Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Dunlop, Boadie W
To review the evidence for treating anxiety in patients with bipolar disorder. A literature search from 1950 to week 1 of August 2009 was conducted via OVID and the National Institutes of Health's clinical trials online databases. Search terms included anxiety, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, social anxiety, obsessive compulsive disorder, specific phobia, posttraumatic stress disorder, and treatment. Reference lists of identified articles were also searched. Fourteen treatment studies that included patients with bipolar disorder with either a syndrome-defined anxiety disorder or nonspecific anxiety were selected. Sample size, bipolar disorder subtype, comorbid anxiety disorders, baseline anxiety, treatment interventions, and outcome measurements were extracted. The majority of studies focus on treating anxiety disorders and nonspecific anxiety occurring during bipolar mood episodes. Studies of syndrome-defined anxiety disorders reveal that risperidone monotherapy did not separate from placebo and that olanzapine was superior to lamotrigine when used to augment lithium treatment. A study using open-label divalproex sodium and an uncontrolled study of group cognitive-behavioral therapy both suggest some benefit from these treatments in patients with bipolar disorder with panic disorder. Studies of nonspecific anxiety reveal some benefit for divalproex, quetiapine, olanzapine, and olanzapine-fluoxetine combination. Weaker evidence supports the use of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, and observational studies suggest potential efficacy for gabapentin and valproate. Nonspecific anxiety symptoms occurring during a mood episode improve with treatment of the mood disturbance, though divalproex may be the mood stabilizer of choice for anxious patients with bipolar disorder. Given their reduced risk for manic induction and episode cycling, psychotherapy, benzodiazepines, and certain atypical antipsychotics
Peselow, E D; Deutsch, S I; Stanley, M; Banay-Schwartz, M; Virgilio, J; Fieve, R R
Red blood cell (RBC) glycine levels were examined in 27 bipolar patients, treated with lithium carbonate for a minimum of 8 months, who were either hypomanic, depressed, or euthymic in their mood. We found no difference in the RBC glycine or in the RBC: plasma glycine ratio between the hypomanic, depressed, or euthymic patients (P less than 0.1). There were statistically significant differences in RBC glycine levels in lithium-treated euthymic patients and normal controls. There was a strong positive correlation between serum lithium levels and both RBC glycine levels and the RBC: plasma glycine ratio.
Ifteni, Petru; Teodorescu, Andreea; Moga, Marius Alexandru; Pascu, Alina Mihaela; Miclaus, Roxana Steliana
Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with periodic symptom exacerbations, leading to functional impairment, and increased risk of suicide. Although clozapine has never been approved for the treatment of BD, it is occasionally used in severe mania. The aim of the study is to evaluate the risks and benefits of switching clozapine in remitted BD patients. This is an observational, mirror image study of 62 consecutive remitted BD outpatients treated with clozapine. Twenty-five patients were switched to another antipsychotic following a change in a drug reimbursement rule, while 37 continued on clozapine. The mean time in remission was shorter for the switched group (9.2±4 months vs 13±6 months, P=0.018), and the number of patients who relapsed was larger (n=21 vs n=8, P<0.0001). The results suggest that switching from clozapine to another antipsychotic may increase the risk of relapses in remitted patients with BD. PMID:28182153
Wix-Ramos, Richard; Moreno, Xiomara; Capote, Eduardo; González, Gilbert; Uribe, Ezequiel
Objective Research of electroencephalograph (EEG) power spectrum and mean frequency has shown inconsistent results in patients with schizophrenic, schizoaffective and bipolar disorders during medication when compared to normal subjects thus; the characterization of these parameters is an important task. Methods We applied quantitative EEG (qEEG) to investigate 38 control, 15 schizophrenic, 7 schizoaffective and 11 bipolar disorder subjects which remaine under the administration of psychotropic drugs (except control group). Absolute spectral power (ASP), mean frequency and hemispheric electrical asymmetry were measured by 19 derivation qEEG. Group mean values were compared with non parametrical Mann-Whitney test and spectral EEG maps with z-score method at p < 0.05. Results Most frequent drug treatments for schizophrenic patients were neuroleptic+antiepileptic (40% of cases) or 2 neuroleptics (33.3%). Schizoaffective patients received neuroleptic+benzodiazepine (71.4%) and for bipolar disorder patients neuroleptic+antiepileptic (81.8%). Schizophrenic (at all derivations except for Fp1, Fp2, F8 and T6) and schizoaffective (only at C3) show higher values of ASP (+57.7% and +86.1% respectively) compared to control group. ASP of bipolar disorder patients did not show differences against control group. The mean frequency was higher at Fp1 (+14.2%) and Fp2 (+17.4%) in bipolar disorder patients than control group, but no differences were found in frequencies between schizophrenic or schizoaffective patients against the control group. Majority of spectral differences were found at the left hemisphere in schizophrenic and schizoaffective but not in bipolar disorder subjects. Conclusion The present report contributes to characterize quantitatively the qEEG in drug treated schizophrenic, schizoaffective or bipolar disorder patients. PMID:24851121
Fagiolini, Andrea; Kupfer, David J; Scott, John; Swartz, Holly A; Cook, David; Novick, Danielle M; Frank, Ellen
This study evaluated the frequency and clinical significance of abnormal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) and Free Thyroxine Index (FTI) in patients with bipolar I disorder treated primarily with lithium. We evaluated the medical records of 143 participants in the Pittsburgh study of Maintenance Therapies in Bipolar Disorder who did not have a thyroid abnormality at entry. Thirty-six percent of the 143 patients developed abnormal TSH and/or FTI values. Thirty-eight percent of the 135 patients who received lithium developed abnormal TSH and/or FTI, spent significantly longer time in the acute treatment phase (t = -3.6, df = 133, p = .0004), and had significantly higher mean Hamilton Scale for Depression scores over the course of the maintenance phase (t = -2.3, df = 71.6, p = .03). Time on lithium and development of abnormal TSH and/or FTI were positively correlated (r = .25, p = .004). Thyroid dysfunction can be frequent in patients exposed to lithium treatment for bipolar I disorder; it also appears to be correlated with a slower response to acute treatment, and may be related to poorer quality of long-term remission. A prospective study is needed to confirm our findings and determine whether more aggressive thyroid replacement can optimize thyroid function to facilitate clinical recovery. Supported in part by National Institute of Mental Health Grants MH 029618 (Drs. Frank and Fagiolini) and MH 030915 (Drs. Kupfer and Fagiolini), and the Bosin Memorial Fund of The Pittsburgh Foundation (Drs. Fagiolini, Kupfer, Cook, Scott, Novick and Frank). Dr. Fagiolini is on the advisory board and a consultant to Pfizer Inc, and Bristol Myers Squibb, and is on the speaker bureau of Bristol Myers Squibb, Eli Lilly Italy, Pfizer Inc, and Shire. Dr. Frank is on the advisory board of Pfizer Inc. and Eli Lilly & Company, and is a consultant to Pfizer Italia and Servier Amerique. Dr. Kupfer is on the advisory board of Pfizer, Inc., Forest Pharmaceuticals, Inc., and Solvay
Lee, Gun Sang; Lee, Myung Ki; Kim, Woo Jae; Kim, Ho Sang; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Yun-Suk
Objective We assessed the surgical results of bipolar release in 31 adult patients with uncorrected congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) and more than 12 months of follow-up. Methods Thirty-one patients underwent a bipolar release of the sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) and were retrospectively analyzed. The mean follow-up period was 14.9 months (range, 12–30). The mean age at time of surgery was 30.3 years (range, 20–54). Patients were evaluated with a modified Lee’s scoring system, cervicomandibular angle (CMA) measurement, and a global satisfaction rating scale using patient self-reporting. Results The modified Lee’s scoring system indicated excellent results in 4 (12.9%) patients, good in 18 (58.1%), and fair in 9 (29.0%) at the last follow-up after surgery. The improvements in neck movement and head tilt were statistically significant (p<0.05). The preoperative mean CMA was 15.4° (range, 5.4–29.0), which was reduced to a mean of CMA of 6.3° (range, 0–25) after surgery (p<0.05). The global satisfaction rating scale was 93.7% (range, 90–100). A transient sensory deficit on the ipsilateral lower ear lobe was noted in three cases. No significant permanent complications occurred. Conclusion Bipolar release of the SCM is a safe and reliable technique for the treatment of CMT in adults. PMID:28061496
Takeshima, Minoru; Oka, Takashi
Difficult-to-treat major depressive disorder (MDD-DT), which involves antidepressant refractoriness or antidepressant-related adverse psychiatric effects, is bipolar in nature; therefore, it may share common temperamental features with bipolar disorder. To examine this hypothesis, affective temperament was compared between MDD-DT, easy-to-treat major depressive disorder (MDD-ET), and bipolar disorder. Affective temperament was measured in 320 patients (69, 56, and 195 with MDD-ET, MDD-DT, and bipolar disorder, respectively) using the self-rated questionnaire version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego (TEMPS-A), with between-group differences examined using multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for confounders. Optimal cut-off points for TEMPS-A scores to discriminate between diagnostic groups were determined using receiver-operating characteristic analysis. Of the five temperamental domains, the mode for cyclothymic temperament score was highest, followed by those of bipolar disorder, MDD-DT, and MDD-ET. The cyclothymic temperament score discriminated significantly between bipolar disorder and MDD-DT (odds ratio [OR]: 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-1.20, p=0.0022), MDD-DT and MDD-ET (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.31, p=0.0334), and bipolar and major depressive disorders (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28, p=0.0003). Optimal cut-off points for the cyclothymic temperament scores to discriminate between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder and MDD-DT and MDD-ET were 9 (sensitivity: 64.6%, specificity: 76.0%) and 6 (66.1%, 62.3%), respectively. MDD-DT has a quantitatively stronger bipolar temperamental feature, cyclothymic temperament, relative to that of MDD-ET. Cut-off points determined in this study could be clinically helpful. Because of our study design, longitudinal changes in temperamental scores during treatment cannot be fully excluded. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... and the antipsychotic olanzapine. It works as a depression treatment and a mood stabilizer. Symbyax is approved by ... Current landscape, unmet needs and future directions for treatment of bipolar depression. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2014;169S1:S17. Frye ...
Camardese, Giovanni; Leone, Beniamino; Serrani, Riccardo; Walstra, Coco; Di Nicola, Marco; Della Marca, Giacomo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi
Objectives We investigated the clinical benefits of bright light therapy (BLT) as an adjunct treatment to ongoing psychopharmacotherapy, both in unipolar and bipolar difficult-to-treat depressed (DTD) outpatients. Methods In an open-label study, 31 depressed outpatients (16 unipolar and 15 bipolar) were included to undergo 3 weeks of BLT. Twenty-five completed the treatment and 5-week follow-up. Main outcome measures Clinical outcomes were evaluated by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). The Snaith–Hamilton Pleasure Scale and the Depression Retardation Rating Scale were used to assess changes in anhedonia and psychomotor retardation, respectively. Results The adjunctive BLT seemed to influence the course of the depressive episode, and a statistically significant reduction in HDRS scores was reported since the first week of therapy. The treatment was well-tolerated, and no patients presented clinical signs of (hypo)manic switch during the overall treatment period. At the end of the study (after 5 weeks from BLT discontinuation), nine patients (36%, eight unipolar and one bipolar) still showed a treatment response. BLT augmentation also led to a significant improvement of psychomotor retardation. Conclusion BLT combined with the ongoing pharmacological treatment offers a simple approach, and it might be effective in rapidly ameliorating depressive core symptoms of vulnerable DTD outpatients. These preliminary results need to be confirmed in placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical trial on larger samples. PMID:26396517
Sajatovic, Martha; Ng-Mak, Daisy; Solem, Caitlyn T.; Lin, Fang-Ju; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Loebel, Antony
Background: The aim of this study was to describe dosing patterns and medication adherence among bipolar patients who initiated lurasidone in a real-world setting. Methods: Adult bipolar patients who initiated lurasidone between 1 November 2010 and 31 December 2012 (index period) with 6-month pre- and post-index continuous enrollment were identified from the IMS RWD Adjudicated Claims US database. Patients were grouped by starting lurasidone daily dose: 20 mg (7.1%), 40 mg (62.2%), 60–80 mg (28.7%), and 120–160 mg (2.1%). Patient characteristics were compared across doses using Cochran–Armitage trend tests. Multivariable ordinal logistic regression assessed the association between initial lurasidone dose and patient characteristics. Medication adherence was measured using medication possession ratio (MPR). Results: Of 1114 adult bipolar patients (mean age 40.6 years, 70.6% female), 90% initiated lurasidone at 40 mg or 80 mg/day (mean 51.9 mg/day). Of these, 16.2% initiated lurasidone as monotherapy. Mean lurasidone maintenance dose was 55.2 mg/day and mean MPR was 0.53 [standard deviation (SD) = 0.34] over the 6-month follow up. Substance use, hyperglycemia, obesity, and prior antipsychotic use were associated with higher initial lurasidone doses (p < 0.05). Odds of a 20 mg/day increase in initial lurasidone dose was 1.6-times higher for patients with substance use [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16−2.24], 2.6-times higher with hyperglycemia problems (95% CI: 1.15−5.83), 1.7-times higher with obesity (95% CI: 1.05−2.60), and 1.3 (95% CI: 1.01−1.78) and 1.8-times higher (95% CI: 1.17−2.86) with prior use of second- and first-generation antipsychotics, respectively. Conclusions: This real-world analysis of bipolar patients indicated that 40 mg or 80 mg/day were the most common starting doses of lurasidone. A majority of patients used concomitant psychiatric medications (polypharmacy). Higher doses of lurasidone were prescribed to patients with
Mori, Yu; Mori, Naoko; Mori, Taketo; Nakamura, Satoshi; Ishizuka, Masato; Sano, Tokuhisa; Itoi, Eiji
The aim of this study was to analyze the radiological outcomes of bipolar hemiarthroplasty after displaced femoral neck fractures of non-arthritic hip joints in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We retrospectively investigated 25 hip joints in 23 rheumatoid arthritis patients who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture of non-arthritic hip joints. All patients were female with an average age of 69.8 years (range 51-83 years). Mean follow-up duration was 8.4 years (range 5-12 years). Radiographs taken immediately, 1 year after surgery and most recently, were collected for each case. Radiographic measurement of the migration distance of the outer-head prosthesis in the direction of vertical, horizontal and medial to Köhler's line was undertaken at 1 year after surgery and most recently. No patients had hip-related pain after surgery. No case indicated apparent central migration and >3-mm migration of the hemisphere in each direction. There was no significant change in migration distance between evaluation at 1 year after surgery and most recently. We conclude that risk of acetabular protrusion appears to be low in patients of rheumatoid arthritis treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures of non-arthritic hip joints in the medium term.
López-Jaramillo, Carlos; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana M; Palacio, Juan David; Castrillón, Gabriel; Bearden, Carrie; Vieta, Eduard
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in bipolar I disorder (BD-I) suggest that lithium is associated with increased volumes of cortico-limbic structures. However, more rigorous control of confounding factors is needed to obtain further support for this hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to assess differences in brain volumes among long-term lithium-treated BD-I patients, unmedicated BD-I patients, and healthy controls. This was a cross-sectional study with 32 euthymic BD-I patients (16 on lithium monotherapy for a mean of 180 months, and 16 receiving no medication for at least the 2 months prior to the study) and 20 healthy controls. Patients were euthymic (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale [HDRS] <6 and Young Mania Rating Scale [YMRS] <7) and had not taken psychotropic medications other than lithium for at least 6 months. Brain images were acquired on a 1.5 Tesla MRI (Phillips, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and segmented to generate volumetric measures of cortical and subcortical brain areas, ventricles and global brain. Significant differences were found in the volumes of the left amygdala (P=.0003), right amygdala (P=.030), left hippocampus (P=.022), left thalamus (P=.022), and right thalamus (P=.019) in long-term lithium-treated BD-I patients, compared to unmedicated patients and controls, after multivariable adjustment. No differences were observed in global brain volume or in ventricular size among the three groups. Likewise, there was no correlation between serum lithium levels and the increase in size in the described brain areas. The structural differences found among the three groups, and specifically those between long-term lithium-treated and unmedicated BD-I patients, indicate increased limbic structure volumes in lithium-treated patients. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam
Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…
Atmaca, Murad; Ozler, Sinan; Topuz, Mehtap; Goldstein, Sam
Objective: There is a dearth of literature on patients erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder. Method: The authors report a case of an adult with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder erroneously diagnosed and treated for bipolar disorder for 6 years. At that point, methylphenidate was initiated. The patient was judged to be a…
Simonetti, Alessio; Sani, Gabriele; Dacquino, Claudia; Piras, Fabrizio; De Rossi, Pietro; Caltagirone, Carlo; Coryell, William; Spalletta, Gianfranco
Patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (BP) may experience hippocampal atrophy. Lithium exposure has been associated with increased hippocampal volumes. However, its effects on hippocampal subfields remain to be clarified. We investigated the effects of short- and long-term lithium exposure on the hippocampus and its subfields in patients affected by bipolar I disorder (BP-I). Hippocampal subfields and total hippocampal volumes were measured in 60 subjects divided into four groups: 15 patients with BP-I who were never exposed to lithium [no-exposure group (NE)], 15 patients with BP-I exposed to lithium for < 24 months [short-exposure group (SE)], 15 patients with BP-I exposed to lithium for > 24 months [long-exposure group (LE)], and 15 healthy control subjects (HC). The SE and NE groups showed smaller total hippocampal volumes and smaller bilateral cornu ammonis CA2-3, CA4-dentate gyrus (DG), presubiculum, and subiculum volumes compared with HC. The LE group showed larger total hippocampal volumes and bilateral CA2-3, left CA4-DG, left presubiculum, and right subiculum volumes compared with the NE group, and larger volumes of the right CA2-3, left CA4-DG, left presubiculum, and right subiculum compared with the SE group. No differences were found between the LE group and HC or between the SE and NE groups. Long-term, but not short-term, exposure to lithium treatment may exert neuroprotective effects on specific hippocampal subfields linked to disease progression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Drexhage, Roosmarijn C; van der Heul-Nieuwenhuijsen, Leonie; Padmos, Roos C; van Beveren, Nico; Cohen, Dan; Versnel, Marjan A; Nolen, Willem A; Drexhage, Hemmo A
Accumulating evidence indicates an activated inflammatory response system as a vulnerability factor for schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD). We aimed to detect a specific inflammatory monocyte gene expression signature in SZ and compare such signature with our recently described inflammatory monocyte gene signature in BD. A quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) case-control gene expression study was performed on monocytes of 27 SZ patients and compared to outcomes collected in 56 BD patients (all patients naturalistically treated). For Q-PCR we used nine 'SZ specific genes' (found in whole genome analysis), the 19 BD signature genes (previously found by us) and six recently described autoimmune diabetes inflammatory monocyte genes. Monocytes of SZ patients had (similar to those of BD patients) a high inflammatory set point composed of three subsets of strongly correlating genes characterized by different sets of transcription/MAPK regulating factors. Subset 1A, characterized by ATF3 and DUSP2, and subset 1B, characterized by EGR3 and MXD1, were shared between BD and SZ patients (up-regulated in 67% and 51%, and 34% and 41%, respectively). Subset 2, characterized by PTPN7 and NAB2 was up-regulated in the monocytes of 62% BD, but down-regulated in the monocytes of 48% of SZ patients. Our approach shows that monocytes of SZ and BD patients overlap, but also differ in inflammatory gene expression. Our approach opens new avenues for nosological classifications of psychoses based on the inflammatory state of patients, enabling selection of those patients who might benefit from an anti-inflammatory treatment.
Kauer-Sant'Anna, Marcia; Kapczinski, Flavio; Vieta, Eduard
Epidemiological and clinical studies have reported a high prevalence of anxiety symptoms in bipolar disorder, either in manic or depressive episodes, although these symptoms do not always meet criteria for a specific anxiety disorder. In addition to anxiety symptoms, bipolar disorder frequently presents with co-morbid axis I conditions, with anxiety disorders being the most common co-morbidity. Therefore, the objective of this article is to review clinical and epidemiological studies that have investigated the association between bipolar disorder and anxiety. Available data on the efficacy of treatments for bipolar disorder and co-morbid anxiety disorders are also reviewed. Existing guidelines do recognize that co-morbid anxiety has a negative impact on the course and outcome of bipolar disorder; however, there have been very few double-blind, controlled trials examining the treatment response of patients with bipolar disorder and co-occurring anxiety disorders. There is some positive evidence for quetiapine, olanzapine in combination with fluoxetine or lithium, and lamotrigine with lithium, and negative evidence for risperidone. Other therapies used for bipolar disorder, including several mood stabilizers, antidepressants, atypical antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, have been shown to reduce anxiety symptoms, but specific data for their effects in patients with anxiety symptoms co-morbid with bipolar disorder are not available. The co-occurrence of anxiety and bipolar disorder has implications for diagnosis, clinical outcome, treatment and prognosis. Careful screening for co-morbid anxiety symptoms and disorders is warranted when diagnosing and treating patients with bipolar disorder.
Background Poor adherence to lithium is very common in bipolar patients and it is a frequent cause of recurrence during prophylactic treatment. Several reports suggest that attitudes of bipolar patients interfere with adherence to lithium. The Lithium Attitudes Questionnaire (LAQ) is a brief questionnaire developed as a means of identifying and grouping the problems patients commonly have with taking lithium regularly. The original version is validated in patients, but a validated version in Portuguese is not yet available. Methods One-hundred six patients with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria) criteria under lithium treatment for at least one month were assessed using LAQ. LAQ is a brief questionnaire administered under interview conditions, which includes 19 items rating attitudes towards prophylactic lithium treatment. We analysed the internal consistency, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity of the Portuguese version of LAQ. Results The internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.78. The mean total LAQ score was 4.1. Concurrent validity was confirmed by a negative correlation between plasma lithium concentration and total LAQ score (r = -0,198; p = 0.048). We analysed the scale's discriminative capacity revealing a sensitivity of 69% and a specificity of 71% in the identification of negative attitudes of bipolar patients. Conclusion The psychometric assessment of the Portuguese version of LAQ showed good internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity. The results were similar to the original version in relation to attitudes of bipolar patients towards lithium therapy. PMID:17121674
McElroy, Susan L.
Objective: The objective of this article is to present practical strategies for detecting and diagnosing bipolar disorder in the primary care setting and to review the evidence for the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole treatment for bipolar disorder. Data Sources: A review of the literature from 1980 to 2007 was conducted from November 2006 through February 2007 using a MEDLINE search and the key words bipolar disorder, primary care, detection, diagnosis, and aripiprazole. Study Selection: A total of 100 articles that focused on the accurate detection and diagnosis of bipolar disorder and the evidence of the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of bipolar disorder were selected. Data Synthesis: Patients with bipolar disorder often present to primary care physicians with depressive or mixed symptoms as opposed to purely hypomanic or manic symptoms. Accurate diagnosis of bipolar disorder is essential in order to provide timely and appropriate treatment. One treatment option available is aripiprazole, a partial agonist of dopamine (D)2 and D3 and serotonin (5-HT)1A receptors and an antagonist of the 5-HT2A receptor. Clinical trial data have shown aripiprazole to be effective in treating manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder, both in the acute phase and over an extended period of treatment lasting from 6 months to 2 years. Conclusions: Accurate diagnosis and treatment of bipolar disorder are challenges increasingly faced by primary care physicians. Strategies geared toward detection, diagnosis, and management of bipolar I disorder and other bipolar spectrum disorders may improve the treatment outcome for patients. Aripiprazole may be considered as another first-line choice for the treatment of bipolar I disorder; however, its utility in patients with bipolar spectrum disorders is yet to be determined. PMID:19956463
Objective Adherence problems are a common feature among bipolar patients. A recent study showed that lithium knowledge was the main difference between adherent and non adherents bipolar patients. The Lithium Knowledge Test (LKT), a brief questionnaire, was developed as a means of identifying aspects of patients' practical and pharmacological knowledge which are important if therapy is to be safe and effective. The original English version is validated in psychiatric population, but a validated Portuguese one is not yet available. Methods One hundred six patients selected were diagnosed with bipolar disorder (I or II) according to DSM-IV criteria and had to be on lithium treatment for at least one month. The LKT was administered on only one occasion. We analysed the internal consis tency, concurrent validity, sensitivity and specificity of the LKT for the detection of the knowledge about lithium treatment of bipolar patients. Results The internal consistency, evaluated by Cronbach's alpha was 0.596. The mean of total score LKT by bipolar patients was 9.0 (SD: 0.75) for men and 8.74 (SD: 0.44) for women. Concurrent validity based on plasma lithium concentration showed a significant correlation between the total LKT score and plasma lithium (r = 0,232; p = 0.020). The sensitivity was 84% and specificity was 81%. Conclusion LKT is a rapid, reliable instrument which appears to be as effective as a lengthier standard interview with a lithium clinic doctor, and which has a high level of acceptability to lithium patients. We found that the psychometric assessment of the Portuguese version of LKT showed good internal consistency, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:17147815
Stafford, N; Colom, F
This article reviews psychological therapies in the treatment of bipolar disorder, in particular psychoeducation, and how the inclusion of four fundamental principles - patient/therapist communication, flow of information, patient involvement and a trusting relationship - can improve patient outcomes. The content of this article is based on the proceedings of a 1-day standalone symposium in November 2011 exploring how to establish a bipolar clinic within the context of existing services in the UK's National Health Service. Certain psychological interventions have emerged as beneficial add-on treatments to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder and are associated with greater stabilisation of symptoms, fewer relapses and longer time to relapse. Psychoeducation is a simple approach to support prevention of future episodes by delivering behavioural training to improve illness insight, early symptom identification and development of coping strategies. Empowering patients to actively participate in their treatment provides independence, counteracts the current disconnect of therapist and patient, and increases awareness and understanding of the challenges of living with and treating bipolar disorder. Psychoeducation enables patients to understand bipolar disorder, get actively involved in therapy planning, and be aware of methods for episode prevention, therefore effectively contributing to improved treatment outcomes and patient quality of life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Berkol, Tonguç D; İslam, Serkan; Kırlı, Ebru; Pınarbaşı, Rasim; Özyıldırım, İlker
To identify clinical predictors of suicide attempts in patients with bipolar disorder. This study included bipolar patients who were treated in the Psychiatry Department, Haseki Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, between 2013 and 2014; an informed consent was obtained from the participants. Two hundred and eighteen bipolar patients were assessed by using the structured clinical interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) Axis-I (SCID-I) in order to detect all possible psychiatric comorbid diagnoses. Clinical predictors of suicide attempts were examined in attempters and non-attempters. The study design was retrospective. The lifetime suicide attempt rate for the entire sample was 19.2%. Suicide attempters with bipolar disorder had more lifetime comorbidity of eating disorder. Female gender and family history of mood disorder were significant predictors for suicide attempts. There was no difference between groups in terms of bipolar disorder subtype, onset age of bipolar disorder, total number of episodes, first and predominant episode type, suicide history in first degree relatives, severity of episodes, and hospitalization and being psychotic. Our study revealed that female gender, family history of mood disorder, and eating disorder are more frequent in bipolar patients with at least one suicide attempt.
Patwardhan, S; Shyam, A K; Sancheti, P; Arora, P; Nagda, T; Naik, P
Adult presentation of neglected congenital muscular torticollis is rare. We report 12 patients with this condition who underwent a modified Ferkel's release comprising a bipolar release of sternocleidomastoid with Z-lengthening. They had a mean age of 24 years (17 to 31) and were followed up for a minimum of two years. Post-operatively a cervical collar was applied for three weeks with intermittent supervised active assisted exercises for six weeks. Outcome was assessed using a modified Lee score and a Cheng and Tang score. The mean pre-operative rotational deficit was 8.25° (0° to 15°) and mean lateral flexion deficit was 20.42° (15° to 30°), which improved after treatment to a mean of 1.67° (0° to 5°) and 7.0° (4° to 14°) after treatment, respectively. According to the modified Lee scoring system, six patients had excellent results, two had good results and four had fair results, and using the Cheng and Tang score, eight patients had excellent results and four had good results. Surgical management of adult patients with neglected congenital muscular torticollis using a modified Ferkel's bipolar release gives excellent results. The range of neck movement and head tilt improved in all 12 patients and cosmesis improved in 11, despite the long-standing nature of the deformity.
McIntyre, Roger S.; Mancini, Deborah A.; Lin, Peter; Jordan, John
OBJECTIVE: To provide an evidence-based summary of medications commonly used for bipolar disorders and a practical approach to managing bipolar disorders in the office. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles from 1990 to 2003 were selected from MEDLINE using the key words "bipolar disorder," "antiepileptics," "antipsychotics," "antidepressants," and "mood stabilizers." Good-quality evidence for many of these treatments comes from randomized trials. Lithium, divalproex, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, and some novel antipsychotics all have level I evidence for treating various aspects of the disorder. MAIN MESSAGE: Treatment of bipolar disorder involves three therapeutic domains: acute mania, acute depression, and maintenance. Lithium has been a mainstay of treatment for some time, but antiepileptic drugs like divalproex, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine, along with novel antipsychotic drugs like olanzapine, risperidone, and quetiapine, alone or in combination, are increasingly being used successfully to treat acute mania and to maintain mood stability. CONCLUSION: Bipolar disorder is more common in family practice than previously believed. Drug treatments for this complex disorder have evolved rapidly over the past decade, radically changing its management. Treatment now tends to be very successful. PMID:15318676
ÖZDEMİR, Osman; COŞKUN, Salih; AKTAN MUTLU, Elif; ÖZDEMİR, Pınar Güzel; ATLI, Abdullah; YILMAZ, Ekrem; KESKİN, Sıddık
Introduction In this study, we aimed to better understand the genetic transmission of bipolar disorder by examining the family history of patients. Methods Sixty-three patients with bipolar disorder and their families were included. The final sample comprised 156 bipolar patients and their family members. An inclusion criterion was the presence of bipolar disorder history in the family. The diagnosis of other family members was confirmed by analyzing their files, hospital records, and by calling them to the hospital. Results Sixty-five patients were women (41.6%) and 91 were men (58.3%) (ratio of men/women: 1.40). When analyzing the results in terms of the transition of disease from the mother’s or father’s side, similar results were obtained: 25 patients were from the mother’s side and 25 patients were from the father’s side in 63 cases. Conclusion The results of our study support the fact that a significant relationship exists between the degree of kinship and the heritability of bipolar disorder and, furthermore, that the effect of the maternal and paternal sides is similar on the transmission of genetic susceptibility. PMID:28373808
Geoffroy, P A; Micoulaud Franchi, J-A; Lopez, R; Poirot, I; Brion, A; Royant-Parola, S; Etain, B
Sleep complaints are very common in bipolar disorders (BD) both during acute phases (manic and depressive episodes) and remission (about 80 % of patients with remitted BD have poor sleep quality). Sleep complaints during remission are of particular importance since they are associated with more mood relapses and worse outcomes. In this context, this review discusses the characterization and treatment of sleep complaints in BD. We examined the international scientific literature in June 2016 and performed a literature search with PubMed electronic database using the following headings: "bipolar disorder" and ("sleep" or "insomnia" or "hypersomnia" or "circadian" or "apnoea" or "apnea" or "restless legs"). Patients with BD suffer from sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities during major depressive episodes (insomnia or hypersomnia, nightmares, nocturnal and/or early awakenings, non-restorative sleep) and manic episodes (insomnia, decreased need for sleep without fatigue), but also some of these abnormalities may persist during remission. These remission phases are characterized by a reduced quality and quantity of sleep, with a longer sleep duration, increased sleep latency, a lengthening of the wake time after sleep onset (WASO), a decrease of sleep efficiency, and greater variability in sleep/wake rhythms. Patients also present frequent sleep comorbidities: chronic insomnia, sleepiness, sleep phase delay syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), and restless legs syndrome (RLS). These disorders are insufficiently diagnosed and treated whereas they are associated with mood relapses, treatment resistance, affect cognitive global functioning, reduce the quality of life, and contribute to weight gain or metabolic syndrome. Sleep and circadian rhythm abnormalities have been also associated with suicidal behaviors. Therefore, a clinical exploration with characterization of these abnormalities and disorders is essential. This exploration should be
Lakshmanan, Manu N; Meier, Stacey L Colton; Meier, Robert S; Lakshmanan, Ramaswamy
We present a case where dissociative identity disorder was effectively treated with memory retrieval psychotherapy. However, the patient's comorbid bipolar disorder contributed to the patient's instability and fortified the amnesiac barriers that exist between alter personality states in dissociative identity disorder, which made memory retrieval difficult to achieve. Implications from this case indicate that a close collaboration between psychologist and psychiatrist focused on carefully diagnosing and treating existing comorbid conditions may be the most important aspect in treating dissociative identity disorder. We present our experience of successfully treating a patient with dissociative identity disorder and bipolar disorder using this collaborative method.
Melo, Matias Carvalho Aguiar; Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Albuquerque, Saulo Giovanni Castor; de Bruin, Veralice Meireles Sales
Sedentary lifestyle is frequent in psychiatric disorders, however the directions of this association and benefits of physical activity are unclear. This is a systematic review about exercise in patients with bipolar disorder. We performed a systematic literature search of studies published in English (1995 Jan to 2016 Jan) in PubMed, and Cochrane Library combining the medical terms 'physical activity' or 'sedentary' or 'physical exercise' with 'bipolar disorder' or 'mania' or 'bipolar depression'. Thirty-one studies were selected and included 15,587 patients with bipolar disorder. Sedentary lifestyle varied from 40% to 64.9%. Physical activity was associated with less depressive symptoms, better quality of life and increased functioning. Some evidence indicates a relationship between vigorous exercises and mania. Three prospective cohorts were reported; and no prospective randomized controlled trial was identified. Three studies focused on biomarkers in bipolar patients; and one reported the relationship between exercise and sleep in this group. Two assessed physical exercise in adolescents. (1) Differences between studies preventing a unified analysis; (2) most studies were cross-sectional; (3) motivation for exercising is a selection bias in most studies; (4) no intervention study assessing only physical exercise; (5) lack of studies comparing exercise across mood states. Generally, exercise was associated with improved health measures including depressive symptoms, functioning and quality of life. Evidence was insufficient to establish a cause-effect relationship between mood and physical exercise. Future research including randomized trials is needed to clarify the role of physical activity in bipolar patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Davis, Andrew K; DelBello, Melissa P; Eliassen, James; Welge, Jeffrey; Blom, Thomas J; Fleck, David E; Weber, Wade A; Jarvis, Kelly B; Rummelhoff, Emily; Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M
Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities within portions of the extended limbic network involved in affective regulation and expression contribute to the neuropathophysiology of bipolar disorder. In particular, portions of the prefrontal cortex have been implicated in the appearance of manic symptomatology. The effect of atypical antipsychotics on activation of these regions, however, remains poorly understood. Twenty-two patients diagnosed with bipolar mania and 26 healthy subjects participated in a baseline functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during which they performed a continuous performance task with neutral and emotional distractors. Nineteen patients with bipolar disorder were treated for eight weeks with quetiapine monotherapy and then rescanned. Regional activity in response to emotional stimuli was compared between healthy and manic subjects at baseline; and in the subjects with bipolar disorder between baseline and eight-week scans. At baseline, functional activity did not differ between subjects with bipolar disorder and healthy subjects in any region examined. After eight weeks of treatment, subjects with bipolar disorder showed a significant decrease in ratings on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (p < 0.001), and increased activation in the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) (p = 0.002); there was a significant association between increased right OFC activity and YMRS improvement (p = 0.003). These findings are consistent with suggestions that mania involves a loss of emotional modulatory activity in the prefrontal cortex--restoration of the relatively greater elevation in prefrontal activity widely observed in euthymic patients is associated with clinical improvement. It is not clear, however, whether changes are related to quetiapine treatment or represent a non-specific marker of affective change. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hajda, Miroslav; Prasko, Jan; Latalova, Klara; Hruby, Radovan; Ociskova, Marie; Holubova, Michaela; Kamaradova, Dana; Mainerova, Barbora
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with adverse impact on the lives of the patients and their caregivers. BD is associated with many limitations in personal and interpersonal functioning and restricts the patients’ ability to use their potential capabilities fully. Bipolar patients long to live meaningful lives, but this goal is hard to achieve for those with poor insight. With progress and humanization of society, the issue of patients’ needs became an important topic. The objective of the paper is to provide the up-to-date data on the unmet needs of BD patients and their caregivers. Methods A systematic computerized examination of MEDLINE publications from 1970 to 2015, via the keywords “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “bipolar depression”, and “unmet needs”, was performed. Results Patients’ needs may differ in various stages of the disorder and may have different origin and goals. Thus, we divided them into five groups relating to their nature: those connected with symptoms, treatment, quality of life, family, and pharmacotherapy. We suggested several implications of these needs for pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Conclusion Trying to follow patients’ needs may be a crucial point in the treatment of BD patients. However, many needs remain unmet due to both medical and social factors. PMID:27445475
Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Joo-Hyung
Purpose To compare and analyze clinical and radiologic outcomes of cemented versus cementless bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of femur neck fractures. Materials and Methods A total of 180 patients aged 65 years and over older who underwent bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femur neck fractures (Garden stage III, IV) from March 2009 to February 2014 were included in this study. Among the 180 patients, 115 were treated with cemented stems and 65 patients with cementless stems. Clinical outcomes assessed were: i) postoperative ambulatory status, ii) inguinal and thigh pain, and iii) complications. The radiologic outcome was femoral stem subsidence measured using postoperative simple X-ray. Results The cemented group had significantly lower occurrence of complications (postoperative infection, P=0.04) compared to the cementless group. There was no significant difference in postoperative ambulatory status, inguinal and thigh pain, and femoral stem subsidence. Conclusion For patients undergoing bipolar hemiarthroplasty, other than complications, there was no statistically significant difference in clinical or radiologic outcomes in our study. Selective use of cemented stem in bipolar hemiarthroplasty may be a desirable treatment method for patients with poor bone quality and higher risk of infections. PMID:28097110
Muralidharan, Kesavan; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Bücker, Joana; Silveira, Leonardo E; Torres, Ivan J; Yatham, Lakshmi N
In bipolar disorder (BD), lithium and valproate are both reportedly associated with mild cognitive deficits with impaired psychomotor speed and verbal memory ascribed to both while impairments in learning and attention are mainly attributed to valproate. However, there are few direct comparisons of the impact of lithium and valproate on cognitive function in early BD. Using data from the STOP-EM study, we compared neurocognitive functioning in BD patients, who had recently recovered from a first episode of mania, and were on treatment with lithium (n = 34) or valproate (n = 38), to a comparable sample of healthy controls (HC; n = 40), on the domains of processing speed, attention, verbal memory, nonverbal memory, working memory and executive functions. The three groups were comparable on socio-demographic (all p > 0.12) and clinical variables (all p > 0.08). MANOVA revealed a significant difference between the three groups on overall cognitive functioning (Wilk's lambda = 0.644; F = 3.775; p < 0.001). On post-hoc Tukey test, the valproate group performed poorer on working memory compared to the lithium (p = 0.001) and HC groups (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference between the lithium and valproate groups on other cognitive domains (all p > 0.13). Treatment with valproate and not lithium may be associated with working memory deficits early in the course of BD. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lakshmanan, Manu N.; Meier, Stacey L. Colton; Meier, Robert S.
We present a case where dissociative identity disorder was effectively treated with memory retrieval psychotherapy. However, the patient’s comorbid bipolar disorder contributed to the patient’s instability and fortified the amnesiac barriers that exist between alter personality states in dissociative identity disorder, which made memory retrieval difficult to achieve. Implications from this case indicate that a close collaboration between psychologist and psychiatrist focused on carefully diagnosing and treating existing comorbid conditions may be the most important aspect in treating dissociative identity disorder. We present our experience of successfully treating a patient with dissociative identity disorder and bipolar disorder using this collaborative method. PMID:20805917
Fabrazzo, Michele; Monteleone, Palmiero; Prisco, Vincenzo; Perris, Francesco; Catapano, Francesco; Tortorella, Alfonso; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Steardo, Luca; Maj, Mario
The effects of olanzapine and haloperidol on metabolic parameters in bipolar patients have been evaluated much less comprehensively than in schizophrenic patients. Therefore, in this study, medical records of 343 schizophrenic and bipolar patients treated with haloperidol or olanzapine for 1 year were retrospectively reviewed and metabolic outcomes were evaluated. After 12 months of follow-up, 25.9% of patients showed ≥3 metabolic abnormalities with a point prevalence of 27.2% in the bipolar and 24.9% in the schizophrenic group: 22.0% of the schizophrenic patients treated with haloperidol and 29.8% of those treated with olanzapine achieved ≥3 metabolic alterations; in bipolar patients, these percentages were 15.8% of those treated with haloperidol and 37.8% of those treated with olanzapine (p < 0.0001). Significant changes were reported over time in fasting glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol blood levels, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body weight, and BMI. Overall, a significant number of schizophrenic and bipolar patients treated with olanzapine showed ≥3 metabolic alterations in the first month of treatment when compared to those treated with haloperidol. Moreover, the number of olanzapine-treated patients developing metabolic changes in the first month was significantly higher in both diagnostic groups when compared to those who reached metabolic abnormal values in the subsequent 11 months. These data suggest that both antipsychotics could increase the metabolic risk in schizophrenic and bipolar patients with a higher prevalence in olanzapine-treated patients. On the other hand, olanzapine-treated patients seem to achieve metabolic abnormalities faster than haloperidol-treated subjects in both diagnostic groups.
Harmelin, Yona; Boineau, Dominique; Cardot-Leccia, Nathalie; Fontas, Eric; Bahadoran, Philippe; Becker, Anne-Lise; Montaudié, Henri; Castela, Emeline; Perrin, Christophe; Lacour, Jean-Philippe; Passeron, Thierry
Very few treatments for striae are based on prospective randomized trials. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of bipolar fractional radiofrequency and bipolar radiofrequency potentiated with infrared light, alone or combined, for treating abdominal stretch marks. Bicentric prospective interventional randomized controlled trial in the department of Dermatology of University Hospital of Nice and Aesthetics Laser Center of Bordeaux, France. Men and women of age 18 years or above, who presented for the treatment of mature or immature abdominal striae were included. The patients' abdomens were divided into four equal quadrants. Bipolar radiofrequency potentiated with infrared light and fractional bipolar radiofrequency were applied, alone or combined, and compared to the remaining untreated quadrant. The main criterion of evaluation was the measurement of depth of striae, using 3D photography at 6 months follow-up. A global assessment was also rated by the physician performing the treatment and by the patients. Histological analysis and confocal laser microscopy were additionally performed. A total of 22 patients were enrolled, and 384 striae were measured. In per protocol analysis mean striae depth was decreased by 21.64%, observed at 6 months follow-up with the combined approach, compared to an increase of 1.73% in the control group (P < 0.0001). No significant difference in striae width was observed between the treated or control quadrants. Global assessment by the physician who performed the treatment and by the patient both showed greater improved with the combination treatment compared to control areas (P = 0.004 and P = 0.01, respectively). A more homogeneous interlacing pattern and thicker collagen fibers with a decreased proportion of elastic fibers was observed after treatment. Fractional bipolar radiofrequency, combined with bipolar radiofrequency potentiated by infrared light, is an effective treatment of both immature and
Sajatovic, Martha; DiBiasi, Faith; Legacy, Susan N
Introduction Antipsychotics are recommended as first-line therapy for acute mania and maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder; however, published literature suggests their real-world use remains limited. Understanding attitudes toward these medications may help identify barriers and inform personalized therapy. This literature review evaluated patient and clinician attitudes toward the use of antipsychotics for treating bipolar disorder. Materials and methods A systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, and BIOSIS Previews identified English language articles published between January 1, 2000, and June 15, 2016, that reported attitudinal data from patients, health care professionals, or caregivers; treatment decision-making; or patient characteristics that predicted antipsychotic use for bipolar disorder. Results were analyzed descriptively. Results Of the 209 references identified, 11 met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated. These articles provided attitudinal information from 1,418 patients with bipolar disorder and 1,282 treating clinicians. Patients’ attitudes toward antipsychotics were generally positive. Longer duration of clinical stability was associated with positive attitudes. Implementation of psychoeducational and adherence enhancement strategies could improve patient attitudes. Limited data suggest clinicians’ perceptions of antipsychotic efficacy and tolerability may have the greatest impact on their prescribing patterns. Because the current real-world evidence base is inadequate, clinician attitudes may reflect a relative lack of experience using antipsychotics in patients with bipolar disorder. Conclusion Although data are very limited, perceived tolerability and efficacy concerns shape both patient and clinician attitudes toward use of antipsychotic drugs in bipolar disorder. Additional studies are warranted.
Kim, Y. C.; Cho, M. S.; Kim, S. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Lee, Y. G.; Kim, T. H.; Jung, S. R.
Insertion of methyl methacrylate polymer into newly reamed bony cavities has sometimes resulted in profound hypotension, cardiac arrest, or sudden death which are more common in patients with hemodynamic instability or hypovolemia. In paralysis agitans(Parkinson's disease), dramatic worsening of the disease often occurs when another illness or trauma accompanies it. And it is possible that chronic medication with levodopa can cause the loss of ability to support blood pressure. So, it involves some risk to use methyl methacrylate in chronic levodopa-treated paralysis agitans. We present a case of paralysis agitans who demonstrated profound hypotension immediately following insertion of methyl methacrylate polymer in spite of normovolemia and proper anesthetic management. PMID:7598821
Miklowitz, David J.; Alatiq, Yousra; Geddes, John R.; Goodwin, Guy M.; Williams, J. Mark G.
Suppression of negative thoughts has been observed under experimental conditions among patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) but has never been examined among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). Patients with BD (n = 36), patients with MDD (n = 20), and healthy controls (n = 20) completed a task that required unscrambling 6-word strings into 5-word sentences, leaving out 1 word. The extra word allowed the sentences to be completed in a negative, neutral, or “hyperpositive” (manic/goal-oriented) way. Participants completed the sentences under conditions of cognitive load (rehearsing a 6-digit number), reward (a bell tone), load and reward, or neither load nor reward. We hypothesized that patients with BD would engage in more active suppression of negative and hyperpositive thoughts than would controls, as revealed by their unscrambling more word strings into negative or hyperpositive sentences. Under conditions of load or reward and in the absence of either load or reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did controls. Under conditions of reward, patients with BD unscrambled more negative sentences than did patients with MDD. Patients with BD also reported more use of negative thought suppression than did controls. These group differences in negative biases were no longer significant when current mood states were controlled. Finally, the groups did not differ in the proportion of hyperpositive sentence completions in any condition. Thought suppression may provide a critical locus for psychological interventions in BD. PMID:20455608
Lee Mortensen, Gitte; Vinberg, Maj; Lee Mortensen, Steen; Balslev Jørgensen, Martin; Eberhard, Jonas
Approximately 20% of patients with bipolar disorder experience mixed states. Mixed states are associated with more comorbidity, poorer treatment response and prognosis, increased relapse rate, and decreased functioning. This study aimed to produce in-depth knowledge about bipolar patients' quality of life (QoL) and functioning related to mixed states. This study used qualitative research methods. A semi-structured interview guide based on a literature study was applied in interviews with 6 remitted bipolar I patients having experienced mixed states. A medical anthropological approach was applied to analyse the data. Participants described mixed states as worse than other bipolar disorder states and their residual symptoms were prolonged. Mixed states affected the functioning of patients in key life domains such as self-esteem, family, love and social life, physical well-being, and working capability. Mixed states may severely affect the QoL and functioning of bipolar patients. Our results indicate that improving these should be a main goal of patient treatment. With an aim of adequately identifying and treating mixed states, our findings highlight the need for knowledge about this particularly severe expression of bipolar disorder. These results should be confirmed in a larger sample of patients with varying socioeconomic status.
Joe, Soohyun; Joo, Yeonho
Bipolar patients often experience subjective symptoms even if they do not have active psychotic symptoms in their euthymic state. Most studies about subjective symptoms are conducted in schizophrenia, and there are few studies involving bipolar patients. We examined the nature of the subjective symptoms of bipolar patients in their euthymic state, and we also compared it to that of schizophrenia and normal control. Thirty bipolar patients, 25 patients with schizophrenia, and 21 normal control subjects were included. Subjective symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Frankfurter Beschwerde Fragebogen (K-FBF) and the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL90-R). Euthymic state was confirmed by assessing objective psychopathology with the Positive and Negative Syndrome scale of Schizophrenia (PANSS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). K-FBF score was significantly higher in bipolar patients than in normal controls, but similar to that in schizophrenia patients (F=5.86, p=0.004, R2=2033.6). In contrast, SCL90-R scores did not differ significantly among the three groups. Euthymic bipolar patients experience subjective symptoms that are more confined to cognitive domain. This finding supports the hypothesis that subtle cognitive impairments persists in euthymic bipolar patients. PMID:18303193
Guo, Jeff J; Keck, Paul E; Li, Hong; Patel, Nick C
This study assessed costs among patients with bipolar disorder for treatment related to bipolar disorder and to comorbid conditions. Risk factors associated with costs were also assessed. Data (January 1998 to December 2002) were from a seven-state Medicaid managed care claims database for 13,471 patients who had received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, most of whom received medications. Each medical claims cost was adjusted by the medical component of the Consumer Price Index as the dollar value in 2002. In a Poisson regression analysis, treatment costs per enrollment month were regressed on patient's age, gender, medications, and clinical comorbidities. Bipolar disorder treatment accounted for 30% of costs and comorbid disorders for 70%. Key cost components were inpatient care (35%), outpatient care (16%), prescriptions (13%), and physician encounters (11%). Patients with bipolar disorder received a variety of medications: lithium, 13%; anticonvulsants, 35%; second-generation antipsychotics, 24%; first-generation antipsychotics, 22%; and antidepressants, 42%. Compared with the costs for patients receiving antidepressants alone or no medication, the high costs for bipolar disorder treatment and overall treatment were associated with use of second-generation antipsychotics (rate ratio [RR]=1.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.58-1.86 and RR=1.26, CI=1.18-1.34, respectively) and use of anticonvulsants (RR=1.37, CI=1.26-1.48 and RR=1.06, CI=1.00-1.12). Higher costs were significantly associated with key comorbidities, such as drug abuse (RR=1.58, CI=1.47-1.70), cerebral-vascular disease (RR=1.72, CI=1.51-1.94), ischemic heart disease (RR=1.47, CI=1.30-1.66), and hypertension (RR=1.44, CI=1.33-1.56). Cost-containment efforts may need to manage or prevent key comorbidities among patients with bipolar disorder and to evaluate the association between antipsychotic use and treatment outcomes and hospital services.
Colom, Francesc; Vieta, Eduard; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Torrent, Carla; Reinares, María; Goikolea, José Manuel; Benabarre, Antonio; Comes, Mercè
The co-occurrence of personality and bipolar disorders is quite common. Bipolar patients with personality disorders have been described as having poorer outcome than 'pure' bipolar patients. However, from a combined-approach point of view, a little has been done to improve the course of these patients. Psychoeducation has shown its efficacy in the prevention of relapses in the bipolar population but, to date, no data is available on its efficacy in the management of bipolar patients with personality disorders. The present study shows a subanalysis from a single-blind randomized prospective clinical trial on the efficacy of group psychoeducation in bipolar I patients. Bipolar patients fulfilling DSM-IV criteria for any personality disorder were randomized to either psychoeducational treatment or a non-structured intervention. There were 22 patients in the control group and 15 in the psychoeducation group. All patients received naturalistic pharmacological treatment as well. The follow-up phase comprised 2 years where all patients continued receiving naturalistic treatment without psychological intervention and were assessed monthly for several outcome measures. At the end of the follow-up phase (2 years), a 100% of control group patients fulfilled criteria for recurrence versus a 67% in the psychoeducation group (p < 0.005). Patients included in the psychoeducation group had a higher time-to-relapse and a significantly lower mean number of total, manic and depressive relapses. No significant differences regarding the number of patients who required hospitalization were found but the mean duration of days spent in the hospitalization room was significantly higher for the patients included in the control group. Psychoeducation may be a useful intervention for bipolar patients with comorbid personality disorders. Further studies should address the efficacy of specifically tailored interventions for this common type of patients.
Latalova, Klara; Ociskova, Marie; Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Sedlackova, Zuzana
Prejudicial beliefs, emotions, and behaviours cause discrimination against people labeled as mentally ill. This stigmatization is sometimes internalized by the patients, leading to self-stigmatization. Specific features and impacts of stigmatization and self-stigmatization in patients with bipolar illness are the subjects of this review. Studies were identified through PUBMED, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "stigma", "self-stigma" psychoeducation", "psychotherapy", "psychosocial treatment". Key articles listed in reference lists were searched. Considerable recent evidence indicates that bipolar patients and their families are stigmatized, and that this stigmatization affects their quality of life as well as social functioning. The severity of stigmatization in bipolar disorder is greater than that in people with depression. There is also evidence of self-stigmatization which further decreases the quality of life. Stigmatization and self-stigmatization were shown to be one of the barriers that delay or prevent effective treatment, and thus exert adverse effects on the outcomes of bipolar disorder. Stigma affects the experience of illness as well as social functioning in patients with bipolar disorder. The impact of stigma on the lives and treatment outcomes of patients with bipolar disorder mandates intensive effort of mental health research and policy to address this problem. Much has been done against the stigmatization of the mentally ill. But the fight against stigma remains a fundamental objective of health programs for mental health.
Smith, Daniel J; Griffiths, Emily; Kelly, Mark; Hood, Kerry; Craddock, Nick; Simpson, Sharon A
Bipolar disorder is complex and can be difficult to diagnose. It is often misdiagnosed as recurrent major depressive disorder. We had three main aims. To estimate the proportion of primary care patients with a working diagnosis of unipolar depression who satisfy DSM-IV criteria for bipolar disorder. To test two screening instruments for bipolar disorder (the Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) and Bipolar Spectrum Diagnostic Scale (BSDS)) within a primary care sample. To assess whether individuals with major depressive disorder with subthreshold manic symptoms differ from those individuals with major depressive disorder but with no or little history of manic symptoms in terms of clinical course, psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Two-phase screening study in primary care. Three estimates of the prevalence of undiagnosed bipolar disorder were obtained: 21.6%, 9.6% and 3.3%. The HCL-32 and BSDS questionnaires had quite low positive predictive values (50.0 and 30.1% respectively). Participants with major depressive disorder and with a history of subthreshold manic symptoms differed from those participants with no or little history of manic symptoms on several clinical features and on measures of both psychosocial functioning and quality of life. Between 3.3 and 21.6% of primary care patients with unipolar depression may have an undiagnosed bipolar disorder. The HCL-32 and BSDS screening questionnaires may be more useful for detecting broader definitions of bipolar disorder than DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorder. Subdiagnostic features of bipolar disorder are relatively common in primary care patients with unipolar depression and are associated with a more morbid course of illness. Future classifications of recurrent depression should include dimensional measures of bipolar symptoms.
Wooderson, Sarah C.; Gallagher, Peter; Watson, Stuart
Background Testosterone influences well-being, mood and cognition and may play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Aim To examine testosterone levels in patients with bipolar disorder compared with healthy controls. Method We examined baseline total testosterone levels and current depression scores in male and female patients with bipolar disorder and mild to moderate depression and healthy controls. Results A significant interaction between diagnosis and gender was observed (F(2,97)=9.791, P=0.002). Testosterone levels were significantly lower for male patients with bipolar disorder compared with male controls (P=0.001). Women with bipolar disorder had significantly higher testosterone levels than female controls (P=0.03). Conclusions Disturbances in testosterone levels may represent an important neurobiological abnormality in bipolar disorder and may differ by gender. If these findings are confirmed, the use of gender appropriate treatment strategies for the normalisation of testosterone levels in bipolar disorder depression should be further explored. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703738
Knowles, Rebecca; Tai, Sara; Jones, Steven H; Highfield, Julie; Morriss, Richard; Bentall, Richard P
Changes in beliefs about the self are a central feature of bipolar disorder, with grandiose self-belief common in mania and low self-esteem evident in periods of depression. We investigated whether unstable self-esteem is a characteristic of bipolar disorder in remission. We compared 18 patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder in remission, 16 patients with unipolar disorder in remission, and 19 healthy controls. The primary measure was a diary kept for one week and completed twice each day, measuring self-esteem and positive and negative affect. We also administered Winters and Neale's (J Abnorm Psychol 1985; 94: 282-290) implicit measure of attributional style. Whereas mean levels of self-esteem and affect were not abnormal in the remitted bipolar patients, the bipolar patients showed strong fluctuations in these processes. In common with the unipolar patients, they also showed a pessimistic attributional style on the Pragmatic Inference Task (PIT). Instability of self-esteem and affect is present in bipolar patients, even when their symptoms are in remission, and has previously been found in people at genetic risk of the disorder. It may be a marker of vulnerability to the disorder.
