axis. The kinematic timescales for the CO fast outflow and the optical very fast outflow agree closely, supporting the view that the former represents material in the slow outflow accelerated by the very fast outflow. The kinematic signature of a disk expanding with about 15.5 km/s can also be seen in the CO J = 2-1 data. The mass-loss rate (a) for the slow outflow is greater than or equal to 2.8 x 10(exp -5) solar mass/yr and possibly as large as 9 x 10(exp -5) solar mass/yr, (b) for the fast outflow is greater than or equal to 5 x 10(exp -6) solar mass/yr, and (c) for the very fast optically visible outflow is approximately equal 5 x 10(exp -7) solar mass/yr. The disk mass is approximately equal 6 x 10(exp -3) solar mass. Grain photoelectric heating results in temperatures of 20-70 K in molecular gas of the slow outflow. The (13)C/(12)C abundance ratio in M1-16 is found to be 0.33, quite possibly the highest found for any evolved object. Upper limits for the (18)O/(16)O and (17)O/(16)O ratios were found to be consistent with the values found in AGB stars. A search for other molecular species in M1-16 resulted in the detection of the high-excitation species HCN, CN, (13)CN, HCO(+), and H(13)CO(+) and possibly N2H(+). Both the HCO(+)/HCN and CN/HCN line-intensity ratios are enhanced, the former by a very large factor, over the values found in the envelopes of AGB

  6. An outflow model for bipolar planetary nebulae and the case of NGC 6302

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, G.; Robberto, M.

    NGC 6302 is a bright, bipolar planetary nebula that exhibits a wide range of excitation and ionization conditions, together with complex structure and kinematics. High-velocity (>300 km s-1) flows were detected in the nebula, which are believed to originate as a wind from the central star. The authors present a numerical analysis of the morphology of the inner outflow region, based on a generalization of the equations given by Cantò (1980) and Barral and Cantò (1981). A discussion of the interpretation of NGC 6302 within a model of disk-confined stellar wind is given.

  7. Far-infrared spectroscopy across the asymmetric bipolar outflows from Cepheus A and L 1448

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froebrich, D.; Smith, M. D.; Eislöffel, J.

    2002-04-01

    Bipolar outflows are driven from protostars within molecular cores. They drive into molecular clouds, generating shock waves whose molecular emission lines have been observed in the infrared with ISO. We present spectroscopic data for seven locations within two asymmetric outflows, Cepheus A and L 1448, in order to test the shock physics and shock dynamics. Here, we simultaneously interpret the CO and H2 data sets which are generated by shocked gas, radiating at temperatures from 300 to 2000 K. We find that large-scale spatial variations in the excitation are absent across both outflows and that the excitation is low everywhere. Planar shock models are inconsistent with the data sets. Models with configurations or ensembles of shocks, in the form of bow shocks or supersonic turbulence, are consistent. This solves the previously reported problem that the CO abundances were anomalously high. Cool gas is dominant, from which we infer bow shocks with flanks more extended than for paraboloids. As a consequence, the atomic oxygen abundances must be quite low. J-type bow models require implausibly long wings. C-type physics is thus favoured. The density and the ratio of molecules to atoms are constrained by the CO/H2 flux levels as well as the H2 vibrational level distributions. Other C-shock parameters, such as the magnetic field strength, ion fraction and speed, are not tightly constrained. The total shock powers are derived and are comparable to the mechanical outflow luminosities for both outflows, consistent with the outflows being momentum-driven. Based on observations with ISO, an ESA project with instruments funded by ESA Member States (especially the PI countries: France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom) and with the participation of ISAS and NASA.

  8. Measurement of the bipolar outflow motions of the 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers in G320.23-0.28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiyama, Koichiro; Ellingsen, Simon; Fujisawa, Kenta; Bartkiewicz, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Internal proper-motion measurements of 6.7 GHz methanol masers can provide unique information about high-mass star-forming regions (HMSFRs). The source G320.23-0.28 is the best case where the methanol masers are parallel to a large-scale bi-lobed outflow traced by H_2, SiO, and EGO emissions in the east-west direction. Therefore, it appears that the G320.23-0.28 methanol maser spatially and physically trace the outflow ejected from a high-mass YSO in early evolutionary stage. We have accurately measured the spatial distribution of the G320.23-0.28 methanol maser using the LBA (Project: v292a), and that distribution exhibited a complex spatial distribution. By applying the bipolar outflow model of Moscadelli et al. (2000, 2005) to our observed distribution, we obtained maser-outflow axis and opening angles that were consistent with the large-scale outflow. We propose to carry out three-epoch observations of the 6.7 GHz methanol masers in G320.23-0.28 to measure their internal proper motions. This measurement will provide vital information about both the location of this maser with SFRs and studies of outflows at early evolutionary stages in HMSF.

  9. IRAS observations near young objects with bipolar outflows L1551 and HH 46-47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Emerson, J. P.; Harris, S.; Jennings, R. E.; Beichman, C. A.; Baud, B.; Beintema, D. A.; Wesselius, P. R.; Marsden, P. L.

    1984-01-01

    A 6-solar luminosity dust-embedded precursor of a low-mass (about 1 solar mass) pre-main-sequence star has been discovered with IRAS near the northeast lobe of the bipolar outflow region in the dust cloud L1551 and designated L1551 NE. Star formation is proceeding in at least two locations in L1551, reminiscent of the situation in regions of more massive star formation. If the position of NE in the flow from IRS 5 is indicative of the flow having initiated star formation in NE, then the object can be only about 24,000 years old. Alternatively, NE could appear by chance to lie in the flow from IRS 5. In the globule ES 0210-6A, a 12 solar luminosity dust-embedded precursor of a low-mass (about 1 solar mass) pre-main-sequence star is found which drives the bipolar flow responsible for the string of Herbig-Haro objects HH 46-47 A-D. In this globule, there is only one region of active star formation.

  10. Protostellar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John

    2016-09-01

    Outflows from accreting, rotating, and magnetized systems are ubiquitous. Protostellar outflows can be observed from radio to X-ray wavelengths in the continuum and a multitude of spectral lines that probe a wide range of physical conditions, chemical phases, radial velocities, and proper motions. Wide-field visual and near-IR data, mid-IR observations from space, and aperture synthesis with centimeter- and millimeterwave interferometers are revolutionizing outflow studies. Many outflows originate in multiple systems and clusters. Although most flows are bipolar and some contain highly collimated jets, others are wide-angle winds, and a few are nearly isotropic and exhibit explosive behavior. Morphologies and velocity fields indicate variations in ejection velocity, mass-loss rate, and in some cases, flow orientation and degree of collimation. These trends indicate that stellar accretion is episodic and often occurs in a complex dynamical environment. Outflow power increases with source luminosity but decreases with evolutionary stage. The youngest outflows are small and best traced by molecules such as CO, SiO, H2O, and H2. Older outflows can grow to parsec scales and are best traced by shock-excited atoms and ions such as hydrogen-recombination lines, [Sii], and [Oii]. Outflows inject momentum and energy into their surroundings and provide an important mechanism in the self-regulation of star formation. However, momentum injection rates remain uncertain with estimates providing lower bounds.

  11. Spiral-shells and nascent bipolar outflow in CIT 6: hints for an eccentric-orbit binary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyosun; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Hirano, Naomi; Zhao-Geisler, Ronny; Trejo, Alfonso; Yen, Hsi-Wei; Taam, Ronald E.; Kemper, Francisca; Kim, Jongsoo; Byun, Do-Young; Liu, Tie

    2016-07-01

    We present the essential results pointed out in a recently published paper, Kim et al. 2015, Astrophys. J., 814, 61. The carbon star CIT 6 reveals evidences for a binary in a high-resolution CO line emission map of its circumstellar envelope taken with the Submillimeter Array. The morphology of the outflow described by the spiral-shell pattern, bipolar (or possibly multipolar) outflow, one-sided interarm gaps, and double spiral feature point to a plausible scenario that CIT 6 is a binary system in an eccentric orbit with the mass losing star evolving from the AGB.

  12. DISCOVERY OF COLLIMATED BIPOLAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PLANETARY NEBULA TH 2-A

    SciTech Connect

    Danehkar, A.

    2015-12-10

    We present a comprehensive set of spatially resolved, integral field spectroscopic mapping of the Wolf–Rayet planetary nebula Th 2-A, obtained using the Wide Field Spectrograph on the Australian National University 2.3-m telescope. Velocity-resolved Hα channel maps with a resolution of 20 km s{sup −1} allow us to identify different kinematic components within the nebula. This information is used to develop a three-dimensional morpho-kinematic model of the nebula using the interactive kinematic modeling tool shape. These results suggest that Th 2-A has a thick toroidal shell with an expansion velocity of 40 ± 10 km s{sup −1}, and a thin prolate ellipsoid with collimated bipolar outflows toward its axis reaching velocities in the range of 70–110 km s{sup −1}, with respect to the central star. The relationship between its morpho-kinematic structure and peculiar [WO]-type stellar characteristics deserves further investigation.

  13. A HIGHLY COLLIMATED WATER MASER BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE CEPHEUS A HW3d MASSIVE YOUNG STELLAR OBJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Chibueze, James O.; Imai, Hiroshi; Tafoya, Daniel; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Chong, Sze-Ning; Kameya, Osamu; Hirota, Tomoya; Torrelles, Jose M.

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of multi-epoch very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) water (H{sub 2}O) maser observations carried out with the VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry toward the Cepheus A HW3d object. We measured for the first time relative proper motions of the H{sub 2}O maser features, whose spatio-kinematics traces a compact bipolar outflow. This outflow looks highly collimated and expanding through {approx}280 AU (400 mas) at a mean velocity of {approx}21 km s{sup -1} ({approx}6 mas yr{sup -1}) without taking into account the turbulent central maser cluster. The opening angle of the outflow is estimated to be {approx}30 Degree-Sign . The dynamical timescale of the outflow is estimated to be {approx}100 years. Our results provide strong support that HW3d harbors an internal massive young star, and the observed outflow could be tracing a very early phase of star formation. We also have analyzed Very Large Array archive data of 1.3 cm continuum emission obtained in 1995 and 2006 toward Cepheus A. The comparative result of the HW3d continuum emission suggests the possibility of the existence of distinct young stellar objects in HW3d and/or strong variability in one of their radio continuum emission components.

  14. AN INFRARED-LUMINOUS MERGER WITH TWO BIPOLAR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS: ALMA AND SMA OBSERVATIONS OF NGC 3256

    SciTech Connect

    Sakamoto, Kazushi; Aalto, Susanne; Combes, Francoise; Evans, Aaron; Peck, Alison

    2014-12-20

    We report Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array and Submillimeter Array observations of the infrared-luminous merger NGC 3256, the most luminous galaxy within z = 0.01. Both of the two merger nuclei separated by 5'' (0.8 kpc) have a molecular gas concentration, a nuclear disk, with Σ{sub mol} > 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉} pc{sup –2}. The northern nucleus is more massive and is surrounded by molecular spiral arms. Its nuclear disk is face-on, while the southern nuclear disk is almost edge-on. The high-velocity molecular gas in the system can be resolved into two molecular outflows from the two nuclei. The one from the northern nucleus is part of a starburst-driven superwind seen nearly pole-on. Its maximum velocity is >750 km s{sup –1} and its mass outflow rate is >60 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for a conversion factor X{sub CO}=N{sub H{sub 2}}/I{sub CO(1−0)} of 1 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2} (K km s{sup –1}){sup –1}. The molecular outflow from the southern nucleus is a highly collimated bipolar jet seen nearly edge-on. Its line-of-sight velocity increases with distance, out to 300 pc from the nucleus, to the maximum de-projected velocity of ∼2000 km s{sup –1} for the estimated inclination and ≳1000 km s{sup –1} taking into account the uncertainty. Its mass outflow rate is estimated to be >50 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for the same X {sub CO}. This southern outflow has indications of being driven by a bipolar radio jet from an active galactic nucleus that recently weakened. The sum of these outflow rates, although subject to the uncertainty in the molecular mass estimate, either exceeds or compares to the total star formation rate. The feedback from nuclear activity through molecular outflows is therefore significant in the gas consumption, and hence evolution, of this system.

  15. On the possible bipolar nature of 21 micron IRAS sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hrivnak, Bruce J.; Kwok, S.

    1991-01-01

    The discovery of another IRAS source (22574 + 6609) showing the unidentified 21-micron emission feature is reported. Its overall energy distribution is similar to the well-known edge-on bipolar nebulae AFGL 2688 and AFGL 618. Ground-based optical and infrared observations of this object and two other 21-micron sources show that while all three have very similar infrared properties, they differ greatly in the visual region. All three of these 21-micron sources are intrinsically similar bipolar nebulae, viewed at different orientations.

  16. AN EXTREME HIGH-VELOCITY BIPOLAR OUTFLOW IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA IRAS 08005-2356

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, R.; Patel, N. A.

    2015-09-01

    We report interferometric mapping of the bipolar pre-planetary nebula IRAS 08005-2356 (I 08005) with an angular resolution of ∼1″–5″, using the Submillimeter Array, in the {sup 12}CO J = 2–1, 3–2, {sup 13}CO J = 2–1, and SiO J = 5–4 (v = 0) lines. Single-dish observations, using the SMT 10 m, were made in these lines as well as in the CO J = 4–3 and SiO J = 6–5 (v = 0) lines. The line profiles are very broad, showing the presence of a massive (>0.1 M{sub ⊙}), extreme high velocity outflow (V ∼ 200 km s{sup −1}) directed along the nebular symmetry axis derived from the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of this object. The outflow's scalar momentum far exceeds that available from radiation pressure of the central post-AGB star, and it may be launched from an accretion disk around a main-sequence companion. We provide indirect evidence for such a disk from its previously published, broad Hα emission profile, which we propose results from Lyβ emission generated in the disk followed by Raman-scattering in the innermost regions of a fast, neutral wind.

  17. Magnetic Nested-Wind Scenarios for Bipolar Outflows: Preplanetary and YSO Nebular Shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis, Timothy J.; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.; De Marco, Orsola; Balick, Bruce; Mitran, Sorin

    2009-12-01

    We present results of a series of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic (HD) 2.5 dimensional simulations of the morphology of outflows driven by nested wide-angle winds, i.e., winds that emanate from a central star as well as from an orbiting accretion disk. While our results are broadly relevant to nested-wind systems, we have tuned the parameters of the simulations to touch on issues in both young stellar objects and planetary nebula (PN) studies. In particular, our studies connect to open issues in the early evolution of PNs. We find that nested MHD winds exhibit marked morphological differences from the single MHD wind case along both dimensions of the flow. Nested HD winds, on the other hand, give rise mainly to geometric distortions of an outflow that is topologically similar to the flow arising from a single stellar HD wind. Our MHD results are insensitive to changes in ambient temperature between ionized and un-ionized circumstellar environments. The results are sensitive to the relative mass-loss rates and the relative speeds of the stellar and disk winds. We also present synthetic emission maps of both nested MHD and HD simulations. We find that nested MHD winds show knots of emission appearing on-axis that do not appear in the HD case. The data presented in this paper were obtained from the Multimission Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute (MAST). STScI is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Support for MAST for non-HST data is provided by the NASA Office of Space Science via grant NAG5-7584 and by other grants and contracts.

  18. Outflow channel sources, reactivation, and chaos formation, Xanthe Terra, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, J.A.P.; Sasaki, S.; Kuzmin, R.O.; Dohm, J.M.; Tanaka, K.L.; Miyamoto, H.; Kurita, K.; Komatsu, G.; Fairen, A.G.; Ferris, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The undulating, warped, and densely fractured surfaces of highland regions east of Valles Marineris (located north of the eastern Aureum Chaos, east of the Hydraotes Chaos, and south of the Hydaspis Chaos) resulted from extensional surface warping related to ground subsidence, caused when pressurized water confined in subterranean caverns was released to the surface. Water emanations formed crater lakes and resulted in channeling episodes involved in the excavation of Ares, Tiu, and Simud Valles of the eastern part of the circum-Chryse outflow channel system. Progressive surface subsidence and associated reduction of the subsurface cavernous volume, and/or episodes of magmatic-driven activity, led to increases of the hydrostatic pressure, resulting in reactivation of both catastrophic and non-catastrophic outflow activity. Ancient cratered highland and basin materials that underwent large-scale subsidence grade into densely fractured terrains. Collapse of rock materials in these regions resulted in the formation of chaotic terrains, which occur in and near the headwaters of the eastern circum-Chryse outflow channels. The deepest chaotic terrain in the Hydaspis Chaos region resulted from the collapse of pre-existing outflow channel floors. The release of volatiles and related collapse may have included water emanations not necessarily linked to catastrophic outflow. Basal warming related to dike intrusions, thermokarst activity involving wet sediments and/or dissected ice-enriched country rock, permafrost exposed to the atmosphere by extensional tectonism and channel incision, and/or the injection of water into porous floor material, may have enhanced outflow channel floor instability and subsequent collapse. In addition to the possible genetic linkage to outflow channel development dating back to at least the Late Noachian, clear disruption of impact craters with pristine ejecta blankets and rims, as well as preservation of fine tectonic fabrics, suggest that

  19. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  20. A study of outflow activity around EGO sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, C.; Paron, S.; Ortega, M.; Astort, A.; Rubio, M.

    2013-06-01

    Extended green objects (EGOs) were identified in Spitzer-IRAC images as they present a particular extended "green" emission at 4.5 μm, hence their name. An EGO is probably a massive young stellar object driving outflows, with the extended emission at 4.5 μm likely due to H2 lines and CO band-heads excited by the shock of the outflow propagating in the interstellar medium. Therefore, the dedicated observation and study of EGOs and their close environments can provide additional insight into our understanding of massive-star formation processes. In this context, based on previous studies we have selected a set of particularly interesting EGOs with the aim of analysing and characterising their outflow activity and its impact on the interstellar medium around them. This is a work in progress in which new observations at molecular and near-infrared wavelengths have recently been carried out towards some of the selected EGOs and more observations will be done in the following semesters. Here we report the results obtained so far from the data analysis of the images towards EGO, G45.47+0.05 and EGO, G35.04-0.47. For these two targets the molecular line observations were acquired using the Atacama Submillimiter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) and the near-infrared images for EGO, G45.47+0.05 were taken with Gemini-NIRI. The near future plans of this project include new images from WHT-LIRIS for EGO, G035.20-0.74 and EGO, G035.03+0.35.

  1. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Berman, Daniel C.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System’s most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet’s upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform Boundary. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which was then completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation. PMID:26346067

  2. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Baker, Victor R; Gulick, Virginia C; Berman, Daniel C; Fairén, Alberto G; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-08

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System's most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet's upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which at the time was completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean [corrected]. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation.

  3. The radio source and bipolar nebulosity in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyaji, Takamitsu; Wilson, Andrew S.; Perez-Fournon, Ismael

    1992-01-01

    Results of radio continuum and optical emission-line observations of the type 1 Seyfert galaxy NGC 3516 are presented. The radio maps reveal an elongated one-sided curved structure, which comprises a series of small-scale 'blobs' and extends up to 4 kpc from the nucleus. This radio structure is aligned and cospatial with one side of the double-sided and highly symmetric Z-shaped emission-line structure. It is argued that these morphological features are associated with a bipolar gaseous outflow from the nucleus of NGC 3516. The radio 'blobs' are elongated roughly perpendicular to the apparent local direction of the outflow, a result which is interpreted in terms of synchrotron emission from outflow-driven shock waves.

  4. Geochemistry and source waters of rock glacier outflow, Colorado Front Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, M.W.; Knauf, M.; Caine, N.; Liu, F.; Verplanck, P.L.

    2006-01-01

    We characterize the seasonal variation in the geochemical and isotopic content of the outflow of the Green Lake 5 rock glacier (RG5), located in the Green Lakes Valley of the Colorado Front Range, USA. Between June and August, the geochemical content of rock glacier outflow does not appear to differ substantially from that of other surface waters in the Green Lakes Valley. Thus, for this alpine ecosystem at this time of year there does not appear to be large differences in water quality among rock glacier outflow, glacier and blockslope discharge, and discharge from small alpine catchments. However, in September concentrations of Mg2+ in the outflow of the rock glacier increased to more than 900 ??eq L-1 compared to values of less than 40 ??eq L-1 at all the other sites, concentrations of Ca2+ were greater than 4,000 ??eq L-1 compared to maximum values of less than 200 ??eq L-1 at all other sites, and concentrations of SO42- reached 7,000 ??eq L-1, compared to maximum concentrations below 120 ??eq L-1 at the other sites. Inverse geochemical modelling suggests that dissolution of pyrite, epidote, chlorite and minor calcite as well as the precipitation of silica and goethite best explain these elevated concentrations of solutes in the outflow of the rock glacier. Three component hydrograph separation using end-member mixing analysis shows that melted snow comprised an average of 30% of RG5 outflow, soil water 32%, and base flow 38%. Snow was the dominant source water in June, soil water was the dominant water source in July, and base flow was the dominant source in September. Enrichment of ?? 18O from - 10??? in the outflow of the rock glacier compared to -20??? in snow and enrichment of deuterium excess from +17.5??? in rock glacier outflow compared to +11??? in snow, suggests that melt of internal ice that had undergone multiple melt/freeze episodes was the dominant source of base flow. Copyright ?? 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. A bipolar outflow of ionized gas in K3-50A: H76 alpha radio recombination line and continuum observations of K3-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Depree, C. G.; Goss, W. M.; Palmer, Patrick; Rubin, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The H II regions near K3-50 (G70.3 + 1.6) have been imaged at high angular resolution (approximately 1 sec .3) in the continuum and the recombination lines H76(sub alpha and He76(sub alpha) using the Very Large Array (VLA). The helium line is detected in only the brightest component K3-50A while the hydrogen line is detected in three components (K3-50A, B and C1). K3-50A shows a pronounced velocity gradient of approximately 150 km/sec/pc along its major axis (P.A. = 160 deg); in addition a wide range of line widths are observed, from 20 to 65 km/sec. Kinematics from the line data and the morphology of the continuum emission suggest that the ionized material associated with K3-50A is undergoing a high-velocity bipolar outflow.

  6. Raman-scattered O VI λ1032 and He II λ1025 and Bipolar Outflow in the Symbiotic Star V455 Sco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heo, Jeong-Eun; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Di Mille, Francesco; Palma, Tali; Chang, Seok-Jun; Hong, Chae-Lin; Lee, Hee-Won

    2016-07-01

    Raman-scattering by atomic hydrogen is a unique spectroscopic process that may probe the mass transfer and mass loss phenomena in symbiotic stars(SSs). In the optical high- resolution spectra of the S-type SS V455 Sco, we note the presence of two Raman-scattered features, one at around 6825 Å with a triple-peak profile formed from Raman-scattering of O VI λ1032 and the other Raman-scattered He II λ1025 at around 6545 Å. Adopting an accretion flow model with additional contribution from a collimated bipolar outflow, we propose that the blue and central peaks are contributed from the accretion flow and the bipolar flow is responsible for the remaining red peak. With the absence of [N II] λ6548, the Raman-scattered He II λ1025 at around 6545 Å is immersed in the broad Ha wings that appear to be formed by Raman-scattering of far-UV continuum near Lyman series.

  7. A study of the evolutionary stages of IRAS sources and outflows in the Mon OB1 dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolf-Chase, G.; Davidson, J.

    1997-01-01

    An ongoing project aiming to relate the evolutionary stages of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) sources in the Mon OB1 dark cloud to the morphology and energetics of outflows associated with some of these sources, is reported on. Previous evolutionary classifications of IRAS sources are refined and potential class O objects are identified. The fully-sampled CO maps of the outflows in this cloud are presented. These observations yield information on outflow structure, kinematics and excitation conditions. Low-intensity, high velocity gas is observed in the youngest outflows. This emission is characterized by relatively flat line wings at the highest velocities in spectral line profiles obtained at the peaks of the outflow emission.

  8. Seasonal variability of organic matter composition in an Alaskan glacier outflow: insights into glacier carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Vermilyea, Andrew; Fellman, Jason; Raymond, Peter; Stubbins, Aron; Scott, Durelle; Hood, Eran

    2014-05-01

    Glacier ecosystems are a significant source of bioavailable, yet ancient dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Characterizing DOC in Mendenhall Glacier outflow (southeast Alaska) we document a seasonal persistence to the radiocarbon-depleted signature of DOC, highlighting ancient DOC as a ubiquitous feature of glacier outflow. We observed no systematic depletion in Δ 14C-DOC with increasing discharge during the melt season that would suggest mobilization of an aged subglacial carbon store. However, DOC concentration, δ 13C-DOC, Δ 14C-DOC and fluorescence signatures appear to have been influenced by runoff from vegetated hillslopes above the glacier during onset and senescence of melt. In the peak glacier melt period, the Δ 14C-DOC of stream samples at the outflow (-181.7 to -355.3‰) was comparable to the Δ 14C-DOC for snow samples from the accumulation zone (-207.2 to -390.9‰), suggesting that ancient DOC from the glacier surface is exported in glacier runoff. The pre-aged DOC in glacier snow and runoff is consistent with contributions from fossil fuel combustion sources similar to those documented previously in ice cores and thus provides evidence for anthropogenic perturbation of the carbon cycle. Overall, our results emphasize the need to further characterize DOC inputs to glacier ecosystems, particularly in light of predicted changes in glacier mass and runoff in the coming century.

  9. Active region plasma outflows as sources of slow/intermediate solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia M.

    2015-08-01

    L. van Driel-Gesztelyi (1,2,3), D. Baker (1), P. Démoulin (2), Culhane, J.L. (1), M.L. DeRosa (4) C.H. Mandrini (5,6), D.H. Brooks (7), A.N. Fazakerley (1), L.K. Harra (1), L. Zhao (7), T.H. Zurbuchen (7), F.A. Nuevo (5,6), A.M. Vásquez (5,6), G.D. Cristiani (5,6) M. Pick (2)1) UCL/MSSL, UK, (2) Paris Observatory, LESIA, CNRS, France, (3) Konkoly Observatory, Hungary, (4) Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, USA, (5) IAFE, CONICET-UBA, Argentina (6) FCEN, UBA, Argentina (7) Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, USAWe analyse plasma upflows of tens of km/s from the edges of solar active regions discovered by Hinode/EIS and investigate whether or not they become outflows, i.e. find their way into the solar wind. We analyse two magnetic configurations: bipolar and quadrupolar and find that the active region plasma may be directly channeled into the solar wind via interchange reconnection at a high-altitude null point above the active region especially when active regions are located besides coronal holes or in a more complex way via multiple reconnections even from under a closed helmet streamer. We relate the solar observations to in-situ slow/intermediate solar wind streams.

  10. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE OUTFLOW FROM SOURCE I IN THE ORION-KL REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Loinard, Laurent; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Menten, Karl M.; Curiel, Salvador

    2012-07-20

    In this Letter, we present sensitive millimeter SiO (J = 5-4; {nu} = 0) line observations of the outflow arising from the enigmatic object Orion Source I made with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observations reveal that at scales of a few thousand AU, the outflow has a marked 'butterfly' morphology along a northeast-southwest axis. However, contrary to what is found in the SiO and H{sub 2}O maser observations at scales of tens of AU, the blueshifted radial velocities of the moving gas are found to the northwest, while the redshifted velocities are in the southeast. The ALMA observations are complemented with SiO (J = 8-7; {nu} = 0) maps (with a similar spatial resolution) obtained with the Submillimeter Array. These observations also show a similar morphology and velocity structure in this outflow. We discuss some possibilities to explain these differences at small and large scales across the flow.

  11. Revisiting the ultraluminous supersoft source in M 101: an optically thick outflow model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria, Roberto; Kong, Albert

    2016-02-01

    The M 101 galaxy contains the best-known example of an ultraluminous supersoft source (ULS), dominated by a thermal component at kT ≈ 0.1 keV. The origin of the thermal component and the relation between ULSs and standard (broad-band spectrum) ultraluminous X-ray sources are still controversial. We re-examined the X-ray spectral and timing properties of the M 101 ULS using archival Chandra and XMM-Newton observations. We show that the X-ray time-variability and spectral properties are inconsistent with standard-disc emission. The characteristic radius Rbb of the thermal emitter varies from epoch to epoch between ≈10 000 and ≈100 000 km; the colour temperature kTbb varies between ≈50 and ≈140 eV and the two quantities scale approximately as R_bb ∝ T_bb^{-2}. In addition to the smooth continuum, we also find (at some epochs) spectral residuals well fitted with thermal-plasma models and absorption edges: we interpret this as evidence that we are looking at a clumpy, multitemperature outflow. We suggest that at sufficiently high accretion rates and inclination angles, the supercritical, radiatively driven outflow becomes effectively optically thick and completely thermalizes the harder X-ray photons from the inner part of the inflow, removing the hard spectral tail. We develop a simple, spherically symmetric outflow model and show that it is consistent with the observed temperatures, radii and luminosities. A larger, cooler photosphere shifts the emission peak into the far-UV and makes the source dimmer in X-rays but possibly ultraluminous in the UV. We compare our results and interpretation with those of Liu et al.

  12. Very low-luminosity Class I/flat outflow sources in σ Orionis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, B.; Thompson, M.; Whelan, E. T.; Lodieu, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical to submillimetre multiwavelength study of two very low-luminosity Class I/flat systems, Mayrit 1701117 and Mayrit 1082188, in the σ Orionis cluster. We performed moderate-resolution (R ˜ 1000) optical (˜0.4-0.9 μm) spectroscopy with the Cassegrain Twin Spectrograph (TWIN) spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope. The spectra for both sources show prominent emission in accretion- and outflow-associated lines. The mean accretion rate measured from multiple line diagnostics is 6.4 × 10-10 M⊙ yr-1 for Mayrit 1701117 and 2.5 × 10-10 M⊙ yr-1 for Mayrit 1082188. The outflow mass-loss rates for the two systems are similar and estimated to be ˜1 × 10-9 M⊙ yr-1. The activity rates are within the range observed for low-mass Class I protostars. We obtained submillimetre continuum observations with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) bolometer at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Both objects are detected at a ≥5σ level in the SCUBA-2 850-μm band. The bolometric luminosity of the targets as measured from the observed spectral energy distribution over ˜0.8-850 μm is 0.18 ± 0.04 L⊙ for Mayrit 1701117 and 0.16 ± 0.03 L⊙ for Mayrit 1082188 and is in the very low mass range. The total dust+gas mass derived from submillimetre fluxes is ˜36 MJup and ˜22 MJup for Mayrit 1701117 and Mayrit 1082188, respectively. There is the possibility that some of the envelope material might be dissipated by the strong outflows driven by these sources, resulting in a final mass of the system close to or below the substellar limit.

  13. Fossil and Nonfossil Sources of Organic and Elemental Carbon Aerosols in the Outflow from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Agrios, Konstantinos; Lee, Meehye; Salazar, Gary; Szidat, Sönke

    2016-06-21

    Source quantification of carbonaceous aerosols in the Chinese outflow regions still remains uncertain despite their high mass concentrations. Here, we unambiguously quantified fossil and nonfossil contributions to elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) of total suspended particles (TSP) from a regional receptor site in the outflow of Northeast China using radiocarbon measurement. OC and EC concentrations were lower in summer, representing mainly marine air, than in other seasons, when air masses mostly traveled over continental regions in Mongolia and northeast China. The annual-mean contribution from fossil-fuel combustion to EC was 76 ± 11% (0.1-1.3 μg m(-3)). The remaining 24 ± 11% (0.03-0.42 μg m(-3)) was attributed to biomass burning, with slightly higher contribution in the cold period (∼31%) compared to the warm period (∼21%) because of enhanced emissions from regional biomass combustion sources in China. OC was generally dominated by nonfossil sources, with an annual average of 66 ± 11% (0.5-2.8 μg m(-3)), approximately half of which was apportioned to primary biomass-burning sources (34 ± 6%). In winter, OC almost equally originated from primary OC (POC) emissions and secondary OC (SOC) formation from fossil fuel and biomass-burning sources. In contrast, summertime OC was dominated by primary biogenic emissions as well as secondary production from biogenic and biomass-burning sources, but fossil-derived SOC was the smallest contributor. Distinction of POC and SOC was performed using primary POC-to-EC emission ratios separated for fossil and nonfossil emissions.

  14. Atmospheric outflow of Nutrients to the Bay of Bengal: Impact of continental sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarin, Manmohan; Srinivas, Bikkina

    2014-05-01

    The air-sea deposition of nutrients (N, P and Fe) to the oceanic regions located downwind of pollution sources in south Asia is gaining considerable attention in the present-day scenario of climate change. We report here a case study on the abundances of nutrients, their sources and temporal variability in the atmospheric outflow from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) to the Bay of Bengal (BoB). Air mass back trajectory analysis suggests conspicuous downwind transport of chemical constituents from the IGP to BoB during the late NE-monsoon (January-April). During rest of the year, wind-regimes do not favour the atmospheric transport from the IGP, making BoB a unique oceanic region in the global perspective. Concentrations of NO3-, NH4+, NOrg, PO43- and Fews in the atmospheric outflow from the IGP, studied during November'09 - March'10, show pronounced temporal variability. The inorganic nitrogen dominates (NH4+-N: ~ 90 % of NInorg) the total soluble nitrogen (NTot). Although the contribution of organic nitrogen is not significant, the mass ratio of NOrg/NTot in the outflow varied from 0.07 to 0.40. The abundances of PInorg and Fews varied from 0.4 to 4.8 nmol m-3 and 0.2 to 0.6 nmol m-3, respectively. The high abundance of K+and significant (P-value < 0.05) correlation with PInorg suggests their dominant contribution from biomass burning emissions. The concentration of aerosol iron (FeTot: 60-1144 ng m-3), its fractional solubility (Fews %: 6.7 -26.5) and co-variability of Fews (%) with nss-SO42- suggests chemical processing of alluvial dust during atmospheric transport from the IGP. The characteristic mass ratios of nutrients (NInorg/NTot: 0.92 ± 0.13, NOrg/NTot: 0.21 ± 0.11, and PInorg/nss-Ca2+: 0.35 ± 0.23) in the atmospheric outflow from the IGP show striking similarity with those reported over the BoB. These results have implications to further increase in the atmospheric deposition of nutrients and their impact on biogeochemistry of surface Bay of Bengal.

  15. Resolved atomic lines reveal outflows in two ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Ciro; Middleton, Matthew J.; Fabian, Andrew C.

    2016-05-01

    Ultraluminous X-ray sources are extragalactic, off-nucleus, point sources in galaxies, and have X-ray luminosities in excess of 3 × 1039 ergs per second. They are thought to be powered by accretion onto a compact object. Possible explanations include accretion onto neutron stars with strong magnetic fields, onto stellar-mass black holes (of up to 20 solar masses) at or in excess of the classical Eddington limit, or onto intermediate-mass black holes (103-105 solar masses). The lack of sufficient energy resolution in previous analyses has prevented an unambiguous identification of any emission or absorption lines in the X-ray band, thereby precluding a detailed analysis of the accretion flow. Here we report the presence of X-ray emission lines arising from highly ionized iron, oxygen and neon with a cumulative significance in excess of five standard deviations, together with blueshifted (about 0.2 times light velocity) absorption lines of similar significance, in the high-resolution X-ray spectra of the ultraluminous X-ray sources NGC 1313 X-1 and NGC 5408 X-1. The blueshifted absorption lines must occur in a fast-outflowing gas, whereas the emission lines originate in slow-moving gas around the source. We conclude that the compact object in each source is surrounded by powerful winds with an outflow velocity of about 0.2 times that of light, as predicted by models of accreting supermassive black holes and hyper-accreting stellar-mass black holes.

  16. A census of molecular hydrogen outflows and their sources along the Orion A molecular ridge. Characteristics and overall distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, C. J.; Froebrich, D.; Stanke, T.; Megeath, S. T.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Adamson, A.; Eislöffel, J.; Gredel, R.; Khanzadyan, T.; Lucas, P.; Smith, M. D.; Varricatt, W. P.

    2009-03-01

    Aims: A census of molecular hydrogen flows across the entire Orion A giant molecular cloud is sought. With this paper we aim to associate each flow with its progenitor and associated molecular core, so that the characteristics of the outflows and outflow sources can be established. Methods: We present wide-field near-infrared images of Orion A, obtained with the Wide Field Camera, WFCAM, on the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Broad-band K and narrow-band H2 1-0S(1) images of a contiguous ~8 square degree region are compared to mid-IR photometry from the Spitzer Space Telescope and (sub)millimetre dust-continuum maps obtained with the MAMBO and SCUBA bolometer arrays. Using previously-published H2 images, we also measured proper motions for H2 features in 33 outflows, and use these data to help associate flows with existing sources and/or dust cores. Results: Together these data give a detailed picture of dynamical star formation across this extensive region. We increase the number of known H2 outflows to 116. A total of 111 H2 flows were observed with Spitzer; outflow sources are identified for 72 of them (12 more H2 flows have tentative progenitors). The MAMBO 1200 μm maps cover 97 H2 flows; 57 of them (59%) are associated with Spitzer sources and either dust cores or extended 1200 μm emission. The H2 jets are widely distributed and randomly orientated. The jets do not appear to be orthogonal to large-scale filaments or even to the small-scale cores associated with the outflow sources (at least when traced with the 11´´ resolution of the 1200 μm MAMBO observations). Moreover, H2 jet lengths (L) and opening angles (θ) are not obviously correlated with indicators of outflow source age - source spectral index, α (measured from mid-IR photometry), or (sub)millimetre core flux. It seems clear that excitation requirements limit the usefulness of H2 as a tracer of L and θ (though jet position angles are well defined). Conclusions: We demonstrate that H2 jet

  17. A study of high velocity molecular outflows with an up-to-date sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Wei, Y.; Zhao, M.; Shi, Y.; Yu, W.; Qin, S.; Huang, M.

    2004-11-01

    A statistical study of the properties of molecular outflows is performed based on an up-to-date sample. 391 outflows were identified in published articles or preprints before February 28, 2003. The parameters of position, morphology, mass, energy, outflow dynamics and central source luminosity are presented for each outflow source. Outflow lobe polarity is known for all the sources, and 84% are found to be bipolar. The sources are divided into low mass and high mass groups according to either the available bolometric luminosity of the central source or the outflow mass. The pace of discovery of outflows over the past seven years has increased much more rapidly than in previous periods. Surveys for outflows are still continuing. The number of high-mass outflows detected (139) has considerably increased, showing that they are commonly associated with massive as well as low mass stars. Energetic mass ejection may be a common aspect of the formation of high mass as well as low mass stars. Outflow masses are correlated strongly with bolometric luminosity of the center sources, which was obtained for the first time. There are also correlations between the central source luminosity and the parameters of mechanical luminosity and the thrust or force necessary to drive the outflow. The results show that flow mass, momentum and energy depend on the nature of the central source. Despite their similarity, there are differences between the high mass and low mass outflows. Low mass outflows are more collimated than high mass outflows. On average, the mass of high mass sources can be more than two orders of magnitude larger than those of low mass outflows. The relation between flow mass and dynamical time appears to differ for the two types of outflows. Low mass sources make up 90% of outflows associated with HH objects while high mass outflows make up 61% of the sources associated with H_2O masers. Sources with characteristics of collapse or infall comprise 12% of the entire

  18. An outflow linked to a YSO in Gum 31?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazzano, M. M.; Cappa, C. E.; Bosch, G.; Vásquez, J.

    2016-08-01

    We analyze the distribution of the molecular gas associated with 10349-5824, a young stellar object located on the edge of the H ii region Gum31, with the aim of investigating the existence of bipolar outflows. We use CO(2-1) line observations obtained with the APEX telescope, H line observations on the K band taken with Flamingos 2 in Gemini South and additional data from at 4.5, 8 and 24 m. J103648.97-584010.7 (1), classified as class II, coincides with extended emission in 4.5 m, suggesting the presence of bipolar flows, and with H emission at 2.12 m. Three extended sources detected in H at 0.5 and 1.5 of 1 could also suggest the presence of shocked gas. Additional evidence of bipolar outflows comes from CO(2-1) spectra.

  19. Downscattering due to Wind Outflows in Compact X-ray Sources: Theory and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Shrader, Chris

    2004-01-01

    A number of recent lines of evidence point towards the presence of hot, outflowing plasma from the central regions of compact Galactic and extragalactic X-ray sources. Additionally, it has long been noted that many of these sources exhibit an "excess" continuum component, above approx. 10 keV, usually attributed to Compton Reflection from a static medium. Motivated by these facts, as well as by recent observational constraints on the Compton reflection models - specifically apparently discrepant variability timescales for line and continuum components in some cases - we consider possible of effects of out-flowing plasma on the high-energy continuum spectra of accretion powered compact objects. We present a general formulation for photon downscattering diffusion which includes recoil and Comptonization effects due to divergence of the flow. We then develop an analytical theory for the spectral formation in such systems that allows us to derive formulae for the emergent spectrum. Finally we perform the analytical model fitting on several Galactic X-ray binaries. Objects which have been modeled with high-covering-fraction Compton reflectors, such as GS1353-64 are included in our analysis. In addition, Cyg X-3, is which is widely believed to be characterized by dense circumstellar winds with temperature of order 10(exp 6) K, provides an interesting test case. Data from INTEGRAL and RXTE covering the approx. 3 - 300 keV range are used in our analysis. We further consider the possibility that the widely noted distortion of the power-law continuum above 10 keV may in some cases be explained by these spectral softening effects.

  20. Continuous plasma outflows from the edge of a solar active region as a possible source of solar wind.

    PubMed

    Sakao, Taro; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Kotoku, Jun'ichi; Bando, Takamasa; Deluca, Edward E; Lundquist, Loraine L; Tsuneta, Saku; Harra, Louise K; Katsukawa, Yukio; Kubo, Masahito; Hara, Hirohisa; Matsuzaki, Keiichi; Shimojo, Masumi; Bookbinder, Jay A; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly E; Su, Yingna; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Nakatani, Ichiro

    2007-12-07

    The Sun continuously expels a huge amount of ionized material into interplanetary space as the solar wind. Despite its influence on the heliospheric environment, the origin of the solar wind has yet to be well identified. In this paper, we report Hinode X-ray Telescope observations of a solar active region. At the edge of the active region, located adjacent to a coronal hole, a pattern of continuous outflow of soft-x-ray-emitting plasmas was identified emanating along apparently open magnetic field lines and into the upper corona. Estimates of temperature and density for the outflowing plasmas suggest a mass loss rate that amounts to approximately 1/4 of the total mass loss rate of the solar wind. These outflows may be indicative of one of the solar wind sources at the Sun.

  1. Molecular Outflows from Newly Formed Massive Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kee-Tae; Kim, Won-Ju; Kim, Chang-Hee

    2015-12-01

    We map 6 massive young stellar objects (YSOs) in the CO J=2-1 line and survey 18 massive YSOs, including the six, in the hcopj, sioj, water 6_{16}-5_{23} maser, and methanol 7_{0}-6_{1} A^{+} maser lines. We detect CO bipolar outflows in all the six mapped sources. Four of them are newly discovered (ifive, ieight, inine, iten), while itwo is mapped in the CO J=2-1 line for the first time. The detected outflows are much more massive and energetic than outflows from low-mass YSOs with masses >20 M_⊙ and momenta >300 M_⊙ km/s. They have mass outflow rates (3-6)×10^{-4} M_⊙ yr^{-1}, which are at least one order of magnitude greater than those observed in low-mass YSOs. We detect hcop and SiO line emission in 18 (100%) and 4 (22%) sources, respectively. The hcop spectra show high-velocity wings in 11 (61%) sources. We detect water maser emission in 13 (72%) sources and 44 GHz methanol maser emission in 8 (44%) sources. Of the detected sources, 5 water and 6 methanol maser sources are new discoveries. iseven shows high-velocity (>30 kms) water maser lines. We find good correlations of the bolometric luminosity of the central (proto)star with the mechanical force, mechanical luminosity, and mass outflow rate of molecular outflow %L_{bol} with F_{m}, L_{m}, and dot{M}_{out} in the bolometric luminosity range of 10^{-1}-10^6 lsol, and identified 3 intermediate- or high-mass counterparts of Class O objects.

  2. A distance-limited sample of massive molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maud, L. T.; Moore, T. J. T.; Lumsden, S. L.; Mottram, J. C.; Urquhart, J. S.; Hoare, M. G.

    2015-10-01

    We have observed 99 mid-infrared-bright, massive young stellar objects and compact H II regions drawn from the Red MSX source survey in the J = 3-2 transition of 12CO and 13CO, using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. 89 targets are within 6 kpc of the Sun, covering a representative range of luminosities and core masses. These constitute a relatively unbiased sample of bipolar molecular outflows associated with massive star formation. Of these, 59, 17 and 13 sources (66, 19 and 15 per cent) are found to have outflows, show some evidence of outflow, and have no evidence of outflow, respectively. The time-dependent parameters of the high-velocity molecular flows are calculated using a spatially variable dynamic time-scale. The canonical correlations between the outflow parameters and source luminosity are recovered and shown to scale with those of low-mass sources. For coeval star formation, we find the scaling is consistent with all the protostars in an embedded cluster providing the outflow force, with massive stars up to ˜30 M⊙ generating outflows. Taken at face value, the results support the model of a scaled-up version of the accretion-related outflow-generation mechanism associated with discs and jets in low-mass objects with time-averaged accretion rates of ˜10-3 M⊙ yr-1 on to the cores. However, we also suggest an alternative model, in which the molecular outflow dynamics are dominated by the entrained mass and are unrelated to the details of the acceleration mechanism. We find no evidence that outflows contribute significantly to the turbulent kinetic energy of the surrounding dense cores.

  3. Interpreting observations of molecular outflow sources: the MHD shock code mhd_vode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flower, D. R.; Pineau des Forêts, G.

    2015-06-01

    The planar MHD shock code mhd_vode has been developed in order to simulate both continuous (C) type shock waves and jump (J) type shock waves in the interstellar medium. The physical and chemical state of the gas in steady-state may also be computed and used as input to a shock wave model. The code is written principally in FORTRAN 90, although some routines remain in FORTRAN 77. The documented program and its input data are described and provided as supplementary material, and the results of exemplary test runs are presented. Our intention is to enable the interested user to run the code for any sensible parameter set and to comprehend the results. With applications to molecular outflow sources in mind, we have computed, and are making available as supplementary material, integrated atomic and molecular line intensities for grids of C- and J-type models; these computations are summarized in the Appendices. Appendix tables, a copy of the current version of the code, and of the two model grids are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/578/A63

  4. The nature of ULX source M101 X-1: optically thick outflow from a stellar mass black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Rong-Feng; Barniol Duran, Rodolfo; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2015-02-01

    The nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) has long been plagued by an ambiguity about whether the central compact objects are intermediate-mass (IMBH, ≳103 M⊙) or stellar-mass (a few tens M⊙) black holes (BHs). The high-luminosity (≃1039 erg s-1) and supersoft spectrum (T ≃ 0.1 keV) during the high state of the ULX source X-1 in the galaxy M101 suggest a large emission radius (≳109 cm), consistent with being an IMBH accreting at a sub-Eddington rate. However, recent kinematic measurement of the binary orbit of this source and identification of the secondary as a Wolf-Rayet star suggest a stellar-mass BH primary with a super-Eddington accretion. If that is the case, a hot, optically thick outflow from the BH can account for the large emission radius and the soft spectrum. By considering the interplay of photons' absorption and scattering opacities, we determine the radius and mass density of the emission region of the outflow and constrain the outflow mass-loss rate. The analysis presented here can be potentially applied to other ULXs with thermally dominated spectra, and to other super-Eddington accreting sources.

  5. Diagnostics of plasma and particle flows extracted from bipolar gridded plasma sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudin, Stanislav; Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2016-09-01

    Gridded plasma sources have a strong interest from both industry and research community due to large number of their applications, including electric propulsion, plasma acceleration for fundamental studies, ion beam surface treatment and semiconductor etching, etc. Commonly, a dc electric field is applied between the grids of these sources to accelerate positive ions, while the space charge compensation of the beam is achieved using an additional external electron source. Few recent concepts assume bipolar extraction of particles, such that both positive and negative particles are extracted from plasma and accelerated. The formed beam can be composed of extracted continuously or alternately positive and negative ions, or positive ions and electrons. Diagnostics of these beams is a challenging task, in particular absolute flux and energy distribution measurements for different species present in the bipolar beam. In this work we present few recent diagnostic techniques allowing to measure absolute fluxes and energies of +/- ions and electrons, and also methods to investigate temporal behavior of these flows.

  6. MOSFIRE and LDSS3 spectroscopy for an [O II] Blob at z = 1.18: gas outflow and energy source

    SciTech Connect

    Harikane, Yuichi; Ouchi, Masami; Yuma, Suraphong; Ono, Yoshiaki; Rauch, Michael; Nakajima, Kimihiko

    2014-10-20

    We report our Keck/MOSFIRE and Magellan/Low-Dispersion Survey Spectrograph spectroscopy for an [O II] Blob, O II B 10, that is a high-z galaxy with spatially extended [O II] λλ3726, 3729 emission over 30 kpc recently identified by a Subaru large-area narrowband survey. The systemic redshift of O II B 10 is z = 1.18 securely determined with [O III] λλ4959, 5007 and Hβ emission lines. We identify Fe II λ2587 and Mg II λλ2796, 2804 absorption lines blueshifted from the systemic redshift by 80 ± 50 and 260 ± 40 km s{sup –1}, respectively, which indicates gas outflow from O II B 10 with the velocity of ∼80-260 km s{sup –1}. This outflow velocity is comparable with the escape velocity, 250 ± 140 km s{sup –1}, estimated under the assumption of a singular isothermal halo potential profile. Some fraction of the outflowing gas could escape from the halo of O II B 10, suppressing O II B 10's star-formation (SF) activity. We estimate a mass loading factor, η, that is a ratio of mass outflow rate to SF rate, and obtain η > 0.8 ± 0.1, which is relatively high compared with low-z starbursts including U/LIRGs and active galactic nuclei (AGNs). The major energy source of the outflow is unclear with the available data. Although no signature of AGNs is found in the X-ray data, O II B 10 falls in the AGN/star-forming composite region in the line diagnostic diagrams. It is possible that the outflow is powered by SF and a type-2 AGN with narrow FWHM emission line widths of 70-130 km s{sup –1}. This is the first detailed spectroscopic study of oxygen-line blobs that includes analyses of the escape velocity, the mass loading factor, and the presence of an AGN, and is a significant step to understanding the nature of oxygen-line blobs and the relation between gas outflow and SF quenching at high redshift.

  7. Constraints on Asian and European sources of methane from CH4-C2H6-CO correlations in Asian outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yaping; Jacob, Daniel J.; Wang, James S.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Palmer, Paul I.; Suntharalingam, Parvadha; Yantosca, Robert M.; Sachse, Glen W.; Blake, Donald R.; Streets, David G.

    2004-08-01

    Aircraft observations of Asian outflow from the Transport and Chemical Evolution Over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission over the NW Pacific (March and April 2001) show large CH4 enhancements relative to background, as well as strong CH4-C2H6-CO correlations that provide signatures of regional sources. We apply a global chemical transport model simulation of the CH4-C2H6-CO system for the TRACE-P period to interpret these observations in terms of CH4 sources and to explore in particular the unique constraints from the CH4-C2H6-CO correlations. We use as a priori a global CH4 source inventory constrained with National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Monitoring and Diagnostics Laboratory (CMDL) surface observations [Wang et al., 2004]. We find that the observed CH4 concentration enhancements and CH4-C2H6-CO correlations in Asian outflow in TRACE-P are determined mainly by anthropogenic emissions from China and Eurasia (defined here as Europe and eastern Russia), with only little contribution from tropical sources (wetlands and biomass burning). The a priori inventory overestimates the observed CH4 enhancements and shows regionally variable biases for the CH4/C2H6 slope. The CH4/CO slopes are simulated without significant bias. Matching both the observed CH4 enhancements and the CH4-C2H6-CO slopes in Asian outflow requires increasing the east Asian anthropogenic source of CH4, and decreasing the Eurasian anthropogenic source, by at least 30% for both. The need to increase the east Asian source is driven by the underestimate of the CH4/C2H6 slope in boundary layer Chinese outflow. The Streets et al. [2003] anthropogenic emission inventory for east Asia fits this constraint by increasing CH4 emissions from that region by 40% relative to the a priori, largely because of higher livestock and landfill source estimates. Eurasian sources (mostly European) then need to be reduced by 30-50% from the a priori value of 68 Tg yr-1. The decrease of

  8. Seasonal variations of Asian black carbon outflow to the Pacific: Contribution from anthropogenic sources in China and biomass burning sources in Siberia and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Moteki, N.; Kanaya, Y.; Takami, A.; Irwin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality model with a source and process tagged method (CMAQ/PASCAL) was used to understand source regions and types (anthropogenic (AN) and biomass burning (BB)) of Asian black carbon (BC) outflow to the Pacific during 2008 - 2010. The model simulations generally reproduced absolute concentrations and temporal (seasonal, monthly, and day-to-day) variations of BC mass concentrations, observed by both surface and aircraft measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. These model simulations show that both the total eastward flux and transport efficiency (fractions transported from sources) of BC are highest during spring (26 kg s-1 and 33% at 150E) and lowest during summer (8 kg s-1 and 20% at 150E). These seasonal variations of Asian BC outflow are generally controlled by transport patterns (monsoons, frontal passages, and convection) and emissions, from the following three sources: (1) AN emissions from China (China AN), (2) BB emissions from Southeast Asia and South China (SEA BB) during February - April, and (3) BB emissions from Siberia and Kazakhstan (Siberia BB) during April - July. In our simulations, China AN dominates the total eastward BC flux on a three-year average (61%, 17%, and 6% from China AN, Siberia BB, and SEA BB, respectively, at 150E). In contrast, SEA and Siberia BB account for 30 - 50% of the total eastward BC flux (150E and 175E) during spring and summer, and they increase the seasonal variability of the Asian BC outflow flux. BC from Siberia BB is also found to be transported to the Pacific more efficiently than BC from other sources. Although the magnitudes of BB emissions are highly uncertain, our results suggest that the control of Siberia BB will be important in terms of the trans-boundary transport of BC to the Pacific, North America, and the Arctic.

  9. Seasonal variations of Asian black carbon outflow to the Pacific: Contribution from anthropogenic sources in China and biomass burning sources in Siberia and Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, H.; Koike, M.; Kondo, Y.; Oshima, N.; Moteki, N.; Kanaya, Y.; Takami, A.; Irwin, M.

    2013-09-01

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality model with a source and process tagged method (CMAQ/PASCAL) was used to understand source regions and types (anthropogenic (AN) and biomass burning (BB)) of Asian black carbon (BC) outflow to the Pacific during 2008-2010. The model simulations generally reproduced absolute concentrations and temporal (seasonal, monthly, and day-to-day) variations of BC mass concentrations, observed by both surface and aircraft measurements in outflow regions in East Asia. These model simulations show that both the total eastward flux and transport efficiency (fractions transported from sources) of BC are highest during spring (26 kg s-1 and 33% at 150°E) and lowest during summer (8 kg s-1 and 20% at 150°E). These seasonal variations of Asian BC outflow are generally controlled by transport patterns (monsoons, frontal passages, and convection) and emissions from the following three sources: (1) AN emissions from China (China AN), (2) BB emissions from Southeast Asia and South China (SEA BB) during February-April, and (3) BB emissions from Siberia and Kazakhstan (Siberia BB) during April-July. In our simulations, China AN dominates the total eastward BC flux on a 3 year average (61%, 17%, and 6% from China AN, Siberia BB, and SEA BB, respectively, at 150°E). In contrast, SEA and Siberia BB account for 30-50% of the total eastward BC flux (150°E and 175°E) during spring and summer, and they increase the seasonal variability of the Asian BC outflow flux. BC from Siberia BB is also found to be transported to the Pacific more efficiently than BC from other sources. Although the magnitudes of BB emissions are highly uncertain, our results suggest that the control of Siberia BB will be important in terms of the transboundary transport of BC to the Pacific, North America, and the Arctic.

  10. Sources and light absorption of water-soluble organic carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2014-02-01

    High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over one billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water-soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble "brown carbon" and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual carbon isotopes with light-absorption measurements of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from northern China. The mass absorption cross section at 365 nm (MAC365) of WSOC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). However, this effect corresponds to only 2-10% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by elemental carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WSOC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher fraction fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (δ13C) measurements were consistent with aging during long-range air mass transport for this large fraction of carbonaceous aerosols.

  11. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    SciTech Connect

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Li, Di E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2014-11-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M {sub J}, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} to 2.9 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} to 4.1 × 10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M {sub J} in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M {sub J} in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  12. X-RAY OUTFLOWS AND SUPER-EDDINGTON ACCRETION IN THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, D. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Miller, J. M.; Reis, R. C.; Fabian, A. C.; Roberts, T. P.; Middleton, M. J.

    2013-08-10

    Studies of X-ray continuum emission and flux variability have not conclusively revealed the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) at the high-luminosity end of the distribution (those with L{sub X} {>=} 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1}). These are of particular interest because the luminosity requires either super-Eddington accretion onto a black hole of mass {approx}10 M{sub Sun} or more standard accretion onto an intermediate-mass black hole. Super-Eddington accretion models predict strong outflowing winds, making atomic absorption lines a key diagnostic of the nature of extreme ULXs. To search for such features, we have undertaken a long, 500 ks observing campaign on Holmberg IX X-1 with Suzaku. This is the most sensitive data set in the iron K bandpass for a bright, isolated ULX to date, yet we find no statistically significant atomic features in either emission or absorption; any undetected narrow features must have equivalent widths less than 15-20 eV at 99% confidence. These limits are far below the {approx}>150 eV lines expected if observed trends between mass inflow and outflow rates extend into the super-Eddington regime and in fact rule out the line strengths observed from disk winds in a variety of sub-Eddington black holes. We therefore cannot be viewing the central regions of Holmberg IX X-1 through any substantial column of material, ruling out models of spherical super-Eddington accretion. If Holmberg IX X-1 is a super-Eddington source, any associated outflow must have an anisotropic geometry. Finally, the lack of iron emission suggests that the stellar companion cannot be launching a strong wind and that Holmberg IX X-1 must primarily accrete via Roche-lobe overflow.

  13. Fast outflows in broad absorption line quasars and their connection with CSS/GPS sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni , G.; Mack, K.-H.; Montenegro-Montes, F. M.; Brienza, M.; González-Serrano, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    Broad absorption line quasars are among the objects presenting the fastest outflows. The launching mechanism itself is not completely understood. Models in which they could be launched from the accretion disk, and then curved and accelerated by the effect of the radiation pressure, have been presented. We conducted an extensive observational campaign, from radio to optical band, to collect information about their nature and test the models present in the literature, the main dichotomy being between a young scenario and an orientation one. We found a variety of possible orientations, morphologies, and radio ages, not converging to a particular explanation for the BAL phenomenon. From our latest observations in the m- and mm-band, we obtained an indication of a lower dust abundance with respect to normal quasars, thus suggesting a possible feedback process on the host galaxy. Also, in the low-frequency regime we confirmed the presence of CSS components, sometime in conjunction with a GPS one already detected at higher frequencies. Following this, about 70 % of our sample turns out to be in a GPS or CSS+GPS phase. We conclude that fast outflows, responsible for the BAL features, can be more easily present among objects going through a restarting or just-started radio phase, where radiation pressure can substantially contribute to their acceleration.

  14. Sources and light absorption of water-soluble brown carbon aerosols in the outflow from northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirillova, E. N.; Andersson, A.; Han, J.; Lee, M.; Gustafsson, Ö.

    2013-07-01

    High loadings of anthropogenic carbonaceous aerosols in Chinese air influence the air quality for over 1 billion people and impact the regional climate. A large fraction (17-80%) of this aerosol carbon is water soluble, promoting cloud formation and thus climate cooling. Recent findings, however, suggest that water-soluble carbonaceous aerosols also absorb sunlight, bringing additional direct and indirect climate warming effects, yet the extent and nature of light absorption by this water-soluble brown carbon (WS-BrC) and its relation to sources is poorly understood. Here, we combine source estimates constrained by dual-carbon-isotope with light absorption measurements of WS-BrC for a March 2011 campaign at the Korea Climate Observatory at Gosan (KCOG), a receptor station in SE Yellow Sea for the outflow from N. China. The mass absorption cross-section (MAC) of WS-BrC for air masses from N. China were in general higher (0.8-1.1 m2 g-1), than from other source regions (0.3-0.8 m2 g-1). We estimate that this effect corresponds to 13-49% of the radiative forcing caused by light absorption by black carbon. Radiocarbon constraints show that the WS-BrC in Chinese outflow had significantly higher amounts of fossil sources (30-50%) compared to previous findings in S. Asia, N. America and Europe. Stable carbon (δ13C) measurements indicated influence of aging during air mass transport. These results indicate the importance of incorporating WS-BrC in climate models and the need to constrain climate effects by emission source sector.

  15. Bipolar square-wave current source for transient electromagnetic systems based on constant shutdown time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shilong; Yin, Changchun; Lin, Jun; Yang, Yu; Hu, Xueyan

    2016-03-01

    Cooperative work of multiple magnetic transmitting sources is a new trend in the development of transient electromagnetic system. The key is the bipolar current waves shutdown, concurrently in the inductive load. In the past, it was difficult to use the constant clamping voltage technique to realize the synchronized shutdown of currents with different peak values. Based on clamping voltage technique, we introduce a new controlling method with constant shutdown time. We use the rising time to control shutdown time and use low voltage power source to control peak current. From the viewpoint of the circuit energy loss, by taking the high-voltage capacitor bypass resistance and the capacitor of the passive snubber circuit into account, we establish the relationship between the rising time and the shutdown time. Since the switch is not ideal, we propose a new method to test the shutdown time by the low voltage, the high voltage and the peak current. Experimental results show that adjustment of the current rising time can precisely control the value of the clamp voltage. When the rising time is fixed, the shutdown time is unchanged. The error for shutdown time deduced from the energy consumption is less than 6%. The new controlling method on current shutdown proposed in this paper can be used in the cooperative work of borehole and ground transmitting system.

  16. Ancient drainage basin of the Tharsis region, Mars: Potential source for outflow channel systems and putative oceans or paleolakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Ferris, J.C.; Baker, V.R.; Anderson, R.C.; Hare, T.M.; Strom, R.G.; Barlow, N.G.; Tanaka, K.L.; Klemaszewski, J.E.; Scott, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    Paleotopographic reconstructions based on a synthesis of published geologic information and high-resolution topography, including topographic profiles, reveal the potential existence of an enormous drainage basin/aquifer system in the eastern part of the Tharsis region during the Noachian Period. Large topographic highs formed the margin of the gigantic drainage basin. Subsequently, lavas, sediments, and volatiles partly infilled the basin, resulting in an enormous and productive regional aquifer. The stacked sequences of water-bearing strata were then deformed locally and, in places, exposed by magmatic-driven uplifts, tectonic deformation, and erosion. This basin model provides a potential source of water necessary to carve the large outflow channel systems of the Tharsis and surrounding regions and to contribute to the formation of putative northern-plains ocean(s) and/or paleolakes. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Empirical laws of particle extraction from single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow.