Penttilä, Jani; Paillère-Martinot, Marie-Laure; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Ringuenet, Damien; Wessa, Michèle; Houenou, Josselin; Gallarda, Thierry; Bellivier, Frank; Galinowski, André; Bruguière, Pascale; Pinabel, François; Leboyer, Marion; Olié, Jean-Pierre; Duchesnay, Edouard; Artiges, Eric; Mangin, Jean-François; Cachia, Arnaud
Analysis of cortical folding may provide insight into neurodevelopment deviations, which, in turn, can predispose to depression that responds particularly poorly to medications. We hypothesized that patients with treatment-resistant depression would exhibit measurable alterations in cortical folding. We computed hemispheric global sulcal indices (g-SIs) in T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images obtained from 76 patients and 70 healthy controls. We separately searched for anatomic deviations in patients with bipolar disorder (16 patients with treatment-resistant depression, 25 with euthymia) and unipolar depression (35 patients with treatment-resistant depression). Compared with healthy controls, both groups of patients with treatment-resistant depression exhibited reduced g-SIs: in the right hemisphere among patients with bipolar disorder and in both hemispheres among those with unipolar depression. Patients with euthymic bipolar disorder did not differ significantly from depressed patients or healthy controls. Among patients with bipolar disorder who were taking lithium, we found positive correlations between current lithium dose and g-SIs in both hemispheres. We cannot estimate the extent to which the observed g-SI reductions are linked to treatment resistance and to what extent they are state-dependent. Furthermore, we cannot disentangle the impact of medications from that of the affective disorder. Finally, there is interindividual variation and overlap of g-SIs among patients and healthy controls that need to be considered when interpreting our results. Reduced global cortical folding surface appears to be characteristic of patients with treatment-resistant depression, either unipolar or bipolar. In patients with bipolar disorder, treatment with lithium may modify cortical folding surface.
Shan, Gan Wei; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd; Omar, Marhanis Salihah
Lithium has been the gold standard in treating bipolar disorder. In recent years, the use of lithium seems to be diminished although it is well tolerated among the bipolar disorder patients. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of lithium as well as to determine factors associated with lithium response among patient with bipolar disorder. A retrospective study was done in a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia which included 47 bipolar disorder patients that were prescribed with lithium maintenance therapy in the time frame of January 2009 until December 2013. Of all the baseline characteristics tested, only psychotic feature differentiated lithium monotherapy group and combination therapy group significantly (χ(2)=4.732, p=0.03). When compared to period before lithium maintenance, all outcome measures (i.e. annual relapse rate, proportion time spent ill and duration of mood episode) showed significant improvement after lithium maintenance in both treatment groups. Lithium discontinuation only occurred in five cases of adverse effects. Predominant depressive mood episode before lithium maintenance (OR=0.159, p=0.033) and first euthymic interval after lithium maintenance (OR=1.109, p=0.047) significantly predicted lithium response. Lithium significantly reduced the frequency and time spent in relapse in patients with bipolar disorder. Predominant depressive mood polarity before lithium maintenance and longer first euthymic interval after lithium maintenance had been identified to predict lithium response significantly.
Bobo, William V.; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Ketter, Terence A.; Brody, Benjamin D.; Kinrys, Gustavo; Kemp, David E.; Shelton, Richard C.; McElroy, Susan L.; Sylvia, Louisa G.; Kocsis, James H.; McInnis, Melvin G.; Friedman, Edward S.; Singh, Vivek; Tohen, Mauricio; Bowden, Charles L.; Deckersbach, Thilo; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Thase, Michael E.; Nierenberg, Andrew A.; Rabideau, Dustin J.; Schoenfeld, David A.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Kamali, Masoud
Background Little is known about the longer-term effects of adjunctive benzodiazepines on symptom response during treatment in patients with bipolar disorders. Methods The study sample consisted of 482 patients with bipolar I or II disorder enrolled in a 6-month, randomized, multi-site comparison of lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Changes in clinical measures (BISS total and subscales, CGI-BP, and CGI-Efficacy Index) were compared between participants who did and did not receive benzodiazepine treatment at baseline or during follow-up. Selected outcomes were also compared between patients who did and did not initiate benzodiazepines during follow-up using stabilized inverse probability weighted analyses. Results Significant improvement in all outcome measures occurred within each benzodiazepine exposure group. Benzodiazepine users (at baseline or during follow-up) experienced significantly less improvement in BISS total, BISS irritability, and CGI-BP scores than did benzodiazepine non-users. There were no significant differences in these measures between patients who did and did not initiate benzodiazepines during follow-up in the weighted analyses. There was no significant effect of benzodiazepine use on any outcome measure in patients with comorbid anxiety or substance use disorders. Limitations This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized effectiveness trial that was not designed to address differential treatment response according to benzodiazepine use. Conclusions Adjunctive benzodiazepines may not significantly affect clinical outcome in lithium- or quetiapine-treated patients with bipolar I or II disorder over 6 months, after controlling for potential confounding factors. PMID:24751304
Bobo, William V; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Ketter, Terence A; Brody, Benjamin D; Kinrys, Gustavo; Kemp, David E; Shelton, Richard C; McElroy, Susan L; Sylvia, Louisa G; Kocsis, James H; McInnis, Melvin G; Friedman, Edward S; Singh, Vivek; Tohen, Mauricio; Bowden, Charles L; Deckersbach, Thilo; Calabrese, Joseph R; Thase, Michael E; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Rabideau, Dustin J; Schoenfeld, David A; Faraone, Stephen V; Kamali, Masoud
Little is known about the longer-term effects of adjunctive benzodiazepines on symptom response during treatment in patients with bipolar disorders. The study sample consisted of 482 patients with bipolar I or II disorder enrolled in a 6-month, randomized, multi-site comparison of lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Changes in clinical measures (BISS total and subscales, CGI-BP, and CGI-Efficacy Index) were compared between participants who did and did not receive benzodiazepine treatment at baseline or during follow-up. Selected outcomes were also compared between patients who did and did not initiate benzodiazepines during follow-up using stabilized inverse probability weighted analyses. Significant improvement in all outcome measures occurred within each benzodiazepine exposure group. Benzodiazepine users (at baseline or during follow-up) experienced significantly less improvement in BISS total, BISS irritability, and CGI-BP scores than did benzodiazepine non-users. There were no significant differences in these measures between patients who did and did not initiate benzodiazepines during follow-up in the weighted analyses. There was no significant effect of benzodiazepine use on any outcome measure in patients with comorbid anxiety or substance use disorders. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized effectiveness trial that was not designed to address differential treatment response according to benzodiazepine use. Adjunctive benzodiazepines may not significantly affect clinical outcome in lithium- or quetiapine-treated patients with bipolar I or II disorder over 6 months, after controlling for potential confounding factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
García, Saínza; Martínez-Cengotitabengoa, Mónica; López-Zurbano, Saioa; Zorrilla, Iñaki; López, Purificación; Vieta, Eduard; González-Pinto, Ana
Abstract Antipsychotics are the drugs prescribed to treat psychotic disorders; however, patients often fail to adhere to their treatment, and this has a severe negative effect on prognosis in these kinds of illnesses. Among the wide range of risk factors for treatment nonadherence, this systematic review covers those that are most important from the point of view of clinicians and patients and proposes guidelines for addressing them. Analyzing 38 studies conducted in a total of 51,796 patients, including patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder, we found that younger age, substance abuse, poor insight, cognitive impairments, low level of education, minority ethnicity, poor therapeutic alliance, experience of barriers to care, high intensity of delusional symptoms and suspiciousness, and low socioeconomic status are the main risk factors for medication nonadherence in both types of disorder. In the future, prospective studies should be conducted on the use of personalized patient-tailored treatments, taking into account risk factors that may affect each individual, to assess the ability of such approaches to improve adherence and hence prognosis in these patients. PMID:27307187
Janowsky, D S; Morter, S; Hong, L; Howe, L
The current study was designed to compare personality differences between bipolar patients and unipolar depressed patients, as evaluated on the Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). A group of bipolar and a group of unipolar depressed patients filled out the MBTI, the TPQ, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the CAGE questionnaire. The two groups were compared with each other as to responses on the above surveys, and subgroups of bipolar depressed and bipolar patients with manic symptoms were also compared. Bipolar patients were found to be significantly more extroverted (p = 0.004) and less judging (p = 0.007) on the MBTI. They were significantly more novelty seeking (p = 0.004) and less harm avoidant (p = 0.002) on the TPQ. Of the above differences, only the TPQ harm avoidance scale appeared strongly linked to the patients' level of depression. Significant differences in personality exist between bipolar disorder and unipolar depressed patients.
Baek, Ji Hyun; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Kinrys, Gustavo
Patients with bipolar disorder frequently continue to experience residual anxiety and insomnia between mood episodes. In real-world practice, patients increasingly self-prescribe alternative medicines. We reviewed case reports, open-label, and placebo-controlled trials investigating the use of herbal medicines to treat anxiety and insomnia, and discussed their potential applications for bipolar disorder. Eleven herbal medicines that have been studied in human subjects are included in this review. Mechanisms of action, efficacy, side effects, and drug-drug interactions are discussed. Based on currently available evidence, valerian seems to be the most promising candidate for insomnia and anxiety in bipolar disorder. Adjunctive herbal medicines may have the potential to alleviate these symptoms and improve the outcomes of standard treatment, despite limited evidence. Physicians need to have a more in-depth understanding of the evidence of benefits, risks, and drug interactions of alternative treatments. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.
Because many patients with bipolar disorder seek treatment in primary care practices, physicians in these settings need to be able to diagnose bipolar disorder and common psychiatric and medical comorbidities and to initiate and manage treatment. Unfortunately, bipolar disorder is often underrecognized. The most common symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder are depressive, but these patients may also have anxiety, mood swings, sleep problems, irritability, difficulty concentrating, relationship issues, alcohol- or drug-related problems, and infections. Social and family history and screening tools can help clarify diagnosis. The goal of treatment should be recovery, but periodic relapse and medication nonadherence should be expected. Primary care physicians should decide what level of intervention their practices can support. To manage these patients effectively, practices may need to train office staff, set up monitoring and follow-up systems, establish links with referral and community support services, develop therapeutic alliances with patients, and provide psychoeducation for patients and significant others. Receiving comprehensive psychiatric and medical care and support can be life-changing for patients with bipolar disorder and their families. PMID:20628500
Kadri, Nadia; Mouchtaq, Nadia; Hakkou, Farid; Moussaoui, Driss
The Ramadan month represents a valuable opportunity to test the hypothesis that the course of the illness of bipolar patients can be disrupted by the change in social rhythm which usually occurs during this month. The objectives of this study were to follow up the mood state and blood lithium level of fasting Muslim bipolar patients who had been on lithium therapy for at least 3 months, and were clinically stable before being included in the study. Twenty bipolar patients were enrolled during the month of Ramadan in 1997. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was according to ICD-10 criteria. Patients were assessed during the week before Ramadan, the second and the fourth weeks of the fasting month and the first week after its end, with the Hamilton Depression and Bech-Rafaelsen scales. The plasma concentration of lithium was also assessed. The main finding of the study was that 45% of the patients relapsed, 70% during the second week and the remaining patients at the end of Ramadan. These relapses were not related to plasma concentration of lithium. Most of the relapses were manic (71.4 %). Patients who did not relapse had insomnia and anxiety during the second and third weeks of the study. Side-effects of lithium increased and were observed in 48% of the sample, mostly dryness of the mouth with thirst and tremor. The result of this pilot study indicates that the Ramadan month may disrupt the mood state of bipolar patients. More studies are needed to confirm this observation and to evaluate the validity of the Ramadan model to study the impact of social rhythms on bipolar patients.
Goffin, Kathryn C; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Holtzman, Jessica N; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Ketter, Terence A
Suicide attempts are common in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and consistently associated with female gender and certain unfavorable BD illness characteristics. Findings vary, however, regarding effects of BD illness subtype and yet other illness characteristics upon prior suicide attempt rates. We explored the effects of demographics and BD illness characteristics upon prior suicide attempt rates in patients stratified by BD illness subtype (i.e., with bipolar I disorder (BDI) versus bipolar II disorder (BDII)). Outpatients referred to the Stanford BD Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD Affective Disorders Evaluation. Rates of prior suicide attempt were compared in patients with and without diverse demographic and BD illness characteristics stratified by BD subtype. Among 494 BD outpatients (mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years; 58.3% female; 48.6% BDI, 51.4% BDII), overall prior suicide attempt rates in were similar in BDI versus BDII patients, but approximately twice as high in BDI (but not BDII) patients with compared to without lifetime eating disorder, and in BDII (but not BDI) patients with compared to without childhood BD onset. In contrast, current threshold-level suicidal ideation and lifetime alcohol use disorder robustly but less asymmetrically increased prior suicide attempt risk across BD subtypes. American tertiary bipolar disorder clinic referral sample, cross-sectional design. Further studies are needed to assess the extent to which varying clinical characteristics of samples of patients with BDI and BDII could yield varying prior suicide attempt rates in patients with BDI versus BDII. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Obaidi, Naowras; Mitchison, Timothy J; Crews, Craig M; Mayer, Thomas U
The genetic integrity of each organism is intimately tied to the correct segregation of its genome during mitosis. Insights into the underlying mechanisms are fundamental for both basic research and the development of novel strategies to treat mitosis-relevant diseases such as cancer. Due to their fast mode of action, small molecules are invaluable tools to dissect mitosis. Yet, there is a great demand for novel antimitotic compounds. We performed a chemical genetic suppression screen to identify compounds that restore spindle bipolarity in cells treated with Monastrol, an inhibitor of the mitotic kinesin Eg5. We identified one compound-MAC1-that rescued spindle bipolarity in cells lacking Eg5 activity. Mechanistically, MAC1 induces the formation of additional microtubule nucleation centers, which allows kinesin Kif15-dependent bipolar spindle assembly in the absence of Eg5 activity. Thus, our chemical genetic suppression screen revealed novel unexpected insights into the mechanism of spindle assembly in mammalian cells.
Fagiolini, Andrea; Frank, Ellen; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; Cheng, Yu; Curet, David E; Friedman, Edward S; Gildengers, Ariel G; Goldstein, Tina; Grochocinski, Victoria J; Houck, Patricia R; Stofko, Mary G; Thase, Michael E; Thompson, Wesley K; Turkin, Scott R; Kupfer, David J
Introduction We developed models of Specialized Care for Bipolar Disorder (SCBD) and a psychosocial treatment [Enhanced Clinical Intervention (ECI)] that is delivered in combination with SCBD. We investigated whether SCBD and ECI + SCBD are able to improve outcomes and reduce health disparities for young and elderly individuals, African Americans, and rural residents with bipolar disorder. Method Subjects were 463 individuals with bipolar disorder, type I, II, or not otherwise specified, or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar type, randomly assigned to SCBD or ECI + SCBD and followed longitudinally for a period of one to three years at four clinical sites. Results Both treatment groups significantly improved over time, with no significant differences based on age, race, or place of residence, except for significantly greater improvement among elderly versus adult subjects. Improvement in quality of life was greater in the ECI + SCBD group. Of the 299 participants who were symptomatic at study entry, 213 achieved recovery within 24 months, during which 86 of the 213 subjects developed a new episode. No significant difference was found for race, place of residence, or age between the participants who experienced a recurrence and those who did not. However, the adolescent patients were less likely than the adult and elderly patients to experience a recurrence. Conclusion This study demonstrated the effectiveness of SCBD and the additional benefit of ECI independent of age, race, or place of residence. It also demonstrated that new mood episodes are frequent in individuals with bipolar disorder who achieve recovery and are likely to occur in spite of specialized, guideline-based treatments. PMID:19500091
Sanchez-Moreno, Jose; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard
Traditionally, functional impairment has received little attention in bipolar disorder, despite the fact that many patients experience significant impairments in daily life. In the last decade, research has changed its focus from clinical remission to functional recovery in bipolar patients as a priority. A literature review of this topic will allow us provide an overview of the relevance of functional impairment as well as the potential factors that can predict or contribute to low functioning in bipolar disorder (BD). Treatment approaches should consider not only euthymia as a goal but also cognitive and functional improvement of patients with such a complex disorder. Functional remediation and psychoeducation among psychological interventions may help to enhance functioning. The combination of cognitive enhancers and cognitive/functional remediation programs may help in improving cognitive and functional impairments. Early interventions are essential to prevent cognitive deficits and disability.
Wollenhaupt-Aguiar, Bianca; Pfaffenseller, Bianca; Chagas, Vinicius de Saraiva; Castro, Mauro A A; Passos, Ives Cavalcante; Kauer-Sant’Anna, Márcia; Kapczinski, Flavio
Background: Increased inflammatory markers and oxidative stress have been reported in serum among patients with bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of this study is to assess whether biochemical changes in the serum of patients induces neurotoxicity in neuronal cell cultures. Methods: We challenged the retinoic acid-differentiated human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells with the serum of BD patients at early and late stages of illness and assessed neurite density and cell viability as neurotoxic endpoints. Results: Decreased neurite density was found in neurons treated with the serum of patients, mostly patients at late stages of illness. Also, neurons challenged with the serum of late-stage patients showed a significant decrease in cell viability. Conclusions: Our findings showed that the serum of patients with bipolar disorder induced a decrease in neurite density and cell viability in neuronal cultures. PMID:27207915
Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma
The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.
Harvey, Allison G.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Kaplan, Kate A.; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Neylan, Thomas C.; Li, Descartes; Ketter, Terence A.; Buysse, Daniel J.
Objective To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Method Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder–specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. Results During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. Conclusions CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder–specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. Public Health Significance This study suggests that an intervention to improve sleep and circadian functioning reduces risk of relapse and improves sleep and overall functioning among individuals who meet diagnostic criteria for bipolar disorder. PMID:25622197
Even, Christian; Richard, Hugues; Thuile, Jacques; Friedman, Serge; Rouillon, Frédéric
We aimed to assess the participation rate and predictive factors of participation in psychoeducation programs for euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. Ninety-five consecutive euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder treated with lithium were recruited in a university department of psychiatry. The participants and nonparticipants in a program of psychoeducation were compared for sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological characteristics. According to univariate statistics, a younger age, a higher education level, a shorter duration of illness, a better initial knowledge about lithium, and a less external locus of control were predictive of participation in the program. A binary logistic regression model showed that an external locus of control was an independent predictor of participation. Among bipolar patients, the older, the less educated, those who have less knowledge about their treatment, and those with a more external locus of control were less likely to participate in hospital-based psychoeducation programs.
Rise, Ida Vikan; Haro, Josep Maria; Gjervan, Bjørn
Introduction Data specific to late-life bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. Current research is sparse and present guidelines are not adapted to this group of patients. Objectives We present a literature review on clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and cognitive impairment in patients with late-life BD. This review discusses common comorbidities that affect BD elders and how aging might affect cognition and treatment. Methods Eligible studies were identified in MedLine by the Medical Subject Headings terms “bipolar disorder” and “aged”. We only included original research reports published in English between 2012 and 2015. Results From 414 articles extracted, 16 studies were included in the review. Cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, type II diabetes, and endocrinological abnormalities were observed as highly prevalent. BD is associated with a high suicide risk. Bipolar elderly had an increased risk of dementia and performed worse on cognitive screening tests compared to age-matched controls across different levels of cognition. Despite high rates of medical comorbidity among bipolar elderly, a systematic under-recognition and undertreatment of cardiovascular disease have been suggested. Conclusion There was a high burden of physical comorbidities and cognitive impairment in late-life BD. Bipolar elderly might be under-recorded and undertreated in primary medical care, indicating that this group needs an adapted clinical assessment and specific clinical guidelines need to be established. PMID:27274256
Tan, Devran; Özerdem, Ayşegül; Güntekin, Bahar; Atagün, M Ilhan; Tülay, Elif; Karadağ, Figen; Başar, Erol
The effect of lithium on neurocognition is not still fully explored. Brain oscillatory activity is altered in bipolar disorder. We aimed to assess the oscillatory responses of euthymic bipolar patients and how they are affected by lithium monotherapy. Event-related oscillations in response to visual target stimulus during an oddball paradigm in 16 euthymic drug-free and 13 euthymic lithium-treated bipolar patients were compared with 16 healthy controls. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured for each subject's averaged beta (15-30 Hz) responses in the 0- to 300-ms time window over frontal (F3, Fz, F4), central (C3, Cz, C4), temporal (T7, T8), temporo-parietal (TP7, TP8), parietal (P3, Pz, P4), and occipital (O1, Oz, O2) areas. Patients under lithium monotherapy had significantly higher beta responses to visual target stimuli than healthy controls (P=.017) and drug-free patients (P=.015). The increase in beta response was observed at all electrode locations, however, the difference was statistically significant for the left (T7; P=.016) and right (T8; P=.031) temporal beta responses. Increased beta responses in drug-free patients and further significant increase in lithium-treated patients may be indicative of a core pathophysiological process of bipolar disorder and how it is affected by lithium. Whether the finding corresponds to lithium's corrective effect on the underlying pathology or to its neurocognitive side effect remains to be further explored. In either case, the finding is a sign that the oscillatory activity may be useful in tracking medication effect in bipolar disorder. © EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ECNS) 2014.
Miller, Thomas H
Bipolar disorder is a chronic mental health disorder that is frequently encountered in primary care. Many patients with depression may actually have bipolar disorder. The management of bipolar disorder requires proper diagnosis and awareness or referral for appropriate pharmacologic therapy. Patients with bipolar disorder require primary care management for comorbidities such as cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.
Bobes, Julio; Sáiz Ruiz, Jerónimo; Manuel Montes, José; Mostaza, José; Rico-Villademoros, Fernando; Vieta, Eduard
Patients with bipolar disorder have much higher physical morbidity and mortality rates than the general population. In addition to a higher mortality rate from suicide, these patients also have a higher prevalence of physical disorders. The aim of this consensus, promoted by the Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry in collaboration with the General Practitioners' Societies, was to establish practical recommendations on procedures for detection, prevention and intervention in the somatic diseases that coexist with bipolar disorder in order to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. The Spanish Societies of Psychiatry and Biological Psychiatry designated a scientific committee that selected 32 expert psychiatrists and 10 experts from other medical specialties. Working groups were formed for each specialty for the purpose of adapting the guidelines applied in the general population to patients with bipolar disorder. A systematic review of medical comorbidity and mortality in these patients was carried out and two multidisciplinary consensus meetings were held. The literature review revealed an increased risk of hypertension, obesity, smoking, pulmonary diseases, migraine and HIV infection among patients with bipolar disorder. There was also evidence of higher mortality rates from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and infections, as well as from suicide. The expert group reached a consensus on a series of basic measures to detect medical comorbidity applicable to the monitoring of these patients. The resulting recommendations will be accepted and disseminated by the promoting societies. The recommendations generated by the Spanish Consensus on the Physical Health of Patients with Bipolar disorder include the most important aspects for the improvement of the psychosocial functioning, quality of life and life expectancy of these patients. Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Psiquiatría and Sociedad Española de
Sajatovic, Martha; Al Jurdi, Rayan; Gildengers, Ariel; Greenberg, Rebecca L; Tenhave, Thomas; Bruce, Martha L; Mulsant, Benoit; Young, Robert C
Given the paucity of information available regarding standardized ratings of depression symptoms in bipolar manic states, and in particular those in older adults, we explored depression ratings in symptomatic participants in a multicenter study of treatment of bipolar I disorder in late life. Baseline data was obtained from the first 100 patients enrolled in an NIMH-funded, 9-week, randomized, double-blind RCT comparing treatment with lithium or valproate in patients of age 60 years and older with Type I Bipolar mania or hypomania. This multi-site study was conducted at six academic medical centers in the United States and enrolled inpatients and outpatients with a total Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score of 18 or greater. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). The criterion for at least moderate bipolar depressive symptoms was the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) Consensus Meeting definition of HAM-D 17 total score >20. Eleven percent of patients had mixed symptoms defined by depression scale severity according to ECNP criterion. In the overall sample, total scores on the two depression scales were highly correlated. Total YMRS scores of this mixed symptom group were similar to the remainder of the sample. These preliminary findings suggest that moderate to severe depressive symptoms occur in about one in ten bipolar manic elders. Future studies are needed to further evaluate symptom profiles, clinical correlates, and treatments for bipolar older adults with combined manic and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thomé, E S; Dargél, A A; Migliavacca, F M; Potter, W A; Jappur, D M C; Kapczinski, F; Ceresér, K M
The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of self-rated stigma and functioning in patients with bipolar disorder in South Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study. Sixty participants with bipolar disorder were recruited from an outpatient Bipolar Disorder Program. Experiences with and impact of perceived stigma were evaluated using the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences. Functional impairment was assessed with the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). Higher scores of self-perceived stigma were correlated with higher FAST scores, indicating more disability. After linear correlation analysis, current depressive symptoms, age at onset of treatment, age at diagnosis and functioning were correlated with self-perceived stigma. The study demonstrated a correlation between stigma and poor functioning in bipolar disorder. Perceived stigma is really important to individuals with bipolar disorder, both to how they experience their illness and to its results on functioning. Potential consequences of such results for mental health care professionals are discussed. Differential clinical features, sociocultural factors and the sample size limit the generalization of the present findings. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing.
Machado-Duque, Manuel Enrique; Alzate-Carvajal, Catalina; Zapata-Castañeda, Kevin; Machado-Alba, Jorge Enrique
Lithium is the drug of choice for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder. To define lithium therapeutic profile and adverse reactions to its use in patients with bipolar affective disorder in Colombia. We conducted an observational retrospective cohort study between January 1 and December 31, 2013, which included patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder treated with lithium carbonate in 25 Colombian cities; we evaluated socio-demographic variables, lithium dose, co-medication, drug interactions and adverse reactions. A multivariate analysis was done using SPSS 22.0. The 331 patients had an average age of 44.5 ± 13.9 years; 59.2% were women. The mean dose of lithium was 898 ± 294 mg/day; 22% received doses lower than recommended, and patients had received lithium for 38.0 ± 39.5 months (range: 12-159 months). Lithium levels in blood had been measured only in 13.5% of patients; 71.3% of them had received adjuvant therapy for bipolar disorder with other drugs, especially clozapine (16.6%) and valproic acid (16.6%). The main comorbidities were hypothyroidism (18.1%) and hypertension (12.7%); 390 potentially toxic drug interactions were found, and adverse reactions were reported in 1.2% of patients. A statistically significant association was found between a lower risk of combination therapy and receiving treatment in the cities of Bogotá (OR=0.4, p=0.025), Cartagena (OR=0.3, p=0.015) and Ibagué (OR=0.3, p=0.025). Lithium was generally used at recommended doses and intervals, but a significant percentage of patients received lower doses than those recommended, and it was not possible to compare with lithium levels in blood. Adverse reactions and blood lithium levels reporting should be improved in patients with bipolar disorder in Colombia.
Goretti, C; Cirilli, M; Soldati, D; Rizquallah, J; Marri, C; Musacchi, G; Guerra, A
The authors present 335 cases of medical fracture of the femoral neck in the elderly patient (mean age 80.5 years) treated by SEM type bipolar prosthesis. A total of 93 patients (28.3%) were followed-up for a total of 98 hips submitted to surgery (5 bilateral) after a mean period of 42 months, minimum 12 months, maximum 96. Clinical follow-up included these parameters: pain, movement, walking, according to Merle D'Aubigné. Radiographic follow-up consisted in standard views and maximum adduction and abduction. Pain was present in 49% of cases, although it did not significantly invalidate movement (quotients 6 and 5 in 96% of cases); in 60% of the cases there were problems with walking mostly due to the general conditions of the patient. Wear phenomena in the acetabulum were present in 32 hips (32.6%) with no correlation with clinical data. Dynamic x-rays showed that only 31% of the implants maintained intraprosthetic movement. What emerges from the study is the importance of adequate measurement of the prosthetic cupola to improve acetabular fit.
Cruz, Mario; Pincus, Harold Alan; Welsh, Deborah E; Greenwald, Devra; Lasky, Elaine; Kilbourne, Amy M
Objective Religion and spirituality are important coping strategies in depression but have been rarely studied within the context of bipolar disorder. The present study assessed the association between different forms of religious involvement and the clinical status of individuals treated for bipolar disorder. Methods A cross-sectional observation study of follow-up data from a large cohort study of patients receiving care for bipolar disorder (n = 334) at an urban Veterans Affairs mental health clinic was conducted. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between public (frequency of church attendance), private (frequency of prayer/meditation), as well as subjective forms (influence of beliefs on life) of religious involvement and mixed, manic, depressed, and euthymic states when demographic, anxiety, alcohol abuse, and health indicators were controlled. Results Multivariate analyses found significant associations between higher rates of prayer/meditation and participants in a mixed state [odds ratio (OR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10-1.52, chi square = 9.42, df = 14, p < 0.05], as well as lower rates of prayer/meditation and participants who were euthymic (OR = 0.84; 95% CI = 0.72-0.99, chi square = 4.60, df = 14, p < 0.05). Depression and mania were not associated with religious involvement. Conclusions Compared to patients with bipolar disorder in depressed, manic, or euthymic states, patients in mixed states have more active private religious lives. Providers should assess the religious activities of individuals with bipolar disorder in mixed states and how they may complement/deter ongoing treatment. Future longitudinal studies linking bipolar states, religious activities, and treatment-seeking behaviors are needed. PMID:20148868
Walker, Daniel J; DelBello, Melissa P; Landry, John; D'Souza, Deborah N; Detke, Holland C
We examined the efficacy of olanzapine/fluoxetine combination (OFC) in improving health-related quality of life (QoL) in the treatment of bipolar depression in children and adolescents. Patients aged 10-17 years with bipolar I disorder, depressed episode, baseline children's depression rating scale-revised (CDRS-R) total score ≥40, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ≤15, and YMRS-item 1 ≤ 2 were randomized to OFC (6/25-12/50 mg/day olanzapine/fluoxetine; n = 170) or placebo (n = 85) for up to 8 weeks of double-blind treatment. Patients and parents completed the revised KINDL questionnaire for measuring health-related QoL in children and adolescents (KINDL-R) at baseline and endpoint. The mean change in CDRS-R total and item scores were used to compare improvement in symptomatology in patients taking OFC and placebo. Tests were 2-sided using a Type I error cutoff of 0.05, and no adjustments for multiple comparisons were made. Baseline QoL as measured by the KINDL-R was substantially impaired relative to published norms for a healthy school-based sample. OFC-treated patients demonstrated an improvement over placebo at endpoint with respect to mean change from baseline in the patient-rated KINDL-R Self-esteem subscale score (p = 0.028), and in the parent KINDL-R ratings of emotional well-being (p = 0.020), Self-esteem (p = 0.030), and Family (p = 0.006). At endpoint, OFC-treated patients still had a lower QoL compared to the normative population. OFC showed significant improvement (p ≤ 0.05) versus placebo on the CDRS-R total score and on 7 of the 17 CDRS-R items. Patients aged 10-17 years with an acute episode of bipolar depression and their parents reported greater improvements (parents noticed improvements in more areas than did their offspring) on some aspects of QoL when treated with OFC compared with placebo. However, after 8 weeks of treatment, KINDL-R endpoint scores remained lower than those of the, presumably healthy
Harvey, Allison G; Soehner, Adriane M; Kaplan, Kate A; Hein, Kerrie; Lee, Jason; Kanady, Jennifer; Li, Descartes; Rabe-Hesketh, Sophia; Ketter, Terence A; Neylan, Thomas C; Buysse, Daniel J
To determine if a treatment for interepisode bipolar disorder I patients with insomnia improves mood state, sleep, and functioning. Alongside psychiatric care, interepisode bipolar disorder I participants with insomnia were randomly allocated to a bipolar disorder-specific modification of cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTI-BP; n = 30) or psychoeducation (PE; n = 28) as a comparison condition. Outcomes were assessed at baseline, the end of 8 sessions of treatment, and 6 months later. This pilot was conducted to determine initial feasibility and generate effect size estimates. During the 6-month follow-up, the CBTI-BP group had fewer days in a bipolar episode relative to the PE group (3.3 days vs. 25.5 days). The CBTI-BP group also experienced a significantly lower hypomania/mania relapse rate (4.6% vs. 31.6%) and a marginally lower overall mood episode relapse rate (13.6% vs. 42.1%) compared with the PE group. Relative to PE, CBTI-BP reduced insomnia severity and led to higher rates of insomnia remission at posttreatment and marginally higher rates at 6 months. Both CBTI-BP and PE showed statistically significant improvement on selected sleep and functional impairment measures. The effects of treatment were well sustained through follow-up for most outcomes, although some decline on secondary sleep benefits was observed. CBTI-BP was associated with reduced risk of mood episode relapse and improved sleep and functioning on certain outcomes in bipolar disorder. Hence, sleep disturbance appears to be an important pathway contributing to bipolar disorder. The need to develop bipolar disorder-specific sleep diary scoring standards is highlighted. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Sarısoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Ömer Faruk; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Korkmaz, Işıl Zabun; Öztürk, Arif; Akkaya, Derya; Yılmaz, Sercan; Böke, Ömer; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat
The aim of this study was to determine characteristics of internalized stigma and intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenia patients and to compare characteristics of intimate relations in bipolar and schizophrenia patients with or without internalized stigma. A total of 228 volunteers were included, 119 patients with bipolar disorder and 109 with schizophrenia. Schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patients were compared in terms of internalized stigma and intimate relations characteristics. Bipolar and schizophrenia patients with and without internalized stigma were compared in terms of characteristics of intimate relations. Internalized stigma was determined in one in three schizophrenia and one in five bipolar patients. Stigma resistance and relational esteem in intimate relations scores were higher in bipolar patients. Relational anxiety/fear of relationship, relational monitoring and external relational control scores were higher in schizophrenia patients with internalized stigma compared to those without, while their relational satisfaction, relational esteem and relational assertiveness scores were lower. Relational anxiety/fear of relationship and relational monitoring scores were higher in bipolar patients with internalized stigma compared to those without, while their relational satisfaction scores were lower. Internalized stigma in schizophrenia patients is a well-known subject that has been investigated previously. The results of our study are significant in terms of showing that internalized stigma is also frequent in bipolar disorder patients, and not solely in schizophrenia patients. Stigma resistance is higher in bipolar disorder patients. Internalized stigma is correlated with intimate relations in both bipolar and schizophrenia patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bozikas, Vasilis P; Kosmidis, Mary H; Tonia, Thomy; Garyfallos, George; Focas, Kostas; Karavatos, Athanasios
The purpose of the present study was to investigate humor appreciation in a group of remitted patients with bipolar disorder. We examined 19 patients (8 men) with bipolar disorder I, currently remitted, and 22 (9 men) healthy controls, matched on age, education, and gender, on a computerized test comprising captionless cartoons, the Penn's Humor Appreciation Test (PHAT). Residual manic symptoms were evaluated with the Young Mania Rating Scale and residual depressive symptoms with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients with bipolar disorder performed worse than the healthy group on the PHAT, but this difference was not statistically significant. Performance on the PHAT did not significantly correlate with age of onset and duration of illness, or with residual manic or depressive symptoms measured by Young Mania Rating Scale and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, respectively. Humor appreciation, based on captionless cartoons, in bipolar disorder does not seem to be deficient at least during remission, suggesting that this high-order cognitive function may not be considered a trait deficit of the disorder.
Friedman, Kelli E; Applegate, Katherine; Portenier, Dana; McVay, Megan A
As many as 3% of bariatric surgery candidates are diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. 1) To describe differences between patients with bipolar spectrum disorders who are approved and not approved for surgery by the mental health evaluator and 2) to examine surgical outcomes of patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. Academic medical center, United States. A retrospective record review was conducted of consecutive patients who applied for bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2009. Patients diagnosed with bipolar spectrum disorders who were approved for surgery (n = 42) were compared with patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were not approved (n = 31) and to matched control surgical patients without a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n = 29) on a variety of characteristics and surgical outcomes. Of bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder who applied for surgery, 57% were approved by the psychologist and 48% ultimately had surgery. Patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were approved for surgery were less likely to have had a previous psychiatric hospitalization than those who were not approved for surgery. Bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder were less likely to attend follow-up care appointments 2 or more years postsurgery compared to matched patients without bipolar disorder. Among patients with available data, those with a bipolar spectrum disorder and matched patients had similar weight loss at 12 months (n = 21 for bipolar; n = 24 for matched controls) and at 2 or more years (mean = 51 mo; n = 11 for bipolar; n = 20 for matched controls). Patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder have a high rate of delay/denial for bariatric surgery based on the psychosocial evaluation and are less likely to attend medical follow-up care 2 or more years postsurgery. Carefully screened patients with bipolar disorder who engage in long-term follow-up care may benefit from bariatric
Practical strategies are available for primary care physicians to monitor psychiatric and medical outcomes as well as treatment adherence in patients with bipolar disorder. Current depressive symptoms can be assessed with tools like the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire or Beck Depression Inventory. Lifetime presence or absence of manic or hypomanic symptoms can be assessed using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ). These measures can be completed quickly by patients prior to appointments. Sensitivity of such ratings, particularly the MDQ, can be increased by having a significant other also rate the patient. Clinicians should also screen mood disorder patients for psychiatric comorbidities that are common in this population such as anxiety and substance use disorders. While patients with bipolar disorder may commonly be nonadherent with prescribed medication regimens, strategies that can help include having frank discussions with the patient, selecting medication collaboratively, adding psychotherapy with a psychoeducation element, monitoring appointment-keeping, using patient self-reports of medication-taking, enlisting the aid of significant others, and measuring plasma drug levels. Medical monitoring is needed to assess the safety and tolerability of psychotropic medications. All of the approved medications for bipolar disorder have at least 1 boxed warning for serious side effects, but are also associated with other common management-limiting side effects such as sedation, tremor, unsteadiness, restlessness, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, weight gain, and metabolic problems. Routine monitoring is particularly needed for obesity, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disorders, which lead to high rates of medical morbidity and mortality in patients with bipolar disorder. Monitoring protocols such as the one recommended by the American Diabetes Association for patients taking second-generation antipsychotics can be used for regular assessment
Di Giorgio Silva, Luiza Wanick; Cartier, Consuelo; Cheniaux, Elie; Novis, Fernanda; Silveira, Luciana Angélica; Cavaco, Paola Anaquim; de Assis da Silva, Rafael; Batista, Washington Adolfo; Tanaka, Guaraci Ken; Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis Fernando; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Ribeiro, Pedro; Velasques, Bruna
Bipolar disorder (BD) is characterized by an alternated occurrence between acute mania episodes and depression or remission moments. The objective of this study is to analyze the information processing changes in BP (Bipolar Patients) (euthymia, depression and mania) during the oddball paradigm, focusing on the P300 component, an electric potential of the cerebral cortex generated in response to external sensorial stimuli, which involves more complex neurophysiological processes related to stimulus interpretation. Twenty-eight bipolar disorder patients (BP) (17 women and 11 men with average age of 32.5, SD: 9.5) and eleven healthy controls (HC) (7 women and 4 men with average age of 29.78, SD: 6.89) were enrolled in this study. The bipolar patients were divided into 3 major groups (i.e., euthymic, depressive and maniac) according to the score on the Clinical Global Impression--Bipolar Version (CGI-BP). The subjects performed the oddball paradigm simultaneously to the EEG record. EEG data were also recorded before and after the execution of the task. A one-way ANOVA was applied to compare the P300 component among the groups. After observing P300 and the subcomponents P3a and P3b, a similarity of amplitude and latency between euthymic and depressive patients was observed, as well as small amplitude in the pre-frontal cortex and reduced P3a response. This can be evidence of impaired information processing, cognitive flexibility, working memory, executive functions and ability to shift the attention and processing to the target and away from distracting stimuli in BD. Such neuropsychological impairments are related to different BD symptoms, which should be known and considered, in order to develop effective clinical treatment strategies.
Seyhan, Nevra; Jasharllari, Lorenc; Keskin, Mustafa; Savacı, Nedim
Surgical correction of the congenital muscular torticollis (CMT) is recommended for patients with unsuccessful conservative treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of surgical release of congenital muscular torticollis in neglected cases. We retrospectively evaluated the data of our patients in terms of age, sex, clinical presentation, localization of the lesion, diagnostic tests, and additional abnormalities. The age at operation ranged from 6 to 23 years. Complete muscular release as determined by pre-operative and postoperative range of motion measurements was achieved in all of the patients by bipolar release. In this study, neck motion and head tilt showed marked improvement with surgical treatment in cases with CMT who were admitted to the hospital lately. Congenital muscular torticollis patients can benefit from surgical intervention above the age of 5. Bipolar release is an adequate and complication-free method.
Sajatovic, Martha; Valenstein, Marcia; Blow, Frederick; Ganoczy, Dara; Ignacio, Rosalinda
Nonadherence limits the effectiveness of medications among patients with bipolar disorder. This study examined adherence with lithium and anticonvulsant medication among patients with bipolar disorder receiving treatment in Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) settings. Patients receiving treatment in the VA for bipolar disorder during federal fiscal year 2003 (FY03) and receiving lithium or anticonvulsant medication were identified (N=44,637) by using the VA's National Psychosis Registry. Medication adherence was assessed by using the medication possession ratio (MPR) for lithium, valproate or divalproex, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine. Patients were categorized into three groups: fully adherent (MPR greater than .80), partially adherent (MPR from more than .50 to .80), and nonadherent (MPR less than or equal to .50). A slight majority of individuals (54.1%) were fully adherent, 24.5% were partially adherent, and 21.4% were nonadherent. Nonadherent individuals were more likely to be younger, unmarried, nonwhite, or homeless or to have diagnoses of a substance use disorder or fewer outpatient psychiatric visits in FY03. Adherence intensity was somewhat lower for valproate, compared with lithium or other anticonvulsants. Individuals given prescriptions for two agents to stabilize mood had better adherence than individuals given prescriptions for a single agent. Unexpectedly, in multivariate analyses adjusting for prior hospitalization, number of outpatient psychiatric visits, and a diagnosis of substance use disorder, poorer adherence was associated with decreased rates of hospitalization. Nearly one in two individuals given prescriptions for lithium or anticonvulsant medication to treat bipolar disorder did not take their medications as prescribed. The effectiveness of bipolar medication treatments is reduced by high rates of nonadherence in clinical settings.
Background Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic, recurrent and highly prevalent illness. Despite the need for correct diagnosis to allow proper treatment, studies have shown that reaching a diagnosis can take up to ten years due to the lack of recognition of the broader presentations of BD. Frequent comorbidities with other psychiatric disorders are a major cause of misdiagnosis and warrant thorough evaluation. Methods/Design ESPECTRA (Occurrence of Bipolar Spectrum Disorders in Eating Disorder Patients) is a single-site cross-sectional study involving a comparison group, designed to evaluate the prevalence of bipolar spectrum in an eating disorder sample. Women aged 18-45 years will be evaluated using the SCID-P and Zurich criteria for diagnosis and the HAM-D, YOUNG, SCI-MOODS, HCL-32, BIS-11, BSQ, WHOQoL and EAS instruments for rating symptoms and measuring clinical correlates. Discussion The classificatory systems in psychiatry are based on categorical models that have been criticized for simplifying the diagnosis and leading to an increase in comorbidities. Some dimensional approaches have been proposed aimed at improving the validity and reliability of psychiatric disorder assessments, especially in conditions with high rates of comorbidity such as BD and Eating Disorder (ED). The Bipolar Spectrum (BS) remains under-recognized in clinical practice and its definition is not well established in current diagnostic guidelines. Broader evaluation of psychiatric disorders combining categorical and dimensional views could contribute to a more realistic understanding of comorbidities and help toward establishing a prognosis. PMID:21489298
Krüger, Stephanie; Frasnelli, Johannes; Bräunig, Peter; Hummel, Thomas
Objective Some patients with bipolar disorder experience mood episodes following emotional life events, whereas others do not. There is evidence that orbitofrontal hypoactivity may be related to this, because the orbitofrontal cortex is involved in the regulation of emotional and behavioural responses to external events. The close anatomical and functional connection between the orbitofrontal cortex and olfactory processing suggests that patients with bipolar disorder and heightened emotional reactivity may exhibit altered olfactory function compared with patients with bipolar disorder who do not exhibit this sensitivity. Methods In this pilot study, olfactory function was assessed in patients with bipolar disorder and a history of event-triggered episodes (n = 7) and in patients with bipolar disorder without such a history (n = 9) at the Department of Psychiatry and the Taste and Smell Clinic of the University of Dresden, Germany. Each patient's bipolar disorder was in remission at study entry, and they were on monotherapy with mood stabilizers. Assessment included olfactory event-related potentials (ERP) and psychophysical tests for odour threshold, odour identification and olfactory quality discrimination. Results Odour thresholds were lower in patients with bipolar disorder and event-triggered episodes compared with the other patient group. In addition, patients with event-triggered episodes exhibited shorter N1 peak latencies of the olfactory ERP. Conclusions Our findings indicate disinhibition of orbitofrontal areas involved in the processing of emotional events in a subset of patients with bipolar illness. PMID:16862244
Atagün, Murat İlhan; Güntekin, Bahar; Tan, Devran; Tülay, Emine Elif; Başar, Erol
Previous resting-state electroencephalography studies have consistently shown that lithium enhances delta and theta oscillations in default mode networks. Cognitive task based networks differ from resting-state networks and this is the first study to investigate effects of lithium on evoked and event-related beta oscillatory responses of patients with bipolar disorder. The study included 16 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder on lithium monotherapy, 22 euthymic medication-free patients with bipolar disorder and 21 healthy participants. The maximum peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured for each subject's averaged beta responses (14-28 Hz) in the 0-300 ms time window. Auditory simple and oddball paradigm were presented to obtain evoked and event-related beta oscillatory responses. There were significant differences in beta oscillatory responses between groups (p=0.010). Repeated measures ANOVA revealed location (p=0.007), laterality X group (p=0.043) and stimulus X location (p=0.013) type effects. Serum lithium levels were correlated with beta responses. The lithium group had higher number of previous episodes, suggesting that patients of the lithium were more severe cases than patients of the medication-free group. Lithium stimulates neuroplastic cascades and beta oscillations become prominent during neuroplastic changes. Excessively enhanced beta oscillatory responses in the lithium-treated patients may be indicative of excessive activation of the neuron groups of the certain cognitive networks and dysfunctional GABAergic modulation during cognitive activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Persistent cognitive deficits in euthymic bipolar patients are now well documented. Indeed, several studies and meta-analyzes clearly establish the existence of cognitive deficits in specific domains: attention (in particular sustained attention), Memory (in particular verbal memory) and executive functions. The impact of cognitive deficits on patient's functioning is also well documented and their role appear to be more important than expected by comparison with the impairment related to thymic residual symptoms. The development of specific cognitive remediation strategies is therefore a major hope for improving the quality of remission and functional outcome. The aetiology of these deficits remains poorly understood. However, the implication of factors related to the biological/genetic vulnerability to bipolar disorder is likely well as a "neurotoxic" effects of major mood episodes, in particular acute manic episodes that seems to play a important role in the worsening of these deficits over time. This further stresses the importance maintenance strategies for long-term functional outcome.
Nilsson, Astrid Kristine Kahr; Jørgensen, Carsten René; Straarup, Krista Nielsen; Licht, Rasmus Wentzer
There is an unsettled debate on whether borderline personality disorder and bipolar disorder should be considered related or distinct. This study aimed to further the understanding of the similarities and differences between the 2 disorders by comparing borderline patients, bipolar patients, and controls in terms of various affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas. The sample consisted of 85 participants (31 borderline patients, 25 bipolar patients and 29 student controls) who completed 2 questionnaires: The Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire and the Young Schema Questionnaire. All of the patients were in remission from affective episodes. Compared to the bipolar patients and the controls, the borderline patients were characterized by significantly higher mean scores on most of the maladaptive self-schemas and affective temperaments. The bipolar patients differed significantly from controls by higher mean scores on the cyclothymic temperament and insufficient self-control. The study suggests that affective temperaments and maladaptive self-schemas are more severe in borderline patients than in bipolar patients. These findings point to phenomenological differences between the 2 disorders and therefore question their degree of kinship. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saito, Satoshi; Fujii, Kumiko; Ozeki, Yuji; Ohmori, Kenichi; Honda, Gyo; Mori, Harunobu; Kato, Kazuko; Kuroda, Jinichi; Aoki, Akiko; Asahi, Haruhiko; Sato, Hayato; Shimoda, Kazutaka; Akiyama, Kazufumi
Patients with bipolar disorder often suffer from cognitive impairment that significantly influences their functional outcome. However, it remains unknown whether lithium has a central role in cognition and functional outcome. We examined whether cognition and functional outcome were predicted by demographic and clinical variables, including the response to lithium, in lithium-treated patients with bipolar disorder. We evaluated 96 lithium-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 196 age- and-gender-matched healthy controls, using the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS). The patients were also assessed using the Social Functioning Scale (SFS) and "The Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder" (Alda) scale, which was evaluated as either a continuous measure of the total scale or a dichotomous criterion. Multiple regression analysis revealed two key findings: first, that the premorbid intelligence quotient, age, and number of mood episodes were predictors of the BACS composite score; and, second, that the BACS composite score, negative symptoms, and continuous measure on the total Alda scale (but not its dichotomy) predicted the total SFS score. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to confirm these findings, and additionally revealed that the Alda scale was significantly associated with negative symptoms and also the number of mood episodes, regardless of how it was evaluated. SEM delineated how demographic and clinical variables, cognitive performance, and response to lithium treatment were causally associated with, and converged on, social function. The putative role of the Alda scale for social function warrants further study. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Panischev, O. Yu; Demin, S. A.; Muhametshin, I. G.; Demina, N. Yu
In paper we apply the method based on the Flicker-Noise Spectroscopy (FNS) to determine the differences in frequency-phase synchronization of the cortical electroencephalographic (EEG) activities in patients with bipolar disorder (BD). We found that for healthy subjects the frequency-phase synchronization of EEGs from long-range electrodes was significantly better for BD patients. In BD patients a high synchronization of EEGs was observed only for short-range electrodes. Thus, the FNS is a simple graphical method for qualitative analysis can be applied to identify the synchronization effects in EEG activity and, probably, may be used for the diagnosis of this syndrome.
Paholpak, Suchat; Kongsakon, Ronnachai; Pattanakumjorn, Wasana; Kanokvut, Roongsang; Wongsuriyadech, Wiroj; Srisurapanont, Manit
Background The aim of the study was to determine in a clinical setting the risk factors for current anxiety disorder (AD) comorbidity among Thai patients with bipolar disorder (BD), being treated under the Thai Bipolar Disorder Registry Project (TBDR). Methods The TBDR was a multisite naturalistic study conducted at 24 psychiatric units (ie, at university, provincial mental, and government general hospitals) between February 2009 and January 2011. Participants were in- or out-patients over 18 years of age who were diagnosed with BD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Instruments used in this study included the Thai Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview version 5; Thai Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS); Thai Young Mania Rating Scale; Clinical Global Impression of Bipolar Disorder-Severity (CGI-BP-S), CGI-BP-S-mania, CGI-BPS-depression, and CGI-BP-S-overall BP illness; and the Thai SF-36 quality of life questionnaire. Results Among the 424 BD patients, 404 (95.3%) had BD type I. The respective mean ± standard deviation of age of onset of mood disturbance, first diagnosis of BD, and first treatment of BD was 32.0±11.9, 36.1±12.2, and 36.2±12.2 years. The duration of illness was 10.7±9.0 years. Fifty-three (12.5%) of the 424 participants had a current AD while 38 (9%) had a substance use disorder (SUD). The univariate analysis revealed 13 significant risks for current AD comorbidity, which the multivariate analysis narrowed to age at first diagnosis of BD (odds ratio =0.95, P<0.01), family history of SUD (odds ratio =2.18, P=0.02), and having a higher current MADRS score (odds ratio =1.11, P<0.01). Conclusion A diagnosis of AD comorbid with BD is suggested by early-age onset of BD together with a higher MADRS score and a family history of SUD. The likelihood of AD comorbidity decreases by 5% with each passing year; early-age onset of BD is a risk while later age onset is protective. Our
Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph W; Hellemann, Gerhard; Frye, Mark A; Sugar, Catherine A; McElroy, Susan L; Nolen, Willem A; Grunze, Heinz; Leverich, Gabriele S; Keck, Paul E; Zermeno, Melanie; Post, Robert M; Suppes, Trisha
The authors assessed gender differences in the proportion of clinical visits spent depressed, manic, or euthymic in patients with bipolar disorder. Data were analyzed from 711 patients with bipolar I or II disorder who were followed prospectively over 7 years (13,191 visits). The main outcome measures were the presence of symptoms of depression or of hypomania or mania, measured by the Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and the Young Mania Rating Scale. Data were analyzed using three separate repeated-measures regressions with a logistic link function to model the probability that an individual was depressed, manic, or euthymic. The models controlled for bipolar I or bipolar II diagnosis, rapid cycling, age, time in the study, comorbid anxiety disorders, and comorbid substance use disorders. In approximately half of visits, patients had depressive, manic, or hypomanic symptoms. The likelihood of having depressive symptoms was significantly greater for women than for men. This was accounted for by higher rates in women of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders, each of which was associated with increased rates of depression. All patient groups showed an increase in number of euthymic visits and a decrease in number of visits with depressive and manic symptoms with increased time in study. Bipolar patients spend a substantial proportion of their time ill. Significant gender differences exist, with women spending a greater proportion of their visits in the depressive pole. This finding appears to be related to the corresponding differences in rates of rapid cycling and anxiety disorders.
Yatham, Lakshmi N; Lecrubier, Yves; Fieve, Ronald R; Davis, Kimberly H; Harris, Soyna D; Krishnan, Anupama A
To determine the impact of acute depression on quality of life (QOL) in patients with bipolar I disorder and to compare these results with published data on QOL in patients with unipolar depression. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-36 in bipolar patients (n = 958) who had recently experienced an episode of acute bipolar depression and participated in a large randomized, double-blind, safety and efficacy trial. Seven studies that included SF-36 data from patients with unipolar depression were identified in the published literature and descriptive comparisons of SF-36 scores were made between the unipolar depression trials and this bipolar depression trial. There were 920 patients who completed the SF-36. Mean transformed scores, which could range from 0 to 100, were very low in bipolar depressed patients for the role-physical (36.7), vitality (22.4), social functioning (29.9), role-emotion (11.4), and mental health (31.0) subscales. Mean SF-36 scores for all subscales were significantly and inversely correlated (p < 0.0001) with the HAM-D indicating that patients with milder depressive symptoms had better QOL. Further, the mean SF-36 scores for the bipolar sample were consistently lower compared with published data on QOL in unipolar depression on four of the eight subscales: general health; social functioning; role-physical, and role-emotional. While both unipolar and bipolar depression have serious detrimental effects on patient QOL, our results suggest that some aspects of QOL may be worse in bipolar depression.
Toyoshima, Kuniyoshi; Fujii, Yutaka; Mitsui, Nobuyuki; Kako, Yuki; Asakura, Satoshi; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Vieta, Eduard; Kusumi, Ichiro
In Japan, there are currently no reliable rating scales for the evaluation of subjective cognitive impairment in patients with bipolar disorder. We studied the relationship between the Japanese version of the Cognitive Complaints in Bipolar Disorder Rating Assessment (COBRA) and objective cognitive assessments in patients with bipolar disorder. We further assessed the reliability and validity of the COBRA. Forty-one patients, aged 16-64, in a remission period of bipolar disorder were recruited from Hokkaido University Hospital in Sapporo, Japan. The COBRA (Japanese version) and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ), the gold standard in subjective cognitive assessment, were administered. A battery of neuropsychological tests was employed to measure objective cognitive impairment. Correlations among the COBRA, FCQ, and neuropsychological tests were determined using Spearman's correlation coefficient. The Japanese version of the COBRA had high internal consistency, good retest reliability, and concurrent validity-as indicated by a strong correlation with the FCQ. A significant correlation was also observed between the COBRA and objective cognitive measurements of processing speed. These findings are the first to demonstrate that the Japanese version of the COBRA may be clinically useful as a subjective cognitive impairment rating scale in Japanese patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Hwa; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Cho, Hyun-Sang
The ability to accurately perceive dominance in the social hierarchy is important for successful social interactions. However, little is known about dominance perception of emotional stimuli in bipolar disorder. The aim of this study was to investigate the perception of social dominance in patients with bipolar I disorder in response to six facial emotional expressions. Participants included 35 euthymic patients and 45 healthy controls. Bipolar patients showed a lower perception of social dominance based on anger, disgust, fear, and neutral facial emotional expressions compared to healthy controls. A negative correlation was observed between motivation to pursue goals or residual manic symptoms and perceived dominance of negative facial emotions such as anger, disgust, and fear in bipolar patients. These results suggest that bipolar patients have an altered perception of social dominance that might result in poor interpersonal functioning. Training of appropriate dominance perception using various emotional stimuli may be helpful in improving social relationships for individuals with bipolar disorder.