    PubMed

    Dudin, S V; Rafalskyi, D V

    2012-11-01

    The present research is devoted to the problem of extraction grid choice for a single-grid source of bipolar ion-electron flow. The paper contains detailed reference information on ion and electron extraction characteristics of 10 different grids with broad range of parameters: aperture width (0.09-0.6 mm), grid transparency (0.19-0.51), thickness (0.036-0.5 mm), and with different aperture geometry. The grids with square, circular, and slit apertures were made with different technologies: laser cutting, welding, weaving, and electrolytic erosion. The general regularities of the ion and electron extraction from the single-grid source are experimentally researched for the cases of dc and RF extraction grid biasing. A conclusion has been made that the maximum extracted ion current at low ion energy (0-200 eV) does not significantly vary for all the grids and does not exceed half of the primary ion current from plasma multiplied by the optical grid transparency. The low-energy limit of efficient ion extraction has been discovered which cannot be overcome by the aperture narrowing. A conclusion is made that the RF extraction mode is superior for all the researched grids since it is characterized by higher extracted ion current at any acceleration voltage for any grid with much more simple and smooth extraction curves behavior in comparison to the dc case as well as absence of arcing, jumps, and hysteresis of the measured curves at any RF voltages. The unique ability of the RF biased single-grid source of simultaneous ion∕electron emission has been studied. The measured maximal attainable ion beam current compensation ratio is always sufficiently higher than 1 and typically varies in the range 2-6. The results obtained in the present paper demonstrate prospective of the single-grid source in space thruster applications and in modern technologies, particularly for ion beam processing of wide bandgap semiconductor devices such as GaN and SiC transistors due to inherent

  18. Effects of stellar outflows on interstellar sulfur oxide chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, W. J.; Vogel, S.; Terebey, S.; Dreher, J.; Jackson, J.; Carlstrom, J.

    1986-01-01

    Interferometer Maps with 2" to 6" resolution of a number of regions with active star formation (Orion A, W49, W51, SGRB2) show that the distribution of the molecule SO is very compact around stellar outflow sources. Both SO and SO2 were studied near three outflows, OrionA/IRc2 and two sources in W49. The two molecules have similar distributions and abundances. More than 95% of the emission comes from regions whose extents are only .05 to .2 pc., being larger around the more energetic sources. Their spectra are broad, 30 km/sec or more, suggesting that the oxide production is associated with the flows. The outflows are identified by water masers and by extended bipolar flows in SiO. Maps in other molecules, such as HCO+ and CS, which have similar collisional excitation requirements, have much greater spatial extent. Thus it appears that the SO and SO2 abundances are truly compact and are closely associated with the outflows.

  19. A Study of Ion Outflow as a Source of Plasma for the Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    Spacecraft measurements beginning in the early 1970 s gave indications that the ionosphere was a contributor to the energetic particle population of the Earth s magnetosphere This surprising result ran counter to the previously accepted model that the magnetospheric plasmas, because of their higher energies, must have come from the solar wind. Indeed, the original discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts, with energies of millions of electron volts, set a strong community belief in the sun as the plasma source because of the dramatic difference in the radiation belt energy and that of the Earth s ionospheric source.

  20. SURFACE AND LIGHTNING SOURCES OF NITROGEN OXIDES OVER THE UNITED STATES: MAGNITUDES, CHEMICAL EVOLUTION, AND OUTFLOW

    EPA Science Inventory

    We use observations from two aircraft during the ICARTT campaign over the eastern United States and North Atlantic during summer 2004, interpreted with a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem) to test current understanding of regional sources, chemical evolution...

  1. Particle Acceleration in Relativistic Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bykov, Andrei; Gehrels, Neil; Krawczynski, Henric; Lemoine, Martin; Pelletier, Guy; Pohl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this review we confront the current theoretical understanding of particle acceleration at relativistic outflows with recent observational results on various source classes thought to involve such outflows, e.g. gamma-ray bursts, active galactic nuclei, and pulsar wind nebulae. We highlight the possible contributions of these sources to ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.

  2. The structured environments of embedded star-forming cores . PACS and SPIRE mapping of the enigmatic outflow source UYSO 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, H.; Krause, O.; Beuther, H.; Henning, Th.; Klein, R.; Nielbock, M.; Stecklum, B.; Steinacker, J.; Stutz, A.

    2010-07-01

    The intermediate-mass star-forming core UYSO 1 has previously been found to exhibit intriguing features. While deeply embedded and previously only identified by means of its (sub-)millimeter emission, it drives two powerful, dynamically young, molecular outflows. Although the process of star formation has obviously started, the chemical composition is still pristine. We present Herschel PACS and SPIRE continuum data of this presumably very young region. The now complete coverage of the spectral energy peak allows us to precisely constrain the elevated temperature of 26-28 K for the main bulge of gas associated with UYSO1, which is located at the interface between the hot H ii region Sh 2-297 and the cold dark nebula LDN 1657A. Furthermore, the data identify cooler compact far-infrared sources of just a few solar masses, hidden in this neighbouring dark cloud. Herschel is an ESA space observatory, with its science instruments PACS, SPIRE, and HIFI provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia, and with important participation from NASA.

  3. Molecular Outflows in Massive Star Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Nichol

    2015-11-01

    This thesis presents millimetre continuum and molecular line observations exploring the properties of molecular outflows towards massive star forming regions. Massive stars produce some of the most energetic phenomena in the Galaxy, yet we still do not have a comprehensive understanding of how they actually form. Outflows are known to play a key role in this formation process and their properties, particularly how they change depending on the mass, luminosity and evolution of the driving source can shed light on how massive stars actually form. This thesis presents observations at both high (SMA 3 arcsecond) and low (JCMT 15 arcsecond) spatial resolution of the known jet/outflow tracers, SiO and 12CO, towards a sample massive star forming region drawn from the RMS survey. Furthermore, the presence of infall signatures is explored through observations of HCO+ and H13CO+, and the hot core nature of the regions is probed using tracers such as CH3CN, HC3N and CH3OH. SiO is detected towards approximately 50% of the massive young stellar objects and HII regions in the JCMT sample. The detection of SiO appears to be linked to the age of the RMS source, with the likely younger sources showing a stronger dependence with SiO. The presence of SiO also appears to be linked to the CO velocity, with SiO more efficiently tracing sources with higher velocity dispersions. In the MOPRA observations towards a sample of 33 RMS sources, CH3CN is detected towards 66% of the sources, with the redder likely younger sources having the largest rotational temperatures. This thesis presents the first interferometric SiO (5-4) and 12CO (2-1) observations, taken with the SMA, towards the massive star forming region G203.3166/NGC 2264-C. In this intermediate/massive star forming cluster, SiO is again tracing the youngest sources. Both the SiO and 12CO emission trace two bipolar, high velocity outflows towards the mm brightest, IR-dark, likely youngest sources in this reg! ion. In contrast the IR

  4. Surface and Lightning Sources of Nitrogen Oxides over the United States: Magnitudes, Chemical Evolution, and Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudman, Rynda C.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Turquety, Solene; Leinbensperger, E. M.; Murray, L. T.; Wu, Samuel; Gilliland, A. B.; Avery, Melody A.; Bertram, Timothy H.; Brune, W. H.; Cohen, Ronald C.; Dibb, Jack E.; Flocke, F. M.; Fried, Alan; Holloway, J.; Neuman, J. A.; Orville, R.; Perring, Anne; Ren, Xinrong; Ryerson, T. B.; Sachse, Glen W.; Singh, H. B.; Swanson, Aaron; Wooldridge, Paul J.

    2007-01-01

    We use observations from two aircraft during the International Consortium for Atmospheric Research on Transport and Transformation (ICARTT) campaign over the eastern United States and North Atlantic during summer 2004, interpreted with a global 3-D model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem) to test current understanding of the regional sources, chemical evolution, and export of nitrogen oxides. The boundary layer NO(x) data provide top-down verification of a 50% decrease in power plant and industry NO(x) emissions over the eastern United States between 1999 and 2004. Observed 8-12 8 km NO(x) concentrations in ICARTT were 0.55 +/- 36 ppbv, much larger than in previous United States aircraft campaigns (ELCHEM, SUCCESS, SONEX). We show that regional lightning was the dominant source of this NO(x) and increased upper tropospheric ozone by 10 ppbv. Simulating the ICARTT upper tropospheric NO(x) observations with GEOS-Chem require a factor of 4 increase in the model NO(x) yield per flash (to 500 mol/flash). Observed OH concentrations were a factor of 2 lower than can be explained from current photochemical models, and if correct would imply a broader lightning influence in the upper troposphere than presently thought.An NO(y)-CO correlation analysis of the fraction f of North American NO(x) emissions vented to the free troposphere as NO(y) (sum of NO(x) and its oxidation products PAN and HNO3) s shows observed f=16+/-10 percent and modeled f=14 +/- 8 percent, consistent with previous studies. Export to the lower free troposphere is mostly HNO3 but at higher altitudes is mostly PAN. The model successfully simulates NO(y) export efficiency and speciation, supporting previous model estimates of a large U.S. contribution to tropospheric ozone through NO(x) and PAN export.

  5. Bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Manic depression; Bipolar affective disorder; Mood disorder - bipolar; Manic depressive disorder ... happiness and high activity or energy (mania) or depression and low activity or energy (depression). The following ...

  6. Episodic molecular outflow in the very young protostellar cluster Serpens South.

    PubMed

    Plunkett, Adele L; Arce, Héctor G; Mardones, Diego; van Dokkum, Pieter; Dunham, Michael M; Fernández-López, Manuel; Gallardo, José; Corder, Stuartt A

    2015-11-05

    The loss of mass from protostars, in the form of a jet or outflow, is a necessary counterpart to protostellar mass accretion. Outflow ejection events probably vary in their velocity and/or in the rate of mass loss. Such 'episodic' ejection events have been observed during the class 0 protostellar phase (the early accretion stage), and continue during the subsequent class I phase that marks the first one million years of star formation. Previously observed episodic-ejection sources were relatively isolated; however, the most common sites of star formation are clusters. Outflows link protostars with their environment and provide a viable source of the turbulence that is necessary for regulating star formation in clusters, but it is not known how an accretion-driven jet or outflow in a clustered environment manifests itself in its earliest stage. This early stage is important in establishing the initial conditions for momentum and energy transfer to the environment as the protostar and cluster evolve. Here we report that an outflow from a young, class 0 protostar, at the hub of the very active and filamentary Serpens South protostellar cluster, shows unambiguous episodic events. The (12)C(16)O (J = 2-1) emission from the protostar reveals 22 distinct features of outflow ejecta, the most recent having the highest velocity. The outflow forms bipolar lobes--one of the first detectable signs of star formation--which originate from the peak of 1-mm continuum emission. Emission from the surrounding C(18)O envelope shows kinematics consistent with rotation and an infall of material onto the protostar. The data suggest that episodic, accretion-driven outflow begins in the earliest phase of protostellar evolution, and that the outflow remains intact in a very clustered environment, probably providing efficient momentum transfer for driving turbulence.

  7. Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Miller, Thomas H

    2016-06-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

  8. Directly Driven Ion Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, H. A.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.; Moore, T. E.; Russell, C. T.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We examine ionospheric outflows in the high altitude magnetospheric polar cap during the POLAR satellite's apogee on April 19, 1996 using the Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment (TIDE) instrument. The elevated levels of O(+) observed in this pass may be due to the geophysical conditions during and prior to the apogee pass. In addition to the high abundance of O(+) relative to H(+), several other aspects of this data are noteworthy. We observe relationships between the density, velocity, and temperature which appear to be associated with perpendicular heating and the mirror force, rather than adiabatic expansion. The H(+) outflow is at a fairly constant flux which is consistent with being source limited by charge exchange at lower altitudes. Local centrifugal acceleration in the polar cap is found to be insufficient to account for the main variations we observe in the outflow velocity. The solar wind speed is high during this pass approximately 700 kilometers per second, and there are Alfve'n waves present in the solar wind such that the solar wind speed and IMF Bx are correlated. In this pass both the H(+) and O(+) outflow velocities correlate with both the solar wind speed and IMF fluctuations. Polar cap magnetometer and Hydra electron data show the same long period wave structure as found in the solar wind and polar cap ion outflow. In addition, the polar cap Poynting flux along the magnetic field direction correlates well with the H(+) temperature (R=0.84). We conclude that the solar wind can drive polar cap ion outflow particularly during polar squalls by setting up a parallel drop that is tens of eV which then causes the ion outflow velocity of O(+) and H(+), the electrons, and magnetic perturbations to vary in a similar fashion.

  9. YSO jets in the Galactic plane from UWISH2 - III. Jets and outflows in Cassiopeia and Auriga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froebrich, D.; Makin, S. V.

    2016-10-01

    We present the analysis of 35.5 deg2 of images in the 1-0 S(1) line of H2 from the UK Widefield Infrared Survey for H2 (UWISH2) towards Cassiopeia and Auriga. We have identified 98 Molecular Hydrogen emission-line Objects (MHOs) driven by Young Stellar Objects, 60 per cent of which are bipolar outflows and all are new discoveries. We estimate that the UWISH2-extended emission object catalogue contains fewer than 2 per cent false positives and is complete at the 95 per cent level for jets and outflows brighter than the UWISH2 detection limit. We identified reliable driving source candidates for three quarters of the detected outflows, 40 per cent of which are associated with groups and clusters of stars. The driving source candidates are 20 per cent protostars, the remainder are Classical T-Tauri Stars. We also identified 15 new star cluster candidates near MHOs in the survey area. We find that the typical outflow identified in the sample has the following characteristics: the position angles are randomly orientated; bipolar outflows are straight within a few degrees; the two lobes are slightly asymmetrical in length and brightness; the length and brightness of the lobes are not correlated; typical time gaps between major ejections of material are 1-3 kyr, hence FU-Ori or EX-Ori eruptions are most likely not the cause of these, but we suggest MNors as a possible source. Furthermore, we find that outflow lobe length distributions are statistically different from the widely used total length distributions. There are a larger than expected number of bright outflows indicating that the flux distribution does not follow a power law.

  10. Sources of water for the outflow channels on Mars: Implications of the Late Noachian "icy highlands" model for melting and groundwater recharge on the Tharsis rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, James P.; Head, James W.; Fastook, James L.

    2015-04-01

    From the Late Noachian period, through the Hesperian, and into the Amazonian periods on Mars, large outflow channels were formed. Many are interpreted to have originated through the catastrophic discharge of groundwater from martian aquifers, involving the release of up to millions of cubic-kilometers of water. Such a mechanism for outflow channel formation requires that martian aquifers were supplied with significant quantities of water some time prior to the discharge events. Typical groundwater recharge occurs due to the infiltration of surficial waters through a permeable substrate down into aquifers. However, some climate models predict an early martian climate dominated by generally "cold and icy" conditions. In this scenario, a globally continuous, impermeable cryosphere prevents infiltration of liquid water (that might be generated at the surface through anomalous heating conditions), leaving the martian aquifers without an apparent source of recharge to supply later outflow channel formation by groundwater discharge. More recent global climate modeling of an early, thicker CO2 martian atmosphere predicts that, when coupled with a full water cycle, the atmosphere of Mars will behave adiabatically causing temperatures to decrease with elevation. The high standing areas of Mars, such as the southern highlands and the Tharsis region, then act as cold traps. This leads to the preferential accumulation of snow and ice, resulting in the formation of regional ice sheets throughout the highlands that characterize the Late Noachian "icy highlands" early Mars climate model (LNIH). We make the initial assumption that the LNIH model is representative of the early Mars climate, and seek to test the model against the presence of the Hesperian and Amazonian outflow channels to determine if it can be consistent. In order to reconcile the LNIH early Mars climate model with the presence of the later outflow channels a groundwater recharge mechanism that can operate under the

  11. Nature or Nurture: the peculiar HH 900 jet and outflow system in the Carina nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan; Kiminki, Megan M.; Bally, John

    2015-01-01

    We present new optical and IR spectroscopy and Hubble Space Telescope imaging of HH 900, a peculiar protostellar outflow in the Carina nebula. Previous Hα imaging from HST revealed an unusually broad, bipolar outflow emerging from a small, tadpole-shaped globule that is illuminated by the many O-type stars in nearby Trumpler 16. Near-IR narrowband [Fe II] images reveal a symmetric, collimated jet that bisects the broad outflow traced by Hα. In a giant H II region like Carina, [Fe II] emission traces dense gas that is self-shielded from Lyman continuum photons from nearby O-type stars, but is excited by non-ionizing FUV photons that penetrate the ionization front within the jet. New Gemini AO images of near-IR H2 emission show that molecules survive in the outflow, and follow the Hα morphology. Position-velocity diagrams of the three lines also reveal very different kinematics. [Fe II] traces steady, jet-like velocities that are faster than those observed in H2 emission. Most strikingly, Hα velocities resemble the Hubble wedges seen in the position-velocity diagrams of some molecular outflows, but few other protostellar jets. We propose that [Fe II] emission traces the protostellar jet itself while H2 emission reveals the molecules that (briefly) survive in the outflow, and Hα traces the ionized skin of the outflow sheath entrained by the jet. The high estimated mass-loss rate of the jet requires a high accretion rate, implying that the unseen driving source is an intermediate-mass (~2-8 Msun) protostar. We propose that HH 900 provides a bridge between molecular outflows driven by deeply embedded sources, and jets from unobscured low-mass protostars because external irradiation from nearby O-type stars illuminates both the collimated atomic jet core and the material it sweeps up.

  12. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, is a mental health condition that causes extreme mood swings that include emotional highs (mania or hypomania) and lows ( ...

  13. Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness. People who have it go through unusual mood changes. They go ... The down feeling is depression. The causes of bipolar disorder aren't always clear. It runs in families. ...

  14. HELICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS IN THE NGC 1333 IRAS 4A PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Ching, Tao-Chung; Lai, Shih-Ping; Zhang, Qizhou; Girart, Josep M.; Yang, Louis; Rao, Ramprasad

    2016-03-10

    We present Submillimeter Array polarization observations of the CO J = 3–2 line toward NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The CO Stokes I maps at an angular resolution of ∼1″ reveal two bipolar outflows from the binary sources of NGC 1333 IRAS 4A. The kinematic features of the CO emission can be modeled by wind-driven outflows at ∼20° inclined from the plane of the sky. Close to the protostars the CO polarization, at an angular resolution of ∼2.″3, has a position angle approximately parallel to the magnetic field direction inferred from the dust polarizations. The CO polarization direction appears to vary smoothly from an hourglass field around the core to an arc-like morphology wrapping around the outflow, suggesting a helical structure of magnetic fields that inherits the poloidal fields at the launching point and consists of toroidal fields at a farther distance of outflow. The helical magnetic field is consistent with the theoretical expectations for launching and collimating outflows from a magnetized rotating disk. Considering that the CO polarized emission is mainly contributed from the low-velocity and low-resolution data, the helical magnetic field is likely a product of the wind–envelope interaction in the wind-driven outflows. The CO data reveal a PA of ∼30° deflection in the outflows. The variation in the CO polarization angle seems to correlate with the deflections. We speculate that the helical magnetic field contributes to ∼10° deflection of the outflows by means of Lorentz force.

  15. High-velocity Bipolar Molecular Emission from an AGN Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallimore, Jack F.; Elitzur, Moshe; Maiolino, Roberto; Marconi, Alessandro; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Lutz, Dieter; Baum, Stefi A.; Nikutta, Robert; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Davies, Richard; Kimball, Amy E.; Sani, Eleonora

    2016-09-01

    We have detected in ALMA observations CO J=6\\to 5 emission from the nucleus of the Seyfert galaxy NGC 1068. The low-velocity (up to ±70 km s-1 relative to systemic) CO emission resolves into a 12 × 7 pc structure, roughly aligned with the nuclear radio source. Higher-velocity emission (up to ±400 km s-1) is consistent with a bipolar outflow in a direction nearly perpendicular (≃80°) to the nuclear disk. The position-velocity diagram shows that in addition to the outflow, the velocity field may also contain rotation about the disk axis. These observations provide compelling evidence in support of the disk-wind scenario for the active galactic nucleus obscuring torus.

  16. SEARCHING FOR THE DRIVING SOURCE OF THE CO MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN THE HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION G240.31+0.07

    SciTech Connect

    Trinidad, M. A.

    2011-11-15

    We present low and high angular resolution observations at 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm obtained from the Very Large Array archive toward the high-mass star formation region G240.31+0.07. We detected, at least, two continuum sources toward G240.31+0.07 at 1.3 cm, which are spatially associated with the millimeter sources MM1 and MM3 reported in the region. Two continuum sources are also detected in the region at 3.6 and 6 cm, spatially coinciding with the millimeter sources MM1 and MM2. We find that the sources MM2 and MM3 seem to be consistent with ultracompact H II regions, harboring B1-0.5 spectral-type zero-age main-sequence stars. Based on the flux density at 1.3, 3.6, and 6 cm, we also find that the spectral index of MM1 is about -0.4, suggesting a combination of thermal and nonthermal emission. In order to search the nature of MM1, we present a detailed comparison of the high angular resolution 6 cm observations of the epochs 1990.3 and 1995.5. The difference image of the two epochs shows variability toward MM1; its flux density and morphology are changing with time. Moreover, a condensation, possibly ejected by MM1 and oriented in the same direction of the CO outflow observed in the region, is also detected. We propose that MM1 is a radio jet and the best candidate to be the driving source of the CO outflow observed in the region.

  17. Disentangling the outflow and protostars in HH 900 in the Carina Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiter, Megan; Smith, Nathan; Kiminki, Megan M.; Bally, John; Anderson, Jay

    2015-04-01

    HH 900 is a peculiar protostellar outflow emerging from a small, tadpole-shaped globule in the Carina Nebula. Previous Hα imaging with Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys showed an ionized outflow with a wide opening angle that is distinct from the highly collimated structures typically seen in protostellar jets. We present new narrowband near-IR [Fe II] images taken with the Wide Field Camera 3 on the HST that reveal a remarkably different structure than Hα. In contrast to the unusual broad Hα outflow, the [Fe II] emission traces a symmetric, collimated bipolar jet with the morphology and kinematics that are more typical of protostellar jets. In addition, new Gemini adaptive optics images reveal near-IR H2 emission coincident with the Hα emission, but not the [Fe II]. Spectra of these three components trace three separate and distinct velocity components: (1) H2 from the slow, entrained molecular gas, (2) Hα from the ionized skin of the accelerating outflow sheath, and (3) [Fe II] from the fast, dense, and collimated protostellar jet itself. Together, these data require a driving source inside the dark globule that remains undetected behind a large column density of material. In contrast, Hα and H2 emission trace the broad outflow of material entrained by the jet, which is irradiated outside the globule. As it get dissociated and ionized, it remains visible for only a short time after it is dragged into the H II region.

  18. Sublimating comets as the source of nucleation seeds for grain condensation in the gas outflow from AGB stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, D. P.; Matese, John J.; Reynolds, R. T.

    1989-01-01

    A growing amount of observational and theoretical evidence suggests that most main sequence stars are surrounded by disks of cometary material. The dust production by comets in such disks is investigated when the central stars evolve up the red giant and asymptotic giant branch (AGB). Once released, the dust is ablated and accelerated by the gas outflow and the fragments become the seeds necessary for condensation of the gas. The origin of the requisite seeds has presented a well known problem for classical nucleation theory. This model is consistent with the dust production observed in M giants and supergiants (which have increasing luminosities) and the fact that earlier supergiants and most WR stars (whose luminosities are unchanging) do not have significant dust clouds even though they have significant stellar winds. Another consequence of the model is that the spatial distribution of the dust does not, in general, coincide with that of the gas outflow, in contrast to the conventional condensation model. A further prediction is that the condensation radius is greater that that predicted by conventional theory which is in agreement with IR interferometry measurements of alpha-Ori.

  19. THE COMPLETE SURVEY OF OUTFLOWS IN PERSEUS

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, Hector G.; Borkin, Michelle A.; Goodman, Alyssa A.; Pineda, Jaime E.; Halle, Michael W.

    2010-06-01

    We present a study on the impact of molecular outflows in the Perseus molecular cloud complex using the COMPLETE Survey large-scale {sup 12}CO(1-0) and {sup 13}CO(1-0) maps. We used three-dimensional isosurface models generated in right ascension-declination-velocity space to visualize the maps. This rendering of the molecular line data allowed for a rapid and efficient way to search for molecular outflows over a large ({approx}16 deg{sup 2}) area. Our outflow-searching technique detected previously known molecular outflows as well as new candidate outflows. Most of these new outflow-related high-velocity features lie in regions that have been poorly studied before. These new outflow candidates more than double the amount of outflow mass, momentum, and kinetic energy in the Perseus cloud complex. Our results indicate that outflows have significant impact on the environment immediately surrounding localized regions of active star formation, but lack the energy needed to feed the observed turbulence in the entire Perseus complex. This implies that other energy sources, in addition to protostellar outflows, are responsible for turbulence on a global cloud scale in Perseus. We studied the impact of outflows in six regions with active star formation within Perseus of sizes in the range of 1-4 pc. We find that outflows have enough power to maintain the turbulence in these regions and enough momentum to disperse and unbind some mass from them. We found no correlation between outflow strength and star formation efficiency (SFE) for the six different regions we studied, contrary to results of recent numerical simulations. The low fraction of gas that potentially could be ejected due to outflows suggests that additional mechanisms other than cloud dispersal by outflows are needed to explain low SFEs in clusters.

  20. Atmospheric outflow of PM2.5 saccharides from megacity Shanghai to East China Sea: Impact of biological and biomass burning sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Chen, Minxuan; Le, Hoa Phuoc; Wang, Fengwen; Guo, Zhigang; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Chen, Jianmin; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2016-10-01

    In an effort to more fully understand atmospheric outflow of PM2.5-associated saccharide species, we investigated primary saccharides (fructose, glucose, sucrose, and trehalose), saccharide alcohols (arabitol and mannitol), and anhydrosaccharides (levoglucosan and mannosan) in atmospheric aerosols at both a megacity site, Shanghai, and a sea background site, Huaniao Island. The results showed that the saccharide species presented pronounced temporal and spatial variability in the outflow from the megacity to the East China Sea, and varied widely with a total concentration range of 8.6-2400 ng m-3 (283 ng m-3 mean) in Shanghai and 0-1050 ng m-3 (51 ng m-3 mean) in Huaniao Island. Both saccharide species (e.g., levoglucosan and sucrose) showed higher concentrations and a noticeable seasonal gradient during the study period ― there was a high level of levoglucosan in the cold season (161 ng m-3 in winter and 229 ng m-3 in autumn) due to elevated biomass burning activities, and a high level of sucrose in the warm seasons (146 ng m-3 in summer and 145 ng m-3 in spring) due to elevated levels of intense biological aerosols including fungal spores and pollen. The calculated levoglucosan/mannosan (L/M) ratio, which may represent the signature of aerosol particles at the two sites, ranged from 5.2 to 10.9 during the cold season. Back-trajectory analysis results indicated that the saccharides originated from regional sources in East and North China before being transported to the sampling site. Emissions due to biomass burning were estimated to correspond to 46% (mass) of the saccharides quantified in the haze particle samples, whereas biogenic emissions corresponded to 18%, indicating that biomass burning was a considerable aerosol source to the regional atmosphere throughout the year. The results presented here support the theory that levoglucosan could be utilized as a molecular marker for East Asian biomass burning outflow, and sucrose as a molecular marker for

  1. Outflow Collimation in Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Frank, A.

    1993-05-01

    Recent results of long-slit spectroscopy of the forbidden lines of the outflow in the young star DG Tau [7] suggest that its wind is well collimated very close to it, leading to the formation of its jet. The analysis of the width of stellar jets, on the other hand, seems to indicate that the collimation of the jets takes place at larger scales [5]. In other to understand this discrepancy, we are studying by means of a two dimensional hydrodynamical code [1][3], the collimation driven by the interaction of the stellar wind with the surrounding density structure left by the star formation process [8][9]. We have found in our adiabatic outflow simulations (using physical parameters similar to those for the HH 34 bipolar stellar jet [2]) that a spherical wind is well collimated near the source resembling a de Laval Nozzle [4][6]. ANC research is supported by NSF grant AST-91-14888. \\ References [1] Frank, A. 1992, PhD Thesis, University of Washington. [2] Heathcote, S. & Reipurth, B. 1992, AJ 104, 2193. [3] Icke, V., 1988 A&A 202, 177. [4] Konigl, A. 1982, ApJ 261, 115. [5] Mundt, R., Ray, T.P., & Raga, A.C. 1991, A&A 252, 740. [6] Raga A.C., & Canto, J. 1989, ApJ 344, 404. [7] Solf, J., & Bohm, K.H. 1993, ApJL (in press). [8] Terebey, S., Shu, F.H., & Cassen, P. 1984, ApJ 286, 529. [9] Yorke, H.W., Bodenheimer, P., & Laughlin, G. 1993, ApJ (in press).

  2. Bipolar Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spearing, Melissa

    Bipolar disorder, a brain disorder that causes unusual shifts in a person's mood, affects approximately one percent of the population. It commonly occurs in late adolescence and is often unrecognized. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder is made on the basis of symptoms, course of illness, and when possible, family history. Thoughts of suicide are…

  3. Nocturnal sink of NO x via NO 3 and N 2O 5 in the outflow from a source area in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Jun; Imagawa, Kousuke; Imai, Hidekazu; Kosugi, Naohiro; Ideguchi, Masumi; Kato, Shungo; Kajii, Yoshizumi

    To understand the nocturnal sink of NO x in the outflow from the Asian source area, simultaneous observations of NO 3, N 2O 5, and related compounds were conducted utilizing an instrument based on laser-induced fluorescence at Izu-Oshima Island, Japan, during June 2004. Consequently, significant levels of NO 3 and N 2O 5 were successfully observed, particularly in the polluted air mass originating from Tokyo. This observation concurred with the equilibrium among NO 3, NO 2, and N 2O 5 gases. As a result of steady-state analysis, nocturnal NO x losses were evaluated as 1.8 and 0.2 ppbv night -1 for polluted and maritime air, respectively. It was confirmed that the nocturnal NO x sink during the observation was promoted by the NO 3 loss by VOC. DMS is significant for nocturnal loss of NO x over the sea.

  4. Very low-luminosity Class I/Flat outflow sources in sigma Orionis: Clues to alternative formation mechanisms for very low-mass stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Basmah; Whelan, E.; Thompson, M.; Vorobyov, E.; Lodieu, N.

    2015-01-01

    We present an optical through sub-millimetre multi-wavelength study of two very low-luminosity Class I/Flat systems, Mayrit 1701117 and Mayrit 1082188, in the sigma Orionis cluster. We performed moderate resolution (R 1000) optical ( 0.4-0.9mu) spectroscopy with the TWIN spectrograph at the Calar Alto 3.5-m telescope. The spectra for both sources show prominent emission in accretion- and outflow-associated lines. The mean accretion rate measured from multiple line diagnostics is 6.4x10^{-10} Msun/yr for Mayrit 1701117, and 2.5x10^{-10} Msun/yr for Mayrit 1082188. The outflow mass loss rates for the two systems are similar and estimated to be 1x10^{-9} Msun/yr. The activity rates are within the range observed for low-mass Class I protostars. We obtained sub-millimetre continuum observations with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) bolometer at the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Both objects are detected at a >5-sigma level in the SCUBA-2 850mu band. The bolometric luminosity of the targets as measured from the observed spectral energy distribution over 0.8-850mu is 0.18+/-0.04 Lsun for Mayrit 1701117, and 0.16+/-0.03 Lsun for Mayrit 1082188, and is in the very low-mass range. The total dust+gas mass derived from sub-millimetre fluxes is 36 M_Jup and 22 M_Jup for Mayrit 1701117 and Mayrit 1082188, respectively. There is the possibility that some of the envelope material might be dissipated by the strong outflows driven by these sources, resulting in a final mass of the system close to or below the sub-stellar limit. Given the membership of these objects in a relatively evolved cluster of 3 Myr of age, we consider an alternate formation mechanism in the context of the `hybrid' model of disk fragmentation, followed by ejection of a gaseous clump.

  5. Coronal hole boundaries evolution at small scales. II. XRT view. Can small-scale outflows at CHBs be a source of the slow solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, S.; Madjarska, M. S.; Doyle, J. G.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: We aim to further explore the small-scale evolution of coronal hole boundaries using X-ray high-resolution and high-cadence images. We intend to determine the fine structure and dynamics of the events causing changes of coronal hole boundaries and to explore the possibility that these events are the source of the slow solar wind. Methods: We developed an automated procedure for the identification of transient brightenings in images from the X-ray telescope on-board Hinode taken with an Al Poly filter in the equatorial coronal holes, polar coronal holes, and the quiet Sun with and without transient coronal holes. Results: We found that in comparison to the quiet Sun, the boundaries of coronal holes are abundant with brightening events including areas inside the coronal holes where closed magnetic field structures are present. The visual analysis of these brightenings revealed that around 70% of them in equatorial, polar and transient coronal holes and their boundaries show expanding loop structures and/or collimated outflows. In the quiet Sun only 30% of the brightenings show flows with most of them appearing to be contained in the solar corona by closed magnetic field lines. This strongly suggests that magnetic reconnection of co-spatial open and closed magnetic field lines creates the necessary conditions for plasma outflows to large distances. The ejected plasma always originates from pre-existing or newly emerging (at X-ray temperatures) bright points. Conclusions: The present study confirms our findings that the evolution of loop structures known as coronal bright points is associated with the small-scale changes of coronal hole boundaries. The loop structures show an expansion and eruption with the trapped plasma consequently escaping along the “quasi” open magnetic field lines. These ejections appear to be triggered by magnetic reconnection, e.g. the so-called interchange reconnection between the closed magnetic field lines (BPs) and the open

  6. Parsec-Scale CO Outflow and H2 Jets in Barnard 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ka Chun; Billawala, Youssef; Bally, John

    1999-12-01

    delineate a bipolar jet originating from this source. This H2 feature and the associated Hα emission bisects the limb-brightened CO cones found within 20" of IRS 1. The presence of both axial knots and a wide-angle cavity implies that the central source may simultaneously power both a jet and a wide-angle wind that are formed within 2000 AU of IRS 1. A new method that accounts for the velocity dependence of the 12CO optical depth is used to estimate the mass in the outflow lobes. The resulting power-law mass spectra have slopes that are much steeper than those obtained by assuming that the 12CO line is optically thin in the outflow lobes, an assumption that has been frequently used in other studies. The flow orientation, the outflow evolution, and the velocity at which the outflow lobes becomes optically thin also affect the mass spectrum. The source luminosity, outflow dynamic timescale, outflow strength, and embedded nature of IRS 1 imply that it is in an intermediate evolutionary stage between a Class I and Class 0 source. We also present a new optical spectrum of HH 367, which originates from IRS 3, confirming its Herbig-Haro nature and showing evidence for different excitation conditions along the flow and variable mass ejection rates from the source.

  7. Aqueous outflow: Segmental and distal flow

    PubMed Central

    Swaminathan, Swarup S.; Oh, Dong-Jin; Kang, Min Hyung; Rhee, Douglas J.

    2014-01-01

    A prominent risk factor of primary open-angle glaucoma is ocular hypertension, a pathologic state caused by impaired outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork within the iridocorneal angle. The juxtacanalicular region of the trabecular meshwork and the inner wall of Schlemm canal have been identified as the main contributors to aqueous outflow resistance, and both extracellular matrix within the trabecular meshwork and trabecular meshwork cell shape have been shown to affect outflow. Overexpression of multiple ECM proteins in perfused cadaveric human eyes has led to increased outflow resistance and elevated IOP. Pharmacologic agents targeting trabecular meshwork cytoskeletal arrangements have been developed after multiple studies demonstrated the importance of cell shape on outflow. Several groups have shown that aqueous outflow occurs only at certain segments of the trabecular meshwork circumferentially, a concept known as segmental flow. This is based on the theory that aqueous outflow is dependent on the presence of discrete pores within the Schlemm canal. Segmental flow has been described in the eyes of multiple species, including primate, bovine, mouse, and human samples. While the trabecular meshwork appears to be the major source of resistance, trabecular meshwork bypass procedures have been unable to achieve the degree of IOP reduction observed with trabeculectomy, reflecting the potential impact of distal flow, or flow through Schlemm canal and collector channels, on outflow. Multiple studies have demonstrated that outflow occurs preferentially near collector channels, suggesting that these distal structures may be more important to aqueous outflow than previously believed. PMID:25088623

  8. Sources, solubility, and acid processing of aerosol iron and phosphorous over the South China Sea: East Asian dust and pollution outflows vs. Southeast Asian biomass burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, S.-C.; Gong, G.-C.; Shiah, F.-K.; Hung, C.-C.; Kao, S.-J.; Zhang, R.; Chen, W.-N.; Chen, C.-C.; Chou, C. C.-K.; Lin, Y.-C.; Lin, F.-J.; Lin, S.-H.

    2014-08-01

    Iron and phosphorous are essential to marine microorganisms in vast regions in oceans worldwide. Atmospheric inputs are important allochthonous sources of Fe and P. The variability in airborne Fe deposition is hypothesized to serve an important function in previous glacial-interglacial cycles, contributing to the variability in atmospheric CO2 and ultimately the climate. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the mobilization of airborne Fe and P from insoluble to soluble forms is critical to evaluate the biogeochemical effects of these elements. In this study, we present a robust power-law correlation between fractional Fe solubility and non-sea-salt-sulfate / Total-Fe (nss-sulfate / FeT) molar ratio independent of distinct sources of airborne Fe of natural and/or anthropogenic origins over the South China Sea. This area receives Asian dust and pollution outflows and Southeast Asian biomass burning. This correlation is also valid for nitrate and total acids, demonstrating the significance of acid processing in enhancing Fe mobilization. Such correlations are also found for P, yet source dependent. These relationships serve as straightforward parameters that can be directly incorporated into available atmosphere-ocean coupling models that facilitate the assessment of Fe and P fertilization effects. Although biomass burning activity may supply Fe to the bioavailable Fe pool, pyrogenic soils are possibly the main contributors, not the burned plants. This finding warrants a multidisciplinary investigation that integrates atmospheric observations with the resulting biogeochemistry in the South China Sea, which is influenced by atmospheric forcings and nutrient dynamics with monsoons.

  9. Bipolar Treatment: Are Bipolar I and Bipolar II Treated Differently?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Treatment for bipolar disorder, formerly called manic depression, generally involves medications and ... bipolar I disorder. In addition to medication for bipolar disorder, other treatment approaches include: Psychotherapy. As a key ...

  10. Bipolar battery

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1992-01-01

    A bipolar battery having a plurality of cells. The bipolar battery includes: a negative electrode; a positive electrode and a separator element disposed between the negative electrode and the positive electrode, the separator element electrically insulating the electrodes from one another; an electrolyte disposed within at least one of the negative electrode, the positive electrode and the separator element; and an electrode containment structure including a cup-like electrode holder.

  11. Bipolar Disorder (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Bipolar Disorder KidsHealth > For Teens > Bipolar Disorder A A A ... Bipolar Disorder en español Trastorno bipolar What Is Bipolar Disorder? Bipolar disorders are one of several medical conditions ...

  12. Coal Ash Aerosol in East Asian Outflow as a Source for Oceanic Deposition of Iron and Other Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J. R.; Hua, X.

    2008-12-01

    While ocean deposition of East Asian dust is given significant emphasis as a source of biologically-active trace elements, iron in particular, dust events are episodic and highly seasonal. There is, however, a constant source of aerosol that is chemically similar to dust (albeit amorphous in structure rather than crystalline) in the ash particles emitted from many hundreds of coal-fired power plants that are sited along the entire coastal region of China and Korea. The emission controls on these facilities vary widely and, in even cases of state-of-the-art emission controls, the secondary release of ash can be significant. There are of course even more small industrial and household sources of coal combustion emissions, in most cases with little or no emissions controls. Ash from a modern coal-fired power facility in Korea has been examined chemically and morphologically with electron microscopic techniques. As is characteristic of all such facilities, two principal types of ash are present: (1) flyash, silicate glass spheres that are emitted with the smoke and removed by electrostatic precipitators; and (2) bottom ash, "clinkers" and noncombustible material sticking to the furnace walls that are mixed with water and ground after cooling, then removed as a slurry to a dumping area. In addition, iron sulfide (pyrite) is a common constituent of coal and provides both a source of sulfur dioxide gas and also molten iron spherical particles in the ash. The iron spheres then are rapidly oxidized upon cooling. Bottom ash is a more complex material than flyash in that it contains more iron and other trace metals, plus it contains varying amounts of uncombusted carbon. The post-combustion handling of bottom ash can lead to significant emissions despite the fact that little or none goes out the stack. The iron oxide spheres can also be emitted by this secondary method. The concentrations of ash can be very high in close proximity to power plants (PM10 of several hundred

  13. Bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Frederick K.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir

    1999-01-01

    Bipolar disorder's unique combination of three characteristics - clear genetic diathesis, distinctive clinical features, early availability of an effective treatment (lithium) - explains its special place in the history of psychiatry and its contribution to the current explosive growth of neuroscience. This article looks at the state of the art in bipolar disorder from the vantage point of: (i) genetics (possible linkages on chromosomes 18 and 21q, polygenic hypothesis, research into genetic markers); (ii) diagnosis (new focus on the subjective aspects of bipolar disorder to offset the current trend of underdiagnosis due to overreliance on standardized interviews and rating scales); (iii) outcome (increase in treatment-resistant forms signaling a change in the natural history of bipolar disorder); (iv) pathophysiology (research into circadian biological rhythms and the kindling hypothesis to explain recurrence); (v) treatment (emergence of the anticonvulsants, suggested role of chronic antidepressant treatment in the development of treatment resistance); (vi) neurobiology (evaluation of regulatory function in relation to affective disturbances, role of postsynaptic second-messenger mechanisms, advances in functional neuroimaging); and (vii) psychosocial research (shedding overly dualistic theories of the past to understand the mind and brain as an entity, thus emphasizing the importance of balancing the psychopharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches). Future progress in the understanding and treatment of bipolar disorder will rely on successful integration of the biological and psychosocial lines of investigation. PMID:22033232

  14. Protostellar Outflows and Radiative Feedback from Massive Stars. II. Feedback, Star-formation Efficiency, and Outflow Broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, Rolf; Turner, Neal J.; Yorke, Harold W.

    2016-11-01

    We perform two-dimensional axially symmetric radiation hydrodynamic simulations to assess the impact of outflows and radiative force feedback from massive protostars by varying when the protostellar outflow starts, and to determine the ratio of ejection to accretion rates and the strength of the wide-angle disk wind component. The star-formation efficiency, i.e., the ratio of final stellar mass to initial core mass, is dominated by radiative forces and the ratio of outflow to accretion rates. Increasing this ratio has three effects. First, the protostar grows slower with a lower luminosity at any given time, lowering radiative feedback. Second, bipolar cavities cleared by the outflow become larger, further diminishing radiative feedback on disk and core scales. Third, the higher momentum outflow sweeps up more material from the collapsing envelope, decreasing the protostar's potential mass reservoir via entrainment. The star-formation efficiency varies with the ratio of ejection to accretion rates from 50% in the case of very weak outflows to as low as 20% for very strong outflows. At latitudes between the low-density bipolar cavity and the high-density accretion disk, wide-angle disk winds remove some of the gas, which otherwise would be part of the accretion flow onto the disk; varying the strength of these wide-angle disk winds, however, alters the final star-formation efficiency by only ±6%. For all cases, the opening angle of the bipolar outflow cavity remains below 20° during early protostellar accretion phases, increasing rapidly up to 65° at the onset of radiation pressure feedback.

  15. Infrared polarization images of star-forming regions. I - The ubiquity of bipolar structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamura, M.; Gatley, Ian; Joyce, R. R.; Ueno, M.; Suto, H.; Sekiguchi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The inefficiency of the stellar formation process leads rather generally to high residual dust densities, and so to the existence of infrared reflection nebulosity (IRN), in regions of star formation. Polarization images of several star-forming regions with mass outflows (GSS 30, S255, GL 5180, GL 2591, GGD 27, and NGC 7538) presented here: (1) establish the universality of bipolarity and of shell or cavity structure in the IRN consistent with that of CO outflow; (2) identify the source of the mass outflow in each case; (3) show that the opening angle near this central source is large; and (4) demonstrate several instances of multiple shells, probably arising from episodic mass loss. Astrometry of 2.2-micron sources with arcsecond accuracy identifies the illuminating source of each IRN uniquely with a compact H II region or a bright IR source. The polarization images provide strong evidence for large-scale dust toroids around each of these sources. The density and mass of these disks are estimated from the extinction through the disk.

  16. Observations of SiO toward OMC-1 - A new outflow source 1.5 arcmin south of Orion-KL?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziurys, L. M.; Friberg, P.

    1987-01-01

    Observations of the J = 2-1 transition of thermal SiO have been carried out toward OMC-1. Approximately 1.5 arcmin south of the KL nebula and IRc2, a new moderately strong source of SiO emission with T(a)-asterisk of about 1 K has been detected. The emission appears to be confined to a region 30 arcsec or less in size and shows evidence of high-velocity wings extending + or - 12-15 km/s from line center, which may indicate the presence of an embedded star in its early stages. The SiO J - 2-1 line was sought at other positions in OMC-1 but was not detected except at (3N, 1E), where a weak narrow line was observed. Derived column densities and abundances at the 1.5-arcmin S, (3N, 1E), and KL positions suggest that SiO formation is favored in regions where outflows and high temperatures are present.

  17. THE CIRCUMBINARY OUTFLOW: A PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW DRIVEN BY A CIRCUMBINARY DISK

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Matsumoto, Tomoaki E-mail: inutsuka@nagoya-u.j

    2009-10-10

    Protostellar outflow is a star's first cry at the moment of birth. The outflows have an indispensable role in the formation of single stars because they carry off the excess angular momentum from the center of the shrinking gas cloud, and permit further collapse to form a star. On the other hand, a significant fraction of stars is supposedly born as binaries with circumbinary disks that are frequently observed. Here, we investigate the evolution of a magnetized rotating cloud using a three-dimensional resistive MHD nested-grid code, and show that the outflow is driven by the circumbinary disk and has an important role even in the binary formation. After the adiabatic core formation in the collapsing cloud core, the magnetic flux is significantly removed from the center of the cloud by the Ohmic dissipation. Since this removal makes the magnetic braking ineffective, the adiabatic core continuously acquires the angular momentum to induce fragmentation and subsequent binary formation. The magnetic field accumulates in the circumbinary disk where the removal and accretion of magnetic field are balanced, and finally drives the circumbinary outflow. This result explains the spectacular morphology of some specific young stellar objects such as L1551 IRS5. We can infer that most of the bipolar molecular outflows observed by low density tracers (i.e., CO) would correspond to circumbinary or circum-multiple outflows found in this Letter, since most of the young stellar objects are supposed to be binaries or multiples.

  18. Tracking sources of severe haze episodes and their physicochemical and hygroscopic properties under Asian continental outflow: Long-range transport pollution, postharvest biomass burning, and Asian dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Jinsang; Kim, Young J.

    2011-01-01

    Aerosol physicochemical and hygroscopic properties were measured from 12 October to 21 November 2005 at a downwind area of the Asian continental outflow (Gwangju, Korea) to characterize severe haze episodes. Using optically measured elemental carbon (EC) at 660 nm (Opt.EC) and 880 nm (BC) wavelengths and Mie theory, it was estimated that the higher BC/Opt.EC ratio during the cloudy day of the long-range transport (LTP) period was mainly due to EC particle growth from in-cloud processing with secondary aerosols such as sulfate and organic aerosols. Single scattering albedo (SSA) of biomass burning (BB) aerosol increased sharply from 0.89 to 0.94 under a relative humidity >70%, suggesting that organic aerosols emitted from rice straw burning contained high amounts of hydrophilic compounds. The contribution of aerosol water content to the total light extinction coefficient (bext) was determined as 51.4% and 68.4% during the BB and BB + LTP periods, respectively, indicating that the haze episodes were highly enhanced by an increase in aerosol water content. The Asian dust event was characterized by the highest SSA (0.92 ± 0.02), the lowest mass scattering efficiency of fine particles (2.5 ± 1.0 m2 g-1), and the lowest hygroscopic nature (humidity-dependent light scattering enhancement factor, f(80%), which is defined by the ratio of light scattering coefficient at 80% relative humidity to that at dry condition, = ˜1.37). Based on the Ångström exponent (α) values observed at the source region of the Asian continent and the downwind area of South Korea during the BB + LTP period, it was found that the α value of urban aerosols decreased ˜11% for 1-2 days of the transport, probably due to the increase in particle size through water uptake. Increasing rates of surface PM10 mass concentrations at western coastal areas of the South Korean peninsula were in the range 2.4-14.4 μgm-3 h-1 at the beginning of the BB + LTP period (24 October 2005, 0700-2300 LT). Based on

  19. A remarkable multilobe molecular outflow - Rho Ophiuchi East, associated with IRAS 16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, A.; Fukui, Y.; Iwata, T.; Nozawa, S.; Takano, T.

    1990-06-01

    Rho Ophiuchi East is one of the molecular outflows discovered in the Nagoya CO survey of star formation regions (Fukui et al., 1986) and was independently discovered by Wootten and Loren (1987). IRAS 16293-2422 is the driving source of the outflow. A detailed observational study of this outflow source in the J = 1-0 and J = 2-1 transitions of CO and in the (J, K) = (1, 1) and (2, 2) transitions of NH3 was made with angular resolutions of 17-80 arcsecs. The high-velocity CO emission has been resolved into four compact separate lobes, consisting of two pairs of bipolar lobes, in addition to an extended monopolar blueshifted lobe. The NH3 cloud has a size of 2.5 x 2.5 arcmin being peaked at 1.7 arcmin east of IRAS 16293-2422. This NH3 peak is located just toward the edge of one of the compact blue CO lobes, showing a blueshift of 0.5 km/s from the rest of the NH3 cloud. The momentum involved in the NH3 peak is nearly equal to that of the CO lobe. It is suggested that the CO lobe has dynamically interacted with the NH3 core, resulting in the acceleration of the NH3 core by 0.5 km/s.

  20. CLASSICAL T TAURI-LIKE OUTFLOW ACTIVITY IN THE BROWN DWARF MASS REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Podio, L.; Bacciotti, F.; Randich, S.

    2009-12-01

    Over the last number of years, spectroscopic studies have strongly supported the assertion that protostellar accretion and outflow activity persist to the lowest masses. Indeed, previous to this work, the existence of three brown dwarf (BD) outflows had been confirmed by us. In this paper, we present the results of our latest investigation of BD outflow activity and report on the discovery of two new outflows. Observations to date have concentrated on studying the forbidden emission line (FEL) regions of young BDs and in all cases data have been collected using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrometer (UVES) on the ESO Very Large Telescope. Offsets in the FEL regions are recovered using spectro-astrometry. Here, ISO-Oph 32 is shown to drive a blueshifted outflow with a radial velocity of 10-20 km s{sup -1} and spectro-astrometric analysis constrains the position angle of this outflow to 240{sup 0} +- 7{sup 0}. The BD candidate, ISO-ChaI 217 is found to have a bipolar outflow bright in several key forbidden lines (V{sub RAD} = -20 km s{sup -1}, +40 km s{sup -1}) and with a P.A. of 193{sup 0}-209{sup 0}. A striking feature of the ISO-ChaI 217 outflow is the strong asymmetry between the red- and blueshifted lobes. This asymmetry is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (redshifted lobe is brighter), the factor of 2 difference in radial velocity (the redshifted lobe is faster) and the difference in the electron density (again higher in the red lobe). Such asymmetries are common in jets from low-mass protostars and the observation of a marked asymmetry at such a low mass (<0.1 M{sub sun}) supports the idea that BD outflow activity is scaled down from low-mass protostellar activity. Also note that although asymmetries are unexceptional, it is uncommon for the redshifted lobe to be the brightest as some obscuration by the accretion disk is assumed. This phenomenon has only been observed in one other source, the classical T Tauri (CTTS) star RW Aur. The physical

  1. Aging of black carbon in outflow from anthropogenic sources using a mixing state resolved model: Model development and evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, N.; Koike, M.; Zhang, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Miyazaki, Y.

    2009-03-01

    The mixing state of black carbon (BC) aerosols, namely, the degree to which BC particles are coated with other aerosol components, has been recognized as important for evaluating aerosol radiative forcing. In order to resolve the BC mixing state explicitly in model simulations, a two-dimensional aerosol representation, in which aerosols are given for individual particle diameters and BC mass fractions, is introduced. This representation was incorporated into an aerosol module, the Model of Aerosol Dynamics, Reaction, Ionization, and Dissolution (MADRID), and a new box model, MADRID-BC, was developed. MADRID-BC can accurately simulate changes in the entire BC mixing state resulting from condensation/evaporation processes. Aircraft observations conducted in March 2004 show that the mass fraction of thickly coated BC particles increased in air horizontally transported out from an urban area in Japan over the ocean. MADRID-BC generally reproduces this feature well when observed bulk aerosol concentrations are used as constraints. The model simulations in this particular case show that for particles with BC core diameters of 100-200 nm, the particle diameters, including both core and coating materials, had already increased by a factor of 1.6 on average when they left the source region and by as large as a factor of 1.9 of the BC core diameters after their transport over the ocean for a half day. The model simulations also show that 58% of the total condensed mass was partitioned onto BC-free particles during transport, indicating their importance for the BC mixing state. Although the model simulations are applied to a limited number of the observations in this study, they clearly show the time evolution of the coating thicknesses of BC-containing particles, which is necessary for calculating aerosol optical properties and cloud condensation nuclei activities.

  2. Classical T Tauri-like Outflow Activity in the Brown Dwarf Mass Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, E. T.; Ray, T. P.; Bacciotti, F.; Podio, L.; Randich, S.

    2010-11-01

    Since 2005 we have been analysing the spectra of brown dwarfs (BDs) using the technique of spectro-astrometry and to date have found 5 outflows driven by BDs. Our aim is to obtain an understanding of outflow activity in the BD mass regime and make a comprehensive comparison with low mass protostars, in particular the classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs). Table 1 summarises some results for the sources in our sample. Also see Whelan et al. (2009b) for a complete discussion and comparison with CTTSs. Some noteworthy results include the asymmetry in the ISO-217 bipolar outflow which is revealed in the relative brightness of the two lobes (red-shifted lobe is brighter) and the factor of two difference in radial velocity (the red-shifted lobe is faster). Asymmetries are common in jets from low mass protostars (0.1 Msun to 2 Msun) and the observation of a strong asymmetry at such a low mass supports the idea that BD outflow activity is scaled down from CTTSs. In addition, Whelan et al. (2009a) find a strong contribution to the Hα line emitted by LS-RCrA 1 and evidence of a dust hole in its disk. Using methods previously applied to CTTS Whelan et al. (2009b) estimate the mass outflow rate (Ṁout) for LS-RCrA 1, ISO and ISO-Oph 102 Ṁout to be in the range 10-10 to 10-9 Msun yr-1 which is comparable to measured mass accretion rates.

  3. Outflow activity in the UCHII region G045.47+0.05

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, M. E.; Paron, S.; Cichowolski, S.; Rubio, M.; Dubner, G.

    2012-10-01

    Aims: This work aims at investigating the molecular gas in the surroundings of the ultra-compact HII region G045.47+0.05 looking for evidence of molecular outflows. Methods: We carried out observations towards a region of 2' × 2' centered at RA = 19h14m25.6s, Dec = +11°09'27.6''(J2000) using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE; Chile) in the 12CO J = 3-2, 13CO J = 3-2, HCO+J = 4-3, and CS J = 7-6 lines with an angular resolution of 22''. We complement these observations with public infrared data. Results: We characterize the physical parameters of the molecular clump where G045.47+0.0 is embedded. The detection of the CS J = 7-6 line emission in the region reveals that the ultra-compact HII region G045.47+0.0 has not completely disrupted the dense gas where it was born. The HCO+ abundance observed towards G045.47+0.0 suggests there is molecular outflow activity in the region. From the analysis of the 12CO J = 3-2 transition we report bipolar molecular outflows with a total mass of about 300 M⊙. We derive a dynamical time (flow's age) of about 105 yr for the outflow gas, in agreement with the presence of an ultra-compact HII region. We identify the source 2MASS 19142564+1109283 as the massive protostar candidate to drive the molecular outflows. Based on the analysis of its spectral energy distribution, we infer that it is an early B-type star of about 15 M⊙. The results of this work support the scenario where the formation of massive stars, at least up to early B-type stars, is similar to that of low-mass stars.

  4. Outflow Detection in a 70 μm Dark High-Mass Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Siyi; Beuther, Henrik; Zhang, Qizhou; Liu, Hauyu Baobab; Zhang, Zhiyu; Wang, Ke; Qiu, Keping

    2016-09-01

    We present observations toward a high-mass (\\gt 40 {M}⊙ ), low-luminosity (\\lt 10 {L}⊙ ) 70 μ {{m}} dark molecular core G28.34 S-A at 3.4 mm, using the IRAM 30 m telescope and the NOEMA interferometer. We report the detection of {SiO} J=2\\to 1 line emission, which is spatially resolved in this source at a linear resolution of ˜0.1 pc, while the 3.4 mm continuum image does not resolve any internal sub-structures. The SiO emission exhibits two W-E oriented lobes centering on the continuum peak. Corresponding to the redshifted and blueshifted gas with velocities up to 40 {km} {{{s}}}-1 relative to the quiescent cloud, these lobes clearly indicate the presence of a strong bipolar outflow from this 70 μ {{m}} dark core, a source previously considered as one of the best candidates of “starless” core. Our SiO detection is consistent with ALMA archival data of {SiO} J=5\\to 4, whose high-velocity blueshifted gas reveals a more compact lobe spatially closer to the dust center. This outflow indicates that the central source may be in an early evolutionary stage of forming a high-mass protostar. We also find that the low-velocity components (in the range of {{Vlsr}}-5+3 {km} {{{s}}}-1) have an extended, NW-SE oriented distribution. Discussing the possible accretion scenarios of the outflow-powering young stellar object, we argue that molecular line emission and the molecular outflows may provide a better indication of the accretion history of the forming young stellar object, than snapshot observations of the present bolometric luminosity. This is particularly significant for cases of episodic accretion, which may occur during the collapse of the parent molecular core.

  5. The resolved outflow from 3C 48

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2014-10-20

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 10{sup 3}-10{sup 4} cm{sup –3}, the mass is ∼6 × 10{sup 6} M {sub ☉}, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow.

  6. SMA submillimeter observations of HL Tau: revealing a compact molecular outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Lumbreras, Alba M.; Zapata, Luis A.

    2014-04-01

    We present archival high angular resolution (∼2'') {sup 12}CO(3-2) line and continuum submillimeter observations of the young stellar object HL Tau made with the Submillimeter Array. The {sup 12}CO(3-2) line observations reveal the presence of a compact and wide opening angle bipolar outflow with a northeast to southwest orientation (P.A. = 50°) that is associated with the optical and infrared jet emanating from HL Tau with a similar orientation. On the other hand, the 850 μm continuum emission observations exhibit a strong and compact source in the position of HL Tau that has a spatial size of ∼200 × 70 AU with a P.A. = 145° and a dust mass of around 0.1 M {sub ☉}. These physical parameters are in agreement with values obtained recently from millimeter observations. This submillimeter source is therefore related to the disk surrounding HL Tau.

  7. What is Bipolar Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect friends and family? For More Information Share Bipolar Disorder Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  8. Energy sources for laparoscopic colectomy: a prospective randomized comparison of conventional electrosurgery, bipolar computer-controlled electrosurgery and ultrasonic dissection. Operative outcome and costs analysis.

    PubMed

    Targarona, Eduardo Ma; Balague, Carmen; Marin, Juan; Neto, Rene Berindoague; Martinez, Carmen; Garriga, Jordi; Trias, Manuel

    2005-12-01

    The development of operative laparoscopic surgery is linked to advances in ancillary surgical instrumentation. Ultrasonic energy devices avoid the use of electricity and provide effective control of small- to medium-sized vessels. Bipolar computer-controlled electrosurgical technology eliminates the disadvantages of electrical energy, and a mechanical blade adds a cutting action. This instrument can provide effective hemostasis of large vessels up to 7 mm. Such devices significantly increase the cost of laparoscopic procedures, however, and the amount of evidence-based information on this topic is surprisingly scarce. This study compared the effectiveness of three different energy sources on the laparoscopic performance of a left colectomy. The trial included 38 nonselected patients with a disease of the colon requiring an elective segmental left-sided colon resection. Patients were preoperatively randomized into three groups. Group I had electrosurgery; vascular dissection was performed entirely with an electrosurgery generator, and vessels were controlled with clips. Group II underwent computer-controlled bipolar electrosurgery; vascular and mesocolon section was completed by using the 10-mm Ligasure device alone. In group III, 5-mm ultrasonic shears (Harmonic Scalpel) were used for bowel dissection, vascular pedicle dissection, and mesocolon transection. The mesenteric vessel pedicle was controlled with an endostapler. Demographics (age, sex, body mass index, comorbidity, previous surgery and diagnoses requiring surgery) were recorded, as were surgical details (operative time, conversion, blood loss), additional disposable instruments (number of trocars, EndoGIA charges, and clip appliers), and clinical outcome. Intraoperative economic costs were also evaluated. End points of the trial were operative time and intraoperative blood loss, and an intention-to-treat principle was followed. The three groups were well matched for demographic and pathologic features

  9. Genetics Home Reference: bipolar disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions bipolar disorder bipolar disorder Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... bipolar affective psychosis bipolar spectrum disorder depression, bipolar manic depressive illness Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  10. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS AND RADIATIVE FEEDBACK FROM MASSIVE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiper, Rolf; Yorke, Harold W.; Turner, Neal J. E-mail: Harold.W.Yorke@jpl.nasa.gov

    2015-02-20

    We carry out radiation hydrodynamical simulations of the formation of massive stars in the super-Eddington regime including both their radiative feedback and protostellar outflows. The calculations start from a prestellar core of dusty gas and continue until the star stops growing. The accretion ends when the remnants of the core are ejected, mostly by the force of the direct stellar radiation in the polar direction and elsewhere by the reradiated thermal infrared radiation. How long the accretion persists depends on whether the protostellar outflows are present. We set the mass outflow rate to 1% of the stellar sink particle's accretion rate. The outflows open a bipolar cavity extending to the core's outer edge, through which the thermal radiation readily escapes. The radiative flux is funneled into the polar directions while the core's collapse proceeds near the equator. The outflow thus extends the ''flashlight effect'', or anisotropic radiation field, found in previous studies from the few hundred AU scale of the circumstellar disk up to the 0.1 parsec scale of the core. The core's flashlight effect allows core gas to accrete on the disk for longer, in the same way that the disk's flashlight effect allows disk gas to accrete on the star for longer. Thus although the protostellar outflows remove material near the core's poles, causing slower stellar growth over the first few free-fall times, they also enable accretion to go on longer in our calculations. The outflows ultimately lead to stars of somewhat higher mass.

  11. MASSIVE STAR FORMATION, OUTFLOWS, AND ANOMALOUS H{sub 2} EMISSION IN Mol 121 (IRAS 20188+3928)

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf-Chase, Grace; Arvidsson, Kim; Smutko, Michael; Sherman, Reid

    2013-01-10

    We have discovered 12 new molecular hydrogen emission-line objects (MHOs) in the vicinity of the candidate massive young stellar object Mol 121, in addition to five that were previously known. H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.25 {mu}m flux ratios indicate another region dominated by fluorescence from a photodissociation region, and one region that displays an anomalously low H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.25 {mu}m flux ratio (<1) and coincides with a previously reported deeply embedded source (DES). Continuum observations at 3 mm reveal five dense cores; the brightest core is coincident with the DES. The next brightest cores are both associated with centimeter continuum emission. One of these is coincident with the IRAS source; the other lies at the centroid of a compact outflow defined by bipolar MHOs. The brighter of these bipolar MHOs exhibits [Fe II] emission and both MHOs are associated with CH{sub 3}OH maser emission observed at 95 GHz and 44 GHz. Masses and column densities of all five cores are consistent with theoretical predictions for massive star formation. Although it is impossible to associate all MHOs with driving sources in this region, it is evident that there are several outflows along different position angles, and some unambiguous associations can be made. We discuss implications of observed H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.25 {mu}m and [Fe II] 1.64 {mu}m/H{sub 2} 2.12 {mu}m flux ratios and compare the estimated total H{sub 2} luminosity with the bolometric luminosity of the region. We conclude that the outflows are driven by massive young stellar objects embedded in cores that are likely to be in different evolutionary stages.