Xue, Hai Bo Haber; Liu, Li; Zhang, Hena; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamás
Background Despite the burden of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder in the Chinese population, country-specific data to guide practitioners regarding antipsychotic therapy are lacking. The primary aim of this systematic review was to examine evidence of the efficacy, effectiveness, and safety of olanzapine in Chinese populations. Methods A systematic literature search was conducted using databases covering international and Chinese core journals using search terms related to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, specified countries (People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, Taiwan), and olanzapine treatment. Following initial screening, inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to the search results to identify relevant studies from which data were extracted. Results A total of 489 publications were retrieved and 61 studies were identified for inclusion. Most studies were related to schizophrenia (n=54), with six studies related to bipolar disorder and one study related to both conditions. The quality of study methods and reporting in international journals was noticeably better than in Chinese language journals. Most studies included relatively small patient populations and were of short duration. The efficacy of olanzapine in Chinese populations was confirmed by multiple comparative and noncomparative studies that found statistically significant reductions in symptom measures in studies conducted for ≥6 weeks (schizophrenia) or ≥3 weeks (bipolar disorder). Findings related to effectiveness (treatment discontinuation, quality of life, and neurocognitive improvements) were generally consistent with those observed in non-Chinese populations. No new safety signals specific for Chinese populations were raised for olanzapine. Conclusion Chinese and non-Chinese populations with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with olanzapine display broadly similar responses. Differences between these populations, especially in relation to the relative efficacy of
Santosa, Claudia M; Strong, Connie M; Nowakowska, Cecylia; Wang, Po W; Rennicke, Courtney M; Ketter, Terence A
Associations between eminent creativity and bipolar disorders have been reported, but there are few data relating non-eminent creativity to bipolar disorders in clinical samples. We assessed non-eminent creativity in euthymic bipolar (BP) and unipolar major depressive disorder (MDD) patients, creative discipline controls (CC), and healthy controls (HC). 49 BP, 25 MDD, 32 CC, and 47 HC (all euthymic) completed four creativity measures yielding six parameters: the Barron-Welsh Art Scale (BWAS-Total, and two subscales, BWAS-Dislike and BWAS-Like), the Adjective Check List Creative Personality Scale (ACL-CPS), and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking--Figural (TTCT-F) and Verbal (TTCT-V) versions. Mean scores on these instruments were compared across groups. BP and CC (but not MDD) compared to HC scored significantly higher on BWAS-Total (45% and 48% higher, respectively) and BWAS-Dislike (90% and 88% higher, respectively), but not on BWAS-Like. CC compared to MDD scored significantly higher (12% higher) on TTCT-F. For all other comparisons, creativity scores did not differ significantly between groups. We found BP and CC (but not MDD) had similarly enhanced creativity on the BWAS-Total (driven by an increase on the BWAS-Dislike) compared to HC. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms of enhanced creativity and how it relates to clinical (e.g. temperament, mood, and medication status) and preclinical (e.g. visual and affective processing substrates) parameters.
Rosen, L N; Rosenthal, N E; Dunner, D L; Fieve, R R
Eighty-nine bipolar I patients were given a structured interview, the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia. Those who had experienced delusions or hallucinations at some time during the course of their illness were designated "psychotic," and those who had not were designated "nonpsychotic." The two groups were compared with regard to a number of outcome variables as well as age, age at first treatment, and duration of illness. The psychotic group had significantly poorer outcome in terms of social functioning. Although age, age at first treatment, and duration of illness distinguished between the two groups of patients, statistical analyses indicated that these variables did not account for differences in social outcome.
Zyto, Susan; Jabben, Nienke; Schulte, Peter F J; Regeer, Barbara J; Kupka, Ralph W
Bipolar disorder has been associated with a decrease in cognitive functioning affecting the functional outcome of patients independent of mood states. However, there have only been few attempts to investigate the effects of functional remediation for patients with bipolar disorder. The current study investigates the feasibility and effectiveness of a combined group and individual functional remediation program for bipolar disorder, including both patients and their caregivers. Twelve participants diagnosed with bipolar I disorder, and their caregivers, were treated with a combined group and individual functional remediation program. The feasibility of the program was evaluated by dropout rates and participants' evaluations of the program. The effectiveness of the program was explored through the assessment of functional outcome at baseline, immediately post-treatment, and follow-up three months later. The results indicate a high degree of satisfaction and a low dropout rate with the current program. Assessment of outcomes suggests improved functioning in the areas of autonomy and occupational functioning, evolving from baseline to follow-up. Due to a small sample size and the lack of a control group the results are preliminary. This relatively brief intervention offers a more tailor-made approach to functional remediation and shows good feasibility, acceptability and improvement of functioning in patients with bipolar I disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Yu Jin; Lee, Yu-Jin G; Cho, Seong-Jin
treating bipolar depression than lithium. In particular, quetiapine XR treatment improved both subjective and objective sleep quality in patients with bipolar depression. However, relationship between favorable sleep quality and depressive symptom improvement were limited. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Pini, Stefano; Maser, Jack D; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Abelli, Marianna; Muti, Matteo; Gesi, Camilla; Cassano, Giovanni B
The authors investigated frequency, clinical correlates and onset temporal relationship of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in adult patients with a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Subjects were 189 patients whose diagnoses were assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R-Patient Version. Twenty-four patients (12.7%) met DSM-III-R criteria for lifetime SAD; of these, 19 (10.1% of entire sample) had SAD within the last month. Significantly more bipolar patients with comorbid SAD also had substance use disorders compared to those without. On the HSCL-90, levels of interpersonal sensitivity, obsessiveness, phobic anxiety and paranoid ideation were significantly higher in bipolar patients with SAD than in those without. Bipolar patients with comorbid SAD recalled separation anxiety problems (school refusal) more frequently during childhood than those without. Lifetime SAD comorbidity was associated with an earlier age at onset of syndromal bipolar disorder. Pre-existing OCD tended to delay the onset of bipolarity. Social anxiety disorder comorbidity is not rare among patients with bipolar disorder and is likely to affect age of onset and phenomenology of bipolar disorder. These findings may influence treatment planning and the possibility of discovering a pathophysiological relationship between SAD and bipolarity.
Number needed to treat to harm for discontinuation due to adverse events in the treatment of bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder with atypical antipsychotics.
Gao, Keming; Kemp, David E; Fein, Elizabeth; Wang, Zuowei; Fang, Yiru; Ganocy, Stephen J; Calabrese, Joseph R
To estimate the number needed to treat to harm (NNTH) for discontinuation due to adverse events with atypical antipsychotics relative to placebo during the treatment of bipolar depression, major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). English-language literature published and cited in MEDLINE from January 1966 to May 2009 was searched with the terms antipsychotic, atypical antipsychotic, generic and brand names of atypical antipsychotics, safety, tolerability, discontinuation due to adverse events, somnolence, sedation, weight gain, akathisia, or extrapyramidal side effect; and bipolar depression, major depressive disorder, or generalized anxiety disorder; and randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. This search was augmented with a manual search. Studies with a cumulative sample of ≥ 100 patients were included. The NNTHs for discontinuation due to adverse events, somnolence, sedation, ≥ 7% weight gain, and akathisia relative to placebo were estimated with 95% confidence intervals to reflect the magnitude of variance. Five studies in bipolar depression, 10 studies in MDD, and 4 studies in GAD were identified. Aripiprazole and olanzapine have been studied in bipolar depression and refractory MDD. Only quetiapine extended release (quetiapine-XR) has been studied in 3 psychiatric conditions with different fixed dosing schedules. For aripiprazole, the mean NNTH for discontinuation due to adverse events was 14 in bipolar depression, but was not significantly different from placebo in MDD. For olanzapine, the mean NNTHs were 24 in bipolar depression and 9 in MDD. The risk for discontinuation due to adverse events during quetiapine-XR treatment appeared to be associated with dose. For quetiapine-XR 300 mg/d, the NNTHs for discontinuation due to adverse events were 9 for bipolar depression, 8 for refractory MDD, 9 for MDD, and 5 for GAD. At the same dose of quetiapine-XR, patients with GAD appeared to have a lower tolerability than
Objective: To investigate the population of bipolar patients in a general hospital in Germany who required treatment by a consultant psychiatrist. Method: A retrospective analysis was conducted of the clinical records of 47 patients diagnosed with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were treated by a consultant psychiatrist between 2009 and 2012 in one of the general hospitals of Charité Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Germany. We investigated the sections of the hospital that requested psychiatric consultations for bipolar patients, the status of these patients, and their primary cause of treatment, as well as the intervention (including pharmacotherapy) recommended by the consultant psychiatrist. Results: For more than half of the patients, their psychiatric illness was either directly or indirectly the reason they presented to the hospital. The remaining bipolar patients were treated for various somatic illnesses unrelated to their bipolar disorder throughout the hospital, with a relative overrepresentation of patients in the neurology department. More than half of the patients were referred to a psychiatric hospital by the consultant psychiatrist. Benzodiazepines were the most commonly administered drugs for acute pharmacologic intervention. Conclusions: Psychiatric consultations are not frequently requested for bipolar patients compared to those with other psychiatric disorders. However, more than half of the bipolar patients needed further psychiatric treatment in a psychiatric hospital. This finding emphasizes the importance of psychiatric consultations in a general hospital for bipolar patients. The administration of benzodiazepines as an acute treatment seems to be the standard pharmacologic procedure, not a specific pharmacotherapy like mood stabilizers. PMID:25133062
Endres, Dominique; Dersch, Rick; Hottenrott, Tilman; Perlov, Evgeniy; Maier, Simon; van Calker, Dietrich; Hochstuhl, Benedikt; Venhoff, Nils; Stich, Oliver; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe and lifelong condition. Primary endogenic polygenetic forms are common. Secondary organic forms have received increasing interest recently due to the detection of immunological encephalopathies that mimic various psychiatric syndromes, including BD. However, only limited data about routine findings of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses in BD are available. Therefore, we investigated the frequency of alterations in the CSF in patients with BD and the association with autoantibodies, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, and electroencephalography findings. CSF samples of patients with BD collected from January 1998 until December 2015 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients with preexisting causes for alterations in the CSF (e.g., patients with obvious past or current neurological disorders) were excluded. In total, 63 patients with BD fulfilled the inclusion criteria for the study. In 1.6% of the patients with BD, an increased white blood cell count was found in the CSF. Increased albumin quotients were found in 12.9% of the patients, oligoclonal bands (OCBs) in 1.6%, and increased immunoglobulin (Ig) G indices in 3.2% (OCBs were not measured in case of increased IgG indices). No significant differences in CSF findings were found between patients with manic and depressive episodes. The main findings of this open uncontrolled study are that alterations in the CSF may be found in a small, but potentially relevant, subgroup of patients with BD. These findings are discussed in light of the new concepts of mild encephalitis and immunological encephalopathy. The detection of patients with possibly secondary organic bipolar syndromes could open up new causal treatment options with immunomodulatory medication. PMID:28008318
Pan, Yi-Ju; Tseng, Huai-Hsuan; Liu, Shi-Kai
Patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have affect recognition deficits. Whether affect recognition deficits constitute a state or trait marker of BD has great etiopathological significance. The current study aims to explore the interrelationships between affect recognition and basic neurocognitive functions for patients with BD across different mood states, using the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy-2, Taiwanese version (DANVA-2-TW) as the index measure for affect recognition. To our knowledge, this is the first study examining affect recognition deficits of BPD across mood states in the Han Chinese population. Twenty-nine manic patients, 16 remitted patients with BD, and 40 control subjects are included in the study. Distinct association patterns between affect recognition and neurocognitive functions are demonstrated for patients with BD and control subjects, implicating alternations in emotion associated neurocognitive processing. Compared to control subjects, manic patients but not remitted subjects perform significantly worse in the recognition of negative emotions as a whole and specifically anger, after adjusting for differences in general intellectual ability and basic neurocognitive functions. Affect recognition deficit may be a relatively independent impairment in BD rather than consequences arising from deficits in other basic neurocognition. The impairments of manic patients in the recognition of negative emotions, specifically anger, may further our understanding of core clinical psychopathology of BD and have implications in treating bipolar patients across distinct mood phases.
Sit, Dorothy; Seltman, Howard; Wisner, Katherine L
Objectives Reports suggest women with bipolar disorder (BD) have high rates of perimenstrual mood worsening. In this prospective study, the authors compared healthy controls and depressed and euthymic BD patients on medications on mood levels, psychosocial function, and physical symptoms in the late luteal versus the early follicular phase. Methods At baseline, the lifetime diagnosis of bipolar I disorder or bipolar II disorder, current mood episode, and absence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in controls were confirmed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Disorders. Subjects were assessed across three menstrual cycles during the late luteal and early follicular phases. Clinicians administered the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and the Mania Rating Scale to assess levels of depression and hypomania/mania, respectively. Subjects completed self-report ratings on psychosocial function and perceived stress and tracked daily mood and physical symptoms on the National Institute of Mental Health LifeChart and the Daily Rating Form. Ovulation was verified objectively with mid-cycle luteinizing hormone urine dipsticks and serum progesterone levels. Results The sample characteristics were similar among the three patient groups of healthy controls (10 patients), BD-euthymic (6), and BD-depressed (5). The two-way analysis of variance indicated a significant difference among the diagnostic groups on depression scores, psychosocial functioning, and levels of perceived stress. There was no significant difference for menstrual phase or the interaction of menstrual phase by diagnostic group. Conclusions Mood symptom level, psychosocial functioning, perceived stress, and physical discomfort were unrelated to menstrual phase in patients with BD. Appropriate maintenance treatment may prevent menstrual related mood symptoms. Use of an objective marker of ovulation is critical for research involving menstrual related outcomes. PMID
De Fazio, Pasquale; Gaetano, Raffaele; Caroleo, Mariarita; Cerminara, Gregorio; Giannini, Francesca; Jaén Moreno, Maria Jose; Moreno Díaz, Maria Josè; Medina León, Antonio; Segura-García, Cristina
Religiousness and spirituality (R/S) are often neglected features among psychiatric patients but important both for quality of life and coping strategies for mental disorders. In patients affected by bipolar disorder (BD), R/S can sometimes be confused with symptoms related to the psychiatric disorder. This study aimed to perform a clinical review of the relationship between R/S and BD. Data sources included Medline (OvidSP), CINAHL (Ebsco), EMBASE (Ovid), PsychINFO (Ebsco), Angeline, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstract of Reviews of Effects, searching for pertinent Keywords: 'religiousness', 'spirituality' and 'bipolar disorder'. Nine works were found but only five used homogeneous samples with BD patients. R/S were important when facing symptoms and relapses in the lifeworld. These beliefs influenced the relationship with psychiatrists and spiritual figures of reference. R/S play a role as a psychosocial variable in the course of BD. However, the hypothesis that the R/S factor can be relevant both in terms of providing a protective effect as well as a provocative element in depressive or hypomanic phases was not fully supported at the moment.
Pang, K P; Yung, S W; Lee, T S; Pang, C E
While clavicular injuries are fairly common, bipolar clavicular injuries are not. They may involve dislocations at both ends of the clavicle, or a fracture at one end and a dislocation at the other. We present two cases; a patient with a bipolar clavicular dislocation, and another with a fracture in both medial and lateral ends of the clavicle with anterior dislocation of the sternoclavicular joint. Both were treated conservatively, with fairly good range of motion and return to normal activity.
Granek, Leeat; Danan, Dor; Bersudsky, Yuly; Osher, Yamima
Patients with bipolar disorder are characterized by an unusually high divorce rate. As such, the purpose of the present study was to uncover information relating specifically to the impact of bipolar disorder on patients and spouses individually, and on the marital relationship from the perspectives of both patients and spouses. Eleven patients with bipolar disorder and ten spouses were interviewed separately about the impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their marital relationship. Data were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The impact of bipolar disorder for spouses included self-sacrifice, caregiving burden, emotional impact, and a sense of personal evolution. The impact of bipolar disorder on patients included an emotional impact, responsibility for self-care, and struggling socially and developmentally. When comparing patient and spouse perspectives on the impact of the disorder, neither the patient nor the spouse was able to accurately assess the impact of the disorder on their partner's lives. The impact of bipolar disorder on the relationship included volatility in the relationship, strengthening the relationship, weakening the relationship, and family planning. The research indicated that patients and partners alike struggle with the tremendous impact of bipolar disorder on their lives and on their relationships. Given the high rates of divorce and volatility in these relationships, healthcare professionals can provide (or refer to) emotional and practical support both to patients and spouses on their own, and as a couple in their clinics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hajek, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Höschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin
Background Smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in individuals with unipolar but not bipolar depression. Preserved hippocampal volumes in most studies of participants with bipolar disorder may reflect potential neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). Methods To investigate hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder while controlling for Li exposure, we performed a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies that subdivided patients based on the presence or absence of current Li treatment. To achieve the best coverage of literature, we categorized studies based on whether all or a majority, or whether no or a minority of patients were treated with Li. Hippocampal volumes were compared by combining standardized differences between means (Cohen d) from individual studies using random-effects models. Results Overall, we analyzed data from 101 patients with bipolar disorder in the Li group, 245 patients in the non-Li group and 456 control participants from 16 studies. Both the left and right hippocampal volumes were significantly larger in the Li group than in controls (Cohen d = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18 to 0.88; Cohen d = 0.51, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81, respectively) or the non-Li group (Cohen d = 0.93, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.31; Cohen d = 1.07, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.45, respectively), which had smaller left and right hippocampal volumes than the control group (Cohen d = −0.36, 95% CI −0.55 to −0.17; Cohen d = −0.38, 95% CI −0.63 to −0.13, respectively). There was no evidence of publication bias. Limitations Missing information about the illness burden or lifetime exposure to Li and polypharmacy in some studies may have contributed to statistical heterogeneity in some analyses. Conclusion When exposure to Li was minimized, patients with bipolar disorder showed smaller hippocampal volumes than controls or Li-treated patients. Our findings provide indirect support for the negative effects of
Hajek, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Höschl, Cyril; Alda, Martin
Smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls are among the most replicated neuroimaging findings in individuals with unipolar but not bipolar depression. Preserved hippocampal volumes in most studies of participants with bipolar disorder may reflect potential neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li). To investigate hippocampal volumes in patients with bipolar disorder while controlling for Li exposure, we performed a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies that subdivided patients based on the presence or absence of current Li treatment. To achieve the best coverage of literature, we categorized studies based on whether all or a majority, or whether no or a minority of patients were treated with Li. Hippocampal volumes were compared by combining standardized differences between means (Cohen d) from individual studies using random-effects models. Overall, we analyzed data from 101 patients with bipolar disorder in the Li group, 245 patients in the non-Li group and 456 control participants from 16 studies. Both the left and right hippocampal volumes were significantly larger in the Li group than in controls (Cohen d = 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18 to 0.88; Cohen d = 0.51, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.81, respectively) or the non-Li group (Cohen d = 0.93, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.31; Cohen d = 1.07, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.45, respectively), which had smaller left and right hippocampal volumes than the control group (Cohen d = -0.36, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.17; Cohen d = -0.38, 95% CI -0.63 to -0.13, respectively). There was no evidence of publication bias. Missing information about the illness burden or lifetime exposure to Li and polypharmacy in some studies may have contributed to statistical heterogeneity in some analyses. When exposure to Li was minimized, patients with bipolar disorder showed smaller hippocampal volumes than controls or Li-treated patients. Our findings provide indirect support for the negative effects of bipolar disorder on hippocampal volumes and are consistent
Akiskal, Hagop S; Kilzieh, Nael; Maser, Jack D; Clayton, Paula J; Schettler, Pamela J; Traci Shea, M; Endicott, Jean; Scheftner, William; Hirschfeld, Robert M A; Keller, Martin B
Despite a plethora of studies, controversies abound on whether the long-term traits of unipolar and bipolar patients could be differentiated by temperament and whether these traits, in turn, could be distinguished from subthreshold affective symptomatology. 98 bipolar I (BP-I), 64 bipolar II (BP-II), and 251 unipolar major depressive disorder (UP-MDD) patients all when recovered from discrete affective episodes) and 617 relatives, spouses or acquaintances without lifetime RDC diagnoses (the comparison group, CG) were administered a battery of 17 self-rated personality scales chosen for theoretical relevance to mood disorders. Subsamples of each of the four groups also received the General Behavior Inventory (GBI). Of the 436 personality items, 103 that significantly distinguished the three patient groups were subjected to principal components analysis, yielding four factors which reflect the temperamental dimensions of "Mood Lability", "Energy-Assertiveness," "Sensitivity-Brooding," and "Social Anxiety." Most BP-I described themselves as near normal in emotional stability and extroversion; BP-II emerged as labile in mood, energetic and assertive, yet sensitive and brooding; MDD were socially timid, sensitive and brooding. Gender and age did not have marked influence on these overall profiles. Within the MDD group, those with baseline dysthymia were the most pathological (i.e., high in neuroticism, insecurity and introversion). Selected GBI items measuring hypomania and biphasic mood changes were endorsed significantly more often by BP-II. Finally, it is relevant to highlight a methodologic finding about the precision these derived temperament factors brought to the UP-BP differentiation. Unlike BP-I who were low on neuroticism, both BP-II and UP scored high on this measure: yet, in the case of BP-II high neuroticism was largely due to mood lability, in UP it reflected subdepressive traits. We used self-rated personality measures, a possible limitation generic to
Gulack, Brian C; Puri, Neil V; Kim, Wun J
To report the first known case of a lithium-exacerbated stutter in a pediatric patient. A 10-year-old male with a history of developmental stuttering, bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (NOS), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and conduct disorder was admitted to the psychiatric hospital because of recurrent suicidal ideations and increased physical aggression toward staff at his residential facility. The patient was being treated with lithium at initial dose of 150 mg/day at bedtime for bipolar disorder NOS. When the lithium dose was increased to 900 mg twice daily to better control the bipolar symptoms, his developmental stutter worsened intensely. When the lithium dose was reduced to 600 mg in the morning and 900 mg at night, the stutter returned to baseline. No other medication changes were made during this interval. His serum lithium concentration was 0.62 mEq/L at baseline, 1.24 mEq/L during the height of his exacerbated stutter, and returned to 0.64 mEq/L after dose reduction. To our knowledge, only 1 case of lithium-exacerbated stutter has been reported in the literature, and this was in an adult. The developmental stutter of our pediatric patient worsened when he was treated with higher doses of lithium. He was on stable doses of his other medications during the adjustments to the lithium dose, making it less likely that the stutter was due to one of these medications. However, it is possible that the exacerbation involved an interaction between lithium and one or several of the other medications. Based on the Naranjo probability scale, this case represents a probable adverse drug reaction. Clinicians should be aware that an additional adverse effect of lithium may be an exacerbation of stutter.
Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are chronic debilitating disorders that are often treated with second-generation antipsychotic agents, such as aripiprazole, quetiapine, and ziprasidone. While patients who are hospitalized for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder often receive these agents at discharge, comparatively little information exists on subsequent patterns of pharmacotherapy. Methods Using a database linking hospital admission records to health insurance claims, we identified all patients hospitalized for schizophrenia (ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 295.XX) or bipolar disorder (296.0, 296.1, 296.4-296.89) between January 1, 2001 and September 30, 2008 who received aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at discharge. Patients not continuously enrolled for 6 months before and after hospitalization (“pre-admission” and “follow-up”, respectively) were excluded. We examined patterns of use of these agents during follow-up, including adherence with treatment (using medication possession ratios [MPRs] and cumulative medication gaps [CMGs]) and therapy switching. Analyses were undertaken separately for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. Results We identified a total of 43 patients with schizophrenia, and 84 patients with bipolar disorder. During the 6-month period following hospitalization, patients with schizophrenia received an average of 101 therapy-days with the second-generation antipsychotic agent prescribed at discharge; for patients with bipolar disorder, the corresponding value was 68 therapy-days. Mean MPR at 6 months was 55.1% for schizophrenia patients, and 37.3% for those with bipolar disorder; approximately one-quarter of patients switched to another agent over this period. Conclusions Medication compliance is poor in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who initiate treatment with aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge. PMID:22856540
Marrag, I; Hajji, K; Hadj Ammar, M; Zarrouk, L; Kachouri, R; Nasr, M
Bipolar disorder affects many psychosocial and functional aspects, leading to a real social handicap and an alteration in quality of life. To evaluate bipolar patients' quality of life and to identify the risk factors responsible for a deterioration. Our cross-sectional study lasted for four months and included 104 bipolar patients treated at the psychiatry consultation of the university hospital in Mahdia. The data were collected through a questionnaire composed of 52 items exploring the general characteristics of subjects, the clinical and evolutional characteristics of bipolar disorder and providing information on the treatment. Quality of life was measured using the SF-36 (Short form) generic scale. A global average score was calculated and it was considered that quality of life was altered if the score was less than 66.7, according to the threshold value of Léan. Moreover, an average score was calculated for each dimension, thus permitting us to identify those most affected. We standardized initial average scores. The assessment of quality of life revealed a global average of 52.2 and an alteration in 78.8% of patients. The study of the dimensional average scores revealed that all dimensions were affected. The standardization also revealed deterioration in all dimensions, the mental component being particularly more affected than the physical component with respectively estimated scores of 31.7 and 40.5. The analytic approach concerned the relationship between qualitative and quantitative variables and the occurrence of an alteration in quality of life. For this effect, a bivariate study displayed a statistically significant correlation between the eight dimensions of the SF-36 and 8 variables. In order to take into account the relationships that link each variable to the others, and to avoid the bias of the bivariate study, a logistic regression analysis was performed. Only 4 variables with discriminating weight emerged from this analysis. According to the
Kazour, F; Awaida, C; Souaiby, L; Richa, S
Cannabis use is very frequent in bipolar disorder and has been found to increase the duration and frequency of manic symptoms while decreasing those of depression. Bipolar patients who use cannabis were shown to have poorer compliance to treatment, more symptoms that are psychotic and a worse prognosis than patients who do not. In this study, we have evaluated the importance of cannabis use among bipolar patients admitted to the Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Lebanon (Hôpital Psychiatrique de la Croix [HPC]) as well as the clinical differences between cannabis users and non-users. Over a period of 13 months, we recruited the patients admitted to HPC for bipolar disorder according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. These patients were screened for substance abuse/dependence and were accordingly divided into 2 groups: cannabis users and cannabis non-users. Both groups were interviewed by a medical student and asked to answer the following questionnaires: the MINI DSM-IV, the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) for evaluating manic episodes, the Montgomery and Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) for evaluating depressive episodes, the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS) to assess psychotic symptoms associated to the bipolar disorder, and the Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) for evaluating the importance of cannabis consumption. The study's exclusion criteria were the following: diagnosis of a confusional state, schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, dementia, age less than 18 years old or superior to 85 years old, and non-cooperation. Among the 100 bipolar patients included in the study, 27 (27 %) were cannabis users. Eight of these 27 patients were first admitted to HPC for substance abuse and then included in the study after a bipolar disorder was diagnosed according to the MINI DSM-IV criteria. Cannabis use was found to be more prevalent in young males with a mean age of 20.3 years old at the first contact with the substance
Önen, Özlem; Kutlu, Ayşe; Erkuran, Handan Özek
Objectives Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is described as the development of sudden syncope attacks or death as a result of ventricular tachycardia (VT) episodes that might be observed as elongated QT interval in electrocardiography (ECG). Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is recommended as first-line treatment for the condition in guidelines. We aimed to present an adolescent recently diagnosed with Bipolar Disorder (BD) who had LQTS that was treated with ICD, discussing her follow up and treatment along with relevant literature. Methods Psychiatric assessment of the case that applied to our child psychiatry unit due to manic symptoms were carried out by using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 5th edition (DSM-5) criteria. Symptom severity was monitored via Young Mania Rating Scale scores (YMRSS). Results The case met criteria for Bipolar Disorder Type I (BD-I). She had improvement in her mood symptoms with treatment regimen as risperidone 3 mg/day, valproate 1000 mg/day and lorazepam 1 mg/dayi after her 2–week follow up as well as no reported ICD activity, reflecting fine cardiac functions and rhythm. Conclusions LQTS is a serious health issue for children and adolescents diagnosed with BD. This condition should be kept in mind especially in cases where familial risk factors are present and precautions need to be maintained upon required assessments. These cases need to be closely monitored due to risk factors related to both BD and LQTS, in a multidisciplinary fashion, involving both psychiatry and cardiology divisions. PMID:28138202
Olsson, Sara K.; Samuelsson, Martin; Saetre, Peter; Lindström, Leif; Jönsson, Erik G.; Nordin, Conny; Engberg, Göran; Erhardt, Sophie; Landén, Mikael
Background Patients with schizophrenia show elevated brain levels of the neuroactive tryptophan metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). This astrocyte-derived mediator acts as a neuroprotectant and modulates sensory gating and cognitive function. We measured the levels of KYNA in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers to investigate the putative involvement of KYNA in bipolar disorder. Methods We obtained CSF by lumbar puncture from 23 healthy men and 31 euthymic men with bipolar disorder. We analyzed the samples using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results Patients with bipolar disorder had increased levels of KYNA in their CSF compared with healthy volunteers (1.71 nM, standard error of the mean [SEM] 0.13 v. 1.13 nM, SEM 0.09; p = 0.002. The levels of KYNA were positively correlated with age among bipolar patients but not healthy volunteers. Limitations The influence of ongoing drug treatment among patients cannot be ruled out. We conducted our study during the euthymic phase of the disease. Conclusion Brain KYNA levels are increased in euthymic men with bipolar disorder. In addition, KYNA levels increased with age in these patients. These findings indicate shared mechanisms between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Elevated levels of brain KYNA may provide further insight to the pathophysiology and progression of bipolar disorder. PMID:20420770
Rangappa, Sushma Bilichodu; Munivenkatappa, Shashidhara; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Jain, Sanjeev; Reddy, Y C Janardhan
Many long-term follow-up studies suggest that bipolar disorder (BD) is highly recurrent and that depressive episodes are commoner than hypomania/manic episodes. However, some studies from tropical countries including India suggest that the patients experience a greater proportion of manic episodes than depressive episodes. The aim of the present study was to examine the course of BD type 1 (BD I) in a sample of hospitalized Indian subjects. We examined the clinical course of 285 BD I subjects with at least 5 years of illness using standard life charting method. These subjects were hospitalized between October 2010 and October 2012. The predominant polarity (having at least two-thirds of their lifetime episodes at one polarity) was mania (79%). Unipolar mania (≥ 3 mania episodes and no episodes of depression) was observed in 48% of the subjects. The frequency of rapid cycling course was noted in 2.5% of the subjects. Predominant manic polarity group had the illness onset mostly with a manic episode (88.9%) and the predominant depressive polarity group with a depressive episode (73.8%). Mania was the predominant polarity with a high rate of unipolar mania and a majority of the subjects had greater number of manic episodes than depressive/mixed episodes. The onset polarity determined the predominant polarity during the course of illness. Predominantly, mania course could have significant implications in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
Misra, Sahana; Ganzini, Linda
Experts have debated the influence of mental illness on decision-making capacity. This paper reviews concepts of decision-making capacity and existing research on the influence of mental illness on capacity to consent to research. We propose how bipolar disorder, especially mania, may have an effect on consent capacity. The current conceptualization of capacity utilizes legal standards of 'choice', 'understanding', 'appreciation' and 'rational reasoning', as well as voluntarism, or the assurance that the patient is free to agree or to decline to participate in research. Studies of patients with schizophrenia suggest impaired cognition influences 'understanding' and is more important than severity of psychosis in affecting decision-making abilities. There are no studies of sources and extent of impairment to consent to research among manic patients. Mania may influence a patient's understanding of the research protocol, but also alter the patient's views, values and level of insight, thus impairing decision-making abilities at the 'appreciation' standard even when the patient understands the relevant information. Mania may impact freedom to decide, yet paradoxically, manic patients may be less influenced by others and less vulnerable to coercion, undue influence and undue incentives compared to patients without mental illness. We suggest that in patients with mood disorders, the legal standard of appreciation be thoroughly probed during the consent procedure. Studies of the effect of mania and depression on consent capacity and voluntarism are needed in order to develop processes that increase safeguards in the informed consent process.
Samalin, Ludovic; Bellivier, Frank; Giordana, Bruno; Yon, Liova; Milhiet, Vanessa; El-Hage, Wissam; Courtet, Philippe; Hacques, Evguenia; Bedira, Nabil; Dillenschneider, Anne; Llorca, Pierre Michel
Euthymic bipolar patients are often impacted by residual symptoms (RSs) that increase the risk of relapse or low functioning. We aimed to identify the perceptions of RSs, barriers to management, and service needs in euthymic bipolar patients. A qualitative methodology (focus group) was used. The interviews were investigated using a semistructured guide, tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Twenty-three bipolar patients expressed concern about several RSs, such as emotional dysregulation, circadian rhythm disruption, cognitive impairment, low self-esteem, and physical symptoms. They reported concern about the impact of RSs on their functioning and about the need for more systematic assessment of RSs during interepisode visits. Selection bias may have occurred because the recruitment was limited to France and there may be cultural differences in the perceptions of RSs. Bipolar patients experienced bipolar disorder as a chronic disorder because they frequently continued to suffer from RSs associated with a functional impact.
Close, Helen; Reilly, Joe; Mason, James M.; Kripalani, Mukesh; Wilson, Douglas; Main, John; Hungin, A. Pali S.
Objective Lithium users are offered routine renal monitoring but few studies have quantified the risk to renal health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between use of lithium carbonate and incidence of renal failure in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and a nested validation study of lithium exposure and renal failure. A cohort of 6360 participants aged over 18 years had a first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007. Data were examined from electronic primary care records from 418 general practices across the UK. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio for renal failure in participants exposed to lithium carbonate as compared with non-users of lithium, adjusting for age, gender, co-morbidities, and poly-pharmacy. Results Ever use of lithium was associated with a hazard ratio for renal failure of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0) adjusted for known renal risk factors. Absolute risk was age dependent, with patients of 50 years or older at particular risk of renal failure: Number Needed to Harm (NNH) was 44 (21 to 150). Conclusions Lithium is associated with an increased risk of renal failure, particularly among the older age group. The absolute risk of renal failure associated with lithium use remains small. PMID:24670976
Close, Helen; Reilly, Joe; Mason, James M; Kripalani, Mukesh; Wilson, Douglas; Main, John; Hungin, A Pali S
Lithium users are offered routine renal monitoring but few studies have quantified the risk to renal health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between use of lithium carbonate and incidence of renal failure in patients with bipolar disorder. This was a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and a nested validation study of lithium exposure and renal failure. A cohort of 6360 participants aged over 18 years had a first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007. Data were examined from electronic primary care records from 418 general practices across the UK. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio for renal failure in participants exposed to lithium carbonate as compared with non-users of lithium, adjusting for age, gender, co-morbidities, and poly-pharmacy. Ever use of lithium was associated with a hazard ratio for renal failure of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0) adjusted for known renal risk factors. Absolute risk was age dependent, with patients of 50 years or older at particular risk of renal failure: Number Needed to Harm (NNH) was 44 (21 to 150). Lithium is associated with an increased risk of renal failure, particularly among the older age group. The absolute risk of renal failure associated with lithium use remains small.
Lee, Kyung-Sang; Park, Young-Min
Objective The loudness dependence of the auditory evoked potential (LDAEP) is suggested to be a marker of serotonin system function. This study explored the LDAEP of multiple mood statuses (depression, mania, and euthymia) and its clinical implication in bipolar disorder patients. Methods A total of 89 subjects, comprising 35 patients with bipolar disorder, 32 patients with schizophrenia, and 22 healthy controls were evaluated. The bipolar disorder cases comprised 10 depressed patients, 15 patients with mania, and 10 euthymic patients. The N1/P2 peak-to-peak amplitudes were measured at 5 stimulus intensities, and the LDAEP was calculated as the slope of the linear regression. Both cortical and source LDAEP values were calculated. Results LDAEP varied according to mood statuses, and was significantly stronger in cases of euthymia, depression, and mania. Cortical LDAEP was significantly stronger in patients with bipolar euthymia compared with schizophrenia, stronger in bipolar depression than in schizophrenia, stronger in healthy controls than in schizophrenia patients, and stronger in healthy controls than in patients with bipolar mania. Source LDAEP was significantly stronger in patients with bipolar euthymia, bipolar depression, and bipolar mania compared with schizophrenia, stronger in bipolar euthymia than in bipolar mania. Psychotic features weakened the source LDAEP relative to nonpsychotic features. The severity of the depressive symptom was negatively correlated with source LDAEP. Conclusion These findings suggest that the serotonin activity of patients with bipolar disorder may vary according to mood status. A longitudinal follow-up study should be pursued using drug-naive subjects. PMID:22993531
Peng, Bo; Wang, Guang-chun; Zheng, Jun-hua; Xia, Sheng-qiang; Geng, Jiang; Che, Jian-ping; Yan, Yang; Huang, Jian-hua; Xu, Yun-fei; Yang, Bin
WHAT'S KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT? AND WHAT DOES THE STUDY ADD?: Thulium laser is a new generation of surgical laser. It is a minimally invasive technology with several advantages, including rapid vaporization and minimal tissue damage and bleeding. However, details regarding the safety and efficacy of thulium laser in treating BPH remains unknown. We performed a comparative study in 100 patients with BPH of the safety and efficacy of thulium laser resection of the prostate (TMLRP, n = 50) and bipolar transurethral plasmakinetic prostatectomy (TUPKP, n = 50). We found that the efficacy and indications were the same in TMLRP and TUPKP. In TUPKP, the morbidity of urethrostenosis was low, and was nearly bloodless in surgery and had higher safety. Nevertheless, TUPKP is more suitable for patients with larger prostate volume. To compare the safety and short-term efficacy of thulium laser resection of the prostate (TMLRP) and bipolar transurethral plasmakinetic prostatectomy (TUPKP) for the treatment of patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). A total of 100 patients diagnosed with BPH were randomly divided into two groups, treated with either TMLRP (50, group 1) or TUPKP (50, group 2). There was no significant difference in preoperative variables such as age, prostate volume, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), maximum urinary flow rate (Qmax ) and postvoid residual urine volume (PVR) between the two groups. The perioperative parameters and therapeutic effects were recorded and compared between the two groups. There were significant differences in the following parameters between the two groups (TMLRP vs TUPKP [mean ± SD]): operation duration, 61.2 ± 24.2 vs 30.14 ± 15.9 min; catheterization time, 1.8 ± 0.4 vs 3.2 ± 0.6 d; postoperative hospital stay, 3.3 ± 0.8 vs 4.1 ± 1.3 d. The volume of blood loss and postoperative bladder irrigation were significantly lower in TMLRP group than in the TUPKP group. At 1 month
Nery, Fabiano G; Hatch, John P; Glahn, David C; Nicoletti, Mark A; Monkul, E Serap; Najt, Pablo; Fonseca, Manoela; Bowden, Charles L; Cloninger, C Robert; Soares, Jair C
Temperament and character traits may determine differences in clinical presentations and outcome of bipolar disorder. We compared personality traits in bipolar patients and healthy individuals using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and sought to verify whether comorbidity with alcoholism or anxiety disorders is associated with specific personality traits. Seventy-three DSM-IV bipolar patients were compared to 63 healthy individuals using the TCI. In a second step, the bipolar sample was subgrouped according to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (alcoholism, n=10; anxiety disorders; n=23; alcoholism plus anxiety disorders, n=21; no comorbidity, n=19). Bipolar patients scored statistically higher than the healthy individuals on novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Bipolar patients with only comorbid alcoholism scored statistically lower than bipolar patients without any comorbidity on persistence. Bipolar patients with only comorbid anxiety disorders scored statistically higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness than bipolar patients without any comorbidity. Limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the small sample size, specifically in the analysis of the subgroups. However, our results suggest that bipolar patients exhibit a different personality structure than healthy individuals and that presence of psychiatric comorbidity in bipolar disorder is associated with specific personality traits. These findings suggest that personality, at least to some extent, mediates the comorbidity phenomena in bipolar disorder.
Nery, Fabiano G.; Hatch, John P.; Glahn, David C.; Nicoletti, Mark A.; Monkul, E. Serap; Najt, Pablo; Fonseca, Manoela; Bowden, Charles L.; Cloninger, C. Robert; Soares, Jair C.
Temperament and character traits may determine differences in clinical presentations and outcome of bipolar disorder. We compared personality traits in bipolar patients and healthy individuals using the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and sought to verify whether comorbidity with alcoholism or anxiety disorders is associated with specific personality traits. Seventy three DSM-IV bipolar patients were compared to 63 healthy individuals using the TCI. In a second step, the bipolar sample was subgrouped according to the presence of psychiatric comorbidity (alcoholism, n = 10; anxiety disorders; n = 23; alcoholism plus anxiety disorders, n = 21; no comorbidity, n = 19). Bipolar patients scored statistically higher than the healthy individuals on novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence and lower on self-directedness and cooperativeness. Bipolar patients with only comorbid alcoholism scored statistically lower than bipolar patients without any comorbidity on persistence. Bipolar patients with only comorbid anxiety disorders scored statistically higher on harm avoidance and lower on self-directedness than bipolar patients without any comorbidity. Limitations of this study include the cross-sectional design and the small sample size, specifically in the analysis of the subgroups. However, our results suggest that bipolar patients exhibit a different personality structure than healthy individuals and that presence of psychiatric comorbidity in bipolar disorder is associated with specific personality traits. These findings suggest that personality, at least to some extent, mediates the comorbidity phenomena in bipolar disorder. PMID:17675066
Bauer, Rita; Conell, Jörn; Glenn, Tasha; Alda, Martin; Ardau, Raffaella; Baune, Bernhard T; Berk, Michael; Bersudsky, Yuly; Bilderbeck, Amy; Bocchetta, Alberto; Bossini, Letizia; Castro, Angela M Paredes; Cheung, Eric Yw; Chillotti, Caterina; Choppin, Sabine; Del Zompo, Maria; Dias, Rodrigo; Dodd, Seetal; Duffy, Anne; Etain, Bruno; Fagiolini, Andrea; Hernandez, Miryam Fernández; Garnham, Julie; Geddes, John; Gildebro, Jonas; Gonzalez-Pinto, Ana; Goodwin, Guy M; Grof, Paul; Harima, Hirohiko; Hassel, Stefanie; Henry, Chantal; Hidalgo-Mazzei, Diego; Kapur, Vaisnvy; Kunigiri, Girish; Lafer, Beny; Larsen, Erik R; Lewitzka, Ute; Licht, Rasmus W; Lund, Anne Hvenegaard; Misiak, Blazej; Monteith, Scott; Munoz, Rodrigo; Nakanotani, Takako; Nielsen, René E; O'Donovan, Claire; Okamura, Yasushi; Osher, Yamima; Piotrowski, Patryk; Reif, Andreas; Ritter, Philipp; Rybakowski, Janusz K; Sagduyu, Kemal; Sawchuk, Brett; Schwartz, Elon; Scippa, Ângela M; Slaney, Claire; Sulaiman, Ahmad H; Suominen, Kirsi; Suwalska, Aleksandra; Tam, Peter; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Tondo, Leonardo; Vieta, Eduard; Vinberg, Maj; Viswanath, Biju; Volkert, Julia; Zetin, Mark; Whybrow, Peter C; Bauer, Michael
There is considerable international interest in online education of patients with bipolar disorder, yet little understanding of how patients use the Internet and other sources to seek information. 1171 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 17 countries completed a paper-based, anonymous survey. 81% of the patients used the Internet, a percentage similar to the general public. Older age, less education, and challenges in country telecommunications infrastructure and demographics decreased the odds of using the Internet. About 78% of the Internet users looked online for information on bipolar disorder or 63% of the total sample. More years of education in relation to the country mean, and feeling very confident about managing life decreased the odds of seeking information on bipolar disorder online, while having attended support groups increased the odds. Patients who looked online for information on bipolar disorder consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 2.3 other information sources such as books, physician handouts, and others with bipolar disorder. Patients not using the Internet consulted medical professionals plus a mean of 1.6 other information sources. The percentage of patients with bipolar disorder who use the Internet is about the same as the general public. Other information sources remain important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lin, Herng-Ching; Xirasagar, Sudha; Lee, Hsin-Chien; Huang, Chung-Chien; Chen, Chao-Hung
Associations of hepatitis C virus infection with Alzheimer's disease have not been studied among higher risk, bipolar disorder patients. This population-based case-control study investigated the risks of hepatitis C virus infection among Alzheimer's disease patients with bipolar disorder in the years preceding their Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. We used 2000-2013 data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database in Taiwan. Among patients with bipolar disorder, 73 were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (cases), who were compared with 365 individuals with bipolar disorder but without Alzheimer's disease (randomly selected controls matched on sex, age, and index year with cases). Prior claims (before the diagnosis year/index year for controls) were screened for a diagnosis of hepatitis C virus infection. Conditional logistic regression models were used for analysis. We found that 23 (31.51%) and 60 (16.44%) patients with bipolar disease were identified with a hepatitis C diagnosis among those with and without Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Compared to controls, patients with Alzheimer's disease showed 2.31-fold (95% confidence interval = 1.28-4.16) increased risk of hepatitis C infections adjusted for demographics and socio-economic status. Findings suggest an association of Alzheimer's disease with a preceding diagnosis of hepatitis C infection among patients with bipolar disorder. Findings may suggest a need for increased awareness of and appropriate surveillance for Alzheimer's disease in patients with bipolar disorder diagnosed with hepatitis C infection.
Clark, Crystal T.; Klein, Autumn M.; Perel, James M.; Helsel, Joseph; Wisner, Katherine L.
Objective Little information is available on the need for dosage changes for lamotrigine in pregnant women with bipolar disorder. The authors present new data on serial serum levels of lamotrigine in pregnant patients on lamotrigine monotherapy. They also review the epilepsy literature on use of lamotrigine during pregnancy. Method Lamotrigine serum samples were obtained from eight mother-infant pairs at different time points during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Results All of the women were taking lamotrigine throughout pregnancy. Serum-level-to-dose ratios were lower during pregnancy than the postpartum period. Lamotrigine was taken once daily in doses ranging from 100 mg to 300 mg. Three patients had an increase of 50 mg to their daily dose across pregnancy. The change in serum lamotrigine levels in the postpartum period ranged from a 30% decrease to a 640% increase compared with the first level obtained during pregnancy. Level-to-dose ratios obtained within 4 weeks after delivery reflected a mean level 402% greater than the baseline level during gestation. Compared with the third trimester, lamotrigine serum concentration increased an average of 154% within 5 weeks after delivery. The most dramatic increase in lamotrigine serum level early after delivery occurred at 1.5 weeks. The mean infant cord level was 66% of the maternal serum level at delivery. The mean breast-fed infant serum level was 32.5% of the maternal serum levels. Conclusions The pattern of lamotrigine changes during pregnancy in these women with bipolar disorder was consistent with that described in the epilepsy literature. PMID:24185239
Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects aged ≥18 years from the National Health Research Institute database in the year 2005. Subjects with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder in 2005 were identified. Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis of chronic liver disease were also defined. We compared the prevalence and associated factors of chronic liver disease between patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. We also compared the incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population from 2006 to 2010. The prevalence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder (13.9%) was 2.68 times higher than that of the general population (5.8%) in 2005. The average annual incidence of chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder from 2006 to 2010 was also higher than that of the general population (2.95% vs. 1.73%; risk ratio: 1.71; 95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.01). Patients with bipolar disorder had a significantly higher prevalence and incidence of chronic liver disease than those in the general population, and younger patients with bipolar disorder have a much higher prevalence and incidence than those in the general population. Male sex, second-generation antipsychotic or antidepressant use, and hyperlipidemia were associated factors for chronic liver disease in patients with bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Munkholm, Klaus; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Kessing, Lars Vedel; Vinberg, Maj
Impaired neuroplasticity may be implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, involving peripheral alterations of the neurotrophins brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin 3 (NT-3). Evidence is limited by methodological issues and is based primarily on case-control designs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BDNF and NT-3 levels differ between patients with rapid cycling bipolar disorder and healthy control subjects and whether BDNF and NT-3 levels alter with affective states in rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients. Plasma levels of BDNF and NT-3 were measured in 37 rapid cycling bipolar disorder patients and in 40 age- and gender matched healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In a longitudinal design, repeated measurements of BDNF and NT-3 were evaluated in various affective states in bipolar disorder patients during a 6-12 months period and compared with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Careful attention was given to standardization of all procedures and adjustment for potential confounders of BDNF and NT-3. In linear mixed models, adjusting for demographical and lifestyle factors, levels of BDNF were significantly elevated in bipolar disorder patients in euthymic- (p<0.05), depressed- (p<0.005) and manic/hypomanic (p<0.005) states compared with healthy control subjects. Within bipolar disorder patients, adjusting for medication, there was no significant difference in BDNF levels between affective states, with equally elevated levels present in euthymic-, depressive- and manic/hypomanic patients. Levels of BDNF were higher in patients with longer duration of illness compared with patients with shorter duration of illness. We found no difference in NT-3 levels between bipolar disorder patients in any affective state compared with healthy control subjects and no difference in NT-3 levels between affective states in bipolar disorder patients. The results suggest that
Bauer, Rita; Gottfriedsen, Grit-Urte; Binder, Harald; Dobmeier, Matthias; Cording, Clemens; Hajak, Göran; Spiessl, Hermann
Thirty-two problem-oriented interviews with caregivers of patients with bipolar affective disorders were analyzed using content analysis. The 722 statements of caregivers about their experiences of subjective burden because of the illness of their family members were summarized in 49 global statements and correlated by factor analysis to 10 types of burden. In particular, patients' noncompliance as well as the helplessness of the caregivers in interaction with the (changing) depressive and manic symptoms of the ill family members emerged as serious burdens on the caregivers. Whereas female caregivers suffered more from problems regarding quality of relationship with the patient, male caregivers experienced more constraints on their own autonomy, uncertainty concerning their judgment of patients' capacity, and uncertainty because of the changing symptoms of illness. The findings of this study highlight that an appreciation of caregivers' own consternation and information about how best to handle the (uncooperative) behavior of the patient should be taken into account in psychoeducational groups as well as in the daily work routine of professionals. © 2011 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Peitl, Marija Vucić; Peitl, Vjekoslav; Grahovac, Tanja; Pavlović, Eudard
Risperidone, as all atypical antipsychotics, can cause hyperprolactinemia which can in turn lead to galactorrhea. Mood stabilizers, one of which is valproic acid and its derivate "Depakine Chrono", are rarely linked with symptomatic hyperprolactinemia and do not alter prolactin concentrations. This case is based around a patient suffering from a bipolar disorder that has been psychiatrically treated in an outpatient clinic during four years. Bipolar disorder treatment was started with carbamazepine, but later it was discontinued due to adverse events and extreme increase of liver transaminases. Treatment was continued with introduction of lithium, but the patient stated that she could not tolerate it. Subsequently, her endocrinologist advised for lithium discontinuation due to very severe osteoporosis. At the beginning of 2009, lithium was discontinued and Depakine Chrono was introduced. Due to patient's psychotic decompensation it was necessary to introduce risperidone into treatment and soon afterwards her psychotic symptoms settled. After several months of treatment her mood lowered, she began to feel sedated, psychomotorically retarded and that lead to dose lowering of Depakine Chrono and risperidone, at which point galactorrhea as a serious adverse event occurred. Occurrence of galactorrhea at lower risperidone doses in this case might be partially explained by recent studies that showed that lower doses of risperidone can also improve psychic state, but could also cause adverse events. Although galactorrhea, as a direct consequence of hyperprolactinemia caused by risperidone has mainly been researched with higher doses of this atypical antipsychotic, we have to keep in mind that lower doses could also cause serious adverse events.
Carter, Julia M; Arentsen, Timothy J; Cordova, Matthew J; Ruzek, Josef; Reiser, Robert; Suppes, Trisha; Ostacher, Michael J
Suicide risk increases for those with Bipolar Disorder or PTSD, however little research has focused on risk for co-occurring Bipolar Disorder and PTSD. The aim of this article was to evaluate increased suicide risk in co-occurring disorders, and differences in suicide risk for patients with Bipolar I versus Bipolar II. This study evaluated suicide risk in patients with co-occurring PTSD and Bipolar Disorder (n = 3,158), using the MADRS and Suicide Questionnaire. Those with history of PTSD had significantly higher suicidal ideation than those without (U = 1063375.00, p < .0001). Those with Bipolar I had higher risk than those with Bipolar II. Patients with Bipolar I and PTSD were at higher risk for suicidal ideation, implying the importance of diagnosis and risk assessment.