  12. Widening of Protostellar Outflows: An Infrared Outflow Survey in Low-luminosity Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Tien-Hao; Lai, Shih-Ping; Belloche, Arnaud

    2017-04-01

    We present an outflow survey toward 20 low-luminosity objects (LLOs), namely, protostars with an internal luminosity lower than 0.2 {L}ȯ . Although a number of studies have reported the properties of individual LLOs, the reasons for their low luminosity remain uncertain. To answer this question, we need to know the evolutionary status of LLOs. Protostellar outflows are found to widen as their parent cores evolve, and therefore the outflow opening angle could be used as an evolutionary indicator. The infrared scattered light escapes out through the outflow cavity and highlights the cavity wall, giving us the opportunity to measure the outflow opening angle. Using the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope, we detected outflows toward eight LLOs out of 20 at Ks band, and based on archival Spitzer IRAC1 images, we added four outflow-driving sources from the remaining 12 sources. By fitting these images with radiative transfer models, we derive the outflow opening angles and inclination angles. To study the widening of outflow cavities, we compare our sample with the young stellar objects from Arce & Sargent and Velusamy et al. in a plot of opening angle versus bolometric temperature taken as an evolutionary indicator. Our LLO targets match well the trend of increasing opening angle with bolometric temperature reported by Arce & Sargent and are broadly consistent with that reported by Velusamy et al., suggesting that the opening angle could be a good evolutionary indicator for LLOs. Accordingly, we conclude that at least 40% of the outflow-driving LLOs in our sample are young Class 0 objects.

  13. Estudio multifrecuencia del flujo bipolar-molecular asociado con la proto-estrella VLA 1623

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artur de la Villarmois, E.; Merlo, D. C.; Gómez, M.

    In this work; we present a multi-wavelength study of the bipolar molecular outflow associated with the VLA 1623 proto-star (age 10 yrs). We analyze images obtained by Spitzer as well as other images from the literature. We identify 32 H (2.12 m) emission knots and 25 objects predominantly emitting in the [4.5] m band; usually known as EGOs (Extended Green Objects). Seven of these emissions are new EGO candidates; five of which have 2.12 m counter-parts. We compare the morphology of the emissions at 2.12 m and [4.5] m with the bipolar molecular outflow; finding an excellent agreement. The emissions are quasi-regularly spaced. We determine a dynamical time of 194.3 yrs between consecutive knots; which agrees with the lapse of time between eruptive FU Orionis events. This suggests that events of this type experimented by the central source might be the cause of the intermittency in the detected emissions. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  14. Episodic High-velocity Outflows from V899 Mon: A Constraint On The Outflow Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninan, J. P.; Ojha, D. K.; Philip, N. S.

    2016-07-01

    We report the detection of large variations in the outflow wind velocity from a young eruptive star, V899 Mon, during its ongoing high accretion outburst phase. Such large variations in the outflow velocity (from -722 to -425 km s-1) have never been reported previously in this family of objects. Our continuous monitoring of this source shows that the multi-component, clumpy, and episodic high velocity outflows are stable in the timescale of a few days, and vary over the timescale of a few weeks to months. We detect significant decoupling in the instantaneous outflow strength to accretion rate. From the comparison of various possible outflow mechanisms in magnetospheric accretion of young stellar objects, we conclude magnetically driven polar winds to be the most consistent mechanism for the outflows seen in V899 Mon. The large scale fluctuations in outflow over the short period makes V899 Mon the most ideal source to constrain various magnetohydrodynamics simulations of magnetospheric accretion. Based on observations made with the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT).

  15. CARMA OBSERVATIONS OF PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS IN NGC 1333

    SciTech Connect

    Plunkett, Adele L.; Arce, Hector G.; Corder, Stuartt A.; Mardones, Diego; Sargent, Anneila I.; Schnee, Scott L.

    2013-09-01

    We present observations of outflows in the star-forming region NGC 1333 using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy (CARMA). We combined the {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO (1-0) CARMA mosaics with data from the 14 m Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory to probe the central, most dense, and active region of this protostellar cluster at scales from 5'' to 7' (or 1000 AU to 0.5 pc at a distance of 235 pc). We map and identify {sup 12}CO outflows, and along with {sup 13}CO data we estimate their mass, momentum, and energy. Within the 7' Multiplication-Sign 7' map, the 5'' resolution allows for a detailed study of morphology and kinematics of outflows and outflow candidates, some of which were previously confused with other outflow emission in the region. In total, we identify 22 outflow lobes, as well as 9 dense circumstellar envelopes marked by continuum emission, of which 6 drive outflows. We calculate a total outflow mass, momentum, and energy within the mapped region of 6 M{sub Sun }, 19 M{sub Sun} km s{sup -1}, and 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 44} erg, respectively. Within this same region, we compare outflow kinematics with turbulence and gravitational energy, and we suggest that outflows are likely important agents for the maintenance of turbulence in this region. In the earliest stages of star formation, outflows do not yet contribute enough energy to totally disrupt the clustered region where most star formation is happening, but have the potential to do so as the protostellar sources evolve. Our results can be used to constrain outflow properties, such as outflow strength, in numerical simulations of outflow-driven turbulence in clusters.

  16. Compression of the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract due to Straight Back Syndrome Clarified by Low-dose Dual-source Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hasegawa, Kohei; Takaya, Tomofumi; Mori, Shumpei; Ito, Tatsuro; Fujiwara, Sei; Nishii, Tatsuya; K Kono, Atsushi; Shimoura, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2016-01-01

    A 23-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our hospital for further examination of a systolic ejection murmur with fixed splitting of the second heart sound auscultated at the third left sternal border. Initial echocardiography could not detect the cause. Subsequently performed low-dose computed tomography, however, ruled out the possibility of any congenital heart diseases, but revealed a markedly shortened anteroposterior diameter of the chest, which led us to a diagnosis of straight back syndrome. A vertically oriented “pancake” appearance of the heart, straight vertebral column, and compression of the right ventricular outflow tract were clearly demonstrated on the reconstructed images. PMID:27853069

  17. OUTFLOWS AND YOUNG STARS IN ORION'S LARGE COMETARY CLOUDS L1622 AND L1634

    SciTech Connect

    Bally, John; Walawender, Josh; Reipurth, Bo; Megeath, S. Thomas E-mail: joshw@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: megeath@physics.utoledo.edu

    2009-04-15

    New observations of protostellar outflows associated with young stars in two of Orion's outlying cometary clouds, L1622 and L1634, are presented. The H{alpha} surface brightness of the bright rims are used to argue that both clouds are located at a distance of about 400 pc in the interior of the Orion superbubble where they are illuminated by Orion's massive stars. Spitzer IRAC and MIPS images reveal 28 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs). Combined with the 14 spectroscopically confirmed T Tauri stars, there are at least 34 YSOs in L1622. Narrow-band images have led to the identification of about a dozen shock complexes in L1622. At least six belong to a highly collimated externally irradiated, bipolar jet, HH 963, that is powered by a low-luminosity Class II YSO located outside the projected edge of the L1622 dark cloud. However, the sources of most shocks remain unclear. The Spitzer/IRAC images reveal a compact, highly obscured, S-symmetric outflow brightest in the 4.5 {mu}m images. A faint [S II] counter part, HH 962, is associated with the western end of this flow which appears to be powered by an obscured source in the L1622 cloud interior. The currently identified sample of YSOs implies a star formation efficiency of about 4% for L1622. The L1634 cloud contains nine YSOs and three outflows, including the well known HH 240/241 system. A new flow, HH 979, is powered by the embedded YSO IRS7 in L1634 and crosses the eastern lobe of the HH 240 outflow. Spitzer/IRAC images show 4.5 {mu}m emission indicating molecular shocks from the Herbig-Haro objects closest to IRS 7. A YSO embedded in a condensation located 5' north of HH 240/241 is identified in the Spitzer images. This source drives an irradiated outflow, HH 980, whose lobes emerge into the ionized environment of the Orion-Eridanus superbubble interior. The star formation efficiency of L1634 is estimated to be about 3%.

  18. Electrical resistivity change in Al:ZnO thin films dynamically deposited by bipolar pulsed direct-current sputtering and a remote plasma source

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Wonkyun; Joo, Junghoon

    2010-07-15

    The Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films for a transparent conducting oxide in solar cell devices were deposited by bipolar pulsed dc magnetron sputtering. This work was performed in an in-line type system and investigated AZO films in a static deposition mode and dynamic one, which is more important in the practical fields. Because of this dynamic deposition process, the zigzagged columnar structure was observed. This resulted in the decreasing electrical property, optical properties, and surface roughness. As a deposition in the dynamic mode, the resistivity increased from 1.64x10{sup -3} to 2.50x10{sup -3} {Omega} cm, as compared to that in the static mode, and the transmittance also decreased from 83.9% to 78.3%. To recover the disadvantage, a remote plasma source (RPS) was supported between the substrate and target for reducing zigzagged formation during the deposition. The deposition rate decreased by using RPS, but the electrical and optical properties of films got better than only dynamic mode. The resistivity and transmittance in the dynamic mode using RPS were 2.1x10{sup -3} {Omega} cm and 85.5%, respectively. In this study, the authors found the possibility to advance the electrical and optical properties of AZO thin films in the industry mode.

  19. Proper motions of young stellar outflows in the mid-infrared with Spitzer II HH 377/Cep E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noriega-Crespo, A.; Raga, A. C.; Moro-Martín, A.; Flagey, N.; Carey, S. J.

    2014-10-01

    We have used multiple mid-infrared observations at 4.5 μm obtained with the infrared array camera, of the compact (˜ 1.4\\prime ) young stellar bipolar outflow Cep E to measure the proper motion of its brightest condensations. The images span a period of ˜ 6 yr and have been reprocessed to achieve a higher angular resolution (˜ 0.8\\prime\\prime ) than their normal beam (˜ 2\\prime\\prime ). We found that for a distance of 730 pc, the tangential velocities of the north and south outflow lobes are 62+/- 29 and 94+/- 26 km {{s}-1} respectively, and moving away from the central source roughly along the major axis of the flow. A simple 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the H2 gas in a precessing outflow supports this idea. Observations and models confirm that the molecular hydrogen gas, traced by the pure rotational transitions, moves at highly supersonic velocities without being dissociated. This suggests either a very efficient mechanism to reform H2 molecules along these shocks or the presence of some other mechanism (e.g. strong magnetic field) that shields the H2 gas.

  20. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  1. On the Line Profiles of Shell Shaped Bipolar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, G.; Robberto, M.

    The authors present preliminary data with reference to the shell model suggested by Barral and Cantò (1981), which gives an explicit description of the velocity field along the shell and allows a simple evaluation of the intensity distribution along the shocked surface.

  2. Powerful Quasar Outflows at High Redshifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljanahi, Sara; Robert Scott Barrows

    2017-01-01

    Powerful quasar outflows can be driven by radiation pressure or radio jets, and they are capable of effecting the evolution of their host galaxies, particularly at high-redshifts (z~2)) when the quasar density peaks. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of 131 quasar outflows at high-redshifts (0.8outflows, their impact on the host galaxies, and their environments. We find that a subsample of 32 are detected by FIRST with 21 of them showing evidence for extended radio emission that suggests the outflows may be driven by the mechanical energy of radio jets in up to one-third of the sample. For the remaining two thirds of the sample, radiation pressure from the accretion disk is likely the driving mechanism. For those sources, we use the spatial information from long-slit spectra to estimate the energy of the outflowing gas, finding that one hundredth of the quasar energy is coupled with the energy being emitted by the radiation pressure from the accretion disk. Three of the quasars are found in the Hubble Space Telescope archives, with two of them showing clear signs of galaxy interactions/mergers, and a fraction of 0.4 show evidence of interactions from SDSS imaging. These combined results suggests that galaxy interactions may be the triggers of enhanced accretion onto the nuclear supermassive black holes of this sample, with the corresponding enhanced radiation pressure driving the outflows. Furthermore, the high-redshift nature of this sample has pushed the systematic study of quasar outflows closer to the epoch in which quasar feedback is likely to have been important in galaxy evolution.

  3. METALLICITY AND QUASAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Huiyuan; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Tinggui; Yuan, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Correlations of the outflow strength of quasars, as measured by the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) of the C IV line, with intensities and ratios of broad emission lines, based on composite quasar spectra built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, are investigated. We find that most of the line ratios of other ions to C IV increase prominently with BAI. These behaviors can be well understood in the context of increasing metallicity with BAI. The strength of the dominant coolant, C IV line, decreases, and weak collisionally excited lines increase with gas metallicity as a result of the competition between different line coolants. Using Si IV+O IV]/C IV as an indicator of gas metallicity, we present, for the first time, a strong correlation between the metallicity and the outflow strength of quasars over a wide range of 1.7-6.9 times solar abundance. Our result implies that metallicity plays an important role in the formation of quasar outflows, likely by affecting outflow acceleration. This effect may have a profound impact on galaxy evolution via momentum feedback and chemical enrichment.

  4. Shaping Outflows from Evolved Stars: Secrets Revealed by Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastner, Joel H.

    2011-05-01

    Planetary nebulae (PNe), the near-endpoints of stellar evolution for intermediate-mass stars, exhibit a dizzying variety of optical/near-infrared morphologies: round; elliptical; bipolar; highly point-symmetric; chaotic and clumpy. The physical mechanisms responsible for this morphological menagerie are hotly debated. It is thought that the shape of a PN results from the sculpting of previously ejected, slow-moving (red giant) stellar envelope material by a fast wind from a (newly unveiled) white dwarf at the PN's core. But to explain the large fraction of nonspherical PNe -- which are presumably shaped by aspherical fast winds -- some models now further propose that many (perhaps most) PNe are the products of interacting binary systems. Chandra is yielding valuable insight into these stellar outflow shaping processes. Chandra imaging spectroscopy of PNe provides a unique means to determine the X-ray surface brightness distributions, temperatures, emission measures, and elemental abundances within the "hot bubbles" generated by fast wind shocks. Chandra observations of PNe have also revealed intriguing examples of unresolved X-ray sources that are too hard to be modeled as photospheric emission from hot white dwarfs. Such hard X-ray point sources are likely indicative of the presence of binary companions and/or accretion processes at PN central stars. I summarize the progress in these areas resulting from Chandra's first dozen years, and present early results from the first systematic Chandra survey of PNe in the solar neighborhood -- a survey designed to understand the formation and evolution of hot bubbles, and to establish the frequency and characteristics of point-like X-ray sources, within PNe with names like the Ring, the Dumbbell, the Owl, and Saturn. This work is supported by NASA Astrophysics Data Analysis Program and Chandra X-ray Center (CXC) grants to RIT. The CXC is operated by SAO for and on behalf of NASA under contract NAS8-03060.

  5. Identify bipolar spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan

    2002-06-01

    Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.

  6. GALAXY OUTFLOWS WITHOUT SUPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect

    Sur, Sharanya; Scannapieco, Evan; Ostriker, Eve C. E-mail: sharanya.sur@asu.edu

    2016-02-10

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50–100 km s{sup −1} line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s{sup −1}, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  7. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-09-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion.

  8. Nest of Molecular Outflows in the Circinus Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobashi, Kazuhito; Sato, Fumio; Mizuno, Akira

    1998-12-01

    We report on the discovery of a large and bright molecular outflow associated with an intense CO clump in the Circinus cloud, which was detected with the CO (J=1--0) emission line using the new Nagoya 4 meter radio telescope ``Nanten'' installed at Las Campanas Observatory (Chile). The outflow is quite large, extending over an area of 10'times20 ' ( ~ 4times8 pc at its distance of 1.26 kpc) that covers most of the clump surface, and having very high radio brightness; actually, the CO brightness of the high velocity wings integrated over the outflow lobes amounts to as high as 1.5*E(-1) K km s(-1) deg(2) , which makes this CO outflow one of the brightest reported so far. The outflow is also massive ( ~ 50 MO ) and energetic ( ~ 4300 MO km(2) s(-2) ). The outflow exhibits a complex morphology, having 2 local peaks at each of the red- and blue-shifted lobes. Comparing the outflow morphology with the locations of the protostellar candidates selected from the IRAS Point Source Catalog, we conclude that the detected outflow is most likely to be driven by at least 4 distinct protostars forming in the clump, namely, IRAS 14562-6248, 14563-6301, 14564-6254, and 14568-6304. Thereby, we suggest to designate the CO clump as the ``Nest of Molecular Outflows'' in the Circinus cloud.

  9. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  10. Nutrition and Bipolar Depression.

    PubMed

    Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E

    2016-03-01

    As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder.

  11. The nature of AFGL 2591 and its associated molecular outflow: Infrared and millimeter-wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lada, C. J.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.; Smith, H. A.; Schwartz, P. R.; Glaccum, W.

    1984-01-01

    The results of infrared photometry from 2 to 160 microns of AFGL and CO(12) observations of its associated molecular cloud and high velocity molecular outflow are presented and discussed. The observed solar luminosity is 6.7 x 10(4) at a distance of 2 kpc. The spectrum of AFGL 2591 is interpreted in the context of a model in which a single embedded object is the dominant source of the infrared luminosity. This object is determined to be surrounded by a compact, optically thick dust shell with a temperature in excess of several hundred degrees kelvin. The extinction to this source is estimated to be between 26 and 50 visual magnitudes. The absolute position of the infrared sources at 10 microns was determined to an accuracy of + or in. This indicates for the first time that the IR source and H2O source are not coincident. The CO(12) observations show the high-velocity molecular flow near AFGL 2591 to be extended, bipolar and roughly centered on the infrared emission. The observations suggest that the red-shifted flow component extends beyond the boundary of the ambient cloud within which AFGL 2591 is embedded. The CO(12) observations also show that AFGL 2591 is embedded in a molecular cloud with an LSR velocity of -5 km/s.

  12. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    SciTech Connect

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-05-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z < 0.06 using deep integral field spectroscopy with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini North. We probe the neutral, ionized, and dusty gas phases using Na I D, strong emission lines ([O I], H{alpha}, and [N II]), and continuum colors, respectively. We separate outflow motions from those due to rotation and tidal perturbations, and find that all of the galaxies in our sample host high-velocity flows on kiloparsec scales. The properties of these outflows are consistent with multiphase (ionized, neutral, and dusty) collimated bipolar winds emerging along the minor axis of the nuclear disk to scales of 1-2 kpc. In two cases, these collimated winds take the form of bipolar superbubbles, identified by clear kinematic signatures. Less collimated (but still high-velocity) flows are also present on scales up to 5 kpc in most systems. The three galaxies in our sample with obscured QSOs host higher velocity outflows than those in the three galaxies with no evidence for an active galactic nucleus. The peak outflow velocity in each of the QSOs is in the range 1450-3350 km s{sup -1}, and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s{sup -1}) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  13. Variations in active outflow along the trabecular outflow pathway.

    PubMed

    Cha, Elliott D K; Xu, Jia; Gong, Lihua; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Previous tracer studies have shown segmental outflow in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and along the inner wall (IW) of Schlemm's canal (SC). Whether segmental outflow is conserved distal to SC has not yet been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether the segmented pattern of outflow is conserved in distal outflow pathways by using a newly developed global imaging method and to evaluate variations of active outflow in three distinct regions along trabecular outflow pathway. Six normal whole globe human eyes were first perfused at 15 mmHg to establish a stable baseline outflow facility. The anterior chamber was then exchanged (5 mL) and perfused with fluorescent microspheres (0.002% v/v, 200 μL) to label areas of active outflow. All eyes were perfusion fixed and dissected into anterior segments. The TM and scleral surface were en face imaged globally. Effective filtration area (EFA) and fluorescent tracer distribution and intensity were analyzed in global images for both the TM and episcleral veins (EPVs). Anterior segments were further dissected into a minimum of 16 radial wedges, from which frontal sections were cut, stained, and imaged, using confocal microscopy. EFA from all three locations along the trabecular outflow pathway were measured and compared. Additionally, TM thickness, SC height, and total number of collector channels (CC) were analyzed and compared between active and inactive areas of outflow. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank test with a required significance of p ≤ 0.05. All three locations showed a segmental outflow pattern. The TM had a significantly higher mean EFA (86.3 ± 3.5%) compared to both the IW (34.7 ± 2.9%; p ≤ 0.01) and EPVs (41.1 ± 3.8%; p ≤ 0.01). No significant difference in mean EFA was found between IW and EPVs. Preferential active outflow was observed in the nasal and inferior quadrants. TM thickness was significantly larger in areas of active

  14. Chryse Outflow Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of the south Chryse basin Valles Marineris outflow channels on Mars; north toward top. The scene shows on the southwest corner the chaotic terrain of the east part of Valles Marineris and two of its related canyons: Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north). Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southern part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color. The image extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 53 degrees; Mercator projection.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by a chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a complex of connected channel floors and chaotic terrain and extend as far south as and connect to eastern Valles Marineris. Ares Vallis originates from discontinuous patches of chaotic terrain within large craters. In the Chryse basin the Ares channel forks; one branch continues northwest into central Chryse Planitia (Latin for plain) and the other extends north into eastern Chryse Planitia.

  15. Study of bipolar batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, J. E.

    1984-06-01

    The status of development of bipolar batteries with an aqueous electrolyte was determined. Included in the study were lead-acid, nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel-iron, and nickel-hydrogen batteries. The technical and patent literature is reviewed and a bibliography covering the past 15 years is presented. Literature data are supplemented by a survey of organizations. The principal interest was in bipolar lead-acid batteries and more recently in bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications.

  16. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  17. Protostellar Outflow Evolution in Turbulent Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Cunningham, A; Frank, A; Carroll, J; Blackman, E; Quillen, A

    2008-04-11

    The link between turbulence in star formatting environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers-type turbulence and produces a driving scale-length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star forming environments. In the last section we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets can not be the source of turbulence.

  18. 2D Spectroscopy of HH588 Large-Scale Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovhannissian, Elena R.; Ogura, K.; Movsessian, Tigran A.; Magakian, Tigran Yu.; Nikogossian, Elena H.

    2007-08-01

    The HH588 flow is studied with multi-pupil spectrograph on the 2.6 m telescope of Byurakan observatory. The bright components of this flow are analyzed, using the maps of emission lines and radial velocities. The bipolar nature of this outflow is obvious from their radial velocities. The unusual feature of HH588 flow is its inclusion in the bright-rimmed cloud; thus, it can belong to so-called irradiated jets. It is worth to mention that all HH-objects studied here show a deceleration in the regions of interaction with the interstellar medium.

  19. Multiple outflows in the planetary nebula NGC 6058

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillén, P. F.; Vázquez, R.; Miranda, L. F.; Zavala, S.; Contreras, M. E.; Ayala, S.; Ortiz-Ambriz, A.

    2013-07-01

    We present narrow-band [O III]λ5007 and Hα images, as well as long-slit high-resolution echelle spectra of the planetary nebula NGC 6058. Our data reveal that NGC 6058 is a multipolar planetary nebula of ˜45 arcsec in extent that is formed by four bipolar outflows oriented at different position angles. Assuming homologous expansion for all the structures, and a distance of 3.5 kpc, we obtain polar velocities of ˜68 km s-1 for three of them. The estimated kinematical ages suggest that the three oldest outflows were ejected at intervals of ˜1100 and ˜400 yr, during which the ejection axis changed its orientation by ˜60° and ˜40°, respectively. Although an inner ring-like structure is suggested by the direct images, the kinematics shows that no equatorial ring or toroid exists in the nebula. On the contrary, the long-slit spectra reveal that the ring-like structure corresponds to a fourth outflow that is oriented almost perpendicular to the other three. This fourth outflow is the youngest one and appears to be interacting with the other three, creating a protruding zone that sweeps material in a region almost perpendicular to the major axes of the oldest outflows. This structure also presents two bright arcuate regions along the direction of the older outflows, and on opposite sides of the central star. From our model, we suggest that NGC 6058 could be at an intermediate evolutionary stage between starfish planetary nebulae and multipolar planetary nebula with apparent equatorial lobes.

  20. Gas physical conditions and kinematics of the giant outflow Ou4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; Grosso, Nicolas; Acker, Agnès; Greimel, Robert; Guillout, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Context. The recently discovered bipolar outflow Ou4 has a projected size of more than one degree in the plane of the sky. It is apparently centred on the young stellar cluster - whose most massive representative is the triple system HR 8119 - inside the H ii region Sh 2-129. The driving source, the nature, and the distance of Ou4 are not known. Aims: The basic properties of Ou4 and its environment are investigated to shed light on the origin of this remarkable outflow. Methods: Deep narrow-band imagery of the whole nebula at arcsecond resolution was obtained to study the details of its morphology. Long-slit spectroscopy of the bipolar lobe tips was secured to determine the gas ionisation mechanism, physical conditions, and line-of-sight velocities. An estimate of the proper motions at the tip of the south lobe using archival plate images was attempted. The existing multi-wavelength data for Sh 2-129 and HR 8119 were also comprehensively reviewed. Results: The observed morphology of Ou4, its emission-line spatial distribution, line flux ratios, and the kinematic modelling developed adopting a bow-shock parabolic geometry, illustrate the expansion of a shock-excited fast collimated outflow. The observed radial velocities of Ou4 and its reddening are consistent with those of Sh 2-129 and HR 8119. The improved determination of the distance to HR 8119 (composed of two B0 V and one B0.5 V stars) and Sh 2-129 is 712 pc. We identify in WISE images at 22 μm an emission bubble of 5' radius (1 pc at the distance above) emitted by hot (107 K) dust grains, located inside the central part of Ou4 and corresponding to several [O iii] emission features of Ou4. Conclusions: The apparent position of Ou4 and the properties studied in this work are consistent with the hypothesis that Ou4 is located inside the Sh 2-129 H ii region, suggesting that it was launched some 90 000 yr ago by HR 8119. The outflow total kinetic energy is estimated to be ≈4 × 1047 ergs. However, we cannot

  1. Molecular outflows in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, Michael; Lada, Charles J.; Snell, Ronald L.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of J = 1-0 emission from CO in nine suspected molecular outflows in the Monoceros OB1 molecular cloud are presented. It is found that, if the five sources which are confirmed to be outflows conserve momentum as they evolve, they will sweep up at least 0.6 percent of the mass of the entire cloud before coming into pressure equilibrium with the ambient gas. This number indicates that it should take at most 160 episodes of similar outflow activity in order to sweep up the bulk of the Mon OB1 cloud to highly supersonic speeds.

  2. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  3. Multi-wavelength, Multi-scale Observations of Outflows in Star-Forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plunkett, Adele Laurie Dennis

    During the early stages of star formation, an embedded protostar accretes mass and simultaneously expels mass and angular momentum in the form of a bipolar outflow. In the common case of clustered star formation, outflows likely impact their surrounding environment and influence subsequent star formation. Numerical simulations have shown that outflows can sustain turbulence and maintain a cluster in quasi-equilibrium; alternatively, it was proposed that outflows may trigger rather than regulate or inhibit star formation. Observations of outflows and their impact on clusters are challenging because they must probe spatial scales over several orders of magnitude --- from the size of a core (a few hundred AU, or N ~ 10-3 pc) to a cluster (a few pc) --- and previous works generally focused on one scale or the other. This thesis incorporates high-resolution, high-sensitivity interferometry observations (with millimeter/sub-millimeter wavelengths) complemented by observations obtained using single dish telescopes in order to assess molecular outflow properties and their cumulative impact in two young protostellar clusters: Serpens South and NGC 1333. Based on these case studies, I develop an evolutionary scenario for clustered star formation spanning the ages of the two clusters, about 0.1 - 1 Myr. Within this scenario, outflows in both Serpens South and NGC 1333 provide sufficient energy to sustain turbulence early in the protocluster formation process. In neither cluster do outflows provide enough energy to counter the gravitational potential energy and disrupt the entire cluster. However, most of the mass in outflows in both clusters have velocities greater than the escape velocity, and therefore the relative importance of outflow-driven turbulence compared with gravitational potential likely changes with time as ambient gas escapes. We estimate that enough gas mass will escape via outflows in Serpens South so that it will come to resemble NGC 1333 in terms of its

  4. Types of Bipolar Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems, or perform poorly in school or at work. Family, friends and people experiencing symptoms may not recognize these problems as signs of a major mental illness such as bipolar disorder. Risk Factors Scientists are studying the possible causes of bipolar disorder. Most agree ...

  5. Exploring the association of Fermi sources with Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munar-Adrover, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Romero, G. E.

    2011-02-01

    Massive protostars have associated bipolar outflows which can produce strong shocks when interact with the surrounding medium. Some theoretical models predict that particle acceleration at relativistic velocities can occur leading to gamma ray emission. In order to identify young stellar objects (YSO) that might emit gamma rays, we have crossed the Fermi First Year Catalog with catalogs of known YSOs, obtaining a set of candidates by spatial correlation. We have conducted Montecarlo simulations to find the probability of chance coincidence. Our results indicate that ~70% of the candidates should be gamma-ray sources with a confidence of ~5σ.

  6. Zephyria Outflow Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    1 October 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows streamlined islands and a small cataract in an outflow channel system in the Zephyria region of Mars, south of Cerberus. The fluids responsible for creating these landforms flowed from the lower left (southwest) toward upper right (northeast). The fluids may have been water and mud or, some Mars scientists have argued, extremely fluid lava. The presence of a small cataract probably argues more strongly for a water and mud origin. This image is located near 3.8oN, 204.7oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from upper left.

  7. The dependence of galactic outflows on the properties and orientation of zCOSMOS galaxies at z ∼ 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Hardmeier, E.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Fevre, O. Le; Garilli, B.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; De la Torre, S.; De Ravel, L.; Iovino, A.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present an analysis of cool outflowing gas around galaxies, traced by Mg II absorption lines in the coadded spectra of a sample of 486 zCOSMOS galaxies at 1 ≤ z ≤ 1.5. These galaxies span a range of stellar masses (9.45 ≤ log{sub 10}[M {sub *}/M {sub ☉}] ≤ 10.7) and star formation rates (0.14 ≤ log{sub 10}[SFR/M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}] ≤ 2.35). We identify the cool outflowing component in the Mg II absorption and find that the equivalent width of the outflowing component increases with stellar mass. The outflow equivalent width also increases steadily with the increasing star formation rate of the galaxies. At similar stellar masses, the blue galaxies exhibit a significantly higher outflow equivalent width as compared to red galaxies. The outflow equivalent width shows strong correlation with the star formation surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) of the sample. For the disk galaxies, the outflow equivalent width is higher for the face-on systems as compared to the edge-on ones, indicating that for the disk galaxies, the outflowing gas is primarily bipolar in geometry. Galaxies typically exhibit outflow velocities ranging from –150 km s{sup –1} ∼–200 km s{sup –1} and, on average, the face-on galaxies exhibit higher outflow velocity as compared to the edge-on ones. Galaxies with irregular morphologies exhibit outflow equivalent width as well as outflow velocities comparable to face on disk galaxies. These galaxies exhibit mass outflow rates >5-7 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and a mass loading factor (η = M-dot {sub out}/SFR) comparable to the star formation rates of the galaxies.

  8. Bipolar Disorder, Bipolar Depression and Comorbid Illness.

    PubMed

    Manning, J Sloan

    2015-06-01

    There is a substantial need for the early recognition and treatment of the psychiatric and medical comorbidities of bipolar disorder in primary care. If comorbid conditions are recognized and treated, serious adverse health outcomes may be averted, including substantial morbidity and mortality.

  9. Contribution of alluvial groundwater to the outflow of mountainous catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käser, Daniel; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Alluvial aquifers in mountainous regions cover typically a limited area. Their contribution to catchment storage and outflow is rarely isolated; alluvial groundwater discharge under gauging stations is generally assumed negligible; and hydrological models tend to lump alluvial storage with other units. The role of alluvial aquifers remains therefore unclear: can they contribute significantly to outflow when they cover a few percent of catchment area? Should they be considered a dynamic storage unit or merely a transmission zone? We address these issues based on the continuous monitoring of groundwater discharge, river discharge (one year), and aquifer storage (6 months) in the 6 km2 alluvial system of a 194 km2 catchment. River and groundwater outflow were measured jointly through "coupled gauging stations." The contribution of alluvial groundwater to outflow was highest at the outlet of a subcatchment (52 km2), where subsurface discharge amounted to 15% of mean annual outflow, and 85% of outflow during the last week of a drought. In this period, alluvial-aquifer depletion supported 75% of the subcatchment outflow and 35% of catchment outflow—thus 3% of the entire catchment supported a third of the outflow. Storage fluctuations occurred predominantly in the aquifer's upstream part, where heads varied over 6 m. Not only does this section act as a significant water source, but storage recovers also rapidly at the onset of precipitation. Storage dynamics were best conceptualized along the valley axis, rather than across the more conventional riparian-channel transect. Overall the contribution of alluvial aquifers to catchment outflow deserves more attention.

  10. Nuclear ashes and outflow in the eruptive star Nova Vul 1670.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Tomasz; Menten, Karl M; Tylenda, Romuald; Hajduk, Marcin; Patel, Nimesh A; Kraus, Alexander

    2015-04-16

    CK Vulpeculae was observed in outburst in 1670-1672 (ref. 1), but no counterpart was seen until 1982, when a bipolar nebula was found at its location. Historically, CK Vul has been considered to be a nova (Nova Vul 1670), but its similarity to 'red transients', which are more luminous than classical novae and thought to be the results of stellar collisions, has re-opened the question of CK Vul's status. Red transients cool to resemble late M-type stars, surrounded by circumstellar material rich in molecules and dust. No stellar source has been seen in CK Vul, though a radio continuum source was identified at the expansion centre of the nebula. Here we report that CK Vul is surrounded by chemically rich molecular gas in the form of an outflow, as well as dust. The gas has peculiar isotopic ratios, revealing that CK Vul's composition was strongly enhanced by the nuclear ashes of hydrogen burning. The chemical composition cannot be reconciled with a nova or indeed any other known explosion. In addition, the mass of the surrounding gas is too large for a nova, though the conversion from observations of CO to a total mass is uncertain. We conclude that CK Vul is best explained as the remnant of a merger of two stars.

  11. Bipolar fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    McElroy, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The present invention discloses an improved fuel cell utilizing an ion transporting membrane having a catalytic anode and a catalytic cathode bonded to opposite sides of the membrane, a wet-proofed carbon sheet in contact with the cathode surface opposite that bonded to the membrane and a bipolar separator positioned in electrical contact with the carbon sheet and the anode of the adjacent fuel cell. Said bipolar separator and carbon sheet forming an oxidant flowpath, wherein the improvement comprises an electrically conductive screen between and in contact with the wet-proofed carbon sheet and the bipolar separator improving the product water removal system of the fuel cell.

  12. Formation of Intense Plasma Outflows from Laboratory Prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, S. K. P.

    2005-10-01

    Solar prominences have been simulated in a laboratory experiment using a four-electrode magnetized plasma source [1]. An ultra-high speed intensified CCD camera records visual images of the laboratory prominence evolution and a magnetic probe array measures internal magnetic fields. Laboratory prominences produced using low pressure argon and krypton form localized outflow from the main structure. These outflows appear immediately after Ar and Kr prominences become unstable and contact surrounding metal structures. Within a few microseconds after this event, the main structure disappears and the outflow becomes extremely intense and elongated. An analytic model based on Hamiltonian formalism predicts the existence of a critical parameter below which ions lose confinement in a force-free magnetic field and subsequently form intense outflows. This escape of ions from force-free magnetic fields has been verified in numerical computations of ion trajectories.[1] J. F. Hansen, S. K. P. Tripathi, and P. M. Bellan, Phys. Plasmas 11(6), 3177 (2004)

  13. Topographic vorticity waves forced by Antarctic dense shelf water outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Gustavo M.; Padman, Laurie; Springer, Scott R.; Howard, Susan L.; Özgökmen, Tamay M.

    2014-02-01

    We use numerical simulations to investigate excitation of topographic vorticity waves (TVWs) along the Antarctic continental slope by outflows of dense shelf water through troughs. Idealized models show that wave frequency depends on the amount of stretching in the ambient fluid over the outflow and on background along-slope mean flow. Frequency is higher for steeper bottom slope, larger outflow density anomaly, and stronger westward mean flow. For weak stratification and weak westward along-slope flows typical of the Antarctic slope, wave energy propagates eastward, in the opposite direction from phase velocity. Our results are consistent with recent observations of TVWs in the southern Weddell Sea. In a realistic simulation of the Ross Sea, TVW properties are modulated on seasonal and shorter time scales as background ocean state varies. We expect these waves to affect mixing, cross-slope exchanges, and sea ice concentration in the vicinity of sources of dense water outflows.

  14. MOS Mapping of the NIR Outflow HH 223

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Estalella, R.; Gómez, G.; García-Lorenzo, B.

    2016-10-01

    The Multi-Object-Spectroscopy (MOS) mode of LIRIS was used to map the near-IR stellar outflow HH 223, in the dark cloud Lynds 723 (L723). HH 223 spatially coincides with the east-west component of the L723 quadrupolar CO outflow. The radio continuum source SMA2, towards the center of the quadrupolar CO outflow, hides the YSO that seems to power both the near-IR and the CO outflows. To map the S-shaped, near-IR emission of HH 223, extending ˜ 5', an appropriate mask was designed, with 16 rectangular slitlets. J, H and K-band spectra (R ˜eq 2500) were obtained through the mask. The kinematics of the neutral (H2) and ionized ([FeII]) gas outflow was derived from these data. The results confirm that both the near-IR and the CO outflows have a common driving source. To our knowledge, this is the first use of the MOS-LIRIS observing mode with the mask designed ad hoc to fit several extended, nonaligned targets.

  15. Molecular Outflows in Local ULIRGs: Energetics from Multitransition OH Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Alfonso, E.; Fischer, J.; Spoon, H. W. W.; Stewart, K. P.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Veilleux, S.; Smith, H. A.; Sturm, E.; Farrah, D.; Falstad, N.; Meléndez, M.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Janssen, A. W.; Lebouteiller, V.

    2017-02-01

    We report on the energetics of molecular outflows in 14 local ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) that show unambiguous outflow signatures (P Cygni profiles or high-velocity absorption wings) in the far-infrared lines of OH measured with the Herschel/PACS spectrometer. All sample galaxies are gas-rich mergers at various stages of the merging process. Detection of both ground-state (at 119 and 79 μm) and one or more radiatively excited (at 65 and 84 μm) lines allows us to model the nuclear gas (≲300 pc) and the more extended components using spherically symmetric radiative transfer models. Reliable models and the corresponding energetics are found in 12 of the 14 sources. The highest molecular outflow velocities are found in buried sources, in which slower but massive expansion of the nuclear gas is also observed. With the exception of a few outliers, the outflows have momentum fluxes of (2–5) × L IR/c and mechanical luminosities of (0.1–0.3)% of L IR. The moderate momentum boosts in these sources (≲3) suggest that the outflows are mostly momentum driven by the combined effects of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and nuclear starbursts, as a result of radiation pressure, winds, and supernova remnants. In some sources (∼20%), however, powerful (1010.5–11 L ⊙) AGN feedback and (partially) energy-conserving phases are required, with momentum boosts in the range of 3–20. These outflows appear to be stochastic, strong AGN feedback events that occur throughout the merging process. In a few sources, the outflow activity in the innermost regions has subsided in the past ∼1 Myr. While OH traces the molecular outflows at subkiloparsec scales, comparison of the masses traced by OH with those previously inferred from tracers of more extended outflowing gas suggests that most mass is loaded (with loading factors of \\dot{M}/{SFR}=1{--}10) from the central galactic cores (a few × 100 pc), qualitatively consistent with an ongoing inside-out quenching of

  16. CSO and CARMA Observations of L1157. II. Chemical Complexity in the Shocked Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhardt, Andrew M.; Dollhopf, Niklaus M.; Corby, Joanna F.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Shingledecker, Christopher N.; Loomis, Ryan A.; Booth, Shawn Thomas; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Herbst, Eric; Remijan, Anthony J.; McGuire, Brett A.

    2016-08-01

    L1157, a molecular dark cloud with an embedded Class 0 protostar possessing a bipolar outflow, is an excellent source for studying shock chemistry, including grain-surface chemistry prior to shocks, and post-shock, gas-phase processing. The L1157-B1 and B2 positions experienced shocks at an estimated ˜2000 and 4000 years ago, respectively. Prior to these shock events, temperatures were too low for most complex organic molecules to undergo thermal desorption. Thus, the shocks should have liberated these molecules from the ice grain-surfaces en masse, evidenced by prior observations of SiO and multiple grain mantle species commonly associated with shocks. Grain species, such as OCS, CH3OH, and HNCO, all peak at different positions relative to species that are preferably formed in higher-velocity shocks or repeatedly shocked material, such as SiO and HCN. Here, we present high spatial resolution (˜3″) maps of CH3OH, HNCO, HCN, and HCO+ in the southern portion of the outflow containing B1 and B2, as observed with Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-Wave Astronomy. The HNCO maps are the first interferometric observations of this species in L1157. The maps show distinct differences in the chemistry within the various shocked regions in L1157B. This is further supported through constraints of the molecular abundances using the non-LTE code radex. We find that the east/west chemical differentiation in C2 may be explained by the contrast of the shock’s interaction with either cold, pristine material or warm, previously shocked gas, as seen in enhanced HCN abundances. In addition, the enhancement of the HNCO abundance toward the the older shock, B2, suggests the importance of high-temperature O-chemistry in shocked regions.

  17. Bipolar disorder (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and major depression. Treatment with lithium or mood stabilizers may be effective, but medication regimens are sometimes difficult to tolerate ...

  18. Genetics of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, Michael A; Zavala, Juan M

    2008-01-01

    Bipolar disorder especially the most severe type (type I), has a strong genetic component. Family studies suggest that a small number of genes of modest effect are involved in this disorder. Family-based studies have identified a number of chromosomal regions linked to bipolar disorder, and progress is currently being made in identifying positional candidate genes within those regions. A number of candidate genes have also shown evidence of association with bipolar disorder, and genome-wide association studies are now under way, using dense genetic maps. Replication studies in larger or combined datasets are needed to definitively assign a role for specific genes in this disorder. This review covers our current knowledge of the genetics of bipolar disorder, and provides a commentary on current approaches used to identify the genes involved in this complex behavioral disorder.

  19. Energy exchanges in reconnection outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapenta, Giovanni; Goldman, Martin V.; Newman, David L.; Markidis, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Reconnection outflows are highly energetic directed flows that interact with the ambient plasma or with flows from other reconnection regions. Under these conditions the flow becomes highly unstable and chaotic, as any flow jets interacting with a medium. We report here massively parallel simulations of the two cases of interaction between outflow jets and between a single outflow with an ambient plasma. We find in both case the development of a chaotic magnetic field, subject to secondary reconnection events that further complicate the topology of the field lines. The focus of the present analysis is on the energy balance. We compute each energy channel (electromagnetic, bulk, thermal, for each species) and find where the most energy is exchanged and in what form. The main finding is that the largest energy exchange is not at the reconnection site proper but in the regions where the outflowing jets are destabilized.

  20. Bipolar clavicular injury.

    PubMed

    Pang, K P; Yung, S W; Lee, T S; Pang, C E

    2003-10-01

    While clavicular injuries are fairly common, bipolar clavicular injuries are not. They may involve dislocations at both ends of the clavicle, or a fracture at one end and a dislocation at the other. We present two cases; a patient with a bipolar clavicular dislocation, and another with a fracture in both medial and lateral ends of the clavicle with anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint. Both were treated conservatively, with fairly good range of motion and return to normal activity.

  1. Outflows of stars due to quasar feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubovas, Kastytis; Nayakshin, Sergei; Sazonov, Sergey; Sunyaev, Rashid

    2013-05-01

    Quasar feedback outflows are commonly invoked to drive gas out of galaxies in the early gas-rich epoch to terminate growth of galaxies. Here we present simulations that show that AGN feedback may drive not only gas but also stars out of their host galaxies under certain conditions. The mechanics of this process is as follows: (1) AGN-driven outflows accelerate and compress gas filling the host galaxy; (2) the accelerated dense shells become gravitationally unstable and form stars on radial trajectories. For the spherically symmetric initial conditions explored here, the black hole needs to exceed the host's Mσ mass by a factor of a few to accelerate the shells and the new stars to escape velocities. We discuss potential implications of these effects for the host galaxies: (i) radial mixing of bulge stars with the rest of the host; (ii) contribution of quasar outflows to galactic fountains as sources of high-velocity clouds; (iii) wholesale ejection of hypervelocity stars out of their hosts, giving rise to Type II supernovae on galactic outskirts, and contributing to reionization and metal enrichment of the Universe; (iv) bulge erosion and even complete destruction in extreme cases resulting in overweight or bulgeless SMBHs.

  2. Shining a light on galactic outflows: photoionized outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida

    2016-04-01

    We study the ionization structure of galactic outflows in 37 nearby, star-forming galaxies with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We use the O I, Si II, Si III, and Si IV ultraviolet absorption lines to characterize the different ionization states of outflowing gas. We measure the equivalent widths, line widths, and outflow velocities of the four transitions, and find shallow scaling relations between them and galactic stellar mass and star formation rate. Regardless of the ionization potential, lines of similar strength have similar velocities and line widths, indicating that the four transitions can be modelled as a comoving phase. The Si equivalent width ratios (e.g. Si IV/Si II) have low dispersion, and little variation with stellar mass; while ratios with O I and Si vary by a factor of 2 for a given stellar mass. Photoionization models reproduce these equivalent width ratios, while shock models under predict the relative amount of high ionization gas. The photoionization models constrain the ionization parameter (U) between -2.25 < log (U) < -1.5, and require that the outflow metallicities are greater than 0.5 Z⊙. We derive ionization fractions for the transitions, and show that the range of ionization parameters and stellar metallicities leads to a factor of 1.15-10 variation in the ionization fractions. Historically, mass outflow rates are calculated by converting a column density measurement from a single metal ion into a total hydrogen column density using an ionization fraction, thus mass outflow rates are sensitive to the assumed ionization structure of the outflow.

  3. The Dynamics of Outflows from Young Stellar Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridge, Naomi A.

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of CO outflows around young stellar objects (YSOs) suggests that mass-loss is a necessary ingredient of the star-formation process, and they are thought to provide a means to remove angular momentum from the accreting matter. Our understanding of molecular outflows from low-mass YSOs has come from a large number of studies performed during the last decade. However there have been relatively few similar detailed studies of high-mass YSO outflows, and it is still not clear whether outflows from high-mass YSOs are generated and entrained by the same mechanism as those from their low-mass counterparts. Studies of high-mass star-formation which attempt to extend the established correlations between outflow momentum-flux and source bolometric luminosity into the high-mass regime are further hindered by the problem of Malmquist bias, which we show to be prevalent in the existing studies of high-mass YSOs. We therefore selected a sample of known intermediate to high-mass YSOs with outflows with a range of luminosities but all located at a distance of 2 +/- 0.3 kpc. With this sample we are able to test the correlations between outflow dynamical properties and source properties free from biases due to source distance, and to investigate whether the other phenomena associated with low-mass YSO outflows are also common in high-mass flows. We present high-sensitivity 12CO maps of the 11 outflows from intermediate to high-mass YSOs, and discuss their morphology and dynamics. These data were also used to re-investigate the uncertainties involved in using spectral-line data to derive flow properties, particularly the importance of variations in optical depth and the problem of separating ambient cloud emssion from flow emission. We also present 13CO and C18O observations of the ``cores'' surrounding each YSO and discuss how the cloud core and outflow may be related. The primary conclusions of this work are: The correlation between outflow momentum flux (FrmCO ) and

  4. Ionospheric Plasma Outflow Under High Solar Wind Dynamic Pressure Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malingre, M.; Bouhram, M.; Dubouloz, N.; Sauvaud, J. A.; Berthomier, M.; Carlson, C. W.

    The polar cusp is well-known to be one of the most intense source regions of iono- spheric outflow. Since this region is of direct access for solar wind plasma, changes in the interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind dynamic pressure are expected to influence the ion outflow. We report combined observations from the Interball- Auroral in the high-altitude range (10,000-20,000km) and the FAST satellite in the mid-altitude range (4000 km) revealing enhanced ion outflows in association with the passage of an interplanetary shock and CME. Several case studies based on the anal- ysis of ion data recorded from several orbits before and after the pressure impulse are made to investigate how the dynamic pressure affects the amount of outflowing ions. We found a clear relationship between the ion outflow variations and the dy- namic pressure changes when choosing average ion flux and average ion energy flux, inferred from global conservation laws, as parameters to characterize the ion outflow.

  5. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus.

    PubMed

    Sahai, R; Vlemmings, W H T; Gledhill, T; Sánchez Contreras, C; Lagadec, E; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G

    2017-01-20

    We have mapped (12)CO J=3-2 and other molecular lines from the "water-fountain" bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with [Formula: see text] resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 10(6) cm(-3)), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10(-4)M⊙ yr(-1) in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed.

  6. Tracing Infall and Rotation along the Outflow Cavity Walls of the L483 Protostellar Envelope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, Gigi Y. C.; Lim, Jeremy; Takakuwa, Shigehisa

    2016-12-01

    Single-dish observations in CS(7-6) reveal emission extending out to thousands of au along the outflow axis of low-mass protostars and having a velocity gradient in the opposite direction to that of their outflows. This emission has been attributed to dense and warm gas flowing outward along the walls of bipolar outflow cavities. Here, we present combined single-dish and interferometric CS(7-6) maps for the low-mass protostar L483, revealing a newly discovered compact central component (radius ≲800 au) and previously unknown features in its extended component (visible out to ˜4000 au). The velocity gradient and skewed (toward the redshifted side) brightness distribution of the extended component are detectable out to a radius of ˜2000 au, but not beyond. The compact central component exhibits a velocity gradient in the same direction as, but which is steeper than that of, the extended component. Furthermore, both components exhibit a velocity gradient with an approximately constant magnitude across the outflow axis, apparent in the extended component not just through but also away from the center out to 2000 au. We point out contradictions between our results and model predictions for outflowing gas and propose a new model in which all of the aforementioned emission can be qualitatively explained by gas inflowing along the outflow cavity walls of a rigidly rotating envelope. Our model also can explain the extended CS(7-6) emission observed around other low-mass protostars.

  7. Interferometric Mapping of Perseus Outflows with MASSES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Ian; Dunham, Michael; Myers, Philip C.; MASSES Team

    2017-01-01

    The MASSES (Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA) survey, a Submillimeter Array (SMA) large-scale program, is mapping molecular lines and continuum emission about the 75 known Class 0/I sources in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. In this talk, I present some of the key results of this project, with a focus on the CO(2-1) maps of the molecular outflows. In particular, I investigate how protostars inherit their rotation axes from large-scale magnetic fields and filamentary structure.

  8. APEX CO (9-8) MAPPING OF AN EXTREMELY HIGH VELOCITY AND JET-LIKE OUTFLOW IN A HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMING REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu Keping; Wyrowski, Friedrich; Menten, Karl M.; Guesten, Rolf; Leurini, Silvia; Leinz, Christian

    2011-12-10

    Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) mapping observations in CO (9-8) and (4-3) toward a high-mass star-forming region, NGC 6334 I, are presented. The CO (9-8) map has a 6.''4 resolution, revealing a {approx}0.5 pc, jet-like, and bipolar outflow. This is the first map of a molecular outflow in a THz line. The CO (9-8) and (4-3) lines arising from the outflow lobes both show extremely high velocity line wings, and their ratios indicate a gas temperature greater than 100 K and a density higher than 10{sup 4} cm{sup -3}. The spatial-velocity structure of the CO (9-8) data is typical of a bow-shock-driven flow, which is consistent with the association between the bipolar outflow and the infrared bow-shaped tips. In short, the observations unveil a highly excited and collimated component in a bipolar outflow that is powered by a high-mass protostar, and provide insights into the driving mechanism of the outflow. Meanwhile, the observations demonstrate that high-quality mapping observations can be performed with the new THz receiver on APEX.

  9. Observations of Molecular Outflow in Car 291.6-01.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saul, M.; Saul, L.

    2012-01-01

    We report the first observations of a dense molecular gas nebula and bipolar outflow in Car 291.6-01.9, showing characteristics of an embedded young stellar object (YSO). Using the Mopra radio telescope near Coonabarabaran, Australia, we image the kinematic structure of several emission features to examine physical properties within a molecular clump of mass ~3.2 ± 0.6 × 103 M ⊙ in which a stellar cluster may be forming. Motivated by acquiring a more thorough understanding of star formation we ask what may have initiated collapse in the clump; observed outflow alignment is suggestive of ~1.0 pc distant massive star HD 308280 radiative-driven compression as a formation trigger for the dense core. An outflow derived age of <106 years, together with significant C18O and SO core depletion, support the case for the core as the host of an extremely YSO cluster.

  10. Molecular outflows identified in the FCRAO CO survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Gopal; Snell, Ronald; Bemis, Ashley

    2012-10-01

    Jets and outflows are an integral part of the star formation process. While there are many detailed studies of molecular outflows towards individual star-forming sites, few studies have surveyed an entire star-forming molecular cloud for this phenomenon. The 100-deg2 Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory CO survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud provides an excellent opportunity to undertake an unbiased survey of a large, nearby, molecular cloud complex for molecular outflow activity. Our study provides information on the extent, energetics and frequency of outflows in this region, which are then used to assess the impact of outflows on the parent molecular cloud. The search identified 20 outflows in the Taurus region, eight of which were previously unknown. Both 12CO and 13CO data cubes from the Taurus molecular map were used, and dynamical properties of the outflows are derived. Even for previously known outflows, our large-scale maps indicate that many of the outflows are much larger than previously suspected, with eight of the outflows (40 per cent) being more than a parsec long. The mass, momentum and kinetic energy from the 20 outflows are compared to the repository of turbulent energy in Taurus. Comparing the energy deposition rate from outflows to the dissipation rate of turbulence, we conclude that outflows by themselves cannot sustain the observed turbulence seen in the entire cloud. However, when the impact of outflows is studied in selected regions of Taurus, it is seen that locally outflows can provide a significant source of turbulence and feedback. The L1551 dark cloud which is just south of the main Taurus complex was not covered by this survey, but the outflows in L1551 have much higher energies compared to the outflows in the main Taurus cloud. In the L1551 cloud, outflows can not only account for the turbulent energy present, but are probably also disrupting their parent cloud. We conclude that for a molecular cloud like Taurus, an L1551-like

  11. Lightweight bipolar storage battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus [10] is disclosed for a lightweight bipolar battery of the end-plate cell stack design. Current flow through a bipolar cell stack [12] is collected by a pair of copper end-plates [16a,16b] and transferred edgewise out of the battery by a pair of lightweight, low resistance copper terminals [28a,28b]. The copper terminals parallel the surface of a corresponding copper end-plate [16a,16b] to maximize battery throughput. The bipolar cell stack [12], copper end-plates [16a,16b] and copper terminals [28a,28b] are rigidly sandwiched between a pair of nonconductive rigid end-plates [20] having a lightweight fiber honeycomb core which eliminates distortion of individual plates within the bipolar cell stack due to internal pressures. Insulating foam [30] is injected into the fiber honeycomb core to reduce heat transfer into and out of the bipolar cell stack and to maintain uniform cell performance. A sealed battery enclosure [ 22] exposes a pair of terminal ends [26a,26b] for connection with an external circuit.

  12. A SEARCH FOR 95 GHz CLASS I METHANOL MASERS IN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Gan, Cong-Gui; Chen, Xi; Shen, Zhi-Qiang; Xu, Ye; Ju, Bing-Gang

    2013-01-20

    We have observed a sample of 288 molecular outflow sources including 123 high-mass and 165 low-mass sources in order to search for class I methanol masers at the 95 GHz transition and to investigate the relationship between outflow characteristics and class I methanol maser emission with the Purple Mountain Observatory 13.7 m radio telescope. Our survey detected 62 sources with 95 GHz methanol masers above a 3{sigma} detection limit, which includes 47 high-mass sources and 15 low-mass sources. Therefore, the detection rate is 38% for high-mass outflow sources and 9% for low-mass outflow sources, suggesting that class I methanol masers are relatively easily excited in high-mass sources. There are 37 newly detected 95 GHz methanol masers (including 27 high-mass and 10 low-mass sources), 19 of which are newly identified (i.e., first identification) class I methanol masers (including 13 high-mass and 6 low-mass sources). A statistical analysis of the distributions of maser detections with the outflow parameters reveals that the maser detection efficiency increases with the outflow properties (e.g., mass, momentum, kinetic energy, mechanical luminosity of outflows, etc.). Systematic investigations of the relationships between the intrinsic luminosity of methanol masers and the outflow properties (including mass, momentum, kinetic energy, bolometric luminosity, and mass-loss rate of the central stellar sources) indicate a positive correlation. This further supports the theory that class I methanol masers are collisionally pumped and associated with shocks when outflows interact with the surrounding ambient medium.

  13. Bipolar Medications and Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    Bipolar medications and weight gain Do all bipolar medications cause weight gain? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M. ... disorder can be treated with a number of medications. Some of these medications can increase your appetite ...

  14. Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    Depression and Bipolar Support Alliance Crisis Hotline Information Coping with a Crisis Suicide Prevention Information Psychiatric Hospitalization ... sign-up Education info, training, events Mood Disorders Depression Bipolar Disorder Anxiety Screening Center Co-occurring Illnesses/ ...

  15. Low Altitude Initiation of Ionospheric Upflow and Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burleigh, M.; Zettergren, M. D.; Rowland, D. E.; Klenzing, J.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of ionospheric plasma can be transported to high altitudes (above 1000 km) in response to a variety of plasma heating and uplifting processes. Soft electron precipitation heats ambient, F-region ionospheric electrons creating electron pressure increases and upflows. Strong DC electric fields frictionally heat the ion population also resulting in ion upflows. Lastly, field-aligned thermospheric winds can contribute to ion motion at lower altitudes, while geomagnetically perpendicular winds may affect frictional heating. Once ions have been lifted to high altitudes, transverse ion acceleration by broadband ELF waves can give the upflowing ions sufficient energy to escape into the magnetosphere (ionospheric outflow). This study examines the thermospheric wind regulation of ionospheric upflow and outflow with a focus on how lower ionosphere dynamics feed source populations for transverse energization and determine the types, and amounts, of outflowing ions. The model used here for this study is a 2D ionospheric model based on a modified 16-moment transport description. It solves conservation of mass, momentum, and parallel and perpendicular energy for all relevant ionospheric species. This model encapsulates ionospheric upflow and outflow processes through the inclusion of DC electric fields, and empirical descriptions of heating by soft electron precipitation and BBELF waves. This model is used to conduct a parametric study of neutral wind effects on upflow and outflow and highlights how low-altitude processes affect ion outflow through the regulation of source plasma available to higher altitudes. This model is also used to construct a case study of ion outflows at the nightside polar cap boundary using data from the VISIONS sounding rocket campaign.

  16. Asymmetric Ionospheric Outflow Observed at the Dayside Magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zong, Q.; Sibeck, D. G.; Wang, Y.; Glassmeier, K. H.; Reme, H.

    2014-12-01

    An important source of the terrestrial magnetospheric plasma is cold plasma from the polar ionosphere. The ionospheric ion outflows have been rarely observed at the dayside magnetopause. We investigate the source and the behaviors of the cold ions observed by the Cluster spacecraft measurements. The pitch angle distributions (0°-75°) of the cold ions observed by both C1 and C3 at the dayside magnetopause indicate that these cold ions are ionospheric outflows coming from the southern hemisphere. The cold ions (< 200 eV) fluxes are modulated by the ULF wave electric field. The cold ions move perpendicular to the magnetic field due to the enhanced convection electric field when they are close to the magnetic reconnection region. Two different populations (possibly H+ and He+) were observed in the magnetosphere. Our results suggest that the ionospheric outflows can be transported to the dayside magnetopause and may play an important role in the dynamics of this region.

  17. High resolution imaging of the outflow channels on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, A. K.; Gulick, V. C.

    2008-12-01

    We report observations of the outflow channels on Mars from HiRISE images in MRO's first Martian year. Several hundred images of the outflow channels on Mars have been collected to date from HiRISE, as well as coordinated images with CTX and CRISM. Depositional features, such as slackwater deposits and small bedforms that are expected to be visible at the resolution of HiRISE have not yet been observed, largely due to post-fluvial modification of the channels. Many of the channels have been subsequently covered by a thin layer of lava, ash, dust, or lineated valley fill. Although altered slightly by later aeolian modification, Ares Valles and Kasei Valles preserve much of the original fluvial erosional forms, particularly cataracts and longitudinal grooves that can be used to infer the mechanics of the flow. Cataracts, steep knickpoints in the large outflow channels, were once large waterfalls on the Martian surface. These have been observed in all of the larger outflow systems, including Kasai, Athabasca, Mangala, and Reull Valles. High resolution imaging shows that all of the cataract systems have multiple generations of erosion, with smaller subchannels within the cataract system. Based on the length of the recession and the morphological evidence most of the large channels experienced multiple flooding events or pulses. The tectonically sourced outflow channels, such as Athabasca and Mangala Valles, show sourcing at regions of complex fault geometries, specifically at fault relays. In terrestrial systems, relays tend to be regions of concentrated stress that can produce dilation manifested as high joint density, as well as point sources for hydrothermal outflow on Earth. Athabasca and Mangala Valles, sourced proximal to large volcanic centers, may have been regions of major hydrothermal activity in the past.

  18. Mediterranean outflow mixing and dynamics.

    PubMed

    Price, J F; Baringer, M O; Lueck, R G; Johnson, G C; Ambar, I; Parrilla, G; Cantos, A; Kennelly, M A; Sanford, T B

    1993-02-26

    The Mediterranean Sea produces a salty, dense outflow that is strongly modified by entrainment as it first begins to descend the continental slope in the eastern Gulf of Cadiz. The current accelerates to 1.3 meters per second, which raises the internal Froude number above 1, and is intensely turbulent through its full thickness. The outflow loses about half of its density anomaly and roughly doubles its volume transport as it entrains less saline North Atlantic Central water. Within 100 kilometers downstream, the current is turned by the Coriolis force until it flows nearly parallel to topography in a damped geostrophic balance. The mixed Mediterranean outflow continues westward, slowly descending the continental slope until it becomes neutrally buoyant in the thermocline where it becomes an important water mass.

  19. BIPOLAR JETS PRODUCED BY A SPECTROSCOPIC BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Mundt, Reinhard; Hamilton, Catrina M.; Herbst, William; Johns-Krull, Christopher M.; Winn, Joshua N.

    2010-01-01

    We present evidence that the spectroscopically identified bipolar jets of the pre-main sequence binary KH 15D (P = 48.4 d, {epsilon}{approx} 0.6, periastron separation {approx}18 R{sub A} , M{sub A} = 0.6 M {sub sun}, M{sub B} = 0.7 M {sub sun}) are a common product of the whole binary system, rather than being launched from either star individually. They may be launched from the innermost part of the circumbinary disk (CBD) or may result from the merging of two outflows driven by the individual stars. This evidence is based on high-resolution H{alpha} and [O I]{lambda}6300 line profiles obtained during eclipse phases of this nearly edge-on system. The occultation of star A (the only currently visible star) by the disk strongly suppresses the stellar H{alpha} and continuum emission and allows one to study the faint redshifted and blueshifted emission components of the bipolar jets. The strongest evidence for jet production by the whole binary system comes from the observed radial velocity symmetry of the two jet components relative to the systemic velocity of the binary in combination with current accretion models from the CBD onto a binary system.