Tseng, Mei-Chih Meg; Chang, Chin-Hao; Chen, Kuan-Yu; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chen, Hsi-Chung
To investigate the prevalence and correlates of bipolar disorders in patients with eating disorders (EDs), and to examine differences in effects between major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder on these patients. Sequential attendees were invited to participate in a two-phase survey for EDs at the general psychiatric outpatient clinics. Patients diagnosed with EDs (n=288) and controls of comparable age, sex, and educational level (n=81) were invited to receive structured interviews for psychiatric co-morbidities, suicide risks, and functional level. All participants also completed several self-administered questionnaires assessing general and eating-related pathology and impulsivity. Characteristics were compared between the control, ED-only, ED with major depressive disorder, and ED with bipolar disorder groups. Patients with all ED subtypes had significantly higher rates of major depressive disorder (range, 41.3-66.7%) and bipolar disorder (range, 16.7-49.3%) than controls did. Compared to patients with only EDs, patients with comorbid bipolar disorder and those with comorbid major depressive disorder had significantly increased suicidality and functional impairments. Moreover, the group with comorbid bipolar disorder had increased risks of weight dysregulation, more impulsive behaviors, and higher rates of psychiatric comorbidities. Participants were selected in a tertiary center of a non-Western country and the sample size of individuals with bipolar disorder in some ED subtypes was small. Bipolar disorders were common in patients with EDs. Careful differentiation between bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder in patients with EDs may help predict associated psychopathology and provide accurate treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hughes, Tom; Cardno, Alastair; West, Robert; Marino-Francis, Federica; Featherstone, Imogen; Rolling, Keeley; Locker, Alice; McLintock, Kate; House, Allan
Bipolar disorder is not uncommon, is associated with high disability and risk of suicide, often presents with depression, and can go unrecognised. To determine the prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder among those prescribed antidepressants for depressive or anxiety disorder in UK primary care; whether those with unrecognised bipolar disorder have more severe depression than those who do not; and the accuracy of a screening questionnaire for bipolar disorder, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), in this setting. Observational primary care study of patients on the lists of 21 general practices in West Yorkshire aged 16-40 years and prescribed antidepressant medication. Participants were recruited using primary care databases, interviewed using a diagnostic interview, and completed the screening questionnaire and rating scales of symptoms and quality of life. The prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder was 7.3%. Adjusting for differences between the sample and a national database gives a prevalence of 10.0%. Those with unrecognised bipolar disorder were younger and had greater lifetime depression. The predictive value of the MDQ was poor. Among people aged 16-40 years prescribed antidepressants in primary care for depression or anxiety, there is a substantial proportion with unrecognised bipolar disorder. When seeing patients with depression or anxiety disorder, particularly when they are young or not doing well, clinicians should review the life history for evidence of unrecognised bipolar disorder. Some clinicians might find the MDQ to be a useful supplement to non-standardised questioning. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Hughes, Tom; Cardno, Alastair; West, Robert; Marino-Francis, Federica; Featherstone, Imogen; Rolling, Keeley; Locker, Alice; McLintock, Kate; House, Allan
Background Bipolar disorder is not uncommon, is associated with high disability and risk of suicide, often presents with depression, and can go unrecognised. Aim To determine the prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder among those prescribed antidepressants for depressive or anxiety disorder in UK primary care; whether those with unrecognised bipolar disorder have more severe depression than those who do not; and the accuracy of a screening questionnaire for bipolar disorder, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), in this setting. Design and setting Observational primary care study of patients on the lists of 21 general practices in West Yorkshire aged 16–40 years and prescribed antidepressant medication. Method Participants were recruited using primary care databases, interviewed using a diagnostic interview, and completed the screening questionnaire and rating scales of symptoms and quality of life. Results The prevalence of unrecognised bipolar disorder was 7.3%. Adjusting for differences between the sample and a national database gives a prevalence of 10.0%. Those with unrecognised bipolar disorder were younger and had greater lifetime depression. The predictive value of the MDQ was poor. Conclusion Among people aged 16–40 years prescribed antidepressants in primary care for depression or anxiety, there is a substantial proportion with unrecognised bipolar disorder. When seeing patients with depression or anxiety disorder, particularly when they are young or not doing well, clinicians should review the life history for evidence of unrecognised bipolar disorder. Some clinicians might find the MDQ to be a useful supplement to non-standardised questioning. PMID:26740604
Aubert, E; Jaussent, I; Olié, E; Ducasse, D; Azorin, J M; Bellivier, F; Belzeaux, R; Bougerol, T; Etain, B; Gard, S; Henry, C; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Loftus, J; Passerieux, C; Lopez-Castroman, J; Courtet, Ph
Poor quality of sleep is frequent in euthymic bipolar patients and conveys worse clinical outcomes. We investigated the features of euthymic bipolar patients associated with poor sleep quality, with a focus on the effect of childhood trauma. 493 euthymic patients with DSM-IV-defined bipolar disorders were recruited in FondaMental Advanced Centers of Expertize for Bipolar Disorders (FACE-BD) between 2009 and 2014. Clinical variables were recorded. Subjective sleep quality and history of childhood trauma were respectively measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Poor sleepers were older, less professionally active, had significantly higher anxiety levels, took more anxiolytic drugs and did endorse more suicide attempts and suicidal ideas than good sleepers after adjusting for anxiety levels and age. Emotional abuse was associated with poor sleep quality after adjustment for BMI, age, professional activity, and bipolar disorders (BD) type (OR=1.83; 95% CI [1.30; 3.10]; p=0.02). However, this association was lost after adjustment for anxiety levels, anxiolytic treatment and suicide ideation/attempts. The main limitation was the type of sleep assessment, which only measured the subjective part of sleep complaints. A history of emotional abuse might underlie sleep problems in many bipolar patients but anxiety seems to act as a confounding factor in this relationship. New studies are needed to elucidate the role of childhood maltreatment on poor sleep among bipolar patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Gorp, W G; Altshuler, L; Theberge, D C; Wilkins, J; Dixon, W
Few studies of the neurocognitive performance of patients with bipolar disorder have been performed while patients are in the euthymic state. Twenty-five euthymic bipolar patients (12 with and 13 without a history of alcohol dependence) were compared with 22 normal control subjects on a neuropsychological test battery assessing a range of cognitive domains. The relationship between subjects' neurocognitive performance and the course-of-illness variables (lifetime episodes and duration of mania, depression, or both), as well as current lithium level, was determined. The results indicated differences across the groups, with the bipolar patients with and without alcohol dependence performing more poorly than controls on tests of verbal memory. Furthermore, bipolar subjects with a history of alcohol dependence had additional decrements in executive (i.e., frontal lobe) functions when compared with controls. For subjects in the bipolar group, lifetime months of mania and depression were negatively correlated with performance in verbal memory and several executive function measures. Our findings support the presence of persistent neurocognitive difficulties in patients with long-standing bipolar disorder who are not in the psychiatrically acute state or who are suffering the effects of alcohol abuse and suggest that there may be an aggregate negative effect of lifetime duration of bipolar illness on memory and frontal or executive systems.
Lv, Dongsheng; Lin, Wuhong; Xue, Zhimin; Pu, Weidan; Yang, Qing; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Li; Yang, Lihua; Liu, Zhening
Retardation of thought is a crucial clinical feature in patients with bipolar depression, characterized by dysfunctional semantic processing and language communication. However, the underlying neuropathological mechanisms remain largely unknown. The objective of this study was to evaluate the disruption in resting-state functional connectivity in 90 different brain regions during the depressive episodes of bipolar disorder and during disease remission. Applying the whole brain and language regions of interest methods to the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, we explored the discrepancies in 90 brain regions' functional connectivity in 42 patients with bipolar disorder - 23 experiencing a depressive episode and 19 in remission - and 28 healthy controls matched for gender, age, and education. Bipolar depressive patients had significantly reduced connectivity strength in the language regions relative to healthy controls. Specifically, the affected regions included the left triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus, left opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, and left angular gyrus. However, no significant differences in these regions were observed between bipolar patients in remission and healthy controls. Furthermore, the decreased connectivity strength between the left middle temporal gyrus and right lingual gyrus showed significant positive correlation with the scores on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Bipolar depressive patients received treatment of benzodiazepines, which may confound the findings. Our results illustrated that connectivity disturbances in the language regions may change depending on the disease phase of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Døssing, Marianne; Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Svejstrup, Stinna Rzepa; Sørensen, Vegard Venås; Straarup, Krista Nielsen; Hansen, Tia B
Emerging research suggests that low self-compassion may be linked to psychopathology and in particular depressive symptoms. To further elucidate this topic, the present study investigated self-compassion in patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD). Thirty remitted BD patients were compared to thirty age- and sex matched controls on the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). The BD patients also completed the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale (ASRM), the Major Depression Inventory (MDI), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) and the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness Scale (ISMI-10) and further reported their illness history on a survey sheet. The BD patients were found to have significantly lower self-compassion than controls. In addition, self-compassion correlated positively and significantly with life-satisfaction but no significant correlations with functional impairment, internalized stigma or frequency of past affective episodes were found. The small sample size entailed reduced statistical power. By suggesting that self-compassion is reduced and possibly linked to life-satisfaction in BD, the findings highlight a potential vulnerability meriting further investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mertens, Jerome; Wang, Qiu-Wen; Kim, Yongsung; Yu, Diana X; Pham, Son; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Yi; Diffenderfer, Kenneth E; Zhang, Jian; Soltani, Sheila; Eames, Tameji; Schafer, Simon T; Boyer, Leah; Marchetto, Maria C; Nurnberger, John I; Calabrese, Joseph R; Ødegaard, Ketil J; McCarthy, Michael J; Zandi, Peter P; Alda, Martin; Alba, Martin; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Mi, Shuangli; Brennand, Kristen J; Kelsoe, John R; Gage, Fred H; Yao, Jun
Bipolar disorder is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by intermittent episodes of mania and depression; without treatment, 15% of patients commit suicide. Hence, it has been ranked by the World Health Organization as a top disorder of morbidity and lost productivity. Previous neuropathological studies have revealed a series of alterations in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder or animal models, such as reduced glial cell number in the prefrontal cortex of patients, upregulated activities of the protein kinase A and C pathways and changes in neurotransmission. However, the roles and causation of these changes in bipolar disorder have been too complex to exactly determine the pathology of the disease. Furthermore, although some patients show remarkable improvement with lithium treatment for yet unknown reasons, others are refractory to lithium treatment. Therefore, developing an accurate and powerful biological model for bipolar disorder has been a challenge. The introduction of induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC) technology has provided a new approach. Here we have developed an iPSC model for human bipolar disorder and investigated the cellular phenotypes of hippocampal dentate gyrus-like neurons derived from iPSCs of patients with bipolar disorder. Guided by RNA sequencing expression profiling, we have detected mitochondrial abnormalities in young neurons from patients with bipolar disorder by using mitochondrial assays; in addition, using both patch-clamp recording and somatic Ca(2+) imaging, we have observed hyperactive action-potential firing. This hyperexcitability phenotype of young neurons in bipolar disorder was selectively reversed by lithium treatment only in neurons derived from patients who also responded to lithium treatment. Therefore, hyperexcitability is one early endophenotype of bipolar disorder, and our model of iPSCs in this disease might be useful in developing new therapies and drugs aimed at its clinical
Mertens, Jerome; Wang, Qiu-Wen; Kim, Yongsung; Yu, Diana X.; Pham, Son; Yang, Bo; Zheng, Yi; Diffenderfer, Kenneth E.; Zhang, Jian; Soltani, Sheila; Eames, Tameji; Schafer, Simon T.; Boyer, Leah; Marchetto, Maria C.; Nurnberger, John I.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Oedegaard, Ketil J.; McCarthy, Michael J.; Zandi, Peter P.; Alda, Martin; Nievergelt, Caroline M.; Mi, Shuangli; Brennand, Kristen J.; Kelsoe, John R.; Gage, Fred H.; Yao, Jun
Bipolar disorder is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that is characterized by intermittent episodes of mania and depression; without treatment, 15% of patients commit suicide1. Hence, it has been ranked by the World Health Organization as a top disorder of morbidity and lost productivity2. Previous neuropathological studies have revealed a series of alterations in the brains of patients with bipolar disorder or animal models3, such as reduced glial cell number in the prefrontal cortex of patients4, upregulated activities of the protein kinase A and C pathways5–7 and changes in neurotransmission8–11. However, the roles and causation of these changes in bipolar disorder have been too complex to exactly determine the pathology of the disease. Furthermore, although some patients show remarkable improvement with lithium treatment for yet unknown reasons, others are refractory to lithium treatment. Therefore, developing an accurate and powerful biological model for bipolar disorder has been a challenge. The introduction of induced pluripotent stem-cell (iPSC) technology has provided a new approach. Here we have developed an iPSC model for human bipolar disorder and investigated the cellular phenotypes of hippocampal dentate gyrus-like neurons derived from iPSCs of patients with bipolar disorder. Guided by RNA sequencing expression profiling, we have detected mitochondrial abnormalities in young neurons from patients with bipolar disorder by using mitochondrial assays; in addition, using both patch-clamp recording and somatic Ca2+ imaging, we have observed hyperactive action-potential firing. This hyperexcitability phenotype of young neurons in bipolar disorder was selectively reversed by lithium treatment only in neurons derived from patients who also responded to lithium treatment. Therefore, hyperexcitability is one early endophenotype of bipolar disorder, and our model of iPSCs in this disease might be useful in developing new therapies and drugs aimed at its
The needs and expectations of patients with bipolar disorder who require hospitalisation are not known to most professionals. A high degree of patient satisfaction, however, is known to improve outcome and adherence to a medication or psychotherapy regimen. In this article, bipolar patients' needs and expectations with respect to hospital treatment are presented. It will become obvious, that the gap between wishful thinking and reality is still wide. Possible improvement strategies to narrow this gap are discussed.
Miller, Christopher J.; Abraham, Kristen M.; Bajor, Laura A.; Lai, Zongshan; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Nord, Kristina M.; Goodrich, David E.; Bauer, Mark S.; Kilbourne, Amy M.
Introduction Bipolar disorder is associated with functional impairment across a number of domains, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Many patients are treated exclusively in primary care (PC) settings, yet little is known how HRQOL outcomes compare between PC and community mental health (CMH) settings. This study aimed to explore the correlates of HRQOL across treatment settings using baseline data from a multisite, randomized controlled trial for adults with bipolar disorder. Methods HRQOL was measured using the SF-12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) health scales. Independent sample t-tests were calculated to compare differences in HRQOL between settings. Multivariate regression models then examined the effect of treatment setting on HRQOL, adjusting for covariate demographic factors, mood symptoms (Internal State Scale), hazardous drinking (AUDIT-C), and substance abuse. Results A total of 384 enrolled participants completed baseline surveys. MCS and PCS scores reflected similar impairment in HRQOL across PC and CMH settings (p = .98 and p = .49, respectively). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower MCS scores (B = −.68, p < .001) while arthritis/chronic pain was strongly related to lower PCS scores (B = −5.23, p < .001). Limitations This study lacked a formal diagnostic interview, relied on cross-sectional self-report, and sampled from a small number of sites in two states. Discussion Participants reported similar impairments in both mental and physical HRQOL in PC and CMH treatment settings, emphasizing the need for integrated care for patients with bipolar disorder regardless of where they present for treatment. PMID:22981021
Miller, Christopher J; Abraham, Kristen M; Bajor, Laura A; Lai, Zongshan; Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Nord, Kristina M; Goodrich, David E; Bauer, Mark S; Kilbourne, Amy M
Bipolar disorder is associated with functional impairment across a number of domains, including health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Many patients are treated exclusively in primary care (PC) settings, yet little is known how HRQOL outcomes compare between PC and community mental health (CMH) settings. This study aimed to explore the correlates of HRQOL across treatment settings using baseline data from a multisite, randomized controlled trial for adults with bipolar disorder. HRQOL was measured using the SF-12 physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) composite scale scores. Independent sample t-tests were calculated to compare differences in HRQOL between settings. Multivariate regression models then examined the effect of treatment setting on HRQOL, adjusting for covariate demographic factors, mood symptoms (Internal State Scale), hazardous drinking (AUDIT-C), and substance abuse. A total of 384 enrolled participants completed baseline surveys. MCS and PCS scores reflected similar impairment in HRQOL across PC and CMH settings (p=0.98 and p=0.49, respectively). Depressive symptoms were associated with lower MCS scores (B=-0.68, p<0.001) while arthritis/chronic pain was strongly related to lower PCS scores (B=-5.23, p<0.001). This study lacked a formal diagnostic interview, relied on cross-sectional self-report, and sampled from a small number of sites in two states. Participants reported similar impairments in both mental and physical HRQOL in PC and CMH treatment settings, emphasizing the need for integrated care for patients with bipolar disorder regardless of where they present for treatment. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Sarısoy, Gökhan; Kaçar, Omer Faruk; Pazvantoğlu, Ozan; Oztürk, Arif; Korkmaz, Işıl Zabun; Kocamanoğlu, Birsen; Böke, Omer; Sahin, Ahmet Rifat
This study was intended to investigate temperament and character traits in bipolar disorder patients with or without a history of attempted suicide. One hundred nineteen patients diagnosed with euthymic bipolar disorder based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, and with no accompanying Axis I and II comorbidity, and 103 healthy controls were included. Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis I and II disorders were used to exclude Axis I and II comorbidity. Temperament and character traits of bipolar patients with a history attempted suicide (25.2%, n = 30) or without (74.8%, n = 89) and of the healthy volunteers were determined using the Temperament and Character Inventory. The association between current suicide ideation and temperament and character traits was also examined. Bipolar patients with or without a history of attempted suicide had higher harm avoidance (HA) scores compared with the healthy controls. Persistence scores of bipolar patients with no history of attempted suicide were lower than those of the healthy controls. Self-directedness (SD) scores of the bipolar patients with a history of attempted suicide were lower than those of patients with no such history. Self-transcendence scores of bipolar patients with no history of attempted suicide were lower than those of both the healthy controls and of those patients with a history of attempted suicide. A positive correlation was determined between current suicidal ideation scale scores and HA, and a negative correlation between SD and cooperativeness was determined. High harm avoidance may be a temperament trait specific to bipolar disorder patients. However, it may not be correlated with attempted suicide in such patients. These may have low persistence, high SD and low self-transcendence temperament and character traits that protect against attempted suicide. Harm avoidance, SD
Pavuluri, Mani N; Schenkel, Lindsay S; Aryal, Subhash; Harral, Erin M; Hill, S Kristian; Herbener, Ellen S; Sweeney, John A
A systematic evaluation of neuropsychological functioning in individuals with pediatric bipolar disorder is necessary to clarify the types of cognitive deficits that are associated with acutely ill and euthymic phases of the disorder and the effects of medication on these deficits. Unmedicated (N=28) and medicated (N=28) pediatric bipolar patients and healthy individuals (N=28) (mean age=11.74 years, SD=2.99) completed cognitive testing. Groups were matched on age, sex, race, parental socioeconomic status, general intelligence, and single-word reading ability. A computerized neurocognitive battery and standardized neuropsychological tests were administered to assess attention, executive function, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, visuospatial perception, and motor skills. Subjects with pediatric bipolar disorder, regardless of medication and illness status, showed impairments in the domains of attention, executive functioning, working memory, and verbal learning compared to healthy individuals. Also, bipolar subjects with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) performed worse on tasks assessing attention and executive function than patients with bipolar disorder alone. The absence of differences in the deficits of neurocognitive profiles between acutely ill unmedicated patients and euthymic medicated patients suggests that these impairments are trait-like characteristics of pediatric bipolar disorder. The cognitive deficits found in individuals with pediatric bipolar disorder suggest significant involvement of frontal lobe systems supporting working memory and mesial temporal lobe systems supporting verbal memory, regardless of ADHD comorbidity.
Mohammadi, Alireza; Hesami, Ehsan; Kargar, Mahmoud; Shams, Jamal
Present evidence suggests that the use of virtual reality has great advantages in evaluating visuospatial navigation and memory for the diagnosis of psychiatric or other neurological disorders. There are a few virtual reality studies on allocentric and egocentric memories in schizophrenia, but studies on both memories in bipolar disorder are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare the performance of allocentric and egocentric memories in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. For this resolve, an advanced virtual reality navigation task (VRNT) was presented to distinguish the navigational performances of these patients. Twenty subjects with schizophrenia and 20 bipolar disorder patients were compared with 20 healthy-matched controls on the newly developed VRNT consisting of a virtual neighbourhood (allocentric memory) and a virtual maze (egocentric memory). The results demonstrated that schizophrenia patients were significantly impaired on all allocentric, egocentric, visual, and verbal memory tasks compared with patients with bipolar disorder and normal subjects. Dissimilarly, the performance of patients with bipolar disorder was slightly lower than that of control subjects in all these abilities, but no significant differences were observed. It was concluded that allocentric and egocentric navigation deficits are detectable in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using VRNT, and this task along with RAVLT and ROCFT can be used as a valid clinical tool for distinguishing these patients from normal subjects.
Ozyildirim, I; Cakir, S; Yazici, O
In this study, we aimed to compare the clinical features and response patterns to the long-term prophylaxis of bipolar patients with or without psychotic features. The life charts of patients with bipolar I disorder were evaluated. Two hundred and eighty-one patients who suffer with bipolar disorder for at least 4 years and who had at least three mood episodes were included to the study. The patients whose all episodes are psychotic (psychotic group) and the patients who never experienced psychotic episode (non-psychotic group) were assigned as comparison groups. The clinical features and the response to long-term prophylaxis were compared across the groups. The psychotic group consists of 43 patients; non-psychotic group consists of 54 patients. The history of bipolar disorder among the first-degree relatives was remarkably more prevalent in non-psychotic group (p=0.032). The predominance of manic/hypomanic episodes was significantly higher in psychotic group than non-psychotic group; and the rate of depressive episodes were higher in non-psychotic group than psychotic group (p=0.013). Episodes were more severe (p<0.001) and hospitalization rates were higher (p=0.023) in psychotic group. The response to lithium monotherapy was better in non-psychotic group (p<0.001). The well identified psychotic subtype of bipolar patients may give important predictions about long term course and prophylaxis of bipolar disorder. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
García-López, Aurelio; Ezquiaga, Elena; De Dios, Consuelo; Agud, Jose Luis
The aim of this study was to determine clinical and outcome differences between older bipolar patients with early onset (EO) and late onset (LO) of the illness and between younger and EO older patients with a bipolar disorder under long-term treatment in an outpatient clinical setting. Three hundred ninety-five bipolar I and II outpatients were followed up for up to 7.7 years. Of these, 213 younger (<50 years) and 88 older (>60 years) patients were included. In the older subsample, 50 EO patients (onset <50 years) versus 38 LO patients (≥50 years) were analyzed. Likewise, younger versus EO older patients were compared. The likelihood of LO older patients of being bipolar II was higher than for EO older patients. They were also diagnosed earlier than EO older patients. No other clinical differences at baseline and at the prospective follow-up were found. Compared with younger patients, EO older patients had more frequent depressive symptoms at baseline, suffered more major depressive episodes in the previous year and in the prospective follow-up, received more antidepressants at baseline, had higher rates of medical comorbid conditions and were less likely to be tobacco smokers. Older patients constitute a meaningful proportion of bipolar patients under treatment. EO older patients suffered significantly from more frequent depressive symptoms than younger ones. LO older patients were predominantly bipolar II. So as bipolar illness progressed, depressive symptomatology became more frequent and manic episodes were less severe. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorders share not only clinical features but also some risk factors such as genetic markers and childhood adversity, while other risk factors such as urbanicity and obstetric complications seem to be specific to schizophrenia. An intriguing question is whether the well-established abnormal neurodevelopment present in many children and adolescents who eventually develop schizophrenia is also present in bipolar patients. The literature on adult bipolar patients is controversial. We report data on a subgroup of patients with pediatric-onset psychotic bipolar disorder who seem to share some developmental trajectories with patients with early-onset schizophrenia. These early-onset psychotic bipolar patients have low intelligence quotient, more neurological signs, reduced frontal gray matter at the time of their first psychotic episode, and greater brain changes than healthy controls in a pattern similar to early-onset schizophrenia cases. However, patients with early-onset schizophrenia seem to have more social impairment, developmental abnormalities (eg, language problems), and lower academic achievement in childhood than early-onset bipolar patients. We suggest that some of these abnormal developmental trajectories are more related to the phenotypic features (eg, early-onset psychotic symptoms) of these 2 syndromes than to categorically defined Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders disorders. PMID:24371326
Palazzo, M Carlotta; Arici, Chiara; Cremaschi, Laura; Cristoffanini, Marta; Dobrea, Cristina; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Altamura, A Carlo
Cognitive impairment may affect patients with Bipolar Disorder (BD) beyond the acute episodes, qualifying as a potential endophenotype. However, which cognitive domains are specifically affected in euthymic patients with BD and the potential influence of confounding factors (e.g., age and concomitant pharmacological treatment) are still a matter of debate. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess cognitive performance across specific domains in euthymic bipolar patients, not older than 50 years (to avoid potential age-related bias) versus healthy controls (HCs). A cognitive task battery, including the Wisconsin Card Test, Span Attention Test, Tower of London, Trail Making Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Matrices Scores and N-Back, was administered to 62 subjects (30 bipolar patients and 32 matched HCs) and differences between the groups analyzed. Bipolar patients performed significantly worse than HCs in the Span Forward task, in the expression of Verbal Fluency Test (Category) and in the N-Back task (all p<.05), with marginal differences between BD I and BD II patients. The present study pointed out significant differences in terms of cognitive performance between euthymic bipolar patients and HCs, supporting the notion that specific cognitive functions may remain impaired even after the resolution of the acute episodes in subjects suffering from BD. Future studies on larger samples are warranted to confirm the present results and further explore potential differences in cognitive impairment across specific bipolar subtypes.
BERKOL, Tonguç Demir; YARGIÇ, İlhan; ÖZYILDIRIM, İlker; YAZICI, Olcay
Introduction The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of adult attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity in bipolar patients and to investigate the influence of this comorbidity on the clinical characteristics of bipolar disorder (BD). Method A total of 135 patients with BD type I and II and BD not otherwise specified were included in this study. First, the Adult ADD/ADHD DSM-IV-Based Diagnostic Screening and Rating Scale (ADHD scale) was administered to all patients, and all of the patients were also interviewed for the diagnosis. Patients who were diagnosed as having ADHD comorbidity (n=23) on the basis of DSM-IV and those who were not diagnosed to have ADHD comorbidity (n=32) were compared in terms of sociodemographic and clinical correlates. Results Twenty-three of 135 patients (17%) were found to have ADHD comorbidity. In the ADHD comorbidity group, the level of education and the number of suicide attempts were higher (p=.011 and .043, respectively). Although not significant, subthreshold depressive symptoms in interepisodic periods, the lifetime history of antidepressant use and the total number of lifetime depressive episodes tended to be more frequent in bipolar disorder with ADHD comorbidity group than in the control group. Conclusion Bipolar disorder has a frequent comorbidity with ADHD, and contrary to expectations, it might be related to the depressive aspect, rather than the manic aspect, of bipolar disorder. Early diagnosis of ADHD comorbidity in bipolar patients might help to prevent serious risk factors.
Kikuchi, Kumiko; Iga, Jun-ichi; Tayoshi, Sumiko; Nakataki, Masahito; Watanabe, Shinya; Numata, Shusuke; Ohmori, Tetsuro
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is thought to be involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and the target of antidepressants. The aim of this study was to elucidate molecular effects of lithium on VEGF expression by using leukocytes of healthy subjects and patients with bipolar disorder. Eight healthy male subjects participated in the first study. Lithium was prescribed for 2 weeks, enough to reach therapeutic serum concentration. Leukocyte counts and serum lithium concentrations were determined at baseline, at 1- and 2-week medication, and at 2 weeks after stopping medication. VEGF mRNA levels were also examined in nine lithium-treated bipolar patients and healthy controls in the second study. In the first study, leukocyte counts were significantly increased at 2 weeks compared with those at baseline and were normalized after 2 weeks. VEGF mRNA levels were significantly decreased at 2 weeks and after 2 weeks compared with those at baseline. Consistent with the first study, VEGF mRNA levels were significantly decreased in the lithium-treated bipolar patients compared with healthy controls. Our investigation suggests that VEGF mRNA expression may be useful as a peripheral marker of the effects of lithium. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Goodwin, G M
The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines specify the scope and target of treatment for bipolar disorder. The second version, like the first, is based explicitly on the available evidence and presented, like previous Clinical Practice guidelines, as recommendations to aid clinical decision making for practitioners: they may also serve as a source of information for patients and carers. The recommendations are presented together with a more detailed but selective qualitative review of the available evidence. A consensus meeting, involving experts in bipolar disorder and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from participants and interested parties. The strength of supporting evidence was rated. The guidelines cover the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, clinical management, and strategies for the use of medicines in treatment of episodes, relapse prevention and stopping treatment.
McNamara, Robert K; Jandacek, Ronald; Rider, Therese; Tso, Patrick; Stanford, Kevin E; Hahn, Chang-Gyu; Richtand, Neil M
Previous antemortem and postmortem tissue fatty acid composition studies have observed significant deficits in the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) in red blood cell (RBC) and postmortem cortical membranes of patients with unipolar depression. In the present study, we determined the fatty acid composition of postmortem orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, Brodmann area 10) of patients with bipolar disorder (n=18) and age-matched normal controls (n=19) by gas chromatography. After correction for multiple comparisons, DHA (-24%), arachidonic acid (-14%), and stearic acid (C18:0) (-4.5%) compositions were significantly lower, and cis-vaccenic acid (18:1n-7) (+12.5%) composition significantly higher, in the OFC of bipolar patients relative to normal controls. Based on metabolite:precursor ratios, significant elevations in arachidonic acid, stearic acid, and palmitic acid conversion/metabolism were observed in the OFC of bipolar patients, and were inversely correlated with DHA composition. Deficits in OFC DHA and arachidonic acid composition, and elevations in arachidonic acid metabolism, were numerically (but not significantly) greater in drug-free bipolar patients relative to patients treated with mood-stabilizer or antipsychotic medications. OFC DHA and arachidonic acid deficits were greater in patients plus normal controls with high vs. low alcohol abuse severity. These results add to a growing body of evidence implicating omega-3 fatty acid deficiency as well as the OFC in the pathoaetiology of bipolar disorder.
Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H; Knapen, Stefan E; Vreeker, Annabel; Abramovic, Lucija; Pagani, Lucia; Jung, Yoon; Riemersma-van der Lek, Rixt; Schoevers, Robert A; Takahashi, Joseph S; Kahn, René S; Boks, Marco P M; Ophoff, Roel A
Disturbances in sleep and waking patterns are highly prevalent during mood episodes in bipolar disorder. The question remains whether these disturbances persist during phases of euthymia and whether they are heritable traits of bipolar disorder. The current study investigates objective sleep measures in a large sample of bipolar I patients, non-affected siblings and controls. A total of 107 bipolar disorder I patients, 74 non-affected siblings, and 80 controls were included. Sleep was measured with actigraphy over the course of 14 days. Seven sleep parameters were analyzed for group differences and their relationship with age at onset, number of episodes and psychotic symptoms using linear mixed model analysis to account for family dependencies. Patients had a longer sleep duration and later time of sleep offset compared to the non-affected siblings but these differences were entirely attributable to differences in mood symptoms. We found no difference between patients and controls or siblings and controls when the analyses were restricted to euthymic patients. None of the bipolar illness characteristics were associated with sleep. Medication use was not taken into account which may have influenced our findings and controls were younger compared to non-affected siblings. In the largest study to date, our findings suggest that recovered bipolar I patients and their siblings do not experience clinically significant sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbances are primarily a reflection of current mood state, but are unrelated to the course of the disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kurdal, Ebru; Tanriverdi, Derya; Savas, Haluk Asuman
Bipolar disorder has adverse effects on the lives of the individuals and the people around them and causes disability due to impaired social and occupational functioning, risk of suicide, and frequent relapses. This study was conducted as a two-group pretest-posttest design to determine the effect of psychoeducation on the functioning levels of patients with bipolar disorder. A total of 80 patients were assigned to either the experimental (n = 40) or the control group (n = 40). The data were collected using a questionnaire form, and the Bipolar Disorder Functioning Questionnaire. The experimental group scored significantly higher on the functioning levels (emotional functioning, intellectual functioning, feelings of stigmatization, social withdrawal, household relations, relations with friends, participating in social activities, daily activities and recreational activities, taking initiative and self-sufficiency, and occupation) (p < .05) compared with the control group after psychoeducation. Psychoeducation has become considerably effective in increasing the functioning levels of patients with bipolar disorder.
Sauer, Cathrin; Pfeiffer, Steffi; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea
Background. Several studies have described but not formally tested discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of sleep. Study Objectives. To test the hypothesis that patients with bipolar disorder display a systematic bias to underestimate sleep duration and overestimate sleep latency. Methods. Actimetry was used to assess sleep latency and duration in 49 euthymic participants (bipolar = 21; healthy controls = 28) for 5–7 days. Participants simultaneously recorded estimated sleep duration and sleep latency on a daily basis via an online sleep diary. Group differences in the discrepancy between subjective and objective parameters were calculated using t-tests and corrected for multiple comparisons. Results. Patients with bipolar disorder significantly underestimated their sleep duration but did not overestimate their sleep latency compared to healthy controls. Conclusions. Studies utilizing diaries or questionnaires alone in patients with bipolar disorders may systematically underestimate sleep duration compared to healthy controls. The additional use of objective assessment methods such as actimetry is advisable. PMID:27891255
Kemp, David E; Calabrese, Joseph R; Tran, Quynh-Van; Pikalov, Andrei; Eudicone, James M; Baker, Ross A
Objectives To compare the effects of maintenance treatment with aripiprazole or placebo on the incidence of metabolic syndrome in bipolar disorder. Methods Patients with bipolar I disorder were stabilized on aripiprazole for 6–18 weeks prior to double-blind randomization to aripiprazole or placebo for 26 weeks. The rate of metabolic syndrome in each group was calculated at maintenance phase baseline (randomization) and endpoint for evaluable patients using an LOCF approach. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results At entry into the maintenance phase, overall 45/125 patients (36.0%) met criteria for metabolic syndrome. Mean changes in the five components of metabolic syndrome (waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and glucose) from baseline to Week 26 were small except for a meaningful reduction in triglycerides (placebo −18.9 mg/dL; aripiprazole −11.5 mg/dL). By the end of the maintenance phase (endpoint, LOCF), 5/18 placebo-treated patients (27.8%) and 4/14 aripiprazole-treated patients (28.6%) no longer met metabolic syndrome criteria. The proportion of patients with metabolic syndrome was similar in the placebo and aripiprazole groups both at baseline and Week 26. There were no significant changes in any of the individual components of metabolic syndrome between aripiprazole- and placebo-treated patients during maintenance phase treatment. Conclusions The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with bipolar disorder is higher than commonly reported in the general population. The effect of 26 weeks of treatment with aripiprazole on the incidence of metabolic syndrome and its components was similar to placebo. PMID:20492838
Palacio, Juan David; Guzman, Sandra; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; López-Jaramillo, Carlos
Inflammatory changes have been described in different affective episodes, as well as in the euthymic phase of Bipolar I Disease. These changes have been proposed as possible peripheral markers of the disease. For this reason well-designed studies are needed to explore this hypothesis. Quantify and compare the serum levels of interleukins (IL) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in bipolar I patients and healthy subjects, including the comparison between the affective episodes of the disease. Cross-sectional study including 41 bipolar I patients and 11 healthy control subjects. Serum levels of IL-1B, IL-RA, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, and TNF were measured during the euthymic, depressive, and manic phases and were compared with the serum levels of the healthy subjects. Manic phase patients had low education and high number of hospitalisations. Depressive phase patients showed high number of depressive episodes throughout life. No statistically significant differences were found in IL and TNF levels between bipolar I patients and healthy controls, or between the bipolar I subgroups (euthymic, manic and depressive states). An increase in the size of the sample is necessary in future studies, in order to enhance the statistical value of the results, and explore the inflammatory hypothesis of the bipolar disease. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Prasko, Jan; Kamaradova, Dana; Jelenova, Daniela; Ociskova, Marie; Sedlackova, Zuzana
Despite pharmacological treatment of bipolar affective disorder has many advantages; only drug treatment remains insufficiently beneficial to many patients. The combination of pharmacotherapy and internet psychoeducation seems to be the effective way how to improve remission. Internet-based therapy programs offer an exclusive chance for large underserved parts of the population to make evidence-based treatment without the need of full-time therapist. Our goal was to create a psychoeducational program for patients suffering from bipolar disorder that can be used in Czech Republic. There were identified studies through Web of Science, PUBMED, and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews were used in development of comprehensive internet psychoeducational program for patients with bipolar disorder. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", and "internet psychoeducation". The search was performed with no language or time restrictions. The internet psychoeducational program was developed in accordance to the data from the literature review. The aim of the Internet psychoeducational program of the Department of Psychiatry University Hospital in Olomouc is to familiarize patients with the fundamental nature of bipolar affective disorder, the character and principles of pharmacotherapy, the recognition of the warning signs of relapse, inappropriate and stressful stereotypes in communication within families, and finally the practice of social skills. Information from studies can help to prepare comprehensive psychoeducational program for bipolar patients.
Xiao, Lin; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Peiyun; Sun, Xiaojia
This study aimed to identify the relationship between cognitive function and quality of life (QOL) in Chinese patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in the remission stage, by adopting disease-specific instruments. The remission stage was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Rating Scale (BRMS). One hundred euthymic bipolar patients and 115 healthy controls completed the "cognitive complaints in bipolar disorder rating assessment"(COBRA), Montreal Cognitive Assessment scale (MoCA), and "Brief version of Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder" (Bref QOL.BD), which were used to assess the subjective cognitive function, objective cognitive function, and QOL, respectively. Compared to the healthy controls, the patient group had significantly lower total scores on both MoCA and Brief QOL.BD, and higher total score of COBRA. After controlling the influence of mood symptoms (HAMD and BRMS), both objective (MoCA) and subjective (COBRA) cognitive function could predict QOL significantly when entered either separately or simultaneously into hierarchical multiple regression models. When entered simultaneously, cognitive function explained 21% of the variance in QOL. The findings indicated that both objective and subjective cognitive function could influence QOL in euthymic bipolar patients, so continuous cognitive-improving interventions could help euthymic bipolar patients improve their QOL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Goldberg, Joseph F; Perlis, Roy H; Bowden, Charles L; Thase, Michael E; Miklowitz, David J; Marangell, Lauren B; Calabrese, Joseph R; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Sachs, Gary S
Little is known about how often bipolar depressive episodes are accompanied by subsyndromal manic symptoms in bipolar I and II disorders. The authors sought to determine the frequency and clinical correlates of manic symptoms during episodes of bipolar depression. From among 4,107 enrollees in the National Institute of Mental Health's Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD), 1,380 individuals met criteria for bipolar I or II depressive syndromes at the time of enrollment and were assessed for concomitant manic symptoms. Illness characteristics were compared in patients with pure bipolar depressed episodes and those with mixed depressive presentations. Two-thirds of the subjects with bipolar depressed episodes had concomitant manic symptoms, most often distractibility, flight of ideas or racing thoughts, and psychomotor agitation. Patients with any mixed features were significantly more likely than those with pure bipolar depressed episodes to have early age at illness onset, rapid cycling in the past year, bipolar I subtype, history of suicide attempts, and more days in the preceding year with irritability or mood elevation. Manic symptoms often accompany bipolar depressive episodes but may easily be overlooked when they appear less prominent than depressive features. Subsyndromal manic symptoms during bipolar I or II depression demarcate a more common, severe, and psychopathologically complex clinical state than pure bipolar depression and merit recognition as a distinct nosologic entity.
Goodwin, Guy M
Treatment of bipolar disorder with antidepressants tested almost exclusively in unipolar cases is common but unsupported by an appropriate body of evidence. This anomaly is highlighted by a large Taiwanese study, which implies that patients with depression difficult to treat with antidepressants are quite likely to be diagnosed subsequently with bipolar disorder.
Riskind, John H.
This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…
Riskind, John H.
This article comments on the three articles (Leahy, 2005; Newman, 2005; and Reilly-Harrington & Knauz, 2005) that deal with the applications of cognitive therapy to treatment of bipolar disorder. They focus on the uses of cognitive therapy in treating three important facets of the special problems of bipolar patients: rapid cycling, severe…
Eddahby, S; Kadri, N; Moussaoui, D
Fasting during the Ramadan month is a cornerstone of Islam. Several disorders of the chronobiological rhythms occur during this month and impact on mood. Through this paper the authors provide a literature review of the impact of fasting on patients with bipolar disorders. A literature review using Mesh keywords through Medline database. From 1970 to 2011, articles in French and English were selected. Circadian rhythm refers to the approximately 24-hour cycles that are generated by an organism. Most physiological systems demonstrate circadian variations. Many hormones and other metabolisms, such as gastric pH, insulin, glucose, calcium and plasmatic gastrine, have been shown to exhibit circadian oscillation. The role of social rhythm in behaviors and its influence on circadian rhythms in humans is now obvious. It has been shown that the lack of concentration and irritability increased continuously during Ramadan month and reached its peak at the end of the month. Mood and vigilance are significantly decreased during the fasting month. Several authors have stated that the course of bipolar illness may be affected by the changes in social rhythm that occur during Ramadan (fasting month). Studies which have been devoted to this topic are sparse. Kadri et al., in 2000, studied 20 bipolar patients during the fasting month of Ramadan of 1417 (Hegirian calendar, corresponding to January 1997). Diagnosis of bipolar disorder was made according to ICD-10 criteria. Patients were assessed during the week before Ramadan, the second and the fourth weeks of the fasting month and the first week after its end, with the Hamilton Depression and Bech-Rafaelsen scales. The plasma concentration of lithium was also assessed. The main finding of the study was that 45% of the patients relapsed, 70% during the second week, and the remaining patients at the end of Ramadan. These relapses were not related to plasma concentration of lithium. Most of the relapses were manic (71
Ishitobi, Makoto; Kawatani, Masao; Asano, Mizuki; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Goto, Takashi; Hiratani, Michio; Wada, Yuji
Bipolar disorder (BD) has been linked with the manifestation of catatonia in subjects with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) is characterized by movement disorders and various neuropsychiatric disturbances including mood disorder. We present a patient with ASD and IBGC who developed catatonia presenting with prominent dystonic feature caused by comorbid BD, which was treated effectively with quetiapine. In addition to considering the possibility of neurodegenerative disease, careful psychiatric interventions are important to avoid overlooking treatable catatonia associated with BD in cases of ASD presenting with both prominent dystonic features and apparent fluctuation of the mood state. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Puiatti, Alessandro; Mudda, Steven; Giordano, Silvia; Mayora, Oscar
Bipolar Disorder is a severe form of mental illness. It is characterized by alternated episodes of mania and depression, and it is treated typically with a combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy. Recognizing early warning signs of upcoming phases of mania or depression would be of great help for a personalized medical treatment. Unfortunately, this is a difficult task to be performed for both patient and doctors. In this paper we present the MONARCA wearable system, which is meant for recognizing early warning signs and predict maniac or depressive episodes. The system is a smartphone-centred and minimally invasive wearable sensors network that is being developing in the framework of the MONARCA European project.
Schulte, P F J; Brand, H S
A bipolar disorder is a mood disorder characterized by recurrent occurrences of manic, depressive or mixed episodes, separated by shorter or longer relatively symptom-free periods. In the Netherlands, the incidence of bipolar disorders is 1.9%. Bipolar disorders are usually treated with a combination of psycho-education, self-management and pharmacotherapy. Both the bipolar disorder and the drugs for treating this disorder have negative effects on oral health. Patients have, among other things, an increased risk of caries, xerostomia, taste abnormalities and bruxism. Extensive instruction in oral hygiene, supported frequently by professional oral health care, is therefore essential. Considering the possible interaction among different kinds of drugs, NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consulting the patient's psychiatrist.
Azab, Abed N; Vainer, Ella; Agam, Galila; Bersudsky, Yuly
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibition by lithium has been well established in vitro, but proof that this biochemical effect mediates lithium's beneficial action in patients with bipolar disorder is lacking. We studied whether lymphocyte GSK-3β activity measured indirectly in lithium- or valproate (VPA)-treated euthymic patients with bipolar disorder is different from controls. Lymphocyte total and Ser-9-phospho-GSK-3β (inactive) levels were measured by Western blotting. Forty-seven patients with bipolar disorder and 32 age- and sex-matched control subjects were studied. No significant differences were found between lithium- and VPA-treated patients and controls in phospho-GSK-3β, total GSK-3β, or their ratio. The data do not support the concept that in vivo, during chronic treatment of bipolar illness, GSK-3β is inhibited either by lithium or by VPA.
Hamilton, Jane E; Passos, Ives C; de Azevedo Cardoso, Taiane; Jansen, Karen; Allen, Melissa; Begley, Charles E; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio
Even with treatment, approximately one-third of patients with bipolar disorder relapse into depression or mania within 1 year. Unfavorable clinical outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder include increased rates of psychiatric hospitalization and functional impairment. However, only a few studies have examined predictors of psychiatric hospital readmission in a sample of patients with bipolar disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of psychiatric readmission within 30 days, 90 days and 1 year of discharge among patients with bipolar disorder using a conceptual model adapted from Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Service Use. In this retrospective study, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted in a sample of 2443 adult patients with bipolar disorder who were consecutively admitted to a public psychiatric hospital in the United States from 1 January to 31 December 2013. In the multivariate models, several enabling and need factors were significantly associated with an increased risk of readmission across all time periods examined, including being uninsured, having ⩾3 psychiatric hospitalizations and having a lower Global Assessment of Functioning score. Additional factors associated with psychiatric readmission within 30 and 90 days of discharge included patient homelessness. Patient race/ethnicity, bipolar disorder type or a current manic episode did not significantly predict readmission across all time periods examined; however, patients who were male were more likely to readmit within 1 year. The 30-day and 1-year multivariate models showed the best model fit. Our study found enabling and need factors to be the strongest predictors of psychiatric readmission, suggesting that the prevention of psychiatric readmission for patients with bipolar disorder at safety-net hospitals may be best achieved by developing and implementing innovative transitional care initiatives that address the issues
Visser, H M; Renes, J W; Koninkx, D; Kupka, R W
In 2012 patients were required to make a personal financial contribution for secondary mental health care over and above their standard insurance fee. According to current guidelines, the majority of patients with bipolar disorder must be treated as outpatients at psychiatric clinics. It was to be expected that some patients would decide to discontinue their outpatient treatment on account of the newly imposed personal financial contribution. To obtain insight into the size and characteristics of the group of patients with bipolar disorder who were thinking about giving up treatment or had already decided to give it up because of the imposition of the personal financial contribution; also to find out which factors influenced patients’ decisions and to discover how patients perceived the role of the GP as the provider of subsequent psychiatric care. We conducted an exploratory study by sending a survey to all outpatients receiving treatment at three clinics specialising in the treatment of bipolar disorder. 640 patients responded to the survey (55% response); 15% of these patients were thinking about giving up treatment or had already decided to stop their treatment. They were influenced primarily by financial considerations. Two-thirds of the respondents did not consider that the GP was as a suitable alternative to outpatient care at a clinic. Even patients with moderate to serious symptoms were considering leaving secondary care. The obligatory financial contribution for secondary mental health care could have considerable consequences for a small number of patients with severe mood disorder who are currently treated as outpatients in secondary facilities. The increase in the compulsory & squo;own risk’ insurance fee as from 2013 could have similar consequences.
Sun, Yue Ran; Herrmann, Nathan; Scott, Christopher J M; Black, Sandra E; Khan, Maisha M; Lanctôt, Krista L
The goal of this meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the evidence available on the differences in grey matter volume between lithium-treated and lithium-free bipolar patients. A systematic search was conducted in Cochrane Central, Embase, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases for original peer-reviewed journal articles that reported on global grey matter volume in lithium-medicated and lithium-free bipolar patients. Standard mean difference and Hedges' g were used to calculate effect size in a random-effects model. Risk of publication bias was assessed using Egger's test and quality of evidence was assessed using standard criteria. There were 15 studies with a total of 854 patients (368 lithium-medicated, 486 lithium-free) included in the meta-analysis. Global grey matter volume was significantly larger in lithium-treated bipolar patients compared to lithium-free patients (SMD: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.01-0.33; z = 2.11, p = 0.035). Additionally, there was a difference in global grey matter volume between groups in studies that employed semi-automated segmentation methods (SMD: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.01-1.31; z = 1.99, p = 0.047), but no significant difference in studies that used fully-automated segmentation. No publication bias was detected (bias coefficient = - 0.65, p = 0.46). Variability in imaging methods and lack of high-quality evidence limits the interpretation of the findings. Results suggest that lithium-treated patients have a greater global grey matter volume than those who were lithium-free. Further study of the relationship between lithium and grey matter volume may elucidate the therapeutic potential of lithium in conditions characterized by abnormal changes in brain structure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kim, Sung Hwa; Kim, Tae Young; Ryu, Vin; Ha, Ra Yeon; Lee, Su Jin; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang
Both emotional and cognitive processes are involved in moral judgments. Ventromedial prefrontal lesions are related to impaired prosocial emotions and emotional dysregulation, and patients with these lesions exhibit increased utilitarian judgments of emotionally salient personal moral dilemmas. Bipolar patients experiencing manic episode also have impaired emotional regulation and behavioral control. We investigated the characteristics of moral judgment in manic and euthymic patients with bipolar disorder using the 50 hypothetical moral dilemma task (17 non-moral, 20 personal, and 13 impersonal). Our study included 27 manic bipolar patients, 26 euthymic bipolar patients, and 42 healthy controls. Subjects were instructed to determine whether or not each dilemma was morally acceptable, and their reaction times were recorded. Manic patients showed significantly greater utilitarian judgment than euthymic patients and normal controls for personal moral dilemmas. However, there were no significant between-group differences for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. Our results suggest that increased utilitarian judgments of personal moral dilemmas may be a state-related finding observed only in manic patients. This difference in moral judgment assessments may reflect the decision-making characteristics and underlying neurobiological mechanisms of bipolar disorder, especially during the manic state.
Salehi, Bahman; Khoz, Sara; Sadeghi, Bahman; Amanat, Manouchehr; Salehi, Mona
The purpose of this research is genealogy examination of three generation of bipolar mood disorder Type I patients. Patients selected using Poisson sampling method from 100 patients with bipolar mood disorder Type I, referring to a psychiatric center of Amir Kabir Hospital of Arak, Iran. Examine issues such as physical ailments, psychological review of living and deceased family members of each patient, drawn family pedigree using pedigree chart, check the relationship of the different pattern of the autosomal dominant and recessive disease, sex-linked dominant and recessive and linked to Y chromosome have been performed on patients. Different methods used in this study are pedigree chart and young mania rating scale and SPSS and Pearson's correlation test for analyzing the data collected. Among the studied inheritance patterns, the most common inheritance pattern was autosomal recessive. There was a significant relationship between age, number of generation, and inheritance patterns with physical ailments in families of patients with bipolar mood disorder (P < 0.05), but there was no significant association with mental illness (P > 0.05). Furthermore, there was a significant relation between generation and skin, gastrointestinal, ovarian, lung, coronary heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, Cerebrovascular accident (CVA), hyperlipidemia, cardiomyopathy, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease in patients with bipolar affective disorder Type I (P < 0.05). The results showed that autosomal recessive was the most pattern of inheritance and there is a significant relationship between generation and some physical disorders in patients with bipolar mood disorder Type I.
Grigoroiu-Serbanescu, Maria; Diaconu, Carmen C; Heilmann-Heimbach, Stefanie; Neagu, Ana Iulia; Becker, Tim
We investigated the influence of the age-of-onset (AO) on the association of 45 loci conferring risk for bipolar disorder (BP) and schizophrenia with BP-type-I in a Romanian sample (461 patients, 436 controls). The AO-analysis implicated the EGFR gene, as well as loci in other genes, in the AO variation of BP-type-I and revealed for the first time the link between BP-type-I and risk variants considered specific to schizophrenia (polymorphisms in MMP16/RIPK2 and CNNM2 genes).
Jabben, Nienke; Arts, Baer; Jongen, Ellen M M; Smulders, Fren T Y; van Os, Jim; Krabbendam, Lydia
Research in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar disorder is scarce and has provided mixed findings, possibly due to differences in current mood state. It is unclear whether alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes are only related to the depressive mood states of bipolar patients or also represent a vulnerability marker for the development of future (depressive) episodes. This was investigated in the current study. Both implicit (attentional bias for emotional words) and explicit (dysfunctional attitudes and personality characteristics) measures of cognitive processes and attitudes were assessed in 77 bipolar patients with varying levels of depressive symptoms (depressed=17, euthymic n=60), their healthy first-degree relatives (n=39) and a healthy control group (n=61). Analyses of variance were used to investigate differences between groups. Mildly depressed patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated an attentional bias away from positive emotional words and showed increased dysfunctional attitudes and higher levels of neuroticism. Euthymic patients were largely comparable to healthy controls and only differed from controls in higher levels of neuroticism. Relatives were similar to controls on all measures, although they significantly differed from bipolar patients in displaying less neuroticism and more extraversion. No firm conclusions regarding causality can be drawn from the associations that were found between cognitive processes and attitudes and the evolution of mood symptoms in bipolar disorder. Alterations in cognitive processes and attitudes in bipolar patients appear to be mostly related to the expression of mood symptomatology rather than to the vulnerability for bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nivoli, A M A; Murru, A; Pacchiarotti, I; Valenti, M; Rosa, A R; Hidalgo, D; Virdis, V; Strejilevich, S; Vieta, E; Colom, F
The purpose of this study was to analyze differences in clinical and socio-demographic characteristics between older and younger bipolar outpatients paying special attention to depressive symptoms in a large, naturalistic cohort. Five hundred and ninety-three DSM-IV-TR bipolar outpatients were enrolled. Clinical characteristics were assessed according to DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I). Subjects were categorized into two groups according to current age (older OBD: age > 65 years; younger-YBD: age < 65 years). About 80% of patients were younger (N = 470), and a fifth were older (N = 123), with a mean age of 77.30 years in OBD. Older patients were more likely to be married, not qualified, bipolar II, with depressive polarity of first episode, higher age at illness onset, higher age at first hospitalization. They were more likely to present with depressive predominant polarity, with lifetime history of catatonic, psychotic and melancholic features, age at illness onset >40 years, as well as suffering from more medical comorbidities when compared to younger bipolars. The clinical presentation of bipolar disorder in late life would be defined more frequently by melancholic depressive features and a predominantly depressive polarity. These results suggest that treatment strategies for elderly bipolar patients should focus in the prevention of depressive episodes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pardoen, D; Bauwens, F; Tracy, A; Martin, F; Mendlewicz, J
The hypothesis of a low self-esteem in depressive patients was tested using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale in 24 recovered unipolar and 27 recovered bipolar patients, compared with a normal control group of 26 subjects matched for age and sex. The hypothesis was confirmed only for unipolars; bipolar patients presented a self-esteem score not significantly different from normal scores. Self-esteem was not related to clinical characteristics of the affective disorder, suggesting that low self-esteem may be a basic component of a depression-prone personality. The investigation of the relationship between self-esteem and social adjustment confirmed the presence of social conformism in bipolar patients and rigidly set low self-esteem in unipolar patients. These results should stimulate the evaluation of different psychotherapeutic treatments in the long-term psychosocial management of affectively ill patients.
Bharadwaj, Vineet; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit; Kate, Natasha
Background: Although electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is used quite frequently among the bipolar patients in developing countries, very little data are available with regard to its effectiveness from the developing countries. Aim: A retrospective case note review was carried out of bipolar disorder patients who were given ECT. Materials and Methods: Details of demographic and clinical profile, indications for ECT, response patterns, adverse effects, etc. were recorded. Results: Among all the patients who received ECT, 18% were diagnosed to have bipolar disorder. ECT was administered most commonly for mania with psychotic symptoms, followed by severe depression with psychotic symptoms. Comorbid physical problems were seen in many patients. Nearly 90% of patients in both the subgroups showed more than 50% response (based on reduction in the standardized rating scales) with ECT. Few patients (22%) reported some kind of side effects. Conclusions: ECT is useful in the management of acute phase of mania and depression. PMID:22556436
Hoertnagl, Christine Maria; Oberheinricher, Stefan; Hofer, Alex
Overview on the current knowledge regarding social cognition in patients with bipolar disorder. Selective literature research on deficits in social cognition intrinsic to bipolar disorder, their occurrence and effects. Deficits in social cognition are considered to be core features of bipolar disorder. They are apparent during acute episodes of the disorder, endure when patients are in remission and have a significant negative impact on the patients' psychosocial outcomes. It is important to consider deficits in social cognition as an integral part of a treatment approach to achieve mental stabilization in patients with bipolar disorder.
Graff, Fiona S.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Weiss, Roger D.
Objective Bipolar and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Integrated treatment for these disorders has been shown to be effective at reducing substance use, but no study has examined attrition from dual diagnosis group therapy. The current study identified baseline demographic and clinical characteristics that predict treatment dropout among patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders. Method Using binary and multivariate analyses, baseline data were analyzed as part of a randomized controlled trial of integrated group therapy for bipolar and substance use disorders. Results Cigarette smoking, recent mood episode, and lack of a college education were strong predictors of dropout after controlling for demographic and substance use variables. Conclusions Given the strength of smoking as a predictor of dropout as well as the high rate of smoking among this population, a greater focus on the relationship between smoking and bipolar disorder is warranted. PMID:18162331
Chu, Wen-Jang; Delbello, Melissa P; Jarvis, Kelly B; Norris, Mathew M; Kim, Mi-Jung; Weber, Wade; Lee, Jing-Huei; Strakowski, Stephen M; Adler, Caleb M
Although brain lactate levels are typically low and difficult to measure, a few previous investigators have reported that brain lactate levels are elevated in patients with bipolar disorder. The present study investigated the distribution of lactate in bipolar and healthy brains using 2D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging on a 4-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. Ratios of the concentration of lactate to N-acetylaspartate, and of lactate to total creatine, were significantly higher in bipolar than in healthy subjects. Lactate signals were primarily localized to the bipolar subjects' caudate and anterior cingulate cortices, components of the frontal-subcortical circuit, suggesting that affective dysregulation may be related to metabolic abnormalities in this network.
Zumárraga, Mercedes; Arrúe, Aurora; Basterreche, Nieves; Macías, Isabel; Catalán, Ana; Madrazo, Arantza; Bustamante, Sonia; Zamalloa, María I; Erkoreka, Leire; Gordo, Estibaliz; Arnaiz, Ainara; Olivas, Olga; Arroita, Ariane; Marín, Elena; González-Torres, Miguel A
We examined the association of COMT haplotypes and plasma metabolites of catecholamines in relation to the clinical response to antipsychotics in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. We studied 165 patients before and after four weeks of treatment, and 163 healthy controls. We assessed four COMT haplotypes and the plasma concentrations of HVA, DOPAC and MHPG. Bipolar patients: haplotypes are associated with age at onset and clinical evolution. In schizophrenic patients, an haplotype previously associated with increased risk, is related to better response of negative symptoms. Haplotypes would be good indicators of the clinical status and the treatment response in bipolar and schizophrenic patients. Larger studies are required to elucidate the clinical usefulness of these findings.