  20. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Schmid-Burgk, Johannes; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent

    2017-02-01

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using 12CO(J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  1. Outflow from a Nocturnal Thunderstorm.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-11-01

    P AD-A093 796 ILLINOIS STATE WATER SURVEY URBANAF/ .2 OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM. (U) NOV a0 R W SCOTT NSF-ATHN78-0a865 UNCLASSIFIED SWS...CR-242 ARO-15529.5-6S N I muuuuuuuuuuuu iDA0937 9 6 State Water Survey Division k istitute of METEOROLOGY SECTION 0 uJD AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS...SWS Contract Report 242 / F OUTFLOW FROM A NOCTURNAL THUNDERSTORM Robert W. Scott Meteorology Section Illinois State Water Survey -- DTIC ELECTE CD

  2. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN IRAS 16293–2422

    SciTech Connect

    Girart, Josep M.; Palau, Aina; Torrelles, José M.; Estalella, Robert; Rao, Ramprasad

    2014-01-01

    We present CO 3-2, SiO 8-7, C{sup 34}S 7-6, and 878 μm dust continuum subarcsecond angular resolution observations with the Submillimeter Array (SMA) toward the IRAS 16293–2422 (I16293) multiple low-mass protostellar system. The C{sup 34}S emission traces the 878 μm dust continuum well, and in addition clearly shows a smooth velocity gradient along the major axis of component I16293A. CO shows emission at moderate high velocities arising from two bipolar outflows, which appear to be perpendicular with respect to each other. The high sensitivity and higher angular resolution of these observations allows us to pinpoint well the origin of these two outflows at the center of component I16293A. Interestingly, the most compact outflow appears to point toward I16293B. Our data show that the previously reported monopolar blueshifted CO outflow associated with component I16293B seems to be part of the compact outflow arising from component I16293A. In addition, the SiO emission is also tracing this compact outflow: on the one hand, the SiO emission appears to have a jet-like morphology along the southern redshifted lobe; on the other hand, the SiO emission associated with the blueshifted northern lobe traces a well-defined arc on the border of component I16293B facing I16293A. The blueshifted CO lobe of the compact outflow splits into two lobes around the position of this SiO arc. All these results lead us to propose that the compact outflow from component I16293A is impacting on the circumstellar gas around component I16293B, possibly being diverged as a consequence of the interaction.

  3. Effects of causally driven cusp O+ outflow on the storm time magnetosphere-ionosphere system using a multifluid global simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambles, O. J.; Lotko, W.; Damiano, P. A.; Zhang, B.; Wiltberger, M.; Lyon, J.

    2010-09-01

    It is widely accepted that the ionosphere is an important source of ions in the magnetosphere and until recently this population has largely been neglected from many global simulations. In this study, a causally regulated cusp O+ outflow is added to the multifluid version of the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) global simulation. The cusp outflow algorithm uses empirical relationships to regulate the outflow flux with further conditioning to isolate the outflow spatially to a dynamic cusp. The impact cusp O+ outflow has on the magnetosphere-ionosphere (MI) system is investigated for a moderate storm on 31 August 2005. It is found the MI system response depends upon the specification of the outflow velocity and temperature. More energetic outflow tends to flow downtail whilst colder, slower outflow fills the inner magnetosphere. High O+ densities in the inner magnetosphere can increase the strength of the ring current, reducing Dst and inflating the magnetosphere. This effect is mostly found for the less energetic outflow specification. O+ outflow is found to reduce the access of solar wind ions to the inner magnetosphere, which, through the MI coupling in LFM reduces the precipitating electron power, conductance and field-aligned currents. The effect outflow has on the cross polar cap potential (CPCP) depends upon two competing factors. The reduction in Region I currents when outflow is present appears to increase the CPCP whilst the inflation of the magnetosphere due to an enhanced ring current decreases the CPCP.

  4. Evidence for a chemically differentiated outflow in Mrk 231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, J. E.; Aalto, S.; Muller, S.; Martí-Vidal, I.; Falstad, N.; Costagliola, F.; Henkel, C.; van der Werf, P.; García-Burillo, S.; González-Alfonso, E.

    2016-03-01

    Aims: Our goal is to study the chemical composition of the outflows of active galactic nuclei and starburst galaxies. Methods: We obtained high-resolution interferometric observations of HCN and HCO+J = 1 → 0 and J = 2 → 1 of the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231 with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. We also use previously published observations of HCN and HCO+J = 1 → 0 and J = 3 → 2, and HNC J = 1 → 0 in the same source. Results: In the line wings of the HCN, HCO+, and HNC emission, we find that these three molecular species exhibit features at distinct velocities which differ between the species. The features are not consistent with emission lines of other molecular species. Through radiative transfer modelling of the HCN and HCO+ outflow emission we find an average abundance ratio X(HCN) /X(HCO+) ≳ 1000. Assuming a clumpy outflow, modelling of the HCN and HCO+ emission produces strongly inconsistent outflow masses. Conclusions: Both the anti-correlated outflow features of HCN and HCO+ and the different outflow masses calculated from the radiative transfer models of the HCN and HCO+ emission suggest that the outflow is chemically differentiated. The separation between HCN and HCO+ could be an indicator of shock fronts present in the outflow, since the HCN/HCO+ ratio is expected to be elevated in shocked regions. Our result shows that studies of the chemistry in large-scale galactic outflows can be used to better understand the physical properties of these outflows and their effects on the interstellar medium in the galaxy. Based on observations with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Reduced datacubes as FITS files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/587/A15

  5. Molecular outflows in starburst nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Arpita; Nath, Biman B.; Sharma, Prateek; Shchekinov, Yuri

    2016-12-01

    Recent observations have detected molecular outflows in a few nearby starburst nuclei. We discuss the physical processes at work in such an environment in order to outline a scenario that can explain the observed parameters of the phenomenon, such as the molecular mass, speed and size of the outflows. We show that outflows triggered by OB associations, with NOB ≥ 105 (corresponding to a star formation rate (SFR)≥1 M⊙ yr-1 in the nuclear region), in a stratified disc with mid-plane density n0 ˜ 200-1000 cm-3 and scaleheight z0 ≥ 200(n0/102 cm-3)-3/5 pc, can form molecules in a cool dense and expanding shell. The associated molecular mass is ≥107 M⊙ at a distance of a few hundred pc, with a speed of several tens of km s-1. We show that an SFR surface density of 10 ≤ ΣSFR ≤ 50 M⊙ yr-1 kpc-2 favours the production of molecular outflows, consistent with observed values.

  6. Is Cognitive Style Bipolar?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, David H.

    This study assessed the bipolarity of cognitive style for 970 clients of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundation, a vocational guidance service. The 462 male and 508 female examinees were aged 14 to 65 years, with a median age of 24 years. Three cognitive style tests were investigated: (1) the Kagan Matching Familiar Figures Test (KMFFT); (2) the…

  7. Irradiated Jets and Outflows in the Pelican Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Reipurth, Bo

    2003-08-01

    We report the discovery of new Herbig-Haro objects in the Pelican Nebula (IC 4050). HH 555 is a bipolar jet emerging from the tip of a major elephant trunk protruding into the Pelican Nebula from the adjacent molecular cloud. Both beams of HH 555 bend toward the west, indicating deflection by a side wind. A chain of three nearly equally spaced bow shocks, HH 563, HH 564, and HH 565, trace a bent flow bursting out of the southern rim of the Pelican molecular cloud, possibly driven by the moderate-luminosity Class I protostar IRAS 20489+4406. Object HH 570 is a highly collimated jet emerging from a compact cloud located about 15' southeast of the Pelican molecular cloud. A parallel outflow, possibly driven by IRAS 20496+4354, powers the bright bow shock HH 569. These observations demonstrate that vigorous star formation is still occurring within the clouds that surround the evolved North America/Pelican Nebula complex.

  8. Interstitial thermotherapy with bipolar electrosurgical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desinger, Kai; Stein, Thomas; Boehme, A.; Mack, Martin G.; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1998-01-01

    In addition to the laser, microwave or other energy sources, interstitial thermotherapy with radio-frequency current (RFITT) in bipolar technique has already been shown in vitro to be a safe and economical alternative energy source with a comparable operating performance. The bipolar technique is, from the technical point of view, completely without risk whereas with monopolar devices, where a neutral electrode has to be applied, an uncontrolled current flow passes through the patient's body. The therapeutical application efficiency of these bipolar RF-needle applicators was evaluated using newly designed high performance flushed and cooled probes (qq 3 mm). These can be used to create large coagulation volumes in tissue such as for the palliative treatment of liver metastases or the therapy of the benign prostate hyperplasia. As a result, the achievable lesion size resulting from these flushed and internally cooled RF- probes could be increased by a factor of three compared to a standard bipolar probe. With these bipolar power RF- applicators, coagulation dimensions of 5 cm length and 4 cm diameter with a power input of 40 watt could be achieved within 20 minutes. No carbonization and electrode tissue adherence was found. Investigations in vitro with adapted RFITT-probes using paramagnetic materials such as titanium alloys and high performance plastic have shown that monitoring under MRI (Siemens Magnetom, 1.5 Tesla), allows visualization of the development of the spatial temperature distribution in tissue using an intermittent diagnostic and therapeutical application. This does not lead to a loss in performance compared to continuous application. A ratio of 1:4 (15 s Thermo Flash MRI, 60 s RF-energy) has shown to be feasible.

  9. The Geometry of Quasar Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib

    2012-10-01

    Quasar outflows are important for understanding the accretion and growth processes of the central black hole, but also potentially play a role in feedback to the galaxy, halting star formation and infall of gas. A big uncertainty lies in the geometry and density of these outflows, especially as a function of ionization and velocity. We aim to tackle this using the archival COS M grating spectra of 266 quasars. We separate the geometry of outflows into two parts: the solid angle subtended around the black hole, and the distance of the outflow from the central engine. Large numbers of quasars with high resolution spectra are required for each aspect of this statistical investigation. First, we will determine which/how many absorption-line systems are intrinsic through both partial covering methods and statistical assessments. Second, we will consider the incidence of intrinsic absorbers as a function of quasar property {e.g., radio-loudness, SED shape, black hole mass, bolometric luminosity}. This will reveal what determines the solid angle. This can only be done at moderate redshifts where quasars with a larger range of properties are observable, and hence requires HST/COS. Third, we will use the wide range of diagnostic lines to constrain the physical conditions of the absorbers. We will target the CIII*1175 complex and apply photoionization models to constrain the densities and ionization parameters. This will provide the largest set yet of intrinsic absorbers with systematic distance constraints. In tandem with the solid angles, this work will inform models regarding the geometry of quasar outflows.

  10. Hot outflows in galaxy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirkpatrick, C. C.; McNamara, B. R.

    2015-10-01

    The gas-phase metallicity distribution has been analysed for the hot atmospheres of 29 galaxy clusters using Chandra X-ray Observatory observations. All host brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) with X-ray cavity systems produced by radio AGN. We find high elemental abundances projected preferentially along the cavities of 16 clusters. The metal-rich plasma was apparently lifted out of the BCGs with the rising X-ray cavities (bubbles) to altitudes between twenty and several hundred kiloparsecs. A relationship between the maximum projected altitude of the uplifted gas (the `iron radius') and jet power is found with the form R_Fe ∝ P_jet^{0.45}. The estimated outflow rates are typically tens of solar masses per year but exceed 100 M⊙ yr- 1 in the most powerful AGN. The outflow rates are 10-20 per cent of the cooling rates, and thus alone are unable to offset a cooling inflow. Nevertheless, hot outflows effectively redistribute the cooling gas and may play a significant role at regulating star formation and AGN activity in BCGs and presumably in giant elliptical galaxies. The metallicity distribution overall can be complex, perhaps due to metal-rich gas returning in circulation flows or being blown around in the hot atmospheres. Roughly 15 per cent of the work done by the cavities is expended lifting the metal-enriched gas, implying their nuclear black holes have increased in mass by at least ˜107-109 M⊙. Finally, we show that hot outflows can account for the broad, gas-phase metallicity distribution compared to the stellar light profiles of BCGs, and we consider a possible connection between hot outflows and cold molecular gas flows discovered in recent Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations.

  11. Asymmetric ionospheric outflow observed at the dayside magnetopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S. H.; Zhang, H.; Zong, Q.-G.; Wang, Y.; Otto, A.; Rème, H.; Glassmeier, K.-H.

    2015-05-01

    An important source of the terrestrial magnetospheric plasma is the Earth's ionospheric outflows from the high-latitude regions of both hemispheres. The ionospheric ion outflows have rarely been observed at the dayside magnetopause. We report Cluster observations of the ionospheric ion outflows observed at the dayside magnetopause. The low-energy (up to 1.5 keV) electrons are detected with bidirectional pitch angle distributions indicating that the magnetic field lines are closed. The unidirectional cold ions (< 200 eV) are observed in the magnetosphere by both C1 and C3. The pitch angle distributions (0∘-75∘) of the cold ions (< 1 keV) at the dayside magnetopause indicate that these cold ions are the ionospheric outflows coming only from the Southern Hemisphere. The cold ions (< 200 eV) fluxes are modulated by the ULF wave electric field. Two different species (possibly H+ and He+) are observed in the magnetosphere. Our results suggest that the ionospheric outflows can directly reach the dayside magnetopause region and may participate in the reconnection process.

  12. Solar wind outflow and the chromospheric magnetic network

    PubMed

    Hassler; Dammasch; Lemaire; Brekke; Curdt; Mason; Vial; Wilhelm

    1999-02-05

    Observations of outflow velocities in coronal holes (regions of open coronal magnetic field) have recently been obtained with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Velocity maps of Ne7+ from its bright resonance line at 770 angstroms, formed at the base of the corona, show a relationship between outflow velocity and chromospheric magnetic network structure, suggesting that the solar wind is rooted at its base to this structure, emanating from localized regions along boundaries and boundary intersections of magnetic network cells. This apparent relation to the chromospheric magnetic network and the relatively large outflow velocity signatures will improve understanding of the complex structure and dynamics at the base of the corona and the source region of the solar wind.

  13. Exploring the association of Fermi sources with young stellar objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munar-Adrover, P.; Paredes, J. M.; Romero, G. E.

    2011-11-01

    Massive protostars have associated bipolar outflows which can produce strong shocks when interact with the surrounding medium. In these conditions particle acceleration at relativistic velocities can occur leading to gamma ray emission, as some theoretical models predict. To identify young stellar objects (YSO) that may emit gamma rays we have crossed the Fermi First Year Catalog with some catalogs of known YSOs, and we have conducted Montecarlo simulations to find the probability of chance coincidence. With this crossing we obtained a list of YSOs spatially coincident with Fermi sources that may show gamma ray emission. Our results indicate that about 70% of the candidates should be gamma-ray sources with a confidence of 5 sigma. We have studied the coincidences one by one to check the viability of these YSOs as potential counterparts of Fermi sources and plan further detailed observations of few of them.

  14. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. III. NGC 1333 IRAS 4A/4B envelope, outflow, and ultraviolet heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Umut A.; Kristensen, Lars E.; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Belloche, Arnaud; van Kempen, Tim A.; Hogerheijde, Michiel R.; Güsten, Rolf; van der Marel, Nienke

    2012-06-01

    Context. The NGC 1333 IRAS 4A and IRAS 4B sources are among the most well-studied Stage 0 low-mass protostars, which drive prominent bipolar outflows. Spectrally resolved molecular emission lines provide crucial information about the physical and chemical structure of the circumstellar material as well as the dynamics of the different components. Most studies have so far concentrated on the colder parts (T ≤ 30 K) of these regions. Aims: The aim is to characterize the warmer parts of the protostellar envelope using the new generation of submillimeter instruments. This will allow us to quantify the feedback of the protostars on their surroundings in terms of shocks, ultraviolet (UV) heating, photodissociation, and outflow dispersal. Methods: The dual frequency 2 × 7 pixel 650/850 GHz array receiver CHAMP+ mounted on APEX was used to obtain a fully sampled, large-scale ~4' × 4' map at 9″ resolution of the IRAS 4A/4B region in the 12CO J = 6-5 line. Smaller maps were observed in the 13CO 6-5 and [C i] J = 2-1 lines. In addition, a fully sampled 12CO J = 3-2 map made with HARP-B on the JCMT is presented and deep isotopolog observations are obtained at selected outflow positions to constrain the optical depth. Complementary Herschel-HIFI and ground-based lines of CO and its isotopologs, from J = 1-0 up to 10-9 (Eu/k ≈ 300 K), are collected at the source positions and used to construct velocity-resolved CO ladders and rotational diagrams. Radiative-transfer models of the dust and lines are used to determine the temperatures and masses of the outflowing and photon-heated gas and infer the CO abundance structure. Results: Broad CO emission-line profiles trace entrained shocked gas along the outflow walls, which have an average temperature of ~100 K. At other positions surrounding the outflow and the protostar, the 6-5 line profiles are narrow indicating UV excitation. The narrow 13CO 6-5 data directly reveal the UV heated gas distribution for the first time. The

  15. MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE SUBSTELLAR DOMAIN: MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF YOUNG VERY LOW MASS OBJECTS IN TAURUS AND {rho} OPHIUCHI

    SciTech Connect

    Ngoc Phan-Bao; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Tang, Ya-Wen E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw

    2011-07-01

    We report here our search for molecular outflows from young very low mass stars and brown dwarfs in Taurus and {rho} Ophiuchi. Using the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, we have observed four targets at 1.3 mm wavelength (230 GHz) to search for CO J = 2 {yields} 1 outflows. A young very low mass star MHO 5 (in Taurus) with an estimated mass of 90 M{sub J}, which is just above the hydrogen-burning limit, shows two gas lobes that are likely outflows. While the CO map of MHO 5 does not show a clear structure of outflow, possibly due to environment gas, its position-velocity diagram indicates two distinct blue- and redshifted components. We therefore conclude that they are components of a bipolar molecular outflow from MHO 5. We estimate an outflow mass of 7.0 x 10{sup -5} M{sub sun} and a mass-loss rate of 9.0 x 10{sup -10} M{sub sun}. These values are over two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical ones for T Tauri stars and somewhat weaker than those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M{sub J} in {rho} Ophiuchi. This makes MHO 5 the first young very low mass star showing a bipolar molecular outflow in Taurus. The detection boosts the scenario that very low mass objects form like low-mass stars but in a version scaled down by a factor of over 100.

  16. Narrow UV Absorption Line Outflows from Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, F.; Simon, L.; Rodriguez Hidalgo, P.; Capellupo, D.

    2012-08-01

    Narrow absorption line (NAL) outflows are an important yet poorly understood part of the quasar outflow phenomenon. We discuss one particular NAL outflow that has high speeds, time variability, and moderate ionizations like typical BAL flows, at an estimated location just ˜5 pc from the quasar. It also has a total column density and line widths (internal velocity dispersions) ˜100 times smaller than BALs, with no substantial X-ray absorption. We argue that radiative shielding (in the form of an X-ray/warm absorber) is not critical for the outflow acceleration and that the moderate ionizations occur in dense substructures that have an overall small volume filling factor in the flow. We also present new estimates of the overall incidence of quasar outflow lines; e.g., ˜43% of bright quasars have a C IV NAL outflow while ˜68% have a C IV outflow line of any variety (NAL, BAL, or mini-BAL).

  17. Pleated metal bipolar assembly

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Mahlon S.; Zawodzinski, Christine

    2001-01-01

    A thin low-cost bipolar plate for an electrochemical cell is formed from a polymer support plate with first flow channels on a first side of the support plate and second flow channels on a second side of the support plate, where the first flow channels and second flow channels have intersecting locations and have a depth effective to form openings through the support plate at the intersecting locations. A first foil of electrically conductive material is pressed into the first flow channels. A second foil of electrically conductive material pressed into the second flow channels so that electrical contact is made between the first and second foils at the openings through the support plate. A particular application of the bipolar plate is in polymer electrolyte fuel cells.

  18. Epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Knott, Sarah; Forty, Liz; Craddock, Nick; Thomas, Rhys H

    2015-11-01

    It is well recognized that mood disorders and epilepsy commonly co-occur. Despite this, our knowledge regarding the relationship between epilepsy and bipolar disorder is limited. Several shared features between the two disorders, such as their episodic nature and potential to run a chronic course, and the efficacy of some antiepileptic medications in the prophylaxis of both disorders, are often cited as evidence of possible shared underlying pathophysiology. The present paper aims to review the bidirectional associations between epilepsy and bipolar disorder, with a focus on epidemiological links, evidence for shared etiology, and the impact of these disorders on both the individual and wider society. Better recognition and understanding of these two complex disorders, along with an integrated clinical approach, are crucial for improved evaluation and management of comorbid epilepsy and mood disorders.

  19. Carbamazepine in Bipolar Disorder With Pain: Reviewing Treatment Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Austin; O’Connell, Christopher R.; Nallapula, Kishan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine if any monotherapy drug treatment has robust efficacy to treat comorbid bipolar disorder and chronic pain. Data Sources: The American Psychiatric Association (APA) treatment guidelines for bipolar mood disorder and the 2012 Cochrane database for pain disorders. Study Selection: We relied on the treatment guides to determine if the drugs that are APA guideline–supported to treat bipolar disorder have supporting data from the Cochrane database for chronic pain. Data Synthesis: No single drug was mentioned by either guideline to treat this comorbidity. However, carbamazepine was the only drug that has guideline-supported robust efficacy in the management of each condition separately. Conclusions: Carbamazepine was found to have strong preclinical data for the treatment of comorbid bipolar mood disorder and chronic pain disorders. While requiring more studies in this population, we propose that this treatment modality may benefit patients. PMID:25667814

  20. A SYSTEMATIC SEARCH FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS TOWARD CANDIDATE LOW-LUMINOSITY PROTOSTARS AND VERY LOW LUMINOSITY OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Shirley, Yancy L.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2012-10-01

    We present a systematic single-dish search for molecular outflows toward a sample of nine candidate low-luminosity protostars and 30 candidate very low luminosity objects (VeLLOs; L{sub int} {<=} 0.1 L{sub Sun }). The sources are identified using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope cataloged by Dunham et al. toward nearby (D < 400 pc) star-forming regions. Each object was observed in {sup 12}CO and {sup 13}CO J = 2 {yields} 1 simultaneously using the sideband separating ALMA Band-6 prototype receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope at 30'' resolution. Using five-point grid maps, we identify five new potential outflow candidates and make on-the-fly maps of the regions surrounding sources in the dense cores B59, L1148, L1228, and L1165. Of these new outflow candidates, only the map of B59 shows a candidate blue outflow lobe associated with a source in our survey. We also present larger and more sensitive maps of the previously detected L673-7 and the L1251-A-IRS4 outflows and analyze their properties in comparison to other outflows from VeLLOs. The accretion luminosities derived from the outflow properties of the VeLLOs with detected CO outflows are higher than the observed internal luminosity of the protostars, indicating that these sources likely had higher accretion rates in the past. The known L1251-A-IRS3 outflow is detected but not re-mapped. We do not detect clear, unconfused signatures of red and blue molecular wings toward the other 31 sources in the survey indicating that large-scale, distinct outflows are rare toward this sample of candidate protostars. Several potential outflows are confused with the kinematic structure in the surrounding core and cloud. Interferometric imaging is needed to disentangle large-scale molecular cloud kinematics from these potentially weak protostellar outflows.

  1. [Creativity and bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Maçkalı, Zeynep; Gülöksüz, Sinan; Oral, Timuçin

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder has been an intriguing topic since ancient times. Early studies focused on describing characteristics of creative people. From the last quarter of the twentieth century, researchers began to focus on the relationship between mood disorders and creativity. Initially, the studies were based on biographical texts and the obtained results indicated a relationship between these two concepts. The limitations of the retrospective studies led the researchers to develop systematic investigations into this area. The systematic studies that have focused on artistic creativity have examined both the prevalence of mood disorders and the creative process. In addition, a group of researchers addressed the relationship in terms of affective temperaments. Through the end of the 90's, the scope of creativity was widened and the notion of everyday creativity was proposed. The emergence of this notion led researchers to investigate the associations of the creative process in ordinary (non-artist) individuals. In this review, the descriptions of creativity and creative process are mentioned. Also, the creative process is addressed with regards to bipolar disorder. Then, the relationship between creativity and bipolar disorder are evaluated in terms of aforementioned studies (biographical, systematic, psychobiographical, affective temperaments). In addition, a new model, the "Shared Vulnerability Model" which was developed to explain the relationship between creativity and psychopathology is introduced. Finally, the methodological limitations and the suggestions for resolving these limitations are included.

  2. Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in crisis. What do I do? Share Bipolar Disorder in Children and Teens Download PDF Download ePub ... brochure will give you more information. What is bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a serious brain illness. It ...

  3. RADIATION TRANSFER OF MODELS OF MASSIVE STAR FORMATION. II. EFFECTS OF THE OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yichen; Tan, Jonathan C.; McKee, Christopher F. E-mail: jt@astro.ufl.edu

    2013-04-01

    We present radiation transfer simulations of a massive (8 M{sub Sun }) protostar forming from a massive (M{sub c} = 60 M{sub Sun }) protostellar core, extending the model developed by Zhang and Tan. The two principal improvements are (1) developing a model for the density and velocity structure of a disk wind that fills the bipolar outflow cavities, based in part on the disk-wind model of Blandford and Payne; and (2) solving for the radially varying accretion rate in the disk due to a supply of mass and angular momentum from the infall envelope and their loss to the disk wind. One consequence of the launching of the disk wind is a reduction in the amount of accretion power that is radiated by the disk. We also include a non-Keplerian potential appropriate for a growing, massive disk. For the transition from dusty to dust-free conditions where gas opacities dominate, we now implement a gradual change as a more realistic approximation of dust destruction. We study how the above effects, especially the outflow, influence the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and the synthetic images of the protostar. Dust in the outflow cavity significantly affects the SEDs at most viewing angles. It further attenuates the short-wavelength flux from the protostar, controlling how the accretion disk may be viewed, and contributes a significant part of the near- and mid-IR fluxes. These fluxes warm the disk, boosting the mid- and far-IR emission. We find that for near face-on views, i.e., looking down the outflow cavity (although not too close to the axis), the SED from the near-IR to about 60 {mu}m is very flat, which may be used to identify such systems. We show that the near-facing outflow cavity and its walls are still the most significant features in images up to 70 {mu}m, dominating the mid-IR emission and determining its morphology. The thermal emission from the dusty outflow itself dominates the flux at {approx}20 {mu}m. The detailed distribution of the dust in the outflow

  4. Hydrothermal outflow plume of Valles caldera, New Mexico, and a comparison with other outflow plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Gardner, J.N.; Vuataz, F.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1988-06-10

    Stratigraphic, temperature gradient, hydrogeochemical, and hydrologic data have been integrated with geologic data from previous studies to show the structural configuration of the Valles caldera hydrothermal outflow plume. Hydrologic data suggest that 25--50% of the discharge of the Valles outflow is confined to the Jemez fault zone, which predates caldera formation. Thermal gradient data from bores penetrating the plume show that shallow gradients are highest in the vicinity of the Jemez fault zone (up to 190 /sup 0/C/km). Shallow heat flow above the hydrothermal plume is as high as 500 mW m/sup -2/ near core hole VC-1 (Jemez fault zone) to 200 mW m/sup -2/ at Fenton Hill (Jemez Plateau). Chemical and isotopic data indicate that two source reservoirs within the caldera (Redondo Creek and Sulphur Springs reservoirs) are parents to mixed fluids flowing in the hydrothermal plume. However, isotopic data, borehole data, basic geology, and inverse relations between temperature and chloride content at major hot springs indicate that no single reservoir fluid and no single diluting fluid are involved in mixing. The Valles caldera hydrothermal plume is structurally dominated by lateral flow through a belt of vertical conduits (Jemez fault zone) that strike away from the source reservoir. Stratigraphically confined flow is present but dispersed over a wide area in relatively impermeable rocks. The Valles configuration is contrasted with the configuration of the hydrothermal plume at Roosevelt Hot Springs, which is dominated by lateral flow through a near-surface, widespread, permeable aquifer. Data from 12 other representative geothermal systems show that outflow plumes occur in a variety of magmatic and tectonic settings, have varying reservoir compositions, and have different flow characteristics.

  5. A Hot Molecular Circumstellar Disk around the Massive Protostar Orion Source I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kurono, Yasutaka; Honma, Mareki

    2014-02-01

    We report new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a circumstellar disk around Source I in Orion KL, an archetype of massive protostar candidates. We detected two ortho-H2O lines at 321 GHz (102, 9-93, 6) and 336 GHz (ν2 = 1, 52, 3-61, 6) for the first time in Source I. The latter one is in a vibrationally excited state at the lower state energy of 2939 K, suggesting evidence of hot molecular gas close to Source I. The integrated intensity map of the 321 GHz line is elongated along the bipolar outflow while the 336 GHz line map is unresolved with a beam size of 0.''4. Both of these maps show velocity gradients perpendicular to the bipolar outflow. The velocity centroid map of the 321 GHz line implies a spatial and velocity structure similar to that of vibrationally excited SiO masers tracing the root of the outflow emanating from the disk surface. In contrast, the 336 GHz line is most likely emitting from the disk midplane with a diameter of 0.''2 (84 AU) as traced by radio continuum emission and a dark lane devoid of the vibrationally excited SiO maser emission. The observed velocity gradient and the spectral profile of the 336 GHz H2O line can be reconciled with a model of an edge-on ring-like structure with an enclosed mass of >7 M ⊙ and an excitation temperature of >3000 K. The present results provide further evidence of a hot and neutral circumstellar disk rotating around Source I with a diameter of ~100 AU scale.

  6. A HOT MOLECULAR CIRCUMSTELLAR DISK AROUND THE MASSIVE PROTOSTAR ORION SOURCE I

    SciTech Connect

    Hirota, Tomoya; Honma, Mareki; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Kurono, Yasutaka

    2014-02-20

    We report new Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) observations of a circumstellar disk around Source I in Orion KL, an archetype of massive protostar candidates. We detected two ortho-H{sub 2}O lines at 321 GHz (10{sub 2,} {sub 9}-9{sub 3,} {sub 6}) and 336 GHz (ν{sub 2} = 1, 5{sub 2,} {sub 3}-6{sub 1,} {sub 6}) for the first time in Source I. The latter one is in a vibrationally excited state at the lower state energy of 2939 K, suggesting evidence of hot molecular gas close to Source I. The integrated intensity map of the 321 GHz line is elongated along the bipolar outflow while the 336 GHz line map is unresolved with a beam size of 0.''4. Both of these maps show velocity gradients perpendicular to the bipolar outflow. The velocity centroid map of the 321 GHz line implies a spatial and velocity structure similar to that of vibrationally excited SiO masers tracing the root of the outflow emanating from the disk surface. In contrast, the 336 GHz line is most likely emitting from the disk midplane with a diameter of 0.''2 (84 AU) as traced by radio continuum emission and a dark lane devoid of the vibrationally excited SiO maser emission. The observed velocity gradient and the spectral profile of the 336 GHz H{sub 2}O line can be reconciled with a model of an edge-on ring-like structure with an enclosed mass of >7 M{sub ☉} and an excitation temperature of >3000 K. The present results provide further evidence of a hot and neutral circumstellar disk rotating around Source I with a diameter of ∼100 AU scale.

  7. Accretion Disk Outflows from Compact Object Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian

    nuclear reaction network along characteristic Lagrangian trajectories. Results of these calculations will be used to (1) reassess NS-NS/NS-BH mergers as an astrophysical source of heavy r-process nuclei; and (2) calculate the light curves of the optical transients (`kilonovae') powered by the radioactive decay. Separate work will assess the effects that neutrino irradiation from a long-lived neutron star remnant has on the electron fraction of the disk outflows. The strong contrast between the opacities of proton- and neutron-rich matter imply that the presence and lifetime of such a remnant could be imprinted on the kilonova emission. Our investigation sheds light on the central engines of GRBs and other high-energy transients and hence is relevant to NASA's Swift, MAXI, and Fermi missions. Our results will also impact the interpretation of future observations of supernovae and their galactic environments with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Our results will also impact follow-up observations of kilonovae, maximizing the impact of HST to constrain the key open questions such as the progenitors of gamma-ray bursts and the origin of r-process nuclei.

  8. ISOTROPICALLY DRIVEN VERSUS OUTFLOW DRIVEN TURBULENCE: OBSERVATIONAL CONSEQUENCES FOR MOLECULAR CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Jonathan J.; Frank, Adam; Blackman, Eric G.

    2010-10-10

    Feedback from protostellar outflows can influence the nature of turbulence in star-forming regions even if they are not the primary source of velocity dispersion for all scales of molecular clouds. For the rate and power expected in star-forming regions, we previously (Carroll et al.) demonstrated that outflows could drive supersonic turbulence at levels consistent with the scaling relations from Matzner although with a steeper velocity power spectrum than expected for an isotropically driven supersonic turbulent cascade. Here, we perform higher resolution simulations and combine simulations of outflow driven turbulence with those of isotropically forced turbulence. We find that the presence of outflows within an ambient isotropically driven turbulent environment produces a knee in the velocity power spectrum at the outflow scale and a steeper slope at sub-outflow scales than for a purely isotropically forced case. We also find that the presence of outflows flattens the density spectrum at large scales effectively reducing the formation of large-scale turbulent density structures. These effects are qualitatively independent of resolution. We have also carried out Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for synthetic data from our simulations. We find that PCA as a tool for identifying the driving scale of turbulence has a misleading bias toward low amplitude large-scale velocity structures even when they are not necessarily the dominant energy containing scales. This bias is absent for isotropically forced turbulence but manifests strongly for collimated outflow driven turbulence.

  9. POST ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH BIPOLAR REFLECTION NEBULAE: RESULT OF DYNAMICAL EJECTION OR SELECTIVE ILLUMINATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, N.; Kwok, Sun; Steffen, W. E-mail: sunkwok@hku.hk

    2013-03-10

    A model for post asymptotic giant branch bipolar reflection nebulae has been constructed based on a pair of evacuated cavities in a spherical dust envelope. Many of the observed features of bipolar nebulae, including filled bipolar lobes, an equatorial torus, searchlight beams, and a bright central light source, can be reproduced. The effects on orientation and dust densities are studied and comparisons with some observed examples are offered. We suggest that many observed properties of bipolar nebulae are the result of optical effects and any physical modeling of these nebulae has to take these factors into consideration.

  10. Treating Bipolar Disorder in the Primary Care Setting: The Role of Aripiprazole

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this article is to present practical strategies for detecting and diagnosing bipolar disorder in the primary care setting and to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole treatment for bipolar disorder. Data Sources: A review of the literature from 1980 to 2007 was conducted from November 2006 through February 2007 using a MEDLINE search and the key words bipolar disorder, primary care, detection, diagnosis, and aripiprazole. Study Selection: A total of 100 articles that focused on the accurate detection and diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the evidence of the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder were selected. Data Synthesis: Patients with bipolar disorder often present to primary care physicians with depressive or mixed symptoms as opposed to purely hypomanic or manic symptoms. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is essential in order to provide timely and appropriate treatment. One treatment option available is aripiprazole, a partial agonist of dopamine (D)2 and D3 and serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2A receptor. Clinical trial data have shown aripiprazole to be effective in treating manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, both in the acute phase and over an extended period of treatment lasting from 6 months to 2 years. Conclusions: Accurate diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder are challenges increasingly faced by primary care physicians. Strategies geared toward detection, diagnosis, and management of bipolar I disorder and other bipolar spectrum disorders may improve the treatment outcome for patients. Aripiprazole may be considered as another first-line choice for the treatment of bipolar I disorder; however, its utility in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders is yet to be determined. PMID:19956463

  11. New Proplyds, Outflows, Shocks, and a Reflection Nebula in M43 and the Outer Parts of the Orion Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, C. R.

    2001-11-01

    Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 images made as planned parallel observations have produced emission-line images of fields in the outer portions of the Orion Nebula and near the center of the companion H II region, M43. Examination of these images have uncovered three new bright proplyds and one silhouette proplyd. Two of the bright proplyds lie within M43 and are photoionized by its central star, NU Ori. The new bright proplyd in the Orion Nebula shows a monopolar microjet, and analysis of its size and surface brightness indicates that it lies well in the foreground. Symmetric shocks indicate bipolar flow around the K8e star V1348 Ori (304-539) near θ2 Ori C. Evidence for multiple outflows from a source southeast of 036-927, well south of the bright bar feature of the nebula, is indicated. A bright reflection nebula was found around the B1.5 Vp star LP Ori (098-753). The form of this object indicates that this star is moving within the veil of neutral material that lies in front of M42. Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.

  12. Are X-ray emitting coronae around supermassive black holes outflowing?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Teng; Wang, Jun-Xian; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Fei-Fan; Zhou, You-Yuan E-mail: jxw@ustc.edu.cn

    2014-03-10

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs) is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact coronae near the supermassive black hole. However, the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics, and dynamics, remain poorly known. In this work, taking [O IV] 25.89 μm emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGNs' intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We compile a sample of 130 Compton-thin Seyfert galaxies with both [O IV] 25.89 μm line luminosities measured with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer and X-ray spectra observed by XMM-Newton, Chandra, Suzaku, or Swift. Known radio-loud sources are excluded. We fit the X-ray spectra to obtain the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV continuum luminosities. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are intrinsically brighter in intrinsic 2-10 keV emission by a factor of 2.8{sub −0.4}{sup +0.5} (2.2{sub −0.3}{sup +0.9} in Swift Burst Alert Telescope 14-195 keV emission), compared with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference in X-ray emission between the two populations is thus unlikely to be due to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ∼0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. Other consequences of outflowing coronae are also discussed.

  13. Mixing and Dynamics of the Mediterranean Outflow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    geostrophic current. A simple geostrophic adjustment model is used to show that in the absence of frictional stresses, the outflow would very quickly...A simple numerical model that uses a Froude number dependent entrain- ment and a quadratic bottom friction law is used to simulate the outflow (Price...initially as high as 0.6), are simulated rather well, though the model overestimates the magnitude of the outflow current. We suspect that this is a

  14. Observation of bias-dependent noise sources in a TiO{sub x}/TiO{sub y} bipolar resistive switching frame

    SciTech Connect

    Hyung Kim, Joo; Rahm Lee, Ah; Cheol Bae, Yoon; Ho Baek, Kwang; Sik Im, Hyun; Pyo Hong, Jin

    2014-02-24

    We report the conduction features associated with the evolution of oxygen ions (or vacancies) under bias for a TiO{sub x} (oxygen ion-rich)/TiO{sub y} (oxygen ion-deficient) bi-layer cell by identifying low-frequency noise sources. It is believed that a low resistance state enhances the formation of conductive filaments exchanging electrons through a nearest-neighbor hopping process, while a high resistance state (HRS) emphasizes the rupture of conductive filaments inside the insulating TiO{sub x} layer and a reduction/oxidation reaction at the oxide interfaces. The high resolution transmission electron microscope images of as-grown and HRS cells are also discussed.

  15. Simulated O VI Doppler dimming measurements of coronal outflow velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strachan, Leonard; Gardner, L. D.; Kohl, John L.

    1992-01-01

    The possibility of determining O(5+) outflow velocities by using a Doppler dimming analysis of the resonantly scattered intensities of O VI lambda 1031.9 and lambda 1037.6 is addressed. The technique is sensitive to outflow velocities, W, in the range W greater than 30 and less than 250 km/s and can be used for probing regions of the inner solar corona, where significant coronal heating and solar wind acceleration may be occurring. These velocity measurements, when combined with measurements of other plasma parameters (temperatures and densities of ions and electrons) can be used to estimate the energy and mass flux of O(5+). In particular, it may be possible to locate where the flow changes from subsonic to supersonic and to identify source regions for the high and low speed solar wind. The velocity diagnostic technique is discussed with emphasis placed on the requirements needed for accurate outflow velocity determinations. Model determinations of outflow velocities based on simulated Doppler observations are presented.

  16. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  17. Ammonia and CO Outflow around 6.7 GHz Methanol Masers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F. C.; Xu, Y.; Wu, Y. W.; Yang, J.; Lu, D. R.; Menten, K. M.; Henkel, C.

    2016-10-01

    Single point observations are presented in NH3 (1, 1) and (2, 2) inversion transitions using the Effelsberg 100 m telescope for a sample of 100 6.7 GHz methanol masers and mapping observations in the 12CO and 13CO (1 - 0) transitions using the Purple Mountain Observatory Delingha 13.7 m telescope for 82 sample sources with detected ammonia. A further 62 sources were selected for either 12CO or 13CO line outflow identification, producing 45 outflow candidates, 29 using 12CO and 16 using 13CO data. Twenty-two of the outflow candidates were newly identified, and 23 had trigonometric parallax distances. Physical properties were derived from ammonia lines and CO outflow parameters were calculated. Histograms and statistical correlations for ammonia, CO outflow parameters, and 6.7 GHz methanol maser luminosities are also presented. No significant correlation was found between ammonia and maser luminosity. However, weak correlations were found between outflow properties and maser luminosities, which may indicate that outflows are physically associated with 6.7 GHz masers.

  18. Big data for bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Monteith, Scott; Glenn, Tasha; Geddes, John; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-12-01

    The delivery of psychiatric care is changing with a new emphasis on integrated care, preventative measures, population health, and the biological basis of disease. Fundamental to this transformation are big data and advances in the ability to analyze these data. The impact of big data on the routine treatment of bipolar disorder today and in the near future is discussed, with examples that relate to health policy, the discovery of new associations, and the study of rare events. The primary sources of big data today are electronic medical records (EMR), claims, and registry data from providers and payers. In the near future, data created by patients from active monitoring, passive monitoring of Internet and smartphone activities, and from sensors may be integrated with the EMR. Diverse data sources from outside of medicine, such as government financial data, will be linked for research. Over the long term, genetic and imaging data will be integrated with the EMR, and there will be more emphasis on predictive models. Many technical challenges remain when analyzing big data that relates to size, heterogeneity, complexity, and unstructured text data in the EMR. Human judgement and subject matter expertise are critical parts of big data analysis, and the active participation of psychiatrists is needed throughout the analytical process.

  19. OUTFLOW, INFALL, AND PROTOSTARS IN THE STAR-FORMING CORE W3-SE

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu Lei; Zhao Junhui; Wright, M. C. H. E-mail: jzhao@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-10-20

    We report new results on outflow and infall in the star-forming cores W3-SE SMA-1 and SMA-2 based on analysis of {approx}2.''5 resolution observations of the molecular lines HCN(3-2), HCO{sup +}(3-2), N{sub 2}H{sup +}(3-2), and CH{sub 3}OH(5{sub 2,3}-4{sub 1,3}) with the Submillimeter Array (SMA). A high-velocity bipolar outflow originating from the protostellar core SMA-1 was observed in the HCN(3-2) line, with a projected outflow axis at a position angle of 48{sup 0}. The detection of the outflow is confirmed from other molecular lines. An inverse P-Cygni profile in the HCN(3-2) line toward SMA-1 suggests that at least one of the double cores accretes matter from the molecular core. A filamentary structure in the molecular gas surrounds SMA-1 and SMA-2. Based on the SMA observations, our analysis suggests that the double pre-stellar cores SMA-1 and SMA-2 result from fragmentation in the collapsing massive molecular core W3-SE, and it is likely that they are forming intermediate- to high-mass stars which will be new members of a star cluster in the W3-SE region.

  20. OUTFLOWS IN SODIUM EXCESS OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jongwon; Yi, Sukyoung K.; Jeong, Hyunjin

    2015-08-10

    Van Dokkum and Conroy revisited the unexpectedly strong Na i lines at 8200 Å found in some giant elliptical galaxies and interpreted them as evidence for an unusually bottom-heavy initial mass function. Jeong et al. later found a large population of galaxies showing equally extraordinary Na D doublet absorption lines at 5900 Å (Na D excess objects: NEOs) and showed that their origins can be different for different types of galaxies. While a Na D excess seems to be related to the interstellar medium (ISM) in late-type galaxies, smooth-looking early-type NEOs show little or no dust extinction and hence no compelling signs of ISM contributions. To further test this finding, we measured the Doppler components in the Na D lines. We hypothesized that the ISM would have a better (albeit not definite) chance of showing a blueshift Doppler departure from the bulk of the stellar population due to outflow caused by either star formation or AGN activities. Many of the late-type NEOs clearly show blueshift in their Na D lines, which is consistent with the former interpretation that the Na D excess found in them is related to gas outflow caused by star formation. On the contrary, smooth-looking early-type NEOs do not show any notable Doppler components, which is also consistent with the interpretation of Jeong et al. that the Na D excess in early-type NEOs is likely not related to ISM activities but is purely stellar in origin.

  1. Bipolar disorder in women

    PubMed Central

    Parial, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Bipolar affective disorder in women is a challenging disorder to treat. It is unique in its presentation in women and characterized by later age of onset, seasonality, atypical presentation, and a higher degree of mixed episodes. Medical and psychiatric co-morbidity adversely affects recovery from the bipolar disorder (BD) more often in women. Co-morbidity, particularly thyroid disease, migraine, obesity, and anxiety disorders occur more frequently in women while substance use disorders are more common in men. Treatment of women during pregnancy and lactation is challenging. Pregnancy neither protects nor exacerbates BD, and many women require continuation of medication during the pregnancy. The postpartum period is a time of high risk for onset and recurrence of BD in women. Prophylaxis with mood stabilizers might be needed. Individualized risk/benefits assessments of pregnant and postpartum women with BD are required to promote the health of the women and to avoid or limit exposure of the fetus or infant to potential adverse effects of medication. PMID:26330643

  2. Outflow and Accretion Physics in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, Sean Michael

    intervals are associated with high-ionization species such as C IV and N V, low-ionization lines including Mg II and Al III, and ground and excited states from Fe II multiplets. The detected BAL and mini-BAL variations in a subset of sources provide evidence supporting scenarios involving either transverse motions of gas or ionization changes within the absorbers. We conclude that some outflows in our samples likely exist on the order of 0.01-1 pc from the SMBH, and the possibility remains that we are tracing outflowing gas on larger scales within limits ranging from ≤10 pc to ≤1 kpc from the central source. We estimate outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜10 6 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that the BAL outflows we probe likely possess a range of energies and only some absorber energies are likely sufficient for AGN feedback processes. We estimate the SMBH mass in the LLAGN in NGC 4203 to be ˜1.1x10 7 solar masses within a factor of ˜2. This mass estimate in conjunction with theoretical predictions is consistent with the existence of a two-component accretion flow in the nucleus of NGC 4203, consisting of a hot, advection-dominated torus at small radii connected with a thin, radiatively efficient disk at larger scales. These results provide a significant increase in the information available for quasar outflow properties and the conditions in low-luminosity accretion disks, and will inform future observational and theoretical studies that attempt to construct a more complete picture of AGN and their effects on the surrounding environments.

  3. Jets and Outflows from Star to Cloud: Observations Confront Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, A.; Ray, T. P.; Cabrit, S.; Hartigan, P.; Arce, H. G.; Bacciotti, F.; Bally, J.; Benisty, M.; Eislöffel, J.; Güdel, M.; Lebedev, S.; Nisini, B.; Raga, A.

    In this review we focus on the role jets and outflows play in the star- and planet-formation process. Our essential question can be posed as follows: Are jets/outflows merely an epiphenomenon associated with star formation, or do they play an important role in mediating the physics of assembling stars both individually and globally? We address this question by reviewing the current state of observations and their key points of contact with theory. Our review of jet/outflow phenomena is organized into three length-scale domains: (1) source and disk scales (0.1-102 AU) where the connection with protostellar and disk evolution theories is paramount; (2) envelope scales (102-105 AU) where the chemistry and propagation shed further light on the jet launching process, its variability and its impact on the infalling envelope; and (3) parent cloud scales (105-106 AU) where global momentum injection into cluster/cloud environments become relevant. Issues of feedback are of particular importance on the smallest scales, where planet formation regions in a disk may be impacted by the presence of disk winds, irradiation by jet shocks, or shielding by the winds. Feedback on envelope scales may determine the final stellar mass (core-to-star efficiency) and envelope dissipation. Feedback also plays an important role on the larger scales with outflows contributing to turbulent support within clusters, including alteration of cluster star-formation efficiencies (SFEs) (feedback on larger scales currently appears unlikely). In describing these observations we also look to the future and consider the questions that new facilities such as the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and the Jansky Array can address. A particularly novel dimension of our review is that we consider results on jet dynamics from the emerging field of high-energy-density laboratory astrophysics (HEDLA), which is now providing direct insights into the three-dimesional dynamics of fully magnetized

  4. Storm time heavy ion outflow at mid-latitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, H.C.; Foster, J.C. )

    1990-06-01

    Local ionospheric observations with the Millstone Hill incoherent scatterradar reveal an upward ion bulk velocity in excess of 3 km s{sup {minus} 1} at 1,000 km altitude during the very large magnetic storm on February 8, 1986. The upward flux of O{sup +} ions exceeded 3 {times} 10{sup 9} cm{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at 42{degree} geodetic latitude (55{degree} {Lambda}) for a 3-hour period around 18 MLT during the event. Frictinal ion heating with ion temperatures in excess of 4,000 K at 500 km altitude was observed by the radar in the vicinity of the ion outflow event. Satellite observations place the ion outflow event within a region of intense ion and electron precipitation on field lines associated with the storm-perturbed ring current. For a one-dimensional analysis of the observed plasma profiles, continuity considerations indicate a region of intense O{sup +} production (200 cm{sup {minus}3} s{sup {minus}1}) as well as significant upward acceleration (5-10 m s{sup {minus}2}) in the region between 600 km and 800 km altitude where the outflow approaches supersonic speed. Ionizing collisions involving fast backsplash neutral O atoms (Torr et al., 1974) produced by ring current heavy ion precipitation can provide sufficient upward momentum to account for the acceleration in the observed outflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes. Alternatively, the outflow event can be explained in terms of a time-dependent diffusion process triggered by a sudden change in the frictional heating rate in the collision-dominated F region (St.-Maurice, 1989). The concurrence of rapid ion convection and energetic ring current precipitation is unique at mid-latitudes during intense magnetic storms. Under these conditions, the observations indicate that the mid-latitude ionosphere constitutes a significant source of upflowing thermal O{sup +} fluxes to the overlying magnetosphere.

  5. Interactions between gravity waves and cold air outflows in a stably stratified uniform flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Yuh-Lang; Wang, Ting-An; Weglarz, Ronald P.

    1993-01-01

    Interactions between gravity waves and cold air outflows in a stably stratified uniform flow forced by various combinations of prescribed heat sinks and sources are studied using a hydrostatic two-dimensional nonlinear numerical model. The formation time for the development of a stagnation point or reversed flow at the surface is not always directly proportional to the Froude number when wave reflections exist from upper levels. A density current is able to form by the wave-otuflow interaction, even though the Froude number is greater than a critical value. This is the result of the wave-outflow interaction shifting the flow response to a different location in the characteristic parameter space. A density current is able to form or be destroyed due to the wave-outflow interaction between a traveling gravity wave and cold air outflow. This is proved by performing experiments with a steady-state heat sink and an additional transient heat source. In a quiescent fluid, a region of cold air, convergence, and upward motion is formed after the collision between two outflows produced by two prescribed heat sinks. After the collision, the individual cold air outflows lose their own identity and merge into a single, stationary, cold air outflow region. Gravity waves tend to suppress this new stationary cold air outflow after the collision. The region of upward motion associated with the collision is confined to a very shallow layer. In a moving airstream, a density current produced by a heat sink may be suppressed or enhanced nonlinearly by an adjacent heat sink due to the wave-outflow interaction.

  6. Electrochemical degradation of trichloroethylene in aqueous solution by bipolar graphite electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Rajic, Ljiljana; Nazari, Roya; Fallahpour, Noushin; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we tested the use of the bipolar electrodes to enhance electrochemical degradation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in an undivided, flow-through electrochemical reactor. The bipolar electrode forms when an electrically conductive material polarizes between feeder electrodes that are connected to a direct current source and, therefore, creates an additional anode/cathode pair in the system. We hypothesize that bipolar electrodes will generate additional oxidation/reduction zones to enhance TCE degradation. The graphite cathode followed by graphite anode sequence were operated without a bipolar electrode as well as with one and two bipolar graphite electrodes. The system without bipolar electrodes degraded 29% of TCE while the system with one and two bipolar electrodes degraded 38% and 66% of TCE, respectively. It was found that the removal mechanism for TCE in bipolar mode includes hydrodechlorination at the feeder cathode, and oxidation through reaction with peroxide. The results show that the bipolar electrodes presence enhance TCE removal efficiency and rate and imply that they can be used to improve electrochemical treatment of contaminated groundwater. PMID:26955517

  7. Star formation inside a galactic outflow.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, R; Russell, H R; Fabian, A C; Carniani, S; Gallagher, R; Cazzoli, S; Arribas, S; Belfiore, F; Bellocchi, E; Colina, L; Cresci, G; Ishibashi, W; Marconi, A; Mannucci, F; Oliva, E; Sturm, E

    2017-04-13

    Recent observations have revealed massive galactic molecular outflows that may have the physical conditions (high gas densities) required to form stars. Indeed, several recent models predict that such massive outflows may ignite star formation within the outflow itself. This star-formation mode, in which stars form with high radial velocities, could contribute to the morphological evolution of galaxies, to the evolution in size and velocity dispersion of the spheroidal component of galaxies, and would contribute to the population of high-velocity stars, which could even escape the galaxy. Such star formation could provide in situ chemical enrichment of the circumgalactic and intergalactic medium (through supernova explosions of young stars on large orbits), and some models also predict it to contribute substantially to the star-formation rate observed in distant galaxies. Although there exists observational evidence for star formation triggered by outflows or jets into their host galaxy, as a consequence of gas compression, evidence for star formation occurring within galactic outflows is still missing. Here we report spectroscopic observations that unambiguously reveal star formation occurring in a galactic outflow at a redshift of 0.0448. The inferred star-formation rate in the outflow is larger than 15 solar masses per year. Star formation may also be occurring in other galactic outflows, but may have been missed by previous observations owing to the lack of adequate diagnostics.

  8. 3D kinematics of the near-IR HH 223 outflow in L723

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, R.; Acosta-Pulido, J. A.; Estalella, R.; Gómez, G.; García-Lorenzo, B.

    2015-03-01

    In this work, we derive the full 3D kinematics of the near-infrared outflow HH 223, located in the dark cloud Lynds 723 (L723), where a well-defined quadrupolar CO outflow is found. HH 223 appears projected on to the two lobes of the east-west CO outflow. The radio continuum source VLA 2, towards the centre of the CO outflow, harbours a multiple system of low-mass young stellar objects. One of the components has been proposed to be the exciting source of the east-west CO outflow. From the analysis of the kinematics, we get further evidence on the relationship between the near-infrared and CO outflows and on the location of their exciting source. The proper motions were derived using multi-epoch, narrow-band H2 (2.122 μm line) images. Radial velocities were derived from the 2.122 μm line of the spectra. Because of the extended (˜5 arcmin), S-shaped morphology of the target, the spectra were obtained with the multi-object-spectroscopy (MOS) observing mode using the instrument Long-Slit Intermediate Resolution Infrared Spectrograph (LIRIS) at the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope. To our knowledge, this work is the first time that MOS observing mode has been successfully used in the near-infrared range for an extended target.

  9. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  10. Ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated.

  11. Pharmacogenomics of bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Severino, Giovanni; Squassina, Alessio; Costa, Marta; Pisanu, Claudia; Calza, Stefano; Alda, Martin; Del Zompo, Maria; Manchia, Mirko

    2013-04-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a lifelong severe psychiatric condition with high morbidity, disability and excess mortality. The longitudinal clinical trajectory of BD is significantly modified by pharmacological treatment(s), both in acute and in long-term stages. However, a large proportion of BD patients have inadequate response to pharmacological treatments. Pharmacogenomic research may lead to the identification of molecular predictors of treatment response. When integrated with clinical information, pharmacogenomic findings may be used in the future to determine the probability of response/nonresponse to treatment on an individual basis. Here we present a selective review of pharmacogenomic findings in BD. In light of the evidence suggesting a genetic effect of lithium reponse in BD, we focused particularly on the pharmacogenomic literature relevant to this trait. The article contributes a detailed overview of the current status of pharmacogenomics in BD and offers a perspective on the challenges that can hinder its transition to personalized healthcare.

  12. Magnetospheric Sawtooth Oscillations Induced by Ionospheric Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambles, O. J.; Lotko, W.; Zhang, B.; Lyon, J.; Wiltberger, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    This paper aims to address why sawtooth oscillations occur and what factors affect their periodicity. We use a multifluid version of the LFM global simulation model, driven by a steady solar wind to examine the effects of ion outflow on convection in the magnetosphere. In the simulation model, the properties of cusp and auroral region O+ outflow are causally regulated by electron precipitation and electromagnetic power flowing into the ionosphere. It is found that when ion outflow is included in the simulation, the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction can generate periodic substorms which appear as sawtooth-like oscillations in the geostationary magnetic field. The ion outflow enhances plasma pressure in the inner magnetosphere and the associated diamagnetic ring current stretches the field lines throughout the nightside, essentially from dawn to dusk. If the field lines are sufficiently stretched they reconnect and dipolarize, ejecting a plasmoid downtail. This cycle repeats forming multiple sawtooth oscillations. The periodicity of the sawtooth oscillation depends largely upon the strength of the outflow. The strength of outflow is varied in the simulation by changing both the driving conditions (which affects the power flowing into the ionosphere) and through direct modification of the constants in the empirical relationships. Higher outflow fluences produce oscillations with shorter periods. The period of the oscillation is found to vary in the simulations from approximately 2 hours to 6 hours depending upon the strength of the outflow. For a smaller solar wind electric field the outflow fluence is not large enough to stretch the nightside field lines enough for sawtooth oscillations to form and the magnetosphere goes into a steady magnetosphere convection (SMC) mode. As the solar wind electric field increases the outflow fluence becomes sufficiently large to affect the convection in the magnetosphere and generate sawtooth oscillations. The strength

  13. The Role of Cosmic-Ray Pressure in Accelerating Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, Christine M.; Pakmor, Rüdiger; Marinacci, Federico; Pfrommer, Christoph; Springel, Volker; Glover, Simon C. O.; Clark, Paul C.; Smith, Rowan J.

    2016-08-01

    We study the formation of galactic outflows from supernova (SN) explosions with the moving-mesh code AREPO in a stratified column of gas with a surface density similar to the Milky Way disk at the solar circle. We compare different simulation models for SN placement and energy feedback, including cosmic rays (CRs), and find that models that place SNe in dense gas and account for CR diffusion are able to drive outflows with similar mass loading as obtained from a random placement of SNe with no CRs. Despite this similarity, CR-driven outflows differ in several other key properties including their overall clumpiness and velocity. Moreover, the forces driving these outflows originate in different sources of pressure, with the CR diffusion model relying on non-thermal pressure gradients to create an outflow driven by internal pressure and the random-placement model depending on kinetic pressure gradients to propel a ballistic outflow. CRs therefore appear to be non-negligible physics in the formation of outflows from the interstellar medium.

  14. MULTIPLE FAST MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN THE PRE-PLANETARY NEBULA CRL 618

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Huang, Po-Sheng; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen; Tay, Jeremy Jian Hao

    2013-11-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. It has multiple highly collimated optical lobes, fast molecular outflows along the optical lobes, and an extended molecular envelope that consists of a dense torus in the equator and a tenuous round halo. Here we present our observations of this source in CO J = 3-2 and HCN J = 4-3 obtained with the Submillimeter Array at up to ∼0.''3 resolutions. We spatially resolve the fast molecular outflow region previously detected in CO near the central star and find it to be composed of multiple outflows that have similar dynamical ages and are oriented along the different optical lobes. We also detect fast molecular outflows further away from the central star near the tips of the extended optical lobes and a pair of equatorial outflows inside the dense torus. We find that two episodes of bullet ejections in different directions are needed, one producing the fast molecular outflows near the central star and one producing the fast molecular outflows near the tips of the extended optical lobes. One possibility to launch these bullets is a magneto-rotational explosion of the stellar envelope.

  15. Asenapine for bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Scheidemantel, Thomas; Korobkova, Irina; Rej, Soham; Sajatovic, Martha

    2015-01-01

    Asenapine (Saphris®) is an atypical antipsychotic drug which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults, as well as the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I in both adult and pediatric populations. Asenapine is a tetracyclic drug with antidopaminergic and antiserotonergic activity with a unique sublingual route of administration. In this review, we examine and summarize the available literature on the safety, efficacy, and tolerability of asenapine in the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). Data from randomized, double-blind trials comparing asenapine to placebo or olanzapine in the treatment of acute manic or mixed episodes showed asenapine to be an effective monotherapy treatment in clinical settings; asenapine outperformed placebo and showed noninferior performance to olanzapine based on improvement in the Young Mania Rating Scale scores. There are limited data available on the use of asenapine in the treatment of depressive symptoms of BD, or in the maintenance phase of BD. The available data are inconclusive, suggesting the need for more robust data from prospective trials in these clinical domains. The most commonly reported adverse effect associated with use of asenapine is somnolence. However, the somnolence associated with asenapine use did not cause significant rates of discontinuation. While asenapine was associated with weight gain when compared to placebo, it appeared to be modest when compared to other atypical antipsychotics, and its propensity to cause increases in hemoglobin A1c or serum lipid levels appeared to be similarly modest. Asenapine does not appear to cause any clinically significant QTc prolongation. The most commonly reported extra-pyramidal symptom associated with asenapine was akathisia. Overall, asenapine appears to be a relatively well-tolerated atypical antipsychotic, effective in the treatment of acute manic and mixed episodes of BD. PMID:26674884

  16. Late-onset bipolar illness: the geriatric bipolar type VI.

    PubMed

    Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kaladjian, Arthur; Adida, Marc; Fakra, Eric

    2012-03-01

    In parallel to considerable progress in understanding and treatment of bipolarity and despite growing interest in old age psychiatry, late-onset bipolar illness (LOBI) has remained relatively understudied so far, probably in reason of its complexity. To update available data, a systematic review was conducted, focusing on the main issues addressed in literature in regard to this topic. In addition to data on epidemiology, clinical features and treatment, five main issues could be identified: LOBI as secondary disorder, LOBI as expression of a lower vulnerability to the disease, LOBI as subform of pseudodementia, LOBI as risk factor for developing dementia, and LOBI as bipolar type VI (bipolarity in the context of dementia like processes). Levels of available evidence were found to vary according to the addressed issue. Although the concept of bipolar type VI could be criticized for subsuming under one single heading all the four other issues, this concept may be of pragmatic value in helping clinicians to orientate both diagnosis process and treatment decisions. Among others, the question as to whether some forms of bipolar type VI could constitute a special risk factor for developing dementia deserves further investigation. More studies are also needed to better disentangle the effects of age at onset from those of age itself.

  17. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W. H. T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L.-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J = 3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0.″35 resolution using Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows; (ii) a central high-density (> {few}× {10}6 cm‑3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 au; and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5× {10}-4 M⊙ yr‑1 in the past ∼455 years. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (∼millimeter-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age ∼160 years) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age ∼110 years) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi–Hoyle–Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche-lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common-envelope evolution are needed.

  18. ALMA Observations of the Water Fountain Pre-Planetary Nebula IRAS 16342-3814: High-Velocity Bipolar Jets and an Expanding Torus

    PubMed Central

    Sahai, R.; Vlemmings, W.H.T.; Gledhill, T.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Lagadec, E.; Nyman, L-Å; Quintana-Lacaci, G.

    2017-01-01

    We have mapped 12CO J=3–2 and other molecular lines from the “water-fountain” bipolar pre-planetary nebula (PPN) IRAS 16342-3814 with ∼0⋅″35 resolution using ALMA. We find (i) two very high-speed knotty, jet-like molecular outflows, (ii) a central high-density (> few × 106 cm−3), expanding torus of diameter 1300 AU, and (iii) the circumstellar envelope of the progenitor AGB, generated by a sudden, very large increase in the mass-loss rate to > 3.5 × 10−4 M⊙ yr−1 in the past ~455 yr. Strong continuum emission at 0.89 mm from a central source (690 mJy), if due to thermally-emitting dust, implies a substantial mass (0.017 M⊙) of very large (~mm-sized) grains. The measured expansion ages of the above structural components imply that the torus (age~160 yr) and the younger high-velocity outflow (age~110 yr) were formed soon after the sharp increase in the AGB mass-loss rate. Assuming a binary model for the jets in IRAS 16342, the high momentum rate for the dominant jet-outflow in IRAS 16342 implies a high minimum accretion rate, ruling out standard Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton wind accretion and wind Roche lobe overflow (RLOF) models with white-dwarf or main-sequence companions. Most likely, enhanced RLOF from the primary or accretion modes operating within common envelope evolution are needed. PMID:28191303

  19. Bipolar-rogue-wave structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yingchun; Zhang, Bin; Feng, Qi; Tang, Xin; Liu, Zhongxuan; Chen, Zhaoyang; Lin, Chengyou

    2017-01-01

    The formation of extreme localization structures in nonlinear dispersive media (water or optical fibres) can be explained and described by the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). The NLSE is especially important in understanding how solitons on a condensate background (SCB) appear from a small perturbation through modulation instability. We have studied theoretically SCB solutions solved with the dressing method. A class of bipolar-rogue-wave structures that are constructed by collisions between elementary SCB or bipolar solitonic solutions was found. Besides, we have also found a new class of regular bright solitonic rogue waves that are originated from the collision between two bipolar-rogue-wave structures. The bipolar-rogue-wave structures can be considered to provide a new prototype for rogue-waves dynamics modeling. Our results extend previous studies in the area of rogue waves and may be important in the study of oceanography and optics.

  20. Relationship of Fault Geometry to Catastrophic Outflow on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davatzes, A.; Gulick, V.

    2006-12-01

    We present results from studies of large outflow channels on Mars that suggest fault morphology is a critical factor for the trapping and catastrophic release of water on Mars, resulting in large flooding events. On Earth, hot springs are commonly concentrated around fault relays, bends, and fault tips, where jointing forms in zones of concentrated stress promoting tensile failure. Examples of fault controlled hydrothermal activity have been documented in the Coso Geothermal Field in California, Southern Seismic Zone in Iceland, Waiotapu Geothermal Field in New Zealand, Killoran Fault in Ireland, and throughout the southwestern United States. On Earth, abrupt changes in the water table, as well as the formation of sand-boils and springs, are associated with earthquakes, and their spatial distribution is related to the geometry of the earthquake slip patch. A similar process may occur on Mars, where hydrothermal waters collect in highly fractured zones at fault relays, and are released catastrophically during an earthquake event. Two examples of large outflow channels on Mars, Mangala and Athabasca Valles, appear to be sourced in a relay zone. Other Martian examples show sourcing at fault bends and fault tips. Data from the instruments on Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will help us to further understand this mechanism by which large flood events may occur. High resolution images from HiRISE will be used to map these fault systems and estimate outflow rates, and data from CRISM will be used to identify regions of past high temperature fluid flow on the surface of Mars.

  1. Bipolar disorder and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Mariana Inés; Moreira, Marcos Aurélio; Araújo, Carolina Reis; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Teixeira, Antonio Lucio

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar disorder may be overrepresented in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Although research in this area is limited, studies assessing the nature of this association have focused on genetic aspects, adverse reaction to drugs and brain demyelinating lesions. Herein we report three patients with MS that also presented bipolar disorder. The coexistence of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in most MS relapses highlights the relevance of biological factors in the emergence of mood disorders in these patients.

  2. Internet use by patients with bipolar disorder: Results from an international multisite survey.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Baune, Bernhard T; Berk, Michael; Bersudsky, Yuly; Bilderbeck, Amy; Bocchetta, Alberto; Bossini, Letizia; Castro, Angela M Paredes; Cheung, Eric Yw; Chillotti, Caterina; Choppin, Sabine; Del Zompo, Maria; Dias, Rodrigo; Dodd, Seetal; Duffy, Anne; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Hernandez, Miryam Fernández; Garnham, Julie; Geddes, John; Gildebro, Jonas; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goodwin, Guy M; Grof, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Kapur, Vaisnvy; Kunigiri, Girish; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R; Lewitzka, Ute; Licht, Rasmus W; Lund, Anne Hvenegaard; Misiak, Blazej; Monteith, Scott; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nakanotani, Takako; Nielsen, René E; O'Donovan, Claire; Okamura, Yasushi; Osher, Yamima; Piotrowski, Patryk; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sagduyu, Kemal; Sawchuk, Brett; Schwartz, Elon; Scippa, Ângela M; Slaney, Claire; Sulaiman, Ahmad H; Suominen, Kirsi; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Tam, Peter; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Tondo, Leonardo; Vieta, Eduard; Vinberg, Maj; Viswanath, Biju; Volkert, Julia; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael

    2016-08-30

    There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder who use the Internet is about the same as the general public. Other information sources remain important.

  3. The IRS 1 circumstellar disk, and the origin of the jet and CO outflow in B5.

    PubMed

    Langer, W D; Velusamy, T; Xie, T

    1996-09-01

    We report the discovery of the inner edge of the high velocity CO outflow associated with the bipolar jet originating from IRS 1 in Barnard 5 and the first ever resolution of its circumstellar disk in the 2.6 mm dust continuum and C18O. From high spatial resolution observations made with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array we are able to locate the origin of the outflow to within approximately 500 AU on either side of IRS 1 and apparently at the edge of, or possibly within, its circumstellar disk. The orientation of the continuum disk is perpendicular to the highly collimated jet outflow recently seen in optical emission at much farther distances. The disk has been detected in C18O giving a disk mass approximately 0.16 M (solar). Our HCO+ and HCN maps indicate significant chemical differentiation in the circumstellar region on small scales with HCO+ tracing an extended disk of material. The 12CO interferometer maps of the outflow show two conelike features originating at IRS 1, the blue one fanning open to the northeast and the red one to the southwest. The vertices of the cones are on either side of the circumstellar disk and have a projected opening angle of about 90 degrees. The intrinsic opening angle is in the range of 60 degrees-90 degrees which leads to significant interaction between outflow and infall.

  4. THE HIGH-VELOCITY MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN MASSIVE CLUSTER-FORMING REGION G10.6-0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P.; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: pho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-12-20

    We report the arcsecond resolution Submillimeter Array observations of the {sup 12}CO (2-1) transition in the massive cluster-forming region G10.6-0.4. In these observations, the high-velocity {sup 12}CO emission is resolved into individual outflow systems, which have a typical size scale of a few arcseconds. These molecular outflows are energetic and are interacting with the ambient molecular gas. By inspecting the shock signatures traced by CH{sub 3}OH, SiO, and HCN emissions, we suggest that abundant star formation activities are distributed over the entire 0.5 pc scale dense molecular envelope. The star formation efficiency over one global free-fall timescale (of the 0.5 pc molecular envelope, {approx}10{sup 5} years) is about a few percent. The total energy feedback of these high-velocity outflows is higher than 10{sup 47} erg, which is comparable to the total kinetic energy in the rotational motion of the dense molecular envelope. From order-of-magnitude estimations, we suggest that the energy injected from the protostellar outflows is capable of balancing the turbulent energy dissipation. No high-velocity bipolar molecular outflow associated with the central OB cluster is directly detected, which can be due to the photoionization.

  5. Large-scale outflow in quasar LBQS J1206+1052: HST/COS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Carter; Arav, Nahum

    2015-11-01

    Using two orbits of HST/COS archival observations, we measure the location and energetics of a quasar outflow from LBQS J1206+1052. From separate collisional excitation models of observed N III/N III* and S III/S III* troughs, we measure the electron number density n_e of the outflow. Both independent determinations are in full agreement and yield n_e =10^{3.0} cm^{-3}. Combining this value of n_e with photoionization simulations, we determine that the outflow is located 840 pc from the central source. The outflow has a velocity of 1400 km s-1, a mass flux of 9 M⊙ yr-1 and a kinetic luminosity of 1042.8 erg s-1. The distance finding is much larger than predicted from radiative acceleration models, but is consistent with recent empirical distance determinations.

  6. Multiple Monopolar Outflows Driven by Massive Protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-López, M.; Girart, J. M.; Curiel, S.; Zapata, L. A.; Fonfría, J. P.; Qiu, K.

    2013-11-01

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO+, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 103-5 × 103 L ⊙ protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  7. OUTFLOWS AND MASSIVE STARS IN THE PROTOCLUSTER IRAS 05358+3543

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsburg, Adam G.; Bally, John; Yan Chihung; Williams, Jonathan P. E-mail: John.Bally@colorado.ed

    2009-12-10

    We present new near-IR H{sub 2}, CO J = 2-1, and CO J = 3-2 observations to study outflows in the massive star-forming region IRAS 05358+3543. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope H{sub 2} images and James Clerk Maxwell Telescope CO data cubes of the IRAS 05358 region reveal several new outflows, most of which emerge from the dense cluster of submillimeter cores associated with the Sh 2-233IR NE cluster to the northeast of IRAS 05358. We used Apache Point Observatory JHK spectra to determine line-of-sight velocities of the outflowing material. Analysis of archival Very Large Array cm continuum data and previously published very long baseline interferometry observations reveal a massive star binary as a probable source of one or two of the outflows. We have identified probable sources for six outflows and candidate counterflows for seven out of a total of 11 seen to be originating from the IRAS 05358 clusters. We classify the clumps within Sh 2-233IR NE as an early protocluster and Sh 2-233IR SW as a young cluster, and conclude that the outflow energy injection rate approximately matches the turbulent decay rate in Sh 2-233IR NE.

  8. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-López, M.; Girart, J. M.; Curiel, S.; Fonfría, J. P.; Zapata, L. A.; Qiu, K. E-mail: girart@ieec.cat

    2013-11-20

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO{sup +}, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 10{sup 3}-5 × 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  9. Comparison of high-altitude production and ionospheric outflow contributions to O+ loss at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael W.; Curry, Shannon M.; Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan

    2013-07-01

    Mars Test Particle model is used (with background parameters from a magnetohydrodynamic code) to simulate the transport of O+ ions in the near-Mars space environment to study the source processes responsible for ion escape. The MHD values at this altitude are used to inject an ionospheric outflow source of ions for the Mars Test Particle (MTP). The resulting loss distributions (in both real and velocity space) from this ionospheric source term are compared against those from high-altitude ionization mechanisms, in particular photoionization, charge exchange, and electron impact ionization, each of which has its own source regions, albeit overlapping. For the nominal MHD settings, this ionospheric outflow source contributes only 10% to the total O+ loss rate at solar maximum, predominantly via the central tail region. This percentage has very little dependence on the initial temperature, but a change in the initial ion density or bulk velocity directly alters this loss through the central tail. A density or bulk velocity increase of a factor of 10 makes the ionospheric outflow loss comparable in magnitude to the loss from the combined high-altitude sources. The spatial and velocity space distributions of escaping O+ are examined and compared for the various source terms to identify features specific to each ion source mechanism. For solar minimum conditions, the nominal MHD ionospheric outflow settings yield a 27% contribution to the total O+ loss rate, i.e., roughly equal to any one of the three high-altitude source terms with respect to escape.

  10. Outflows from Supersonically-Moving Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Noel; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George

    2015-08-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are sources of nonthermal X-ray emission and prominent sites of particle acceleration. Among other parameters, the PWN appearance depends on the pulsar velocity. If a pulsar moves with a supersonic speed, the ram pressure exceeds the ambient medium pressure, resulting in a bow shock PWN with a tail behind the pulsar. We report on Chandra observations of extended pulsar tails behind PSR J1509-5850 and J1747-2958 ("the Mouse"), and the discovery of a puzzling outflow (in the J1509-5850 PWN) strongly misaligned with the pulsar's direction of motion. We resolve the structures of the heads of the two PWNe and interpret them in light of pulsar wind models. We perform spatially resolved spectral measurements and find only marginal evidence of cooling in the long tail of PSR J1509-5850. The morphologies of the PWN heads and the extended tails are discussed and compared with those of other bow shock PWNe detected by Chandra. A possible unifying scheme will be discussed.

  11. [Unipolar versus bipolar depression: clues toward predicting bipolarity disorder].

    PubMed

    Ben Abla, T; Ellouze, F; Amri, H; Krid, G; Zouari, A; M'Rad, M F

    2006-01-01

    Bipolar and unipolar disorders share a common depressive clinical manifestation. It is important to distinguish between these two forms of depression for several reasons. First, prescribing antidepressors in monotherapy indubitably worsens the prognosis of bipolarity disorders. Second, postponing the prescription of a mood stabilizer reduces the efficacy of the treatment and multiplies the suicidal risks by two. The object of this study is to reveal the factors that distinguish between unipolar and bipolar depression. This is a retrospective study on patients' files. It includes 186 patients divided according to DSM IV criteria into two groups: patients with bipolar disorder type I or II with a recent depressive episode (123 patients) and patients with recurrent depressive disorder (63 patients). A medical record card was filled-in for every patient. It included socio-demographic data, information about the disorder, family antecedents, CGI score (global clinical impressions), physical comorbidity, substance abuse and personality disorder. In order to sort out the categorization variables, the two groups were compared using chi2 test or Fischer's test. With regard to the quantitative variables, the two groups were compared using Krostal Wallis's test or Ancova. Our study has revealed that bipolar disorder differs significantly from unipolar disorder in the following respects: bipolar disorder is prevalent among men (sex-ratio 2) while unipolar disorder is prevailing among women (sex-ratio 0.8); patients with bipolar disorder are younger than patients with unipolar disorder (38.1 +/- 5 years vs. 49.7 +/- years); the age at the onset of bipolar disorder is earlier than that of unipolar disorder (20.8 +/- 2 years vs. 38.7 +/- 5 years); family antecedents are more important in bipolar patients than in unipolar patients (51.1% vs. 33%). More importantly, bipolar disorder differs from unipolar disorder in the following aspects: The number of suicidal attempts (25.3% vs

  12. Embedded Outflows from Herbig-Haro 46/47

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view of insert

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope transforms a dark cloud into a silky translucent veil, revealing the molecular outflow from an otherwise hidden newborn star. Using near-infrared light, Spitzer pierces through the dark cloud to detect the embedded outflow in an object called HH 46/47. Herbig-Haro (HH) objects are bright, nebulous regions of gas and dust that are usually buried within dark clouds. They are formed when supersonic gas ejected from a forming protostar, or embryonic stars, interacts with the surrounding interstellar medium. These young stars are often detected only in the infrared.

    The Spitzer image was obtained with the infrared array camera and is a three-color mosaic. Emission at 3.6 microns is shown as blue, emission from 4.5 and 5.8 microns has been combined as green, and 8.0 micron emission is depicted as red.

    HH 46/47 is a striking example of a low mass protostar ejecting a jet and creating a bipolar, or two-sided, outflow. The central protostar lies inside a dark cloud (known as a 'Bok globule') which is illuminated by the nearby Gum Nebula. Located at a distance of 1,140 light-years and found in the constellation Vela, the protostar is hidden from view in the visible-light image (inset). With Spitzer, the star and its dazzling jets of molecular gas appear with clarity.

    The 8-micron channel of the infrared array camera is sensitive to emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These organic molecules, comprised of carbon and hydrogen, are excited by the surrounding radiation field and become luminescent, accounting for the reddish cloud. Note that the boundary layer of the 8-micron emission corresponds to the lower right edge of the dark cloud in the visible-light picture.

    Outflows are fascinating objects, since they characterize one of the most energetic phases of the formation of low-mass stars (like our Sun). The

  13. Sharpless-76E: Astrometry and Outflows in a Protostellar Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chibueze, James O.; Hamabata, Hideo; Nagayama, Takumi; Omodaka, Toshihiro; Handa, Toshihiro; Sunada, Kazuyoshi; Nakano, Makoto; Ueno, Yuji

    2017-01-01

    Using VLBI Exploration of Radio Astrometry (VERA), we have conducted multi-epoch observations of the H2O masers associated with with Sharpless 76E. The measured annual parallax is 0.521±0.024 mas corresponding to the distance of 1.92^{+0.09}_{-0.08} kpc. From the parallax measurement, we obtained the peculiar motion of Sh2-76E MM1 (UMM1, VMM1, WMM1) to be (-9 ±3, 10±4, 6±4) km s-1, and Sh2-76E MM2 (UMM2, VMM2, WMM2) to be (-5 ±12, 3±14, -21 ±22) km s-1, where U, V, and W are directed toward the Galactic center, in the direction of Galactic rotation and toward the Galactic north pole, respectively. The internal motion of the H2O masers trace 2 separate bipolar outflows, one associated with Sh2-76E MM1 and the other with Sh2-76E MM2. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of Sh2-76E MM1 suggests it to be a class I YSO. We have only limited data points for the SED fit of Sh2-76E MM2, therefore can only speculate it to be probably a class II based on its comparative K-band and H-band magnitudes.

  14. Treatment of bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We review recent developments in the acute and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder and identify promising future routes to therapeutic innovation. Overall, advances in drug treatment remain quite modest. Antipsychotic drugs are effective in the acute treatment of mania; their efficacy in the treatment of depression is variable with the clearest evidence for quetiapine. Despite their widespread use, considerable uncertainty and controversy remains about the use of antidepressant drugs in the management of depressive episodes. Lithium has the strongest evidence for long-term relapse prevention; the evidence for anticonvulsants such as divalproex and lamotrigine is less robust and there is much uncertainty about the longer term benefits of antipsychotics. Substantial progress has been made in the development and assessment of adjunctive psychosocial interventions. Long-term maintenance and possibly acute stabilisation of depression can be enhanced by the combination of psychosocial treatments with drugs. The development of future treatments should consider both the neurobiological and psychosocial mechanisms underlying the disorder. We should continue to repurpose treatments and to recognise the role of serendipity. We should also investigate optimum combinations of pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatments at different stages of the illness. Clarification of the mechanisms by which different treatments affect sleep and circadian rhythms and their relation with daily mood fluctuations is likely to help with the treatment selection for individual patients. To be economically viable, existing psychotherapy protocols need to be made briefer and more efficient for improved scalability and sustainability in widespread implementation. PMID:23663953

  15. Bipolar cells of the ground squirrel retina.

    PubMed

    Puller, Christian; Ondreka, Katharina; Haverkamp, Silke

    2011-03-01

    Parallel processing of an image projected onto the retina starts at the first synapse, the cone pedicle, and each cone feeds its light signal into a minimum of eight different bipolar cell types. Hence, the morphological classification of bipolar cells is a prerequisite for analyzing retinal circuitry. Here we applied common bipolar cell markers to the cone-dominated ground squirrel retina, studied the labeling by confocal microscopy and electron microscopy, and compared the resulting bipolar cell types with those of the mouse (rod dominated) and primate retina. Eight different cone bipolar cell types (three OFF and five ON) and one rod bipolar cell were distinguished. The major criteria for classifying the cells were their immunocytochemical identity, their dendritic branching pattern, and the shape and stratification level of their axons in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Immunostaining with antibodies against Gγ13, a marker for ON bipolar cells, made it possible to separate OFF and ON bipolars. Recoverin-positive OFF bipolar cells partly overlapped with ON bipolar axon terminals at the ON/OFF border of the IPL. Antibodies against HCN4 labeled the S-cone selective (bb) bipolar cell. The calcium-binding protein CaB5 was expressed in two OFF and two ON cone bipolar cell types, and CD15 labeled a widefield ON cone bipolar cell comparable to the DB6 in primate.

  16. Magnetosphere sawtooth oscillations induced by ionospheric outflow.

    PubMed

    Brambles, O J; Lotko, W; Zhang, B; Wiltberger, M; Lyon, J; Strangeway, R J

    2011-06-03

    The sawtooth mode of convection of Earth's magnetosphere is a 2- to 4-hour planetary-scale oscillation powered by the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere (SW-M-I) interaction. Using global simulations of geospace, we have shown that ionospheric O(+) outflows can generate sawtooth oscillations. As the outflowing ions fill the inner magnetosphere, their pressure distends the nightside magnetic field. When the outflow fluence exceeds a threshold, magnetic field tension cannot confine the accumulating fluid; an O(+)-rich plasmoid is ejected, and the field dipolarizes. Below the threshold, the magnetosphere undergoes quasi-steady convection. Repetition and the sawtooth period are controlled by the strength of the SW-M-I interaction, which regulates the outflow fluence.

  17. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder in Japan: results of an Internet survey.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Harada, Eiji; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanji, Yuka; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent and episodic illness. This survey study assessed experiences and identified clinical insights of individuals with bipolar disorder. An Internet-based monitor system database was screened for patients with bipolar disorder in Japan (February and March 2013). Of 1,050 patients, 457 completed surveys, and results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Approximately one-fourth of respondents were diagnosed with bipolar disorder on their first visit to medical institutions, although the most common initial diagnosis was depression/depressive state (65%). Mean time lag between first-time visit to a medical institution and receipt of correct diagnosis of bipolar disorder was 4 years; one-third of patients experienced more than 5 years of lag time. Three perceived reasons for lapsed time before correct diagnosis were "(patients) Did not consider manic symptoms as illness, and did not tell the doctor about them," "I (patient) did not know of bipolar disorder," and "Lack of communication between my doctor and myself (patient)." Among participants who believed that they were initially incorrectly diagnosed and improperly treated, most experienced socioeconomic problems, such as having long-term inability to work or to study (65%). Sources of encouragement for participants included "To have someone to consult with" (41%) followed by having "People around me treat me the same as before" (40%). Individuals with bipolar disorder reported a time lag of many years before accurate diagnosis, and substantial burden imposed by the illness. Encouragement should be provided for individuals to live positively with bipolar disorder.

  18. Outflows in the Orion Nebula: HH 540 from the Beehive Proplyd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Licht, Daniel; Smith, Nathan; Walawender, Josh

    2005-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images of the giant proplyd 181-826 in the southern Orion Nebula. This object exhibits a variety of known proplyd properties-an optically visible central star, a silhouette disk, a bright proplyd ionization front, and a bipolar microjet emerging along the disk axis that powers a larger Herbig-Haro flow. The proplyd ionization front is remarkable because of its large size (a radius of about 800 AU) and because of its corrugated structure consisting of a set of coaxial rings with the same orientation as the embedded silhouette disk. The rings are centered on the disk/jet axis, and we discuss possible mechanisms for their formation. The silhouette disk has an outer radius of about 160 AU, and its axis is inclined by an angle of about 60° with respect to our line of sight. A prominent reflection nebula protrudes along the disk axis toward the south, marking the base of the approaching outflow, and a faint knot on the north side of the disk indicates that the nebula is bipolar. Fabry-Pérot images reveal a high-velocity blueshifted jet with a mass-loss rate of about 10-8 Msolar yr-1 emerging along the disk axis. It has a velocity (corrected for the outflow inclination angle) of about 160 km s-1 and can be traced for about 1' toward the south. A chain of three lower velocity blueshifted bow shocks, collectively known as HH 540, extend several arcminutes south of 181-826 along the same axis, tracing a large-scale outflow powered by this jet. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute (STScI), which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

  19. Quadrupolar Outflow: A Single-Wind Model for the η Carinae Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matt, S.; Balick, B.

    2002-12-01

    During an outburst beginning in 1837, the luminous blue variable η Carinae ejected at least one solar mass of material. That ejected material has been well studied and is highly structured, consisting of an outflowing equatorial ``skirt'' and bipolar lobes (the hourglass-shaped ``homunculus''). Recent proper motion measurements of Morse et al. (2001, ApJ, 548, 207L) suggest that at least some of the material in the skirt has the same dynamical age as the lobes, contrary to the assumptions of interacting winds models for the η Car nebula. In the context of the η Car eruption, and relying on time-dependent, numerical, magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we present a simple stellar wind model that produces an outflowing disk and bipolar lobes in a single wind. The shape of the wind bears a remarkable resemblance to the overall shape of the η Car nebulae. The basic model consists of a pressure-driven wind from a rotating star with an axis-aligned dipole magnetic field. In the wind, the azimuthal component of the magnetic field (generated by the rotation of the dipolar field) compresses the wind toward the equator and also toward the rotation axis, simultaneously producing an outflowing disk and jet. In order to produce wide angle lobes similar to the homunculus (which have roughly a 30o opening angle), a high-speed polar wind from the star is required. We will present both steady-state and time-dependent wind models. This research was supported by NASA grant GO 9050 awarded from STScI, by NSF grant AST-9729096, and by NSERC, McMaster University, and CITA through a CITA National Fellowship.

  20. A RECONNECTION-DRIVEN RAREFACTION WAVE MODEL FOR CORONAL OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Aulanier, G.; Del Zanna, G.

    2011-12-10

    We conduct numerical experiments to determine whether interchange reconnection at high altitude coronal null points can explain the outflows observed as blueshifts in coronal emission lines at the boundaries between open and closed magnetic field regions. In this scenario, a strong, post-reconnection pressure gradient forms in the field-aligned direction when dense and hot, active region core loops reconnect with neighboring tenuous and cool, open field lines. We find that the pressure gradient drives a supersonic outflow and a rarefaction wave develops in both the open and closed post-reconnection magnetic field regions. We forward-model the spectral line profiles for a selection of coronal emission lines to predict the spectral signatures of the rarefaction wave. We find that the properties of the rarefaction wave are consistent with the observed velocity versus temperature structure of the corona in the outflow regions, where the velocity increases with the formation temperature of the emission lines. In particular, we find excellent agreement between the predicted and observed Fe XII 195.119 A spectral line profiles in terms of the blueshift (10 km s{sup -1}), full width at half-maximum (83 mA) and symmetry. Finally, we find that T{sub i} < T{sub e} in the open field region, which indicates that the interchange reconnection scenario may provide a viable mechanism and source region for the slow solar wind.

  1. Spin properties of supermassive black holes with powerful outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daly, Ruth. A.

    2016-05-01

    Relationships between beam power and accretion disc luminosity are studied for a sample of 55 high excitation radio galaxies (HERG), 13 low excitation radio galaxies (LERG), and 29 radio loud quasars (RLQ) with powerful outflows. The ratio of beam power to disc luminosity tends to be high for LERG, low for RLQ, and spans the full range of values for HERG. Writing general expressions for the disc luminosity and beam power and applying the empirically determined relationships allows a function that parametrizes the spins of the holes to be estimated. Interestingly, one of the solutions that is consistent with the data has a functional form that is remarkably similar to that expected in the generalized Blandford-Znajek model with a magnetic field that is similar in form to that expected in magnetically arrested disk (MAD) and advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) models. Values of the spin function, obtained independent of specific outflow models, suggest that spin and active galactic nucleus type are not related for these types of sources. The spin function can be used to solve for black hole spin in the context of particular outflow models, and one example is provided.

  2. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    SciTech Connect

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Reid, M. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2012-02-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M{sub Sun }. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s{sup -1}) and perhaps a lower-velocity ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) wind with an opening angle of about 20 Degree-Sign from the jet axis.

  3. Accretion, Outflows, and Winds of Magnetized Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanova, Marina M.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2015-10-01

    Many types of stars have strong magnetic fields that can dynamically influence the flow of circumstellar matter. In stars with accretion disks, the stellar magnetic field can truncate the inner disk and determine the paths that matter can take to flow onto the star. These paths are different in stars with different magnetospheres and periods of rotation. External field lines of the magnetosphere may inflate and produce favorable conditions for outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary. Outflows can be particularly strong in the propeller regime, wherein a star rotates more rapidly than the inner disk. Outflows may also form at the disk-magnetosphere boundary of slowly rotating stars, if the magnetosphere is compressed by the accreting matter. In isolated, strongly magnetized stars, the magnetic field can influence formation and/or propagation of stellar wind outflows. Winds from low-mass, solar-type stars may be either thermally or magnetically driven, while winds from massive, luminous O and B type stars are radiatively driven. In all of these cases, the magnetic field influences matter flow from the stars and determines many observational properties. In this chapter we review recent studies of accretion, outflows, and winds of magnetized stars with a focus on three main topics: (1) accretion onto magnetized stars; (2) outflows from the disk-magnetosphere boundary; and (3) winds from isolated massive magnetized stars. We show results obtained from global magnetohydrodynamic simulations and, in a number of cases compare global simulations with observations.

  4. Brainstorm: occupational choice, bipolar illness and creativity.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Carol Horton; Grosskopf, Shawna; Yang, Ke

    2010-07-01

    Although economists have analyzed earnings, unemployment, and labor force participation for those with bipolar illness, occupational choice has yet to be explored. Psychological and medical studies often suggest an association between bipolar illness and creative achievement, but they tend to focus on eminent figures, case studies, or small samples. We seek to examine occupational creativity of non-eminent individuals with bipolar disorder. We use Epidemiologic Catchment Area data to estimate a multinomial logit model matched to an index of occupational creativity. Those with bipolar illness appear to be disproportionately concentrated in the most creative occupational category. Nonparametric kernel density estimates reveal that the densities of the occupational creativity variable for the bipolar and non-bipolar individuals significantly differ in the ECA data, and suggest that the probability of engaging in creative activities on the job is higher for bipolar than non-bipolar workers.

  5. Bipolar Disorder and Alcoholism: Are They Related?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are they related? Is there a connection between bipolar disorder and alcoholism? Answers from Daniel K. Hall-Flavin, M.D. Bipolar disorder and alcoholism often occur together. Although the association ...

  6. OBSERVATIONS OF MOLECULAR OUTFLOW IN CAR 291.6-01.9

    SciTech Connect

    Saul, M.; Saul, L. E-mail: luke.saul@space.unibe.ch

    2012-01-20

    We report the first observations of a dense molecular gas nebula and bipolar outflow in Car 291.6-01.9, showing characteristics of an embedded young stellar object (YSO). Using the Mopra radio telescope near Coonabarabaran, Australia, we image the kinematic structure of several emission features to examine physical properties within a molecular clump of mass {approx}3.2 {+-} 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} in which a stellar cluster may be forming. Motivated by acquiring a more thorough understanding of star formation we ask what may have initiated collapse in the clump; observed outflow alignment is suggestive of {approx}1.0 pc distant massive star HD 308280 radiative-driven compression as a formation trigger for the dense core. An outflow derived age of <10{sup 6} years, together with significant C{sup 18}O and SO core depletion, support the case for the core as the host of an extremely YSO cluster.

  7. Active Galactic Nuclei Feedback and Galactic Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei

    Feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is thought to regulate the growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and galaxies. The most direct evidence of AGN feedback is probably galactic outflows. This thesis addresses the link between SMBHs and their host galaxies from four different observational perspectives. First, I study the local correlation between black hole mass and the galactic halo potential (the MBH - Vc relation) based on Very Large Array (VLA) HI observations of galaxy rotation curves. Although there is a correlation, it is no tighter than the well-studied MBH - sigma* relation between the black hole mass and the potential of the galactic bulge, indicating that physical processes, such as feedback, could link the evolution of the black hole to the baryons in the bulge. In what follows, I thus search for galactic outflows as direct evidence of AGN feedback. Second, I use the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) to observe a luminous obscured AGN that hosts an ionized galactic outflow and find a compact but massive molecular outflow that can potentially quench the star formation in 10. 6 years.The third study extends the sample of known ionized outflows with new Magellan long-slit observations of 12 luminous obscured AGN. I find that most luminous obscured AGN (Lbol > 1046 ergs s-1) host ionized outflows on 10 kpc scales, and the size of the outflow correlates strongly with the luminosity of the AGN. Lastly, to capitalize on the power of modern photometric surveys, I experiment with a new broadband imaging technique to study the morphology of AGN emission line regions and outflows. With images from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), this method successfully constructs images of the [OIII]lambda5007 emission line and reveals hundreds of extended emission-line systems. When applied to current and future surveys, such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), this technique could open a new parameter space for the study of AGN outflows. In

  8. A robust measurement of the mass outflow rate of the galactic outflow from NGC 6090

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti Christy, A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the impact of stellar feedback, it is critical to estimate the mass outflow rates of galaxies. Past estimates have been plagued by uncertain assumptions about the outflow geometry, metallicity, and ionization fraction. Here we use Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet spectroscopic observations of the nearby starburst NGC 6090 to demonstrate that many of these quantities can be constrained by the data. We use the Si IV absorption lines to calculate the scaling of velocity (v), covering fraction (Cf), and density with distance from the starburst (r), assuming the Sobolev optical depth and a velocity law of the form: v ∝ (1 - Ri/r)β (where Ri is the inner outflow radius). We find that the velocity (β = 0.43) is consistent with an outflow driven by an r-2 force with the outflow radially accelerated, while the scaling of the covering fraction (Cf ∝ r-0.82) suggests that cool clouds in the outflow are in pressure equilibrium with an adiabatically expanding medium. We use the column densities of four weak metal lines and CLOUDY photoionization models to determine the outflow metallicity, the ionization correction, and the initial density of the outflow. Combining these values with the profile fitting, we find Ri = 63 pc, with most of the mass within 300 pc of the starburst. Finally, we find that the maximum mass outflow rate is 2.3 M⊙ yr-1 and the mass-loading factor (outflow divided by the star formation rate) is 0.09, a factor of 10 lower than the value calculated using common assumptions for the geometry, metallicity, and ionization structure of the outflow.

  9. Anticonvulsant drugs in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Grunze, Heinz; Schlösser, Sandra; Amann, Benedikt; Walden, Jörg

    1999-01-01

    Although much progress has been made in successfully treating bipolar disorder, there is increasing awareness of the limitations of traditional treatment regimens such as lithium and neuroleptics. The large family of anticonvulsant drugs, however, appears to be capable of providing new treatment options, not only as medication of second choice in patients refractory to treatment, but often as a treatment standard with high efficacy and low incidence of side effects. Besides established mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine and valproate, new antiepileptic drugs are entering the field with promising initial results in the treatment of bipolar patients. Furthermore, bringing to light the mechanisms of action of anticonvulsants and the similarities between anticonvulsants effective in bipolar disorder may also deepen our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of the disorder. PMID:22033602

  10. Bipolar illness, creativity, and treatment.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, A

    2001-01-01

    There have been in recent years increasing claims in both popular and professional literature for a connection between bipolar illness and creativity. A review of studies supporting this claim reveals serious flaws in sampling, methodology, presentation of results, and conclusions. Although there is therefore no evidence for etiological or genetic linkages, it is still necessary to explain interrelationships in those creative persons suffering from the illness. Examples of the work in progress of artists with bipolar disorder, Jackson Pollock and Edvard Munch, illustrate the use of healthy and adaptive creative cognition--janusian and homospatial processes--in the former's breakthrough conception during an improvement phase in treatment leading to the development of the Abstract Expressionist Movement and in the latter's transformation of an hallucination into his famous artwork "The Scream." Treatment options that do not produce cognitive effects are important for creative persons with bipolar disorder.

  11. Mathematical models of bipolar disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daugherty, Darryl; Roque-Urrea, Tairi; Urrea-Roque, John; Troyer, Jessica; Wirkus, Stephen; Porter, Mason A.

    2009-07-01

    We use limit cycle oscillators to model bipolar II disorder, which is characterized by alternating hypomanic and depressive episodes and afflicts about 1% of the United States adult population. We consider two non-linear oscillator models of a single bipolar patient. In both frameworks, we begin with an untreated individual and examine the mathematical effects and resulting biological consequences of treatment. We also briefly consider the dynamics of interacting bipolar II individuals using weakly-coupled, weakly-damped harmonic oscillators. We discuss how the proposed models can be used as a framework for refined models that incorporate additional biological data. We conclude with a discussion of possible generalizations of our work, as there are several biologically-motivated extensions that can be readily incorporated into the series of models presented here.

  12. Cognitive therapy in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan

    2002-07-01

    Stress-vulnerability models are increasingly viewed as plausible explanations of recurrence in severe affective disorders. This has promoted greater interest in the application of evidence-based psychological treatments, such as cognitive therapy, as an adjunct to medication for patients with bipolar disorder. This paper reviews the results from outcome studies of combined treatment approaches. Preliminary findings indicate that cognitive therapy reduces symptoms, enhances social adjustment and functioning and reduces relapses and hospitalizations in patients with bipolar disorder. However, the lack of published data from large scale randomized controlled trials and the absence of an adequate psychological model of manic relapse means that the role of cognitive therapy in bipolar disorders will be the subject of intense debate for some time to come.

  13. OUTFLOWS IN {rho} OPHIUCHI AS SEEN WITH THE SPITZER INFRARED ARRAY CAMERA

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Miaomiao; Wang Hongchi

    2009-12-15

    Using the IRAC images from the Spitzer c2d program, we have made a survey of mid-infrared outflows in the {rho} Ophiuchi molecular cloud. Extended objects that have prominent emission in IRAC channel 2 (4.5 {mu}m) compared to IRAC channel 1 (3.6 {mu}m) and stand out as green objects in the three-color images (3.6 {mu}m in blue, 4.5 {mu}m in green, 8.0 {mu}m in red) are identified as mid-infrared outflows. As a result, we detected 13 new outflows in the {rho} Ophiuchi molecular cloud that have not been previously observed in either the optical or the near-infrared. In addition, at the positions of previously observed HH objects or near-infrared emission, we detected 31 mid-infrared outflows, among which seven correspond to previously observed HH objects and 30 to near-infrared emission. Most of the mid-infrared outflows detected in the {rho} Ophiuchi cloud are concentrated in the L1688 dense core region. In combination with the survey results for young stellar objects (YSOs) and millimeter and submillimeter sources, the distribution of mid-infrared outflows in the {rho} Ophiuchi molecular complex hints a propagation of star formation in the cloud in the direction from the northwest to the southeast, as suggested by previous studies of the region.

  14. Momentum-driven outflow emission from an O-type YSO. Comparing the radio jet with the molecular outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, A.; Moscadelli, L.; Cesaroni, R.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; Goddi, C.; Carrasco-González, C.

    2016-11-01

    Aims: We seek to study the physical properties of the ionized jet emission in the vicinity of an O-type young stellar object (YSO) and to estimate the efficiency of the transfer of energy and momentum from small- to large-scale outflows. Methods: We conducted Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) observations, at both 22 and 45 GHz, of compact and faint radio continuum emission in the high-mass star-forming region G023.01-00.41 with an angular resolution between 0".3 and 0".1 and a thermal rms on the order of 10 μJy beam-1. Results: We discovered a collimated thermal (bremsstrahlung) jet emission with a radio luminosity (Lrad) of 24 mJy kpc2 at 45 GHz in the inner 1000 AU from an O-type YSO. The radio thermal jet has an opening angle of 44° and carries a momentum rate of 8 × 10-3 M⊙ yr-1 km s-1. By combining the new data with previous observations of the molecular outflow and water maser shocks, we can trace the outflow emission from its driving source through the molecular clump across more than two orders of magnitude in length (500 AU-0.2 pc). We find that the momentum-transfer efficiency between the inner jet emission and the extended outflow of entrained ambient gas is near unity. This result suggests that the large-scale flow is swept up by the mechanical force of radio jet emission, which originates from within 1000 AU of the high-mass YSO.

  15. On bipolar ejection. [of matter in astronomical systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, A. G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of bipolar outflows, including jets often with clumpy concentrations of matter, have been made for a wide variety of astronomical systems. In most but not all of the systems, an accretion disk is present. It is proposed that the general process responsible for bipolar ejection involves the conversion of rotational energy into magnetic energy, usually in the form of a polar magnetic torus, deep in the interiors of the systems involved. If the buoyancy of the torus resullts in draining the field lines of most of the matter which they thread, then the acceleration of the remaining matter in the toroidal bubble may produce velocities in excess of the escape velocity from the surface of the system. It is contemplated that this process will be repeated many times in most systems. A discussion is given of the application of these ideas to protostars, to stars evolved beyond the main sequence, to neutron stars, and to black holes on both stellar and galactic scales.

  16. A Hot Molecular Outflow Driven by the Ionized Jet Associated with IRAS 16562-3959

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Andrés E.; Garay, Guido; Brooks, Kate J.; Rathborne, Jill; Güsten, Rolf

    2011-08-01

    We report molecular line observations in the CO J = 3 → 2, 6 → 5, and 7 → 6 transitions, made using the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment Telescope, toward the massive and dense core IRAS 16562-3959. This core harbors a string of radio sources thought to be powered by a central collimated jet of ionized gas. The molecular observations show the presence of high-velocity gas exhibiting a quadrupolar morphology, most likely produced by the presence of two collimated outflows. The southeast-northwest (SE-NW) molecular outflow is aligned with the string of radio continuum sources, suggesting it is driven by the jet. We find that the excitation temperature of the gas in the SE-NW outflow is high, with values of 145 and 120 K for the blueshifted and redshifted lobes, respectively. This outflow has a total mass of 1.92 M sun, a total momentum of ~89 M sun km s-1, and an averaged momentum rate of ~3.0 × 10-2 M sun km s-1 yr-1, values characteristic of flows driven by young massive stellar objects with high luminosities (L bol ~ 2 × 104 L sun). Complementary data taken with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment in high density and shock tracers support the picture that IRAS 16562-3959 is an accreting young massive star associated with an ionized jet, which is the energy source of a molecular outflow.

  17. Herbig-haro objects and mid-infrared outflows in the VELA C molecular cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg{sup 2}. In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang and Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  18. Herbig-Haro Objects and Mid-infrared Outflows in the Vela C Molecular Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miaomiao; Wang, Hongchi; Henning, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    We have performed a deep [S II] λλ6717/6731 wide field Herbig-Haro (HH) object survey toward the Vela C molecular cloud with a sky coverage of about 2 deg2. In total, 18 new HH objects, HH 1090-1107, are discovered and the two previously known HH objects, HH 73-74, are also detected in our [S II] images. We also present an investigation of mid-infrared outflows in the Vela C molecular cloud using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer images taken from AllWISE data release. Using the method suggested by Zhang & Wang, 11 extended green objects (EGOs) are identified to be the mid-infrared outflows, including 6 new mid-infrared outflows that have not been detected previously at other wavelengths and 5 mid-infrared counterparts of the HH objects detected in this work. Using the AllWISE Source Catalog and the source classification scheme suggested by Koenig et al., we have identified 56 young stellar object (YSO) candidates in the Vela C molecular cloud. The possible driving sources of the HH objects and EGOs are discussed based on the morphology of HH objects and EGOs and the locations of HH objects, EGOs and YSO candidates. Finally we associate 12 HH objects and 5 EGOs with 10 YSOs and YSO candidates. The median length of the outflows in Vela C is 0.35 pc and the outflows seem to be oriented randomly.

  19. An X-Ray/SDSS Sample: Observational Characterization of The Outflowing Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, Michele; Brusa, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Mignoli, M.

    2016-10-01

    Powerful ionised AGN-driven outflows, commonly detected both locally and at high redshift, are invoked to contribute to the co-evolution of SMBH and galaxies through feedback phenomena. Our recent works (Brusa+2015; 2016; Perna+2015a,b) have shown that the XMM-COSMOS targets with evidence of outflows collected so far ( 10 sources) appear to be associated with low X-ray kbol corrections (Lbol /LX ˜ 18), in spite of their spread in obscuration, in the locations on the SFR-Mstar diagram, in their radio emission. A higher statistical significance is required to validate a connection between outflow phenomena and a X-ray loudness. Moreover, in order to validate their binding nature to the galaxy fate, it is crucial to correctly determine the outflow energetics. This requires time consuming integral field spectroscopic (IFS) observations, which are, at present, mostly limited to high luminosity objectsThe study of SDSS data offers a complementary strategy to IFS efforts. I will present physical and demographic characterization of the AGN-galaxy system during the feedback phase obtained studying a sample of 500 X-ray/SDSS AGNs, at z<0.8. Outflow velocity inferred from [OIII]5007 emission line profile has been related to optical (e.g., [OIII] and bolometric luminosities, Eddington ratio, stellar velocity dispersion) and X-ray properties (intrinsic X-ray luminosity, obscuration and X-ray kbol correction), to determine what drives ionised winds. Several diagnostic line ratios have been used to infer the physical properties of the ionised outflowing gas. The knowledge of these properties can reduce the actual uncertainties in the outflow energetics by a factor of ten, pointing to improve our understanding of the AGN outflow phenomenon and its impact on galaxy evolution.

  20. Analysis of Asian Outflow over the Western Pacific using Observations from Trace-P

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacob, Daniel J.

    2004-01-01

    Our analysis of the TRACE-P data focused on answering the following questions: 1) How do anthropogenic sources in Asia contribute to chemical outflow over the western Pacific in spring? 2) How does biomass burning in southeast Asia contribute to this outflow? 3) How can the TRACE-P observations be used to better quantify the sources of environmentally important gases in eastern Asia? Our strategy drew on a combination of data analysis and global 3-D modeling, as described below. We also contributed to the planning and execution of TRACE-P through service as mission scientist and by providing chemical model forecasts in the field.

  1. Two New SiO Maser Sources in High-Mass Star-forming Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Se-Hyung; Yun, Youngjoo; Kim, Jaeheon; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Choi, Minho

    2016-08-01

    Silicon monoxide (SiO) masers are rare in star-forming regions, with the exception of five known SiO maser sources. However, we detected two new SiO maser sources from infrared-loud clumps of the high-mass star-forming regions G19.61-0.23 and G75.78+0.34. High angular resolution observations toward G19.61-0.23 suggest that the deeply embedded young stellar object (YSO) of SMA1 is powering the SiO masers. In addition, the SiO v = 1, J = 1 \\to 0 line shows four spike features, while the v = 2 maser shows combined features of one spike and broad wing components, implying energetic activities of the YSO of SMA1 in the G19.61-0.23 hot molecular core. The SiO v = 0, J = 2 \\to 1 emission shows bipolar outflows in the NE-SW direction with respect to the center of the SiO maser source. A high angular resolution map of the SiO v = 1, J = 2 \\to 1 maser in G75.78+0.34 shows that the SiO maser is associated with the CORE source at the earliest stage of high-mass star formation. Therefore, the newly detected SiO masers and their associated outflows will provide good probes for investigating this early high-mass star formation.

  2. Bursty star formation feedback and cooling outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Teresita; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Slyz, Adrianne; Devriendt, Julien

    2016-10-01

    We study how outflows of gas launched from a central galaxy undergoing repeated starbursts propagate through the circum-galactic medium (CGM), using the simulation code RAMSES. We assume that the outflow from the disc can be modelled as a rapidly moving bubble of hot gas at ˜1 kpc above disc, then ask what happens as it moves out further into the halo around the galaxy on ˜100 kpc scales. To do this, we run 60 two-dimensional simulations scanning over parameters of the outflow. Each of these is repeated with and without radiative cooling, assuming a primordial gas composition to give a lower bound on the importance of cooling. In a large fraction of radiative-cooling cases we are able to form rapidly outflowing cool gas from in situ cooling of the flow. We show that the amount of cool gas formed depends strongly on the `burstiness' of energy injection; sharper, stronger bursts typically lead to a larger fraction of cool gas forming in the outflow. The abundance ratio of ions in the CGM may therefore change in response to the detailed historical pattern of star formation. For instance, outflows generated by star formation with short, intense bursts contain up to 60 per cent of their gas mass at temperatures <5 × 104 K; for near-continuous star formation, the figure is ≲5 per cent. Further study of cosmological simulations, and of idealized simulations with e.g. metal-cooling, magnetic fields and/or thermal conduction, will help to understand the precise signature of bursty outflows on observed ion abundances.

  3. Comparing the contributions of ionospheric outflow and high-altitude production to O+ loss at Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liemohn, Michael; Curry, Shannon; Fang, Xiaohua; Johnson, Blake; Fraenz, Markus; Ma, Yingjuan

    2013-04-01

    The Mars total O+ escape rate is highly dependent on both the ionospheric and high-altitude source terms. Because of their different source locations, they appear in velocity space distributions as distinct populations. The Mars Test Particle model is used (with background parameters from the BATS-R-US magnetohydrodynamic code) to simulate the transport of ions in the near-Mars space environment. Because it is a collisionless model, the MTP's inner boundary is placed at 300 km altitude for this study. The MHD values at this altitude are used to define an ionospheric outflow source of ions for the MTP. The resulting loss distributions (in both real and velocity space) from this ionospheric source term are compared against those from high-altitude ionization mechanisms, in particular photoionization, charge exchange, and electron impact ionization, each of which have their own (albeit overlapping) source regions. In subsequent simulations, the MHD values defining the ionospheric outflow are systematically varied to parametrically explore possible ionospheric outflow scenarios. For the nominal MHD ionospheric outflow settings, this source contributes only 10% to the total O+ loss rate, nearly all via the central tail region. There is very little dependence of this percentage on the initial temperature, but a change in the initial density or bulk velocity directly alters this loss through the central tail. However, a density or bulk velocity increase of a factor of 10 makes the ionospheric outflow loss comparable in magnitude to the loss from the combined high-altitude sources. The spatial and velocity space distributions of escaping O+ are examined and compared for the various source terms, identifying features specific to each ion source mechanism. These results are applied to a specific Mars Express orbit and used to interpret high-altitude observations from the ion mass analyzer onboard MEX.

  4. The fast molecular outflow in the Seyfert galaxy IC 5063 as seen by ALMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Oosterloo, Tom; Oonk, J. B. Raymond; Frieswijk, Wilfred; Tadhunter, Clive

    2015-08-01

    We use high-resolution (0.5 arcsec) CO(2-1) observations performed with the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array to trace the kinematics of the molecular gas in the Seyfert 2 galaxy IC 5063. The data reveal that the kinematics of the gas is very complex. A fast outflow of molecular gas extends along the entire radio jet (~1 kpc), with the highest outflow velocities about 0.5 kpc from the nucleus, at the location of the brighter hot spot in the western lobe. The ALMA data show that a massive, fast outflow with velocities up to 650kms-1 of cold molecular gas is present, in addition to the outflow detected earlier in warm H2, H i and ionized gas. All phases of the gas outflow show similar kinematics. IC 5063 appears to be one of the best examples of the multi-phase nature of AGN-driven outflows. Both the central AGN and the radio jet could energetically drive the outflow, however, the characteristics of the outflowing gas point to the radio jet being the main driver. This is an important result because IC 5063, although one of the most powerful Seyfert galaxies, is a relatively weak radio source (P1.4 GHz = 3 × 1023 W Hz-1). All the observed characteristics can be described by a scenario of a radio plasma jet expanding into a clumpy medium, interacting directly with the clouds and inflating a cocoon that drives a lateral outflow into the interstellar medium. This model is consistent with results obtained by recent simulations. A stronger, direct interaction between the jet and a gas cloud is present at the location of the brighter western lobe. This interaction may also be responsible for the asymmetry in the radio brightness of the two lobes. Even assuming the most conservative values for the conversion factor CO-to-H2, we find that the mass of the outflowing gas is between 1.9 and 4.8 × 107 M⊙, of which between 0.5 and 1.3 × 107 M⊙ is associated with the fast outflow at the location of the western lobe. These amounts are much larger than those of the

  5. Northwestern Tharsis Latent Outflow Activity Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Baker, V. R.; Ferris, J. C.; Hare, T. M.; Strom, R. G.; Rudd, L.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

    2000-01-01

    Previously defined outflow channels, which are indicated by relict landforms similar to those observed on Earth, signify ancient catastrophic flood events on Mars. These conspicuous geomorphic features are some of the most remarkable yet profound discoveries made by geologists to date. These outflow channels, which debouched tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse, Utopia, Elysium, and Hellas Planitiae, may represent the beginning of warmer and wetter climatic periods unlike the present-day cold and dry Mars. In addition to the previously identified outflow channels, observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys, referred to as the northwestern slope valleys (NSV), that are located to the northwest of a huge shield volcano, Arsia Mons, western hemisphere of Mars. These features generally correspond spatially to gravity lows similar to the easternmost, circum-Chryse outflow channel systems. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the large valley system pre-dates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly Late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the circum-Chryse outflow channel systems that debouch into Chryse Planitia. This newly identified system, the NSV, potentially signifies the largest flood event(s) ever recorded for the solar system. Additional information is contained in original extended abstract.

  6. LVAD Outflow Graft Angle and Thrombosis Risk.

    PubMed

    Aliseda, Alberto; Chivukula, Venkat Keshav; Mcgah, Patrick; Prisco, Anthony R; Beckman, Jennifer A; Garcia, Guilherme J M; Mokadam, Nahush A; Mahr, Claudius

    This study quantifies thrombogenic potential (TP) of a wide range of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) outflow graft anastomosis angles through state-of-the-art techniques: 3D imaged-based patient-specific models created via virtual surgery and unsteady computational fluid dynamics with Lagrangian particle tracking. This study aims at clarifying the influence of a single parameter (outflow graft angle) on the thrombogenesis associated with flow patterns in the aortic root after LVAD implantation. This is an important and poorly-understood aspect of LVAD therapy, because several studies have shown strong inter and intrapatient thrombogenic variability and current LVAD implantation strategies do not incorporate outflow graft angle optimization. Accurate platelet-level investigation, enabled by statistical treatment of outliers in Lagrangian particle tracking, demonstrates a strong influence of outflow graft anastomoses angle on thrombogenicity (platelet residence times and activation state characterized by shear stress accumulation) with significantly reduced TP for acutely-angled anastomosed outflow grafts. The methodology presented in this study provides a device-neutral platform for conducting comprehensive thrombogenicity evaluation of LVAD surgical configurations, empowering optimal patient-focused surgical strategies for long-term treatment and care for advanced heart failure patients.

  7. Outflows, Dusty Cores, and a Burst of Star Formation in the North America and Pelican Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Probst, Ron; Reipurth, Bo; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S.

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The "Gulf of Mexico," located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M ⊙ BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An "activity index" formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  8. Outflows, dusty cores, and a burst of star formation in the North America and Pelican nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Bally, John; Ginsburg, Adam; Probst, Ron; Reipurth, Bo; Shirley, Yancy L.; Stringfellow, Guy S. E-mail: aginsburg@eso.org E-mail: reipurth@ifa.hawaii.edu E-mail: Guy.Stringfellow@colorado.edu

    2014-12-01

    We present observations of near-infrared 2.12 μm molecular hydrogen outflows emerging from 1.1 mm dust continuum clumps in the North America and Pelican Nebula (NAP) complex selected from the Bolocam Galactic Plane Survey (BGPS). Hundreds of individual shocks powered by over 50 outflows from young stars are identified, indicating that the dusty molecular clumps surrounding the NGC 7000/IC 5070/W80 H II region are among the most active sites of ongoing star formation in the solar vicinity. A spectacular X-shaped outflow, MHO 3400, emerges from a young star system embedded in a dense clump more than a parsec from the ionization front associated with the Pelican Nebula (IC 5070). Suspected to be a binary, the source drives a pair of outflows with orientations differing by 80°. Each flow exhibits S-shaped symmetry and multiple shocks indicating a pulsed and precessing jet. The 'Gulf of Mexico', located south of the North America Nebula (NGC 7000), contains a dense cluster of molecular hydrogen objects (MHOs), Herbig-Haro (HH) objects, and over 300 young stellar objects (YSOs), indicating a recent burst of star formation. The largest outflow detected thus far in the North America and Pelican Nebula complex, the 1.6 parsec long MHO 3417 flow, emerges from a 500 M {sub ☉} BGPS clump and may be powered by a forming massive star. Several prominent outflows such as MHO 3427 appear to be powered by highly embedded YSOs only visible at λ > 70 μm. An 'activity index' formed by dividing the number of shocks by the mass of the cloud containing their source stars is used to estimate the relative evolutionary states of Bolocam clumps. Outflows can be used as indicators of the evolutionary state of clumps detected in millimeter and submillimeter dust continuum surveys.

  9. Contribution of quasar-driven outflows to the extragalactic gamma-ray background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2016-12-01

    The origin of the extragalactic γ-ray background permeating throughout the Universe remains a mystery forty years after its discovery. The extrapolated population of blazars can account for only half of the background radiation in the energy range of ~0.1-10 GeV (refs ,). Here we show that quasar-driven outflows generate relativistic protons that produce the missing component of the extragalactic γ-ray background and naturally match its spectral fingerprint, with a generic break above ~1 GeV. The associated γ-ray sources are too faint to be detected individually, explaining why they had not been identified so far. However, future radio observations may image their shock fronts directly. Our best fit to the Fermi-LAT observations of the extragalactic γ-ray background spectrum provides constraints on the outflow parameters that agree with observations of these outflows and theoretical predictions. Although our model explains the data, there might be additional contributing sources.

  10. A PROPER MOTION STUDY OF THE HARO 6-10 OUTFLOW: EVIDENCE FOR A SUBARCSECOND BINARY

    SciTech Connect

    Wilking, Bruce A.; Gerling, Bradley M.; Gibb, Erika; Marvel, Kevin B.; Claussen, Mark J.; Wootten, Alwyn E-mail: bmg5333@truman.edu E-mail: marvel@aas.org E-mail: awootten@nrao.edu

    2012-07-10

    We present single-dish and very long baseline interferometry observations of an outburst of water maser emission from the young binary system Haro 6-10. Haro 6-10 lies in the Taurus molecular cloud and contains a visible T Tauri star with an infrared companion 1.''3 north. Using the Very Long Baseline Array, we obtained five observations spanning three months and derived absolute positions for 20 distinct maser spots. Three of the masers can be traced over three or more epochs, enabling us to extract absolute proper motions and tangential velocities. We deduce that the masers represent one side of a bipolar outflow that lies nearly in the plane of the sky with an opening angle of {approx}45 Degree-Sign . They are located within 50 mas of the southern component of the binary, the visible T Tauri star Haro 6-10S. The mean position angle on the sky of the maser proper motions ({approx}220 Degree-Sign ) suggests they are related to the previously observed giant Herbig-Haro (HH) flow which includes HH 410, HH 411, HH 412, and HH 184A-E. A previously observed HH jet and extended radio continuum emission (mean position angle of {approx}190 Degree-Sign ) must also originate in the vicinity of Haro 6-10S and represent a second, distinct outflow in this region. We propose that a yet unobserved companion within 150 mas of Haro 6-10S is responsible for the giant HH/maser outflow while the visible star is associated with the HH jet. Despite the presence of H{sub 2} emission in the spectrum of the northern component of the binary, Haro 6-10N, none of outflows/jets can be tied directly to this young stellar object.

  11. Corrosion resistant metallic bipolar plate

    DOEpatents

    Brady, Michael P.; Schneibel, Joachim H.; Pint, Bruce A.; Maziasz, Philip J.

    2007-05-01

    A corrosion resistant, electrically conductive component such as a bipolar plate for a PEM fuel cell includes 20 55% Cr, balance base metal such as Ni, Fe, or Co, the component having thereon a substantially external, continuous layer of chromium nitride.

  12. Suicidality in Bipolar I Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sheri L.; McMurrich, Stephanie L.; Yates, Marisa

    2005-01-01

    People with bipolar disorder are at high suicide risk. The literature suggests that suicidality is predicted by higher symptom severity and less use of pharmacological agents, but few studies have examined the joint contributions of these variables. The present study examines the conjoint contribution of symptom severity and pharmacological…

  13. Mixed features in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Solé, Eva; Garriga, Marina; Valentí, Marc; Vieta, Eduard

    2016-12-29

    Mixed affective states, defined as the coexistence of depressive and manic symptoms, are complex presentations of manic-depressive illness that represent a challenge for clinicians at the levels of diagnosis, classification, and pharmacological treatment. The evidence shows that patients with bipolar disorder who have manic/hypomanic or depressive episodes with mixed features tend to have a more severe form of bipolar disorder along with a worse course of illness and higher rates of comorbid conditions than those with non-mixed presentations. In the updated Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5), the definition of "mixed episode" has been removed, and subthreshold nonoverlapping symptoms of the opposite pole are captured using a "with mixed features" specifier applied to manic, hypomanic, and major depressive episodes. However, the list of symptoms proposed in the DSM-5 specifier has been widely criticized, because it includes typical manic symptoms (such as elevated mood and grandiosity) that are rare among patients with mixed depression, while excluding symptoms (such as irritability, psychomotor agitation, and distractibility) that are frequently reported in these patients. With the new classification, mixed depressive episodes are three times more common in bipolar II compared with unipolar depression, which partly contributes to the increased risk of suicide observed in bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression. Therefore, a specific diagnostic category would imply an increased diagnostic sensitivity, would help to foster early identification of symptoms and ensure specific treatment, as well as play a role in suicide prevention in this population.

  14. DIAGNOSTICS OF AGN-DRIVEN MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN ULIRGs FROM HERSCHEL-PACS OBSERVATIONS OF OH AT 119 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Spoon, H. W. W.; Lebouteiller, V.; Farrah, D.; González-Alfonso, E.; Bernard-Salas, J.; Urrutia, T.; Rigopoulou, D.; Verma, A.; Westmoquette, M. S.; Smith, H. A.; Afonso, J.; Pearson, C.; Cormier, D.; Efstathiou, A.; Borys, C.; Etxaluze, M.; Clements, D. L.

    2013-10-01

    We report on our observations of the 79 and 119 μm doublet transitions of OH for 24 local (z < 0.262) ULIRGs observed with Herschel-PACS as part of the Herschel ULIRG Survey (HERUS). Some OH 119 μm profiles display a clear P-Cygni shape and therefore imply outflowing OH gas, while other profiles are predominantly in absorption or are completely in emission. We find that the relative strength of the OH emission component decreases as the silicate absorption increases. This result locates the OH outflows inside the obscured nuclei. The maximum outflow velocities for our sources range from less than 100 to ∼2000 km s{sup –1}, with 15/24 (10/24) sources showing OH absorption at velocities exceeding 700 km s{sup –1} (1000 km s{sup –1}). Three sources show maximum OH outflow velocities exceeding that of Mrk231. Since outflow velocities above 500-700 km s{sup –1} are thought to require an active galactic nucleus (AGN) to drive them, about two-thirds of our ULIRG sample may host AGN-driven molecular outflows. This finding is supported by the correlation we find between the maximum OH outflow velocity and the IR-derived bolometric AGN luminosity. No such correlation is found with the IR-derived star formation rate. The highest outflow velocities are found among sources that are still deeply embedded. We speculate that the molecular outflows in these sources may be in an early phase of disrupting the nuclear dust veil before these sources evolve into less-obscured AGNs. Four of our sources show high-velocity wings in their [C II] fine-structure line profiles, implying neutral gas outflow masses of at least (2-4.5) × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}.

  15. The historical roots of the "bipolar spectrum": did Aristotle anticipate Kraepelin's broad concept of manic-depression?

    PubMed

    Pies, Ronald

    2007-06-01

    The construct of bipolar disorder, or bipolar spectrum disorders, has been a source of controversy in recent years. Some have argued that subtle variants within the putative bipolar spectrum are merely the creation of overzealous clinicians, perhaps encouraged by various special interest groups. In reality, the concept of a bipolar spectrum may be inferred from numerous classical sources, dating back to the 19th century and even into antiquity. The Greek philosopher Aristotle, usually considered the author of a work called Problemata, appears to have recognized some form of the bipolar spectrum, more than two millennia ago. This recognition continues throughout the 19th century, and into our own time. Such transcultural findings across many centuries have implications for the "objective" nature of psychiatric disease.

  16. Major Contributor to AGN Feedback: VLT X-shooter Observations of S IV BALQSO Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Arav, Nahum; Edmonds, Doug; Chamberlain, Carter; Benn, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present the most energetic BALQSO outflow measured to date, with a kinetic luminosity of at least 1046 erg s-1, which is 5% of the bolometric luminosity of this high Eddington ratio quasar. The associated mass-flow rate is 400 solar masses per year. Such kinetic luminosity and mass-flow rate should provide strong active galactic nucleus feedback effects. The outflow is located at about 300 pc from the quasar and has a velocity of roughly 8000 km s-1. Our distance and energetic measurements are based in large part on the identification and measurement of S IV and S IV* broad absorption lines (BALs). The use of this high-ionization species allows us to generalize the result to the majority of high-ionization BALQSOs that are identified by their C IV absorption. We also report the energetics of two other outflows seen in another object using the same technique. The distances of all three outflows from the central source (100-2000 pc) suggest that we observe BAL troughs much farther away from the central source than the assumed acceleration region of these outflows (0.01-0.1 pc). Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, PID: 87.B-0229.