Leung, Meranda M W; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Tsui, Chi F; Au, Angie C W; Yeung, Hera K H; Yang, Tian-Xiao; Li, Zhi; Cheng, Chi-Wai; Cheung, Eric F C; Chan, Raymond C K
Executive deficits in euthymic bipolar I disorder were examined in a fractionated manner based on the "Supervisory Attentional System" (SAS) model, and the relationship between the degree of executive impairment and the demographic and clinical characteristics of bipolar I participants was explored. A battery of neurocognitive tests capturing specific components of executive function was administered on 30 patients with bipolar I disorder in euthymic state, and compared with 30 healthy controls who were matched by age, gender and IQ. A differential impairment in executive function was demonstrated in euthymic bipolar I participants by using a fractionated approach of the SAS. Euthymic bipolar I patients were found to have significantly poorer performance in immediate and delayed visual memory; and in the executive domains of "initiation", "sustained attention", and "attention allocation and planning". Those with a greater number of executive impairments had lower IQ and higher negative sub-scores on PANSS. These findings might provide a the basis for further studies on identifying the executive components that are associated with particular disease characteristics of bipolar disorder, and those with poorer functional outcome, so that rehabilitation can be focused on the selective domains concerned. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Voggt, A; Berger, M; Obermeier, M; Löw, A; Seemueller, F; Riedel, M; Moeller, H J; Zimmermann, R; Kirchberg, F; Von Schacky, C; Severus, E
Affective disorders are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, which, at least partly, appears to be independent of psychopharmacological treatments used to manage these disorders. Reduced heart rate variability (SDNN) and a low Omega-3 Index have been shown to be associated with increased risk for death after myocardial infarction. Therefore, we set out to investigate heart rate variability and the Omega-3 Index in euthymic patients with bipolar disorders. We assessed heart rate variability (SDNN) and the Omega-3 Index in 90 euthymic, mostly medicated patients with bipolar disorders (Bipolar-I, Bipolar-II) on stable psychotropic medication, free of significant medical comorbidity and in 62 healthy controls. Heart rate variability was measured from electrocardiography under a standardized 30 minutes resting state condition. Age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol consumption and caffeine consumption as potential confounders were also assessed. Heart rate variability (SDNN) was significantly lower in patients with bipolar disorders compared to healthy controls (35.4 msec versus 60.7 msec; P<0.0001), whereas the Omega-3 Index did not differ significantly between the groups (5.2% versus 5.3%). In a linear regression model, only group membership (patients with bipolar disorders versus healthy controls) and age significantly predicted heart rate variability (SDNN). Heart rate variability (SDNN) may provide a useful tool to study the impact of interventions aimed at reducing the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in euthymic patients with bipolar disorders. The difference in SDNN between cases and controls cannot be explained by a difference in the Omega-3 Index. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Allen, Michael H.; Chessick, Cheryl A.; Miklowitz, David J.; Goldberg, Joseph F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Miyahara, Sachiko; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Marangell, Lauren; Bauer, Mark S.; Thomas, Marshall R.; Bowden, Charles L.; Sachs, Gary S.
This study was designed to develop models for vulnerability to suicidal ideation in bipolar patients. Logistic regression models examined correlates of suicidal ideation in patients who had versus had not attempted suicide previously. Of 477 patients assessed, complete data on demographic, illness history, and personality variables were available…
Angst, Jules; Azorin, Jean-Michel; Bowden, Charles L; Perugi, Giulio; Vieta, Eduard; Gamma, Alex; Young, Allan H
Major depressive disorder, the most common psychiatric illness, is often chronic and a major cause of disability. Many patients with major depressive episodes who have an underlying but unrecognized bipolar disorder receive pharmacologic treatment with ineffective regimens that do not include mood stabilizers. To determine the frequency of bipolar disorder symptoms in patients seeking treatment for a major depressive episode. Multicenter, multinational, transcultural, cross-sectional, diagnostic study. The study arose from the initiative Bipolar Disorders: Improving Diagnosis, Guidance and Education (BRIDGE). Community and hospital psychiatry departments. Participants included 5635 adults with an ongoing major depressive episode. The frequency of bipolar disorder was determined by applying both DSM-IV-TR criteria and previously described bipolarity specifier criteria. Variables associated with bipolarity were assessed using logistic regression. A total of 903 patients fulfilled DSM-IV-TR criteria for bipolar disorder (16.0%; 95% confidence interval, 15.1%-17.0%), whereas 2647 (47.0%; 95% confidence interval, 45.7%-48.3%) met the bipolarity specifier criteria. Using both definitions, significant associations (odds ratio > 2; P < .001) with bipolarity were observed for family history of mania/hypomania and multiple past mood episodes. The bipolarity specifier additionally identified significant associations for manic/hypomanic states during antidepressant therapy, current mixed mood symptoms, and comorbid substance use disorder. The bipolar-specifier criteria in comparison with DSM-IV-TR criteria were valid and identified an additional 31% of patients with major depressive episodes who scored positive on the bipolarity criteria. Family history, illness course, and clinical status, in addition to DSM-IV-TR criteria, may provide useful information for physicians when assessing evidence of bipolarity in patients with major depressive episodes. Such an assessment is
Deckersbach, Thilo; Hölzel, Britta K.; Eisner, Lori R.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Peckham, Andrew D.; Dougherty, Darin D.; Rauch, Scott L.; Lazar, Sara; Nierenberg, Andrew A.
Introduction Bipolar disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of depression and/or mania along with inter-episodic mood symptoms that interfere with psychosocial functioning. Despite periods of symptomatic recovery, many individuals with bipolar disorder continue to experience substantial residual mood symptoms that often lead to the recurrence of mood episodes. Aims The present study explored whether a new mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for bipolar disorder would increase mindfulness, reduce residual mood symptoms, and increase emotion regulation abilities, psychological well-being, positive affect and psychosocial functioning. Following a baseline clinical assessment, 12 individuals with DSM-IV bipolar disorder were treated with 12 group sessions of MBCT. Results At the end of treatment, as well as at the 3-months follow-up, participants showed increased mindfulness, lower residual depressive mood symptoms, less attentional difficulties, and increased emotion regulation abilities, psychological well-being, positive affect and psychosocial functioning. Conclusions These findings suggest that treating residual mood symptoms with MBCT may be another avenue to improving mood, emotion regulation, well-being and functioning in individuals with bipolar disorder. PMID:22070469
Hu, Shao-hua; Lai, Jian-bo; Xu, Dong-rong; Qi, Hong-li; Peterson, Bradley S.; Bao, Ai-min; Hu, Chan-chan; Huang, Man-li; Chen, Jing-kai; Wei, Ning; Hu, Jian-bo; Li, Shu-lan; Zhou, Wei-hua; Xu, Wei-juan; Xu, Yi
The clinical and cognitive responses to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in bipolar II depressed patients remain unclear. In this study, thirty-eight bipolar II depressed patients were randomly assigned into three groups: (i) left high-frequency (n = 12), (ii) right low-frequency (n = 13), (iii) sham stimulation (n = 13), and underwent four-week rTMS with quetiapine concomitantly. Clinical efficacy was evaluated at baseline and weekly intervals using the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Cognitive functioning was assessed before and after the study with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Word-Color Interference Test (Stroop), and Trail Making Test (TMT). Thirty-five patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, the mean scores of both the HDRS-17 and the MADRS significantly decreased over the 4-week trial, which did not differ among the three groups. Exploratory analyses revealed no differences in factor scores of HDRS-17s, or in response or remission rates. Scores of WCST, Stroop, or TMT did not differ across the three groups. These findings indicated active rTMS combined with quetiapine was not superior to quetiapine monotherapy in improving depressive symptoms or cognitive performance in patients with bipolar II depression. PMID:27460201
Feier, Gustavo; Valvassori, Samira S; Rezin, Gislaine T; Búrigo, Márcio; Streck, Emilio L; Kapczinski, Flávio; Quevedo, João
Bipolar disorder is a severe, recurrent, and often chronic psychiatric illness associated with significant functional impairment, morbidity, and mortality. Creatine kinase is an important enzyme, particularly for cells with high and fluctuating energy requirements, such as neurons, and is a potential marker of brain injury. The aim of the present study was to compare serum creatine kinase levels between bipolar disorder patients, in the various phases (depressive, manic, and euthymic), and healthy volunteers. Forty-eight bipolar patients were recruited: 18 in the euthymic phase; 17 in the manic phase; and 13 in the depressive phase. The control group comprised 41 healthy volunteers. The phases of bipolar disorder were defined as follows: euthymic-not meeting the DSM-IV criteria for a mood episode and scoring < 8 on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS); manic-scoring < 7 on the HDRS and > 7 on the YMRS; depressive-scoring > 7 on the HDRS and < 7 on the YMRS. Patients in mixed phases were excluded. Blood samples were collected from all participants. Creatine kinase levels were higher in the manic patients than in the controls. However, we observed no significant difference between euthymic and depressive patients in terms of the creatine kinase level. Our results suggest that the clinical differences among the depressive, manic, and euthymic phases of bipolar disorder are paralleled by contrasting levels of creatine kinase. However, further studies are needed in order to understand the state-dependent differences observed in serum creatine kinase activity.
Willert, Anna; Mohnke, Sebastian; Erk, Susanne; Schnell, Knut; Romanczuk-Seiferth, Nina; Quinlivan, Esther; Schreiter, Stefanie; Spengler, Stephanie; Herold, Dorrit; Wackerhagen, Carolin; Romund, Lydia; Garbusow, Maria; Lett, Tristram; Stamm, Thomas; Adli, Mazda; Heinz, Andreas; Bermpohl, Felix; Walter, Henrik
Behavioral deficits in the Theory of Mind (ToM) have been robustly demonstrated in bipolar disorder. These deficits may represent an intermediate phenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was: (i) to investigate alterations in neural ToM processing in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, and (ii) to examine whether similar effects are present in unaffected relatives of patients with bipolar disorder suggesting that ToM functional activation may be, in part, due to genetic risk for the disease. A total of 24 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, 21 unaffected first-degree relatives, and 81 healthy controls completed a ToM task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We observed reduced bilateral activation of the temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and diminished functional fronto-temporoparietal connectivity in patients compared to controls. Relatives tended towards intermediate temporoparietal activity and functional coupling with medial prefrontal areas. There was also evidence for a potentially compensatory enhanced recruitment of the right middle temporal gyrus and stronger connectivity between this region and the medial prefrontal cortex in relatives. These findings provide further evidence of altered neural ToM processing in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Further, our findings in relatives lend support to the idea that altered ToM processing may act as an intermediate phenotype of the disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wysokiński, Adam; Szczepocka, Ewa
There are no studies comparing platelet parameters platelet parameters (platelet count (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR)) between patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and unipolar depression. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine and compare differences in PLT, MPV and P-LCR in patients with schizophrenia, unipolar depression and bipolar disorder. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, naturalistic study of 2377 patients (schizophrenia n=1243; unipolar depression n=791; bipolar disorder n=343, including bipolar depression n=259 and mania n=84). There were significant differences for PLT, MPV and P-LCR values between study groups. A significant percentage of patients with bipolar disorder had abnormal (too low or too high) number of platelets. Negative correlation between PLT and age was found in all study groups and positive correlation between age and MPV and P-LCR was found in patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Telfeian, A E; Boockvar, J A; Simuni, T; Jaggi, J; Skolnick, B; Baltuch, G H
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventralis intermedius nucleus (Vim) is a safe and effective treatment for essential tremor. Bipolar disorder and essential tremor had each been reported to occur in association with Klinefelter syndrome but the three diseases have been reported to occur together in only one patient. The genetic basis and natural history of these disorders are not completely understood and may be related rather than coincidental. The authors report on a 23-year-old man with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY) and bipolar disorder who was treated successfully with unilateral DBS of the thalamic Vim for essential tremor.
Inoue, Takeshi; Inagaki, Yoshifumi; Kimura, Toshifumi; Shirakawa, Osamu
For patients with a major depressive episode, early differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and subsequent appropriate treatment are critical. This study, conducted in clinical settings in Japan, examined patients with a major depressive episode to investigate the prevalence and predictors of bipolar disorders. A total of 448 patients with a major depressive episode were interviewed using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview to determine the presence of mood episodes and psychiatric comorbidities. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder was based on the collected information according to the DSM-IV-TR. Of the 448 patients with a major depressive episode, 114 patients (25.4%) were diagnosed with bipolar disorder. Multivariate logistic regression identified five predictors that were significantly correlated with bipolar disorder: antidepressant-related switch to mania/hypomania, mixed depression, two or more previous mood episodes within the past year, early age at the onset of a major depressive episode (<25 years), and a history of suicide attempts. The area under the curve of receiver operating characteristic analysis based on the multivariate logistic regression of the five predictors was 0.849. The diagnosis of bipolar disorder in patients was already conclusively confirmed by long illness observations but was not confirmed by a prospective study. In patients with a major depressive episode, the differential diagnosis of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder, which exhibit similar depressive symptoms, is essential. Several predictors identified in the present study may be useful in supporting a differential diagnosis of these disorders in routine clinical practice. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Blairy, S; Linotte, S; Souery, D; Papadimitriou, G N; Dikeos, D; Lerer, B; Kaneva, R; Milanova, V; Serretti, A; Macciardi, F; Mendlewicz, J
The aim of the present study was to investigate impairment in social adjustment and self-esteem of bipolar patients (n=144) in remission for at least 3 months. Patients were recruited among four different centres: Sofia, Athens, Jerusalem and Milan, and were individually matched to control subjects in relation to sex, age and geographical origin. Subjects completed the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (SES) and the self-report version of the social adjustment scale (SAS). Bipolar patients reported to experience more difficulties in social adjustment than controls, specifically for leisure and work activities. Further, our results show that bipolar patients have significantly lower self-esteem compared to controls, even after remission.
Adida, Marc; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Adjunctive use of methylphenidate, a central stimulant, has been considered as a potential therapeutic choice for patients with refractory unipolar, geriatric, or bipolar depression, and depression secondary to medical illness. We present a case of bipolar depression in which the patient responded significantly to augmentation with methylphenidate, without any side effects, after failure of adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy. Mr U, a 56-year-old man with bipolar I disorder, had melancholic symptoms during his sixth episode of bipolar depression. After failure of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy, he was treated with fluoxetine 80 mg/day, duloxetine 360 mg/day, mirtazapine 60 mg/day, and sodium valproate 1,000 mg/day, with no improvement. We added methylphenidate at a dose of 10 mg/day for one week, which resulted in mild clinical improvement, and then methylphenidate extended-release 20 mg/day for one week, with significant clinical improvement. He tolerated his medications well. His clinical recovery was stable over one year. The patient's antidepressants and methylphenidate were gradually tapered and finally discontinued after one year with no withdrawal syndrome. To date, he remains well on sodium valproate as monotherapy and is being followed up at our bipolar department. This case suggests that methylphenidate augmentation might be a therapeutic option when treating highly treatment-resistant patients with bipolar depression, even if they had not responded to adjunctive neuromodulation. In these clinical situations, physicians might be interested in prescribing methylphenidate because of its efficacy and safety.
da Rosa, Maria Inês; Simon, Carla; Grande, Antonio Jose; Barichello, Tatiana; Oses, Jean Pierre; Quevedo, João
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of mania/hypomania, affecting more than 1% of the world population. S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mostly produced and secreted by astrocytes in the CNS that participate in several cellular responses. Previous studies have shown that patients with bipolar disorder had higher peripheral S100B levels than healthy individuals, suggesting a potential role for S100B BD. In this study, a systematic and quantitative meta-analysis of studies S100B serum was performed according to the guidelines PRISMA-statement to confirm the increase of serum S100B in patients with manic bipolar disorder. We included in the meta-analysis two studies that reported the mean and standard deviation of serum S100B 52 patients manic BP and 52 control studies. Our results showed higher levels of S100B peripheral TB patients compared with healthy controls. In this meta-analysis, we found evidence that serum S100B are increased in patients with bipolar disorder. In conclusion, several studies have observed morphological abnormalities in the brains of bipolar disorder patients, changes in the peripheral S100B levels in mood disorders were described, and this protein could be a putative marker for damage to the brain. Thus, in this meta-analysis we have found evidence, based on two studies of 52 patients and 52 healthy controls, that the serum concentrations of S100B are increased in bipolar disorder patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sapir, Ran; Zohar, Ada H; Bersudsky, Yuly; Belmaker, Rh; Osher, Yamima
Bipolar disorder may be associated with a hypersensitive behavioral approach system and therefore to increased reward sensitivity. The objective of this study is to explore the interrelationships between bipolar disorder, behavioral addictions, and personality/temperament traits in a group of euthymic outpatients with bipolar I disorder and in a group of comparison subjects. Fifty clinically stable patients and 50 comparison subjects matched for age, sex, and educational level were administered the Temperament and Character Inventory-140 and the Behavioral Addiction Scale. The patient group scored significantly higher than comparison subjects for two benign behavioral addictions (music, shopping) as well as for smoking. Comparison subjects scored higher on two harmful behavioral addictions (drugs, alcohol). Novelty Seeking was positively correlated with harmful addictions, and Cooperativeness was negatively correlated with harmful addictions, in both groups. The hypersensitive behavioral approach system model of bipolar disorder would predict higher levels of various addictions in bipolar patients as compared to controls. In this study, this was true for three behavioral addictions, whereas controls showed higher levels of behavioral addiction to drugs and alcohol. This may be because the patients in this study are stable, have received considerable psychoeducation, and are relatively adherent to their medication recommendations. Temperament and character traits may play roles both as risk and protective factors regarding behavioral addictions.
Choppin, Sabine; Trost, Wiebke; Dondaine, Thibaut; Millet, Bruno; Drapier, Dominique; Vérin, Marc; Robert, Gabriel; Grandjean, Didier
Research has shown bipolar disorder to be characterized by dysregulation of emotion processing, including biases in facial expression recognition that is most prevalent during depressive and manic states. Very few studies have examined induced emotions when patients are in a euthymic phase, and there has been no research on complex emotions. We therefore set out to test emotional hyperreactivity in response to musical excerpts inducing complex emotions in bipolar disorder during euthymia. We recruited 21 patients with bipolar disorder (BD) in a euthymic phase and 21 matched healthy controls. Participants first rated their emotional reactivity on two validated self-report scales (ERS and MAThyS). They then rated their music-induced emotions on nine continuous scales. The targeted emotions were wonder, power, melancholy and tension. We used a specific generalized linear mixed model to analyze the behavioral data. We found that participants in the euthymic bipolar group experienced more intense complex negative emotions than controls when the musical excerpts induced wonder. Moreover, patients exhibited greater emotional reactivity in daily life (ERS). Finally, a greater experience of tension while listening to positive music seemed to be mediated by greater emotional reactivity and a deficit in executive functions. The heterogeneity of the BD group in terms of clinical characteristics may have influenced the results. Euthymic patients with bipolar disorder exhibit more complex negative emotions than controls in response to positive music. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Calabrese, Joseph; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Ng-Mak, Daisy; Bacci, Elizabeth D; Wyrwich, Kathy; Pikalov, Andrei; Loebel, Antony
Estimate the proportion of lurasidone-treated patients with bipolar depression who achieved a clinically meaningful improvement in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) as measured by the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q SF). A post-hoc analysis of data from two 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials of lurasidone as monotherapy (20-60 or 80-120 mg/day) or adjunctive therapy (20-120 mg/day) was carried out. The proportion of patients with clinically meaningful HRQoL improvement at 6 weeks was assessed using the following methods: an anchor-based method using a one-point improvement on the Clinical Global Impression-Severity, Bipolar Version (CGI-BP-S) scale; a distribution-based method using Q-LES-Q SF's SEM; and cumulative distribution functions. Data from 364 and 275 patients were available from the monotherapy and adjunctive therapy trials, respectively. Using anchor-based thresholds, a significantly higher proportion of lurasidone-treated patients reported a clinically meaningful improvement in HRQoL versus placebo in monotherapy (65.0% and 62.5 vs. 41.1%, both P<0.01) and adjunctive therapy (65.2 vs. 50.7%, P<0.05). Similar findings were observed using distribution-based thresholds for monotherapy (82.5% and 78.3 vs. 58.1%, both P<0.01) and adjunctive therapy (74.5 vs. 62.7%, P<0.05), and through the visual display of cumulative distribution functions. Short-term lurasidone monotherapy and adjunctive therapy is associated with a clinically meaningful improvement in HRQoL in patients with bipolar depression.
Cohen, Ronny; Lysenko, Alla; Mallet, Thierry; Mirrer, Brooks; Gale, Michael; Loarte, Pablo; McCue, Robert
We present a case of drug-induced myocarditis manifesting as acute heart failure in a young patient with bipolar disorder being treated for depression. The case describes a 20-year-old man being treated in the psychiatry ward for worsening depression when he started complaining of chest pain and shortness of breath. His list of medications included clozapine, lithium, lorazepam, and haloperidol. The main findings on physical examination were tachycardia, low-grade fever, crackles in both lung bases on auscultation, and the absence of any notable edema. Abnormal labs included a troponin of 0.9, with a CK of 245 and CK-MB of 3.1. An ECG revealed sinus tachycardia and left anterior fascicular block (LAFB). An echocardiogram revealed global hypokinesis, severe left ventricular dysfunction with an ejection fraction estimated at 20%. The patient had an admitting diagnosis of acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction likely secondary to drug-induced myocarditis (suspect clozapine) versus acute coronary syndrome. He was managed conservatively and transferred to another facility for endomyocardial biopsy confirming myocarditis. This case is an example of one of the most typical presentations of suspected drug-induced acute myocarditis and will hopefully prompt the reader to think of this underdiagnosed entity in the right clinical setting. PMID:26413355
Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas; Koyanagi, Ai; Aguado, Jaume; Kraemer, Susanne; Haro, Josep Maria
Purpose Medication nonadherence is common in the treatment of patients with severe mental illness and is a frequent cause of relapse. Different formulations have been developed in an effort to improve medication adherence. The aim of this study was to explore whether there are differential clinical outcomes between two different formulations of olanzapine (orodispersible tablets [ODTs] vs standard oral tablets [SOT]) for the treatment of nonadherent patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Methods Data for this analysis were from an observational study conducted in Europe (N=903). Adult schizophrenia and bipolar disorder patients in outpatient settings who initiated or changed to either olanzapine ODT or SOT according to physician decision within the last 45 days were eligible for enrollment. The follow-up period was 1 year. Of the 903 participants, 266 nonadherent patients (Medication Adherence Rating Scale score 0–4 at baseline) were included in the analysis. Clinical outcomes of interest were: 1) hospitalization and 2) relapse identified by the participating psychiatrist or hospitalization. An adjusted logistic regression model was fitted. Results Patients taking ODT had more severe illness at baseline (P<0.001) as assessed with the Clinical Global Impression with mean (standard deviation [SD]) scores of ODT 4.63 (1.03) and SOT 4 (1.16). In the regression models adjusted for potential confounders, patients taking ODT had significantly lower odds for hospitalization (odds ratio =0.355; 95% confidence interval =0.13–0.974) and relapse or hospitalization (odds ratio =0.368; 95% confidence interval =0.183–0.739), respectively. Conclusion Nonadherent patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder treated with the orodispersible formulation were less likely to be hospitalized or suffer relapse compared to those patients taking the standard oral coated tablets. PMID:28652711
Colom, Francesco; Vieta, Eduard; Martinez-Aran, Anabel; Reinares, Maria; Goikolea, Jose Manuel; Benabarre, Antonio; Torrent, Carla; Comes, Merce; Corbella, Barbara; Parramon, Gemma; Corominas, Josep
Studies on individual psychotherapy indicate that some interventions may reduce the number of recurrences in bipolar patients. However, there has been a lack of structured, well-designed, blinded, controlled studies demonstrating the efficacy of group psychoeducation to prevent recurrences in patients with bipolar I and II disorder. One hundred twenty bipolar I and II outpatients in remission (Young Mania Rating Scale score <6, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 score <8) for at least 6 months prior to inclusion in the study, who were receiving standard pharmacologic treatment, were included in a controlled trial. Subjects were matched for age and sex and randomized to receive, in addition to standard psychiatric care, 21 sessions of group psychoeducation or 21 sessions of nonstructured group meetings. Subjects were assessed monthly during the 21-week treatment period and throughout the 2-year follow-up. Group psychoeducation significantly reduced the number of relapsed patients and the number of recurrences per patient, and increased the time to depressive, manic, hypomanic, and mixed recurrences. The number and length of hospitalizations per patient were also lower in patients who received psychoeducation. Group psychoeducation is an efficacious intervention to prevent recurrence in pharmacologically treated patients with bipolar I and II disorder.
Mileva, Viktoria R; Vázquez, Gustavo H; Milev, Roumen
Many people with mental illness experience stigma that has impacted their lives. In this study, we validated the Inventory of Stigmatizing Experiences (ISE) as a tool to help quantify the stigma experienced by patients with bipolar disorder and its impact on their lives. The ISE has two components, ie, the Stigma Experiences Scale (SES) and the Stigma Impact Scale (SIS), which were administered to a population of Argentinean patients with bipolar disorder. We characterized the differences between these two populations using the SES and SIS. Finally, we compared SES and SIS scores with those in a population of Canadian patients with bipolar disorder. The SES and SIS scales were administered to tertiary care patients with bipolar I and II disorder in Argentina (n = 178) and Canada (n = 214). In this study, we validated both SES (Kuder-Richardson coefficient of reliability, 0.78) and SIS (Cronbach's alpha, 0.91) scales in a population of Argentinean patients with bipolar disorder. There were no significant differences in stigma between patients with bipolar I or II disorder on SES or SIS. However, over 50% of all respondents believed that the average person is afraid of those with mental illnesses, that stigma associated with mental illness has affected their quality of life, and that their self-esteem has suffered due to stigma. In comparison with the Canadian population, Argentinean participants scored lower on both the SES and SIS, which may be due to cultural differences or to differences in population characteristics. Stigma associated with mental illness is serious and pervasive. If we are to find successful strategies to mitigate stigma, it is first important to understand how patients perceive such stigma. The ISE is a valuable tool which allows us to do this with high reliability among cultures.
Cerimele, Joseph M; Bauer, Amy M; Fortney, John C; Bauer, Mark S
To summarize the current literature on epidemiology, clinical correlates, and treatment of individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We conducted a focused, time-sensitive review called "rapid review" in November 2015, using keyword searches (including keywords bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, PTSD, and others) in PubMed for studies of adults with co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD. Results were sorted and systematically searched. An article was excluded if it did not describe adult patients with co-occurring PTSD and bipolar disorder or did not report original data on epidemiology, clinical correlates, or treatment. Information on study characteristics including population studied and key findings were extracted onto a data collection tool. Thirty-two articles were included. Over two-thirds of articles reported epidemiology of co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD. Prevalence of PTSD among individuals with bipolar disorder ranged from 4% to 40%, with women and those with bipolar I versus bipolar II disorder experiencing higher prevalence of PTSD. Prevalence of bipolar disorder among individuals with PTSD ranged from 6% to 55%. Baseline PTSD or bipolar disorder was associated with incidence of the other illness. Individuals with co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD experienced high symptom burden and low quality of life. No studies evaluated prospective treatment of patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder and PTSD. Bipolar disorder and PTSD commonly co-occur and result in greater symptom burden than either condition alone. Few published treatment strategies exist for patients with both conditions.
Kumar, Manish; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Mondal, Anwesha
Background: Subjective experience means subtle, not yet psychotic abnormalities of experience that might be present during remitted phase and also in prodromal phase of schizophrenia and might be accurately efficient in identifying individuals at risk of eminent psychosis (Parnas et al., 2003). Apart from schizophrenic patients, bipolar patients also experience certain subjective symptoms in their euthymic state. They often experience subtle cognitive impairment and functional disturbances during their euthymic states. These subjective experiences may be related to distorted cognitive functions in these patients. These experiences include a great variety of cognitive dysfunction complaints about attention, perception, memory, thinking, language, movement, and emotion. Objective: To measure the experience of subjective symptoms and compare them between euthymic bipolar and remitted schizophrenia patients. Materials and Methods: Thirty euthymic bipolar patients and 30 remitted schizophrenia patients as per International Classification of Diseases Tenth Revision were selected for the purpose of the study. At first, sociodemographic data were collected. And then, the patients were assessed using the scales; positive and negative syndrome scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Symptom Checklist-90-Revised, and Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire-24. Results: Both the groups showed significant differences in terms of subjective symptoms. However, no significant correlation has been found between the objective psychopathology and subjective experience in the two groups. Conclusion: It can be suggested that the patients with schizophrenia show significantly higher subjective experience when compared with the patients of bipolar disorder. PMID:27114621
Goikolea, José M.; Bonnin, Caterina M.; Sarró, Salvador; Segura, Barbara; Amann, Benedikt L.; Monté, Gemma C.; Moro, Noemi; Fernandez-Corcuera, Paloma; Maristany, Teresa; Salvador, Raymond; Vieta, Eduard; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J.
Introduction Cognitive impairment in the euthymic phase is a well-established finding in bipolar disorder. However, its brain structural and/or functional correlates are uncertain. Methods Thirty-three euthymic bipolar patients with preserved memory and executive function and 28 euthymic bipolar patients with significant memory and/or executive impairment, as defined using two test batteries, the Rivermead Behavioural Memory Test (RBMT) and the Behavioural Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS), plus 28 healthy controls underwent structural MRI using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Twenty-seven of the cognitively preserved patients, 23 of the cognitively impaired patients and 28 controls also underwent fMRI during performance of the n-back working memory task. Results No clusters of grey or white matter volume difference were found between the two patient groups. During n-back performance, the cognitively impaired patients showed hypoactivation compared to the cognitively preserved patients in a circumscribed region in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Both patient groups showed failure of de-activation in the medial frontal cortex compared to the healthy controls. Conclusions Cognitive impairment in euthymic bipolar patients appears from this study to be unrelated to structural brain abnormality, but there was some evidence for an association with altered prefrontal function. PMID:27448153
Rapinesi, Chiara; Serata, Daniele; Del Casale, Antonio; Simonetti, Alessio; Milioni, Mara; Mazzarini, Lorenzo; Scatena, Paola; Fensore, Claudio; Carbonetti, Paolo; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D; Tatarelli, Roberto; Pompili, Maurizio; Girardi, Paolo
A woman with bipolar disorder I, histrionic personality disorder, and suicidal ideation with repeated suicide attempts, who had been treated for 2 years with mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines, received a total of 8 bitemporal-biparietal electroconvulsive therapy sessions. Her suicidal ideation and self-harm behavior disappeared immediately after the first session and her psychopathology soon after. This supports the existence of a relatively independent suicidal syndrome and confirms data on its immediate responsiveness to electroconvulsive therapy. Electroconvulsive therapy must not be long withheld from patients with such characteristics to reduce unnecessary sufferance and suicidality.
Adida, Marc; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Adjunctive use of methylphenidate, a central stimulant, has been considered as a potential therapeutic choice for patients with refractory unipolar, geriatric, or bipolar depression, and depression secondary to medical illness. We present a case of bipolar depression in which the patient responded significantly to augmentation with methylphenidate, without any side effects, after failure of adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy. Mr U, a 56-year-old man with bipolar I disorder, had melancholic symptoms during his sixth episode of bipolar depression. After failure of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroconvulsive therapy, he was treated with fluoxetine 80 mg/day, duloxetine 360 mg/day, mirtazapine 60 mg/day, and sodium valproate 1,000 mg/day, with no improvement. We added methylphenidate at a dose of 10 mg/day for one week, which resulted in mild clinical improvement, and then methylphenidate extended-release 20 mg/day for one week, with significant clinical improvement. He tolerated his medications well. His clinical recovery was stable over one year. The patient’s antidepressants and methylphenidate were gradually tapered and finally discontinued after one year with no withdrawal syndrome. To date, he remains well on sodium valproate as monotherapy and is being followed up at our bipolar department. This case suggests that methylphenidate augmentation might be a therapeutic option when treating highly treatment-resistant patients with bipolar depression, even if they had not responded to adjunctive neuromodulation. In these clinical situations, physicians might be interested in prescribing methylphenidate because of its efficacy and safety. PMID:24729710
Prasko, Jan; Ociskova, Marie; Kamaradova, Dana; Sedlackova, Zuzana; Cerna, Monika; Mainerova, Barbora; Sandoval, Aneta
Bipolar affective disorder runs a natural course of frequent relapses and recurrences. Despite significant strides in the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, most bipolar patients cannot be treated only by drugs. The limitations of using medication alone in symptomatic, relapse prevention, and satisfaction/quality of life terms have long prompted interest in wider forms of management. One of the promising way how to enhance remission seems to be combination of pharmacotherapy and psychoeducation. Studies were identified through PUBMED, Web of Science and Scopus databases as well as existing reviews. The search terms included "bipolar disorder", "psychoeducation", "psychotherapy", "psychosocial treatment", "family therapy", "individual therapy", "group therapy", and "psychoeducation". The search was performed by repeated use of the words in different combinations with no language or time limitations. This article is a review with conclusions concerned with psychoeducation in bipolar disorder. Randomized controlled trials of cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, individual, group and family psychoeducation show that these approaches augment stabilizing effect of pharmacotherapy. Patients and their families should be educated about bipolar disorder, triggers, warning signs, mood relapse, suicidal ideation, and the effectiveness of early intervention to reduce complications. Psychosocial approaches are important therapeutic strategies for reducing relapse and rehospitalization in bipolar disorder.
Burdick, Katherine E.; Braga, Raphael J; Nnadi, Charles U.; Shaya, Yaniv; Stearns, Walter H.; Malhotra, Anil K.
Objective Patients with bipolar disorder suffer from significant cognitive impairment which contributes directly to functional disability in bipolar patients, yet few studies have targeted these symptoms for treatment and the optimal study design remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of the dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, pramipexole, on cognition in bipolar disorder. Methods 50 DSM-IV stable bipolar I outpatients enrolled in an 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cognitive enhancement trial. Patients completed neurocognitive testing at baseline and at week 8. Symptoms and side effects were monitored weekly. Results Forty-five patients completed the study [Placebo (n=24); Pramipexole (n=21)] and groups were well-matched on demographic and clinical features. Primary cognitive analyses were negative; however, secondary analyses revealed some interesting results which serve to highlight several important methodological issues. Subsyndromal mood symptoms at baseline had a significant influence on the degree of improvement due to active drug, with strictly euthymic patients faring best. In addition, the degree of baseline cognitive impairment was also an important factor in treatment response. Conclusions Although largely interpreted as a negative cognitive enhancement trial, our data suggest a potentially beneficial effect of pramipexole on some aspects of cognition in a subgroup patients with bipolar disorder. These data highlight the importance of rigorous subject selection for cognitive trials in bipolar illness. Future studies will be necessary to determine the possible clinical and functional implications of these results. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ with the identifier: NCT00597896. PMID:22152405
Newman, Cory F.
Bipolar disorder exacts a terrible toll on its sufferers owing to the repeated, severe disruptions in the patients' lives, the discomfort and uncertainties of being on rigorous, ongoing pharmacotherapy regimens, the emotional difficulties inherent in experiencing depression and mania, and the fear of a deteriorating course. Patients with bipolar…
Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.
Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…
Schenkel, Lindsay S.; West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel; Sweeney, John A.; Pavuluri, Mani N.
Background: Impaired profiles of neurocognitive function have been consistently demonstrated among pediatric patients with bipolar disorder (BD), and may aid in the identification of endophenotypes across subtypes of the disorder. This study aims to determine phenotypic cognitive profiles of patients with BD Type I and II. Methods: Subjects (N =…
Karanti, Alina; Kardell, Mathias; Lundberg, Ulrika; Landén, Mikael
Lithium is a first line option in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder, but several alternative treatment regimens have been introduced in recent years, among them treatment with antiepileptic compounds and atypical antipsychotic drugs. Little is known about if and how this has changed the prescription patterns of mood stabilizers. We analysed trends in prescription of mood stabilisers in Sweden using the national quality register for bipolar disorder (BipoläR), the Prescribed Drug Register, and the Patient Register during the years 2007-2011. We found that lithium use decreased while lamotrigine use increased in bipolar patients. These changes could not be ex-plained by differences in bipolar subtypes; lithium use decreased in both bipolar type I and type II, and the use of lamotrigine increased in bipolar type II. Lithium use was more common in men, whereas lamotrigine use was more common in women. The prescription of other mood stabilisers did not change during these years.
Duffy, A; Patten, S; Goodday, S; Weir, A; Heffer, N; Cipriani, A
Epidemiological, clinical, and high-risk studies have provided evidence that the peak period for onset of diagnosable episodes of mania and hypomania starts in mid-to-late adolescence. Moreover, clinically significant manic symptoms may occur even earlier, especially in children at familial risk. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for acute mania in adults, yet to our knowledge, there is no published systematic review assessing lithium treatment of mania in children or adolescents. This is a major gap in knowledge needed to inform clinical practice. As a working group within the ISBD Task Force on Lithium Treatment ( http://www.isbd.org/active-task-forces ), our aim is to complete a systematic review of the efficacy, tolerability, and acceptability of lithium compared with placebo and other active drugs in treating mania in children and adolescents diagnosed with bipolar disorder. We will include double- or single-blind randomized controlled trials in patients aged less than 18 years. No restrictions will be made by study publication date or language. Several electronic databases will be searched along with secondary sources such as bibliographies and trial registry websites for published and unpublished studies. Response rates to lithium compared with placebo or other active drugs will be the primary efficacy outcome. Primary tolerability and acceptability outcomes will be rates of serious adverse events and dropouts, respectively. Secondary outcomes will include rates of remission, severity of manic symptoms at different time points, and incidence of specific adverse events. Findings from this systematic review are critically needed to inform clinical practice. We should not generalize findings from adult studies, as children and adolescents are undergoing accelerated physiological and brain development. Therefore, efficacy, tolerability, and acceptability of lithium treatment of acute mania in children compared to adults may be very different. This
Objective: To look at the manner in which patients and caregivers perceive the treatment of bipolar disorder compared with the evidence base for bipolar treatment. Method: Between April 2013 and March 2014, 469 respondents took a 14-question online survey on demographics, medications taken, and perspectives on bipolar treatment and medications. Participants were recruited through social media outlets (Facebook and Twitter accounts) of Global Medical Education (New York, New York) and the blog Bipolar Burble, which has a primary audience of people with bipolar disorder. There were no exclusion criteria to participation, and both patients and health care professionals were encouraged to participate. Results: Most respondents were taking ≥ 3 medications, and the greatest unmet need in treatment was for bipolar depression. In general, respondent perspectives on the effectiveness of individual medication treatments did not align with the available literature. Weight gain was the greatest side effect concern for both antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Conclusions: Our survey demonstrates that there are still many unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is also a mismatch between the evidence base for treatments in bipolar disorder and patient perception of the relative efficacy of different medications. In order to achieve better outcomes, there is a need to provide patients and clinicians greater quality education with regard to the best evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder. PMID:25664214
Masand, Prakash S; Tracy, Natasha
To look at the manner in which patients and caregivers perceive the treatment of bipolar disorder compared with the evidence base for bipolar treatment. Between April 2013 and March 2014, 469 respondents took a 14-question online survey on demographics, medications taken, and perspectives on bipolar treatment and medications. Participants were recruited through social media outlets (Facebook and Twitter accounts) of Global Medical Education (New York, New York) and the blog Bipolar Burble, which has a primary audience of people with bipolar disorder. There were no exclusion criteria to participation, and both patients and health care professionals were encouraged to participate. Most respondents were taking ≥ 3 medications, and the greatest unmet need in treatment was for bipolar depression. In general, respondent perspectives on the effectiveness of individual medication treatments did not align with the available literature. Weight gain was the greatest side effect concern for both antipsychotics and mood stabilizers. Our survey demonstrates that there are still many unmet needs in the treatment of bipolar disorder. There is also a mismatch between the evidence base for treatments in bipolar disorder and patient perception of the relative efficacy of different medications. In order to achieve better outcomes, there is a need to provide patients and clinicians greater quality education with regard to the best evidence-based treatments for bipolar disorder.
Çuhadar, Döndü; Çam, M Olcay
This research was conducted as an experiment-control experimental study which aimed to determine the effectiveness of a psychoeducation program prepared to reduce internalized stigmatization. The study included 47 patients (24 experimental, 23 control) who had been diagnosed with bipolar disorder. At the end of the psychoeducation program, a significant decrease was observed in the total ISSMI mean scores, as well as in the ISSMI subscale mean scores for subscales such as alienation, approval of stereotypes, perceived discrimination and social withdrawal (p<0.05). The results demonstrated that a psychoeducation program designed for internalized stigmatization may have positive effects on the internalized stigmatization levels of patients with bipolar disorder. © 2014.
Douki, S; Nacef, F; Triki, T; Dalery, J
Bipolar disorders are one of the most potentially severe psychiatric disorders, implying a high degree of morbidity and incapacity for patients. Indeed, the World Health Organization in 1996 ranked them as the sixth most disabling condition worldwide. Major advances have been achieved in their understanding and management. However, too many patients do not yet benefit from them. As a matter of fact, bipolar disorders are still underestimated and under-recognized, being too often misdiagnosed with major depression or schizophrenia; the DSM-IV acknowledges the trend of clinicians to overdiagnose schizophrenia (rather than bipolar disorder), especially in ethnic groups and young people. Indeed, cultural factors may impact the symptomatology and the course of the disease. In particular, it has been shown by many authors that schizophrenia-like features are more likely to be found in southern countries. Similarly, the same authors have reported more manic than depressive episodes during the course of bipolar disorder. We aimed at comparing individuals with bipolar disorder living in two distinct geographic and cultural environments, namely France and Tunisia. Our study included two samples of 40 patients each, natives from the country, who were admitted during 2007 to the hospitals of Razi (Tunis, Tunisia) and Le Vinatier (Lyon, France) and suffering from a bipolar disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. The French sample was constituted by all the patients meeting the inclusion criteria and the Tunisian one was selected by matching the patients by gender and duration of the disorder. Our results were consistent with the existing literature, showing many similarities and some marked differences such as a greater rate of manic episodes in the onset and during the course of the illness as well. The main result was the type of the first episode: mania in three quarter cases in Tunisia and depressive in the same proportion in France. The same figures applied to the
Swaminathan, Shanker; Koller, Daniel L; Foroud, Tatiana; Edenberg, Howard J; Xuei, Xiaoling; Niculescu, Alexander B; Nurnberger, John I
Bipolar disorder co-occurs with a number of disorders with externalizing features. The aim of this study is to determine whether Bipolar I (BPI) subjects with comorbid externalizing disorders and a subgroup with externalizing symptoms prior to age 15 have different clinical features than those without externalizing disorders and whether these could be attributed to specific genetic variations. A large cohort (N=2505) of Bipolar I subjects was analyzed. Course of illness parameters were compared between an Externalizing Group, an Early-Onset Subgroup and a Non-Externalizing Group in the Discovery sample (N=1268). Findings were validated using an independent set of 1237 BPI subjects (Validation sample). Genetic analyses were carried out. Subjects in the Externalizing Group (and Early-Onset Subgroup) tended to have a more severe clinical course, even in areas specifically related to mood disorder such as cycling frequency and rapid mood switching. Regression analysis showed that the differences are not completely explainable by substance use. Genetic analyses identified nominally associated SNPs; calcium channel genes were not enriched in the gene variants identified. Validation in independent samples is needed to confirm the genetic findings in the present study. Our findings support the presence of an externalizing disorder subphenotype within BPI with greater severity of mood disorder and possible specific genetic features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Derntl, Birgit; Seidel, Eva-Maria; Schneider, Frank; Habel, Ute
Empathy is a rather elaborated human ability and several recent studies highlight significant impairments in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depression. Therefore, the present study aimed at comparing behavioral empathy performance in schizophrenia, bipolar and depressed patients with healthy controls. All subjects performed three tasks tapping the core components of empathy: emotion recognition, emotional perspective taking and affective responsiveness. Groups were matched for age, gender, and verbal intelligence. Data analysis revealed three main findings: First, schizophrenia patients showed the strongest impairment in empathic performance followed by bipolar patients while depressed patients performed similar to controls in most tasks, except for affective responsiveness. Second, a significant association between clinical characteristics and empathy performance was only apparent in depression, indicating worse affective responsiveness with stronger symptom severity and longer duration of illness. Third, self-report data indicate that particularly bipolar patients describe themselves as less empathic, reporting less empathic concern and less perspective taking. Taken together, this study constitutes the first approach to directly compare specificity of empathic deficits in severe psychiatric disorders. Our results suggest disorder-specific impairments in emotional competencies that enable better characterization of the patient groups investigated and indicate different psychotherapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Navarro, Santiago; Rodríguez, Fernando; Acosta, Francisco J; García-Bello, Miguel
Nonadherence is an important and highly prevalent issue in bipolar disorder, which may have serious consequences. Surprisingly, few studies have been carried out in patients with clinical stability to explore risk factors for nonadherence. Adherence was assessed in 76 bipolar disorder patients with clinical stability using objective and subjective methods, both with a cross-sectional approach and a 3-year retrospective period. Possible associations between nonadherence and sociodemographic, clinical, treatment-related, psychopathological, psychological-subjective and result variables were also assessed. 36.8% of patients were nonadherent. These patients showed greater concerns about medicines, worse functionality, a greater number of episodes and depressive episodes, higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, present and/or past substance use or abuse and a history of depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms. A multivariate analysis revealed that concern about medicines, present and/or past substance use or abuse and psychiatric comorbidities were independently associated with nonadherence. Nonadherence is a frequent phenomenon in bipolar disorder, even in patients with clinical stability. Clinicians should assess patients’ beliefs and attitudes towards medicines and help them reevaluate those issues with a more realistic perspective. Clinicians should also take actions to prevent substance use or abuse. Identification of nonadherence risk profile in bipolar disorder patients in clinical stability, adds complementary information to the identified risk profile in acute phases of the disease.
Fries, Gabriel R; Colpo, Gabriela D; Monroy-Jaramillo, Nancy; Zhao, Junfei; Zhao, Zhongming; Arnold, Jodi G; Bowden, Charles L; Walss-Bass, Consuelo
Lithium is the most commonly prescribed medication for the treatment of bipolar disorder (BD), yet the mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects are still unclear. We aimed to compare the effects of lithium treatment in lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) from BD patients and controls. LCLs were generated from sixty-two BD patients (based on DSM-IV) and seventeen healthy controls matched for age, sex, and ethnicity. Patients were recruited from outpatient clinics from February 2012 to October 2014. LCLs were treated with 1mM lithium for 7 days followed by microarray gene expression assay and validation by real-time quantitative PCR. Baseline differences between groups, as well as differences between vehicle- and lithium-treated cells within each group were analyzed. The biological significance of differentially expressed genes was examined by pathway enrichment analysis. No significant differences in baseline gene expression (adjusted p-value < 0.05) were detected between groups. Lithium treatment of LCLs from controls did not lead to any significant differences. However, lithium altered the expression of 236 genes in LCLs from patients; those genes were enriched for signaling pathways related to apoptosis. Among those genes, the alterations in the expression of PIK3CG, SERP1 and UPP1 were validated by real-time PCR. A significant correlation was also found between circadian functioning and CEBPG and FGF2 expression levels. In summary, our results suggest that lithium treatment induces expression changes in genes associated with the apoptosis pathway in BD LCLs. The more pronounced effects of lithium in patients compared to controls suggest a disease-specific effect of this drug. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
García de la Orden, Lucía; García Carretero, Rafael
Bipolar disorder is one of the most common, severe and persistent mental disorders. The evaluation of all data and variables related to bipolar disorder is a difficult task, because there is no clear agreement on what should be included in this category. One of the traditional treatments for this disease is the lithium metal that is administered in the form of lithium salt. Lithium has a narrow therapeutic window and there is a significant risk of complications arising from its use, mainly neurological and renal. In the case presented, the preparation of a care plan is described for a patient diagnosed with bipolar disorder who suffered a complication with lithium treatment. To do this, it was decided to use a standardized care plan and later completed it with diagnostic, objectives and interventions to the specific needs of the patient, aimed at achieving optimal levels of independence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Isgren, Anniella; Jakobsson, Joel; Pålsson, Erik; Ekman, Carl Johan; Johansson, Anette G M; Sellgren, Carl; Blennow, Kaj; Zetterberg, Henrik; Landén, Mikael
Inflammation has been linked to the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder based on studies of inflammation markers, such as cytokine concentrations, in plasma and serum samples from cases and controls. However, peripheral measurements of cytokines do not readily translate to immunological activity in the brain. The aim of the present study was to study brain immune and inflammatory activity. To this end, we analyzed cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid from 121 euthymic bipolar disorder patients and 71 age and sex matched control subjects. Concentrations of 11 different cytokines were determined using immunoassays. Cerebrospinal fluid IL-8 concentrations were significantly higher in patients as compared to controls. The other cytokines measured were only detectable in part of the sample. IL-8 concentrations were positively associated to lithium- and antipsychotic treatment. The findings might reflect immune aberrations in bipolar disorder, or be due to the effects of medication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
HARMANCI, Hatice; ÇAM ÇELİKEL, Feryal; ETİKAN, İlker
Introduction The co-occurrence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in affective disorder patients is considerably high. The aims of the present study were to search for the frequency and impact of ADHD co-occurrence on the clinical features of affective disorders and to examine the relationship between the dominant affective temperaments and ADHD. Methods In total, 100 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), 100 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), and 100 healthy controls (HC) were included. All diagnoses were assigned according to DSM-IV-TR criteria. The Adult Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Self-Report Scale (ASRS); Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS); and Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) were applied to all participants. Results The percentage of BD patients meeting the criteria for a diagnosis of current ADHD was 48% compared with the percentage of MDD patients and HCC subjects, i.e., 25% and 12%, respectively. ADHD was significantly more frequent in bipolar adults than in not only HC but also depressive patients. In the BD group, patients with a comorbid ADHD diagnosis had significantly more suicidal history than those without ADHD. The scores of the temperament traits, namely depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious, were significantly higher in subjects with ADHD in all groups, including in HC. Conclusion The most important findings of the present study were the observations that (1) the frequency of ADHD is considerably high among bipolar patients; (2) the frequency of suicide attempts is high in the bipolar patient group with comorbid ADHD; and (3) depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious temperaments are significantly associated with ADHD comorbidity in bipolar and depressive patients as well as in HC. The high comorbidity and chronic course of ADHD and its possible negative influence on the course of both disorders increase the importance of screening for adult
Ducasse, D; Jaussent, I; Guillaume, S; Azorin, J M; Bellivier, F; Belzeaux, R; Bougerol, T; Etain, B; Gard, S; Henry, C; Kahn, J P; Leboyer, M; Loftus, J; Passerieux, C; Olié, E; Courtet, P
The aim of our study was to investigate, in bipolar patients, whether affect lability was associated with suicidal ideation incidence during 2-year follow-up, and which subtype of affect lability was associated with suicidal ideation. A total of 319 euthymic or mildly depressed bipolar outpatients recruited in the French FondaMental Advanced Centres of Expertise for Bipolar Disorder were divided into two subgroups according to the occurrence of suicidal ideation during a 2-year follow-up. Affect lability was assessed by the French version of the Affect Lability Scale. Bipolar patients with high affect lability were more likely to report suicidal ideation during follow-up, even after adjustment for age, study level, rapid cycling, current depression level, anxiety disorder, and lifetime history SA (OR = 2.47; 95% CI [1.15-5.30], P = 0.01). The risk of suicidal ideation increased with the level of affect lability. More specifically, the propensity to switch from neutral to elation affect, from anxious to depressive affect (or inversely), and from neutral to anger affect predicted suicidal ideation. Reducing affective lability could become a new therapeutic target of suicidal prevention in bipolar disorder. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kittel-Schneider, S; Schreck, S; Ziegler, C; Weißflog, L; Hilscher, M; Schwarz, R; Schnetzler, L; Neuner, M; Reif, A
Disturbances of circadian rhythms occur in all episodes of bipolar disorder (BD). Lithium, as gold-standard in the maintenance treatment of BD, is known to influence circadian processes. In a pilot study lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) were generated from 8 BD patients and 6 healthy controls. The LCLs were treated with lithiumchloride (LiCl) for 3 weeks. Cell cycles were then synchronized and expressional analysis by quantitative Real Time PCR was done. BD and controls differed in the period length regarding DBP (albumin D-box binding protein) expression and DBP expression was also influenced by lithium treatment. Furthermore, baseline DBP expression was significantly different between non-treated BD and healthy controls. None of the other analyzed circadian genes showed to be influenced by chronic lithium treatment or to be differentially regulated due to the diagnosis. We here show that chronic lithium treatment of LCLs leads to decreased expression of the clock gene DBP, rendering DBP a lithium-regulated gene. We could confirm the role of the circadian clock as well in lithium mode of action as in the pathomechanisms of BD although future studies with a greater number of participants and cell lines are needed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Bisogni, Valeria; Rossitto, Giacomo; Reghin, Francesco; Padrini, Roberto; Rossi, Gian Paolo
Bipolar disorders are chronic conditions treated with lithium, which exerts deleterious effects on the kidney, among which nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, tubular acidosis and ultimately chronic kidney disease. Conversely, drugs that alter renal function can modify its serum levels and lead to the potentially fatal lithium intoxication. A search in the main library databases from 1975 to 2015 to identify interactions between antihypertensive drugs and lithium using the Population Intervention Comparison Outcome strategy provided only 30 reports of lithium intoxication. A regression analysis showed that the severity of lithium intoxication was significantly predicted by female, age, and use of certain classes of antihypertensive agents. A model including certain albeit not all diuretics and/or inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system, but not age, serum lithium or creatinine levels at baseline and/or on admission to the hospital, predicted lithium toxicity. The true incidence of lithium intoxication is unknown but probably low, albeit underestimated. Nonetheless, in patients treated with lithium, monitoring of the serum lithium levels and clinical conditions is mandatory after the introduction of antihypertensive drugs, as diuretics and renin-aldosterone system inhibitors.
Goodwin, G M; Haddad, P M; Ferrier, I N; Aronson, J K; Barnes, Trh; Cipriani, A; Coghill, D R; Fazel, S; Geddes, J R; Grunze, H; Holmes, E A; Howes, O; Hudson, S; Hunt, N; Jones, I; Macmillan, I C; McAllister-Williams, H; Miklowitz, D R; Morriss, R; Munafò, M; Paton, C; Saharkian, B J; Saunders, Kea; Sinclair, Jma; Taylor, D; Vieta, E; Young, A H
The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines specify the scope and targets of treatment for bipolar disorder. The third version is based explicitly on the available evidence and presented, like previous Clinical Practice Guidelines, as recommendations to aid clinical decision making for practitioners: it may also serve as a source of information for patients and carers, and assist audit. The recommendations are presented together with a more detailed review of the corresponding evidence. A consensus meeting, involving experts in bipolar disorder and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from these participants. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials and, where available, observational studies employing quasi-experimental designs was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations has been described using the GRADE approach. The guidelines cover the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, clinical management, and strategies for the use of medicines in short-term treatment of episodes, relapse prevention and stopping treatment. The use of medication is integrated with a coherent approach to psychoeducation and behaviour change. © The Author(s) 2016.
Goodwin, G.M.; Haddad, P. M.; Ferrier, I.N.; Aronson, J.K.; Barnes, T.R.H.; Cipriani, A.; Coghill, D.R.; Fazel, S.; Geddes, J.R.; Grunze, H.; Holmes, E.A.; Howes, O.; Hudson, S.; Hunt, N.; Jones, I.; Macmillan, I.C.; McAllister-Williams, H.; Miklowitz, D.M.; Morriss, R.; Munafò, M.; Paton, C.; Saharkian, B.J.; Saunders, K.E.A.; Sinclair, J.M.A.; Taylor, D.; Vieta, E.; Young, A.H.
The British Association for Psychopharmacology guidelines specify the scope and targets of treatment for bipolar disorder. The third version is based explicitly on the available evidence and presented, like previous Clinical Practice Guidelines, as recommendations to aid clinical decision making for practitioners: it may also serve as a source of information for patients and carers, and assist audit. The recommendations are presented together with a more detailed review of the corresponding evidence. A consensus meeting, involving experts in bipolar disorder and its treatment, reviewed key areas and considered the strength of evidence and clinical implications. The guidelines were drawn up after extensive feedback from these participants. The best evidence from randomized controlled trials and, where available, observational studies employing quasi-experimental designs was used to evaluate treatment options. The strength of recommendations has been described using the GRADE approach. The guidelines cover the diagnosis of bipolar disorder, clinical management, and strategies for the use of medicines: in short-term treatment of episodes, relapse prevention and stopping treatment. The use of medication is integrated with a coherent approach to psychoeducation and behaviour change. PMID:26979387
Chen, Hongwei; Wang, Ziyang; Shang, Yongjun
To compare clinical outcomes of unipolar and bipolar radial head prosthesis in the treatment of patients with radial head fracture. Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, Google Scholar databases were searched until April 18, 2016 using the following search terms: radial head fracture, elbow fracture, radial head arthroplasty, implants, prosthesis, unipolar, bipolar, cemented, and press-fit. Randomized controlled trials, retrospective, and cohort studies were included. The Mayo elbow performance score (MEPS), disabilities of the arm, shoulder, and hand (DASH) score, radiologic assessment, ROM, and grip strength following elbow replacement were similar between prosthetic devices. The pooled mean excellent/good ranking of MEPS was 0.78 for unipolar and 0.73 for bipolar radial head arthroplasty, and the pooled mean MEPS was 86.9 and 79.9, respectively. DASH scores for unipolar and bipolar prosthesis were 19.0 and 16.3, respectively. Range of motion outcomes were similar between groups, with both groups have comparable risk of flexion arc, flexion, extension deficit, rotation arc, pronation, and supination (p values <0.001 for both unipolar and bipolar prosthesis). However, bipolar radial head prosthesis was associated with an increased chance of heterotopic ossification and lucency (p values ≤0.049) while unipolar prosthesis was not (p values ≥0.088). Both groups had risk for development of capitellar osteopenia or erosion/wear (p values ≤0.039). Unipolar and bipolar radial head prostheses were similar with respect to clinical outcomes. Additional comparative studies are necessary to further compare different radial head prostheses used to treat radial head fracture.
Candini, Valentina; Buizza, Chiara; Ferrari, Clarissa; Caldera, Maria Teresa; Ermentini, Roberta; Ghilardi, Alberto; Nobili, Gianluigi; Pioli, Rosaria; Sabaudo, Margherita; Sacchetti, Emilio; Saviotti, Francesco Maria; Seggioli, Giuseppe; Zanini, Amneris; de Girolamo, Giovanni
Recent reviews of evidence-based guidelines for the clinical management of Bipolar Disorders (BD) have recommended that "all patients with BD be offered group or individual psychoeducation" to prevent relapse, improve treatment adherence, quality of life, and functioning. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of psychoeducation in routine mental health services in reducing number of hospitalisations and number of days spent in hospital, at a 1-year follow-up. A total of 102 outpatients were recruited from two Italian Departments of Mental Health. Inclusion criteria were a lifetime BD type I or II diagnosis, assessed with SCID, and ≥ 3 months of euthymia. Exclusion criteria were DSM-IV Axis I comorbidity, mental retardation (IQ<70), organic brain damage, or deafness. All participants received standard psychiatric care, including standard pharmacological treatment; the experimental group also received 21 group psychoeducation sessions, weekly held and conducted according to Colom and Vieta's model. The number of patients hospitalised during the 1-year follow-up, the mean number of hospitalisations per patient, and the mean number of hospitalisation days were significantly lower for psychoeducated patients. Our findings support the view that group psychoeducation is an effective way to prevent hospitalisation and decrease hospital days in pharmacologically treated patients with bipolar disorder also in routine clinical settings. The results confirm that psychoeducation promotes improvement in illness course by preventing acute phases and enhancing mood stability, and consequently, improvement in the quality of life for people with BD. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A.; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L.; Young, Jared W.
Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments. PMID:26297513
Lolich, María; Holtzman, Jessica N; Rago, Carlo M; Vázquez, Gustavo H
In recent years, investigators have begun to consider the possibility of explaining the physiopathology of bipolar disorder from a neuroprogressive perspective. The evidence that supports the feasibility of such an approach is varied, and arises from neuroimaging studies, batteries of neurocognitive evaluations, and tests to identify the specific biomarkers of the disorder. The present article seeks to perform a review of the research that investigates the cognitive deficits in bipolar disorder. A bibliographic revision was performed of articles published between 1990 and 2015. Levels of cognitive performance were explored in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The compiled studies signal the presence of altered cognitive function, even during periods of euthymia. However, there are contradictory results as to whether bipolar disorder presents a degenerative course. New lines of investigation suggest that only a percentage of individuals with bipolar disorder are affected in a progressive manner. It is of paramount importance to perform new longitudinal studies in high-risk populations, so as to validate or refute a neuroprogressive model of cognitive deficits in patients with bipolar disorder.
Okasha, Tarek A; El Sheikh, Mona M; El Missiry, Ahmed A; El Missiry, Marwa A; El Serafi, Doha; El Kholy, Suzan; Abdel Aziz, Karim
There is marked interest to research neurocognitive functions in bipolar disorder during euthymia. Consequently we aimed to study cognitive functions in euthymic bipolar patients and factors affecting them. It is a cross sectional case-control study of 60 euthymic bipolar patients and 30 matched healthy controls. They were subjected to: Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV disorders, (SCID-I) to ascertain clinical diagnosis, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) to validate euthymia. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) for general intellectual abilities, Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R) for memory, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) for executive functions, Continuous Performance Test (CPT) for attention and impulsivity, and an information sheet gathering patient data. Bipolar patients had statistically significant lower mean IQ scores in all WAIS subscales (p=0.000), significantly lower memory abilities especially digit span and visual memory, higher impulsivity and inattention (p=0.000) but no significant difference in response time by CPT. They displayed significantly lower executive performance on WCST. Patients' years of education correlated positively with IQ. Hospital admission, number, type of episodes and total number of episodes affected memory functions. Hospital admission and number of hypomanic episodes correlated with attention and impulsivity. Previous hospitalization correlated with executive functions. Euthymic bipolar patients exhibit cognitive deficits, which correlated with clinical variables as number, type of episodes and previous hospitalization, this knowledge could help minimize cognitive impairments for future patients. The small sample size, cross sectional design and lack of premorbid cognitive assessment limit generalization of findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jakobsson, Joel; Bjerke, Maria; Sahebi, Sara; Isgren, Anniella; Ekman, Carl Johan; Sellgren, Carl; Olsson, Bob; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Pålsson, Erik; Landén, Mikael
Background Bipolar disorder is associated with medical comorbidities that have been linked to systemic inflammatory mechanisms. There is, however, limited evidence supporting a role of neuroinflammation in bipolar disorder. Here we tested whether microglial activation and associated tissue remodelling processes are related to bipolar disorder by analyzing markers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum from patients and healthy controls. Methods Serum was sampled from euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and healthy controls, and CSF was sampled from a large subset of these individuals. The levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), YKL-40, soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2), were measured, and we adjusted comparisons between patients and controls for confounding factors. Results We obtained serum samples from 221 patients and 112 controls and CSF samples from 125 patients and 87 controls. We found increased CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 and increased serum levels of sCD14 and YKL-40 in patients compared with controls; these differences remained after controlling for confounding factors, such as age, sex, smoking, blood–CSF barrier function, acute-phase proteins and body mass index. The CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 correlated with the serum levels, whereas the differences between patients and controls in CSF levels of MCP-1 and YKL-40 were independent of serum levels. Limitations The cross-sectional study design precludes conclusions about causality. Conclusion Our results suggest that both neuroinflammatory and systemic inflammatory processes are involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. Importantly, markers of immunological processes in the brain were independent of peripheral immunological activity. PMID:25768030
Di Nardo, Walter; Scorpecci, Alessandro; Giannantonio, Sara; Paludetti, Gaetano
Treatment of nasal turbinate hypertrophy with bipolar radiofrequency-induced thermotherapy (RFITT) is a common indication in patients affected by chronic vasomotor rhinitis. Nonetheless, there are no reports about the safety of such a surgical procedure in cochlear implant (CI) users, due to concerns that the spread of electrical current and heat could damage the CI inner component. We report two cases of CI recipients successfully and safely undergoing RFITT performed by means of the Olympus® Celon-ProBreath bipolar coagulation electrode. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schaefer, Martin; Sarkar, Susanne; Schwarz, Markus; Friebe, Astrid
Immunological and vascular markers may play a role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and mood changes. To test whether the cell adhesion molecule soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) may serve as a biomarker for patients with unipolar or bipolar affective disorders when compared to a healthy control group, and whether sICAM-1 blood levels change during different mood states. sICAM-1 serum concentrations were compared between 20 healthy controls and 48 patients with affective disorders (unipolar, bipolar II and bipolar I disorder) during different mood states (euthymic mood state, depression or mania). When compared to healthy controls, patients with affective disorders had significantly higher sICAM-1 levels during the euthymic state (p = 0.015). Differences became more pronounced during depression (p = 0.013). When unipolar and bipolar patients were analyzed separately, unipolar patients significantly differed from controls during the euthymic and depressive mood state, while bipolar II patients showed a trend towards higher sICAM-1 levels during depression. Patients with bipolar I disorders had significantly higher sICAM-1 levels during manic states when compared to controls (p = 0.007). sICAM-1 elevation in unipolar and bipolar patients, independent of mood changes, might support the hypothesis of chronic immune activation and endothelial dysfunction in patients with affective disorders. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Suppes, Trisha; Kelly, Dorothy I; Perla, Jessica M
Bipolar depression has started to receive more attention in clinical trials only relatively recently, despite the fact that patients spend more time in the depressed phase than in the manic phase of bipolar disorder. The diagnosis and management of bipolar depression are challenging, and many patients are undiagnosed or misdiagnosed due to symptom similarities with unipolar depression or other illnesses and/or comorbidities. Untreated or inappropriately treated bipolar depression adds to the burden of illness and is associated with a greater risk of suicide. Treatment options include lithium, lamotrigine, atypical antipsychotics, and traditional antidepressants, such as the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. However, traditional antidepressants are recommended with caution due to their potential risk of switching patients into mania. Some atypical antipsychotics have shown efficacy in bipolar depression, although longer-term studies are warranted. The choice of treatment for different subgroups of patients with bipolar depression, including those with comorbid anxiety, may vary and also needs further study. Other important issues that require further investigation include the recognition of the core features of bipolar depression and the threshold symptoms for treatment, as well as the optimal treatment choices for monotherapy or combination therapy, and acute versus long-term management of bipolar depression.
Gaudiano, Brandon A.; Miller, Ivan W.
Bipolar disorder is characterized by a chronic and fluctuating course of illness. Although nonadherence to pharmacotherapy is a frequent problem in the disorder, few studies have systematically explored psychosocial factors related to treatment discontinuation. Previous research with depressed patients receiving psychotherapy has suggested that…
Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L.
Expressed emotion (EE) is a robust predictor of outcome in bipolar disorder. Despite decades of research, interventions to reduce EE levels have had only modest effects. This study used an expanded model of EE to develop an intervention. Research has demonstrated a strong link between attributions and EE in families of patients with psychiatric…
Eisner, Lori R.; Johnson, Sheri L.
Expressed emotion (EE) is a robust predictor of outcome in bipolar disorder. Despite decades of research, interventions to reduce EE levels have had only modest effects. This study used an expanded model of EE to develop an intervention. Research has demonstrated a strong link between attributions and EE in families of patients with psychiatric…
Bassirnia, Anahita; Briggs, Jessica; Kopeykina, Irina; Mednick, Amy; Yaseen, Zimri; Galynker, Igor
Internalized stigma of mental disorders has significant negative outcomes for patients with bipolar disorder and their families. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between personality traits and internalized stigma of mental disorders in bipolar patients and their treatment partners. Five different questionnaires were utilized in this study: (1) Demographic data questionnaire, (2) Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III) for personality traits, (3) Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness (ISMI) for stigma, (4) Self Report Manic Inventory (SRMI) for mania and (5) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) for depression. The scores of personality traits were combined to create externalizing and internalizing personality trait scores. Results showed that patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners both experienced internalized stigma of mental health disorders. There was a significant positive correlation between internalized stigma and internalizing personality traits, but not externalizing traits. In a multi-variate regression analysis, internalizing personality trait score was found to be a significant predictor of internalized stigma. In conclusion, patients with bipolar disorder and their treatment partners perceive higher level of internalized stigma of mental disorders if they have internalizing personality traits.
Sayyaparaju, Kiran Kumar; Grunze, Heinz; Fountoulakis, Kostas N
Aripiprazole is a third generation atypical antipsychotic with compelling evidence as a highly effective treatment option in the management of acute manic and mixed episodes of bipolar I disorders. It has a unique mode of action, acting as a partial agonist at dopamine D2 and D3, and serotonin 5-HT1A; and exhibiting antagonistic action at the 5-HT2A and H1 receptors. Overall, it has a favorable safety and tolerability profile, with low potential for clinically significant weight gain and metabolic effects, especially compared to other well-established treatments. It also has a superior tolerability profile when used as maintenance treatment. Side effects like headache, insomnia, and extrapyramidal side effects (EPSEs), such as tremor and akathisia may be treatment limiting in some cases. It is efficacious in both acute mania and mixed states, and in the long-term prevention of manic relapses. Aripiprazole therefore, is a significant player in the current portfolio of anti-manic pharmacological treatments. The data sources for this article are from EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the clinical trial database searches for all the literature published between January 2003 and September 2013. The key search terms were “aripiprazole” combined with “bipolar disorder”, “mania”, “antipsychotics”, “mood stabilizer”, “randomized controlled trial”, and “pharmacology”. Abstracts and proceedings from national and international psychiatric meetings were also reviewed, along with reviews of the reference lists of relevant articles. PMID:24648740
Laksshman, Sundaram; Bhat, Rajendra Rana; Viswanath, Vivek; Li, Xiaolin
Bipolar disorder, also known as manic depression, is a brain disorder that affects the brain structure of a patient. It results in extreme mood swings, severe states of depression, and overexcitement simultaneously. It is estimated that roughly 3% of the population of the United States (about 5.3 million adults) suffers from bipolar disorder. Recent research efforts like the Twin studies have demonstrated a high heritability factor for the disorder, making genomics a viable alternative for detecting and treating bipolar disorder, in addition to the conventional lengthy and costly postsymptom clinical diagnosis. Motivated by this study, leveraging several emerging deep learning algorithms, we design an end-to-end deep learning architecture (called DeepBipolar) to predict bipolar disorder based on limited genomic data. DeepBipolar adopts the Deep Convolutional Neural Network (DCNN) architecture that automatically extracts features from genotype information to predict the bipolar phenotype. We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation (CAGI) bipolar disorder challenge and DeepBipolar was considered the most successful by the independent assessor. In this work, we thoroughly evaluate the performance of DeepBipolar and analyze the type of signals we believe could have affected the classifier in distinguishing the case samples from the control set. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Ryu, Vin; Kook, Sodahm; Lee, Su Jin; Ha, Kyooseob; Cho, Hyun-Sang
Time perception, which plays a fundamental role in decision-making and the evaluation of the environment, is also influenced by emotions. Patients with bipolar disorder have impairments in emotional processing as well as interval timing. We investigated the effects of emotional stimuli on time estimation and reproduction in manic and euthymic bipolar patients compared with healthy controls. We recruited 22 manic bipolar patients, 24 euthymic bipolar patients and 24 healthy controls. Each subject performed time estimation and reproduction tasks using standardized affective pictures that were classified into 4 stimulus groups according to valence and level of arousal and presented for durations of 2, 4, and 6s. We analyzed temporal performance on these tasks using transformed data expressed as a proportion of the target period. The interactions between arousal and valence were different in manic patients compared with euthymic patients and healthy controls in both time estimation and reproduction tasks. Manic patients showed no effect of positive valence low arousal stimuli in the time estimation task compared to euthymic patients and healthy controls. In the time reproduction task, the effect of emotional stimuli was reversed in manic patients compared to euthymic patients and healthy controls. Significant correlations between the severity of manic symptoms or illness severity and average temporal performance scores were found in manic patients. Our results suggest that altered emotion-related time judgments may be a state-dependent phenomenon observed in manic patients only. This difference in time perception for emotional stimuli may be related to the underlying neurobiological mechanisms of the manic state. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farahmand, Zahra; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Amini, Homayoun; Mohammadi, Abolfazl; Mirzaei, Mosleh; Mohamadzadeh, Azar
Background: Several cognitive domains, including attention, memory, and executive functions are impaired in bipolar disorder. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate two executive functions (working memory and response inhibition) in patients with bipolar I disorder during remission of the symptoms. Patients and Methods: In this case-control design, 30 bipolar I patients (18 to 45 years old) were matched with 30 ones in the control group in terms of age, gender, and education. The patients were selected from Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital (a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences) from May to October 2013. They were evaluated and contrasted using working memory (Spatial Span and Spatial Working Memory (SSP and SWM)) and response inhibition (Stop Signal Task (SST)) tests. Results: We used independent t-tests for comparing and contrasting 2 groups on total and sub-scales scores of these 3 tests. In terms of SWM test there was a significant difference in between-group error between the two groups (P = 0.05); there was also a meaningful difference between the strategies used by two groups (P = 0.05). In SSP test, a significant difference appeared between averages of span length of the two groups. In the first and last item delays, there was also a clear difference, but the total error index was not noticeably different. In SST test, the direction error indicator in start-stop trials indicated a major difference, while in successful stops ratio, the case group had a lower ratio. In addition, reaction time to stop signs in bipolar group was meaningfully lower than the control group. Conclusion: In conclusion, even during remission phase, executive dysfunction is detectable at least in some areas in patients with bipolar disorder. PMID:26251656
Proudfoot, Judith G; Parker, Gordon B; Benoit, Megan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Smith, Meg; Gayed, Aimee
Abstract Bipolar disorder is chronic condition involving episodes of both depression and elevated mood, associated with significant disability and high relapse rates. Recent estimates suggest a lifetime prevalence of 5%. Little is known about the subjective experiences of patients after receiving a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, and the impact of these experiences on patients' willingness and ability to work with their health professionals to find the most effective combination of treatments and to set up self‐management plans. Objective This paper describes a qualitative study exploring the experiences and difficulties faced by patients after they have received a diagnosis of bipolar disorder, as expressed online to expert patients trained to provide informed support. Design Qualitative study. Setting Online communication within a public health service setting. Participants Twenty‐six participants with recently‐diagnosed bipolar disorder communicated online with ‘Informed Supporters’, people who had been managing their bipolar disorder effectively for 2 years or more, as part of an online psycho‐education programme. Results Participants cited unwanted side‐effects of medication, coping with unpleasant symptoms, positive and negative reactions to the diagnosis, identifying early warning signs and triggers of the illness, the loss of a sense of self, uncertainty about their future and stigma as issues of major importance after diagnosis. Conclusions Personal concerns and difficulties following diagnosis can undermine effective treatment, thwart self‐management efforts and interfere with effective functioning. Such data are important for clinicians to take into account when they work in partnership with their patients to fine‐tune treatments and help them set up self‐management plans. PMID:19538647
Torres, Ivan J; Mackala, Sylvia A; Kozicky, Jan-Marie; Yatham, Lakshmi N
Metacognition, which refers to an individual's ability to assess their own cognitive ability or performance, is poorly understood in bipolar disorder. This study was conducted to evaluate two aspects of metacognitive ability in recently diagnosed patients with bipolar disorder: (a) metacognitive knowledge, pertaining to awareness of one's own general cognitive functioning; and (b) metacognitive experience, referring to awareness of one's cognitive performance on a specific, online cognitive task. Participants consisted of 50 clinically euthymic patients recently diagnosed with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) bipolar I disorder who were within three months of resolution of their first manic episode, and a comparison group of 38 demographically similar healthy volunteers. To assess metacognitive knowledge, participants provided a general rating of their estimated cognitive ability prior to completing a neuropsychological battery, and self-ratings were compared to actual ability based on a composite score of overall cognitive functioning. To assess metacognitive experience, subjects provided a postdiction rating of their perceived memory performance after completing a list learning verbal memory test, and self-ratings were compared to actual memory performance. Measures of both relative and absolute accuracy of ratings were obtained. Results indicated that patients showed diminished accuracy in rating their general cognitive ability, implying deficits in metacognitive knowledge. In contrast, patients were accurate in rating their online memory performance, suggesting intact metacognitive experience. Findings suggest that in patients with bipolar disorder, intact task-specific cognitive self-appraisals may fail to generalize to or to modify inaccurate global cognitive self-appraisals. Further research using more comprehensive metacognitive tasks is warranted in bipolar disorder.
Vancampfort, Davy; Stubbs, Brendon; Sienaert, Pascal; Wyckaert, Sabine; De Hert, Marc; Soundy, Andrew; Probst, Michel
To compare the physical fitness of inpatients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and healthy controls. Twenty-two inpatients with bipolar disorder, and 22 age-, gender- and body mass index-matched inpatients with schizophrenia and healthy controls were included. All participants performed the Eurofit test battery and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. One way analyses of variance with post hoc Scheffe were applied to examine differences. Both patient groups were significantly more physically inactive and had a significantly impaired speed of limb movement, explosive muscle strength and abdominal muscular endurance compared to the healthy controls. No significant differences between the patient groups were found. The results suggest that physical fitness and physical activity participation are similar among inpatients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia but markedly lower than healthy controls. Chronic inpatients with lower levels of physical activity may particularly benefit from rehabilitation interventions aimed at increasing physical fitness. Implications for Rehabilitation Physical fitness should receive similar attention in the treatment of bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Sedentary patients with a longer duration of illness need additional support in changing lifestyle behaviours. Rehabilitation should not only consider cardio-respiratory fitness but also muscular endurance, muscular strength and balance.
Burgess, Bertilee; Curtis-Downes, Desdemona; Gibson, Roger C
Comparisons between persons with bipolar disorder and those with schizophrenia are not well researched in the Caribbean. To compare the educational and occupational attainments in Jamaicans diagnosed with these two disorders. Data on diagnosis, educational level, type of employment and other basic socio-demographic variables were collected from Jamaican hospital patients who were newly diagnosed with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests, as well as binary logistic regression, were used to explore how these characteristics varied according to diagnosis. Statistical significance was taken at p < .05. Schizophrenia was associated with significantly lower educational attainment than bipolar disorder (p = .022 for educational level attained; p = .026 for completion of secondary school). The majority (87.1%) of the 93 patients included in the analysis had no specific marketable job skills. However, the proportion of persons with bipolar disorder who had such skills was three times the corresponding proportion of persons with schizophrenia. The low educational achievement among persons with schizophrenia makes education a potentially important area for interventions targeted at this group. Because gross deficiencies in job skills were common to both patient groups, improvement in job skill levels is an important goal for persons with either of these disorders.
Murray, Bethany; McNew, Brittany
Abstract Purpose This review article provides an overview of the frequency, burden of illness, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) from the perspective of the advanced practice nurses (APNs). Data sources PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: “bipolar disorder and primary care,” restricted to dates 2000 to present; “bipolar disorder and nurse practitioner”; and “bipolar disorder and clinical nurse specialist.” Selected articles were relevant to adult outpatient care in the United States, with a prioritization of articles written by APNs or published in nursing journals. Conclusions BD has a substantial lifetime prevalence in the population at 4%. Because the manic or depressive symptoms of BD tend to be severe and recurrent over a patient's lifetime, the condition is associated with significant burden to the individual, caregivers, and society. Clinician awareness that BD may be present increases the likelihood of successful recognition and appropriate treatment. A number of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available for acute and maintenance treatments, with the prospect of achieving reduced symptom burden and increased functioning for many patients. Implications for practice Awareness of the disease burden, diagnostic issues, and management choices in BD has the potential to enhance outcome in substantial proportions of patients. PMID:26172568
McCormick, Ursula; Murray, Bethany; McNew, Brittany
This review article provides an overview of the frequency, burden of illness, diagnosis, and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD) from the perspective of the advanced practice nurses (APNs). PubMed searches were conducted using the following keywords: "bipolar disorder and primary care," restricted to dates 2000 to present; "bipolar disorder and nurse practitioner"; and "bipolar disorder and clinical nurse specialist." Selected articles were relevant to adult outpatient care in the United States, with a prioritization of articles written by APNs or published in nursing journals. BD has a substantial lifetime prevalence in the population at 4%. Because the manic or depressive symptoms of BD tend to be severe and recurrent over a patient's lifetime, the condition is associated with significant burden to the individual, caregivers, and society. Clinician awareness that BD may be present increases the likelihood of successful recognition and appropriate treatment. A number of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments are available for acute and maintenance treatments, with the prospect of achieving reduced symptom burden and increased functioning for many patients. Awareness of the disease burden, diagnostic issues, and management choices in BD has the potential to enhance outcome in substantial proportions of patients. ©2015 The Authors. Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Brown, Gregory G; Lee, Jun-Seok; Strigo, Irina A; Caligiuri, Michael P; Meloy, M J; Lohr, James
Controlled trials provide critical tests of hypotheses generated by meta-analyses. Two recent meta-analyses have reported that gray matter volumes of schizophrenia and bipolar I patients differ in the amygdala, hippocampus, or perigenual anterior cingulate. The present magnetic resonance imaging study tested these hypotheses in a cross-sectional voxel-based morphometry (VBM) design of 17 chronic schizophrenia and 15 chronic bipolar patients and 21 healthy subjects matched for age, gender and duration of illness. Whole brain gray matter volume of both the schizophrenia and bipolar groups was smaller than among healthy control subjects. Regional voxel-wise comparisons showed that gray matter volume was smallest within frontal and temporal regions of both patient groups. Region of interest analyses found moderately large to large differences between schizophrenia and healthy subjects in the amygdala and hippocampus. There were no group differences in the perigenual anterior cingulate. When schizophrenia and bipolar groups were directly compared, the schizophrenia group showed smaller gray matter volumes in right subcortical regions involving the right hippocampus, putamen, and amygdala. The hippocampal and amygdala findings confirm predictions derived from recent meta-analyses. These structural abnormalities may be important factors in the differential manifestations of these two functional psychotic disorders. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Zimmerman, Mark; Ellison, William; Morgan, Theresa A; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy
The morbidity associated with bipolar disorder is, in part, responsible for repeated calls for improved detection and recognition. No such commentary exists for the improved detection of borderline personality disorder. Clinical experience suggests that it is as disabling as bipolar disorder, but no study has directly compared the two disorders. To compare the levels of psychosocial morbidity in patients with bipolar disorder and borderline personality disorder. Patients were assessed with semi-structured interviews. We compared 307 patients with DSM-IV borderline personality disorder but without bipolar disorder and 236 patients with bipolar disorder but without borderline personality disorder. The patients with borderline personality disorder less frequently were college graduates, were diagnosed with more comorbid disorders, more frequently had a history of substance use disorder, reported more suicidal ideation at the time of the evaluation, more frequently had attempted suicide, reported poorer social functioning and were rated lower on the Global Assessment of Functioning. There was no difference between the two patient groups in history of admission to psychiatric hospital or time missed from work during the past 5 years. The level of psychosocial morbidity associated with borderline personality disorder was as great as (or greater than) that experienced by patients with bipolar disorder. From a public health perspective, efforts to improve the detection and treatment of borderline personality disorder might be as important as efforts to improve the recognition and treatment of bipolar disorder. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Konstantakopoulos, G; Ioannidi, N; Typaldou, M; Sakkas, D; Oulis, P
Impaired interpersonal, social, and occupational functioning is very often observed in patients with bipolar disorder, not only at the acute stages of the illness but in remission as well. This finding raises the question of multiple factors that might affect psychosocial functioning in bipolar patients, such as residual subsyndromal symptoms and neuropsychological deficits. Social cognition impairment, especially impaired Theory of Mind (ToM), might also play an important role in bipolar patients' every-day functioning, similarly to what was found in patients with schizophrenia. The present study aimed to investigate the potential effect of clinical and cognitive factors on the psychosocial functioning of patients with bipolar disorder during remission, assessing ToM along with a broad range of basic cognitive functions. Forty-nine patients with bipolar disorder type I in remission and 53 healthy participants were assessed in general intelligence, working memory, attention, speed processing, verbal learning and memory, and executive functions using a comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests. The Faux Pas Recognition Test was used to assess ToM. The two groups were matched for gender, age and education level. The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HDRS), the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) were also administered to the patients. Every-day functioning was assessed with the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). In order to examine the contribution of many factors in psychosocial functioning, we used hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Bipolar patients presented significant impairment compared to healthy participants in all the basic cognitive functions tested with the exception of verbal memory. Moreover, patients had significant poorer performance than healthy controls in overall psyand cognitive ToM but not in affective ToM as measured by Faux Pas. Psychosocial functioning in patient group was
Tsopelas, Ch; Konstantinidou, D; Douzenis, A
Contemporary research shows that bipolar disorders are very often faced initially as depression, while the precise diagnosis usually delay 8-10 years or more. As a result of this delay in the diagnosis, the patients do not receive appropriate treatment and are not led to recession of their symptoms. Roughly one third of depressed patients are treated at mental health services and two thirds at the primary care health services. Regarding the psychiatric patients that are treated in the secondary and trietary services of mental health, various researches indicate that the bipolar disorders and especially Bipolar Disorder II are under-diagnosed and consequently they do not receive satisfactory treatment with important repercussions in the professional and social existence of Bipolar Disorders' patients. The imperative need for early diagnosis and treatment in patients with bipolar disorders is obvious, in order to decrease the big time of delay in the diagnosis of Bipolar disorders. Patient self-completed questionnaires, which are small in duration and well structured, can contribute in the early recognition of disorders of bipolar spectrum in patients that are treated at the outpatient clinics. In this bibliographic research we compare two questionnaires (the MDQ and the HCL-32) with regard to their psychometrics faculties and the possibility of use in the early diagnosis and treatment of individuals that suffers from disorders of Bipolar spectrum.
Fjukstad, Katrine Kveli; Engum, Anne; Lydersen, Stian; Dieset, Ingrid; Steen, Nils Eiel; Andreassen, Ole A.; Spigset, Olav
Objective The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on cardiovascular risk factors in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Method We used data from a cross-sectional study on 1301 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, of whom 280 were treated with SSRIs. The primary outcome variable was the serum concentration of total cholesterol. Secondary outcome variables were low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and glucose levels, body mass index, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, an SSRI serum concentration in the middle of the reference interval was associated with an increase of the total cholesterol level by 14.56 mg/dL (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.27–23.85 mg/dL, P = 0.002), the LDL cholesterol level by 8.50 mg/dL (CI 0.22–16.77 mg/dL, P = 0.044), the triglyceride level by 46.49 mg/dL (CI 26.53–66.46 mg/dL, P < 0.001) and the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome by a factor of 2.10 (CI 1.21–3.62, P = 0.008). There were also significant associations between the SSRI dose and total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels. Conclusions This study is the first to reveal significant associations between SSRI use and metabolic abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Although the effects were statistically significant, alterations were small. Thus, the clinical impact of the findings is most likely limited. PMID:27749681
Hsu, Jer-Hwa; Chien, I-Chia; Lin, Ching-Heng
We conducted this nationwide study to examine the prevalence and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among patients with bipolar disorder in Taiwan. We used a random sample of 766,427 subjects who were aged ≥18 years in 2005. Patients with at least one primary diagnosis of bipolar disorder were identified. Study participants with one primary or secondary diagnosis of COPD for either ambulatory or inpatient care were also identified. We compared the prevalence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder and the general population in 2005. In addition, we further investigated this cohort from 2006 to 2010 to detect incident cases of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder compared with the general population. The factors associated with COPD among patients with bipolar disorder were also analyzed. The prevalence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder was higher than in the general population in 2005 (5.68% vs. 2.88%, odds ratio 2.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.53-2.67). The average annual incidence of COPD in patients with bipolar disorder was also higher than in the general population (2.03% vs. 1.03%, risk ratio 1.94; 95% confidence interval, 1.65-2.29) from 2006 to 2010. Some risk factors for COPD such as substance use, obesity, or lifestyle pattern were not available in this study. Patients with bipolar disorder had a higher prevalence and incidence of COPD compared with the general population. Higher prevalence of COPD among bipolar patients was associated with increased age, males, hypertension, and second-generation antidepressant use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Daniel; Simpson, Sharon
Background In a recent exploratory randomized controlled trial, an online psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder has been found to be feasible and acceptable to patients and may positively impact on their self-management behaviors and quality of life. Objective The objective of the study was to investigate how these patients contribute to an online forum for bipolar disorder and the issues relevant for them. Methods Participants in the intervention arm of the Bipolar Interactive PsychoEDucation (“BIPED”) trial were invited to contribute to the Beating Bipolar forum alongside receiving interactive online psychoeducation modules. Within this virtual participant observation study, forum posts were analyzed using thematic analysis, incorporating aspects of discourse analysis. Results The key themes which arose from the forum posts included: medication, employment, stigma, social support, coping strategies, insight and acceptance, the life chart, and negative experiences of health care. Participants frequently provided personal narratives relating to their history of bipolar disorder, life experiences, and backgrounds, which often contained emotive language and humor. They regularly sought and offered advice, and expressed encouragement and empathy. The forum would have benefitted from more users to offer a greater support network with more diverse views and experiences. Conclusions Online forums are inexpensive to provide and may offer peer support and the opportunity for patients to share their experiences and explore issues related to their illness anonymously. Future research should focus on how to enhance patient engagement with online health care forums. Trial Registration ISRCTN81375447; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN81375447 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YzWtHUqu). PMID:26543925
Poole, Ria; Smith, Daniel; Simpson, Sharon
In a recent exploratory randomized controlled trial, an online psychoeducation intervention for bipolar disorder has been found to be feasible and acceptable to patients and may positively impact on their self-management behaviors and quality of life. The objective of the study was to investigate how these patients contribute to an online forum for bipolar disorder and the issues relevant for them. Participants in the intervention arm of the Bipolar Interactive PsychoEDucation ("BIPED") trial were invited to contribute to the Beating Bipolar forum alongside receiving interactive online psychoeducation modules. Within this virtual participant observation study, forum posts were analyzed using thematic analysis, incorporating aspects of discourse analysis. The key themes which arose from the forum posts included: medication, employment, stigma, social support, coping strategies, insight and acceptance, the life chart, and negative experiences of health care. Participants frequently provided personal narratives relating to their history of bipolar disorder, life experiences, and backgrounds, which often contained emotive language and humor. They regularly sought and offered advice, and expressed encouragement and empathy. The forum would have benefitted from more users to offer a greater support network with more diverse views and experiences. Online forums are inexpensive to provide and may offer peer support and the opportunity for patients to share their experiences and explore issues related to their illness anonymously. Future research should focus on how to enhance patient engagement with online health care forums. ISRCTN81375447; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN81375447 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6YzWtHUqu).
Even though United Nation announced that all persons with a mental illness shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human being, up to now, the use of coercion (physical restrain) is still considered as unavoidable in managing abnormal behavior of psychiatric patients. But, there is no information regarding the magnitude and contributing factors of physical restrain among bipolar patients in low-income countries like Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital from May 1 to June 1, 2015 among 400 participants who were selected by systematic random sampling technique. Data were collected by interviewing; adjusted odd ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used and p value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The prevalence of physical restrain was 65%. Factors like, having two or more episodes [AOR = 1.84 95% CI (1.16, 2.93)], history of aggression [AOR = 2.14, 95% CI (1.26, 3.63)], comorbid illness [AOR = 1.76, 95% CI (1.26, 3.63)], use of antipsychotic [AOR = 1.79, 95% CI (1.08, 2.95)] and current use of Khat [AOR = 1.83, 95% CI (1.10, 3.04)] were associated significantly. The prevalence of physical restraint is found high among bipolar patients and it needs public health attention.
Fekih-Romdhane, Feten; Homri, Wided; Mrabet, Ali; Labbane, Raja
Recent studies indicate that bipolar disorder is associated with a profound impairment in almost all areas of functioning. This study aims to evaluate functional recovery in type 1 bipolar patients during remission period. We conducted a cross-sectional study of euthymic type 1 bipolar patients followed up on an ambulatory basis. In the analysis to be reported here we used Hamilton Depression Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST). More than half of the study population (53.3%) had overall functional impairment. The overall functioning was associated with age, education level, professional activity, the number of manic and depressive episodes, the number of hospitalizations, a higher HDRS score as well as with the two self-esteem subscores: "self-confidence" and "self-deprecation". Our results suggest that a paradigm shift in the treatment of bipolar disorders should happen and that the goals of therapy should be modified from symptomatic remission to functional remission.
Sierra, Pilar; Cámara, Rosa; Tobella, Helena; Livianos, Lorenzo
Thyroid disfunction affects negatively emotional stability and worsens the clinical course of bipolar affective disorder. The main stabilizer used in this illness, lithium carbonate has numerous effects on the physiology of the thyroid, with the most significant being the inhibition of thyroid hormone release that may occur at therapeutic levels. These dysfunctions have also been reported most frequently in bipolar patients not undergoing treatment with lithium, and was not completely explained by the effects of this drug. Apart from the numerous medical complications and mood disturbances, the cognitive or perceptual system may also be affected. In fact, the presence of thyroid disease increases the rates of obsessive compulsive disorder, phobias, panic disorder, major depressive disorder, cyclothymia, or bipolar disorder. In severe cases of hypothyroidism, the clinical symptoms and signs can be similar to a melancholic depression or dementia. It is therefore important to know well all these possible complications in daily clinical practice. This review will cover the main thyroid dysfunctions present in bipolar patients, whether ot not produced by treatment with lithium carbonate, and will provide a series of recommendations for clinical management. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Lim, Chor Hong; Zainal, Nor Zuraida; Kanagasundram, Sharmilla; Zain, Shamsul Mohd; Mohamed, Zahurin
Although major progress has been achieved in research and development of antipsychotic medications for bipolar disorder (BPD), knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying this disorder and the action of atypical antipsychotics remains incomplete. The levels of microRNAs (miRNAs)-small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression, including genes involved in neuronal function and plasticity-are frequently altered in psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to examine changes in miRNA expression in bipolar mania patients after treatment with asenapine and risperidone. Using a miRNA microarray, we analyzed miRNA expression in the blood of 10 bipolar mania patients following 12 weeks of treatment with asenapine or risperidone. Selected miRNAs were validated by using real-time PCR. A total of 16 miRNAs were differentially expressed after treatment in the asenapine group, 14 of which were significantly upregulated and the other two significantly downregulated. However, all three differentially expressed miRNAs in the risperidone group were downregulated. MiRNA target gene prediction and gene ontology analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways associated with immune system response and regulation of programmed cell death and transcription. Our results suggest that candidate miRNAs may be involved in the mechanism of action of both antipsychotics in bipolar mania. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sharma, Anup; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Vandekar, Lillie; Katchmar, Natalie; Daldal, Aylin; Ruparel, Kosha; A.Elliott, Mark; Baldassano, Claudia; Thase, Michael E.; Gur, Raquel E.; Kable, Joseph W.; Wolf, Daniel H.
Neuroimaging studies of mood disorders demonstrate abnormalities in brain regions implicated in reward processing. However, there is a paucity of research investigating how social rewards affect reward circuit activity in these disorders. Here, we evaluated the relationship of both diagnostic category and dimensional depression severity to reward system function in bipolar and unipolar depression. In total, 86 adults were included, including 24 patients with bipolar depression, 24 patients with unipolar depression, and 38 healthy comparison subjects. Participants completed a social reward task during 3T BOLD fMRI. On average, diagnostic groups did not differ in activation to social reward. However, greater depression severity significantly correlated with reduced bilateral ventral striatum activation to social reward in the bipolar depressed group, but not the unipolar depressed group. In addition, decreased left orbitofrontal cortical activation correlated with more severe symptoms in bipolar depression, but not unipolar depression. These differential dimensional effects resulted in a significant voxelwise group by depression severity interaction. Taken together, these results provide initial evidence that deficits in social reward processing are differentially related to depression severity in the two disorders. PMID:27295401
Silverstone, P H; Birkett, L
OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of a slow-release formulation of diltiazem as adjunctive therapy in patients with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. DESIGN: Retrospective study. PATIENTS: Eight female patients with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were administered diltiazem and monitored for a 6-month period before starting diltiazem and a 6-month period after starting the drug. OUTCOME MEASURES: All patients were seen at least monthly and usually every 2 weeks. The frequency and severity of both depressive and manic episodes were examined during the 6-month period after starting diltiazem, and compared with those during the 6-month period before diltiazem treatment. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant decrease in the frequency and severity of both manic and depressive episodes in these patients after they started treatment with diltiazem, compared with the period before they started treatment with diltiazem (p < 0.001). There was no evidence of side effects requiring patient withdrawal or of drug interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The results support previous suggestions that calcium-channel antagonists may be an effective adjunctive treatment in the management of bipolar disorder. Further controlled clinical studies are needed to confirm this small, open-label, retrospective study. PMID:10863888
The author presents 31 bipolar patients treated with combined lithium prophylaxis and psychotherapy for up to 41 months. The grave prognosis of untreated bipolar illness is reviewed. The improved prognosis with lithium prophylaxis alone is reviewed. The author demonstrates an improved prognosis when lithium prophylaxis is combined with psychotherapy and discusses his findings as to why lithium prophylaxis alone still predicts a grave outcome.
Pollack, Mark H; Simon, Naomi M; Fagiolini, Andrea; Pitman, Roger; McNally, Richard J; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Miyahara, Sachicko; Sachs, Gary S; Perlman, Carol; Ghaemi, S Nassir; Thase, Michael E; Otto, Michael W
We examined the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following indirect exposure to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks in a cohort at high risk for adverse trauma-related sequelae as a result of having bipolar disorder. Subjects (N = 137) were participants in the ongoing, naturalistic, longitudinal study Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) prior to September 11, 2001. The present study examined prospectively collected pre-event information about bipolar disorder and other potential predictors of PTSD, along with assessment of the level of indirect trauma exposure (i.e., via media) and peritraumatic distress in the aftermath of September 11, and their association with 9/11-related, new-onset PTSD as assessed by a self-report measure, the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale. Posttrauma assessments were completed a mean +/- SD of 430.6 +/- 78.7 days (range, 0.5-1.5 years) after September 11. Twenty percent (N = 27) of patients reported development of new-onset PTSD in response to the September 11 attacks. Rates of PTSD were significantly associated with the presence of a hypomanic, manic, or mixed mood state at the time of trauma (chi(2) = 4.25; p < .05); 62% of patients in these states developed PTSD. Mania/hypomania remained a significant predictor of PTSD in response to the September 11 attacks after controlling for peritraumatic exposure and distress variables, suggestive of a substantial increase in risk compared with those in recovery (OR = 17; 95% CI = 2.6 to 115.6; p = .0034). Rates of persistent new-onset PTSD among bipolar patients were elevated in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks. Our findings suggest that the presence of a manic state may be the most critical risk factor for adverse sequelae following indirect traumatic exposure in bipolar individuals.
Post, Robert M; Altshuler, Lori L; Kupka, Ralph; McElroy, Susan L; Frye, Mark A; Rowe, Michael; Grunze, Heinz; Suppes, Trisha; Keck, Paul E; Leverich, Gabriele S; Nolen, Willem A
Evidence suggests that patients with bipolar disorder from the United States have an earlier age of onset and a more difficult course of illness than those from Germany and the Netherlands. These characteristics were related to a greater family burden of psychiatric illness and the experience of more psychosocial adversity in childhood. We hypothesized that this greater illness burden would extend to the offspring of the US patients. 968 outpatients (average age 41) with bipolar illness gave informed consent for participation in a treatment outcome network and filled out a detailed questionnaire about their illness and family history of illness, including whether their offspring had a diagnosis of depression, bipolar disorder, alcohol or substance abuse, suicide attempt or "other" illness. Of those with children, 356 were from the US and 132 were from Europe. Compared to the Europeans, offspring of patients from the US had significantly (p<0.001) more depression, bipolar disorder, drug abuse, and "other" illnesses. The number of illnesses in the offspring was related to the bipolar parent being from the US, having had childhood adversity, more than 20 prior episodes, and more parental psychiatric illness. While the findings are limited by their basis on self report, the distribution of the percentages in the US offspring are similar to those of Axelson et al. (2015) who used direct interviews. The higher burden of illness in the offspring and their in direct progenitors from the US compared to Europe warrant new attempts at better treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nováková, Marta; Praško, Ján; Látalová, Klára; Sládek, Martin; Sumová, Alena
Bipolar disorder is a common psychiatric disease characterized by mood disturbances with alternating episodes of mania and depression. Moreover, disturbances in the sleep/wake cycle are prevalent. We tested a hypothesis that the function of the circadian system, which drives the sleep/wake cycle, may differ in patients with bipolar disorder depending on whether they are experiencing an episode of mania or depression. To assess the functional state of the central circadian clock, daily profiles of melatonin levels in saliva were determined. The functional state of the peripheral clocks was assessed by determining daily profiles of Per1 and Nr1d1 clock gene expression in buccal mucosa cells. Sixteen patients with bipolar disorder in a manic episode, 22 patients in a depressive episode, and 19 healthy control subjects provided samples at regular intervals during a 24-hour cycle. During episodes of mania, the daily profiles of melatonin differed compared with healthy controls and patients in an episode of depression, mainly due to elevated melatonin levels during the daytime. No difference was found between melatonin profiles of control subjects and patients in depression. The Per1 and Nr1d1 profiles were advanced in patients in mania compared with those in depression. Compared with controls, a trend toward an advance was apparent in the profiles of patients during an episode of mania but not depression. The amplitude of the Nr1d1 expression profile was higher in mania than in depression. The data revealed differences in the functional state of the circadian system in patients with bipolar disorder depending on whether they were experiencing a manic or a depressive episode. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Haag, Silvia; Haffner, Paula; Quinlivan, Esther; Brüne, Martin; Stamm, Thomas
Research on theory of mind (ToM) abilities in patients with bipolar disorder has yielded conflicting results. Meta-analyses point to a stable moderate impairment in remitted patients, but factors such as subsyndromal symptoms, illness severity, and deficits in basic neurocognitive functions might act as confounders. Also, differences in deficits depending on task area (cognitive or affective) or task modality (visual or verbal) have been observed. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that euthymic bipolar patients would perform more poorly than healthy subjects on visual cognitive and visual affective ToM tasks. Furthermore, we aimed to explore the relationship between ToM performance and basic neurocognitive functions, subsyndromal symptom severity, and illness burden. Twenty-nine clinically stable outpatients with bipolar disorder and 29 healthy comparison subjects completed a measure of visual cognitive ToM (Mental State Attribution Task, MSAT), a measure of visual affective ToM (Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, RMET), and a battery of tests assessing neurocognitive functioning (attention, verbal memory, executive functions, and intelligence). Patients did not differ significantly from healthy controls for the ToM tasks or any of the neurocognitive measures, suggesting a high level of neurocognitive functioning in the bipolar group. On average, patients were slower than controls to complete the ToM tasks. Within the bipolar group, ToM performance was moderately correlated with attention, verbal memory and reasoning abilities. Performance on the RMET was positively correlated with clinician-rated depressive symptoms with a small effect. Number of years of illness was weakly and negatively correlated with performance on the MSAT. Overall, no moderate or strong correlations were found between ToM performance, subsyndromal depressive or manic symptoms, illness duration, and number of depressive or (hypo)manic episodes. Moderate correlations between To
Arrúe, Aurora; Dávila, Ricardo; Zumárraga, Mercedes; Basterreche, Nieves; González-Torres, Miguel A; Goienetxea, Biotza; Zamalloa, Maria I; Anguiano, Juan B; Guimón, José
We have determined the plasma (p) concentration of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA), and the pHVA/pGABA ratio in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The research was undertaken in a geographic area with an ethnically homogeneous population. The HVA plasma concentrations were significantly elevated in the schizophrenic patients compared to the bipolar patients. The levels of pGABA was significantly lower in the two groups of patients compared to the control group, while the pHVA/pGABA ratio was significantly greater in the both groups of patients compared to the controls. As the levels of pHVA and pGABA are partially under genetic control it is better to compare their concentrations within an homogeneous population. The values of the ratio pHVA/pGABA are compatible with the idea of an abnormal dopamine-GABA interaction in schizophrenic and bipolar patients. The pHVA/pGABA ratio may be a good peripheral marker in psychiatric research.
Pompili, Maurizio; Rihmer, Zoltan; Akiskal, Hagop; Amore, Mario; Gonda, Xenia; Innamorati, Marco; Lester, David; Perugi, Giulio; Serafini, Gianluca; Telesforo, Ludovica; Tatarelli, Roberto; Girardi, Paolo
Several studies have demonstrated that bipolar II (BD-II) disorder represents a quite common, distinct form of major mood disorders that should be separated from bipolar I (BD-I) disorder. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess temperament and clinical differences between patients with BD-I and BD-II disorders and to assess whether temperament traits are good predictors of hopelessness in patients with bipolar disorder, a variable highly associated with suicidal behavior and ideation. Participants were 216 consecutive inpatients (97 men and 119 women) with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), BD who were admitted to the Sant'Andrea Hospital's psychiatric ward in Rome (Italy). Patients completed the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego--Autoquestionnaire, the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI), and the Gotland Scale of Male Depression. Patients with BD-II had higher scores on the BHS (9.78 ± 5.37 vs 6.87 ± 4.69; t(143.59) = -3.94; P < .001) than patients with BD-I. Hopelessness was associated with the individual pattern of temperament traits (ie, the relative balance of hyperthymic vs cyclothymic-irritable-anxious-dysthmic). Furthermore, patients with higher hopelessness (compared with those with lower levels of hopelessness) reported more frequently moderate to severe depression (87.1% vs 38.9%; P < .001) and higher MINI suicidal risk. Temperaments are important predictors both of suicide risk and psychopathology and may be used in clinical practice for better delivery of appropriate care to patients with bipolar disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Powell, Timothy R; McGuffin, Peter; D'Souza, Ursula M; Cohen-Woods, Sarah; Hosang, Georgina M; Martin, Charlotte; Matthews, Keith; Day, Richard K; Farmer, Anne E; Tansey, Katherine E; Schalkwyk, Leonard C
Mood disorders consist of two etiologically related, but distinctly treated illnesses, major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BPD). These disorders share similarities in their clinical presentation, and thus show high rates of misdiagnosis. Recent research has revealed significant transcriptional differences within the inflammatory cytokine pathway between MDD patients and controls, and between BPD patients and controls, suggesting this pathway may possess important biomarker properties. This exploratory study attempts to identify disorder-specific transcriptional biomarkers within the inflammatory cytokine pathway, which can distinguish between control subjects, MDD patients and BPD patients. This is achieved using RNA extracted from subject blood and applying synthesized complementary DNA to quantitative PCR arrays containing primers for 87 inflammation-related genes. Initially, we use ANOVA to test for transcriptional differences in a 'discovery cohort' (total n = 90) and then we use t-tests to assess the reliability of any identified transcriptional differences in a 'validation cohort' (total n = 35). The two most robust and reliable biomarkers identified across both the discovery and validation cohort were Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 24 (CCL24) which was consistently transcribed higher amongst MDD patients relative to controls and BPD patients, and C-C chemokine receptor type 6 (CCR6) which was consistently more lowly transcribed amongst MDD patients relative to controls. Results detailed here provide preliminary evidence that transcriptional measures within inflammation-related genes might be useful in aiding clinical diagnostic decision-making processes. Future research should aim to replicate findings detailed in this exploratory study in a larger medication-free sample and examine whether identified biomarkers could be used prospectively to aid clinical diagnosis.
Rajagopalan, Krithika; Meyer, Kellie; O'Day, Ken; Denno, Melissa; Loebel, Antony
Bipolar disorder imposes a high economic burden on patients and society. Lurasidone and quetiapine extended-release (XR) are atypical antipsychotic agents indicated for monotherapy treatment of bipolar depression. Lurasidone is also indicated as adjunctive therapy with lithium or valproate for depressive episodes associated with bipolar disorder. The objective of this analysis was to estimate the cost-effectiveness of lurasidone and quetiapine XR in patients with bipolar depression. A cost-effectiveness model was developed to compare lurasidone to quetiapine XR. The model was based on a US third-party payer perspective over a 3-month time horizon. The effectiveness measure in the model was the percentage of patients achieving remission (Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS] total score ≤12 by weeks 6-8). The comparison of remission rates was made through an adjusted indirect treatment comparison of lurasidone and quetiapine XR pivotal trials using placebo as the common comparator. Resource utilization for remission vs no remission was estimated from published expert panel data, and resource costs were obtained from a retrospective database study of bipolar I depression patients. Drug costs were estimated using the mean dose from clinical trials and wholesale acquisition costs. Over the 3-month model time period, lurasidone and quetiapine XR patients, respectively, had similar mean numbers of emergency department visits (0.48 vs 0.50), inpatient days (2.1 vs 2.2), and office visits (9.3 vs 9.6). More lurasidone than quetiapine XR patients achieved remission (52.0% vs 43.2%) with slightly higher total costs ($4982 vs $4676), resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $3474 per remission. The probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed lurasidone had an 86% probability of being cost-effective compared to quetiapine XR at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $10,000 per remission. Lurasidone may be a cost-effective option when compared to
Mynatt, Sarah; Cunningham, Patricia; Manning, J Sloan
Patients with bipolar spectrum disorders commonly present with depressive symptoms to primary care clinicians. This article details bipolar spectrum disorder assessment, treatment, and treatment response. By intervening early in the course of depressive and hypomanic episodes, you can help decrease the morbidity and suffering associated with bipolar spectrum disorders.
Macheiner, Tanja; Skavantzos, Andreas; Pilz, René; Reininghaus, Eva Z
Bipolar disorders are ranked amongst the top ten causes of global disability and cause high health care costs. Previous studies have showed that mood stabilizing drug therapy combined with psychological treatments lead to significantly fewer relapses and a reduction in hospitalization rates. However, there is a wide spectrum of psychosocial intervention methods for individuals and groups which have been insufficiently examined on a scientific basis. Studies published between 2003 and 2015 on different types of adjuvant psychosocial group interventions in the MESH database were reviewed and evaluated for their efficacy on patients with bipolar disorder related to the relapse ratio by a meta-analysis. The meta-analysis included 24 intervention groups and showed that 75% of treated groups under medication and psychosocial therapy had a lower risk of a relapse than the control groups which only received medication therapy. The meta-analysis includes a number of trials with participants in different phases of disease course and study designs, the number of studies in each analyzed intervention group was not balanced and many studies focused on recovery and recurrence of episodes, precluding identification of the impact on subsyndromal symptoms CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant psychosocial interventions seem to be indispensable for patients, their relations as well as for saving costs in the health care system. Nevertheless, an evaluation of effectiveness and impact factors of different psychosocial intervention methods needs further research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
TOSUN, Ahmet; MAÇKALI, Zeynep; ÇAĞIN TOSUN, Özlem; KAPUCU ERYAR, Aycan; MANSELL, Warren
Introduction To identify dysfunctional attitudes seen in bipolar disorder (BPD) is important for the cognitive theories of BPD and corresponding psychosocial interventions. Cognitions are seen as vulnerability factors in the development and maintenance of BPD. The present study aims to contribute to the cognitive literature on BPD by examining depressive and hypomanic attitudes and their contribution to the prediction of BPD diagnosis as well as by exploring the relationship between dysfunctional cognitions and clinical features (types of episodes experienced, duration of illness, and duration of remission). Methods One hundred and eighteen remitted bipolar patients and 103 healthy controls completed the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), Turkish Brief-Hypomanic Interpretations and Positive Predictions Inventory (HAPPI), and Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale. Results The bipolar group had significantly higher depressive and hypomanic attitudes than the control group. No significant differences were found regarding the types of episodes experienced and duration of illness. However, both types of attitudes decreased as the duration of remission increased. They were also found to contribute to the prediction of bipolar diagnosis together with the screening of the MDQ. Conclusion The results pointed out that dysfunctional cognitions may be utilized as possible indicators for the risk of relapse in clinical groups and vulnerability for BPD among other populations.
Women with bipolar disorder often ask their treating clinician for information about family planning, as they are concerned about the impact of their illness on offspring. Three areas that should be included in discussions with patients and their partners are heritability of the disorder, risks during pregnancy, and risks during the postpartum period. The author summarizes information about genetic transmission of bipolar disorder, effects on bipolar patients of stress associated with pregnancy and childrearing, and effects of medication on the fetus and newborn. Discussion of these issues is most relevant for a women patient who is planning a pregnancy, but may also be useful for couples before marriage, for a women patient who finds that she is pregnant, and for men with bipolar disorder who want to become fathers.