  17. MAJOR CONTRIBUTOR TO AGN FEEDBACK: VLT X-SHOOTER OBSERVATIONS OF S IV BALQSO OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Borguet, Benoit C. J.; Arav, Nahum; Edmonds, Doug; Chamberlain, Carter; Benn, Chris

    2013-01-01

    We present the most energetic BALQSO outflow measured to date, with a kinetic luminosity of at least 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}, which is 5% of the bolometric luminosity of this high Eddington ratio quasar. The associated mass-flow rate is 400 solar masses per year. Such kinetic luminosity and mass-flow rate should provide strong active galactic nucleus feedback effects. The outflow is located at about 300 pc from the quasar and has a velocity of roughly 8000 km s{sup -1}. Our distance and energetic measurements are based in large part on the identification and measurement of S IV and S IV* broad absorption lines (BALs). The use of this high-ionization species allows us to generalize the result to the majority of high-ionization BALQSOs that are identified by their C IV absorption. We also report the energetics of two other outflows seen in another object using the same technique. The distances of all three outflows from the central source (100-2000 pc) suggest that we observe BAL troughs much farther away from the central source than the assumed acceleration region of these outflows (0.01-0.1 pc).

  18. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  19. Energetic auroral and polar ion outflow at DE 1 altitudes Magnitude, composition, magnetic activity dependence, and long-term variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yau, A. W.; Lenchyshyn, L.; Shelley, E. G.; Peterson, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    Data acquired from the Dynamics Explorer I Energetic Ion Composition Spectrometer in the period from September 1981 to May 1984 are used to determine the magnitude of the terrestrial ion outflow in the 0.01-17 keV/el range. The data are also employed to investigate the mass composition and topology (local time and invariant latitude distributions) of the ion outflow, as well as the outflow's magnetic activity dependence and long-term variation. The relative importance of auroral versus polar cap upflowing ions as a source of energetic plasma for various parts of the magnetosphere is examined.

  20. Metal bipolar plates for PEM fuel cell-A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tawfik, H.; Hung, Y.; Mahajan, D.

    The polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) based fuel cells are clean alternative energy systems that hold excellent potential for cost effectiveness, durability, and relatively high overall efficiency. PEM fuel cell is recognized by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as the main candidate to replace the internal combustion engine in transportation applications. Metallic bipolar plates and membrane electrode assembly (MEA) are two crucial components of a PEM power stack and their durability and fabrication cost must be optimized to allow fuel cells to penetrate the commercial market and compete with other energy sources. The bipolar plates perform as the current conductors between cells, provide conduits for reactant gases flow, and constitute the backbone of a power stack. They are commonly made of graphite composite for high corrosion resistance and good surface contact resistance; however their manufacturability, permeability, and durability for shock and vibration are unfavorable in comparison to metals. On the other hand, various methods and techniques must be developed to combat metallic corrosion and eliminate the passive layer that causes unacceptable reduction in contact resistance and possible fouling of the catalyst and the ionomer. Thus recently metallic bipolar plates have received considerable attention in the research community. This paper offers a comprehensive review of the research work conducted on metal bipolar plates to prevent corrosion while maintaining a low contact resistance.

  1. Shells, outflows and star formation in the giant molecular cloud Monoceros R2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Taoling

    1992-09-01

    To improve our understanding about giant molecular clouds (GMC) associated with R-associations, a CO-12 J = 1-0 map of 167,000 spectra with 45 inch resolution and 25 inch spacing, a CO-13 J = 1-0 map of approximately 40,000 spectra with 1.5 foot resolution and 1 foot spacing, IRAS BIGMAP images, and maps of high density molecular tracers for the dense cores are obtained for the GMC Monoceros R2 (D = 830 plus or minus 50 pc). These data reveal that the large-scale structure of Mon R2 is dominated by an expanding bubble shell (approximately 30 pc) with front side moving towards us at a radial velocity of approximately 4-5 km/s. Distortions of this shell are obvious, suggesting of the inhomogeneity of the cloud before the formation of the bubble. There is no evidence for red-shifted shell at the far side of the bubble. There are at least two generations of star formation in Mon R2. The older generation of stars with an age of 6-10 x 106 years are represented mostly by reflection nebulae. The younger generation of stars with an age of approximately 105 years are represented mostly by IRAS point sources. It is proposed that the large-scale expanding bubble shell is the result of combined effects of ionizing flux and stellar winds originating from the older generation of young stellar objects, but perhaps dominated by O type stars which either are obscured or left main sequence. It is suggested that the formation of the younger generation of stars has been triggered by the older generation of stars. The main and the GGD12-15 cores are located on the large-scale expanding shell, and their harboring both generations of stars can be explained were the cores preexisting clumps. Our CO data reveal an eggplant-shaped bipolar outflow shell, whose shape can be satisfactorily modeled with radially directed stellar winds sweeping up ambient material with momentum conservation. An inversion method is implemented for analyzing dust emission spectra at FIR wavelengths in terms of a

  2. High-latitude ionospheric outflows characterized through analytic formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, W.; Horwitz, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Recent advances involving multi-fluid treatments have begun to allow the prospect of global magnetospheric models to simulate the dynamics of multiple ion species, such as various ion species originating from sources in the solar wind and terrestrial ionosphere. Such opportunities for the dynamic treatment of ionospheric ions within the magnetosphere portend a need for realistic accessible methods of estimating ionospheric outflows as linked plasma sources for these global models. Toward this end, in this presentation, the results of numerous physics-based simulations of ionospheric plasma outflows under varied driving agents are distilled in terms of relatively compact analytic expressions. The simulations are conducted with the UT Arlington Dynamic Fluid (DyFK) ionospheric plasma transport code. These analytic expressions for O+ and H+ densities, temperatures and flow velocities are obtained at the 3 RE altitudes corresponding to typical inner boundary levels for certain current global magnetospheric models. These O+ and H+ parameters are expressed as functions of precipitation electron energy flux levels, characteristic energy levels of the precipitating electrons, the peak spectral wave densities for low-frequency electrostatic waves which transversely heat ionospheric ions, and solar zenith angle.

  3. Glider observations of the Dotson Ice Shelf outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Travis; Lee, Sang Hoon; Wåhlin, Anna; Ha, Ho Kyung; Kim, Tae Wan; Assmann, Karen M.; Schofield, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    The Amundsen Sea is one of the most productive polynyas in the Antarctic per unit area and is undergoing rapid changes including a reduction in sea ice duration, thinning ice sheets, retreat of glaciers and the potential collapse of the Thwaites Glacier in Pine Island Bay. A growing body of research has indicated that these changes are altering the water mass properties and associated biogeochemistry within the polynya. Unfortunately difficulties in accessing the remote location have greatly limited the amount of in situ data that has been collected. In this study data from a Teledyne-Webb Slocum glider was used to supplement ship-based sampling along the Dotson Ice Shelf (DIS). This autonomous underwater vehicle revealed a detailed view of a meltwater laden outflow from below the western flank of the DIS. Circumpolar Deep Water intruding onto the shelf drives glacial melt and the supply of macronutrients that, along with ample light, supports the large phytoplankton blooms in the Amundsen Sea Polynya. Less well understood is the source of micronutrients, such as iron, necessary to support this bloom to the central polynya where chlorophyll concentrations are highest. This outflow region showed decreasing optical backscatter with proximity to the bed indicating that particulate matter was sourced from the overlying glacier rather than resuspended sediment. This result suggests that particulate iron, and potentially phytoplankton primary productivity, is intrinsically linked to the magnitude and duration of sub-glacial melt from Circumpolar Deep Water intrusions onto the shelf.

  4. On the bipolar origin of Heinrich events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiao; Rial, J. A.; Reischmann, Elizabeth P.

    2014-12-01

    Evidence obtained from ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica indicates the presence of interactions between the polar climates, but, until recently, it has not been clear what the interactions are. Here we show that analysis under the previously established hypothesis of polar synchronization potentially connects the presence and possible energy source of the Heinrich (H) events and ice-rafted debris (IRD) events. These events appear to be related to the dynamic linkage between the polar climates, as they are not revealed in analysis of the records from a single pole. The H events and IRDs discovered in the North Atlantic along with coeval Southern Ocean events appear to drive or be driven by bipolar climate oscillations.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of postpartum bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Erin; Sharma, Verinder

    2010-07-01

    The postpartum period is a time of increased risk of new-onset psychiatric illness, hospital admissions and out-patient psychiatric care for new mothers. Research into postpartum mood disorders has focused primarily on major depressive disorder, and has overlooked the study of bipolar disorder, particularly bipolar II disorder and bipolar disorder not otherwise specified. Failure to properly diagnose postpartum bipolar disorder may delay the initiation of appropriate treatment, lead to inappropriate treatment - thereby precipitating (hypo)mania, rapid cycling or a mixed episode - or result in polypharmacy and treatment refractoriness. The most serious consequence, however, is the high risk of infanticide and suicide among women with postpartum bipolar disorder. While no specific screening tools have been validated for postpartum mania or bipolar depression, symptoms of hypomania, atypical depression, a family history of bipolar disorder and a rapid onset of depressive symptoms following delivery may suggest a bipolar diathesis. In the absence of any pharmacological or psychotherapeutic treatments to guide clinical decision-making, it is recommended that the treatment of postpartum bipolar depression follow the same guidelines as the treatment of non-postpartum bipolar depression, using medications that are compatible with lactation.

  6. MILLIMETER MULTIPLICITY IN DR21(OH): OUTFLOWS, MOLECULAR CORES, AND ENVELOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Zapata, Luis A.; Loinard, Laurent; Rodriguez, Luis F.; Galvan-Madrid, R.; Su, Y.-N.; Menten, Karl M.; Patel, Nimesh

    2012-01-10

    We present sensitive high angular resolution ({approx}1'') millimeter continuum and line observations from the massive star-forming region DR21(OH) located in the Cygnus X molecular cloud. Within the well-known dusty MM1-2 molecular cores, we report the detection of a new cluster of about 10 compact continuum millimeter sources with masses between 5 and 24 M{sub Sun }, and sizes of a few thousands of astronomical units. These objects are likely to be large dusty envelopes surrounding massive protostars, some of them most probably driving several of the outflows that emanate from this region. Additionally, we report the detection of strong millimeter emission of formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) and methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) near 218 GHz as well as compact emission from the typical outflow tracers carbon monoxide and silicon monoxide (CO and SiO) toward this massive star-forming region. The H{sub 2}CO and CH{sub 3}OH emission is luminous ({approx}10{sup -4} L{sub Sun }), well resolved, and found along the collimated methanol maser outflow first identified at centimeter wavelengths and in the sources SMA6 and SMA7. Our observations suggest that this maser outflow might be energized by a millimeter source called SMA4 located in the MM2 dusty core. The CO and SiO emission traces some other collimated outflows that emanate from MM1-2 cores, and are not related with the low-velocity maser outflow.

  7. Tracing Carina's protostellar jets to the source with WFC3-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Nathan

    2010-09-01

    Based on a recent H-alpha imaging survey of the Carina Nebula with ACS, we discovered 39 new Herbig-Haro {HH} jets marking the bipolar outflows from newly formed low-mass stars. This provides a valuable sample of jets that are all at the same distance, allowing us to study the relationship between protostars and their outflows where nearby massive stars are shredding the molecular cloud as new stars are forming. Carina has been studied extensively with Spitzer and Chandra, providing IR spectral energy distributions and X-ray luminosities for all detectable sources in the field. However, 29 of the jets seen at visual wavelengths emerge from opaque clouds or dark globules seen in silhouette against the bright background H II region, so the protostellar driving sources are still embedded in their natal clouds and are not identifiable in optical images. This makes the identification of the driving sources in lower resolution Spitzer and Chandra images ambiguous. Three of these jets {HH666, HH901, and HH902} have already been imaged with WFC3 as ERO targets after the servicing mission, demonstrating that near-IR [Fe II] emission lines in the F126N and F164N filters provide an excellent way to trace the jet emission back into the cloud and to thereby identify which embedded star is driving the outflow. Here we propose to obtain WFC3-IR images of [Fe II] emission from the remaining embedded jets in order to link the jets to the protostars that launch them. This will then permit a comparison of the jet properties to protostar properties for the full sample. Additionally, the flux ratio of these two [Fe II] lines will probe the spatially dependent extinction through the cloud all the way back to the source, providing a map of the density structure in the protostar's extended circumstellar envelope.

  8. Another piece of the puzzle: The fast H I outflow in Mrk 231

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morganti, Raffaella; Veilleux, Sylvain; Oosterloo, Tom; Teng, Stacy H.; Rupke, David

    2016-09-01

    We present the detection, performed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) and the Karl Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), of a fast H I 21 cm outflow in the ultra-luminous infrared galaxy Mrk 231. The outflow is observed as shallow H I absorption blueshifted ~1300 km s-1 with respect to the systemic velocity and located against the inner kpc of the radio source. The outflowing gas has an estimated column density between 5 and 15 × 1018Tspin cm-2. We derive the Tspin to lie in the range 400-2000 K and the corresponding H I densities are nHI ~ 10-100 cm-3. Our results complement previous findings and confirm the multiphase nature of the outflow in Mrk 231. Although effects of the interaction between the radio plasma and the surrounding medium cannot be ruled out, the energetics and the lack of a clear kpc-scale jet suggest that the most likely origin of the H I outflow is a wide-angle nuclear wind, as earlier proposed to explain the neutral outflow traced by Na I and molecular gas in this source. Our results suggest that an H I component is present in fast outflows regardless of the acceleration mechanism (wind vs. jet driven) and that it must be connected with common properties of the pre-interaction gas involved. Considering the observed similarity of their column densities, the H I outflow likely represents the inner part of the broad wind identified on larger scales in atomic Na I. The mass outflow rate of the H I outflow (between 8 and 18 M⊙ yr-1) does not appear to be as large as that observed in molecular gas, partly owing to the smaller sizes of the outflowing region sampled by the H I absorption. These characteristics are commonly seen in other cases of outflows driven by the active galactic nucleus (AGN) suggesting that the H I may represent a short intermediate phase in the rapid cooling of the gas. The results further confirm H I as a good tracer for AGN-driven outflows not only in powerful radio sources. We also obtained deeper continuum

  9. Simulating Galaxy Outflows Driven by Supersonic Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scannapieco, Evan

    Feedback from supernova-driven galaxy outflows plays a crucial role in setting the properties and assembly history of low-mass galaxies. Yet, numerically modeling such outflows has been by plagued by the fact that the underlying supernovae are much too small to be directly resolved, but have cooling times that are much too short to be modeled as thermal input. Here I will present three-dimensional, adaptive mesh simulations that overcome this problem using a subgrid model to deposit supernovae energy directly into supersonic turbulence, which acts on scales much smaller than the simulation grid spacing, but much larger than the particle mean free path. In this way, we are able to simulate a starbursting galaxy modeled after NGC 1569, including realistic radiative cooling throughout the simulation. Unlike in previous approaches, pockets of supernova-driven gas sweep up thick shells of material that persist for long times due to the cooling instability, and the overlapping of high-pressure, rarefied regions leads to a collective central outflow as observed in NGC 1569 and other outflowing starbursts. Such models will be directly comparable to a host of new observational constraints.

  10. Left ventricular outflow obstruction and necrotizing enterocolitis

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, H.A.; Haney, P.J.

    1984-02-01

    Two neonates had unusually rapid development of necrotizing enterocolitis within 24 hours of birth. Both patients had decreased systemic perfusion secondary to aortic atresia. Onset of either clinical or radiographic manifestations of necrotizing enterocolitis in the first day of life should alert one to the possible presence of severe left ventricular outflow obstruction.

  11. A SPECTACULAR OUTFLOW IN AN OBSCURED QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Smith, Paul S.

    2012-02-10

    SDSS J1356+1026 is a pair of interacting galaxies at redshift z = 0.123 that hosts a luminous obscured quasar in its northern nucleus. Here we present two long-slit Magellan LDSS-3 spectra that reveal a pair of symmetric {approx}10 kpc size outflows emerging from this nucleus, with observed expansion velocities of {approx}250 km s{sup -1} in projection. We present a kinematic model of these outflows and argue that the deprojected physical velocities of expansion are likely {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} and that the kinetic energy of the expanding shells is likely 10{sup 44-45} erg s{sup -1}, with an absolute minimum of >10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Although a radio counterpart is detected at 1.4 GHz, it is faint enough that the quasar is considered to be radio quiet by all standard criteria, and there is no evidence of extended emission due to radio lobes, whether aged or continuously powered by an ongoing jet. We argue that the likely level of star formation is insufficient to power the observed energetic outflow and that SDSS J1356+1026 is a good case for radio-quiet quasar feedback. In further support of this hypothesis, polarimetric observations show that the direction of quasar illumination is coincident with the direction of the outflow.

  12. Where is the oxygen in protostellar outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Oxygen (O) is the third-most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium. Despite its high elemental abundance, a good picture of where oxygen is located in low-mass protostellar outflows and jets is missing: we cannot account for > 60% of the oxygen budget in these objects. This hole in our picture means that we currently do not have a good understanding of the dominant cooling processes in outflows jets, despite the fact that [O I] emission at 63 micron is one of the dominant cooling lines, nor how cooling processes evolve with protostellar evolution. To shed light on these processes, we propose to observe the [O I] 63 micron line with SOFIA-GREAT toward five low-mass protostars. As a first step, the velocity-resolved line profile will be decomposed into its constituent components to isolate the relative contributions from the jet and the irradiated outflow. Second, the [O I] line profile will be compared to those of H2O, OH and CO to obtain the relative atomic O abundance with respect to CO, H2O, and OH. Third, the effects of evolution will be examined by observing protostars at different evolutionary stages. These three approaches will allow us to quantify: the oxygen chemistry in warm and hot gas, the relative amounts of material in the outflow and the jet, and finally to start tracing the evolutionary sequence of how feedback evolves with time.

  13. Where is the oxygen in protostellar outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Lars

    Oxygen (O) is the third-most abundant element in the Universe after hydrogen and helium. Despite its high elemental abundance, a good picture of where oxygen is located in low-mass protostellar outflows and jets is missing: we cannot account for > 60% of the oxygen budget in these objects. This hole in our picture means that we currently do not have a good understanding of the dominant cooling processes in outflows jets, despite the fact that [O I] emission at 63 micron is one of the dominant cooling lines, nor how cooling processes evolve with protostellar evolution. To shed light on these processes, we propose to observe the [O I] 63 micron line with SOFIA-GREAT toward seven low-mass protostars. As a first step, the velocity-resolved line profile will be decomposed into its constituent components to isolate the relative contributions from the jet and the irradiated outflow. Second, the [O I] line profile will be compared to those of H2O, OH and CO to obtain the relative atomic O abundance with respect to CO, H2O, and OH. Third, the effects of evolution will be examined by observing protostars at different evolutionary stages. These three approaches will allow us to quantify: the oxygen chemistry in warm and hot gas, the relative amounts of material in the outflow and the jet, and finally to start tracing the evolutionary sequence of how feedback evolves with time.

  14. Multiple Outflows in the Giant Eruption of a Massive Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Martin, John C.; Gordon, Michael S.; Jones, Terry J.

    2016-08-01

    The supernova impostor PSN J09132750+7627410 in NGC 2748 reached a maximum luminosity of ≈-14 mag. It was quickly realized that it was not a true supernova, but another example of a nonterminal giant eruption. PSN J09132750+7627410 is distinguished by multiple P Cygni absorption minima in the Balmer emission lines that correspond to outflow velocities of -400, -1100, and -1600 km s-1. Multiple outflows have been observed in only a few other objects. In this paper we describe the evolution of the spectrum and the P Cygni profiles for 3 months past maximum, the post-maximum formation of a cool, dense wind, and the identification of a possible progenitor. One of the possible progenitors is an infrared source. Its pre-eruption spectral energy distribution suggests a bolometric luminosity of -8.3 mag and a dust temperature of 780 K. If it is the progenitor, it is above the AGB limit, unlike the intermediate-luminosity red transients. The three P Cygni profiles could be due to ejecta from the current eruption, the wind of the progenitor, or previous mass-loss events. We suggest that they were all formed as part of the same high-mass-loss event and are due to material ejected at different velocities or energies. We also suggest that multiple outflows during giant eruptions may be more common than reported. Based on observations obtained with the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT), an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are the University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University and The Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.

  15. [Psychosis and bipolarity].

    PubMed

    Lagomarsino, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    Since Kraepelin s pioneering differentiation, schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis have been considered distinct diseases. Research findings from different sources have found several similarities between these two disorders, casting doubts on Kraepelin s distinction. The current concept of spectrum seems to be more adequate to explain the relations between them. At the same time, a group of medicines, atypical antipsychotics, have shown interesting properties for the treatment of both affective and psychotic symptomatology.

  16. [Major depression: features indicative of bipolarity?].

    PubMed

    Azorin, J-M

    2011-12-01

    Several recent studies have shown that bipolar disorder is underdiagnosed in patients with major depression. Missing the diagnosis of a bipolar disorder may have serious and even occasionally fatal consequences for a patient with the disease. Moreover misdiagnosis may lead to inappropriate treatment and therefore contribute to worsening medical and functional prognosis. Although there are no pathognomonic characteristics of bipolar depression compared to unipolar depression, evidence-based findings suggest that some features may be indicative of bipolarity, in patients with depression. These features are related to clinical picture of depressive state, course of episode and illness, response to treatment, family history, comorbid conditions, as well as demographic and temperamental characteristics. Based on such features, some authors have proposed operationalized criteria or a diagnostic specific for bipolarity, to identify bipolar depression. Screening instruments may also be used, to facilitate early recognition. Validation studies of these diagnostic features and instruments are underway.

  17. GAS OUTFLOWS IN SEYFERT GALAXIES: EFFECTS OF STAR FORMATION VERSUS AGN FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Melioli, C.; Pino, E. M. de Gouveia Dal E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br

    2015-10-20

    Large-scale, weakly collimated outflows are very common in galaxies with large infrared luminosities. In complex systems in particular, where intense star formation (SF) coexists with an active galactic nucleus (AGN), it is not clear yet from observations whether the SF, the AGN, or both are driving these outflows. Accreting supermassive black holes are expected to influence their host galaxies through kinetic and radiative feedback processes, but in a Seyfert galaxy, where the energy emitted in the nuclear region is comparable to that of the body of the galaxy, it is possible that stellar activity is also playing a key role in these processes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the mechanisms driving the gas evolution especially at the nuclear regions of these galaxies, we have performed high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations with radiative cooling considering the feedback from both SF regions, including supernova (Type I and II) explosions and an AGN jet emerging from the central region of the active spiral galaxy. We computed the gas mass lost by the system, separating the role of each of these injection energy sources on the galaxy evolution, and found that at scales within 1 kpc an outflow can be generally established considering intense nuclear SF only. The jet alone is unable to drive a massive gas outflow, although it can sporadically drag and accelerate clumps of the underlying outflow to very high velocities.

  18. ALMA Band 8 Continuum Emission from Orion Source I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Tomoya; Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsushita, Yuko; Motogi, Kazuhito; Matsumoto, Naoko; Kim, Mi Kyoung; Burns, Ross A.; Honma, Mareki

    2016-12-01

    We have measured continuum flux densities of a high-mass protostar candidate, a radio source I in the Orion KL region (Orion Source I) using the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at band 8 with an angular resolution of 0.″1. The continuum emission at 430, 460, and 490 GHz associated with Source I shows an elongated structure along the northwest-southeast direction perpendicular to the so-called low-velocity bipolar outflow. The deconvolved size of the continuum source, 90 au × 20 au, is consistent with those reported previously at other millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths. The flux density can be well fitted to the optically thick blackbody spectral energy distribution, and the brightness temperature is evaluated to be 700-800 K. It is much lower than that in the case of proton-electron or H- free-free radiations. Our data are consistent with the latest ALMA results by Plambeck & Wright, in which the continuum emission was proposed to arise from the edge-on circumstellar disk via thermal dust emission, unless the continuum source consists of an unresolved structure with a smaller beam filling factor.

  19. Dust outflows from quiescent spiral disks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alton, P. B.; Rand, R. J.; Xilouris, E. M.; Bevan, S.; Ferguson, A. M.; Davies, J. I.; Bianchi, S.

    2000-07-01

    We have conducted a search for ``dust chimneys'' in a sample of 10 highly-inclined spiral galaxies (i=86-90deg) which we had previously observed in the Hα emission line (Rand 1996). We have procured B-band CCD images for this purpose and employed unsharp-masking techniques to accentuate the structure of the dust lane. A scattering+absorption radiation transfer model enabled us to separate 5 galaxies from the sample which are sufficiently inclined (i>87deg) for us to reliably identify and quantify dust clouds residing at over 2 scale-heights above the disk. Three of these galaxies possess numerous curvi-linear chimney structures stretching up to 2 kpc from the midplane and the fraction of total galactic dust contained in such structures is of order 1%. Optical extinction offers a lower limit to the amount of dust contained in the extraplanar layer but, by examining the transparent submm thermal emission from NGC 891, we fix an upper limit of 5%. Our results are consistent with a similar recent study by Howk & Savage (1999) which indicates that about half of quiescent spiral disks possess detectable dust chimneys. We have compared our optical images with the corresponding Hα emission-line radiation. We do not find a detailed spatial correspondance between dust chimneys and either sites of recent star-formation or the extraplanar diffuse ionized gas. This is somewhat surprising given that FIR-bright galaxies, such as M 82, are known to entrain dust at the working surface of the starburst-driven outflow (traced in Hα ). It is possible a global correlation exists, with disks experiencing overall higher rates of star-formation also possessing the greatest number of chimneys. This may indicate a timescale difference between the two phenomena with the Hα phase lasting ~ 106 yr but chimneys requiring ~ 107 yr to form. Additionally, we have investigated the edge-on disk NGC 55 which, being ten times closer than galaxies in our main sample, allows us to examine in greater

  20. Course of Subthreshold Bipolar Disorder in Youth: Diagnostic Progression from Bipolar Disorder Not Otherwise Specified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Strober, Michael A.; Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Ha, Wonho; Gill, Mary Kay; Goldstein, Tina R.; Yen, Shirley; Hower, Heather; Hunt, Jeffrey I.; Liao, Fangzi; Iyengar, Satish; Dickstein, Daniel; Kim, Eunice; Ryan, Neal D.; Frankel, Erica; Keller, Martin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of diagnostic conversion from an operationalized diagnosis of bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (BP-NOS) to bipolar I disorder (BP-I) or bipolar II disorder (BP-II) in youth over prospective follow-up and to identify factors associated with conversion. Method: Subjects were 140 children and adolescents…

  1. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    DOE PAGES

    Welling, Daniel T.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Glocer, Alex; ...

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptivemore » Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the non-coupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.« less

  2. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    SciTech Connect

    Welling, Daniel T.; Jordanova, Vania Koleva; Glocer, Alex; Toth, Gabor; Liemohn, Michael W.; Weimer, Dan R.

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the non-coupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.

  3. The two-way relationship between ionospheric outflow and the ring current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Jordanova, V. K.; Glocer, A.; Toth, G.; Liemohn, M. W.; Weimer, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    It is now well established that the ionosphere, because it acts as a significant source of plasma, plays a critical role in ring current dynamics. However, because the ring current deposits energy into the ionosphere, the inverse may also be true: the ring current can play a critical role in the dynamics of ionospheric outflow. This study uses a set of coupled, first-principles-based numerical models to test the dependence of ionospheric outflow on ring current-driven region 2 field-aligned currents (FACs). A moderate magnetospheric storm event is modeled with the Space Weather Modeling Framework using a global MHD code (Block Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), a polar wind model (Polar Wind Outflow Model), and a bounce-averaged kinetic ring current model (ring current atmosphere interaction model with self-consistent magnetic field, RAM-SCB). Initially, each code is two-way coupled to all others except for RAM-SCB, which receives inputs from the other models but is not allowed to feed back pressure into the MHD model. The simulation is repeated with pressure coupling activated, which drives strong pressure gradients and region 2 FACs in BATS-R-US. It is found that the region 2 FACs increase heavy ion outflow by up to 6 times over the noncoupled results. The additional outflow further energizes the ring current, establishing an ionosphere-magnetosphere mass feedback loop. This study further demonstrates that ionospheric outflow is not merely a plasma source for the magnetosphere but an integral part in the nonlinear ionosphere-magnetosphere-ring current system.

  4. Virginia Woolf, neuroprogression, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Boeira, Manuela V; Berni, Gabriela de Á; Passos, Ives C; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flávio

    2017-01-01

    Family history and traumatic experiences are factors linked to bipolar disorder. It is known that the lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are 5-10% for first degree relatives and 40-70% for monozygotic co-twins. It is also known that patients with early childhood trauma present earlier onset of bipolar disorder, increased number of manic episodes, and more suicide attempts. We have recently reported that childhood trauma partly mediates the effect of family history on bipolar disorder diagnosis. In light of these findings from the scientific literature, we reviewed the work of British writer Virginia Woolf, who allegedly suffered from bipolar disorder. Her disorder was strongly related to her family background. Moreover, Virginia Woolf was sexually molested by her half siblings for nine years. Her bipolar disorder symptoms presented a pernicious course, associated with hospitalizations, suicidal behavioral, and functional impairment. The concept of neuroprogression has been used to explain the clinical deterioration that takes places in a subgroup of bipolar disorder patients. The examination of Virgina Woolf's biography and art can provide clinicians with important insights about the course of bipolar disorder.

  5. [Lithium and anticonvulsants in bipolar depression].

    PubMed

    Samalin, L; Nourry, A; Llorca, P-M

    2011-12-01

    For decades, lithium and anticonvulsants have been widely used in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Their efficacy in the treatment of mania is recognized. These drugs have been initially evaluated in old and methodologically heterogeneous studies. Their efficacy in bipolar depression has not always been confirmed in more recent and methodologically more reliable studies. Thus, lithium's efficacy as monotherapy was challenged by the study of Young (2008) that showed a lack of efficacy compared with placebo in the treatment of bipolar depression. In two recent meta-analyses, valproate has shown a modest efficacy in the treatment of bipolar depression. As for lithium, valproate appeared to have a larger antimanic effect for acute phase and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. In contrast, lamotrigine is more effective on the depressive pole of bipolar disorder with better evidence for the prevention of depressive recurrences. The guidelines include these recent studies and recommend lamotrigine as a first-line treatment of bipolar depression and for maintenance treatment. Because of more discordant data concerning lithium and valproate, these two drugs are placed either as first or as second line treatment of bipolar depression. The different safety/efficacy ratios of mood stabilizers underlie the complementarity and the importance of combination between them, or with some second-generation antipsychotics, in the treatment of patients with bipolar disorder.

  6. DMFC bipolar material and new processing for μDMFC microchannel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bifeng; Guan, Tao; Wang, Yun

    2010-10-01

    DMFC (Direct Methanol Fuel Cell) is attractive as green energy with the characteristics of high energy conversion rate, lower carbon and emission, eco-friendly alternative energy. In DMFC, bipolar plate is one key component because of its high performance requirements, the bipolar plate nearly always makes about 60% contribution to the cost of all fuel cell, seriously affected the commercialization progress of DMFC. Furthermore, the flow channel design and arrangement in bipolar plate has a great influence on water and heat management, distribution of reactants and smooth resultant discharge. So the DMFC bipolar plate material and flow channel processing technique obtains more concerns. After introducing the bipolar plate structure and its functions, it points out that the bipolar plate material nowadays mainly involves the graphite materials, metals and composite. Then the corresponding preparation method, advantages and disadvantages of these three kinds of bipolar plate materials are analyzed. With the rapid development of Micro and Nano-technology and the demand for electricity supply of MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical systems, micro-energy sources have been the focus, resulting in the miniaturization DMFC (μ DMFC). As the micro-bipolar plates has to survive the severe rugged working environment, such as high temperature, deep-etching, multi-field and alternating pressure), which challenges the material selection, flow channel configuration, processing method and precision. Therefore, hard-to-deform material such as titanium alloy is the preferred material for micro-bipolar plate. However, the new processing method has to be initialized for hard-to-deform material. This paper introduces the traditional and advanced processing methods of μDMFC bipolar plate. The existing problems of the DMFC bipolar plate material selection and processing are analyzed. We initialized one new technique that combines the laser-assisted heating method and micro die-pressing. The

  7. The Nature and Frequency of Outflows from Stars in the Central Orion Nebula Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Rubin, Robert H.

    2015-10-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig-Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig-Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database. Based on observations at the San Pedro Martir Observatory operated by the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

  8. THE NATURE AND FREQUENCY OF OUTFLOWS FROM STARS IN THE CENTRAL ORION NEBULA CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    O’Dell, C. R.; Ferland, G. J.; Henney, W. J.; Peimbert, M.; García-Díaz, Ma. T.; Rubin, Robert H.

    2015-10-15

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope images have allowed the determination with unprecedented accuracy of motions and changes of shocks within the inner Orion Nebula. These originate from collimated outflows from very young stars, some within the ionized portion of the nebula and others within the host molecular cloud. We have doubled the number of Herbig–Haro objects known within the inner Orion Nebula. We find that the best-known Herbig–Haro shocks originate from relatively few stars, with the optically visible X-ray source COUP 666 driving many of them. While some isolated shocks are driven by single collimated outflows, many groups of shocks are the result of a single stellar source having jets oriented in multiple directions at similar times. This explains the feature that shocks aligned in opposite directions in the plane of the sky are usually blueshifted because the redshifted outflows pass into the optically thick photon-dominated region behind the nebula. There are two regions from which optical outflows originate for which there are no candidate sources in the SIMBAD database.

  9. Relativistic baryonic jets from an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2015-12-01

    The formation of relativistic jets by an accreting compact object is one of the fundamental mysteries of astrophysics. Although the theory is poorly understood, observations of relativistic jets from systems known as microquasars (compact binary stars) have led to a well established phenomenology. Relativistic jets are not expected to be produced by sources with soft or supersoft X-ray spectra, although two such systems are known to produce relatively low-velocity bipolar outflows. Here we report the optical spectra of an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source (ULS) in the nearby galaxy M81 (M81 ULS-1; refs 9, 10). Unexpectedly, the spectra show blueshifted, broad Hα emission lines, characteristic of baryonic jets with relativistic speeds. These time-variable emission lines have projected velocities of about 17 per cent of the speed of light, and seem to be similar to those from the prototype microquasar SS 433 (refs 11, 12). Such relativistic jets are not expected to be launched from white dwarfs, and an origin from a black hole or a neutron star is hard to reconcile with the persistence of M81 ULS-1’s soft X-rays. Thus the unexpected presence of relativistic jets in a ULS challenges canonical theories of jet formation, but might be explained by a long-speculated, supercritically accreting black hole with optically thick outflows.

  10. Relativistic baryonic jets from an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Feng; Bai, Yu; Wang, Song; Justham, Stephen; Lu, You-Jun; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Di Stefano, Rosanne; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Álvarez, Pedro; Cao, Yi; Kulkarni, Shri

    2015-12-03

    The formation of relativistic jets by an accreting compact object is one of the fundamental mysteries of astrophysics. Although the theory is poorly understood, observations of relativistic jets from systems known as microquasars (compact binary stars) have led to a well established phenomenology. Relativistic jets are not expected to be produced by sources with soft or supersoft X-ray spectra, although two such systems are known to produce relatively low-velocity bipolar outflows. Here we report the optical spectra of an ultraluminous supersoft X-ray source (ULS) in the nearby galaxy M81 (M81 ULS-1; refs 9, 10). Unexpectedly, the spectra show blueshifted, broad Hα emission lines, characteristic of baryonic jets with relativistic speeds. These time-variable emission lines have projected velocities of about 17 per cent of the speed of light, and seem to be similar to those from the prototype microquasar SS 433 (refs 11, 12). Such relativistic jets are not expected to be launched from white dwarfs, and an origin from a black hole or a neutron star is hard to reconcile with the persistence of M81 ULS-1's soft X-rays. Thus the unexpected presence of relativistic jets in a ULS challenges canonical theories of jet formation, but might be explained by a long-speculated, supercritically accreting black hole with optically thick outflows.

  11. Example of reduced turbulence during thunderstorm outflow

    SciTech Connect

    Bowen, B.M.

    1996-06-01

    This research note describes the effects of a gust front passage resulting from a thunderstorm outflow on wind, turbulence, and other basic meteorological variables in northern Mew Mexico. The purpose of this note is to explain how a thunderstorm outflow can greatly reduce horizontal and vertical turbulence and produce strong winds, thereby promoting the rapid transport of elevated pollutant concentrations. Another goal is to demonstrate the usefulness of a sodar in combination with a tower to provide data for dispersion and transport calculations during an emergency response. Hopefully, this note will motivate other researchers to analyze and document the effects of thunderstorms on turbulence and dispersion by routine monitoring or by experimentation. 12 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Eddy Generation by a Steady Poleward Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durland, T. S.; Pedlosky, J.; Spall, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    The energetic eddy field coincident with the South Equatorial Current (SEC) in the eastern Indian Ocean has been variously attributed to baroclinic instability of the SEC, barotropic instability of the SEC and shedding of eddies by the branch of the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) entering the basin through Timor Passage. We present an additional mechanism by demonstrating that in an idealized numerical model, a steady poleward outflow (meant to simulate the Lombok Strait branch of the ITF) can generate an eddy field with spatial and temporal patterns that bear a remarkable resemblance to observations of sea surface height varibility in the region. A simple conceptual model will be presented which links the nonlinear, eddy-generating dynamics to linear dynamics, thus making possible the prediction of eddy amplitudes and periodicity for a wide range of outflow latitudes and volume fluxes.

  13. Density distributions of outflow-driven turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraghan, Anthony; Kim, Jongsoo; Yoon, Suk-Jin

    2013-05-01

    Protostellar jets and outflows are signatures of star formation and promising mechanisms for driving supersonic turbulence in molecular clouds. We quantify outflow-driven turbulence through three-dimensional numerical simulations using an isothermal version of the robust total variation diminishing code. We drive turbulence in real space using a simplified spherical outflow model, analyse the data through density probability distribution functions (PDFs), and investigate the core formation rate per free-fall time (CFRff). The real-space turbulence-driving method produces a negatively skewed density PDF possessing an enhanced tail on the low-density side. It deviates from the log-normal distributions typically obtained from Fourier-space turbulence driving at low densities, but can provide a good fit at high densities, particularly in terms of mass-weighted rather than volume-weighted density PDF. Due to this fact, we suggest that the CFRff determined from a Fourier-driven turbulence model could be comparable to that of our particular real-space-driving model, which has a ratio of solenoidal to compressional components from the resulting turbulence velocity fields of ˜0.6.

  14. Magnetospheric imaging of high latitude ion outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrido, D. E.; Robinson, R. M.; Chiu, Y. T.; Collin, H. L.; Smith, R. W.; Swift, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    High latitude ion outflows mostly consist of upward streaming O(+) and He(+) emanating from the ionosphere. At heights above 1000 km, these flows consist of cold and hot components which resonantly scatter solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light, however, the ion populations respond differently to Doppler shifting resulting from the large relative velocities between the ions and the Sun. The possibility of optical detection of the Doppler effect on the scattering rate will be discussed for the O(+) (83.4 nm) ions. We have contrasted the EUV solar resonance images of these outflows by simulations of the 30.4 nm He(+) and 83.4 nm O(+) emissions for both quiet and disturbed geomagnetic conditions. Input data for the 1000 km level has been obtained from the EICS instrument aboard the Dynamics Explorer (DE) satellite. Our results show emission rates of 50 and 56 milli-Rayleighs at 30.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions and 65 and 75 milli-Rayleighs at 83.4 nm for quiet and disturbed conditions, respectively, obtained for a polar orbiting satellite and viewing radially outward. We also find that an imager at an equatorial distance of 9 R(sub E) or more is in a favorable position for detecting ion outflows, particularly when the plasmapause is depressed in latitude. However, an occultation disk is necessary to obscure the bright plasmaspheric emissions.

  15. Bipolar depression and treatment with antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of bipolar disorder with antidepressants tested almost exclusively in unipolar cases is common but unsupported by an appropriate body of evidence. This anomaly is highlighted by a large Taiwanese study, which implies that patients with depression difficult to treat with antidepressants are quite likely to be diagnosed subsequently with bipolar disorder.

  16. Challenges in the management of bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Suppes, Trisha; Kelly, Dorothy I; Perla, Jessica M

    2005-01-01

    Bipolar depression has started to receive more attention in clinical trials only relatively recently, despite the fact that patients spend more time in the depressed phase than in the manic phase of bipolar disorder. The diagnosis and management of bipolar depression are challenging, and many patients are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed due to symptom similarities with unipolar depression or other illnesses and/or comorbidities. Untreated or inappropriately treated bipolar depression adds to the burden of illness and is associated with a greater risk of suicide. Treatment options include lithium, lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics, and traditional antidepressants, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However, traditional antidepressants are recommended with caution due to their potential risk of switching patients into mania. Some atypical antipsychotics have shown efficacy in bipolar depression, although longer-term studies are warranted. The choice of treatment for different subgroups of patients with bipolar depression, including those with comorbid anxiety, may vary and also needs further study. Other important issues that require further investigation include the recognition of the core features of bipolar depression and the threshold symptoms for treatment, as well as the optimal treatment choices for monotherapy or combination therapy, and acute versus long-term management of bipolar depression.

  17. Bipolar Disorder in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Patricia M.; Pacheco, Mary Rae

    2005-01-01

    This article examines the individual components of bipolar disorder in children and the behaviors that can escalate as a result of misdiagnosis and treatment. The brain/behavior relationship in bipolar disorders can be affected by genetics, developmental failure, or environmental influences, which can cause an onset of dramatic mood swings and…

  18. Swimming in Deep Water: Childhood Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senokossoff, Gwyn W.; Stoddard, Kim

    2009-01-01

    The authors focused on one parent's struggles in finding a diagnosis and intervention for a child who had bipolar disorder. The authors explain the process of identification, diagnosis, and intervention of a child who had bipolar disorder. In addition to the personal story, the authors provide information on the disorder and outline strategies…

  19. Bipolar Disorder and Cognitive Therapy: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riskind, John H.

    2005-01-01

    This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…

  20. BAL OUTFLOW CONTRIBUTION TO AGN FEEDBACK: FREQUENCY OF S IV OUTFLOWS IN THE SDSS

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Jay P.; Arav, Nahum; Laughlin, Courtney; Edmonds, Doug; Aoki, Kentaro; Wilkins, Ashlee; Bautista, Manuel E-mail: arav@vt.edu E-mail: kentaro.aoki@hawaiiantel.net E-mail: manuel.bautista@wmich.edu

    2012-05-10

    We present a study of broad absorption line (BAL) quasar outflows that show S IV {lambda}1063 and S IV* {lambda}1073 troughs. The fractional abundances of S IV and C IV peak at similar value of the ionization parameter, implying that they arise from the same physical component of the outflow. Detection of the S IV* troughs will allow us to determine the distance to this gas with higher resolution and higher signal-to-noise spectra, therefore providing the distance and energetics of the ubiquitous C IV BAL outflows. In our bright sample of 156 SDSS quasars, 14% show C IV and 1.9% S IV troughs, which are consistent with a fainter magnitude sample with twice as many objects. One object in the fainter sample shows evidence of a broad S IV trough without any significant trough present from the excited state line, which implies that this outflow could be at a distance of several kpc. Given the fractions of C IV and S IV, we establish firm limits on the global covering factor on S IV that ranges from 2.8% to 21% (allowing for the k-correction). Comparison of the expected optical depth for these ions with their detected percentage suggests that these species arise from common outflows with a covering factor closer to the latter.

  1. Prospects of bipolar diamond devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksov, A.; Denisenko, A.; Kohn, E.

    2000-02-01

    The prospects of diamond bipolar devices are analysed theoretically and experimentally in respect to the problem of deep doping, especially the deep donor in diamond. For this purpose a set of p- n- p bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) is fabricated on p-type diamond substrates by epitaxial growth using boron ( EA=0.4 eV) and nitrogen ( ED=1.7 eV) as the p- and n-type dopants respectively. It is shown that at the boron/nitrogen junction a p- n junction is formed. The built-in potential of the junction is determined by the ionised boron/nitrogen impurities. The specific features of the fabricated devices are the high resistivity of the nitrogen doped base (10 GΩ·cm at 20°C) and a significant leakage current of the reverse biased p- n junctions. These factors limit the transistor action to d.c.-operation in the nA-current range and to temperatures below 200°C where leakage starts to dominate. The values of the static current gain IC/ IB are measured in the common base mode 200 and in the common emitter mode 1.1. The theoretical section of the paper deals with the calculation of the static current gain of diamond pnp transistor structures in dependence of the donor energy level, temperature and frequency. Both the theoretical and the experimental results indicate that diamond bipolar transistors with a nitrogen doped n-type base can exhibit a current gain β of up to 30,000 in the d.c.-regime provided the leakage of the p- n junctions is sufficiently low. High-gain diamond transistors operating in GHz-frequency can be expected as soon as n-doping by shallow donor like phosphorous ( ED<0.5 eV) becomes available.

  2. Perceptions and impact of bipolar disorder in Japan: results of an Internet survey

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Koichiro; Harada, Eiji; Inoue, Takeshi; Tanji, Yuka; Kikuchi, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent and episodic illness. This survey study assessed experiences and identified clinical insights of individuals with bipolar disorder. An Internet-based monitor system database was screened for patients with bipolar disorder in Japan (February and March 2013). Of 1,050 patients, 457 completed surveys, and results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Approximately one-fourth of respondents were diagnosed with bipolar disorder on their first visit to medical institutions, although the most common initial diagnosis was depression/depressive state (65%). Mean time lag between first-time visit to a medical institution and receipt of correct diagnosis of bipolar disorder was 4 years; one-third of patients experienced more than 5 years of lag time. Three perceived reasons for lapsed time before correct diagnosis were “(patients) Did not consider manic symptoms as illness, and did not tell the doctor about them,” “I (patient) did not know of bipolar disorder,” and “Lack of communication between my doctor and myself (patient).” Among participants who believed that they were initially incorrectly diagnosed and improperly treated, most experienced socioeconomic problems, such as having long-term inability to work or to study (65%). Sources of encouragement for participants included “To have someone to consult with” (41%) followed by having “People around me treat me the same as before” (40%). Individuals with bipolar disorder reported a time lag of many years before accurate diagnosis, and substantial burden imposed by the illness. Encouragement should be provided for individuals to live positively with bipolar disorder. PMID:27920534

  3. A variable P v broad absorption line and quasar outflow energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capellupo, D. M.; Hamann, F.; Barlow, T. A.

    2014-10-01

    Broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasar spectra identify high-velocity outflows that might exist in all quasars and could play a major role in feedback to galaxy evolution. The viability of BAL outflows as a feedback mechanism depends on their kinetic energies, as derived from the outflow velocities, column densities, and distances from the central quasar. We estimate these quantities for the quasar, Q1413+1143 (redshift ze = 2.56), aided by the first detection of P V λλ1118, 1128 BAL variability in a quasar. In particular, P V absorption at velocities where the C IV trough does not reach zero intensity implies that the C IV BAL is saturated and the absorber only partially covers the background continuum source (with characteristic size <0.01 pc). With the assumption of solar abundances, we estimate that the total column density in the BAL outflow is log NH ≳ 22.3 cm-2. Variability in the P V and saturated C IV BALs strongly disfavours changes in the ionization as the cause of the BAL variability, but supports models with high column density BAL clouds moving across our lines of sight. The observed variability time of 1.6 yr in the quasar rest frame indicates crossing speeds >750 km s-1 and a radial distance from the central black hole of ≲ 3.5 pc, if the crossing speeds are Keplerian. The total outflow mass is ˜4100 M⊙, the kinetic energy ˜4 × 1054 erg, and the ratio of the outflow kinetic energy luminosity to the quasar bolometric luminosity is ˜0.02 (at the minimum column density and maximum distance), which might be sufficient for important feedback to the quasar's host galaxy.

  4. Bipolar Transistor Based on Graphane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharekhanlou, B.; Tousaki, S. B.; Khorasani, S.

    2010-11-01

    Graphane is a semiconductor with an energy gap, obtained from hydrogenation of the two-dimensional grapheme sheet. Together with the two-dimensional geometry, unique transport features of graphene, and possibility of doping graphane, p and n regions can be defined so that p-n junctions become feasible with small reverse currents. Our recent analysis has shown that an ideal I-V characteristic for this type of junctions may be expected. Here, we predict the behavior of bipolar juncrion transistors based on graphane. Profiles of carriers and intrinsic parameters of the graphane transistor are calculated and discussed.

  5. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-01-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  6. Nanofluidic diode and bipolar transistor.

    PubMed

    Daiguji, Hirofumi; Oka, Yukiko; Shirono, Katsuhiro

    2005-11-01

    Theoretical modeling of ionic distribution and transport in a nanochannel containing a surface charge on its wall, 30 nm high and 5 microm long, suggests that ionic current can be controlled by locally modifying the surface charge density through a gate electrode, even if the electrical double layers are not overlapped. When the surface charge densities at the right and left halves of a channel are the same absolute value but of different signs, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic diode. When the surface charge density at the middle part of a channel is modified, this could form the basis of a nanofluidic bipolar transistor.

  7. Bipolar Ag-Zn battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giltner, L. John

    1994-02-01

    The silver-zinc (AgZn) battery system has been unique in its ability to safely satisfy high power demand applications with low mass and volume. However, a new generation of defense, aerospace, and commercial applications will impose even higher power demands. These new power demands can be satisfied by the development of a bipolar battery design. In this configuration the power consuming, interelectrode current conductors are eliminated while the current is then conducted via the large cross-section electrode substrate. Negative and positive active materials are applied to opposite sides of a solid silver foil substrate. In addition to reducing the weight and volume required for a specified power level, the output voltage performance is also improved as follows. Reduced weight through: elimination of the plastic cell container; elimination of plate leads and intercell connector; and elimination of internal plate current collector. Increased voltage through: elimination of resistance of current collector; elimination of resistance of plate lead; and elimination of resistance of intercell connector. EPI worked previously on development of a secondary bipolar silver zinc battery. This development demonstrated the electrical capability of the system and manufacturing techniques. One difficulty with this development was mechanical problems with the seals. However, recent improvements in plastics and adhesives should eliminate the major problem of maintaining a seal around the periphery of the bipolar module. The seal problem is not as significant for a primary battery application or for a requirement for only a few discharge cycles. A second difficulty encountered was with activation (introducing electrolyte into the cell) and with venting gas from the cell without loss of electrolyte. During previous work, the following projections for energy density were made from test data for a high power system which demonstrated in excess of 50 discharge/charge cycles. Projected

  8. Quasar feedback revealed by giant molecular outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feruglio, C.; Maiolino, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Menci, N.; Aussel, H.; Lamastra, A.; Fiore, F.

    2010-07-01

    In the standard scenario for galaxy evolution young star-forming galaxies transform into red bulge-dominated spheroids, where star formation has been quenched. To explain this transformation, a strong negative feedback generated by accretion onto a central super-massive black hole is often invoked. The depletion of gas resulting from quasar-driven outflows should eventually stop star-formation across the host galaxy and lead the black hole to “suicide” by starvation. Direct observational evidence for a major quasar feedback onto the host galaxy is still missing, because outflows previously observed in quasars are generally associated with the ionized component of the gas, which only accounts for a minor fraction of the total gas content, and typically occurrs in the central regions. We used the IRAM PdB Interferometer to observe the CO(1-0) transition in Mrk 231, the closest quasar known. Thanks to the wide band we detected broad wings of the CO line, with velocities of up to 750 km s-1 and spatially resolved on the kpc scale. These broad CO wings trace a giant molecular outflow of about 700 M_⊙/year, far larger than the ongoing star-formation rate (~200 M_⊙/year) observed in the host galaxy. This wind will totally expel the cold gas reservoir in Mrk 231 in about 107 yrs, therefore halting the star-formation activity on the same timescale. The inferred kinetic energy in the molecular outflow is ~1.2 × 1044 erg/s, corresponding to a few percent of the AGN bolometric luminosity, which is very close to the fraction expected by models ascribing quasar feedback to highly supersonic shocks generated by radiatively accelerated nuclear winds. Instead, the contribution by the SNe associated with the starburst fall short by several orders of magnitude to account for the kinetic energy observed in the outflow. The direct observational evidence for quasar feedback reported here provides solid support to the scenarios ascribing the observed properties of local massive

  9. Personality trait predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Quilty, Lena Catherine; Sellbom, Martin; Tackett, Jennifer Lee; Bagby, Robert Michael

    2009-09-30

    The purpose of the current investigation was to examine the personality predictors of bipolar disorder symptoms, conceptualized as one-dimensional (bipolarity) or two-dimensional (mania and depression). A psychiatric sample (N=370; 45% women; mean age 39.50 years) completed the Revised NEO Personality Inventory and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory -2. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as a single dimension provided a good fit to the data. This dimension was predicted by Neuroticism and (negative) Agreeableness. A model in which bipolar symptoms were represented as two separate dimensions of mania and depression also provided a good fit to the data. Depression was associated with Neuroticism and (negative) Extraversion, whereas mania was associated with Neuroticism, Extraversion and (negative) Agreeableness. Symptoms of bipolar disorder can be usefully understood in terms of two dimensions of mania and depression, which have distinct personality correlates.

  10. Synaptic Release at Mammalian Bipolar Cell Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Qun-Fang; Heidelberger, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Bipolar cells play a vital role in the transfer of visual information across the vertebrate retina. The synaptic output of these neurons is regulated by factors that are extrinsic and intrinsic. Relatively little is known about the intrinsic factors that regulate neurotransmitter exocytosis. Much of what we know about intrinsic presynaptic mechanisms that regulate glutamate release has come from the study of the unusually large and accessible synaptic terminal of the goldfish rod-dominant bipolar cell, the Mb1 bipolar cell. However, over the past several years, examination of presynaptic mechanisms governing neurotransmitter release has been extended to the mammalian rod bipolar cell. In this review, we discuss the recent advances in our understanding of synaptic vesicle dynamics and neurotransmitter release in rodent rod bipolar cells and consider how these properties help shape the synaptic output of the mammalian retina. PMID:21272392

  11. Integrating Bipolar Disorder Management in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Kilbourne, Amy M.; Goodrich, David E.; O’Donnell, Allison N.; Miller, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    There is growing realization that persons with bipolar disorder may exclusively be seen in primary (general medical) care settings, notably because of limited access to mental health care and stigma in seeking mental health treatment. At least two clinical practice guidelines for bipolar disorder recommend collaborative chronic care models (CCMs) to help integrate mental health care to better manage this illness. CCMs, which include provider guideline support, self-management support, care management, and measurement-based care, are well-established in primary care settings, and may help primary care practitioners manage bipolar disorder. However, further research is required to adapt CCMs to support complexities in diagnosing persons with bipolar disorder, and integrate decision-making processes regarding medication safety and tolerability in primary care. Additional implementation studies are also needed to adapt CCMs for persons with bipolar disorder in primary care, especially those seen in smaller practices with limited infrastructure and access to mental health care. PMID:23001382

  12. Fundamentals of bipolar high-frequency surgery.

    PubMed

    Reidenbach, H D

    1993-04-01

    In endoscopic surgery a very precise surgical dissection technique and an efficient hemostasis are of decisive importance. The bipolar technique may be regarded as a method which satisfies both requirements, especially regarding a high safety standard in application. In this context the biophysical and technical fundamentals of this method, which have been known in principle for a long time, are described with regard to the special demands of a newly developed field of modern surgery. After classification of this method into a general and a quasi-bipolar mode, various technological solutions of specific bipolar probes, in a strict and in a generalized sense, are characterized in terms of indication. Experimental results obtained with different bipolar instruments and probes are given. The application of modern microprocessor-controlled high-frequency surgery equipment and, wherever necessary, the integration of additional ancillary technology into the specialized bipolar instruments may result in most useful and efficient tools of a key technology in endoscopic surgery.

  13. A Morpho-kinematic and Spectroscopic study of Bipolar Planetary Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, Niall

    2015-09-01

    hypersonic knotty outflow. As for M 2-9, Mz 3, and Hen 2-104, the expansion rates of their individual components are better constrained and fitted with a vector field to reveal their direction of motion. Both diagnostic diagrams show M 2-9 and Hen 2-104 to fall well within the category of having a symbiotic source, whereas Mz 3 borders the region of symbiotic and young planetary nebulae in the optical diagram but is located firmly in the symbiotic region of the NIR colour-colour diagram. With regards to Abell 14, it has been shown to be a highly-evolved bipolar nebula with a kinematical age of 19,400 ± 3480 yr for a distance of 4 kpc, and is a nebula with a very-low density, which further implies its evolved state.

  14. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity.

    PubMed

    Le Bas, James; Newton, Richard; Sore, Rachel; Castle, David

    2015-02-01

    Because affective pathogenesis is a hard problem for psychiatry, it behoves researchers to develop and test novel models of causality. We examine the notion that the adaptive drive to social investment - prestige - provides clues to the bipolar spectrum. A seven node bipolar spectrum is proposed, based on a putative gradient of "bipolarity". It is conceived that this gradient may correlate with the drive to social investment (prestige). In order to test this hypothesis with proof of concept data, a case control study categorised 228 subjects into a seven node bipolar spectrum. Whilst controlling for mood elevation and depression, differences in strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) between spectrum groups were examined. The bipolar I (S1) node had a greater strategic prestige (leadership) motivation score than the controls (S7) by 21.17 points, 95% CI [8.16, 34.18], p<.001, d=1.05, while the bipolar II (S2) node was higher than the control group by 16.73 points, 95% CI [0.92, 32.54], p=.030, d=0.84. Whilst the pseudounipolar (S3) node (those with depression and bipolar family histories; n=17) had only a marginally statistical difference in MSPM compared to controls (p=.051), the mean difference (16.98) and d value (0.86) indicated an elevated MSPM level. Prestige (leadership) motivation score positively correlated with dimensional lifetime bipolarity (Mood Disorder Questionnaire) score (rp=0.47), supporting the spectrum prestige motivation gradient notion. Evidence is presented for a genetic disposition to elevated strategic prestige (leadership) motivation. Sensitivity to Social Inclusion (MSIS), Contingency of Self-Worth (CSW.av) and tension significantly predicted strategic prestige (leadership) motivation (MSPM) score in a multiple regression. - suggesting that a vulnerability of the social self may be a feature of bipolar disorders. The prestige model of spectrum bipolarity offers a new conceptualisation of affective disorders and has received

  15. Ultrafast outflows in radio-loud active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Tazaki, F.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Ueda, Y.; Cappi, M.; Gofford, J.; Reeves, J. N.; Guainazzi, M.

    2014-09-01

    Recent X-ray observations show absorbing winds with velocities up to mildly relativistic values of the order of ˜0.1c in a limited sample of six broad-line radio galaxies. They are observed as blueshifted Fe XXV-XXVI K-shell absorption lines, similarly to the ultrafast outflows (UFOs) reported in Seyferts and quasars. In this work we extend the search for such Fe K absorption lines to a larger sample of 26 radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGN) observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. The sample is drawn from the Swift Burst Alert Telescope 58-month catalogue and blazars are excluded. X-ray bright Fanaroff-Riley Class II radio galaxies constitute the majority of the sources. Combining the results of this analysis with those in the literature we find that UFOs are detected in >27 per cent of the sources. However, correcting for the number of spectra with insufficient signal-to-noise ratio, we can estimate that the incidence of UFOs is this sample of radio-loud AGN is likely in the range f ≃ (50 ± 20) per cent. A photoionization modelling of the absorption lines with XSTAR allows us to estimate the distribution of their main parameters. The observed outflow velocities are broadly distributed between vout ≲ 1000 km s-1 and vout ≃ 0.4c, with mean and median values of vout ≃ 0.133c and vout ≃ 0.117c, respectively. The material is highly ionized, with an average ionization parameter of logξ ≃ 4.5 erg s-1 cm, and the column densities are larger than NH > 1022 cm-2. Overall, these characteristics are consistent with the presence of complex accretion disc winds in a significant fraction of radio-loud AGN and demonstrate that the presence of relativistic jets does not preclude the existence of winds, in accordance with several theoretical models.

  16. The Prevalence of Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. II. 3D Biconical Outflow Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Hyun-Jin; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2016-09-01

    We present 3D models of biconical outflows combined with a thin dust plane for investigating the physical properties of the ionized gas outflows and their effect on the observed gas kinematics in type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Using a set of input parameters, we construct a number of models in 3D and calculate the spatially integrated velocity and velocity dispersion for each model. We find that three primary parameters, i.e., intrinsic velocity, bicone inclination, and the amount of dust extinction, mainly determine the simulated velocity and velocity dispersion. Velocity dispersion increases as the intrinsic velocity or the bicone inclination increases, while velocity (i.e., velocity shifts with respect to systemic velocity) increases as the amount of dust extinction increases. Simulated emission-line profiles well reproduce the observed [O iii] line profiles, e.g., narrow core and broad wing components. By comparing model grids and Monte Carlo simulations with the observed [O iii] velocity-velocity dispersion distribution of ˜39,000 type 2 AGNs, we constrain the intrinsic velocity of gas outflows ranging from ˜500 to ˜1000 km s-1 for the majority of AGNs, and up to ˜1500-2000 km s-1 for extreme cases. The Monte Carlo simulations show that the number ratio of AGNs with negative [O iii] velocity to AGNs with positive [O iii] velocity correlates with the outflow opening angle, suggesting that outflows with higher intrinsic velocity tend to have wider opening angles. These results demonstrate the potential of our 3D models for studying the physical properties of gas outflows, applicable to various observations, including spatially integrated and resolved gas kinematics.

  17. Viruses, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed Central

    Yolken, R H; Torrey, E F

    1995-01-01

    The hypothesis that viruses or other infectious agents may cause schizophrenia or bipolar disorder dates to the 19th century but has recently been revived. It could explain many clinical, genetic, and epidemiologic aspects of these diseases, including the winter-spring birth seasonality, regional differences, urban birth, household crowding, having an older sibling, and prenatal exposure to influenza as risk factors. It could also explain observed immunological changes such as abnormalities of lymphocytes, proteins, autoantibodies, and cytokines. However, direct studies of viral infections in individuals with these psychiatric diseases have been predominantly negative. Most studies have examined antibodies in blood or cerebrospinal fluid, and relatively few studies have been done on viral antigens, genomes, cytopathic effect on cell culture, and animal transmission experiments. Viral research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is thus comparable to viral research on multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease: an attractive hypothesis with scattered interesting findings but no clear proof. The application of molecular biological techniques may allow the identification of novel infectious agents and the associations of these novel agents with serious mental diseases. PMID:7704891

  18. Forecasting depression in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Moore, Paul J; Little, Max A; McSharry, Patrick E; Geddes, John R; Goodwin, Guy M

    2012-10-01

    Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression and affects about 1% of the adult population. The condition can have a major impact on an individual's ability to function and is associated with a long-term risk of suicide. In this paper, we report on the use of self-rated mood data to forecast the next week's depression ratings. The data used in the study have been collected using SMS text messaging and comprises one time series of approximately weekly mood ratings for each patient. We find a wide variation between series: some exhibit a large change in mean over the monitored period and there is a variation in correlation structure. Almost half of the time series are forecast better by unconditional mean than by persistence. Two methods are employed for forecasting: exponential smoothing and Gaussian process regression. Neither approach gives an improvement over a persistence baseline. We conclude that the depression time series from patients with bipolar disorder are very heterogeneous and that this constrains the accuracy of automated mood forecasting across the set of patients. However, the dataset is a valuable resource and work remains to be done that might result in clinically useful information and tools.

  19. Ground-water outflow from Chino Basin, Upper Santa Ana Valley, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, James J.