Vancampfort, Davy; Wyckaert, Sabine; Sienaert, Pascal; De Hert, Marc; Stubbs, Brendon; Buys, Roselien; Schueremans, Ans; Probst, Michel
The aim of the current study was to compare the functional exercise capacity of patients with bipolar disorder with age-, gender- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls. Thirty patients (16 ♂, 40.8±11.6 years) and healthy controls (16 ♂, 40.5±10.8 years) were included. All participants performed a 6-min walk test to assess the functional exercise capacity and completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Patients were screened for psychiatric symptoms using the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology and Hypomania Checklist-32. Results demonstrated that patients with bipolar disorder demonstrated a significantly poorer functional exercise capacity (590.8±112.6 versus 704.2±94.3m). A backward stepwise regression analyses showed that the level of depression and existing foot or ankle static problems and back pain before the test explained 70.9% of the variance in the distance achieved on the 6-min walk test (functional exercise capacity). The current study demonstrates that foot and back pain appear to be important negative predictors of functional exercise capacity in patients with bipolar disorder. Physical activity interventions delivered by physical therapists may help ameliorate pain symptoms and improve functional exercise capacity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pompili, Maurizio; Harnic, Désirée; Gonda, Xenia; Forte, Alberto; Dominici, Giovanni; Innamorati, Marco; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Serafini, Gianluca; Sher, Leo; Janiri, Luigi; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo
The aim of the present review was to examine objective and subjective burdens in primary caregivers (usually family members) of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and to list which symptoms of the patients are considered more burdensome by the caregivers. In order to provide a critical review about caregiver's burden in patients with bipolar disorder, we performed a detailed PubMed, BioMedCentral, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Elsevier Science Direct and Cochrane Library search to identify all papers and book chapters in English published during the period between 1963 and November 2011. The highest levels of distress were caused by the patient's behavior and the patient's role dysfunction (work, education and social relationships). Furthermore, the caregiving role compromises other social roles occupied by the caregiver, becoming part of the heavy social cost of bipolar affective disorder. There is a need to better understand caregivers' views and personal perceptions of the stresses and demands arising from caring for someone with BD in order to develop practical appropriate interventions and to improve the training of caregivers.
Ortiz, Abigail; Bradler, Kamil; Radu, Luiza; Alda, Martin; Rusak, Benjamin
Our goal was to model the temporal dynamics of sleep-wake transitions, represented by transitions between rest and activity obtained from actigraphic data, in patients with bipolar disorder using a probabilistic state transition approach. We collected actigraphic data for 14 days from 20 euthymic patients with bipolar disorder, who had been characterized clinically, demographically, and with respect to their circadian preferences (chronotype). We processed each activity record to generate a series of transitions in both directions between the states of rest (R) and activity (A) and plotted the estimated transition probabilities (pRA and pAR). Each 24-hour period was also divided into a rest phase consisting of the eight consecutive least active hours in each day and an active phase consisting of the 16 consecutive most active hours in each day. We then calculated separate transition probabilities for each of these phases for each participant. We subsequently modeled the rest phase data to find the best fit for rest-activity transitions using maximum likelihood estimation. We also examined the association of transition probabilities with clinical and demographic variables. The best-fit model for rest-activity transitions during the rest phase was a mixture (bimodal) of exponential functions. Of those patients with rapid cycling, 75% had an evening-type chronotype. Patients with bipolar II disorder taking antidepressants had a lower probability of transitioning back to rest than those not on antidepressants [mean ± SD = 0.050 ± 0.006 versus 0.141 ± 0.058, F(1,15) = 3.40, p < 0.05]. The dynamics of transitions between rest and activity in bipolar disorder can be accounted for by a mixture (bimodal) of exponential functions. Patients taking antidepressants had a reduced probability of sustaining and returning to sleep. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Samalin, Ludovic; de Chazeron, Ingrid; Vieta, Eduard; Bellivier, Frank; Llorca, Pierre-Michel
The aims of the present study were to confirm the impact of residual symptoms on overall functioning in a large sample of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder in real-life conditions and to explore the relationship between residual symptoms and specific areas of functional impairment. This was a multicenter, cross-sectional, non-interventional study of euthymic outpatients with bipolar disorder. The Functioning Assessment Short Test was used to assess overall and specific domains of functioning (autonomy, occupational functioning, cognitive functioning, financial issues, interpersonal relationships, and leisure time). Various residual symptoms were assessed (residual mood symptoms, emotional dysregulation, sleep and sexual disorders, stigma, and perceived cognitive impairment). Logistic regression was used to determine the best model of association between functional domains and residual symptoms. Almost half of the 468 patients included (42%) had poor overall functioning. Residual depressive symptoms appeared to have an impact on overall functioning and in nearly all areas of functioning. In addition, specific residual symptoms had significantly more negative effects on some domains of functioning in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder (residual manic symptoms and occupational stigma on autonomy, emotional inhibition on occupational functioning, residual manic symptoms on financial issues, family stigma on interpersonal relationships, and sexual function and occupational stigma on leisure time). Our findings highlight the importance of evaluating overall functioning in clinical practice as well as functional domains. They also indicate that some residuals symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder should be targeted in personalized treatment plans, in order to improve functioning in the domains in which the patient is most impaired. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Jacoby, Anne S; Munkholm, Klaus; Vinberg, Maj; Joaquim, Helena Gp; Talib, Leda L; Gattaz, Wagner F; Kessing, Lars V
The enzyme glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β) is involved in the mechanisms of action of lithium and may play a role in relation to affective states in bipolar disorder. The objectives of the present study were to compare the activity of GSK-3β (measured as levels of phosphorylated GSK-3β [p-GSK-3β]) between patients with bipolar disorder in the euthymic state and healthy control subjects, and to investigate whether GSK-3β activity varies with affective states in patients with bipolar I disorder. In a prospective 6-12-month follow-up study, we investigated state-specific, intraindividual alterations in the activity of GSK-3β in 60 patients with bipolar I disorder with an acute severe manic index episode and in subsequent euthymic, depressive and manic states and compared this with repeated measurements in healthy control subjects. Data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. From baseline to the end of follow-up, blood samples were drawn from the 60 patients during 181 affective states, comprising 60 manic, 11 mixed, 23 depressive, and 87 states of euthymia. A total of 69 blood samples were drawn from 35 healthy control subjects, with two samples from the same subject taken three months apart. In mixed-model analysis, p-GSK-3β was decreased in the euthymic state of subjects with bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects (b=0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.42-0.96, P=.03). In addition, p-GSK-3β varied with affective states, being increased in depressive (b=1.68, 95% CI: 1.08-2.62, P=.02) and mixed (b=2.07, 95% CI: 1.12-3.84, P=.02) states but not in mania compared with euthymia. The activity of GSK-3β is altered in euthymic bipolar disorder compared with healthy control subjects and varies with affective states. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Passos, Ives C; Jansen, Karen; Cardoso, Taiane de A; Colpo, Gabriela D; Zeni, Cristian P; Quevedo, Joao; Kauer-Sant'Anna, Márcia; Zunta-Soares, Giovanna; Soares, Jair C; Kapczinski, Flavio
To assess clinical outcomes associated with the presence of a lifetime history of comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder in subjects with bipolar disorder. This cross-sectional study of 284 subjects with bipolar disorder (DSM-IV) assessed the association between lifetime comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (DSM-IV) and clinical characteristics. Participants were included from January 2006 to June 2009. We assessed age at onset, number of mood episodes, presence of rapid cycling, first drug use, suicide attempts, hospitalizations, functional impairment, and quality of life. Diagnostic, clinical, and functional assessments were carried out using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, patient edition (SCID-I/P), the Functioning Assessment Short Test, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale. The number of manic episodes as assessed by SCID-I/P was the primary outcome. The prevalence of lifetime comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was 19.7% (56 subjects). Subjects with bipolar disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder had an accelerated course of illness, with a lower age at onset of manic/hypomanic episodes (P = .009) and earlier initiation of illicit drug use (P = .008). In addition, they were more likely to be younger when they received the diagnosis of bipolar disorder (P = .036) and had a higher number of manic/hypomanic episodes (P = .01). Quality of life was worse in all domains among subjects who presented the comorbidity, and rates of functional impairment were higher. Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder was associated with increased morbidity and accelerated illness progression among subjects with bipolar disorder. © Copyright 2016 Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc.
Dakhlaoui, O; Essafi, I; Haffani, F
Although present classifications (CIM, DSM) have not included the notion of a unipolar disorder to characterise the recurrence of the same type of episode, this concept conserves its pertinence for many people. Unipolar mania, in particular, is a clinical reality in our daily practice, and a predominant form of bipolarity expression. These assertions have led us to question this notion and its nosographical place: is it a subtype, distinguished by certain characteristics, or a particular category in the bipolar disorder? We conducted a retrospective, descriptive and comparative study on medical briefs of patients with type I bipolar disorder (DSM-IV criteria), who were interned for the first time between 1997 and 2001 in the Psychiatry "E" service of the Razi hospital of Tunis, and were followed up for at least five years. Two groups were identified: Group 1 or "unipolar mania": patients who presented at least two manic episodes without depression, and Group 2: the rest of the sample; and then were compared based on their sociodemographical profile, familial psychiatric antecedents, premorbid temperament, comorbidity and clinical and progressive characteristics. Seventy-two patients were included. The average age was 36. The sex ratio was three men to two women. The first episode was a manic episode in 56.9% of the cases. The average duration of illness progression was 11.6 years. Unipolar mania represented 65.3% of the sample. Between 1997 and 2001, 92% of bipolar patients interned were hospitalised for mania. Concerning recurrences, we observed nine times as many cases of manic episodes as depression. Depressive episodes of light to medium intensity had probably not been well assessed due to the families' tolerance. The high rates of both manic episodes and unipolar mania observed in this study were also found by other authors, showing the differences of bipolarity expression between the West and the other parts of the world, and in particular Africa. There was
Beyer, John L; Payne, Martha E
As with physical conditions, bipolar disorder is likely to be impacted by diet and nutrition. Patients with bipolar disorder have been noted to have relatively unhealthy diets, which may in part be the reason they also have an elevated risk of metabolic syndrome and obesity. An improvement in the quality of the diet should improve a bipolar patient's overall health risk profile, but it may also improve their psychiatric outcomes. New insights into biological dysfunctions that may be present in bipolar disorder have presented new theoretic frameworks for understanding the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder.
Thermolia, Chryssa; Bei, Ekaterini S; Petrakis, Euripides G M; Kritsotakis, Vangelis; Tsiknakis, Manolis; Sakkalis, Vangelis
The new movement to personalize treatment plans and improve prediction capabilities is greatly facilitated by intelligent remote patient monitoring and risk prevention. This paper focuses on patients suffering from bipolar disorder, a mental illness characterized by severe mood swings. We exploit the advantages of Semantic Web and Electronic Health Record Technologies to develop a patient monitoring platform to support clinicians. Relying on intelligently filtering of clinical evidence-based information and individual-specific knowledge, we aim to provide recommendations for treatment and monitoring at appropriate time or concluding into alerts for serious shifts in mood and patients' non response to treatment.
Abramovic, Lucija; Boks, Marco P M; Vreeker, Annabel; Bouter, Diandra C; Kruiper, Caitlyn; Verkooijen, Sanne; van Bergen, Annet H; Ophoff, Roel A; Kahn, René S; van Haren, Neeltje E M
There is evidence that brain structure is abnormal in patients with bipolar disorder. Lithium intake appears to ׳normalise׳ global and local brain volumes, but effects of antipsychotic medication on brain volume or cortical thickness are less clear. Here, we aim to disentangle disease-specific brain deviations from those induced by antipsychotic medication and lithium intake using a large homogeneous sample of patients with bipolar disorder type I. Magnetic resonance imaging brain scans were obtained from 266 patients and 171 control subjects. Subcortical volumes and global and focal cortical measures (volume, thickness, and surface area) were compared between patients and controls. In patients, the association between lithium and antipsychotic medication intake and global, subcortical and cortical measures was investigated. Patients showed significantly larger lateral and third ventricles, smaller total brain, caudate nucleus, and pallidum volumes and thinner cortex in some small clusters in frontal, parietal and cingulate regions as compared with controls. Lithium-free patients had significantly smaller total brain, thalamus, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus and accumbens volumes compared to patients on lithium. In patients, use of antipsychotic medication was related to larger third ventricle and smaller hippocampus and supramarginal cortex volume. Patients with bipolar disorder show abnormalities in total brain, subcortical, and ventricle volume, particularly in the nucleus caudate and pallidum. Abnormalities in cortical thickness were scattered and clusters were relatively small. Lithium-free patients showed more pronounced abnormalities as compared with those on lithium. The associations between antipsychotic medication and brain volume are subtle and less pronounced than those of lithium. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Karling, Pontus; Maripuu, Martin; Wikgren, Mikael; Adolfsson, Rolf; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
AIM To study if anxiety, depression and experience of stress are associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS A total of 136 patients with bipolar disorder (mean age 49.9 years; 61% women) and 136 controls from the general population (mean age 51.0 years; 60% women) were included in the study. GI symptoms were assessed with The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale-irritable bowel syndrome (GSRS-IBS), level of anxiety and depression with The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and stress-proneness with Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Over a ten year period, all visits in primary care were retrospectively recorded in order to identify functional GI disorders. RESULTS In subjects with low total HADS-score, there were no significant differences in GI-symptoms between patients and controls (GSRS-IBS 7.0 vs 6.5, P = 0.513). In the patients with bipolar disorder there were significant correlations between all GSRS and HADS subscores for all symptom clusters except for “constipation” and “reflux”. Factors associated to GI symptoms in the patient group were female sex (adjusted OR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.07-5.24) and high HADS-Depression score (adjusted OR = 3.64, 95%CI: 1.07-12.4). These patients had also significantly more visits for IBS than patients with low HADS-Depression scores (29% vs 8%, P = 0.008). However, there was no significant differences in consulting behaviour for functional GI disorders between patients and controls (25% vs 17%, P = 0.108). CONCLUSION Female patients and patients with high HADS depression score reported significantly more GI symptoms, whereas patients with low HADS scores did not differ from control subjects. PMID:27784966
Background Evidence suggests that neurotropic infectious agents might be involved in bipolar disorder. So far, few have been written for the association between parasitic infection and bipolar disorder. Filariasis is a parasitic disease acting ruthlessly via mosquitos and affecting more than 120 million people worldwide. We present here, to our knowledge, the first description of a filariasis infected manic bipolar disorder patient fully improved in terms of psychiatric symptoms by anti-heminthic treatment. Case presentation The patient is a 31 years-old man native of Congo. At inclusion, he presented a severe manic episode with dangerous behaviour unresolved by classic treatments. A diagnosis of filariasis bancrofti infection was made after the discovery of a systemic hypereosinophilia. Therefore, a bi-therapy of anthelmintics was conducted allowing a successful improvement with clear reduction of agitation and aggressive behaviours that could not be attributed to a modification of psychotropic treatments or filarial encephalopathy or acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Conclusion The ineffectiveness of psychotropic treatment of a manic episode requires the evaluation of co-morbid medical conditions such as infections which can interfere with adequate mood stabilizing medication. Filariasis by inducing chronic inflammation and immunopathologic reactions seems to play a major role in infected affective disorders patients by changing levels of cytokines of the Th1 system or indirectly damaging the brain tissue. The beneficial combination of antihelmintics and mood stabilizers, in this case, could be explained by the potential of such association to downregulate neuroinflammation and excitotoxicity processes. Altogether, these data pinpoint the requirement to explore the parasitic infectious status in case of bipolar disorder patients resistant to classic treatments and originating or living in endemic geographical areas. PMID:23497411
Grunze, Heinz; Schlösser, Sandra; Amann, Benedikt; Walden, Jörg
Although much progress has been made in successfully treating bipolar disorder, there is increasing awareness of the limitations of traditional treatment regimens such as lithium and neuroleptics. The large family of anticonvulsant drugs, however, appears to be capable of providing new treatment options, not only as medication of second choice in patients refractory to treatment, but often as a treatment standard with high efficacy and low incidence of side effects. Besides established mood stabilizers such as carbamazepine and valproate, new antiepileptic drugs are entering the field with promising initial results in the treatment of bipolar patients. Furthermore, bringing to light the mechanisms of action of anticonvulsants and the similarities between anticonvulsants effective in bipolar disorder may also deepen our understanding of the pathophysiological basis of the disorder. PMID:22033602
Azorin, Jean-Michel; Kaladjian, Arthur; Adida, Marc; Hantouche, Elie; Hameg, Ahcene; Lancrenon, Sylvie; Akiskal, Hagop Souren
Risk factors that may be associated with suicide attempts in bipolar disorder are still a matter of debate. We compared demographic, illness course, clinical, and temperamental features of suicide attempters vs those of nonattempters in a large sample of bipolar I patients admitted for an index manic episode. One thousand ninety patients (attempters = 382, nonattempters = 708) were included in the study. Multivariate analysis evidenced 8 risk factors associated with lifetime suicide attempts as follows: multiple hospitalizations, depressive or mixed polarity of first episode, presence of stressful life events before illness onset, younger age at onset, no free intervals between episodes, female sex, higher number of previous episodes, and cyclothymic temperament. These characteristics may help identify subjects at risk for suicide attempt throughout the course of bipolar disorder. We finally propose to integrate such characteristics into a stress-diathesis model of suicidal behavior, adapted to bipolar patients.
Novo, Patricia; Landin-Romero, Ramon; Radua, Joaquim; Vicens, Victor; Fernandez, Isabel; Garcia, Francisca; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter J; Shapiro, Francine; Amann, Benedikt L
Traumatic events are frequent in bipolar patients and can worsen the course of the disease. Psychotherapeutic interventions for these events have not been studied so far. Twenty DSM-IV bipolar I and II patients with subsyndromal mood symptoms and a history of traumatic events were randomly assigned to Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy (n=10) or treatment as usual (n=10). The treatment group received between 14 and 18 Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing sessions during 12 weeks. Evaluations of affective symptoms, symptoms of trauma and trauma impact were carried out by a blind rater at baseline, 2 weeks, 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and at 24 weeks follow-up. Patients in the treatment group showed a statistically significant improvement in depressive and hypomanic symptoms, symptoms of trauma and trauma impact compared to the treatment as usual group after intervention. This effect was only partly maintained in trauma impact at the 24 weeks follow-up visit. One patient dropped from Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing group whereas four from the treatment as usual group. This pilot study suggests that Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing therapy may be an effective and safe intervention to treat subsyndromal mood and trauma symptoms in traumatized bipolar patients.
Rocha, Marlos Vasconcelos; Nery-Fernandes, Fabiana; Guimarães, José Luiz; Quarantini, Lucas de Castro; de Oliveira, Irismar Reis; Ladeia-Rocha, Giovanna G.; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; de Araujo Neto, César; Miranda-Scippa, Ângela
Introduction/Objective. Evidence suggests that the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD), but few neurochemical studies have evaluated this region in bipolar patients and there is no information from BD suicide attempters using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (H+MRS). The objective was to evaluate the metabolic function of the medial orbital frontal cortex in euthymic BD type I suicide and nonsuicide attempters compared to healthy subjects by H+MRS. Methods. 40 euthymic bipolar I outpatients, 19 without and 21 with history of suicide attempt, and 22 healthy subjects were interviewed using the Structured Clinical Interview with the DSM-IV axis I, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale, and the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and underwent H+MRS. Results. We did not find any metabolic abnormality in medial orbital frontal regions of suicide and nonsuicide BD patients and BD patients as a group compared to healthy subjects. Conclusions. The combined chronic use of psychotropic drugs with neuroprotective or neurotrophic effects leading to a euthymic state for longer periods of time may improve neurometabolic function, at least measured by H+MRS, even in suicide attempters. Besides, these results may implicate mood dependent alterations in brain metabolic activity. However, more studies with larger sample sizes of this heterogeneous disorder are warranted to clarify these data. PMID:26075096
Nilsson, Kristine Kahr
Previous research indicates that low self-esteem is associated with functional impairment in remitted bipolar disorder patients. The present study aimed to elucidate this area further by exploring the relationship between different self-schemas and key functional outcome domains. The study consisted of 49 remitted bipolar disorders patients who completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Version (YSQ-S3) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). A hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the schemas Social Isolation, Failure to Achieve, Dependence, Vulnerability to Harm and Illness, Emotional Inhibition, Insufficient Self-Control, and Pessimism accounted for 28% of the variance in functional impairment when controlling for length of remission and subsyndromal depressive symptoms. The WSAS as a self-report scale measures the patients' perception of own functioning and is therefore not an objective measure of functioning. The findings delineate specific psychological vulnerabilities which are likely to be implicated in functional impairment in bipolar disorder and as such warrant further examination in terms of their causal mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Siwek, Marcin; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Reczyński, Witold; Misztak, Paulina; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Nowak, Gabriel; Dudek, Dominika; Rybakowski, Janusz K
Zinc may be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of depressive disorder. However, data on this issue in bipolar disorder (BD) are limited. The aim of the study was to assess zinc concentrations in the blood serum of patients at various phases and stages of bipolar disorder. The study included 129 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I (n=69) or type II (n=60). Fifty-eight were in a depressive episode, 23 in a manic episode and 48 in remission. Fifty healthy volunteers made a control group. Zinc concentration was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum zinc level in patients diagnosed with BD type I in the depressive phase was significantly reduced as compared with mania, remission and healthy subjects. In the BD type II, serum zinc level in hypomania, depression or remission phase was not significantly different from the control group. In the whole group, lower level of zinc in depression compared to remission and control subjects was found during late stage of the illness but not in the early stage. Zinc concentration was not dependent on the severity of manic or depressive symptoms and subtype of depression but correlated positively with the number of manic/hypomanic relapses in the past year. Lack of prospective model, heterogeneity of pharmacological treatment, small number of subgroups presenting specified clinical features. Decreased serum zinc concentration occurs in depression in BD type I and probably in depression in the late stage of BD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The World Health Organization (WHO) clearly states the importance of psychological well-being in the definition of health as "a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". However, in the community, the lives of people with bipolar disorders are often harsh and abusive. Till now, the rate and related information concerning verbal or physical abuse among patients with bipolar disorder at psychiatric outpatient clinics have not been well addressed in Ethiopian settings. Data were collected by interviewing 411 systematically selected participants at outpatient department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital. For analysis, logistic regression and adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used, and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The prevalence of abuse (verbal/physical) was 37.7%. Having two or more episodes [AOR 1.70, 95% CI (1.06, 2.74)], a history of aggression [AOR 3.06, 95% CI (1.63, 5.75)] and comorbid illness [AOR 2.21, 95% CI (1.25, 3.90)] were significantly associated. The prevalence of reported abuse is high among patients with bipolar disorder, and it is important to remember the rights of patients during treatment.
Pompili, Maurizio; Harnic, Désirée; Gonda, Xenia; Forte, Alberto; Dominici, Giovanni; Innamorati, Marco; Fountoulakis, Konstantinos N; Serafini, Gianluca; Sher, Leo; Janiri, Luigi; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Girardi, Paolo
The aim of the present review was to examine objective and subjective burdens in primary caregivers (usually family members) of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and to list which symptoms of the patients are considered more burdensome by the caregivers. In order to provide a critical review about caregiver’s burden in patients with bipolar disorder, we performed a detailed PubMed, BioMedCentral, ISI Web of Science, PsycINFO, Elsevier Science Direct and Cochrane Library search to identify all papers and book chapters in English published during the period between 1963 and November 2011. The highest levels of distress were caused by the patient’s behavior and the patient’s role dysfunction (work, education and social relationships). Furthermore, the caregiving role compromises other social roles occupied by the caregiver, becoming part of the heavy social cost of bipolar affective disorder. There is a need to better understand caregivers’ views and personal perceptions of the stresses and demands arising from caring for someone with BD in order to develop practical appropriate interventions and to improve the training of caregivers. PMID:24660140
Sahraian, Ali; Bigdeli, Mohammad; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
It has not been examined trialed whether obsessive compulsive symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder respond to topiramate as an adjuvant treatment. This 4-month double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial examined the efficacy and safety of augmentation with topiramat for treating the patients with bipolar disorder, manic phase type-I, and obsessive compulsive disorder symptoms. Both groups received lithium+olanzapine+clonazepam. However, one group received topiramate and the other group placebo as adjuvant medications. Yale Brown obsessive compulsive behavior scale was used to assess the outcome. Adverse effects were also recorded. A total of 32 patients completed this trial. The mean score decreased from 24.2(4.8) to 17.6(8.7) in the topiramate group (P<0.003) and from 20.9(2.9) to 9.6(3.5) in the placebo group during this trial (P<0.0001). Additionally, 9(52.9%) out of 17 patients in the topiramate group and 2(12.5%) out of 16 patients in the placebo group showed more than 34% decline in YBOC score (x2=6.0, df=1, P<0.01). No serious adverse effects were detected. The limitations of the present study were its small sample size and the fact that it was conducted in a single center. The combination of lithium+olanzapine+clonazepam decreased the symptoms of obsessive compulsive disorder in the patients with bipolar disorder type I. However, topiramate had a more significant effect than placebo on improvement of the patients with bipolar disorder and obsessive compulsive symptoms. This combination seems to be without serious adverse effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bipolar disorder is a frequent disorder in the elderly, with a prevalence of 0.1 a 0.4%; a 10% of bipolar patients have mania onset after 50 years old. It has in ageing a more heterogeneous clinical presentation. The manic episodes are less severe, mixed depression is common, as well as confusion and cognitive impairment. A first manic episode in ageing can be secondary to medical illness. Treatment for bipolar disorder in ageing is similar to treatment for young patients. The differences are due to pharmacocinetic changes because of the age, with the comorbidity and with the etiology, if it is a secondary mania. Lithium can be the first choice for treating mania in patients with antecedent of good response and have tolerance to adverse effects, but because of its toxicity and secondary effects other possibilities may be considered: divalproate, cabamazepine, antipsychotics. There are some little studies that show lamotrigine efficacy in bipolar depression in elderly. We need more specific studies about bipolar disorder treatment in aging.
Guillaume, S; Courtet, P; Chabannes, J-P; Meynard, J-A; Moreau-Mallet, V
The ECHO study is the first French study directly asking patients with bipolar I disorders on the history and experiences of their disease, their perceptions of care, their sociofamilial relationships, and their expectations regarding what should be done by healthcare professionals and their environment. Three hundred euthymic patients suffering from bipolar disorder I were interviewed using a semi-standardized evaluation through telephone interviews. These patients were selected according to the quota method of nationally representative INSEE 99 to be representative of the French population. Ninety-nine percent of patients consulted at least once for psychological signs before the correct diagnosis was established. The average age at the time of diagnosis was of 30.1 years (± 11.3). The average time between first consultation for psychological symptoms and diagnosis is about 5 years. In 92% of cases, the psychiatrist is the health professional that made the diagnosis; 74% of patients were also followed by a general practitioner. One hundred percent of participants had been hospitalized for manic episodes (criterion for inclusion in the study) and 86% were also hospitalized for depressive symptoms. The experience of hospitalization is positive (feeling of security for 84% of the sample, feelings of being helped for 81% of the sample), although these experiences are also associated with the perception of confinement (52% of the sample). At the time of the interview, 97% of these patients were followed by one or more health professionals. Only 34% of these patients were taking a mood stabilizer (lithium, anticonvulsant or atypical antipsychotic with indications in France for bipolar disorder), while 44% were taking an antidepressant and 38% were taking anxiolytics; 84% of patients had experienced side effects related to their current treatment. Acceptance of the disease is difficult and only 56% of patients personally feel they suffer from bipolar disorders
Wysokiński, Adam; Strzelecki, Dominik; Kłoszewska, Iwona
The aim of this study is to investigate differences in triglycerides (TGA), cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL and glucose (FPG) levels in patients with acute schizophrenia, unipolar depression, bipolar depression and bipolar mania. Results for 2305 Caucasian patients were included in the study (1377 women, 59.7%; mean age 45.6). Mean TGA level was: schizophrenia: 139.9±90.6 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.4±70.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 141.1±81.9 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 147.7±82.8 mg/dL mg/dL, bipolar mania: 120.2±76.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean TC level was: schizophrenia: 188.5±40.4 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 198.8±50.7 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 194.4±48.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 198.9±48.8 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 180.1±43.8 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean HDL level was: schizophrenia: 45.3±13.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 48.1±14.8 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 45.4±15.3 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 45.1±15.4 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 46.4±15.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean LDL level was: schizophrenia: 115.4±34.7 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 125.7±44.1 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 120.9±42.1 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 124.5±43.1 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 109.3±36.9 mg/dL, inter-group differences were significant (p<0.001). Mean FPG level was: schizophrenia: 95.9±24.9 mg/dL, unipolar depression: 94.8±22.9 mg/dL, bipolar disorder: 97.2±24.4 mg/dL, bipolar depression: 98.3±25.3 mg/dL, bipolar mania: 93.9±21.1 mg/dL, inter-group differences were not significant (p=0.08). Odds ratios for glucose and lipids abnormalities, correlations with age, sex distribution in diagnostic groups for normal ranges of glucose and lipids, differences in glucose and lipids levels between the age groups were also calculated. Our results confirm that there is a high prevalence of lipid and glucose abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders (both unipolar and
Calkin, Cynthia; van de Velde, Caroline; Růžičková, Martina; Slaney, Claire; Garnham, Julie; Hajek, Tomas; O’Donovan, Claire; Alda, Martin
Objective Several studies have reported higher prevalence of obesity in patients suffering from bipolar disorder (BD). To study the relation of elevated body mass index (BMI) in patients with BD more closely, we investigated differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and medical characteristics with respect to BMI, with the hypothesis that BMI is related to prognosis and outcome. Methods We measured the BMI of 276 subjects of a tertiary care sample from the Maritime Bipolar Registry. Subjects were 16 to 83 years old, with psychiatric diagnoses of bipolar I disorder (n = 186), bipolar II disorder (n = 85), and BD not otherwise specified (n = 5). The registry included basic demographic data and details of the clinical presentation. We first examined the variables showing a significant association with BMI; subsequently, we modeled the relationship between BMI and psychiatric outcome using structural equation analysis. Results The prevalence of obesity in our sample was 39.1%. We found higher BMI in subjects with a chronic course (p < 0.001) and longer duration of illness (p = 0.02), lower scores on the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (p = 0.02), and on disability (p = 0.002). Overweight patients had more frequent comorbid subthreshold social (p = 0.02) and generalized anxiety disorders (p = 0.05), diabetes mellitus type II (p < 0.001), and hypertension (p = 0.001). Subjects who achieved complete remission of symptoms on lithium showed significantly lower BMI (p = 0.01). Conclusions Our findings suggest that BMI is associated with the prognosis and outcome of BD. Whether this association is causal remains to be determined. PMID:19689507
Malhi, Gin S; Lagopoulos, Jim; Das, Pritha; Moss, Kirsteen; Berk, Michael; Coulston, Carissa M
To determine the neural responses invoked in Theory of Mind (ToM) in euthymic bipolar patients as compared with healthy subjects. This study examined 20 euthymic bipolar patients (11 males and 9 females) and 20 suitably matched healthy subjects using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while subjects were engaged in a ToM task. Within-scanner eye movements were monitored to ensure task engagement. The activation paradigm involved observing ToM and random-motion animated sequences in a block design. Both within group (ToM versus random motion) and random effects between group analyses were performed on fMRI data using the BrainVoyager software package. Demographic and clinical data, along with subject ratings of fMRI stimuli, were collated and analysed. Patients were compromised in their ability to appropriately rate the ToM stimuli and assess them for intention as compared to healthy subjects. This was reflected in the fact that patients had few within-group significant activations in response to ToM animated sequences, namely, the left anterior cingulate, and precuneus and cuneus bilaterally. In contrast, robust activations in response to ToM animated sequences in healthy subjects were widespread and involved regions recognized for mental state reasoning, in particular the insula, inferior frontal, supramarginal and angular gyri, and temporal cortex. The between-group random effects analysis exclusively favoured the healthy subjects, with many activations occurring in regions overlapping with those found in the within-group analyses. The findings of this novel neuroimaging study suggest that in a social context, euthymic bipolar patients, though seemingly well and capable of engaging aspects of ToM, are perhaps constrained in their ability to mentalize fully, and furthermore cannot reliably adopt an alternate cognitive perspective when appropriate. Impairment of this capacity, though subtle, may in effect compromise their ability to understand the
Himmighoffen, Holger; Budischewski, Kai; Härtling, Fabian; Hell, Daniel; Böker, Heinz
The self-concept and the partner relationships of patients with bipolar affective disorder in remission were investigated with the Giessen-Test (GT, Beckmann et al. ) comparing the bipolar patients with unipolar depressive patients, a control group of orthopedic patients and the standard sample of the Giessen-Test. The new dimensions "self-esteem" and "near-to-object" were developed by means of the Giessen-Test items. Self-esteem was significantly lower in bipolar patients in remission than in the controls. The bipolar patients also described themselves as "more distant to others" than the controls. Bipolar and unipolar-depressive patients had a similar self-concept and view of their partner relationships. The results underline the importance of the regulation of self-esteem and the interpersonal dimension in the long-term course of bipolar affective disorder. Therapeutic implications are discussed.
Hajek, Tomas; Bauer, Michael; Pfennig, Andrea; Cullis, Jeffrey; Ploch, Jana; O’Donovan, Claire; Bohner, Georg; Klingebiel, Randolf; Young, L. Trevor; MacQueen, Glenda M.; Alda, Martin
Background Neuroprotective effects of lithium (Li) have been well documented in tissue cultures and animal models, whereas human data continue to be limited. Previous studies investigating the association between Li treatment and brain N-acetylaspartate (NAA), a putative neuronal marker, showed mixed results because of methodological heterogeneity. Methods To investigate the effects of Li on prefrontal cortex NAA levels, we compared patients with bipolar disorder from specialized Li clinics in Berlin and Halifax with at least 2 years of ongoing Li treatment (Li group), patients with lifetime Li exposure of less than 3 months more than 2 years ago (non-Li group) and healthy controls. Participants in both patient groups had at least 10 years of illness and 5 episodes. We measured left prefrontal NAA levels using 1.5-T magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Results We enrolled 27 participants in the Li, 16 in the non-Li and 21 in the healthy control groups. The non-Li group had lower prefrontal NAA levels than the Li group (t41 = −3.44, corrected p < 0.01) or control participants (t35 = −2.91, corrected p < 0.05), who did not differ from the Li group (t46 = −0.14, p = 0.89). The same pattern of prefrontal NAA differences was replicated in both sites. In addition, there was a negative correlation between prefrontal NAA and duration of illness in the non-Li group (r = −0.60, p = 0.019) but not in the Li group (r = 0.07, p = 0.74). Limitations Study limitations include the cross-sectional design and exposure to other medications. Conclusion Whereas patients with bipolar disorder, substantial illness burden and limited lifetime Li exposure had significantly lower prefrontal NAA levels than controls, Li-treated patients with similar illness burden showed prefrontal NAA levels comparable to those of healthy controls. These findings provide indirect support for neuroprotective effects of Li and for negative effects of illness burden on prefrontal NAA levels in patients
Meade, Christina S.; Bevilacqua, Lisa A.; Key, Mary D.
This study examined HIV transmission risk behavior among 63 patients with bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and no mood disorder (NMD); half had substance use disorders (SUDs). Patients with BD were more likely than others to report unprotected intercourse with HIV-negative partners and < 95% adherence to antiretroviral medications. In multivariate models, BD and SUD were independent predictors of both risk behaviors. Participants with poorer medication adherence were more likely to have detectable HIV viral loads and unprotected intercourse with HIV-negative partners. Patients with BD deserve careful evaluation and HIV prevention services to reduce HIV transmission risk behaviors. PMID:22614744
Vorspan, Florence; Bertoux, Maxime; Brichant-Petitjean, Clara; Dubois, Bruno; Lépine, Jean-Pierre
Summary We report the case of a bipolar I patient who was diagnosed with frontotemporal dementia at the age of 54 during a manic episode. Her neurological state improved when this episode ended. Each subsequent thymic relapse was associated with cognitive deficits which subsided when the patient became euthymic, even though SPECT continued to show the same frontal hypoperfusion. We here discuss the hypothesis that the cognitive reserve of this patient, a former journalist, may, except during her mood episodes, have provided her with sufficient resources to meet her life demands despite her underlying neurological disorder. PMID:23402681
Aas, Monica; Aminoff, Sofie R; Vik Lagerberg, Trine; Etain, Bruno; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid
This study aimed to investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and levels of affective lability in bipolar patients compared to controls. Forty-two patients and 14 controls were assessed using the Affective Lability Scale (ALS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Affective Lability Score was significantly associated with scores on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A multivariate regression model indicated a relationship between childhood trauma scores and differences in affective lability between patients and controls. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
TIĞLI FİLİZER, Arzu; CERİT, Cem; TÜZÜN, Başak; AKER, Ahmet Tamer
Introduction Many studies have demonstrated that patients with bipolar disorder (BD) suffer from significant functional impairment, even during remission periods. This study aimed to assess the levels of overall functioning and specific areas of functioning in remitted patients with BD compared with those in healthy controls. Methods Eighty completely remitted patients with BD and 80 healthy controls were included in the study. The Bipolar Disorder Functioning Questionnaire (BDFQ), Young Mania Rating Scale, and Beck Depression Inventory were used. Results There were fewer married and employed cohorts in the BD group than in the control group. Compared with healthy controls, patients with BD exhibited a worse functioning in terms of intellectual and sexual functioning, feelings of stigmatization, social withdrawal, household relationships, relationships with friends, and participation in social activities. There was no difference between the groups in terms of emotional functioning, daily activities and hobbies, taking initiative and self-sufficiency, and occupation. The total BDFQ scores of patients were lower than those of healthy controls. A better functionality was observed in patients using only a mood stabilizer than in patients using three or more drugs. Conclusion Remarkably, remitted patients with BD tended to perform daily activities well when these activities were not in a social context. Stigma-oriented interpersonal approaches can be particularly beneficial for these patients. PMID:28360789
Goldsmith, D R; Rapaport, M H; Miller, B J
Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder (MDD) have all been associated with aberrant blood cytokine levels; however, neither the pattern of cytokine alterations nor the impact of clinical status have been compared across disorders. We performed a meta-analysis of blood cytokines in acutely and chronically ill patients with these major psychiatric disorders. Articles were identified by searching the PubMed, PsycInfo and Web of Science, and the reference lists of these studies. Sixty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria (40 schizophrenia, 10 bipolar disorder and 18 MDD) for acutely ill patients. Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria (18 schizophrenia, 16 bipolar disorder and 12 MDD) for chronically ill patients. Levels of two cytokines (interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)), one soluble cytokine receptor (sIL-2R), and one cytokine receptor antagonist (IL-1RA) were significantly increased in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia, bipolar mania and MDD compared with controls (P<0.01). Following treatment of the acute illness, IL-6 levels significantly decreased in both schizophrenia and MDD (P<0.01); sIL-2R levels increased in schizophrenia; and IL-1RA levels in bipolar mania decreased. In chronically ill patients, the levels of IL-6 were significantly increased in schizophrenia, euthymic (but not depressed) bipolar disorder and MDD compared with controls (P<0.01). The levels of IL-1β and sIL-2R were significantly increased in both chronic schizophrenia and euthymic bipolar disorder. Overall, there were similarities in the pattern of cytokine alterations in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and MDD during acute and chronic phases of illness, raising the possibility of common underlying pathways for immune dysfunction. Effects of treatment on cytokines were more robust for schizophrenia and MDD, but were more frequently studied than for acute mania. These findings have important implications for our understanding of
Hoertnagl, Christine M; Biedermann, Falko; Yalcin-Siedentopf, Nursen; Muehlbacher, Moritz; Rauch, Anna-Sophia; Baumgartner, Susanne; Kaufmann, Alexandra; Kemmler, Georg; Deisenhammer, Eberhard A; Hausmann, Armand; Hofer, Alex
Bipolar disorder is associated with impairments in emotion processing that are present during both mood episodes and periods of remission. In this context, most previous studies have investigated facial emotion recognition abilities. In contrast, the current study focused on the perception of prosodic and semantic affect. The present study directly contrasted the perception of prosodic and semantic affect in 58 remitted patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for bipolar I disorder and 45 healthy volunteers by using 2 subtests of the Comprehensive Affective Testing System (CATS) and investigated the relationship of prosodic and semantic affect perception with patients' outcomes. Participants were investigated from June 2011 until May 2013. Patients and controls did not differ regarding the recognition of the vocal emotion while ignoring the affective meaning of test trials (CATS 1), but patients significantly more often misinterpreted sad as happy prosody (P = .039). In addition, patients were impaired in recognizing the affective meaning of test trials while ignoring the vocal emotion (CATS 2; P = .052). Again, they significantly more often misinterpreted a sad affective meaning as a happy one (P = .025). However, the findings on misinterpretations did not withstand Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. CATS 1 test performance was negatively correlated with depression scores, whereas a positive association was found between performance on both tests and patients' functioning. Patients indicated a significantly lower quality of life (P < .001); however, multiple mediation analysis revealed that this finding was not mediated by differences in prosodic and/or semantic affect perception between the 2 groups. Even during periods of remission, patients with bipolar disorder may be impaired in semantic but not prosodic affect perception. Notably, they may frequently misinterpret sadly expressed emotions as happy ones. Our findings underscore the relevance of these
Belzeaux, Raoul; Boyer, Laurent; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Michel, Pierre; Correard, Nadia; Aubin, Valerie; Bellivier, Frank; Bougerol, Thierry; Olie, Emilie; Courtet, Philippe; Etain, Bruno; Gard, Sébastien; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Passerieux, Christine; Leboyer, Marion; Henry, Chantal; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Adherence to medication is a major issue in bipolar disorder. Non-planning impulsivity, defined as a lack of future orientation, has been demonstrated to be the main impulsivity domain altered during euthymia in bipolar disorder patients. It was associated with comorbidities. To investigate relationship between adherence to medication and non-planning impulsivity, we included 260 euthymic bipolar patients. Adherence to medication was evaluated by Medication Adherence Rating Scale and non-planning impulsivity by Barrat Impulsiveness Scale. Univariate analyses and linear regression were used. We conducted also a path analysis to examine whether non-planning impulsivity had direct or indirect effect on adherence, mediated by comorbidities. Adherence to medication was correlated with non-planning impulsivity, even after controlling for potential confounding factors in linear regression analysis (Beta standardized coefficient = 0.156; p = 0.015). Path analysis demonstrated only a direct effect of non-planning impulsivity on adherence to medication, and none indirect effect via substance use disorders and anxiety disorders. Our study is limited by its cross-sectional design and adherence to medication was assessed only by self-questionnaire. Higher non-planning impulsivity is associated with low medication adherence, without an indirect effect via comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wang, Shuai; Ren, Huixun; Xu, Jie; Yu, Yanjun; Han, Shuiping; Qiao, Hui; Cheng, Shaoli; Xu, Chang; An, Shucheng; Ju, Bomiao; Yu, Chengyuan; Wang, Chanyuan; Wang, Tao; Yang, Zhenjun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Zhao, Lijun
Repetin (RPTN) protein is a member of S100 family and is known to be expressed in the normal epidermis. Here we show that RPTN is ubiquitously expressed in both mouse and human brain, with relatively high levels in choroid plexus, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. To investigate the expression of RPTN in neuropsychiatric disorders, we determined serum levels of RPTN in patients with schizophrenia (n = 88) or bipolar disorder (n = 34) and in chronic psychostimulant users (n = 91). We also studied its expression in a mouse model of chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The results showed that serum RPTN levels were significantly diminished in patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder or in psychostimulant users, compared with healthy subjects (n = 115) or age-matched controls (n = 92) (p < 0.0001). In CUMS mice, RPTN expression in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex was reduced with progression of the CUMS procedure; the serum RPTN level remained unchanged. Since CUMS is a model for depression and methamphetamine (METH) abuse induced psychosis recapitulates many of the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, the results from this study may imply that RPTN plays a potential role in emotional and cognitive processing; its decrease in serum may indicate its involvement in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Alexander, Gene E.; And Others
Much of the literature on affective disorders has been devoted to categorizing, assessing, and treating the mood and behavioral symptoms typically associated with depressive illness, and much research has studied how personality traits interact with these state symptoms. The personality scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) are…
Alexander, Gene E.; And Others
Much of the literature on affective disorders has been devoted to categorizing, assessing, and treating the mood and behavioral symptoms typically associated with depressive illness, and much research has studied how personality traits interact with these state symptoms. The personality scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) are…
Jørgensen, Tine Rikke; Emborg, Charlotte; Dahlen, Karianne; Bøgelund, Mette; Carlborg, Andreas
Agitation episodes are common among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Oral and intramuscular administration methods are commonly used in pharmacological treatment of acute agitation. Recently, an innovative inhalation product with loxapine(Adasuve®)has become available for treatment of acute agitation episodes associated with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. The objective for the present study was to investigate the impact of the pharmacological treatment's administration methods on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia in Denmark and Sweden using a time trade-off (TTO) approach. The TTO methodology was used to examine the HRQoL impact of administration method of pharmacological treatment of acute agitation. Data were collected via an internet-based survey, using an existing panel of respondents with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Respondents considered living with schizophrenia/ bipolar disorder, having one yearly agitation episode treated with inhaler better than living with the same conditions and receiving treatment with tablet or injection. The utility value was 0.762 for inhalable treatment, 0.707 for injection and 0.734 for tablet treatment. Patients' preference for treatment delivery options showed that inhalation was associated with a significant utility gain when compared to injection or tablets. Inhalable loxapine may be a new tool for control of agitation episodes for strengthening the patient provider alliance when taking patient's preference for delivery method into consideration.
Eker, Fatma; Harkın, Sirin
This study examined the effectiveness of a six week psychoeducation program on the adherence of patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder. An experimental study was conducted at a mood disorder outpatient clinic in Zonguldak, Turkiye. Participants were randomly assigned to either intervention (n=35) or control groups (n=36). Both groups were given pre-tests and post-tests to measure their adherence. In the psychoeducation group, the psychoeducation program was provided for 2 h/week for six weeks. In the control group, standard care and information were provided. After six weeks, the psychoeducation program significantly improved patients' adherence. The treatment adherence rate of the patients in the intervention group increased from 40.0% (14 patients on pre-test), to 86.7% (26 patients on post-test). Meanwhile, the treatment adherence rate of the control group was 38.9% (14 patients) for the pre-test, and 24.2% (8 patients) for the post-test. This controlled trial study demonstrated that a six-week psychoeducation program can be a useful intervention to improve adherence in patients undergoing bipolar affective disorder rehabilitation. More comprehensive mental health outcomes need to be undertaken. Further studies exploring a longer term follow-up are also required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder.
García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa
Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients' education than PVF FAS tests.
Reinares, María; Colom, Francesc; Sánchez-Moreno, José; Torrent, Carla; Martínez-Arán, Anabel; Comes, Mercè; Goikolea, José M; Benabarre, Antoni; Salamero, Manel; Vieta, Eduard
Although there are some randomized controlled trials that highlight the positive role of family-focused treatment added to pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder, no trials using contemporary methodologies have analyzed the specific effect of working with caregiver-only groups. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a psychoeducational group intervention focused on caregivers of euthymic bipolar patients. A total of 113 medicated euthymic bipolar outpatients who lived with their caregivers were randomized into an experimental and a control group. Caregivers in the experimental group received twelve 90-min group psychoeducation sessions focused on knowledge of bipolar disorder and training in coping skills. The patients did not attend the groups. Caregivers assigned to the control group did not receive any specific intervention. Patients were assessed monthly during both the intervention and the 12 months of follow-up. The primary outcome was time to any mood recurrence. Psychoeducation group intervention focused on the caregivers of bipolar patients carried a reduction of the percentage of patients with any mood recurrence (chi2 = 6.53; p = 0.011) and longer relapse-free intervals (log-rank chi(2) = 4.04; p = 0.044). When different types of episodes were analyzed separately, the effect was significant for both the number of patients who experienced a hypomanic/manic recurrence (chi2 = 5.65; p = 0.017) and the time to such an episode (log-rank chi2 = 5.84; p = 0.015). The differences in preventing depressive and mixed episodes were not significant. A psychoeducation group intervention for the caregivers of bipolar patients is a useful adjunct to usual treatment for the patients in reducing the risk of recurrences, particularly mania and hypomania, in bipolar disorder.
Novick, Diego; Montgomery, William; Treuer, Tamas; Aguado, Jaume; Kraemer, Susanne; Haro, Josep Maria
Many patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have impaired insight and low medication adherence. The aim of this post hoc analysis was to explore the relationship between insight and medication adherence. We included 903 patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who participated in an observational study conducted in Europe on the outcomes of patients treated with two oral formulations of olanzapine over a 1-year period. Evaluations included Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF), insight (Scale to Assess Unawareness of Mental Disorder, SUMD) medication adherence (Medication Adherence Rating Scale, MARS), and therapeutic alliance (Working Alliance Inventory, WAI). Medication adherence was higher in bipolar patients (mean MARS score (SD) 6.5 (2.8) versus 5.8 (2.7) in schizophrenia; p < 0.001). Patients with schizophrenia had lower insight (i.e., SUMD item 1, unawareness of mental disorder, mean (SD) of 2.5 (1.3) in schizophrenia versus 1.9 (1.2) in bipolar, p < 0.001). Better insight was associated with higher adherence (Spearman Correlation Coefficient, SCC, ranging from 0.39 to 0.49 for the three SUMD general items, p < 0.0001 in all cases). Higher insight was related to a stronger therapeutic alliance (SCC ranging from 0.38 to 0.48, p < 0.0001). A path analysis revealed a positive impact of insight on adherence and alliance and that stronger alliance was related to lower clinical severity (lower CGI score). Insight and adherence were found to be closely related. Insight impacts on the therapeutic alliance with mental health professionals. These factors are associated to treatment outcomes.
Monti, Jaime M
Sleep disturbances predominantly take the form of insomnia in patients with unipolar disorder, while patients with bipolar disorder show a decreased need for sleep. Sleep impairment in these patients is a risk factor for the development of a major depressive episode and suicidal behavior. Administration of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) olanzapine, quetiapine, and ziprasidone as augmentation therapy or monotherapy to unipolar and bipolar disorder patients, respectively, has been shown to improve sleep continuity and sleep architecture. Thus, their use by these patients could ameliorate their sleep disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Grünerbl, Agnes; Muaremi, Amir; Osmani, Venet; Bahle, Gernot; Ohler, Stefan; Tröster, Gerhard; Mayora, Oscar; Haring, Christian; Lukowicz, Paul
Today's health care is difficult to imagine without the possibility to objectively measure various physiological parameters related to patients' symptoms (from temperature through blood pressure to complex tomographic procedures). Psychiatric care remains a notable exception that heavily relies on patient interviews and self-assessment. This is due to the fact that mental illnesses manifest themselves mainly in the way patients behave throughout their daily life and, until recently there were no "behavior measurement devices." This is now changing with the progress in wearable activity recognition and sensor enabled smartphones. In this paper, we introduce a system, which, based on smartphone-sensing is able to recognize depressive and manic states and detect state changes of patients suffering from bipolar disorder. Drawing upon a real-life dataset of ten patients, recorded over a time period of 12 weeks (in total over 800 days of data tracing 17 state changes) by four different sensing modalities, we could extract features corresponding to all disease-relevant aspects in behavior. Using these features, we gain recognition accuracies of 76% by fusing all sensor modalities and state change detection precision and recall of over 97%. This paper furthermore outlines the applicability of this system in the physician-patient relations in order to facilitate the life and treatment of bipolar patients.
Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Iamthanaporn, Khanin; Hongnaparak, Theerawit
Introduction Dislocation after bipolar hemiarthroplasty is a common complication but dissociation of the prosthesis is rare. There are some reports of bipolar hemiarthroplasty dissociation at the inner head and outer shell. However, there are limited reports on acute spontaneous dissociation of the head and neck at the taper interface in bipolar hemiarthroplasty. Presentation of case A 65-year-old female had cemented bipolar hemi hip replacement after fixation failure of a dynamic hip screw. She had left lower limb weakness for ten years after previous spinal surgery. At the sixth week of postoperation, the patient had dissociation of the components of the bipolar hemiarthroplasty at the femoral head and neck junction. The patient had open reduction and femoral head revision. There was no re-dislocation at one-year follow-up. Discussion Dissociation of bipolar hemiarthroplasty is a complex complication that can happen from the modularity of the implant. This condition requires operative treatment. The mechanism and cause of failure should be identified before the operation. Conclusion To prevent this condition, preoperative planning and proper techniques should be done as an index procedure. In the case of marked shortening of the limb after an operation in patients with lower limb muscle weakness, we hypothesize that early full weight bearing with immediate use of a shoe lift might help prevent this condition. PMID:26339788
Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E.; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W.
Background and Aims Behavioral addictions and bipolar disorders have a certain probability of co-occurrence. While the presence of a manic episode has been defined as an exclusion criterion for gambling disorder, no such exclusion has been formulated for Internet addiction. Methods A clinical sample of 368 treatment seekers presenting with excessive to addictive Internet use was screened for bipolar spectrum disorders using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Psychopathology was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90R and a clinical interview was administered to screen for comorbid disorders. Results Comorbid bipolar disorders were more frequent in patients meeting criteria for Internet addiction (30.9%) than among the excessive users (5.6%). This subgroup showed heightened psychopathological symptoms, including substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. Further differences were found regarding frequency of Internet use regarding social networking sites and online-pornography. Discussion Patients with Internet addiction have a heightened probability for meeting criteria of bipolar disorders. It is not possible to draw conclusions regarding the direction of this association but it is recommended to implement screening for bipolar disorders in patients presenting with Internet addiction. Conclusion Similar to gambling disorder, it might prove necessary to subsume bipolar disorders as an exclusion criterion for the future criteria of Internet addiction. PMID:26132914
Wölfling, Klaus; Beutel, Manfred E; Dreier, Michael; Müller, Kai W
Behavioral addictions and bipolar disorders have a certain probability of co-occurrence. While the presence of a manic episode has been defined as an exclusion criterion for gambling disorder, no such exclusion has been formulated for Internet addiction. A clinical sample of 368 treatment seekers presenting with excessive to addictive Internet use was screened for bipolar spectrum disorders using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire. Psychopathology was assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90R and a clinical interview was administered to screen for comorbid disorders. Comorbid bipolar disorders were more frequent in patients meeting criteria for Internet addiction (30.9%) than among the excessive users (5.6%). This subgroup showed heightened psychopathological symptoms, including substance use disorders, affective disorders and personality disorders. Further differences were found regarding frequency of Internet use regarding social networking sites and online-pornography. Patients with Internet addiction have a heightened probability for meeting criteria of bipolar disorders. It is not possible to draw conclusions regarding the direction of this association but it is recommended to implement screening for bipolar disorders in patients presenting with Internet addiction. Similar to gambling disorder, it might prove necessary to subsume bipolar disorders as an exclusion criterion for the future criteria of Internet addiction.
Grover, Sandeep; Ghosh, Abhishek; Sarkar, Siddharth; Chakrabarti, Subho; Avasthi, Ajit
There is limited data on the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in patients with bipolar disorder receiving lithium and to study the correlates of sexual dysfunction. One hundred clinically stable patients with bipolar disorder (Global Assessment for Functioning score of >70, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of ≤7 and Young Mania Rating Scale score of ≤7, and no change in medications at least in the last 3 months) receiving lithium were evaluated on Arizona Sexual Experience Scale and Brief Adherence Rating Scale. The mean age of study sample was 44.3 years. The mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score was 1.06 (SD, 1.7) and the mean Young Mania Rating Scale score was 0.1 (SD, 0.5) and the mean Global Assessment for Functioning scale score was 84 (SD, 6.0). The mean duration of lithium use was approximately 119.62 (SD, 99.6) months, and the mean dose of lithium was 799.5 (SD, 251.4) mg/d. Of the 100 patients, approximately one third of the patients (n = 37) were found to have sexual dysfunction as per Arizona Sexual Experience Scale. Compared with those without sexual dysfunction, those with sexual dysfunction were older (t value = 3; P = 0.003). Those with sexual dysfunction had lower level of functioning (Global level of functioning score of 81.7 vs 85.5; t value = 3.2; P = 0.002), higher number of other adverse effects with lithium (total number of other adverse effects, 2.9 vs 1.4; t value = 4.2; P < 0.001), and poor medication compliance. To conclude, the present study suggests that approximately one third of the patients receiving lithium experience sexual dysfunction, and it is associated with poor medication adherence.