    1972-01-01

    year. Two indirect methods of calculating ground-water outflow were studied as a part of this project: the chemical method and the water-budget method. The chemical method was found to be unsatisfactory. Although the ground-water discharge into the Santa Ana River from Chino basin is quite different in chemical composition from the discharge from Temescal basin, there is no known way to quantitatively separate the total discharge with respect to source. In the water-budget method direct runoff and evapotranspiration were reevaluated, and the ground-water outflow from Temescal basin was calculated by the same direct method employed for Chino basin. Annual ground-water outflow from Temescal basin calculated by the direct method for the period 1930-66 ranged from 11,000 acre-feet in the 1940 and 1945 water years to 3,000 acre-feet in the 1965 water year. Annual ground-water outflow from Chino basin computed by the water-budget method for the period 1933-63 ranged from 45,000 acre-feet in the 1941 water year to 10,000 acre-feet in the 1963 water year.

  20. Evaluating the Importance of Outflow Velocity at the MHD Inner Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.; Toth, G.; Glocer, A.

    2013-12-01

    Including an ionospheric source of magnetospheric plasma in global magnetohydrodynamic models (MHD) is an exercise in setting inner boundary mass density and radial velocity. Recently, in order to account for the complex processes that accelerate plasmas up from ionospheric altitudes to MHD inner boundary altitudes (typically 2.5 to 3 Earth Radii), empirical and first-principles-based models have been developed to set inner boundary conditions in a dynamic and activity-dependent manner. However, such measures are not necessary to achieve outflowing fluences of the order observed by various spacecraft. Spatially and temporally constant boundary conditions, even with zero radial velocity, have been shown to produce dynamic outflow patterns and supply the bulk of magnetospheric plasma. Noteworthy of this approach is the inherent assumption that no acceleration has occurred between the ionosphere and the inner boundary, that is, the ionosphere is simply a mass reservoir. This assumption is contrary to our understanding of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system, yet the net result - outflowing heavy and light ions that populate the rest of geospace - is similar to that when a more realistic outflow specification is applied. The implication is that radial velocity matters little when supplying outflow to global MHD models. This paper investigates the importance of radial velocity at the inner boundary of MHD codes in driving ionospheric outflows into the greater domain. Multi-fluid BATS-R-US is used to simulate an idealized storm, first using zero radial velocity at the inner boundary, then non-zero constant values, and finally with spatially and temporally dynamic values driven by the Polar Wind Outflow Model (PWOM), which sets radial velocity and number density based on physics-based modeling of gap region populations. The results, in terms of total fluence, spatial outflowing flux patterns, and overall magnetospheric response, are compared to investigate how the

  1. Bipolar lead-acid battery for hybrid vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saakes, M.; Woortmeijer, R.; Schmal, D.

    Within the framework of the European project bipolar lead-acid power source (BILAPS), a new production route is being developed for the bipolar lead-acid battery. The performance targets are 500 W kg -1, 30 Wh kg -1 and 100 000 power-assist life cycles (PALCs). The operation voltage of the battery can be, according to the requirements, 12, 36 V or any other voltage. Tests with recently developed 4 and 12 V prototypes, each of 30 Ah capacity have demonstrated that the PALC can be operated using 10 C discharge and 9 C charge peaks. The tests show no overvoltage or undervoltage problems during three successive test periods of 16 h with 8 h rest in between. The temperature stabilizes during these tests at 40-45 °C using a thermal-management system. The bipolar lead acid battery is operated at an initial 50% state-of-charge. During the tests, the individual cell voltages display only very small differences. Tests are now in progress to improve further the battery-management system, which has been developed at the cell level, during the period no PALCs are run in order to improve the hybrid behaviour of the battery. The successful tests show the feasibility of operating the bipolar lead-acid battery in a hybrid mode. The costs of the system are estimated to be much lower than those for nickel-metal-hydride or Li-ion based high-power systems. An additional advantage of the lead-acid system is that recycling of lead-acid batteries is well established.

  2. A resolved outflow of matter from a brown dwarf.

    PubMed

    Whelan, Emma T; Ray, Thomas P; Bacciotti, Francesca; Natta, Antonella; Testi, Leonardo; Randich, Sofia

    2005-06-02

    The birth of stars involves not only accretion but also, counter-intuitively, the expulsion of matter in the form of highly supersonic outflows. Although this phenomenon has been seen in young stars, a fundamental question is whether it also occurs among newborn brown dwarfs: these are the so-called 'failed stars', with masses between stars and planets, that never manage to reach temperatures high enough for normal hydrogen fusion to occur. Recently, evidence for accretion in young brown dwarfs has mounted, and their spectra show lines that are suggestive of outflows. Here we report spectro-astrometric data that spatially resolve an outflow from a brown dwarf. The outflow's characteristics appear similar to, but on a smaller scale than, outflows from normal young stars. This result suggests that the outflow mechanism is universal, and perhaps relevant even to the formation of planets.

  3. Brief Report: A Family Risk Study Exploring Bipolar Spectrum Problems and Cognitive Biases in Adolescent Children of Bipolar Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espie, Jonathan; Jones, Steven H.; Vance, Yvonne H.; Tai, Sara J.

    2012-01-01

    Children of parents with bipolar disorder are at increased risk of bipolar spectrum diagnoses. This cross-sectional study explores cognitive factors in the prediction of vulnerability to bipolar disorder. Adolescents at high-risk (with a parent with bipolar disorder; n = 23) and age and gender matched adolescents (n = 24) were recruited. Parent…

  4. Right ventricular outflow tract aneurysm with thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Peer, Syed Murfad; Bhat, P.S. Seetharama; Furtado, Arul Dominic; Chikkatur, Raghavendra

    2012-01-01

    Right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) aneurysm is a known complication of tetralogy of Fallot repair when a ventriculotomy is done. It leads to RV dysfunction and may require re-operation. We describe a rare instance of a patient who developed an RVOT aneurysm after trans-ventricular repair of tetralogy of Fallot, which was complicated with the formation of a thrombus in the aneurysm sac. The patient underwent re-operation with thrombectomy, excision of the RVOT aneurysm and pulmonary valve replacement. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of this combination and its implications have not been reported. PMID:22232231

  5. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities.

    PubMed

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  6. Atomic Hydrogen in a Galactic Center Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-06-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ~14 km s-1, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ~200 km s-1 in a Galactic wind.

  7. Valles Marineris and Chryse Outflow Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A color image of Valles Marineris, the great canyon and the south Chryse basin-Valles Marineris outflow channels of Mars; north toward top. The scene shows the entire Valles Marineris canyon system, over 3,000 km long and averaging 8 km deep, extending from Noctis Labyrinthus, the arcuate system of graben to the west, to the chaotic terrain to the east and related outflow canyons that drain toward the Chryse basin. Eos and Capri Chasmata (south to north) are two canyons connected to Valles Marineris. Ganges Chasma lies directly north. The chaos in the southeast part of the image gives rise to several outflow channels, Shalbatana, Simud, Tiu, and Ares Valles (left to right), that drained north into the Chryse basin. The mouth of Ares Valles is the site of the Mars Pathfinder lander.

    This image is a composite of Viking medium-resolution images in black and white and low-resolution images in color; Mercator projection. The image roughly extends from latitude 20 degrees S. to 20 degrees N. and from longitude 15 degrees to 102.5 degrees.

    The connected chasma or valleys of Valles Marineris may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. Layers of material in the eastern canyons might consist of carbonates deposited in ancient lakes, eolian deposits, or volcanic materials. Huge ancient river channels began from Valles Marineris and from adjacent canyons and ran north. Many of the channels flowed north into Chryse Basin.

    The south Chryse outflow channels are cut an average of 1 km into the cratered highland terrain. This terrain is about 9 km above datum near Valles Marineris and steadily decreases in elevation to 1 km below datum in the Chryse basin. Shalbatana is relatively narrow (10 km wide) but can reach 3 km in depth. The channel begins at a 2- to 3-km-deep circular depression within a large impact crater, whose floor is partly covered by chaotic material, and ends in Simud Valles. Tiu and Simud Valles consist of a

  8. Outflowing X-ray corona in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxian; Liu, Teng; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Feifan; Zhou, Youyuan

    2015-08-01

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet AGNs is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact corona near the super massive black hole. However the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics and dynamics, yet remain poorly known. Taking [OIV] 25.89um emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGN's intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are brighter in "absorption-corrected" 2-10 keV emission by a factor of ~2.8, comparing with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the SWIFT BAT 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference between the two populations thus can not be attributed to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ~0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. We also show that how this study would affect our understanding to the nature of mid-infrared emission in AGNs and the properties of dusty torus. Furthermore, such anisotropy implies that, contrary to previous understanding based on the assumption of isotropic corona emission, hard X-ray AGN surveys are biased against type 2 AGNs even after absorption-correction, and careful correction for this effect is required to measure the obscured fraction from X-ray surveys. Other interesting consequences of this discovery will also be discussed.

  9. Images of shock-excited molecular hydrogen in young stellar outflows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garden, Rognvald P.; Russell, Adrian P. G.; Burton, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    High-angular resolution molecular hydrogen (H2) v = 1-0 S(1) line images of several well-known molecular outflow sources (DR 21, NGC 2071, HH 7-11, and HH 12) are presented. It is found that all of the outflow sources possess highly collimated jets of shock-excited gas that are extremely clumpy and often consist of bright knots that are placed periodically along the jet axis. The H2 emission-line jets are significantly more collimated than their corresponding CO outflows and remain collimated to large distances from their driving source. In DR 21 and NGC 2071, the H2 jets appear to become more collimated with increasing distance from the central source, suggesting that they are pressure-confined by the ambient cloud medium. In HH 7-11 and HH 12 the shock-excited ionized and molecular components are spatially coincident and appear to be of comparable shape and size; this suggests that the shocked gas is highly mixed on scales significantly smaller than the current spatial resolution.

  10. Advances in bipolar disorder: selected sessions from the 2011 International Conference on Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, David J; Angst, Jules; Berk, Michael; Dickerson, Faith; Frangou, Sophia; Frank, Ellen; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Harvey, Allison; Laghrissi-Thode, Fouzia; Leboyer, Marion; Ostacher, Michael J; Sibille, Etienne; Strakowski, Stephen M; Suppes, Trisha; Tohen, Mauricio; Yolken, Robert H; Young, L Trevor; Zarate, Carlos A

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the 9(th) International Conference on Bipolar Disorder (ICBD) took place in Pittsburgh, PA, June 9-11, 2011. The conference focused on a number of important issues concerning the diagnosis of bipolar disorders across the life span, advances in neuroscience, treatment strategies for bipolar disorders, early intervention, and medical comorbidity. Several of these topics were discussed in four plenary sessions. This meeting report describes the major points of each of these sessions and included (1) strategies for moving biology forward; (2) bipolar disorder and the forthcoming new DSM-5 nomenclature; (3) management of bipolar disorders-both theory and intervention, with an emphasis on the medical comorbidities; and, (4) a review of several key task force reports commissioned by the International Society for Bipolar Disorder (ISBD).

  11. HiRes deconvolved Spitzer images of 89 protostellar jets and outflows: New data on the evolution of the outflow morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Thompson, T. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov

    2014-03-01

    To study the role of protosellar jets and outflows in the time evolution of the parent cores and the protostars, the astronomical community needs a large enough database of infrared images of protostars at the highest spatial resolution possible to reveal the details of their morphology. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features, however, its spatial resolution is limited by its 0.85 m mirror. Here, we use a high-resolution deconvolution algorithm, 'HiRes,' to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the IRAC bands) and removing the contaminating side lobes from bright sources in a sample of 89 protostellar objects. These reprocessed images are useful for detecting (1) wide-angle outflows seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details of H{sub 2} emission in jets and bow shocks, and (3) compact features in MIPS 24 μm images as protostar/disk and atomic/ionic line emission associated with the jets. The HiRes FITS image data of such a large homogeneous sample presented here will be useful to the community in studying these protostellar objects. To illustrate the utility of this HiRes sample, we show how the opening angle of the wide-angle outflows in 31 sources, all observed in the HiRes-processed Spitzer images, correlates with age. Our data suggest a power-law fit to opening angle versus age with an exponent of ∼0.32 and 0.02, respectively, for ages ≤8000 yr and ≥8000 yr.

  12. SEU In An Advanced Bipolar Integrated Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Secrest, Elaine C.; Berndt, Dale F.

    1989-01-01

    Report summarizes investigation of single-event upsets (SEU) in bipolar integrated-circuit set of flip-flops (memory cells). Device tested made by advanced digital bipolar silicon process of Honeywell, Inc. Circuit chip contained 4 cells. Construction enabled study of effect of size on SEU behavior. Each cell externally biased so effect of bias current on SEU behavior. Results of study provides important information for optimal design of devices fabricated using buried-layer bipolar process operating in heavy-ion SEU environments. Designers use information to provide required levels of suppression of SEU in specific applications via combinations of size and/or cell-current scaling.

  13. Warm absorber outflows and feedback processes: the case of Mrk 279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrero, Jacobo; Costantini, Elisa; Kaastra, Jelle; Detmers, Rob; Arav, Nahum; Kriss, Gerard; Korista, Kirk; Steenbrugge, Katrien

    Warm absorbers, soft X-ray absorption by ionised gas in our line of sight, are known to be a common feature in many active galactic nuclei (AGN). More than 50% of nearby Seyfert 1 galaxies exhibit warm absorber (WA) imprints in their X-ray spectra in the form of absorption lines, usually blueshifted by a few hundreds of km/s, from elements at a wide range of ionisation levels. We present here the XMM-Newton RGS spectrum of the Seyfert 1 galaxy Mrk 279, which shows clear signatures of a two-phase WA, and discuss whether the mass carried out from the AGN by the outflow is important in terms of feedback processes, and how significant the amount of energy carried in the outflow compared to the total energy output of the AGN. We find that in Mrk 279, as in the majority of Seyfert galaxies, the outflow mass rate is higher than the nominal accretion rate but the kinetic energy of the WA phases represent less than 1% of the bolometric luminosity of the source. For a typical AGN lifetime, these values imply that WA outflows may play a role in the ISM of the host galaxy (i.e. quenching star formation) but are not critically important in feedback processes.

  14. Relativistic hadrons and the origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, John; Kazanas, D.

    1995-01-01

    We examine the hydrodynamic origin of relativistic outflows in active galactic nuclei (AGN). Specifically, we propose that the presence of a population of relativistic hadrons in the AGN 'central engine' and the associated neutron production suffices to produce outflows which under rather general conditions could be relativistic. The main such condition is that the size of the neutron production region be larger than the neutron flight path tau(sub n) approximately 3 x 10(exp 13) cm. This condition guarantees that the mean energy per particle in the proton fluid, resulting from the decay of the neutrons outside their production region, be greater than the proton rest mass. The expansion of this fluid can then lead naturally to a relativistic outflow by conversion of its internal energy to directed motion. We follow the development of such flows by solving the mass, energy as well as the kinetic equation for the proton gas in steady state, taking into account the source terms due to compute accurately the adiabatic index of the expanding gas, and in conjunction with Bernoulli's equation the detailed evolution of the bulk Lorentz factor. We further examine the role of large-scale magnetic fields in confining these outflows to produce the jets observed at larger scales.

  15. X-ray Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Local AGNs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Sambruna, R. M.; Reeves, J. N.; Reynolds, C. S.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2012-08-01

    X-ray evidence for ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) has been recently reported in a number of local AGNs through the detection of blue-shifted Fe XXV/XXVI absorption lines. We present the results of a comprehensive spectral analysis of a large sample of 42 local Seyferts and 5 Broad-Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs) observed with XMM-Newton and Suzaku. We detect UFOs in ga 40% of the sources. Their outflow velocities are in the range ˜ 0.03-0.3c, with a mean value of ˜ 0.14c. The ionization is high, in the range logℰ ˜3-6rm erg s-1 cm, and also the associated column densities are large, in the interval ˜ 1022-1024rm cm-2. Overall, these results point to the presence of highly ionized and massive outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. Their variability and location on sub-pc scales favor a direct association with accretion disk winds/outflows. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the AGN cosmological feedback besides jets, and their study can provide important clues on the connection between accretion disks, winds, and jets.

  16. X-ray evidence for ultra-fast outflows in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, Francesco; Braito, Valentina; Reeves, James; Cappi, Massimo; Dadina, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    X-ray evidence for massive, highly ionized, ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) has been recently reported in a number of AGNs through the detection of blue-shifted Fe XXV/XXVI absorption lines. We present the results of a comprehensive spectral analysis of a large sample of 42 local Seyferts observed with XMM-Newton. Similar results are also obtained from a Suzaku analysis of 5 radio galaxies. We find that UFOs are common phenomena, being present in >40% of the sources. Their outflow velocity distribution is in the range ˜0.03--0.3c, with mean value of ˜0.14c. The ionization parameter is very high, in the range logξ˜3--6 erg~s^{-1}~cm, and the associated column densities are also large, in the range ˜10^{22}--10^{24} cm^{-2}. Their location is constrained at ˜0.0003--0.03pc (˜10^2--10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are in the interval ˜0.01--1M_{⊙}~yr^{-1}. The associated mechanical power is also high, in the range ˜10^{43}--10^{45} erg/s, which indicates that UFOs are capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback.

  17. A Catalog of Methanol Masers in Massive Star-forming Regions. III. The Molecular Outflow Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Kurtz, S. E.; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.; Loinard, L.

    2016-02-01

    We present an interferometric survey of the 44 GHz class I methanol maser transition toward a sample of 69 sources consisting of high-mass protostellar object (HMPO) candidates and ultracompact (UC) H ii regions. We found a 38% detection rate (16 of 42) in the HMPO candidates and a 54% detection rate (13 of 24) for the regions with ionized gas. This result indicates that class I methanol maser emission is more common toward the more evolved young stellar objects of our sample. Comparing with similar interferometric data sets, our observations show narrower linewidths, likely due to our higher spatial resolution. Based on a comparison between molecular outflow tracers and the maser positions, we find several cases where the masers appear to be located at the outflow interface with the surrounding core. Unlike previous surveys, we also find several cases where the masers appear to be located close to the base of the molecular outflow, although we cannot discard projection effects. This and other surveys of class I methanol masers not only suggest that these masers may trace shocks at different stages, but also that they may even trace shocks arising from a number of different phenomena occurring in star-forming regions: young/old outflows, cloud-cloud collisions, expanding H ii regions, among others.

  18. THE QUASAR OUTFLOW CONTRIBUTION TO AGN FEEDBACK: VLT MEASUREMENTS OF SDSS J0318-0600

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Jay P.; Bautista, Manuel; Arav, Nahum; Edmonds, Doug; Moe, Max; Korista, Kirk; Costantini, Elisa; Benn, Chris; Ellison, Sara E-mail: arav@vt.ed E-mail: kirk.korista@wmich.ed E-mail: mmoe@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-02-01

    We present high spectral resolution Very Large Telescope observations of the broad absorption line quasar SDSS J0318 - 0600. This high-quality data set allows us to extract accurate ionic column densities and determine an electron number density of n{sub e} = 10{sup 3.3+}-{sup 0.2} cm{sup -3} for the main outflow absorption component. The heavily reddened spectrum of SDSS J0318-0600 requires purely silicate dust with a reddening curve characteristic of predominately large grains, from which we estimate the bolometric luminosity. We carry out photoionization modeling to determine the total column density, ionization parameter, and distance of the gas and find that the photoionization models suggest abundances greater than solar. Due to the uncertainty in the location of the dust extinction, we arrive at two viable distances for the main ouflow component from the central source, 6 and 17 kpc, where we consider the 6 kpc location as somewhat more physically plausible. Assuming the canonical global covering of 20% for the outflow and a distance of 6 kpc, our analysis yields a mass flux of 120 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and a kinetic luminosity that is approx0.1% of the bolometric luminosity of the object. Should the dust be part of the outflow, then these values are approx4x larger. The large mass flux and kinetic luminosity make this outflow a significant contributor to active galactic nucleus feedback processes.

  19. A CATALOG OF METHANOL MASERS IN MASSIVE STAR-FORMING REGIONS. III. THE MOLECULAR OUTFLOW SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez-Ruiz, A. I.; Kurtz, S. E.; Loinard, L.; Araya, E. D.; Hofner, P.

    2016-02-15

    We present an interferometric survey of the 44 GHz class I methanol maser transition toward a sample of 69 sources consisting of high-mass protostellar object (HMPO) candidates and ultracompact (UC) H ii regions. We found a 38% detection rate (16 of 42) in the HMPO candidates and a 54% detection rate (13 of 24) for the regions with ionized gas. This result indicates that class I methanol maser emission is more common toward the more evolved young stellar objects of our sample. Comparing with similar interferometric data sets, our observations show narrower linewidths, likely due to our higher spatial resolution. Based on a comparison between molecular outflow tracers and the maser positions, we find several cases where the masers appear to be located at the outflow interface with the surrounding core. Unlike previous surveys, we also find several cases where the masers appear to be located close to the base of the molecular outflow, although we cannot discard projection effects. This and other surveys of class I methanol masers not only suggest that these masers may trace shocks at different stages, but also that they may even trace shocks arising from a number of different phenomena occurring in star-forming regions: young/old outflows, cloud–cloud collisions, expanding H ii regions, among others.

  20. Our Understanding of Ion Outflows from Earth and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of energetic ion beams and conics by Shelley et al. and transversely accelerated ions by Klumpar in the 1970's heralded the extensive satellite, rocket, and radar observations of ion outflows over the past four decades. This body of observation has shaped our contemporary view on ion outflows and their important role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The variety of ion outflows may be categorized into thermal and suprathermal outflows. Both categories of outflows are strongly influenced by solar EUV irradiance and solar wind energy input, and the state of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and (at times) plasmasphere. Several important challenges remain in our quest for a fully quantitative, multi-scale understanding of ion outflows. These include the detection of the lowest-energy ions in the tenuous sunlit magnetosphere; the influence of these hidden ions in the magnetosphere; ion transit between low and high altitudes at quiet times; the role of microscale processes; the simultaneous monitoring of different outflow populations and their circulation and redistributions in the magnetosphere; the influence of solar energy input, the thermosphere and the plasmasphere on outflow composition, characteristics, and variability; and the effects of this variability on the coupling between thermal and suprathermal outflows and on the overall magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  1. Shining a light on star formation driven outflows: the physical conditions within galactic outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John P.; Tremonti, Christina A.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Chen, Yanmei

    2016-01-01

    Stellar feedback drives energy and momentum into the surrounding gas, which drives gas and metals out of galaxies through a galactic outflow. Unfortunately, galactic outflows are difficult to observe and characterize because they are extremely diffuse, and contain gas at many different temperatures. Here we present results from a sample of 37 nearby (z < 0.27) star forming galaxies observed in the ultraviolet with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. The sample covers over three decades in stellar mass and star formation rate, probing different morphologies such as dwarf irregulars and high-mass merging systems. Using four different UV absorption lines (O I, Si II, Si III and Si IV) that trace a wide range of temperatures (ionization potentials between 13.6 eV and 45 eV), we find shallow correlations between the outflow velocity or the equivalent width of absorption lines with stellar mass or star formation rate. Absorption lines probing different temperature phases have similar centroid velocities and line widths, indicating that they are comoving. Using the equivalent width ratios of the four different transitions, we find the ratios to be consistent with photo-ionized outflows, with moderately strong ionization parameters. By constraining the ionization mechanism we model the ionization fractions for each transition, but find the ionization fractions depend crucially on input model parameters. The shallow velocity scalings imply that low-mass galaxies launch outflows capable of escaping their galactic potential, while higher mass galaxies retain all of their gas, unless they undergo a merger.

  2. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics for bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Chronotherapeutics refers to treatments based on the principles of circadian rhythm organization and sleep physiology, which control the exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. It includes manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance, and controlled exposure to light and dark. The antidepressant effects of chronotherapeutics are evident in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression, which has been associated with extremely low success rates of antidepressant drugs in naturalistic settings and with stable antidepressant response to chronotherapeutics in more than half of the patients. Recent advances in the study of the effects of chronotherapeutics on neurotransmitter systems, and on the biological clock machinery, allow us to pinpoint its mechanism of action and to transform it from a neglected or “orphan” treatment to a powerful clinical instrument in everyday psychiatric practice. PMID:23393416

  3. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, Bora; Bolstad, James J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the pesent invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process.

  4. Composite substrate for bipolar electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Tekkanat, B.; Bolstad, J.J.

    1992-12-22

    Substrates for electrode systems, particularly those to be used for bipolar electrodes in zinc-bromine batteries, are disclosed. The substrates preferably include carbon-black as a conductive filler in a polymeric matrix, with reinforcing materials such as glass fibers. Warpage of the zinc-bromine electrodes which was experienced in the prior art and which was believed to be caused by physical expansion of the electrodes due to bromine absorption by the carbon-black, is substantially eliminated when new substrate fabrication techniques are employed. In the present invention, substrates are prepared using a lamination process known as glass mat reinforced thermoplastics technology or, in an alternate embodiment, the substrate is made using a slurry process. 4 figs.

  5. Antidepressant chronotherapeutics for bipolar depression.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Chronotherapeutics refers to treatments based on the principles of circadian rhythm organization and sleep physiology, which control the exposure to environmental stimuli that act on biological rhythms, in order to achieve therapeutic effects in the treatment of psychiatric conditions. It includes manipulations of the sleep-wake cycle such as sleep deprivation and sleep phase advance, and controlled exposure to light and dark. The antidepressant effects of chronotherapeutics are evident in difficult-to-treat conditions such as bipolar depression, which has been associated with extremely low success rates of antidepressant drugs in naturalistic settings and with stable antidepressant response to chronotherapeutics in more than half of the patients. Recent advances in the study of the effects of chronotherapeutics on neurotransmitter systems, and on the biological clock machinery, allow us to pinpoint its mechanism of action and to transform it from a neglected or "orphan" treatment to a powerful clinical instrument in everyday psychiatric practice.

  6. Shocks in nova outflows - II. Synchrotron radio emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Andrey; Vurm, Indrek; Metzger, Brian D.

    2016-11-01

    The discovery of GeV gamma-rays from classical novae indicates that shocks and relativistic particle acceleration are energetically key in these events. Further evidence for shocks comes from thermal keV X-ray emission and an early peak in the radio light curve on a time-scale of months with a brightness temperature which is too high to result from freely expanding photoionized gas. Paper I developed a one-dimensional model for the thermal emission from nova shocks. This work concluded that the shock-powered radio peak cannot be thermal if line cooling operates in the post-shock gas at the rate determined by collisional ionization equilibrium. Here we extend this calculation to include non-thermal synchrotron emission. Applying our model to three classical novae, we constrain the amplification of the magnetic field ɛB and the efficiency ɛe of accelerating relativistic electrons of characteristic Lorentz factor γ ˜ 100. If the shocks are radiative (low velocity vsh ≲ 1000 km s-1) and cover a large solid angle of the nova outflow, as likely characterize those producing gamma-rays, then values of ɛe ˜ 0.01-0.1 are required to achieve the peak radio brightness for ɛB = 10-2. Such high efficiencies exclude secondary pairs from pion decay as the source of the radio-emitting particles, instead favouring the direct acceleration of electrons at the shock. If the radio-emitting shocks are instead adiabatic (high velocity), as likely characterize those responsible for the thermal X-rays, then much higher brightness temperatures are possible, allowing the radio-emitting shocks to cover a smaller outflow solid angle.

  7. SPITZER OBSERVATIONS OF BOW SHOCKS AND OUTFLOWS IN RCW 38

    SciTech Connect

    Winston, E.; Wolk, S. J.; Bourke, T. L.; Spitzbart, B.; Megeath, S. T.; Gutermuth, R.

    2012-01-10

    We report Spitzer observations of five newly identified bow shocks in the massive star-forming region RCW 38. Four are visible at Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) wavelengths, the fifth is only visible at 24 {mu}m. Chandra X-ray emission indicates that winds from the central O5.5 binary, IRS 2, have caused an outflow to the northeast and southwest of the central subcluster. The southern lobe of hot ionized gas is detected in X-rays; shocked gas and heated dust from the shock front are detected with Spitzer at 4.5 and 24 {mu}m. The northern outflow may have initiated the present generation of star formation, based on the filamentary distribution of the protostars in the central subcluster. Further, the bow-shock driving star, YSO 129, is photo-evaporating a pillar of gas and dust. No point sources are identified within this pillar at near- to mid-IR wavelengths. We also report on IRAC 3.6 and 5.8 {mu}m observations of the cluster DBS2003-124, northeast of RCW 38, where 33 candidate young stellar objects (YSOs) are identified. One star associated with the cluster drives a parsec-scale jet. Two Herbig-Haro objects associated with the jet are visible at IRAC and Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer (MIPS) wavelengths. The jet extends over a distance of {approx}3 pc. Assuming a velocity of 100 km s{sup -1} for the jet material gives an age of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} yr, indicating that the star (and cluster) are likely to be very young, with a similar or possibly younger age than RCW 38, and that star formation is ongoing in the extended RCW 38 region.

  8. Magnetospheric and Thermospheric Influence on Ionospheric Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Sage, K.; Moore, T. E.; Mitchell, E. J.; Olson, D. K.

    2013-12-01

    The Fast Auroral SnapshoT (FAST) small explorer has been used extensively to study ionospheric outflow. Past research has used particle and field data to examine the contemporaneous transfer of electromagnetic energy and particle flow downward from the magnetosphere and upward from the ionosphere. Single event studies published by Strangeway et al. [2005] and Brambles et al. [2011, Supporting Online Material] showed that downward electromagnetic energy and particle flow into the ionosphere are correlated with the upward flow of ions out of the ionosphere. It is expected, however, that this correlation will be affected by circumstances that are unique to each specific event, including but not limited to the outflow location (cusp or nightside), preconditioning due to prior geomagnetic activity, and thermospheric neutral densities. Although knowledge of the thermospheric neutral density is usually unavailable, data from the CHAllenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) is able to provide insight into thermospheric populations at altitudes of about 400 km for a few select events. We expand on the previously-mentioned studies by looking at FAST particle and field data for additional events, and we further examine the influence of thermospheric neutral populations, based on CHAMP data.

  9. Miniature Bipolar Electrostatic Ion Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Frank T.

    2006-01-01

    The figure presents a concept of a bipolar miniature electrostatic ion thruster for maneuvering a small spacecraft. The ionization device in the proposed thruster would be a 0.1-micron-thick dielectric membrane with metal electrodes on both sides. Small conical holes would be micromachined through the membrane and electrodes. An electric potential of the order of a volt applied between the membrane electrodes would give rise to an electric field of the order of several mega-volts per meter in the submicron gap between the electrodes. An electric field of this magnitude would be sufficient to ionize all the molecules that enter the holes. In a thruster-based on this concept, one or more propellant gases would be introduced into such a membrane ionizer. Unlike in larger prior ion thrusters, all of the propellant molecules would be ionized. This thruster would be capable of bipolar operation. There would be two accelerator grids - one located forward and one located aft of the membrane ionizer. In one mode of operation, which one could denote the forward mode, positive ions leaving the ionizer on the backside would be accelerated to high momentum by an electric field between the ionizer and an accelerator grid. Electrons leaving the ionizer on the front side would be ejected into free space by a smaller accelerating field. The equality of the ion and electron currents would eliminate the need for an additional electron- or ion-emitting device to keep the spacecraft charge-neutral. In another mode of operation, which could denote the reverse mode, the polarities of the voltages applied to the accelerator grids and to the electrodes of the membrane ionizer would be the reverse of those of the forward mode. The reversal of electric fields would cause the ion and electrons to be ejected in the reverse of their forward mode directions, thereby giving rise to thrust in the direction opposite that of the forward mode.

  10. The Meteorology of Storms that Produce Narrow Bipolar Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy; McCaul, Bill; Fuchs, Brody; Cummer, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Narrow Bipolar Event's (NBE) are compact (< 2 km), powerful (> 10 kW in VHF), and impulsive (approx 10 micro s) electrical discharges in thunderstorms, also known as compact intracloud discharges (CIDs). Can be either positive or negative polarity and have distinctive broadband waveform signatures sometimes confused for +CGs in the past by NLDN and other networks. NBEs are related to lightning but are likely optically "dark". As revealed by VHF sensors (both satellite and ground): (1) The most powerful lightning-­-related VHF sources observed (2) Tend to occur at the beginning of intracloud discharges (3) Difficult to estimate altitude properly due to receiver saturation.

  11. Ionised outflows in z ~ 2.4 quasar host galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carniani, S.; Marconi, A.; Maiolino, R.; Balmaverde, B.; Brusa, M.; Cano-Díaz, M.; Cicone, C.; Comastri, A.; Cresci, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; La Franca, F.; Mainieri, V.; Mannucci, F.; Nagao, T.; Netzer, H.; Piconcelli, E.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Shemmer, O.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: Outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) are invoked by galaxy evolutionary models to quench star formation and to explain the origin of the relations observed locally between super-massive black holes and their host galaxies. We here aim to detect extended ionised outflows in luminous quasars, where we expect the highest activity both in star formation and in black-hole accretion. Currently, there are only a few studies based on spatially resolved observations of outflows at high redshift, z > 2. Methods: We analysed a sample of six luminous (L > 1047 erg/s) quasars at z ~ 2.4, observed in H-band using the near-IR integral field spectrometer SINFONI at the VLT. We performed a kinematic analysis of the [Oiii] emission line at λ = 5007 Å. Results: We detect fast, spatially extended outflows in five out of six targets. [Oiii]λ5007 has a complex gas kinematic, with blue-shifted velocities of a few hundreds of km s-1 and line widths up to 1500 km s-1. Using the spectroastrometric method, we infer a size of the ionised outflows of up to ~2 kpc. The properties of the ionised outflows, mass outflow rate, momentum rate, and kinetic power, are correlated with the AGN luminosity. The increase in outflow rate with increasing AGN luminosity is consistent with the idea that a luminous AGN pushes away the surrounding gas through fast outflows that are driven by radiation pressure, which depends on the emitted luminosity. Conclusions: We derive mass outflow rates of about 6-700 M⊙ yr-1 for our sample, which are lower than those observed in molecular outflows. The physical properties of ionised outflows show dependences on AGN luminosity that are similar to those of molecular outflows, but indicate that the mass of ionised gas is lower than that of molecular outflows. Alternatively, this discrepancy between ionised and molecular outflows could be explained with different acceleration mechanisms. Based on Observations collected at the European Organisation for

  12. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Joseph M.; Reina-Torres, Ester; Bertrand, Jacques A.; Rowe, Barnaby; Overby, Darryl R.

    2016-01-01

    Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied in vivo to mice, as

  13. A Case in the Bipolar Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    KOÇBIYIK, Sibel; BATMAZ, Sedat; TURHAN, Levent

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that the correct diagnosis and treatment are delayed when subsyndromal bipolar mood disorder symptoms are overlooked. Patients in this spectrum are reported to have a diminished level of functioning, and these patients fail to accept their diagnosis; therefore, there is a low level of treatment adherence. This case report focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of a patient in the bipolar spectrum. PMID:28360771

  14. Bipolar transistor in VESTIC technology: prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierzwiński, Piotr; Kuźmicz, Wiesław; Domański, Krzysztof; Tomaszewski, Daniel; Głuszko, Grzegorz

    2016-12-01

    VESTIC technology is an alternative for traditional CMOS technology. This paper presents first measurement data of prototypes of VES-BJT: bipolar transistors in VESTIC technology. The VES-BJT is a bipolar transistor on the SOI substrate with symmetric lateral structure and both emitter and collector made of polysilicon. The results indicate that VES-BJT can be a device with useful characteristics. Therefore, VESTIC technology has the potential to become a new BiCMOS-type technology with some unique properties.

  15. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II. IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Jones, B.F.; Walker, H.J.; Lick Observatory, Santa Cruz, CA; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role. 20 refs.

  16. Optical spectroscopy of IRAS sources with infrared emission bands. II - IRAS 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Jones, B. F.; Walker, H. J.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents long-slit optical spectra and microwave CO spectra of four nebulous counterparts to IRAS sources showing PAH emission features: 04324+5106, 06114+1745, 20319+3958, and 22539+5758. IRAS 22539+5758 is associated with a bipolar nebula. All are allied with B-type stars that suffer appreciable circumstellar extinction, and whose environs show atomic emission lines; three represent mixed reflection/emission nebulosities. Three show spectroscopic evidence for outflows at about 100 km/s. One, 06114+1745, exhibits indications of enhanced diffuse interstellar bands. It is concluded that extinction alone is insufficient to yield enhanced DIBs and that peculiar circumstellar abundances and/or physical conditions must play a role.

  17. Storage Reliability of Missile Materiel Program, Monolithic Bipolar SSI/ MSI Digital and Linear Integrated Circuit Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-01-01

    Variance 4-2 4.3 Principle Failure Mechanisms 4-7 4.4 Failure Rate Factor Development 4-9 4.5 Source Data Discussion 4-37 5 STORAGE FAILURE RATE...Temperature Factor Values for Bipolar Beam Lead and Bipolar ECL Digital Devices 6-4 6-2 Average Operating to Non-Operating Failure Rate Ratio & 6-14 vI...reliability 1i is the learning factor iI, is the quality factor 11 is the temperature factor 11 is the application environment factor C1 and C2 are the

  18. Suzaku Discovery of Ultra-fast Outflows in Radio-loud AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita M.; Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J.; Braito, V.; Gofford, J.; Cappi, M.

    2010-03-01

    We present the results of an analysis of the 3.5--10.5 keV spectra of five bright Broad-Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs) using proprietary and archival Suzaku observations. In three sources -- 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3 -- we find evidence, for the first time in a radio-loud AGN, for absorption features at observed energies 7 keV and 8--9 keV, with high significance according to both the F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations (99% or larger). In the remaining two BLRGs, 3C 382 and 3C 445, there is no evidence for such absorption features in the XIS spectra. If interpreted as due to Fe XXV and/or Fe XXVI K-shell resonance lines, the absorption features in 3C 111, 3C 120, and 3C 390.3 imply an origin from an ionized gas outflowing with velocities in the range v 0.04-0.15c, reminiscent of Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) previously observed in radio-quiet Seyfert galaxies. A fit with specific photoionization models gives ionization parameters log ξ 4--5.6 erg s-1 cm and column densities of NH 1022-23 cm-2, similar to the values observed in Seyferts. Based on light travel time arguments, we estimate that the UFOs in the three BLRGs are located within 20--500 gravitational radii from the central black hole, and thus most likely are connected to disk winds/outflows. Our estimates show that the UFOs mass outflow rate is comparable to the accretion rate and their kinetic energy a significant fraction of the AGN bolometric luminosity, making these outflows significant for the global energetic of these systems, in particular for mechanisms of jet formation.

  19. Fueling active galactic nuclei. II. Spatially resolved molecular inflows and outflows

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, R. I.; Erwin, P.; Burtscher, L.; Lin, M.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Rosario, D. J.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Maciejewski, W.; Hicks, E. K. S.; Emsellem, E.; Dumas, G.; Malkan, M. A.; Müller-Sánchez, F.; Tran, A.

    2014-09-10

    We analyze the two-dimensional distribution and kinematics of the stars as well as molecular and ionized gas in the central few hundred parsecs of five active and five matched inactive galaxies. The equivalent widths of the Brγ line indicate that there is no ongoing star formation in their nuclei, although recent (terminated) starbursts are possible in the active galaxies. The stellar velocity fields show no signs of non-circular motions, while the 1-0 S(1) H{sub 2} kinematics exhibit significant deviations from simple circular rotation. In the active galaxies the H{sub 2} kinematics reveal inflow and outflow superimposed on disk rotation. Steady-state circumnuclear inflow is seen in three active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and hydrodynamical models indicate it can be driven by a large-scale bar. In three of the five AGNs, molecular outflows are spatially resolved. The outflows are oriented such that they intersect, or have an edge close to, the disk, which may be the source of molecular gas in the outflow. The relatively low speeds imply the gas will fall back onto the disk, and with moderate outflow rates, they will have only a local impact on the host galaxy. H{sub 2} was detected in two inactive galaxies. These exhibit chaotic circumnuclear dust morphologies and have molecular structures that are counter-rotating with respect to the main gas component, which could lead to gas inflow in the near future. In our sample, all four galaxies with chaotic dust morphology in the circumnuclear region exist in moderately dense groups with 10-15 members where accretion of stripped gas can easily occur.

  20. Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Loud AGN: New Constraints on Jet-Disk Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambruna, Rita

    There is strong observational and theoretical evidence that outflows/jets are coupled to accretion disks in black hole accreting systems, from Galactic to extragalactic sizes. While in radio-quiet AGN there is ample evidence for the presence of Ultra-Fast Outflows (UFOs) from the presence of blue-shifted absorption features in their 4-10~keV spectra, sub-relativistic winds are expected on theoretical basis in radio-loud AGN but have not been observed until now. Our recent Suzaku observations of 5 bright Broad- Line Radio Galaxies (BLRGs, the radio-loud counterparts of Seyferts) has started to change this picture. We found strong evidence for UFOs in 3 out of 5 BLRGs, with ionization parameters, column densities, and velocities of the absorber similar to Seyferts. Moreover, the outflows in BLRGs are likely to be energetically very significant: from the Suzaku data of the three sources, outflow masses similar to the accretion masses and kinetic energies of the wind similar to the X-ray luminosity and radio power of the jet are inferred. Clearly, UFOs in radio-loud AGN represent a new key ingredient to understand their central engines and in particular, the jet-disk linkage. Our discovery of UFOs in a handful of BLRGs raises the questions of how common disk winds are in radio-loud AGN, what the absorber physical and dynamical characteristics are, and what is the outflow role in broader picture of galaxy-black hole connection for radio sources, i.e., for large-scale feedback models. To address these and other issues, we propose to use archival XMM-Newton and Suzaku spectra to search for Ultra-Fast Outflows in a large number of radio sources. Over a period of two years, we will conduct a systematic, uniform analysis of the archival X-ray data, building on our extensive experience with a similar previous project for Seyferts, and using robust analysis and statistical methodologies. As an important side product, we will also obtain accurate, self- consistent measurements

  1. The molecular gas content of the Pipe Nebula. I. Direct evidence of outflow-generated turbulence in B59?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte-Cabral, A.; Chrysostomou, A.; Peretto, N.; Fuller, G. A.; Matthews, B.; Schieven, G.; Davis, G. R.

    2012-07-01

    quiescent gas and small number of protostars, allows the identification of specific regions where the outflows from the embedded sources interact the dense gas. Our study suggests that outflows are an important mechanism for injecting and sustaining supersonic turbulence at sub-parsec size scales. We find that less than half of the outflow energy is deposited as turbulent energy of the gas, however this turbulent energy is sufficient to slow down the collapse of the region.

  2. Clouds, Cap, and Consequences: Outflow Events and Mars Hesperian Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago, D. L.; Colaprete, A.; Haberle, R. M.; Sloan, L. C.; Asphaug, E.

    2006-03-01

    We focus on how outflows relate to past climate using a MGCM with cloud scheme. Early runs show water goes to the poles with current orbital configurations. We run the model for five years with a northern water ice cap then release the outflow, and will present these results.

  3. Collective outflow from a small multiple stellar system

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Thomas; Klaassen, Pamela D.; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Schrön, Martin; Klessen, Ralf S.; Federrath, Christoph; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-06-10

    The formation of high-mass stars is usually accompanied by powerful protostellar outflows. Such high-mass outflows are not simply scaled-up versions of their lower-mass counterparts, since observations suggest that the collimation degree degrades with stellar mass. Theoretically, the origins of massive outflows remain open to question because radiative feedback and fragmentation of the accretion flow around the most massive stars, with M > 15 M {sub ☉}, may impede the driving of magnetic disk winds. We here present a three-dimensional simulation of the early stages of core fragmentation and massive star formation that includes a subgrid-scale model for protostellar outflows. We find that stars that form in a common accretion flow tend to have aligned outflow axes, so that the individual jets of multiple stars can combine to form a collective outflow. We compare our simulation to observations with synthetic H{sub 2} and CO observations and find that the morphology and kinematics of such a collective outflow resembles some observed massive outflows, such as Cepheus A and DR 21. We finally compare physical quantities derived from simulated observations of our models to the actual values in the models to examine the reliability of standard methods for deriving physical quantities, demonstrating that those methods indeed recover the actual values to within a factor of two to three.

  4. Temporal order of bipolar cell genesis in the neural retina

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Eric M; Chen, C-M Amy; Cepko, Constance L

    2008-01-01

    Background Retinal bipolar cells comprise a diverse group of neurons. Cone bipolar cells and rod bipolar cells are so named for their connections with cone and rod photoreceptors, respectively. Morphological criteria have been established that distinguish nine types of cone bipolar cells and one type of rod bipolar cell in mouse and rat. While anatomical and physiological aspects of bipolar types have been actively studied, little is known about the sequence of events that leads to bipolar cell type specification and the potential relationship this process may have with synapse formation in the outer plexiform layer. In this study, we have examined the birth order of rod and cone bipolar cells in the developing mouse and rat in vivo. Results Using retroviral lineage analysis with the histochemical marker alkaline phosphatase, the percentage of cone and rod bipolar cells born on postnatal day 0 (P0), P4, and P6 were determined, based upon the well characterized morphology of these cells in the adult rat retina. In this in vivo experiment, we have demonstrated that cone bipolar genesis clearly precedes rod bipolar genesis. In addition, in the postnatal mouse retina, using a combination of tritiated-thymidine birthdating and immunohistochemistry to distinguish bipolar types, we have similarly found that cone bipolar genesis precedes rod bipolar genesis. The tritiated-thymidine birthdating studies also included quantification of the birth of all postnatally generated retinal cell types in the mouse. Conclusion Using two independent in vivo methodologies in rat and mouse retina, we have demonstrated that there are distinct waves of genesis of the two major bipolar cell types, with cone bipolar genesis preceding rod bipolar genesis. These waves of bipolar genesis correspond to the order of genesis of the presynaptic photoreceptor cell types. PMID:18215319

  5. Application of bipolar gas discharge for water sterilization from S.aureus and E-coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Anatoliy; Okhrimovskyy, Andriy; Komozynskyi, Petro; Kyslytsyn, Oleksandr; Taran, Svitlana; Filimonova, Nataliya; Lesnoy, Viktor; Oranska, Daria

    2016-09-01

    Recently, water treatment by gas discharge above the surface of the liquid has attracted a lot of attention. In most cases, however, the unipolar power source is used. Bipolar pulses of high voltage and current can increases degree of water sterilization from organic compounds, both chemical and bacterial since non equilibrium atmospheric plasma contains not only electrons but also positive and negative ions as well as an excited molecules or atoms and active radicals. Heavy charged particles of both signs, accelerated by bipolar electric field, can easily destroy chemical and biological contaminants in water. To evaluate this phenomenon, high voltage bipolar pulse generator was used. The amplitude of the pulse voltage was approaching value of 200 kV at the discharge ignition. The repetition time was varied from 1 to 14 milliseconds. Current pulse had a shape of a superposition of bipolar pulses with decaying amplitude. Liquid surface was used as a cathode or anode.Two types of contaminants, S.aureus and E.coli, with was 1 . 5 ×108 CFU/mL were treated by bipolar high voltage pulse discharge. After 30 minutes of exposition, no contaminants were observed within the water.

  6. Detection of a high brightness temperature radio core in the active-galactic-nucleus-driven molecular outflow candidate NGC 1266

    SciTech Connect

    Nyland, Kristina; Young, Lisa M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Wrobel, J. M.; Morganti, Raffaella; Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T.; Deustua, Susana; Bureau, Martin

    2013-12-20

    We present new high spatial resolution Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) H I absorption and Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) continuum observations of the active-galactic-nucleus-(AGN-)driven molecular outflow candidate NGC 1266. Although other well-known systems with molecular outflows may be driven by star formation (SF) in a central molecular disk, the molecular mass outflow rate of 13 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} in NGC 1266 reported by Alatalo et al. exceeds SF rate estimates from a variety of tracers. This suggests that an additional energy source, such as an AGN, may play a significant role in powering the outflow. Our high spatial resolution H I absorption data reveal compact absorption against the radio continuum core co-located with the putative AGN, and the presence of a blueshifted spectral component re-affirms that gas is indeed flowing out of the system. Our VLBA observations at 1.65 GHz reveal one continuum source within the densest portion of the molecular gas, with a diameter d < 8 mas (1.2 pc), a radio power P {sub rad} = 1.48 × 10{sup 20} W Hz{sup –1}, and a brightness temperature T {sub b} > 1.5 × 10{sup 7} K that is most consistent with an AGN origin. The radio continuum energetics implied by the compact VLBA source, as well as archival VLA continuum observations at lower spatial resolution, further support the possibility that the AGN in NGC 1266 could be driving the molecular outflow. These findings suggest that even low-level AGNs may be able to launch massive outflows in their host galaxies.

  7. Radiation induced deep level defects in bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chaoming; Yang, Jianqun; Li, Xingji; Ma, Guoliang; Xiao, Liyi; Bollmann, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is sensitive to ionization and displacement radiation effects in space. In this paper, 35 MeV Si ions were used as irradiation source to research the radiation damage on NPN and PNP bipolar transistors. The changing of electrical parameters of transistors was in situ measured with increasing irradiation fluence of 35 MeV Si ions. Using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), defects in the bipolar junction transistors under various bias conditions are measured after irradiation. Based on the in situ electrical measurement and DLTS spectra, it is clearly that the bias conditions can affect the concentration of deep level defects, and the radiation damage induced by heavy ions.

  8. FIRE simulations: galactic outflows and their consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keres, Dusan; FIRE Team

    2016-06-01

    We study gaseous outflows and their consequences in high-resolution galaxy formation simulations with explicit stellar feedback from the Feedback in Realistic Environments project. Collective, galaxy scale, effect of stellar feedback results in episodic ejections of large amount of gas and heavy elements into the circum-galactic medium. Gas ejection episodes follow strong bursts of star formation. Properties of galactic star formation and ejection episodes depend on galaxy mass and redshift and, together with gas infall and recycling, shape the evolution of the circum-galactic medium and galaxies. As a consequence, our simulated galaxies have masses, star formation histories and heavy element content in good agreement with the observed population of galaxies.

  9. Metastatic carcinoid tumor obstructing left ventricular outflow.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, George S; Horstmanshof, Douglas A; Guniganti, Uma M

    2011-01-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare and usually indicate metastatic disease. Characterizing a tumor and reaching an exact diagnosis can be difficult. Diagnosis has been aided greatly by advances in imaging, such as cardiovascular magnetic resonance with the use of gadolinium-pentetic acid. Carcinoid tumors are neuroendocrine neoplasms that are found most often in the intestinal tract, although they can also develop in the lung, stomach, or heart. Herein, we report the case of a 72-year-old woman with a history of intestinal carcinoid disease and presenting symptoms of dizziness, fatigue, and chest pain. We used cardiovascular magnetic resonance with gadolinium enhancement to identify a large mass obstructing left ventricular outflow. The histopathologic results of an endomyocardial biopsy confirmed that the mass was a left-sided metastatic carcinoid cardiac tumor. To our knowledge, we are reporting the 1st combined use of clinical evaluation, cardiovascular magnetic resonance, and histopathologic studies to reach such a diagnosis.

  10. Ice sculpture in the Martian outflow channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucchitta, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Viking Orbiter and terrestrial satellite images are examined at similar resolution to compare features of the Martian outflow channels with features produced by the movement of ice on earth, and many resemblances are found. These include the anastomoses, sinuosities, and U-shaped cross profiles of valleys; hanging valleys; linear scour marks on valley walls; grooves and ridges on valley floors; and the streamlining of bedrock highs. Attention is given to the question whether ice could have moved in the Martian environment. It is envisaged that springs or small catastrophic outbursts discharged fluids from structural outlets or chaotic terrains. These fluids built icings that may have grown into substantial masses and eventually flowed like glaciers down preexisting valleys. An alternative is that the fluids formed rivers or floods that in turn formed ice jams and consolidated into icy masses in places where obstacles blocked their flow.

  11. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities

    PubMed Central

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-01-01

    The aqueous humor (AH) is the fluid that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye. Its main roles are to provide nourishment and metabolic waste removal to active metabolic ocular structures that are avascular and to contribute maintaining a normal intraocular pressure (IOP) without altering the refractive status of the eye. Its composition and the fluid dynamics associated with its flow are voluble and undergo changes associated with age and disease. Of particular importance is that the resistance to the outflow of AH from the anterior chamber is influenced by morphologic, physiologic, and biochemical dynamic factors.1 Beside aqueous nutritional importance, its solutes also participate in establishing the anterior chamber associate immune deviation, and carry and distribute the different proteins and molecules that promote and direct tissue remodeling and changes in the anterior segment that are associated with both age and disease. PMID:26337760

  12. What controls aqueous humour outflow resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The bulk of aqueous humour outflow resistance is generated in or near the inner wall endothelium of Schlemm's canal in normal eyes, and probably also in glaucomatous eyes. Fluid flow through this region is controlled by the location of the giant vacuoles and pores found in cells of the endothelium of Schlemm's canal, but the flow resistance itself is more likely generated either in the extracellular matrix of the juxtacanalicular connective tissue or the basement membrane of Schlemm's canal. Future studies utilizing in vitro perfusion studies of inner wall endothelial cells may give insights into the process by which vacuoles and pores form in this unique endothelium and why inner wall pore density is greatly reduced in glaucoma. PMID:16386733

  13. Ultrahigh energy cosmic rays from nonrelativistic quasar outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    It has been suggested that nonrelativistic outflows from quasars can naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ -ray background and explain the cumulative neutrino background through pion decay in collisions between protons accelerated by the outflow shock and interstellar protons. Here, we show that the same quasar outflows are capable of accelerating protons to energies of ˜1020 eV during the early phase of their propagation. The overall quasar population is expected to produce a cumulative ultrahigh energy cosmic-ray flux of ˜10-7 GeV cm-2 s-1 sr-1 at ECR≳1018 eV . The spectral shape and amplitude are consistent with recent observations for outflow parameters constrained to fit secondary γ rays and neutrinos without any additional parameter tuning. This indicates that quasar outflows simultaneously account for all three messengers at their observed levels.

  14. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  15. Clinical, Demographic, and Familial Correlates of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders among Offspring of Parents with Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Benjamin I.; Shamseddeen, Wael; Axelson, David A.; Kalas, Cathy; Monk, Kelly; Brent, David A.; Kupfer, David J.; Birmaher, Boris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Despite increased risk, most offspring of parents with bipolar disorder (BP) do not manifest BP. The identification of risk factors for BP among offspring could improve preventive and treatment strategies. We examined this topic in the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring Study (BIOS). Method: Subjects included 388 offspring, ages 7-17 years,…

  16. LOW-IONIZATION OUTFLOWS IN HIGH EDDINGTON RATIO QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; Plauchu-Frayn, Ilse; Del Olmo, Ascension

    2013-02-20

    The broad Mg II {lambda}2800 doublet has been frequently studied in connection with its potentially important role as a virial estimator of black hole mass in high-redshift quasars. An important task, therefore, is the identification of any line components that are likely related to broadening by non-virial motions. High signal-to-noise median composite spectra (binned in the {sup f}our-dimensional eigenvector 1'' context of Sulentic et al.) were constructed for the brightest 680 Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 quasars in the 0.4 {<=} z {<=} 0.75 range where both Mg II {lambda}2800 and H{beta} are recorded in the same spectra. Composite spectra representing 90% of the quasars confirm previous findings that FWHM(Mg II {lambda}2800) is about 20% narrower than FWHM(H{beta}). The situation is clearly different for the most extreme (Population A) sources, which are the highest Eddington radiators in the sample. In the median spectra of these sources, FWHM Mg II {lambda}2800 is equal to or greater than FWHM(H{beta}) and shows a significant blueshift relative to H{beta}. We interpret the Mg II {lambda}2800 blueshift as the signature of a radiation-driven wind or outflow in the highest accreting quasars. In this interpretation, the Mg II {lambda}2800 line width-affected by blueshifted emission-is unsuitable for virial mass estimation in Almost-Equal-To 10% of quasars.

  17. Myocardialization of the cardiac outflow tract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    van den Hoff, M. J.; Moorman, A. F.; Ruijter, J. M.; Lamers, W. H.; Bennington, R. W.; Markwald, R. R.; Wessels, A.

    1999-01-01

    During development, the single-circuited cardiac tube transforms into a double-circuited four-chambered heart by a complex process of remodeling, differential growth, and septation. In this process the endocardial cushion tissues of the atrioventricular junction and outflow tract (OFT) play a crucial role as they contribute to the mesenchymal components of the developing septa and valves in the developing heart. After fusion, the endocardial ridges in the proximal portion of the OFT initially form a mesenchymal outlet septum. In the adult heart, however, this outlet septum is basically a muscular structure. Hence, the mesenchyme of the proximal outlet septum has to be replaced by cardiomyocytes. We have dubbed this process "myocardialization." Our immunohistochemical analysis of staged chicken hearts demonstrates that myocardialization takes place by ingrowth of existing myocardium into the mesenchymal outlet septum. Compared to other events in cardiac septation, it is a relatively late process, being initialized around stage H/H28 and being basically completed around stage H/H38. To unravel the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the induction and regulation of myocardialization, an in vitro culture system in which myocardialization could be mimicked and manipulated was developed. Using this in vitro myocardialization assay it was observed that under the standard culture conditions (i) whole OFT explants from stage H/H20 and younger did not spontaneously myocardialize the collagen matrix, (ii) explants from stage H/H21 and older spontaneously formed extensive myocardial networks, (iii) the myocardium of the OFT could be induced to myocardialize and was therefore "myocardialization-competent" at all stages tested (H/H16-30), (iv) myocardialization was induced by factors produced by, most likely, the nonmyocardial component of the outflow tract, (v) at none of the embryonic stages analyzed was ventricular myocardium myocardialization-competent, and finally

  18. Thresholds for Cenozoic bipolar glaciation.

    PubMed

    Deconto, Robert M; Pollard, David; Wilson, Paul A; Pälike, Heiko; Lear, Caroline H; Pagani, Mark

    2008-10-02

    The long-standing view of Earth's Cenozoic glacial history calls for the first continental-scale glaciation of Antarctica in the earliest Oligocene epoch ( approximately 33.6 million years ago), followed by the onset of northern-hemispheric glacial cycles in the late Pliocene epoch, about 31 million years later. The pivotal early Oligocene event is characterized by a rapid shift of 1.5 parts per thousand in deep-sea benthic oxygen-isotope values (Oi-1) within a few hundred thousand years, reflecting a combination of terrestrial ice growth and deep-sea cooling. The apparent absence of contemporaneous cooling in deep-sea Mg/Ca records, however, has been argued to reflect the growth of more ice than can be accommodated on Antarctica; this, combined with new evidence of continental cooling and ice-rafted debris in the Northern Hemisphere during this period, raises the possibility that Oi-1 represents a precursory bipolar glaciation. Here we test this hypothesis using an isotope-capable global climate/ice-sheet model that accommodates both the long-term decline of Cenozoic atmospheric CO(2) levels and the effects of orbital forcing. We show that the CO(2) threshold below which glaciation occurs in the Northern Hemisphere ( approximately 280 p.p.m.v.) is much lower than that for Antarctica ( approximately 750 p.p.m.v.). Therefore, the growth of ice sheets in the Northern Hemisphere immediately following Antarctic glaciation would have required rapid CO(2) drawdown within the Oi-1 timeframe, to levels lower than those estimated by geochemical proxies and carbon-cycle models. Instead of bipolar glaciation, we find that Oi-1 is best explained by Antarctic glaciation alone, combined with deep-sea cooling of up to 4 degrees C and Antarctic ice that is less isotopically depleted (-30 to -35 per thousand) than previously suggested. Proxy CO(2) estimates remain above our model's northern-hemispheric glaciation threshold of approximately 280 p.p.m.v. until approximately 25 Myr

  19. Development and Morphology of the Ventricular Outflow Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E.; Brown, Nigel A.; Mohun, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    It is customary, at the current time, to consider many, if not most, of the lesions involving the ventricular outflow tract in terms of conotruncal malformations. This reflects the introduction, in the early 1940s, of the terms conus and truncus to describe the components of the developing outflow tract. The definitive outflow tracts in the postnatal heart, however, possess three, rather than two, components. These are the intrapericardial arterial trunks, the arterial roots, and the subvalvar ventricular outflow tracts. Congenital lesions afflicting the arterial roots, however, are not currently considered to be conotruncal malformations. This suggests a lack of logic in the description of cardiac development and its use as a means of categorizing congenital malformations. It is our belief that the developing outflow tract, like the postnatal outflow tracts, can readily be described in tripartite fashion, with its distal, intermediate, and proximal components forming the primordiums of the postnatal parts. In this review, we present evidence obtained from developing mice and human hearts to substantiate this notion. We show that the outflow tract, initially with a common lumen, is divided into its aortic and pulmonary components by a combination of an aortopulmonary septum derived from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac and outflow tract cushions that spiral through its intermediate and proximal components. These embryonic septal structures, however, subsequently lose their septal functions as the outflow tracts develop their own discrete walls. We then compare the developmental findings with the anatomic arrangements seen postnatally in the normal human heart. We show how correlations with the embryologic findings permit logical analysis of the congenital lesions involving the outflow tracts. PMID:27587491

  20. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  1. Modeling the Causal Regulation of Transversely Accelerated Ion (TAI) Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M. J.; Zhang, B.; Schmitt, P.; Lotko, W.

    2013-12-01

    TAIs are generated by wave particle interactions driven by waves at temporal and spatial scales which are inaccessible in global coupled geospace models. So far attempts to include TAI outflows in global models have focused on the use of empirical correlations between observed outflow fluxes and various inputs such as DC Poynting flux, Alfvénic Poynting flux, and electron precipitation fluxes. These treatments ignore feedbacks between the outflow and the state of the ionosphere and assume the spatial and temporal distributions of the outflows are identical to those of their drivers. This work presents an alternative approach which can overcome these deficiencies while still being sufficiently computationally efficient to couple into a global modeling framework. TAIs are incorporated into a 3-D fluid model of the ionosphere and polar wind by modeling them as a separate fluid which obeys transport equations appropriate for monoenergetic conic distributions. The characteristics of the TAI outflow produced depend on the assumed transverse heating rates and the 'promotion rate' which connects the TAI fluid to the thermal O+ fluid. Using drivers extracted from runs of the Coupled Magnetosphere Ionosphere Thermosphere (CMIT) model, different strategies for causally regulating these free parameters are explored. The model can reproduce many of the observed features of TAI outflows but also exhibits physical attributes that empirical relationships alone miss. These characteristics include flux limiting of the outflow from below when intense outflow creates high-altitude cavities, time delays between the onset of transverse heating and the appearance of outflow, and spatial distributions of outflow which are different from the spatial distributions of the applied transverse heating and which depend on the ionospheric convection pattern.

  2. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) Task Force Report on Antidepressant Use in Bipolar Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pacchiarotti, Isabella; Bond, David J.; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Nolen, Willem A.; Grunze, Heinz; Licht, Rasmus W.; Post, Robert M.; Berk, Michael; Goodwin, Guy M.; Sachs, Gary S.; Tondo, Leonardo; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Eric A.; Tohen, Mauricio; Undurraga, Juan; González-Pinto, Ana; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Yildiz, Ayşegül; Altshuler, Lori L.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Mitchell, Philip B.; Thase, Michael E.; Koukopoulos, Athanasios; Colom, Francesc; Frye, Mark A.; Malhi, Gin S.; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perlis, Roy H.; Ketter, Terence A.; Cassidy, Frederick; Akiskal, Hagop; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Valentí, Marc; Mazzei, Diego Hidalgo; Lafer, Beny; Kato, Tadafumi; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Martínez-Aran, Anabel; Parker, Gordon; Souery, Daniel; Özerdem, Ayşegül; McElroy, Susan L.; Girardi, Paolo; Bauer, Michael; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Zarate, Carlos A.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Birmaher, Boris; Kanba, Shigenobu; El-Mallakh, Rif S.; Serretti, Alessandro; Rihmer, Zoltan; Young, Allan H.; Kotzalidis, Georgios D.; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Bowden, Charles L.; Ghaemi, S. Nassir; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Rybakowski, Janusz; Ha, Kyooseob; Perugi, Giulio; Kasper, Siegfried; Amsterdam, Jay D.; Hirschfeld, Robert M.; Kapczinski, Flávio; Vieta, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Objective The risk-benefit profile of antidepressant medications in bipolar disorder is controversial. When conclusive evidence is lacking, expert consensus can guide treatment decisions. The International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) convened a task force to seek consensus recommendations on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorders. Method An expert task force iteratively developed consensus through serial consensus-based revisions using the Delphi method. Initial survey items were based on systematic review of the literature. Subsequent surveys included new or reworded items and items that needed to be rerated. This process resulted in the final ISBD Task Force clinical recommendations on antidepressant use in bipolar disorder. Results There is striking incongruity between the wide use of and the weak evidence base for the efficacy and safety of antidepressant drugs in bipolar disorder. Few well-designed, long-term trials of prophylactic benefits have been conducted, and there is insufficient evidence for treatment benefits with antidepressants combined with mood stabilizers. A major concern is the risk for mood switch to hypomania, mania, and mixed states. Integrating the evidence and the experience of the task force members, a consensus was reached on 12 statements on the use of antidepressants in bipolar disorder. Conclusions Because of limited data, the task force could not make broad statements endorsing antidepressant use but acknowledged that individual bipolar patients may benefit from antidepressants. Regarding safety, serotonin reuptake inhibitors and bupropion may have lower rates of manic switch than tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants and norepinephrine-serotonin reuptake inhibitors. The frequency and severity of antidepressant-associated mood elevations appear to be greater in bipolar I than bipolar II disorder. Hence, in bipolar I patients antidepressants should be prescribed only as an adjunct to mood-stabilizing medications

  3. S187 : SCP 1 (H2): A Curved Molecular Hydrogen Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, Luis; Cruz-González, Irene; Porras, Alicia

    1998-06-01

    We imaged in the near-infrared the region associated with IRAS 01202+6133, which lies to the southeast of the Sharpless H II region S187, designated as S187 IR. We report the discovery of a curved molecular hydrogen outflow that extends over a region of 76" (0.38 pc at D = 1 kpc), identified as S187:SCP 1 (H2). The outflow changes direction by more than 90° in a continuous way and is the most dramatic example of direction variability in a jet source known to date. The outflow-driving source is probably an extreme T Tauri star identified as NIRS 1 located at the apex of the curved structure. The curved jetlike structure shows a sinuous chain of several emission knots located along an extended H2 nebulosity. The similarity with the properties of optical Herbig-Haro jets observed in the near-IR allows us to conclude that S187:SCP 1 (H2) is a Herbig-Haro object. We discuss whether the supersonic side-wind model proposed by Cantó & Raga provides the best physical scenario for the curved outflow seen in S187 IR. According to this model, the initial angle of the jet is nearly opposite to the wind direction, and the wind action turns the jet through 150°, resulting in a minimum radius of curvature of 0.14 pc. Assuming typical values for T Tauri stars in molecular environments (Ṁ=10-7 M⊙ yr-1, vjet = 150 km s-1, vsound ≡ s = 10 km s-1, na = 104 cm-3), the required wind velocity is 10 km s-1, which is of the same order of magnitude as the typical velocities of T Tauri stars relative to their surrounding molecular clouds. Furthermore, the predicted position of the stagnation point, where the hydrostatic pressure in the jet equals the ram pressure of the wind, coincides with an observed H2 emission maximum along the curved part of the outflow. The predicted curve extends to a bow-shock-like H2 nebulosity located 2' (0.46 pc at D = 1 kpc) away from the curved outflow. Based on observations obtained at the Observatorio Astronómico Nacional at San Pedro Mártir, B

  4. Influence of ion outflow in coupled geospace simulations: 2. Sawtooth oscillations driven by physics-based ion outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M.; Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.; Lyon, J.

    2016-10-01

    We present the first simulations of magnetospheric sawtooth oscillations under steady solar wind conditions that are driven internally by heavy ion outflow from a physics-based model. The simulations presented use the multifluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry magnetohydrodynamics model two-way coupled to the ionosphere/polar wind model (IPWM). Depending on the type of wave-particle interactions utilized within IPWM, the coupled simulations exhibit either sawtooth oscillations or steady magnetospheric convection. Contrasting the simulations that do and do not develop sawtooth oscillations yields insights into the relationship between outflow and sawtooth oscillations. The total outflow rate is not an adequate predictor of the convection mode that will emerge. The simulations that develop sawtooth oscillations are characterized by intense outflow concentrated in the midnight auroral region. This outflow distribution mass loads the tail reconnection region without excessively mass loading the dayside reconnection region and leads to an imbalance between the dayside and nightside reconnection rates.

  5. Changes in the Composition of the Fram Strait Freshwater Outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodd, Paul; Granskog, Mats; Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Stedmon, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Fram Strait is the largest gateway and only deep connection between the Arctic Ocean and the subpolar oceans. Monitoring the exchanges through Fram Strait allows us to detect and understand current changes occurring in the Arctic Ocean and to predict the effects of those changes on the Arctic and Subarctic climate and ecosystems. Polar water, recirculating Atlantic Water and deeper water masses exported from the Arctic Ocean through western Fram Strait are monitored year-round by an array of moored instruments along 78°50'N, continuously maintained by the Norwegian Polar Institute since the 1990s. Complimentary annual hydrographic sections have been repeated along the same latitude every September. This presentation will focus on biogeochemical tracer measurements collected along repeated sections from 1997-2015, which can be used to identify freshwater from different sources and reveal the causes of variations in total volume of freshwater exported e. g.: pulses of freshwater from the Pacific. Repeated tracer sections across Fram Strait reveal significant changes in the composition of the outflow in recent years, with recent sections showing positive fractions of sea ice meltwater at the surface near the core of the EGC, suggesting that more sea ice melts back into the surface than previously. The 1997-2015 time series of measurements reveals a strong anti-correlation between run-off and net sea ice meltwater inventories, suggesting that run-off and brine may be delivered to Fram Strait together from a common source. While the freshwater outflow at Fram Strait typically exhibits a similar run-off to net sea ice meltwater ratio to the central Arctic Ocean and Siberian shelves, we find that the ratio of run-off to sea ice meltwater at Fram Strait is decreasing with time, suggesting an increased surface input of sea ice meltwater in recent years. In 2014 and 2015 measurements of salinity, δ18O and total alkalinity were collected from sea ice cores as well as the

  6. Bipolar disorder and neurophysiologic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    McCrea, Simon M

    2008-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that some variants of bipolar disorder (BD) may be due to hyperconnectivity between orbitofrontal (OFC) and temporal pole (TP) structures in the dominant hemisphere. Some initial MRI studies noticed that there were corpus callosum abnormalities within specific regional areas and it was hypothesized that developmentally this could result in functional or effective connectivity changes within the orbitofrontal-basal ganglia-thalamocortical circuits. Recent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) white matter fiber tractography studies may well be superior to region of interest (ROI) DTI in understanding BD. A “ventral semantic stream” has been discovered connecting the TP and OFC through the uncinate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the elusive TP is known to be involved in theory of mind and complex narrative understanding tasks. The OFC is involved in abstract valuation in goal and sub-goal structures and the TP may be critical in binding semantic memory with person–emotion linkages associated with narrative. BD patients have relative attenuation of performance on visuoconstructional praxis consistent with an atypical localization of cognitive functions. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that some BD alleles are being selected for which could explain the enhanced creativity in higher-ability probands. Associations between ROI’s that are not normally connected could explain the higher incidence of artistic aptitude, writing ability, and scientific achievements among some mood disorder subjects. PMID:19337455

  7. Anticipation in bipolar affective disorder

    SciTech Connect

    McInnis, M.G.; McMahon, F.J.; Chase, G.A.; Simpson, S.G.; Ross, C.A.; DePaulo, J.R. Jr. )

    1993-08-01

    Anticipation refers to the increase in disease severity or decrease in age at onset in succeeding generations. This phenomenon, formerly ascribed to observation biases, correlates with the expansion of trinucleotide repeat sequences (TNRs) in some disorders. If present in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD), anticipation could provide clues to its genetic etiology. The authors compared age at onset and disease severity between two generations of 34 unilineal families ascertained for a genetic linkage study of BPAD. Life-table analyses showed a significant decrease in survival to first mania or depression from the first to the second generation (P <.001). Intergenerational pairwise comparisons showed both a significantly earlier age at onset (P < .001) and a significantly increased disease severity (P < .001) in the second generation. This difference was significant under each of four data-sampling schemes which excluded probands in the second generation. The second generation experienced onset 8.9-13.5 years earlier and illness 1.8-3.4 times more severe than did the first generation. In additional analyses, drug abuse, deaths of affected individuals prior to interview, decreased fertility, censoring of age at onset, and the cohort effect did not affect our results. The authors conclude that genetic anticipation occurs in this sample of unilineal BPAD families. These findings may implicate genes with expanding TNRs in the genetic etiology of BPAD. 24 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Effective desynchronization with bipolar double-pulse stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tass, Peter A.

    2002-09-01

    This paper is devoted to the desynchronizing effects of bipolar stimuli on a synchronized cluster of globally coupled phase oscillators. The bipolar pulses considered here are symmetrical and consist of a positive and a negative monopolar pulse. A bipolar single pulse with the right intensity and duration desynchronizes a synchronized cluster provided the stimulus is administered at a vulnerable initial phase of the cluster's order parameter. A considerably more effective desynchronization is achieved with a bipolar double pulse consisting of two qualitatively different bipolar pulses. The first bipolar pulse is stronger and resets the cluster, so that the second bipolar pulse, which follows after a constant delay, hits the cluster in a vulnerable state and desynchronizes it. A bipolar double pulse desynchronizes the cluster independently of the cluster's dynamical state at the beginning of the stimulation. The dynamics of the order parameter during a bipolar single pulse or a bipolar double pulse is different from the dynamics during a monopolar single pulse or a monopolar double pulse. Nevertheless, concerning their desynchronizing effects the monopolar and the bipolar stimuli are comparable, respectively. This is significant for applications where bipolar stimulation is required. For example, in medicine and physiology charge-balanced stimulation is typically necessary in order to avoid tissue damage. Based on the results presented here, demand-controlled bipolar double-pulse stimulation is suggested as a milder and more efficient therapy compared to the standard permanent high-frequency deep brain stimulation in neurological patients.

  9. Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Magnetosphere Coupling and Mass Outflow - the Magnetosphere/Ionosphere Perspective (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiltberger, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Global scale models of the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction have long established history of including magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling through the electrodynamic coupling. Typically this coupling includes closure of field aligned currents from the magnetosphere in the electrostatic ionosphere with the conductances being modified by particle precipitation processes. Recent advances in simulation technology, namely multi-fluid MHD, allow the scope of MI coupling in simulations to include mass outflows from the thermosphere-ionosphere into the magnetosphere. Multiple approaches to addressing this challenge have been developed. In one approach empirical parametrization of the outflow characteristics, namely velocity and flux, are used to include high intensity sources such as the auroral zone and cusp. Another approach starts by modeling the plasma flow along a single field line and then expands to include multiple field lines convecting over the polar cap. In both approaches the ionospheric outflow has profound effects on the state of the magnetosphere. Generally speaking it improves agreement with Dst observations, alters the cross polar cap potential, and can fundamentally alter the evolution of the modeled magnetospheric state. Initial indications from some of the model efforts show that including this plasma source may also alter the solar wind-magnetosphere interaction. While significant advances on including these effects in global scale models has been accomplished many challenges remain.

  10. A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF Lyα TRANSFER THROUGH OUTFLOWING SHELLS: MODEL PARAMETER ESTIMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gronke, M.; Bull, P.; Dijkstra, M.

    2015-10-20

    Outflows promote the escape of Lyman-α (Lyα) photons from dusty interstellar media. The process of radiative transfer through interstellar outflows is often modeled by a spherically symmetric, geometrically thin shell of neutral gas that scatters photons emitted by a central Lyα source. Despite its simplified geometry, this “shell model” has been surprisingly successful at reproducing observed Lyα line shapes. In this paper, we perform automated line fitting on a set of noisy simulated shell-model spectra in order to determine whether degeneracies exist between the different shell-model parameters. While there are some significant degeneracies, we find that most parameters are accurately recovered, especially the H i column density (N{sub H} {sub i}) and outflow velocity (v{sub exp}). This work represents an important first step in determining how the shell-model parameters relate to the actual physical properties of Lyα sources. To aid further exploration of the parameter space, we have made our simulated model spectra available through an interactive online tool.

  11. Chemical Characteristics of North American Outflow: Insights from Chebogue Point, Nova Scotia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, A. H.; Millet, D. B.; Allan, J. D.; Cross, E.; Holzinger, R.; Jimenez, J.; Williams, B.; Worsnop, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    We present trace gas, particle and meteorological measurements from southern Nova Scotia during the summer of 2004, and use them to quantify the impact of U.S. pollution outflow and other sources on atmospheric composition at the site. In addition, we explore trends in regional trace gas concentrations over the past decade using historical data from Chebogue Point and Sable Island. The different sources controlling the composition of air arriving at Chebogue Point are identified and characterized using a factor analysis approach. The most important of these were U.S. outflow, local combustion, and biogenic emissions. Average levels of carbon monoxide and ozone in air coming from the eastern seaboard of the U.S. were 30 ppb and 20 ppb higher, respectively, than the average from other sectors. Total aerosol loading was higher by more than a factor of three during periods of U.S. outflow. Organic matter made up the highest proportion of the total aerosol mass during periods of primary and secondary biogenic influence, suggesting the importance of biogenic secondary organic aerosol.

  12. NIHAO - VIII. Circum-galactic medium and outflows - The puzzles of H I and O VI gas distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutcke, Thales A.; Stinson, Greg S.; Macciò, Andrea V.; Wang, Liang; Dutton, Aaron A.

    2017-01-01

    We study the hot and cold circum-galactic medium (CGM) of 86 galaxies of the cosmological, hydrodynamical simulation suite, Numerical Investigation of a Hundred Astrophysical Objects (NIHAO). NIHAO allows a study of how the z = 0 CGM varies across five orders of magnitude of stellar mass using O VI and H I as proxies for hot and cold gas. The cool H I covering fraction and column density profiles match observations well, particularly in the inner CGM. O VI shows increasing column densities with mass, a trend seemingly echoed in the observations. As in multiple previous simulations, the O VI column densities in simulations are lower than observed and optically thick H I does not extend as far out as in observations. We take a look at the collisional ionization fraction of O VI as a function of halo mass. We make observable predictions of the bipolarity of outflows and their effect on the general shape of the CGM. Bipolar outflows can be seen out to around 40 kpc in intermediate- and low-mass haloes (MHalo < 1011 M⊙), but outside that radius, the CGM is too well mixed to detect an elongated shape. Larger haloes have extended gas discs beyond the stellar disc that dominate the shape of the inner CGM. The simulated CGM is remarkably spherical even in low-mass simulations. The chemical enrichment of both halo and disc gas follow expected increasing trends as a function of halo mass that are well fit with power laws. These relations can be used in non-hydrodynamic models, such as semi-analytic models.

  13. Molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars. I. Correcting for underestimates when measuring outflow masses and dynamical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Dunham, Michael M.; Arce, Héctor G.; Mardones, Diego; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Matthews, Brenda C.; Stutz, Amelia M.; Williams, Jonathan P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in {sup 12}CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in {sup 12}CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass (M {sub flow}), momentum (P {sub flow}), kinetic energy (E {sub flow}), mechanical luminosity (L {sub flow}), and force (F {sub flow}) assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatures, inclination effects, and dissociation of molecular gas will all work to further increase outflow properties. Molecular outflows are thus almost certainly more massive and energetic than commonly reported. Additionally, outflow properties are lower, on average, by almost an order of magnitude when calculated from the {sup 12}CO (3-2) maps compared to the {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps, even after accounting for different opacities, map sensitivities, and possible excitation temperature variations. It has recently been argued in the literature that the {sup 12}CO (3-2) line is subthermally excited in outflows, and our results support this finding.

  14. Stellar physics. Observing the onset of outflow collimation in a massive protostar.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-González, C; Torrelles, J M; Cantó, J; Curiel, S; Surcis, G; Vlemmings, W H T; van Langevelde, H J; Goddi, C; Anglada, G; Kim, S-W; Kim, J-S; Gómez, J F

    2015-04-03

    The current paradigm of star formation through accretion disks, and magnetohydrodynamically driven gas ejections, predicts the development of collimated outflows, rather than expansion without any preferential direction. We present radio continuum observations of the massive protostar W75N(B)-VLA 2, showing that it is a thermal, collimated ionized wind and that it has evolved in 18 years from a compact source into an elongated one. This is consistent with the evolution of the associated expanding water-vapor maser shell, which changed from a nearly circular morphology, tracing an almost isotropic outflow, to an elliptical one outlining collimated motions. We model this behavior in terms of an episodic, short-lived, originally isotropic ionized wind whose morphology evolves as it moves within a toroidal density stratification.

  15. Latent outflow activity for western Tharsis, Mars: Significant flood record exposed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dohm, J.M.; Anderson, R.C.; Baker, V.R.; Ferris, J.C.; Rudd, L.P.; Hare, T.M.; Rice, J. W.; Casavant, R.R.; Strom, R.G.; Zimbelman, J.R.; Scott, D.H.

    2001-01-01

    Observations permitted by the newly acquired Mars Observer Laser Altimeter data have revealed a system of gigantic valleys northwest of the huge Martian shield volcano, Arsia Mons, in the western hemisphere of Mars (northwestern slope valleys (NSVs)). These features, which generally correspond spatially to gravity lows, are obscured by veneers of materials including volcanic lava flows, air fall deposits, and eolian materials. Geologic investigations of the Tharsis region suggest that the system of gigantic valleys predates the construction of Arsia Mons and its extensive associated lava flows of mainly late Hesperian and Amazonian age and coincides stratigraphically with the early development of the outflow channels that debouch into Chryse Planitia. Similar to the previously identified outflow channels, which issued tremendous volumes of water into topographic lows such as Chryse Planitia, the NSVs potentially represent flooding of immense magnitude and, as such, a source of water for a northern plains ocean.

  16. IRAS 19520+2759: a 105 L⊙ massive young stellar object driving a collimated outflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palau, Aina; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Sahai, R.; Sánchez-Monge, Á.; Rizzo, J. R.

    2013-01-01

    The theory of massive star formation currently suffers from a scarce observational base of massive young stellar objects to compare with. In this paper, we present interferometric 12CO (1-0), 13CO (1-0), C18O (1-0) and 2.6 mm continuum images of the infrared source IRAS 19520+2759 together with complementary single-dish observations of CS (1-0), obtained with the 34 m antenna DSS-54 at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex, as well as archive images at different wavelengths. As a result from our work, IRAS 19520+2759, with a controversial nature in the past, is firmly established as a massive young stellar object associated with a strong and compact millimetre source and driving a collimated outflow. In addition, a second fainter millimetre source is discovered about 4 arcsec to the south, which is also driving an outflow. Furthermore, the two millimetre sources are associated with C18O clumps elongated perpendicularly to the outflows, which may be related to rotating toroids. The masses of gas and dust of the millimetre sources are estimated to be around 100 and 50 M⊙. MM1, the dominant source at all wavelengths, with a total luminosity of (1-2) × 105 L⊙ at 9 kpc, is however not associated with 6 cm emission down to an rms noise level of 0.1 mJy. We propose that IRAS 19520+2759 could be an example of the recent theoretical prediction of `bloated' or `swollen' star, i.e. a massive young stellar object whose radius has increased due to effects of accretion at a high-mass accretion rate.

  17. Outflows, infall and evolution of a sample of embedded low-mass protostars. The William Herschel Line Legacy (WILL) survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottram, J. C.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Kristensen, L. E.; Karska, A.; San José-García, I.; Khanna, S.; Herczeg, G. J.; André, Ph.; Bontemps, S.; Cabrit, S.; Carney, M. T.; Drozdovskaya, M. N.; Dunham, M. M.; Evans, N. J.; Fedele, D.; Green, J. D.; Harsono, D.; Johnstone, D.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Könyves, V.; Nisini, B.; Persson, M. V.; Tafalla, M.; Visser, R.; Yıldız, U. A.

    2017-04-01

    Context. Herschel observations of water and highly excited CO (J > 9) have allowed the physical and chemical conditions in the more active parts of protostellar outflows to be quantified in detail for the first time. However, to date, the studied samples of Class 0/I protostars in nearby star-forming regions have been selected from bright, well-known sources and have not been large enough for statistically significant trends to be firmly established. Aims: We aim to explore the relationships between the outflow, envelope and physical properties of a flux-limited sample of embedded low-mass Class 0/I protostars. Methods: We present spectroscopic observations in H2O, CO and related species with Herschel HIFI and PACS, as well as ground-based follow-up with the JCMT and APEX in CO, HCO+ and isotopologues, of a sample of 49 nearby (d < 500 pc) candidate protostars selected from Spitzer and Herschel photometric surveys of the Gould Belt. This more than doubles the sample of sources observed by the WISH and DIGIT surveys. These data are used to study the outflow and envelope properties of these sources. We also compile their continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs) from the near-IR to mm wavelengths in order to constrain their physical properties (e.g. Lbol, Tbol and Menv). Results: Water emission is dominated by shocks associated with the outflow, rather than the cooler, slower entrained outflowing gas probed by ground-based CO observations. These shocks become less energetic as sources evolve from Class 0 to Class I. Outflow force, measured from low-J CO, also decreases with source evolutionary stage, while the fraction of mass in the outflow relative to the total envelope (i.e. Mout/Menv) remains broadly constant between Class 0 and I. The median value of 1% is consistent with a core to star formation efficiency on the order of 50% and an outflow duty cycle on the order of 5%. Entrainment efficiency, as probed by FCO/Ṁacc, is also invariant with source

  18. Aquaporin-1 Expression and Conventional Aqueous Outflow in Human Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Stamer, W. Daniel; Chan, Darren W.H.; Conley, Shannon M.; Coons, Serena; Ethier, C. Ross

    2008-01-01

    Aquaporin channels facilitate the enhanced permeability of secretory and absorptive tissues to water. In the conventional drainage tract, aquaporin-1 is expressed but its contribution to outflow facility is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of elevated aquaporin-1 expression by cells of the human conventional drainage pathway on outflow facility. Using thirteen pairs of human anterior segments in organ culture, we modified aquaporin-1 protein expression in outflow cells using adenovirus encoding human aquaporin-1. Contralateral anterior segments served as controls and were transduced with adenovirus encoding beta galactosidase. By confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, we observed that inner trabecular meshwork cells from anterior segments exposed to adenovirus (via injection into the inlet tubing during perfusion) had increased aquaporin-1 protein expression compared to endogenous levels. In contrast, elevation of aquaporin-1 protein in outer meshwork cells (juxtacanalicular region) and Schlemm’s canal required transduction of adenovirus into anterior segments using retroperfusion via episcleral veins. Regardless of exposure route, outflow facility of experimental segments was not different than control. Specifically, overexpression of aquaporin-1 in the inner meshwork resulted in an average facility change of −2.0 ± 9.2 %, while overexpression of aquaporin-1 in the resistance-generating region changed outflow facility by −3.2 ± 11.2 %. Taken together, these results indicate that a transcellular pathway, mediated by aquaporin-1, does not contribute significantly to bulk outflow through the conventional aqueous outflow tract of human eyes. PMID:18657536

  19. Scaling Relations Between Warm Galactic Outflows and Their Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisholm, John; Tremonti, Christy A.; Leitherer, Claus; Chen, Yanmei; Wofford, Aida; Lundgren, Britt

    2015-10-01

    We report on a sample of 48 nearby, star-forming galaxies observed with the Cosmic Origin Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope. We measure the kinematics of warm gas in galactic outflows using a combination of four Si ii absorption lines. We use multi-wavelength ancillary data to estimate stellar masses (M*), star formation rates (SFR), circular velocities (vcirc), and morphologies. The galaxies cover four orders of magnitude in M* and SFR, and sample a wide range of morphologies from starbursting mergers to normal star-forming galaxies. We derive 3.0-3.5σ relations between outflow velocity and SFR, M*, and vcirc. The outflow velocities scale as SFR0.08-0.22, {M}*0.12-0.20 and {v}{circ}0.44-0.87, with the range depending on whether we use a maximum or a central velocity to quantify the outflow velocity. After accounting for their increased SFR, mergers drive 32% faster outflows than non-merging galaxies, with all of the highest velocity outflows arising from mergers. Low-mass galaxies (log(M*/ M⊙) < 10.5) lose some low-ionization gas through galactic outflows, while more massive galaxies retain all of their low-ionization gas, unless they undergo a merger.

  20. PROTOSTELLAR JETS ENCLOSED BY LOW-VELOCITY OUTFLOWS

    SciTech Connect

    Machida, Masahiro N.

    2014-11-20

    A protostellar jet and outflow are calculated for ∼270 yr following the protostar formation using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation, in which both the protostar and its parent cloud are spatially resolved. A high-velocity (∼100 km s{sup –1}) jet with good collimation is driven near the disk's inner edge, while a low-velocity (≲ 10 km s{sup –1}) outflow with a wide opening angle appears in the outer-disk region. The high-velocity jet propagates into the low-velocity outflow, forming a nested velocity structure in which a narrow high-velocity flow is enclosed by a wide low-velocity flow. The low-velocity outflow is in a nearly steady state, while the high-velocity jet appears intermittently. The time-variability of the jet is related to the episodic accretion from the disk onto the protostar, which is caused by gravitational instability and magnetic effects such as magnetic braking and magnetorotational instability. Although the high-velocity jet has a large kinetic energy, the mass and momentum of the jet are much smaller than those of the low-velocity outflow. A large fraction of the infalling gas is ejected by the low-velocity outflow. Thus, the low-velocity outflow actually has a more significant effect than the high-velocity jet in the very early phase of the star formation.

  1. Bipolar batteries based on Ebonex ® technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyns, A. C.; Hill, A.; Ellis, K. G.; Partington, T. J.; Hill, J. M.

    Continuing work by Atraverda on the production of a composite-laminate form of the Ebonex ® material, that can be cheaply formulated and manufactured to form substrate plates for bipolar lead-acid batteries, is described. Ebonex ® is the registered trade name of a range of titanium suboxide ceramic materials, typically Ti 4O 7 and Ti 5O 9, which combine electrical conductivity with high corrosion and oxidation resistance. Details of the structure of the composite, battery construction techniques and methods for filling and forming of batteries are discussed. In addition, lifetime and performance data obtained by Atraverda from laboratory bipolar lead-acid batteries and cells are presented. Battery production techniques for both conventional monopolar and bipolar batteries are reviewed. The findings indicate that substantial time and cost savings may be realised in the manufacture of bipolar batteries in comparison to conventional designs. This is due to the fewer processing steps required and more efficient formation. The results indicate that the use of Ebonex ® composite material as a bipolar substrate will provide lightweight and durable high-voltage lead-acid batteries suitable for a wide range of applications including advanced automotive, stationary power and portable equipment.

  2. [Non pharmacological treatment for bipolar disorder].

    PubMed

    Mirabel-Sarron, Christine; Giachetti, Raphaël

    2012-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic and recurring disorder associated with significant psychosocial impairment. A number of psychosocial interventions have been developed to address impairment. The consensus makes mood stabilizer the treatment of bipolar disorder. However, numerous patients are not in complete remission despite a controlled observance. Every patient can follow a psycho educational program. What this paper adds. The review identifies that a range of interventions have demonstrated efficacy in extended periods of euthymia, improved social and occupational functioning and alleviation of subsyndromal symptoms. Adjunctive, short-term psychotherapies have been shown to offer fairly consistent benefits to bipolar disorder patients. Cognitive-behavioural therapy, family-focused therapy, and psychoeducation offer the most robust efficacy in regard to relapse prevention. The most complex situations including comorbidities can be helped by behavioral and cognitive therapy for bipolar disorder. Evaluations emphasize positive impact. The psychosocial interventions reviewed provide mental health nurses with evidence-based approaches to improving mental health care for patients with bipolar disorder. There is a need for mental health nurses to conduct high quality trials of the clinical effectiveness of these interventions.

  3. The role of sleep in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Alexandra K; Sylvia, Louisa G

    2016-01-01

    Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness characterized by alternating periods of elevated and depressed mood. Sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder are present during all stages of the condition and exert a negative impact on overall course, quality of life, and treatment outcomes. We examine the partnership between circadian system (process C) functioning and sleep–wake homeostasis (process S) on optimal sleep functioning and explore the role of disruptions in both systems on sleep disturbances in bipolar disorder. A convergence of evidence suggests that sleep problems in bipolar disorder result from dysregulation across both process C and process S systems. Biomarkers of depressive episodes include heightened fragmentation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, reduced REM latency, increased REM density, and a greater percentage of awakenings, while biomarkers of manic episodes include reduced REM latency, greater percentage of stage I sleep, increased REM density, discontinuous sleep patterns, shortened total sleep time, and a greater time awake in bed. These findings highlight the importance of targeting novel treatments for sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder. PMID:27418862

  4. Family History in Patients with Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    ÖZDEMİR, Osman; COŞKUN, Salih; AKTAN MUTLU, Elif; ÖZDEMİR, Pınar Güzel; ATLI, Abdullah; YILMAZ, Ekrem; KESKİN, Sıddık

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Methods Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Results Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother’s or father’s side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother’s side and 25 patients were from the father’s side in 63 cases. Conclusion The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility. PMID:28373808

  5. Comorbid medical illness in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Forty, Liz; Ulanova, Anna; Jones, Lisa; Jones, Ian; Gordon-Smith, Katherine; Fraser, Christine; Farmer, Anne; McGuffin, Peter; Lewis, Cathryn M.; Hosang, Georgina M.; Rivera, Margarita; Craddock, Nick

    2014-01-01

    Background Individuals with a mental health disorder appear to be at increased risk of medical illness. Aims To examine rates of medical illnesses in patients with bipolar disorder (n = 1720) and to examine the clinical course of the bipolar illness according to lifetime medical illness burden. Method Participants recruited within the UK were asked about the lifetime occurrence of 20 medical illnesses, interviewed using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) and diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria. Results We found significantly increased rates of several medical illnesses in our bipolar sample. A high medical illness burden was associated with a history of anxiety disorder, rapid cycling mood episodes, suicide attempts and mood episodes with a typically acute onset. Conclusions Bipolar disorder is associated with high rates of medical illness. This comorbidity needs to be taken into account by services in order to improve outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and also in research investigating the aetiology of affective disorder where shared biological pathways may play a role. PMID:25359927

  6. Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder and Fibromyalgia

    MedlinePlus

    Anticonvulsant Drugs for Nerve Pain, Bipolar Disorder &Fibromyalgia: Choosing What’sRight for You What are anticonvulsant drugs? Anticonvulsants are drugs used to treat seizures. They are also used to treat bipolar ...

  7. Electrosurgical generators and monopolar and bipolar electrosurgery.

    PubMed

    Vilos, George A; Rajakumar, Chandrew

    2013-01-01

    Electrosurgery is the most commonly used and misunderstood technology by all surgical and medical disciplines. A lack of basic knowledge or ignorance of principles of electrosurgery and equipment among obstetricians and gynecologists is reported. As a result, thermal injuries during laparoscopic electrosurgery occur, which frequently lead to significant morbidity and mortality and medicolegal actions. Surveys indicate that up to 90% of general surgeons and gynecologists use monopolar radiofrequency (RF) during laparoscopy, 18% have experienced visceral burns, and 13% admitted 1 or more ongoing cases of litigations associated with such burns. This article describes the basics of electrosurgery beginning with the generation of electrons and their physical characteristics and governing laws before their arrival in the operating room where they are fed to an electrosurgical unit (ESU) to boost their frequency with step-up transformers from 60 Hz to >500 000 Hz. This RF creates heat, resulting in dissection, desiccation, coagulation, and fulguration of tissues without neuromuscular stimulation, pain, or burn to the patient. The ESU delivers power (wattage = volts × amps) in monopolar or bipolar (1 vs 2 high-density electrodes) configuration. Because of RF, monopolar electrosurgery compared with other energy sources is associated with unique characteristics, inherent risks, and complications caused by the requirement of a return/dispersive electrode, inadvertent direct and/or capacitive coupling, or insulation failure of instruments. These dangers become particularly important with the popular and frequent use of monopolar electrodes (hook, needle, and scissors) during cholecystectomy; robot-assisted surgeries; and the re-emergence of single-port laparoscopy, which requires close proximity and crossing of multiple intraabdominal instruments outside the surgeon's field of view. Presently, we identify all these potential risks and complications associated with the use of

  8. Subcortical volumetric abnormalities in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hibar, D P; Westlye, L T; van Erp, T G M; Rasmussen, J; Leonardo, C D; Faskowitz, J; Haukvik, U K; Hartberg, C B; Doan, N T; Agartz, I; Dale, A M; Gruber, O; Krämer, B; Trost, S; Liberg, B; Abé, C; Ekman, C J; Ingvar, M; Landén, M; Fears, S C; Freimer, N B; Bearden, C E; Sprooten, E; Glahn, D C; Pearlson, G D; Emsell, L; Kenney, J; Scanlon, C; McDonald, C; Cannon, D M; Almeida, J; Versace, A; Caseras, X; Lawrence, N S; Phillips, M L; Dima, D; Delvecchio, G; Frangou, S; Satterthwaite, T D; Wolf, D; Houenou, J; Henry, C; Malt, U F; Bøen, E; Elvsåshagen, T; Young, A H; Lloyd, A J; Goodwin, G M; Mackay, C E; Bourne, C; Bilderbeck, A; Abramovic, L; Boks, M P; van Haren, N E M; Ophoff, R A; Kahn, R S; Bauer, M; Pfennig, A; Alda, M; Hajek, T; Mwangi, B; Soares, J C; Nickson, T; Dimitrova, R; Sussmann, J E; Hagenaars, S; Whalley, H C; McIntosh, A M; Thompson, P M; Andreassen, O A

    2016-01-01

    Considerable uncertainty exists about the defining brain changes associated with bipolar disorder (BD). Understanding and quantifying the sources of uncertainty can help generate novel clinical hypotheses about etiology and assist in the development of biomarkers for indexing disease progression and prognosis. Here we were interested in quantifying case–control differences in intracranial volume (ICV) and each of eight subcortical brain measures: nucleus accumbens, amygdala, caudate, hippocampus, globus pallidus, putamen, thalamus, lateral ventricles. In a large study of 1710 BD patients and 2594 healthy controls, we found consistent volumetric reductions in BD patients for mean hippocampus (Cohen's d=−0.232; P=3.50 × 10−7) and thalamus (d=−0.148; P=4.27 × 10−3) and enlarged lateral ventricles (d=−0.260; P=3.93 × 10−5) in patients. No significant effect of age at illness onset was detected. Stratifying patients based on clinical subtype (BD type I or type II) revealed that BDI patients had significantly larger lateral ventricles and smaller hippocampus and amygdala than controls. However, when comparing BDI and BDII patients directly, we did not detect any significant differences in brain volume. This likely represents similar etiology between BD subtype classifications. Exploratory analyses revealed significantly larger thalamic volumes in patients taking lithium compared with patients not taking lithium. We detected no significant differences between BDII patients and controls in the largest such comparison to date. Findings in this study should be interpreted with caution and with careful consideration of the limitations inherent to meta-analyzed neuroimaging comparisons. PMID:26857596

  9. The trabecular meshwork outflow pathways: structural and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Ernst R

    2009-04-01

    The major drainage structures for aqueous humor (AH) are the conventional or trabecular outflow pathways, which are comprised of the trabecular meshwork (made up by the uveal and corneoscleral meshworks), the juxtacanalicular connective tissue (JCT), the endothelial lining of Schlemm's canal (SC), the collecting channels and the aqueous veins. The trabecular meshwork (TM) outflow pathways are critical in providing resistance to AH outflow and in generating intraocular pressure (IOP). Outflow resistance in the TM outflow pathways increases with age and primary open-angle glaucoma. Uveal and corneoscleral meshworks form connective tissue lamellae or beams that are covered by flat TM cells which rest on a basal lamina. TM cells in the JCT are surrounded by fibrillar elements of the extracellular matrix (ECM) to form a loose connective tissue. In contrast to the other parts of the TM, JCT cells and ECM fibrils do not form lamellae, but are arranged more irregularly. SC inner wall endothelial cells form giant vacuoles in response to AH flow, as well as intracellular and paracellular pores. In addition, minipores that are covered with a diaphragm are observed. There is considerable evidence that normal AH outflow resistance resides in the inner wall region of SC, which is formed by the JCT and SC inner wall endothelium. Modulation of TM cell tone by the action of their actomyosin system affects TM outflow resistance. In addition, the architecture of the TM outflow pathways and consequently outflow resistance appear to be modulated by contraction of ciliary muscle and scleral spur cells. The scleral spur contains axons that innervate scleral spur cells or that have the ultrastructural characteristics of mechanosensory nerve endings.

  10. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Kai E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  11. Multivariate correlation between concentrations of selected herbicides and derivatives in outflows from selected U.S. midwestern reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tauler, R.; Barcelo, D.; Thurman, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Multivariate correlations between the concentrations of selected herbicides and herbicide derivatives in outflows from selected reservoirs in the Midwestern United States for April 1992 through September 1993 were investigated using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution (MCR). Two independent sources for alachlor ethanesulfonic acid, one major source related to spring flush and seasonal runoff and another minor source related to groundwater, were identified using PCA. Results of MCR provided a semiquantitative interpretation of the environmental sources of the observed herbicide concentrations in reservoir outflows and allowed the examination of their temporal and geographical distributions. Samples with higher herbicide concentrations were collected from reservoirs in Indiana and Ohio, especially during the late spring and summer.

  12. ALMA Cycle 1 Observations of the HH46/47 Molecular Outflow: Structure, Entrainment, and Core Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yichen; Arce, Héctor G.; Mardones, Diego; Cabrit, Sylvie; Dunham, Michael M.; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Offner, Stella S. R.; Raga, Alejandro C.; Corder, Stuartt A.

    2016-12-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow using combined 12 m array and Atacama Compact Array observations. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity of our multi-line maps reveal structures that help us study the entrainment process in much more detail and allow us to obtain more precise estimates of outflow properties than in previous observations. We use {}13{{CO}} (1-0) and {{{C}}}18{{O}} (1-0) emission to correct for the {}12{{CO}} (1-0) optical depth to accurately estimate the outflow mass, momentum, and kinetic energy. This correction increases the estimates of the mass, momentum, and kinetic energy by factors of about 9, 5, and 2, respectively, with respect to estimates assuming optically thin emission. The new {}13{{CO}} and {{{C}}}18{{O}} data also allow us to trace denser and slower outflow material than that traced by the {}12{{CO}} maps, and they reveal an outflow cavity wall at very low velocities (as low as 0.2 {\\text{km s}}-1 with respect to the core’s central velocity). Adding the slower material traced only by {}13{{CO}} and {{{C}}}18{{O}}, there is another factor of three increase in the mass estimate and 50% increase in the momentum estimate. The estimated outflow properties indicate that the outflow is capable of dispersing the parent core within the typical lifetime of the embedded phase of a low-mass protostar and that it is responsible for a core-to-star efficiency of 1/4 to 1/3. We find that the outflow cavity wall is composed of multiple shells associated with a series of jet bow-shock events. Within about 3000 au of the protostar the {}13{{CO}} and {{{C}}}18{{O}} emission trace a circumstellar envelope with both rotation and infall motions, which we compare with a simple analytic model. The CS (2-1) emission reveals tentative evidence of a slowly moving rotating outflow, which we suggest is entrained not only poloidally but also toroidally by a disk wind that

  13. A Doppler dimming determination of coronal outflow velocity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strachan, Leonard; Kohl, John L.; Weiser, Heinz; Withbroe, George L.; Munro, Richard H.

    1993-01-01

    Outflow velocities in a polar coronal hole are derived from observations made during a 1982 sounding rocket flight. The velocity results are derived from a Doppler dimming analysis of resonantly scattered H I Ly-alpha. This analysis indicates radial outflow velocities of 217 km/s at 2 solar radii from sun-center with an uncertainty range of 153 to 251 km/s at a confidence level of 67 percent. These results are best characterized as strong evidence for supersonic outflow within 2 solar radii of sun-center in a polar coronal hole. Several means for obtaining improved accuracy in future observations are discussed.

  14. Magnified Views of Relativistic Outflows in Gravitationally Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartas, G.; Cappi, M.; Hamann, F.; Eracleous, M.; Strickland, S.; Vignali, C.; Dadina, M.; Giustini, M.; Saez, C.; Misawa, T.

    2016-06-01

    We presents results from X-ray observations of relativistic outflows in lensed quasars. The lensing magnification of the observed objects provides high signal-to-noise X-ray spectra of quasars showing the absorption signatures of relativistic outflows at redshifts near a crucial phase of black hole growth and the peak of cosmic AGN activity. We summarise the properties of the wide-angle relativistic outflow of the z = 1.51 NAL quasar HS 0810 detected in recent deep XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of this object. We also present preliminary results from a mini-survey of gravitationally lensed mini-BAL quasars performed with XMM-Newton.

  15. Physics and structure of photoionised outflows in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaastra, Jelle

    2012-07-01

    I discuss the recent progress in the study of outflows from active galactic nuclei. Using long and deep monitoring observations, it is now possible to get a detailed view on the structure and location of the outflow, as well as its impact on the environment of the AGN. Focus will be on the nature of the outflow components in terms of number of components, and on time-dependent photoionisation modeling as a tool to constrain the location of these components. I will illustrate this using the results of a large monitoring campaign on Mrk 509 with XMM-Newton, Integral, Chandra, HST, Swift and ground-based observatories.

  16. Electrodeionization Using Microseparated Bipolar Membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Donald; Jackson, George; Andrews, Craig C.; Tennakoon, Charles L, K.; Singh, Waheguru; Hitchens, G. Duncan; Jabs, Harry; Chepin, James F.; Archer, Shivaun; Gonzalez-Martinez, Anukia; Cisar, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    An electrochemical technique for deionizing water, now under development, is intended to overcome a major limitation of prior electrically-based water-purification techniques. The limitation in question is caused by the desired decrease in the concentration of ions during purification: As the concentration of ions decreases, the electrical resistivity of the water increases, posing an electrical barrier to the removal of the remaining ions. In the present technique, this limitation is overcome by use of electrodes, a flowfield structure, and solid electrolytes configured to provide conductive paths for the removal of ions from the water to be deionized, even when the water has already been purified to a high degree. The technique involves the use of a bipolar membrane unit (BMU), which includes a cation-exchange membrane and an anion-exchange membrane separated by a nonconductive mesh that has been coated by an ionically conductive material (see figure). The mesh ensures the desired microseparation between the ion-exchange membranes: The interstices bounded by the inner surfaces of the membranes and the outer surfaces of the coated mesh constitute a flow-field structure that allows the water that one seeks to deionize (hereafter called "process water" for short) to flow through the BMU with a low pressure drop. The flow-field structure is such that the distance between any point in the flow field and an ionically conductive material is small; thus, the flow-field structure facilitates the diffusion of molecules and ions to and from the ion-exchange membranes. The BMU is placed between an anode and a cathode, but not in direct contact with these electrodes. Instead, the space between the anion-exchange membrane and the anode is denoted the anode compartment and is filled with an ionic solution. Similarly, the space between the cation-exchange membrane and the cathode is denoted the cathode compartment and is filled with a different ionic solution. The electrodes are

  17. Psychotherapy for bipolar disorders - efficacy and effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jan

    2006-03-01

    This paper explores the development of psychological treatments as an adjunct to medication in bipolar disorders. Randomized controlled treatment trials of specific therapy models, such as cognitive therapy, that tackle a spectrum of complex psychological and social problems associated with bipolar disorders are reviewed. A systematic review of the most recent treatment outcome studies suggest that adjunctive psychological therapies reduce overall rates of relapse, but are more effective for depression than for mania. There is no evidence that any particular therapy has a unique mechanism of action or any specific advantages over any other approach. Finally, it is suggested that gaps in the theory and available evidence for effectiveness need to be addressed if we are to enable clinicians to target psychological therapies towards those individuals with bipolar disorder who are most likely to benefit.

  18. Influence of ion outflow in coupled geospace simulations: 1. Physics-based ion outflow model development and sensitivity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varney, R. H.; Wiltberger, M.; Zhang, B.; Lotko, W.; Lyon, J.

    2016-10-01

    We describe a coupled geospace model that includes causally regulated ion outflow from a physics-based ionosphere/polar wind model. The model two-way couples the multifluid Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model to the ionosphere/polar wind model (IPWM). IPWM includes the H+ and O+ polar wind as well as a phenomenological treatment of energetic O+ accelerated by wave-particle interactions (WPI). Alfvénic Poynting flux from the MHD simulation causally regulates the ion acceleration. The wave-particle interactions (WPI) model has been tuned and validated with comparisons to particle-in-cell simulations and empirical relationships derived from Fast Auroral Snapshot satellite data. IPWM captures many aspects of the ion outflow that empirical relationships miss. First, the entire coupled model conserves mass between the ionospheric and magnetospheric portions, meaning the amount of outflow produced is limited by realistic photochemistry in the ionosphere. Second, under intense driving conditions, the outflow becomes flux limited by what the ionosphere is capable of providing. Furthermore, the outflows produced exhibit realistic temporal and spatial delays relative to the magnetospheric energy inputs. The coupled model provides a flexible way to explore the impacts of dynamic heavy ion outflow on the coupled geospace system. Some of the example simulations presented exhibit internally driven sawtooth oscillations associated with the outflow, and the properties of these oscillations are analyzed further in a companion paper.

  19. A population-based study of KCNH7 p.Arg394His and bipolar spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin A; Markx, Sander; Georgi, Benjamin; Paul, Steven M; Jinks, Robert N; Hoshi, Toshinori; McDonald, Ann; First, Michael B; Liu, Wencheng; Benkert, Abigail R; Heaps, Adam D; Tian, Yutao; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Bucan, Maja; Puffenberger, Erik G

    2014-12-01

    We conducted blinded psychiatric assessments of 26 Amish subjects (52 ± 11 years) from four families with prevalent bipolar spectrum disorder, identified 10 potentially pathogenic alleles by exome sequencing, tested association of these alleles with clinical diagnoses in the larger Amish Study of Major Affective Disorder (ASMAD) cohort, and studied mutant potassium channels in neurons. Fourteen of 26 Amish had bipolar spectrum disorder. The only candidate allele shared among them was rs78247304, a non-synonymous variant of KCNH7 (c.1181G>A, p.Arg394His). KCNH7 c.1181G>A and nine other potentially pathogenic variants were subsequently tested within the ASMAD cohort, which consisted of 340 subjects grouped into controls subjects and affected subjects from overlapping clinical categories (bipolar 1 disorder, bipolar spectrum disorder and any major affective disorder). KCNH7 c.1181G>A had the highest enrichment among individuals with bipolar spectrum disorder (χ(2) = 7.3) and the strongest family-based association with bipolar 1 (P = 0.021), bipolar spectrum (P = 0.031) and any major affective disorder (P = 0.016). In vitro, the p.Arg394His substitution allowed normal expression, trafficking, assembly and localization of HERG3/Kv11.3 channels, but altered the steady-state voltage dependence and kinetics of activation in neuronal cells. Although our genome-wide statistical results do not alone prove association, cumulative evidence from multiple independent sources (parallel genome-wide study cohorts, pharmacological studies of HERG-type potassium channels, electrophysiological data) implicates neuronal HERG3/Kv11.3 potassium channels in the pathophysiology of bipolar spectrum disorder. Such a finding, if corroborated by future studies, has implications for mental health services among the Amish, as well as development of drugs that specifically target HERG3/Kv11.3.

  20. A population-based study of KCNH7 p.Arg394His and bipolar spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Strauss, Kevin A.; Markx, Sander; Georgi, Benjamin; Paul, Steven M.; Jinks, Robert N.; Hoshi, Toshinori; McDonald, Ann; First, Michael B.; Liu, Wencheng; Benkert, Abigail R.; Heaps, Adam D.; Tian, Yutao; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Bucan, Maja; Puffenberger, Erik G.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted blinded psychiatric assessments of 26 Amish subjects (52 ± 11 years) from four families with prevalent bipolar spectrum disorder, identified 10 potentially pathogenic alleles by exome sequencing, tested association of these alleles with clinical diagnoses in the larger Amish Study of Major Affective Disorder (ASMAD) cohort, and studied mutant potassium channels in neurons. Fourteen of 26 Amish had bipolar spectrum disorder. The only candidate allele shared among them was rs78247304, a non-synonymous variant of KCNH7 (c.1181G>A, p.Arg394His). KCNH7 c.1181G>A and nine other potentially pathogenic variants were subsequently tested within the ASMAD cohort, which consisted of 340 subjects grouped into controls subjects and affected subjects from overlapping clinical categories (bipolar 1 disorder, bipolar spectrum disorder and any major affective disorder). KCNH7 c.1181G>A had the highest enrichment among individuals with bipolar spectrum disorder (χ2 = 7.3) and the strongest family-based association with bipolar 1 (P = 0.021), bipolar spectrum (P = 0.031) and any major affective disorder (P = 0.016). In vitro, the p.Arg394His substitution allowed normal expression, trafficking, assembly and localization of HERG3/Kv11.3 channels, but altered the steady-state voltage dependence and kinetics of activation in neuronal cells. Although our genome-wide statistical results do not alone prove association, cumulative evidence from multiple independent sources (parallel genome-wide study cohorts, pharmacological studies of HERG-type potassium channels, electrophysiological data) implicates neuronal HERG3/Kv11.3 potassium channels in the pathophysiology of bipolar spectrum disorder. Such a finding, if corroborated by future studies, has implications for mental health services among the Amish, as well as development of drugs that specifically target HERG3/Kv11.3. PMID:24986916

  1. Family Functioning and the Course of Adolescent Bipolar Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Aimee E.; Judd, Charles M.; Axelson, David A.; Miklowitz, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The symptoms of bipolar disorder affect and are affected by the functioning of family environments. Little is known, however, about the stability of family functioning among youth with bipolar disorder as they cycle in and out of mood episodes. This study examined family functioning and its relationship to symptoms of adolescent bipolar disorder,…

  2. JETS AND WIDE-ANGLE OUTFLOWS IN CEPHEUS E: NEW EVIDENCE FROM SPITZER

    SciTech Connect

    Velusamy, T.; Langer, W. D.; Kumar, M. S. N.; Grave, J. M. C. E-mail: William.D.Langer@jpl.nasa.gov E-mail: jgrave@astro.up.pt

    2011-11-01

    Outflows and jets are believed to play a crucial role in determining the mass of the central protostar and its planet-forming disk by virtue of their ability to transport energy, mass, and momentum of the surrounding material, and thus terminate the infall stage in star and disk formation. In some protostellar objects both wide-angle outflows and collimated jets are seen, while in others only one is observed. Spitzer provides unprecedented sensitivity in the infrared to study both the jet and outflow features. Here, we use HiRes deconvolution to improve the visualization of spatial morphology by enhancing resolution (to subarcsecond levels in the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands) and removing the contaminating sidelobes from bright sources. We apply this approach to study the jet and outflow features in Cep E, a young, energetic Class 0 protostar. In the reprocessed images we detect (1) wide-angle outflow seen in scattered light, (2) morphological details on at least 29 jet-driven bow shocks and jet heads or knots, (3) three compact features in 24 {mu}m continuum image as atomic/ionic line emission coincident with the jet heads, and (4) a flattened {approx}35'' size protostellar envelope seen against the interstellar background polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission as an absorption band across the protostar at 8 {mu}m. By separating the protostellar photospheric scattered emission in the wide-angle cavity from the jet emission we show that we can study directly the scattered light spectrum. We present the H{sub 2} emission line spectra, as observed in all IRAC bands, for 29 knots in the jets and bow shocks and use them in the IRAC color-color space as a diagnostic of the thermal gas in the shocks driven by the jets. The data presented here will enable detailed modeling of the individual shocks retracing the history of the episodic jet activity and the associated accretion on to the protostar. The Spitzer data analysis presented here shows the richness of its

  3. Dispersion of Outflow from Small Rivers and Coastal Lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Largier, J. L.; Basdurak, N. B.

    2013-05-01

    Along many tropical and subtropical coasts, waters enter the ocean via small streams or lagoons. These outflow plumes are known to be important to coastal productivity, but as pollutant loading increases they are also seen as an increasing source of coastal pollution. Physical processes in these small plumes interact in ways that are different to larger plumes, e.g., flow rate varies on short time scales, and the coriolis term is typically unimportant. After a brief review of dominant terms, attention will be given to observed plume patterns with a focus on the presence of low-salinity and outflow-related constituents nearshore. Data from studies off California and elsewhere will be used to suggest that there are common transport and mixing patterns at this scale. While the ultimate aim is to understand and model physical processes controlling dispersion of land-derived pollutants, at the very least one can recognize a spatial pattern of probability that can be characterized by primary physical parameters. Due to limited data on physical processes at the requisite resolution, numerical modeling is used to better understand processes and phenomena including inertial jets, buoyant plumes, alongshore flow, mixing and surface stresses. Ultimately, one can expect that a reasonable estimate of a probabilistic "zone of impact" can be obtained from knowledge of fundamental physical parameters that control transport and mixing. This link between physical forcing and response needs both a dynamical explanation and statistical support - yielding a general model that can be used for countless small inflows along many coasts. These features may be small but they are very common, and it is argued that their importance for coastal pollution and ecology is disproportionately big. The benefit of recognizing a transport-based zone of impact is that this pattern is the basis of distribution patterns for a variety of constituents, including dissolved and particulate contaminants

  4. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Hogerheijde, M R; van Dishoeck, E F; Blake, G A; van Langevelde, H J

    1998-07-20

    Aperture synthesis observations of HCO+ J = 1-0, 13CO 1-0, and C18O 1-0 obtained with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are used to probe the small-scale (5" approximately 700 AU) structure of the molecular envelopes of a well-defined sample of nine embedded low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The interferometer results can be understood in terms of: (1) a core of radius approximately or less than 1000 AU surrounding the central star, possibly flattened and rotating; (2) condensations scattered throughout the envelope that may be left over from the inhomogeneous structure of the original cloud core or that may have grown during collapse; and (3) material within the outflow or along the walls of the outflow cavity. Masses of the central cores are 0.001-0.1 M (solar), and agree well with dust continuum measurements. Averaged over the central 20" (3000 AU) region, an HCO+ abundance of 4 x 10(-8) is inferred, with a spread of a factor of 3 between the different sources. Reanalysis of previously presented single-dish data yields an HCO+ abundance of (5.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(-9), which may indicate an average increase by a factor of a few on the smaller scales sampled by the interferometer. Part of this apparent abundance variation could be explained by contributions from extended cloud emission to the single-dish C18O lines, and uncertainties in the assumed excitation temperatures and opacities. The properties of the molecular envelopes and outflows are further investigated through single-dish observations of 12CO J = 6-5, 4-3, and 3-2, 13CO 6-5 and 3-2, and C18O 3-2 and 2-1, obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell and IRAM 30 m telescopes, along with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Ratios of the mid-J CO lines are used to estimate the excitation temperature, with values of 25-80 K derived for the gas near line centre. The outflow wings show a similar range, although Tex is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in at least two sources. In contrast to the well-studied L1551

  5. Envelope structure on 700 AU scales and the molecular outflows of low-mass young stellar objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hogerheijde, M. R.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Blake, G. A.; van Langevelde, H. J.

    1998-01-01

    Aperture synthesis observations of HCO+ J = 1-0, 13CO 1-0, and C18O 1-0 obtained with the Owens Valley Millimeter Array are used to probe the small-scale (5" approximately 700 AU) structure of the molecular envelopes of a well-defined sample of nine embedded low-mass young stellar objects in Taurus. The interferometer results can be understood in terms of: (1) a core of radius approximately or less than 1000 AU surrounding the central star, possibly flattened and rotating; (2) condensations scattered throughout the envelope that may be left over from the inhomogeneous structure of the original cloud core or that may have grown during collapse; and (3) material within the outflow or along the walls of the outflow cavity. Masses of the central cores are 0.001-0.1 M (solar), and agree well with dust continuum measurements. Averaged over the central 20" (3000 AU) region, an HCO+ abundance of 4 x 10(-8) is inferred, with a spread of a factor of 3 between the different sources. Reanalysis of previously presented single-dish data yields an HCO+ abundance of (5.0 +/- 1.7) x 10(-9), which may indicate an average increase by a factor of a few on the smaller scales sampled by the interferometer. Part of this apparent abundance variation could be explained by contributions from extended cloud emission to the single-dish C18O lines, and uncertainties in the assumed excitation temperatures and opacities. The properties of the molecular envelopes and outflows are further investigated through single-dish observations of 12CO J = 6-5, 4-3, and 3-2, 13CO 6-5 and 3-2, and C18O 3-2 and 2-1, obtained with the James Clerk Maxwell and IRAM 30 m telescopes, along with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. Ratios of the mid-J CO lines are used to estimate the excitation temperature, with values of 25-80 K derived for the gas near line centre. The outflow wings show a similar range, although Tex is enhanced by a factor of 2-3 in at least two sources. In contrast to the well-studied L1551

  6. [Bipolar disorders and self-stigma].

    PubMed

    Richard-Lepouriel, H

    2015-09-16

    Despite wide media coverage in recent years, the stigmatization of people with bipolar disorder still exists. Bipolar people also have their own tendency to self-stigmatize that is to integrate their beliefs, prejudices and stigmatizing behaviors. The consequences are important: shame, guilt, withdrawal and renunciation to lead one's own life according to personal values increasing therefore the risk of mood relapses. Self-stigma is rarely assessed in clinical practice and few strategies have been designed to face them efficiently. Recognizing self-stigmatizing beliefs and challenging them are the first steps of this vast endeavour.

  7. Putative Drugs and Targets for Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos A.; Manji, Husseini K.

    2009-01-01

    Current pharmacotherapy for bipolar disorder (BPD) is generally unsatisfactory for a large number of patients. Even with adequate modern bipolar pharmacological therapies, many afflicted individuals continue to have persistent mood episode relapses, residual symptoms, functional impairment and psychosocial disability. Creating novel therapeutics for BPD is urgently needed. Promising drug targets and compounds for BPD worthy of further study involve the following systems: purinergic, dynorphin opioid neuropeptide, cholinergic (muscarinic and nicotinic), melatonin and serotonin (5-HT2C receptor), glutamatergic, hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis have all been implicated. Intracellular pathways and targets worthy of further study include glycogen synthase kinase-3 protein, protein kinase C, arachidonic acid cascade. PMID:18704977

  8. Indirect measurement of Delta outflow using ultrasonic velocity meters and comparison with mass-balance calculated outflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oltmann, Richard N.

    1998-01-01

    A measurement of the quantity of water flowing from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta into Suisun Bay (Delta outflow) has been desired by those studying and managing the San Francisco Bay/Delta estuary since the 1920s.  Historically, Delta outflow has been estimated using a mass-balance calculation that uses measured Delta inflows and exports, and imprecise estimates of consumptive use for the approximately 2,000 small agricultural diversions with the Delta.  The DWR has estimated Delta outflow for 1929 to present using the computer program DAYFLOW.

  9. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION AND JET-LIKE OUTFLOWS IN IRDC G28.34+0.06: A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOSTAR CLUSTER

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Zhang Qizhou E-mail: qzhang@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-07-01

    We present Submillimeter Array (SMA) {lambda} = 0.88 mm observations of an infrared dark cloud G28.34+0.06. Located in the quiescent southern part of the G28.34 cloud, the region of interest is a massive (>10{sup 3} M{sub sun}) molecular clump P1 with a luminosity of {approx}10{sup 3} L{sub sun}, where our previous SMA observations at 1.3 mm have revealed a string of five dust cores of 22-64 M{sub sun} along the 1 pc IR-dark filament. The cores are well aligned at a position angle (P.A.) of 48 deg. and regularly spaced at an average projected separation of 0.16 pc. The new high-resolution, high-sensitivity 0.88 mm image further resolves the five cores into 10 compact condensations of 1.4-10.6 M{sub sun}, with sizes of a few thousand AU. The spatial structure at clump ({approx}1 pc) and core ({approx}0.1 pc) scales indicates a hierarchical fragmentation. While the clump fragmentation is consistent with a cylindrical collapse, the observed fragment masses are much larger than the expected thermal Jeans masses. All the cores are driving CO (3-2) outflows up to 38 km s{sup -1}, the majority of which are bipolar, jet-like outflows. The moderate luminosity of the P1 clump sets a limit on the mass of protostars of 3-7 M{sub sun}. Because of the large reservoir of dense molecular gas in the immediate medium and ongoing accretion as evident by the jet-like outflows, we speculate that P1 will grow and eventually form a massive star cluster. This study provides a first glimpse of massive, clustered star formation that currently undergoes through an intermediate-mass stage.

  10. Millimetre observations of the IRAS 18162-2048 outflow: evidence for cloud disruption around an intermediate-mass protostar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedettini, M.; Molinari, S.; Testi, L.; Noriega-Crespo, A.

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the morphology and the dynamics of the molecular outflow associated with IRAS 18162-2048, a wide area of ~95 arcmin2 around the source has been mapped by means of CO and 13CO (1-0) lines, and has been complemented by a map of a smaller region surrounding the high-mass object using the C18O (1-0) and CH3OH (2k-1k) and (3k-2k) transitions. The lines profile reveals the presence of several velocity components among which two major line components at 11.9 and 12.8 km s-1 have been detected in all the tracers. Simple morphological and energetic considerations led us to interpret the observations in a relatively straightforward scenario in which the powerful jet ejected by IRAS 18162-2048 sets a big portion of the surrounding molecular cloud into motion. The energy and momentum deposited by the flow break the cloud apart, shifting the northern region to a blue velocity and the southern region to a red velocity, and giving rise to a giant outflow. We calculated the physical parameters of the outflow, which make the IRAS 18162-2048 outflow one of the most massive (M= 570 Msolar) and energetic (K > 1046 erg) known. Despite the intrinsic difficulties in giving a precise value of the age and of the inclination angle of the flow, we used different methods to derive a reliable estimate. Our data show evidence in favour of a small inclination angle (<50°) and of a maximum outflow age of ~106 yr. C18O and CH3OH trace the dense core surrounding IRAS 18162-2048 and show an elongated emission in the direction perpendicular to the outflow axis. Besides the peak emission associated with the IRAS source, we found another peak at the position which coincides with a red near-infrared source. We provided evidence that this second peak may be surrounded by a flattened rotating structure, suggesting that the newly discovered infrared source can be another site of recent star formation in this region. Our analysis suggest that the powerful wind/outflow from the luminous

  11. Multiday production of condensing organic aerosol mass in urban and forest outflow

    DOE PAGES

    Lee-Taylor, J.; Hodzic, A.; Madronich, S.; ...

    2015-01-16

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) production in air masses containing either anthropogenic or biogenic (terpene-dominated) emissions is investigated using the explicit gas-phase chemical mechanism generator GECKO-A. Simulations show several-fold increases in SOA mass continuing for multiple days in the urban outflow, even as the initial air parcel is diluted into the regional atmosphere. The SOA mass increase in the forest outflow is more modest (~50%) and of shorter duration (1–2 days). The multiday production in the urban outflow stems from continuing oxidation of gas-phase precursors which persist in equilibrium with the particle phase, and can be attributed to multigenerational reaction productsmore » of both aromatics and alkanes, especially those with relatively low carbon numbers (C4–15). In particular we find large contributions from substituted maleic anhydrides and multi-substituted peroxide-bicyclic alkenes. The results show that the predicted production is a robust feature of our model even under changing atmospheric conditions and different vapor pressure schemes, and contradict the notion that SOA undergoes little mass production beyond a short initial formation period. The results imply that anthropogenic aerosol precursors could influence the chemical and radiative characteristics of the atmosphere over an extremely wide reg