Miklowitz, David J.; Otto, Michael W.; Frank, Ellen; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A.; Kogan, Jane N.; Sachs, Gary S.; Thase, Michael E.; Calabrese, Joseph R.; Marangell, Lauren B.; Ostacher, Michael J.; Patel, Jayendra; Thomas, Marshall R.; Araga, Mako; Gonzalez, Jodi M.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.
Objective Psychosocial interventions are effective adjuncts to pharmacotherapy in delaying recurrences of bipolar disorder; however, to date their effects on life functioning have been given little attention. In a randomized trial, the authors examined the impact of intensive psychosocial treatment plus pharmacotherapy on the functional outcomes of patients with bipolar disorder over the 9 months following a depressive episode. Method Participants were 152 depressed outpatients with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder in the multisite Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) study. All patients received pharmacotherapy. Eighty-four patients were randomly assigned to intensive psychosocial intervention (30 sessions over 9 months of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, cognitive behavior therapy [CBT], or family-focused therapy), and 68 patients were randomly assigned to collaborative care (a 3-session psychoeducational treatment). Independent evaluators rated the four subscales of the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation–Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT) (relationships, satisfaction with activities, work/role functioning, and recreational activities) through structured interviews given at baseline and every 3 months over a 9-month period. Results Patients in intensive psychotherapy had better total functioning, relationship functioning, and life satisfaction scores over 9 months than patients in collaborative care, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression scores were covaried. No effects of psychosocial intervention were observed on work/role functioning or recreation scores during this 9-month period. Conclusions Intensive psychosocial treatment enhances relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder. Alternate interventions focused on the specific cognitive deficits of individuals with bipolar disorder may be necessary to enhance vocational functioning
Miklowitz, David J; Otto, Michael W; Frank, Ellen; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Kogan, Jane N; Sachs, Gary S; Thase, Michael E; Calabrese, Joseph R; Marangell, Lauren B; Ostacher, Michael J; Patel, Jayendra; Thomas, Marshall R; Araga, Mako; Gonzalez, Jodi M; Wisniewski, Stephen R
Psychosocial interventions are effective adjuncts to pharmacotherapy in delaying recurrences of bipolar disorder; however, to date their effects on life functioning have been given little attention. In a randomized trial, the authors examined the impact of intensive psychosocial treatment plus pharmacotherapy on the functional outcomes of patients with bipolar disorder over the 9 months following a depressive episode. Participants were 152 depressed outpatients with bipolar I or bipolar II disorder in the multisite Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for Bipolar Disorder (STEP-BD) study. All patients received pharmacotherapy. Eighty-four patients were randomly assigned to intensive psychosocial intervention (30 sessions over 9 months of interpersonal and social rhythm therapy, cognitive behavior therapy [CBT], or family-focused therapy), and 68 patients were randomly assigned to collaborative care (a 3-session psychoeducational treatment). Independent evaluators rated the four subscales of the Longitudinal Interval Follow-Up Evaluation-Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT) (relationships, satisfaction with activities, work/role functioning, and recreational activities) through structured interviews given at baseline and every 3 months over a 9-month period. Patients in intensive psychotherapy had better total functioning, relationship functioning, and life satisfaction scores over 9 months than patients in collaborative care, even after pretreatment functioning and concurrent depression scores were covaried. No effects of psychosocial intervention were observed on work/role functioning or recreation scores during this 9-month period. Intensive psychosocial treatment enhances relationship functioning and life satisfaction among patients with bipolar disorder. Alternate interventions focused on the specific cognitive deficits of individuals with bipolar disorder may be necessary to enhance vocational functioning after a depressive episode.
Lin, Chin-Chuen; Lee, Chien-Te; Lo, Ya-Ting; Huang, Tiao-Lai
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein or mRNA levels may be involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, the results were inconsistent. We aimed to simultaneously investigate the relationship of BDNF protein and mRNA levels in peripheral blood of patients with bipolar mania. Patients with bipolar mania (n = 30) and healthy controls (n = 30) were recruited during our one-year study. Psychiatric diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition criteria. The scores of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) of patients with bipolar mania were greater than 26. All participants had peripheral blood drawn to analyze the serum BDNF protein and mRNA levels. Using t-test, patients with bipolar mania had a lower BDNF protein and mRNA levels than did the healthy controls (p < 0.001 and 0.049, respectively), however, the statistical significances were lost after analysis of co-variance adjusted for age and body mass index. Twenty seven out of 30 patients with bipolar mania remained in the study after the 4 weeks of mood stabilizer treatment. Patients' BDNF protein and mRNA levels did not change significantly after 4-week treatment. Our study found that serum BDNF protein and mRNA levels in patients with bipolar mania were lower than healthy controls, but a larger sample size will be needed to confirm this finding. Copyright © 2016 Chang Gung University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alliey-Rodriguez, Ney; Zhang, Dandan; Badner, Judith A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.; Zhang, Xiaotong; Dinwiddie, Stephen; Romanos, Benjamin; Plenys, Natalie; Liu, Chunyu; Gershon, Elliot S.
Objective Genome-wide association study was carried out on personality traits among bipolar patients as possible endophenotypes for gene discovery in bipolar disorder. Methods The subscales of Cloninger’s Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) and the Zuckerman–Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ) were used as quantitative phenotypes. The genotyping platform was the Affymetrix 6.0 SNP array. The sample consisted of 944 individuals for TCI and 1007 for ZKPQ, all of European ancestry, diagnosed with bipolar disorder by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV criteria. Results Genome-wide significant association was found for two subscales of the TCI, rs10479334 with the ‘Social Acceptance versus Social Intolerance’ subscale (Bonferroni P = 0.014) in an intergenic region, and rs9419788 with the ‘Spiritual Acceptance versus Rational Materialism’ subscale (Bonferroni P = 0.036) in PLCE1 gene. Although genome-wide significance was not reached for ZKPQ scales, lowest P values pinpointed to genes, RXRG for Sensation Seeking, GRM7 and ITK for Neuroticism Anxiety, and SPTLC3 gene for Aggression Hostility. Conclusion After correction for the 25 subscales in TCI and four scales plus two subscales in ZKPQ, phenotype-wide significance was not reached. PMID:21368711
Amerio, A; Tonna, M; Odone, A; Stubbs, B; Ghaemi, S N
Psychiatric comorbidity is extremely common. One of the most common and difficult to manage comorbid conditions is the co-occurrence of bipolar disorder (BD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We updated our recent systematic review searching the electronic databases MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to investigate course of illness in BD-OCD patients. We identified a total of 13 relevant papers which found that the majority of comorbid OCD cases appeared to be related to mood episodes. OC symptoms in comorbid patients appeared more often during depressive episodes, and comorbid BD and OCD cycled together, with OC symptoms often remitting during manic/hypomanic episodes.
Xiao, Lin; Gao, Yulin; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Peiyun; Sun, Xiaojia; Tang, Siyuan
It is well known that the antipsychotic drugs impact the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the bipolar patients. The side effects had been assessed only from the doctors' perspective and neglected the patients' subjective feeling. The aim of the study is to validate the specific instrument "tolerability and quality of life" (TOOL) into Chinese to describe and grade the impact of antipsychotic drugs on HRQoL from patients' view. A psychometric study was conducted with euthymic bipolar disorder patients (N = 105) under antipsychotic treatment. The psychometric properties of the TOOL, including internal consistency, retest reliability, concurrent validity, content validity, discriminative validity, item analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and feasibility, were analyzed. The internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were adequate (Cronbach's alpha = 0.80 and ICC = 0.81). A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) validated the one-factor model. Significant Spearman's rank correlations between the TOOL and both Bref QoL.BD (Brief version of Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder) (r = -0.33, P < 0.01) and UKU (Udvalg for Kliniske Undersogelser side effects scale) (r = 0.13, P < 0.05) were found. Small sample size and no specific self-report instrument in Chinese to evaluate the criterion validity. TOOL appears to be a reliable and valid measure to assess the impact of adverse events of antipsychotic drugs on HRQoL from the patients' perspective.
The Relationship Between Educational Years and Phonemic Verbal Fluency (PVF) and Semantic Verbal Fluency (SVF) Tasks in Spanish Patients Diagnosed With Schizophrenia, Bipolar Disorder, and Psychotic Bipolar Disorder
García-Laredo, Eduardo; Maestú, Fernando; Castellanos, Miguel Ángel; Molina, Juan D.; Peréz-Moreno, Elisa
Abstract Semantic and verbal fluency tasks are widely used as a measure of frontal capacities. It has been well described in literature that patients affected by schizophrenic and bipolar disorders present a worse execution in these tasks. Some authors have also noted the importance of educational years. Our objective is to analyze whether the effect of cognitive malfunction caused by apathology is superior to the expected effect of years of education in phonemic verbal fluency (PVF) and semantic verbal fluency (SVF) task execution. A total of 62 individuals took part in this study, out of which 23 were patients with schizophrenic paranoid disorder, 11 suffered from bipolar disorder with psychotic symptomatology, 13 suffered from bipolar disorder without psychotic symptomatology, and 15 participants were nonpathological individuals. All participants were evaluated with the PVF and SVF tests (animals and tools). The performance/execution results were analyzed with a mixed-model ANCOVA, with educational years as a covariable. The effect of education seems to be more determined by PVF FAS tests than by SVF. With PVF FAS tasks, the expected effect of pathology disappears when the covariable EDUCATION is introduced. With SVF tasks, the effect continues to be significant, even though the EDUACTION covariable dims such effect. These results suggest that SVF tests (animals category) are better evaluation tools as they are less dependent on the patients’ education than PVF FAS tests. PMID:26426640
Achey, B; Miller, K L; Erdman, M; King, S
U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 8.39 provides for the release of patients treated with 131I provided that predetermined calculations indicate that no member of the public will receive a total dose equivalent in excess of 5 mSv (500 mrem). When this condition cannot be met or there are other reasons for keeping the patient hospitalized after treatment, control of contamination and exposure from the patient must be taken into consideration. If the patients are hospitalized following treatment, decontaminating the patient's room after discharge and controlling the exposure potential from the patient are considerations for the hospital radiation safety staff. This paper reviews the experiences from fifty patients treated as inpatients over the past two years.
Bumb, J M; Enning, F; Mueller, J K; van der List, Till; Rohleder, C; Findeisen, P; Noelte, I; Schwarz, E; Leweke, F M
Melatonin, which plays an important role for regulation of circadian rhythms and the sleep/wake cycle has been linked to the pathophysiology of major depressive and bipolar disorder. Here we investigated melatonin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of depression and bipolar patients to elucidate potential differences and commonalities in melatonin alterations across the two disorders. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, CSF and serum melatonin levels were measured in 108 subjects (27 healthy volunteers, 44 depressed and 37 bipolar patients). Covariate adjusted multiple regression analysis was used to investigate group differences in melatonin levels. In CSF, melatonin levels were significantly decreased in bipolar (P<0.001), but not major depressive disorder. In serum, we observed a significant melatonin decrease in major depressive (P=0.003), but not bipolar disorder. No associations were found between serum and CSF melatonin levels or between melatonin and measures of symptom severity or sleep disruptions in either condition. This study suggests the presence of differential, body fluid specific alterations of melatonin levels in bipolar and major depressive disorder. Further, longitudinal studies are required to explore the disease phase dependency of melatonin alterations and to mechanistically explore the causes and consequences of site-specific alterations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holder, Sarah D
Bipolar disorder is a severe chronic mental illness that affects a large number of individuals. This disorder is separated into two major types, bipolar I disorder, with mania and typically recurrent depression, and bipolar II disorder, with recurrent major depression and hypomania. Patients with bipolar disorder spend the majority of time experiencing depression, and this typically is the presenting symptom. Because outcomes are improved with earlier diagnosis and treatment, physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for bipolar disorder. The most effective long-term treatments are lithium and valproic acid, although other drugs also are used. In addition to referral to a mental health subspecialist for initiation and management of drug treatment, patients with bipolar disorder should be provided with resources for psychotherapy. Several comorbidities commonly associated with bipolar disorder include other mental disorders, substance use disorders, migraine headaches, chronic pain, stroke, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Family physicians who care for patients with bipolar disorder should focus their efforts on prevention and management of comorbidities. These patients should be assessed continually for risk of suicide because they are at high risk and their suicide attempts tend to be successful. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.
Clarkin, J F; Carpenter, D; Hull, J; Wilner, P; Glick, I
The relative benefit of adding a structured psychoeducational intervention to standard medication treatment for married patients with bipolar disorder and their spouses was assessed. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either medication management or medication management plus a marital intervention with their spouses for an 11-month period. Patients' symptoms, functioning, and adherence to their medication regimens were measured at study entry and at 11 months. Significant effects favoring the combined treatments were observed for overall patient functioning but not for symptom levels. The marital intervention was associated with improved medication adherence. Combined psychosocial and medication treatment does not affect patients' symptom levels beyond the effects of medication alone, but it does result in significant incremental gains in overall patient functioning.
Lois, Giannis; Gerchen, Martin F; Kirsch, Peter; Kanske, Philipp; Schönfelder, Sandra; Wessa, Michèle
The human brain is organized into large-scale networks that dynamically interact with each other. Extensive evidence has shown characteristic changes in certain large-scale networks during transitions from internally directed to externally directed attention. The aim of the present study was to compare these context-dependent network interactions during emotion regulation and to examine potential alterations in remitted unipolar and bipolar disorder patients. We employed a multi-region generalized psychophysiological interactions analysis to quantify connectivity changes during distraction vs reappraisal pair-wise across 90 regions placed throughout the four networks of interest (default-mode, frontoparietal, salience, and dorsal attention networks). Using network contingency analysis and permutation testing, we estimated the likelihood that the number of significant condition-dependent connectivity changes in every pair of networks exceeds the number expected by chance. We first examined the pattern of functional connectivity in 42 healthy subjects (sample I) and then compared these connectivity patterns across healthy individuals (n=23) and remitted bipolar (n=21) and unipolar disorder patients (n=21) in an independent sample II. In sample I, distraction compared to reappraisal was characterized by reduced connectivity within the default-mode network and between the default-mode and two cognitive control networks and increased connectivity among the cognitive control networks. In sample II, both patient groups exhibited abnormally increased default-mode intra- and inter-network connectivity during distraction compared to reappraisal. The present study highlights the role of large-scale network interactions in emotion regulation and provides preliminary evidence of default-mode inter- and intra-network connectivity impairments in remitted bipolar and unipolar patients during emotion regulation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McDonald, Leah J.; Griffin, Margaret L.; Kolodziej, Monika E.; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Weiss, Roger D.
In this exploratory analysis, we assessed the effect of drug use among social network members on recovery from drug dependence in patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder. Patients (n=57) enrolled in a group therapy study completed assessments over 15 months. Patients with 0–1 drug users in their social networks at intake had few days of drug use during treatment and follow-up, whereas those with ≥ 2 drug users had significantly more days of drug use. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who consistently named multiple drug users in their social networks had a marked increase in drug use over 15 months, while those who never or occasionally named multiple drug users had a small decline in drug use over time. Multiple drug users in social networks of treatment-seeking drug dependent patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder may indicate poor drug use outcomes; efforts to reduce the association with drug users may be useful. This clinical trial has been registered in a public trials registry at clinicaltrials.gov (identifier is NCT00227838). PMID:21314751
Zumárraga, Mercedes; Dávila, Ricardo; Basterreche, Nieves; Arrue, Aurora; Goienetxea, Biotza; González-Torres, Miguel Angel; Guimón, José
It has been suggested that the family history of psychotic disorders is useful in defining homogeneous groups of bipolar patients. The plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations have been related to the effect of antipsychotic treatment in psychotic patients. We have studied the influence of a positive family history of psychotic disorders both on the variation of pHVA levels and on the relation between pHVA concentrations and the clinical response to treatment. Clinical status and pHVA levels were assessed in 58 medication free patients before and after 4 weeks of treatment with olanzapine and lithium. Clinical improvement correlated positively with pHVA levels on the 28th day of treatment only in the patients having first degree relatives with psychotic disorders. The pHVA levels did not decrease after 28 days of treatment. Our results reinforce the idea that a positive family history of psychosis in psychotic bipolar disorders may constitute a good basis for sub-grouping these patients.
Piver, Andre; Yatham, Lakshmi N.; Lam, Raymond W.
OBJECTIVE: To review new perspectives on diagnosis, clinical features, epidemiology, and treatment of bipolar II and related disorders. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Articles were identified by searching MEDLINE and ClinPSYCH from January 1994 to August 2001 using the key words bipolar disorder, type II or 2; hypomania; spectrum; or variants. Reference lists from articles were reviewed. Overall, the quality of evidence was not high; we found no randomized controlled trials that specifically addressed bipolar II or bipolar spectrum disorders (BSDs). MAIN MESSAGE: Characterized by elevated mood cycling with depression, BSDs appear to be much more common than previously thought, affecting up to 30% of primary care patients presenting with anxiety or depressive symptoms. Hypomania, the defining feature of bipolar II disorder, is often not detected. Collateral information, semistructured interviews, and brief screening instruments could improve diagnosis. Antidepressants should be used with caution. The newer mood stabilizers or combinations of mood stabilizers might be the treatments of choice in the future. CONCLUSION: Family physicians, as primary providers of mental health care, should try to recognize and treat BSDs more frequently. These disorders are becoming increasingly common in primary care populations. PMID:12053634
Abbasi, Moslem; Sadeghi, Hasan; Pirani, Zabih; Vatandoust, Leyla
Nowadays, prevalence of addictive behaviors among bipolar patients is considered to be a serious health threat by the World Health Organization. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of behavioral activation and inhibition systems in predicting addictive behaviors of male patients with bipolar disorder at the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. The research method used in this study is correlation. The study population consisted of 80 male patients with bipolar disorder referring to the psychiatrics clinics of Tehran city in 2014 who were referred to the Roozbeh Psychiatric Hospital. To collect data, the international and comprehensive inventory diagnostic interview, behavioral activation and inhibition systems scale, and addictive behaviors scale were used. The results showed that there is a positive and significant relationship between behavioral activation systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, television addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction, etc.). In addition, correlation between behavioral inhibition systems and addictive behaviors (addictive eating, alcohol addiction, TV addiction, cigarette addiction, mobile addiction) is significantly negative. Finally, regression analysis showed that behavioral activation and inhibition systems could significantly predict 47% of addictive behaviors in patients with bipolar disorder. It can be said that the patients with bipolar disorder use substance and addictive behaviors for enjoyment and as pleasure stimulants; they also use substances to suppress unpleasant stimulants and negative emotions. These results indicate that behavioral activation and inhibition systems have an important role in the incidence and exacerbation of addictive behaviors. Therefore, preventive interventions in this direction seem to be necessary.
Janssen, Stein J; Teunis, Teun; Guitton, Thierry G; Ring, David
There is substantial unexplained geographical and surgeon-to-surgeon variation in rates of surgery. One would expect surgeons to treat patients and themselves similarly based on best evidence and accounting for patient preferences. (1) Are surgeons more likely to recommend surgery when choosing for a patient than for themselves? (2) Are surgeons less confident in deciding for patients than for themselves? Two hundred fifty-four (32%) of 790 Science of Variation Group (SOVG) members reviewed 21 fictional upper extremity cases (eg, distal radius fracture, De Quervain tendinopathy) for which surgery is optional answering two questions: (1) What treatment would you choose/recommend: operative or nonoperative? (2) On a scale from 0 to 10, how confident are you about this decision? Confidence is the degree that one believes that his or her decision is the right one (ie, most appropriate). Participants were orthopaedic, trauma, and plastic surgeons, all with an interest in treating upper extremity conditions. Half of the participants were randomized to choose for themselves if they had this injury or illness. The other half was randomized to make treatment recommendations for a patient of their age and gender. For the choice of operative or nonoperative, the overall recommendation for treatment was expressed as a surgery score per surgeon by dividing the number of cases they would operate on by the total number of cases (n = 21), where 100% is when every surgeon recommended surgery for every case. For confidence, we calculated the mean confidence for all 21 cases per surgeon; overall score ranges from 0 to 10 with a higher score indicating more confidence in the decision for treatment. Surgeons were more likely to recommend surgery for a patient (44.2% ± 14.0%) than they were to choose surgery for themselves (38.5% ± 15.4%) with a mean difference of 6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.1%-9.4%; p = 0.002). Surgeons were more confident in deciding for themselves than they
Yang, Er J.; Li, Hao; Sun, Xin B.; Huang, Li; Wang, Li; Gong, Xiao X.; Yang, Yong
Here, we compared the effects of bipolar and monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (B-TURP, M-TURP) for treating elderly patients (≥75 years) with benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH) who had internal comorbidities. Eligible BPH patients were aged ≥75 years and had at least one internal comorbidity. In this open-label, prospective trial, patients were assigned to B-TURP (n = 75) and M-TURP (n = 88) groups. Data on prostate volume (PV), urination, and time during perioperative period were compared; data associated with urination and complications at one year postoperatively were also compared. Finally, follow-up data were available for 68 and 81 patients in the B-TURP and M-TURP group, respectively. No deaths were recorded. Intraoperative bleeding was lower and irrigation time, indwelling catheter time, and hospital stay were shorter in the B-TURP group than in the M-TURP group (p < 0.001). No difference was observed with respect to operation time (p = 0.058). At one year after the operation, differences with respect to urination and complications were not significant. In conclusion, Short-term efficacy of B-TURP or M-TURP was satisfactory for elderly patients with BPH who had internal comorbidities. Besides, B-TURP is a more sensible choice because it has a lower prevalence of adverse effects. PMID:26892901
Ummar, Syed; Dorai, B. Lakshmi; Ramanathan, Shree Aarthi
Aim: To assess the incidence of cutaneous lesion in bipolar affective disorder (BPAD) patients on lithium therapy. To evaluate the relationship between duration of lithium therapy, dosage of lithium, serum lithium level, and cutaneous lesions. To assess whether reduction/stoppage of dose of lithium has any change in the course of cutaneous side effects. To look for a relationship between addition of isotretinoin and the course of mood disorder. Methodology: We retrospectively collected hospital case records of 125 consecutive BPAD patients initiated lithium therapy, assessed with inclusion and exclusion criteria. We follow up them for 2½ years for the assessment of above said aims. Results: The prevalence of skin reaction in BPAD patients with lithium therapy was 19.8%. Among patients on lithium therapy, cutaneous lesion emerged in initial 6 months and later after 1 year of treatment. Nearly 55% of patients on higher doses of lithium (1200 mg) had a cutaneous lesion. Patient on therapeutic serum level of lithium had a higher incidence of skin lesion. Out of six patients in whom dosage of lithium was reduced, three of them had reduced lesions (P = 0.6), in two patients, skin lesion increased, and one patient had no change. Among 11 patients treated with isotretinoin, only two patients had emergence of depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Lithium continues to increase the incidence of multiple cutaneous lesions among BPAD patients on lithium therapy. Incidence of cutaneous side effects directly correlates with the dose of lithium and therapeutic range of serum lithium level. Altering the dose of lithium does not statistically influence the cutaneous lesion. PMID:28196994
Song, Jie; Sjölander, Arvid; Joas, Erik; Bergen, Sarah E; Runeson, Bo; Larsson, Henrik; Landén, Mikael; Lichtenstein, Paul
Conclusions regarding lithium's antisuicidal effect for bipolar disorder have been limited due to nonrepresentative subjects and potential confounding factors, including varying severity of illness. Findings regarding the effect of valproate, the most common alternative to lithium, are inconsistent for suicidal behavior. This study investigated the associations of these two drugs with the risk of suicide-related events, and possible differences between drugs, by using within-individual designs in a register-based longitudinal cohort. Through linkage of multiple Swedish national registers, 51,535 individuals with bipolar disorder were followed from 2005 to 2013 for treatment with lithium and valproate. Stratified Cox regression was used to estimate the hazard ratios of suicide-related events during treated periods compared with untreated periods. For significant associations between medication and suicide-related events, the population attributable fraction was estimated to assess the public health impact for patients with bipolar disorder. During follow-up, 10,648 suicide-related events occurred. The incidence rate was significantly decreased by 14% during lithium treatment (hazard ratio 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78-0.95) but not during valproate treatment (hazard ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.89-1.15). The difference in hazard ratios of suicide-related events between lithium and valproate was statistically significant. Estimates of the population attributable fraction suggested that 12% (95% CI 4%-20%) of suicide-related events could have been avoided if patients had taken lithium during the entire follow-up. The results suggest that lithium should be considered for patients with bipolar disorder with suspected suicidal intentions, although risk for suicide is only one of the considerations when providing clinical care.
de Andrés, Rachel Denis; Aillon, Nancy; Bardiot, Marie-Claude; Bourgeois, Patrick; Mertel, Stefan; Nerfin, Frédéric; Romailler, Gladys; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Aubry, Jean-Michel
To evaluate the level of satisfaction of bipolar patients participating in the structured group Life Goals Program (LGP), as well as the impact of this psychoeducative program on mood stability, treatment compliance and relapse prevention. Forty-five patients (30 females and 15 males) with bipolar disorder were included. Their level of satisfaction was evaluated at the end of the 6-week phase 1 of LGP and after one-year participation in phase 2 (median duration 366 days, range 68-483). The impact of the LGP was also evaluated with respect to mood stability, compliance with pharmacological treatment and ability to prevent and cope with relapse. Participants' mood was rated at study entry, end of phase 1 and end of phase 2 with the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and Bech-Rafaelsen Mania Scale. Thirty-six participants (80.0%) completed phase 1 and 17 entered phase 2. A majority of participants (82.4%) were very satisfied with the information delivered during phase 1. After attending phase 2, participants reported a subjective improvement in mood stability, relapse prevention strategies as well as coping with relapse. MADRS score decreased significantly between the beginning of phase 1 and end of phase 2 (p=0.016). This is an open study and results need to be replicated in a randomized controlled trial. Results of this open study suggest that the life goals psychoeducative program is well perceived by bipolar patients and has a positive impact on mood stability, relapse prevention and ability to go beyond symptoms in order to reach specific goals.
Maji, K R; Sood, Mamta; Sagar, Rajesh; Khandelwal, Sudhir K
Research in the last two decades has documented a high level of burden in caregivers of bipolar disorder. The present study is aimed at studying family burden among relatives of patients with bipolar affective disorder. Thirty four consecutive hospitalized patients with bipolar affective disorder currently in mania and their relatives were assessed twice: at the time of admission and during follow-up four weeks after discharge. A semi-structured performa designed for the study was completed. Patients were assessed on Young's Mania Rating Scale and relatives were assessed on Family Burden Assessment Scale. More than 90% of family members reported severe subjective (rated by relative) and objective burden (rated by interviewer) at admission; none of them was free of burden. At the time of follow-up, about one quarter (23.5%) and two thirds (64.7%) of family members did not experience any objective and subjective burden respectively; subjective and objective family burden was moderate in about one third (35.3%) and a half (52.9%), respectively. None of the family members reported severe burden subjectively, while the objective burden was rated to be severe in a quarter (23.5%) of family members. The study was limited by the lack of a control group from an outpatient setting as hospitalization increases family burden. Also, the rater at the second assessment was not blind to ratings at the first assessment. Almost all the family members experienced severe burden initially. Even when symptoms subsided, family members continued to experience burden specifically related to finances. burden was significantly higher than subjective burden.
Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Cuénoud, Sandrine; Stauffer-Corminboeuf, Marie-Joëlle; Aillon, Nancy; Perroud, Nader; Aubry, Jean-Michel
Psychoeducation is a key element in the management of patients with bipolar disorders. The present study explored the perception of patients and family members with respect to group psychoeducation for relatives. Patients (n = 20) and relatives (n = 26) were assessed with questionnaires about perceived benefits and quality of life (median 4 years after participation). A large majority (>80%) of relatives acknowledged benefits with respect to easier detection of the early warning signs of relapse, improved quality of life, feeling more involved, and engaging in higher quality caregiving activities. Patients were less positive in general, but agreed that the program had helped them deal with crises, increased their feeling of being understood by relatives, and promoted positive changes in the family (>60%). Perceived positive changes in the family were associated with higher quality of life for relatives and patients. The present study highlights the importance of communication enhancement in group psychoeducation for relatives.
Santos, Josep Manel; Pousa, Esther; Soto, Estel; Comes, Anna; Roura, Pere; Arrufat, Francesc X; Obiols, Jordi E
The present study analyzed the capacity for mentalization of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and their first-degree relatives (FDR) and examined the implications of clinical variables and cognitive deficits. The study recruited 31 patients with type I BD, 18 FDR, and 31 paired healthy controls. Their capacity for mentalization was explored by means of first- and second-order false-belief tasks, the hinting task, and the Movie for the Assessment of Social Cognition (MASC). Patients and FDR were found to have a theory of mind (ToM) deficit when they were evaluated with the MASC, which was also related to a worse neurocognitive performance and to being a patient or FDR. The evidence of ToM deficits in FDRs supports the hypothesis that these deficits could be an independent trait marker for cognitive deficit. Further research is needed on FDR of patients with BD, using sensitive ToM assessment instruments such as the MASC.
Pawlak, Joanna; Dmitrzak-Węglarz, Monika; Skibińska, Maria; Szczepankiewicz, Aleksandra; Leszczyńska-Rodziewicz, Anna; Rajewska-Rager, Aleksandra; Maciukiewicz, Małgorzata; Czerski, Piotr; Hauser, Joanna
Suicide is an important clinical problem in psychiatric patients. The highest risk of suicide attempts is noted in affective disorders. The aim of the study was looking for suicide risk factors among personality dimensions and value system in patients with diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar affective disorder (n=189 patients, n=101 controls). To establish the diagnosis, we used SCID (Structured clinical interview for diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, fourth edition) questionnaire, TCI (Temperament and Character Inventory) questionnaire and Value Survey--to assess the personality. The main limitations of the study are number of participants, lack of data about stressful life events and treatment with lithium. Novelty seeking and harm avoidance dimensions constituted suicide attempt risk factors in the group of patients with affective disorders. Protective role of cooperativeness was discovered. Patients with and without suicide attempt in lifetime history varied in self-esteem position in Value Survey.
Mittal, Pankaj Kumar; Swami, Mukesh Kumar
Introduction. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar affective disorder (BAD) are among the leading causes of disability. These are often associated with widespread impairments in all domains of functioning including relational, occupational, and social. The main aim of the study was to examine and compare nature and extent of psychosocial impairment of patients with MDD and BAD during depressive phase. Methodology. 96 patients (48 in MDD group and 48 in BAD group) were included in the study. Patients were recruited in depressive phase (moderate to severe depression). Patients having age outside 18–45 years, psychotic symptoms, mental retardation, and current comorbid medical or axis-1 psychiatric disorder were excluded. Psychosocial functioning was assessed using Range of Impaired Functioning Tool (LIFE-RIFT). Results. Domains of work, interpersonal relationship, life satisfaction, and recreation were all affected in both groups, but the groups showed significant difference in global psychosocial functioning score only (P = 0.031) with BAD group showing more severe impairment. Conclusion. Bipolar depression causes higher global psychosocial impairment than unipolar depression. PMID:24744917
Huang, Ru-Yu; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Huang, Wan-Wen; Yang, Yi-Hsin
Lithium inhibits glycogen synthase kinase-3, which is an enzyme involved in the pathogenesis of cancer. To investigate the association between lithium and cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A retrospective cohort study was designed using the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) in Taiwan. Patients using lithium comprised the index drug group and patients using anticonvulsants only comprised the control group. Time-dependent Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratios (HRs) for risk of cancer. Compared with anticonvulsant-only exposure, lithium exposure was associated with significantly lower cancer risk (HR = 0.735, 95% CI 0.554-0.974). The hazard ratios for the first, second and third tertiles of the cumulative defined daily dose were 0.762 (95% CI 0.516-1.125), 0.919 (95% CI 0.640-1.318) and 0.552 (95% CI 0.367-0.831), respectively. Lithium is associated with reduced overall cancer risk in patients with bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship for cancer risk reduction was observed. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016.
Kim, Kyung Ran; Cho, Hyun-Sang; Kim, Se Joo; Seok, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Eun; Jon, Duk-In
Mixed manic/depressive episodes in patients with bipolar disorder are underdiagnosed because of restrictive diagnostic criteria. Using the broader definition of a mixed episode represented by the Cincinnati criteria, we reevaluated the medical records of patients with bipolar disorder hospitalized for a manic episode. We also examined the predictive power of previously unrecognized depressive symptoms. Of 520 inpatients with mania, we retrospectively diagnosed 59 (11.3%) as having a probable mixed episode. Compared with the patients with pure mania, the patients with mixed episodes were more likely to have a family history of psychiatric illness, comorbid personality disorder, and a history of suicide attempts. Binary logistic regression revealed that loss of interest, loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness, and feelings of helplessness had good positive predictive value (>0.7) for mixed episodes. Accurate diagnosis of mixed episodes may require a broadening of diagnostic criteria and emphasis on symptoms such as loss of interest, loss of energy, and feelings of worthlessness and helplessness.
Delle Chiaie, Roberto; Minichino, Amedeo; Salviati, Massimo; Fiorentini, Samantha; Tonini, Angelo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; De Michele, Francesco; Caredda, Maria; Biondi, Massimo
Nonmotor functions of the cerebellum are well known. Within this frame, the aim of this study was to compare psychiatric morbidity rates among patients affected by cerebellar diseases or Parkinson's disease (PD). Forty-seven patients (27 cerebellar and 20 PD) underwent a comprehensive psychiatric evaluation (psychopathological rating scales and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders). Psychiatric disorders were slightly more frequent among cerebellar than among PD patients (89% vs. 75%; p = 0.21). Mood disorders were more frequent in the cerebellar than in the PD group (90% vs. 55%; p < 0.01). Among those subjects with no psychiatric history prior to the onset of neurological disease, bipolar spectrum disorders were more frequent within the cerebellar group (p < 0.01). These results confirm high rates of psychiatric disorders among cerebellar patients. The higher frequency of bipolar spectrum presentations found in the cerebellar group may suggest a specific involvement of cortico-cerebellar circuits in the pathophysiology of mood dysregulation.
Rydén, E; Thase, M E; Stråht, D; Aberg-Wistedt, A; Bejerot, S; Landén, M
The occurrence of comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) might have an impact of the course of the bipolar disorder. Patients with bipolar disorder (n = 159) underwent a comprehensive evaluation with respect to affective symptoms. Independent psychiatrists assessed childhood and current ADHD, and an interview with a parent was undertaken. The prevalence of adult ADHD was 16%. An additional 12% met the criteria for childhood ADHD without meeting criteria for adult ADHD. Both these groups had significantly earlier onset of their first affective episode, more frequent affective episodes (except manic episodes), and more interpersonal violence than the bipolar patients without a history of ADHD. The fact that bipolar patients with a history of childhood ADHD have a different clinical outcome than the pure bipolar group, regardless of whether the ADHD symptoms remained in adulthood or not, suggests that it represent a distinct early-onset phenotype of bipolar disorder.
Although most psychiatric patients are not violent, serious mental illness is associated with increased risk of violent behavior. Most of the evidence available pertains to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. MEDLINE data base was searched for articles published between 1966 and November 2012 using the combination of key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' with 'aggression' or 'violence'. For the treatment searches, generic names were used in combination with key words 'schizophrenia' or 'bipolar disorder' and 'aggression' No language constraint was applied. Only articles dealing with adults were included. The lists of references were searched manually to find additional articles. There were statistically significant increases of risk of violence in schizophrenia and in bipolar disorder in comparison with general population. The evidence suggests that the risk of violence is greater in bipolar disorder than in schizophrenia. Most of the violence in bipolar disorder occurs during the manic phase. The risk of violence in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is increased by comorbid substance use disorder. Violence among adults with schizophrenia may follow at least two distinct pathways-one associated with antisocial conduct, and another associated with the acute psychopathology of schizophrenia. Clozapine is the most effective treatment of aggressive behavior in schizophrenia. Emerging evidence suggests that olanzapine may be the second line of treatment. Treatment adherence is of key importance. Non-pharmacological methods of treatment of aggression in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are increasingly important. Cognitive behavioral approaches appear to be effective in cases where pharmacotherapy alone does not suffice. Violent behavior of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is a public health problem. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches should be used to treat not only violent behavior, but also contributing comorbidities such
Amr, Mostafa; El-Wasify, Mahmoud; Elmaadawi, Ahmed Z; Roberts, R Jeannie; El-Mallakh, Rif S
The aim of this study was to determine if cranial electrotherapy stimulation (CES) is beneficial in chronically symptomatic bipolar (CSBP) subjects. A retrospective chart review of all consecutive CSBP subjects who were prescribed CES collected demographic and clinical information. The Clinical Global Impression improved significantly [mean (SD), 2.7 (0.6) at baseline vs 2.0 (0.0), t = 0, P < 0.001], but mood symptoms change minimally. There were very few adverse effects of CES. Patients with CSBP continue to experience symptoms with CES but also are modestly improved.
Li, Xian-Bin; Liu, Jin-Tong; Zhu, Xiong-Zhao; Zhang, Liang; Tang, Yi-Lang; Wang, Chuan-Yue
Childhood trauma is a major public health problem which has a long-term consequence, a few studies have examined the relationship between childhood trauma and clinical features of bipolar disorder, most in western culture, with no such studies done in Chinese culture. The CTQ-SF was administered to 132 Chinese patients with DSM-IV bipolar disorder. Participants also completed the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA.Q), the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). The CTQ-SF cut-off scores for exposure were used to calculate the prevalence of trauma. The relationship between childhood trauma and clinical features of bipolar disorder were examined. The internal consistency of CTQ-SF was good (Cronbach׳s α=0.826) and four week test-retest reliability was high (r=0.755). 61.4% of this sample reported physical neglect (PN) in childhood, followed by emotional neglect (EN, 49.6%), sexual abuse (SA, 40.5%), emotional abuse (EA, 26.0%) and physical abuse (PA,13.1%). Significant negative correlations existed between age of onset and EA and EN score (r=-0.178~-0.183, p<0.05). Significant positive correlations were observed between EA, CTQ-SF total score and intrusion and hyper-arousal scores of IES-R (r=0.223~0.309, p<0.05). Similarly, significant positive correlations were found between EN, PN, CTQ-SF total and STAI score (r=0.222~0.425, p<0.05). Data on childhood trauma were derived from a retrospective self-report questionnaire without independent corroboration. A number of potential patients (more severe or chronic patients) was excluded because they were either refused to participate or inappropriate to participate in research. Significant number of subjects in patients with BD reported experience of childhood abuse and neglect. Exposure to childhood trauma is associated with age of onset of illness, co morbid PTSD and anxiety symptoms. To study the pathogenesis of childhood trauma on bipolar disorder
Kupfer, David J.; Friedman, Edward S.; Reynolds, Charles F.; Axelson, David A.; Grochocinski, Victoria J.; Stofko, Mary G.; Birmaher, Boris; Houck, Patricia R.; Swartz, Holly A.; Brown, Charlotte; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Thase, Michael E.; Curet, David E.; Mulsant, Benoit H.; Turkin, Scott R.; Fagiolini, Andrea; Pollock, Bruce G.; Whyte, Ellen M.; Frank, Ellen
Objective Adolescents, elderly persons, African Americans, and rural residents with bipolar disorder are less likely than their middle-aged, white, urban counterparts to be diagnosed, receive adequate treatment, remain in treatment once identified, and have positive outcomes. The Bipolar Disorder Center for Pennsylvanians (BDCP) study was designed to address these disparities. This report highlights the methods used to recruit, screen, and enroll a cohort of difficult-to-recruit individuals with bipolar disorder. Methods Study sites included three specialty clinics for bipolar disorder in a university setting and a rural behavioral health clinic. Study operations were standardized, and all study personnel were trained in study procedures. Several strategies were used for recruitment. Results It was possible to introduce the identical assessment and screening protocol in settings regardless of whether they had a history of implementing research protocols. This protocol was also able to be used across the age spectrum, in urban and rural areas, and in a racially diverse cohort of participants. Across the four sites 515 individuals with bipolar disorder were enrolled as a result of these methods (69 African Americans and 446 non–African Americans). Although clinical characteristics at study entry did not differ appreciably between African Americans and non–African Americans, the pathways into treatment differed significantly. Conclusions Rigorous recruitment and assessment procedures can be successfully introduced in different settings and with different patient cohorts, thus facilitating access to high-quality treatment for individuals who frequently do not receive appropriate care for bipolar disorder. PMID:19564218
Caletti, Elisabetta; Paoli, Riccardo A.; Fiorentini, Alessio; Cigliobianco, Michela; Zugno, Elisa; Serati, Marta; Orsenigo, Giulia; Grillo, Paolo; Zago, Stefano; Caldiroli, Alice; Prunas, Cecilia; Giusti, Francesca; Consonni, Dario; Altamura, A. Carlo
This study aimed to determine the extent of impairment in social and non-social cognitive domains in an ecological context comparing bipolar (BD), schizophrenic (SKZ) patients and healthy controls (HC). The sample was enrolled at the Department of Psychiatry of Policlinico Hospital, University of Milan; it includes stabilized SKZ patients (n = 30), euthymic bipolar patients (n = 18) and HC (n = 18). Patients and controls completed psychiatric assessment rating scales, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and the Executive and Social Cognition Battery (ESCB) that contains both ecological tests of executive function and social cognition, in order to better detect cognitive deficits in patients with normal results in standard executive batteries. The three groups differed significantly for gender and substance abuse, however, the differences did not influence the results. BD patients showed less impairment on cognitive performance compared to SKZ patients, even in “ecological” tests that mimic real life scenarios. In particular, BD performed better than SKZ in verbal memory (p < 0.0038) and BACS symbol coding (p < 0.0043). Regarding the ESCB tests, in the Hotel task SKZ patients completed significantly less tasks (p < 0.001), showed a greater number of errors in Multiple Errands Test (MET-HV) (p < 0.0248) and a worse performance in Theory of Mind (ToM) tests (p < 0.001 for the Eyes test and Faux pas test). Both patients' groups performed significantly worse than HC. Finally, significant differences were found between the two groups in GAF scores, being greater among BD subjects (p < 0.001). GAF was correlated with BACS and ESCB scores showing the crucial role of cognitive and ecological performances in patients' global functioning. PMID:24146642
Nestsiarovich, Anastasiya; Hurwitz, Nathaniel G; Nelson, Stuart J; Crisanti, Annette S; Kerner, Berit; Kuntz, Matt J; Smith, Alicia N; Volesky, Emma; Schroeter, Quentin L; DeShaw, Jason L; Young, S Stanley; Obenchain, Robert L; Krall, Ronald L; Jordan, Kimmie; Fawcett, Jan; Tohen, Mauricio; Perkins, Douglas J; Lambert, Christophe G
As part of a series of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded large-scale retrospective observational studies on bipolar disorder (BD) treatments and outcomes, we sought the input of patients with BD and their family members to develop research questions. We aimed to identify systemic root causes of patient-reported challenges with BD management in order to guide subsequent studies and initiatives. Three focus groups were conducted where patients and their family members (total n = 34) formulated questions around the central theme, "What do you wish you had known in advance or over the course of treatment for BD?" In an affinity mapping exercise, participants clustered their questions and ranked the resulting categories by importance. The research team and members of our patient partner advisory council further rated the questions by expected impact on patients. Using a Theory of Constraints systems thinking approach, several causal models of BD management challenges and their potential solution were developed with patients using the focus group data. A total of 369 research questions were mapped to 33 categories revealing 10 broad themes. The top priorities for patient stakeholders involved pharmacotherapy and treatment alternatives. Analysis of causal relationships underlying 47 patient concerns revealed two core conflicts: for patients, whether or not to take pharmacotherapy, and for mental health services, the dilemma of care quality vs quantity. To alleviate the core conflicts identified, BD management requires a coordinated multidisciplinary approach including: improved access to mental health services, objective diagnostics, sufficient provider visit time, evidence-based individualized treatment, and psychosocial support. © 2017 The Authors. Bipolar Disorders Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lao, Kim S J; He, Ying; Wong, Ian C K; Besag, Frank M C; Chan, Esther W
Cariprazine is a novel antipsychotic agent recently approved for treating schizophrenia and bipolar mania in the USA. The sample sizes of published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of the drug are small; previous meta-analyses included few RCTs and did not specifically investigate the tolerability/safety profile of cariprazine. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of published RCTs to systematically review the tolerability and safety of cariprazine versus placebo. We searched the clinical trial registers (the metaRegister of controlled trials, ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform) and electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO and Cochrane library) up to June 2016 to identify phase II/III RCTs of cariprazine in patients with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate outcomes, including risks of discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs), extrapyramidal side effects (EPS) or related events, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular-related events. We included nine RCTs, with a total of 4324 subjects. The risk of discontinuation due to AEs for cariprazine was similar to that for placebo (risk ratio [RR] 1.13, 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.77-1.66). Cariprazine was associated with higher risks of EPS-related events than was placebo, including risk of akathisia (RR 3.92, 95 % CI 2.83-5.43), tremor (RR 2.41, 95 % CI 1.53-3.79) and restlessness (RR 2.17, 95 % CI 1.38-3.40). The cariprazine treatment group was more likely to have clinically significant weight gain (RR 1.68, 95 % CI 1.12-2.52). No statistically significant differences in results were found in other metabolic parameters or cardiovascular-related events. There was a statistically significant higher risk of EPS-related AEs and a slight increase in mean body weight with cariprazine. There were no statistically significant effects on prolactin level or cardiovascular
Squarcina, Letizia; De Luca, Alberto; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E; Bertoldo, Alessandra
Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders.
Squarcina, Letizia; De Luca, Alberto; Bellani, Marcella; Brambilla, Paolo; Turkheimer, Federico E.; Bertoldo, Alessandra
Fractal geometry can be used to analyze shape and patterns in brain images. With this study we use fractals to analyze T1 data of patients affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder, with the aim of distinguishing between healthy and pathological brains using the complexity of brain structure, in particular of grey matter, as a marker of disease. 39 healthy volunteers, 25 subjects affected by schizophrenia and 11 patients affected by bipolar disorder underwent an MRI session. We evaluated fractal dimension of the brain cortex and its substructures, calculated with an algorithm based on the box-count algorithm. We modified this algorithm, with the aim of avoiding the segmentation processing step and using all the information stored in the image grey levels. Moreover, to increase sensitivity to local structural changes, we computed a value of fractal dimension for each slice of the brain or of the particular structure. To have reference values in comparing healthy subjects with patients, we built a template by averaging fractal dimension values of the healthy volunteers data. Standard deviation was evaluated and used to create a confidence interval. We also performed a slice by slice t-test to assess the difference at slice level between the three groups. Consistent average fractal dimension values were found across all the structures in healthy controls, while in the pathological groups we found consistent differences, indicating a change in brain and structures complexity induced by these disorders.
Lo Vasco, Vincenza Rita; Longo, Lucia; Polonia, Patrizia
The involvement of phosphoinositides (PI) signal transduction pathway and related molecules, such as the Phosphoinositide-specific Phospholipase C (PI-PLC) enzymes, in the pathophysiology of mood disorders is corroborated by a number of recent evidences. Our previous works identified the deletion of PLCB1 gene, which codifies for the PI-PLC β1 enzyme, in 4 out 15 patients affected with schizophrenia, and no deletion both in major depression affected patients and in normal controls. By using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization methodology, we analyzed PLCB1 in paraffin embedded samples of orbito-frontal cortex of 15 patients affected with bipolar disorder. Deletion of PLCB1 was identified in one female patient.
Demirel, Husrev; Yesilbas, Dilek; Ozver, Ismail; Yuksek, Erhan; Sahin, Feyzi; Aliustaoglu, Suheyla; Emul, Murat
It is well known that patients with bipolar disorder are more prone to violence and have more criminal behaviors than general population. A strong relationship between criminal behavior and inability to empathize and imperceptions to other person's feelings and facial expressions increases the risk of delinquent behaviors. In this study, we aimed to investigate the deficits of facial emotion recognition ability in euthymic bipolar patients who committed an offense and compare with non-delinquent euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Fifty-five euthymic patients with delinquent behaviors and 54 non-delinquent euthymic bipolar patients as a control group were included in the study. Ekman's Facial Emotion Recognition Test, sociodemographic data, Hare Psychopathy Checklist, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale and Young Mania Rating Scale were applied to both groups. There were no significant differences between case and control groups in the meaning of average age, gender, level of education, mean age onset of disease and suicide attempt (p>0.05). The three types of most committed delinquent behaviors in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder were as follows: injury (30.8%), threat or insult (20%) and homicide (12.7%). The best accurate percentage of identified facial emotion was "happy" (>99%, for both) while the worst misidentified facial emotion was "fear" in both groups (<50%, for both). The total accuracy rate of recognition toward facial emotions was significantly impaired in patients with delinquent behaviors than non-delinquent ones (p<0.05). The accuracy rate of recognizing the fear expressions was significantly worse in the case group than in the control group (p<0.05). In addition, it tended to be worse toward angry facial expressions in criminal euthymic bipolar patients. The response times toward happy, fear, disgusted and angry expressions had been significantly longer in the case group than in the control group (p<0.05). This study is the first
Vreeker, A; Boks, M P M; Abramovic, L; Verkooijen, S; van Bergen, A H; Hillegers, M H J; Spijker, A T; Hoencamp, E; Regeer, E J; Riemersma-Van der Lek, R F; Stevens, A W M M; Schulte, P F J; Vonk, R; Hoekstra, R; van Beveren, N J M; Kupka, R W; Brouwer, R M; Bearden, C E; MacCabe, J H; Ophoff, R A
Schizophrenia is associated with lower intelligence and poor educational performance relative to the general population. This is, to a lesser degree, also found in first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients. It is unclear whether bipolar disorder I (BD-I) patients and their relatives have similar lower intellectual and educational performance as that observed in schizophrenia. This cross-sectional study investigated intelligence and educational performance in two outpatient samples [494 BD-I patients, 952 schizophrenia spectrum (SCZ) patients], 2231 relatives of BD-I and SCZ patients, 1104 healthy controls and 100 control siblings. Mixed-effects and regression models were used to compare groups on intelligence and educational performance. BD-I patients were more likely to have completed the highest level of education (odds ratio 1.88, 95% confidence interval 1.66-2.70) despite having a lower IQ compared to controls (β = -9.09, S.E. = 1.27, p < 0.001). In contrast, SCZ patients showed both a lower IQ (β = -15.31, S.E. = 0.86, p < 0.001) and lower educational levels compared to controls. Siblings of both patient groups had significantly lower IQ than control siblings, but did not differ on educational performance. IQ scores did not differ between BD-I parents and SCZ parents, but BD-I parents had completed higher educational levels. Although BD-I patients had a lower IQ than controls, they were more likely to have completed the highest level of education. This contrasts with SCZ patients, who showed both intellectual and educational deficits compared to healthy controls. Since relatives of BD-I patients did not demonstrate superior educational performance, our data suggest that high educational performance may be a distinctive feature of bipolar disorder patients.
Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos
Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%–5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets. PMID:23554570
Delavenne, H; Khoury, J M; Thibaut, F; Garcia, F D
Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is the most common sex chromosomal disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 500-1000. Increased incidences of anxiety, depression, substance abuse, psychotic and behavioral disorders, and sexual disorders have been reported in patients with KS. The aim of this case study was to report a case of a man with untreated KS who was also diagnosed with type II bipolar disorder. This case report raises awareness regarding psychiatric diagnoses that may be associated with such a highly prevalent condition. A 46-year-old man who had previously been diagnosed with an untreated KS was examined in our Psychiatric Department with an acute hypomanic episode. Clinical improvement was observed within 4 days and psychiatric symptoms were resolved in 7 days without use of medication. A psychiatric history of a depressive episode and at least two hypomanic episodes, as well as a family history of two relatives diagnosed with bipolar disorder, strongly suggest that our patient has type II bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder may be a comorbid disorder in patients with KS. Routine screening for mood disorders and appropriate referral and evaluation should be performed. Future genetic research is warranted to explore why some chromosomal abnormalities (e.g., duplications), especially those located on the X chromosome, such as Klinefelter syndrome, may be associated with a bipolar or psychotic disorder in some individuals but not in others.
Besnier, Nathalie; Richard, Floriane; Zendjidjian, Xavier; Kaladjian, Arthur; Mazzola-Pomietto, Pascale; Adida, Marc; Azorin, Jean-Michel
Reduced inhibition has been demonstrated in both schizophrenic and bipolar patients through the findings of increased interference on the Stroop Colour-Word Task (SCWT) and increased emotional interference on specific versions of the Emotional Stroop Task (EST). Despite previous findings of enhanced interference in unaffected relatives of schizophrenic and bipolar patients, it remains unclear whether interference might be a candidate endophenotype to both disorders. Moreover, data regarding emotional interference in unaffected relatives are critically lacking. In the present study, we aimed to compare unaffected relatives of patients with schizophrenia (SZ-rel, N = 30) and bipolar disorder (BD-rel, N= 30) with normal controls (N = 60) when performing the SCWT and an EST designed with neutral, depressive, paranoid and manic words. SZ-rel exhibited greater interference effect on both the SCWT and the EST as compared to either BD-rel or normal controls. BD-rel, and by contrast to SZ-rel and controls, showed increased emotional interference effect on the EST that was specifically associated to the disease-related words. The findings support the hypothesis of different markers of vulnerability to schizophrenic and bipolar disorders; impairment in cognitive inhibition could characterize high-risk individuals for schizophrenia whereas an emotional bias towards mood-related information could be a trait marker of bipolar disease.
Logotheti, Marianthi; Papadodima, Olga; Venizelos, Nikolaos; Chatziioannou, Aristotelis; Kolisis, Fragiskos
Schizophrenia affecting almost 1% and bipolar disorder affecting almost 3%-5% of the global population constitute two severe mental disorders. The catecholaminergic and the serotonergic pathways have been proved to play an important role in the development of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and other related psychiatric disorders. The aim of the study was to perform and interpret the results of a comparative genomic profiling study in schizophrenic patients as well as in healthy controls and in patients with bipolar disorder and try to relate and integrate our results with an aberrant amino acid transport through cell membranes. In particular we have focused on genes and mechanisms involved in amino acid transport through cell membranes from whole genome expression profiling data. We performed bioinformatic analysis on raw data derived from four different published studies. In two studies postmortem samples from prefrontal cortices, derived from patients with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and control subjects, have been used. In another study we used samples from postmortem orbitofrontal cortex of bipolar subjects while the final study was performed based on raw data from a gene expression profiling dataset in the postmortem superior temporal cortex of schizophrenics. The data were downloaded from NCBI's GEO datasets.
Gjertsen, J-E; Vinje, T; Engesaeter, L B; Lie, S A; Havelin, L I; Furnes, O; Fevang, J M
Internal fixation and arthroplasty are the two main options for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. The optimal treatment remains controversial. Using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we compared the results of hemiarthroplasty and internal screw fixation in displaced femoral neck fractures. Data from 4335 patients over seventy years of age who had internal fixation (1823 patients) or hemiarthroplasty (2512 patients) to treat a displaced femoral neck fracture were compared at a minimum follow-up interval of twelve months. One-year mortality, the number of reoperations, and patient self-assessment of pain, satisfaction, and quality of life at four and twelve months were analyzed. Subanalyses of patients with cognitive impairment and reduced walking ability were done. In the arthroplasty group, only contemporary bipolar prostheses were used and uncemented prostheses with modern stems and hydroxyapatite coating accounted for 20.8% (522) of the implants. There were no differences in one-year mortality (27% in the osteosynthesis group and 25% in the arthroplasty group; p = 0.76). There were 412 reoperations (22.6%) performed in the osteosynthesis group and seventy-two (2.9%) in the hemiarthroplasty group during the follow-up period. After twelve months, the osteosynthesis group reported more pain (mean score, 29.9 compared with 19.2), higher dissatisfaction with the operation result (mean score, 38.9 compared with 25.7), and a lower quality of life (mean score, 0.51 compared with 0.60) than the arthroplasty group. All differences were significant (p < 0.001). For patients with cognitive impairment, hemiarthroplasty provided a better functional outcome (less pain, higher satisfaction with the result of the operation, and higher quality of life as measured on the EuroQol visual analog scale) at twelve months (p < 0.05). Displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly should be treated with hemiarthroplasty.
Ramírez, Alexandra; Palacio, Juan David; Vargas, Cristian; Díaz-Zuluaga, Ana María; Duica, Kelly; Agudelo Berruecos, Yuli; Ospina, Sigifredo; López-Jaramillo, Carlos
Bipolar disorder and schizophrenia are causes of major suffering in patients. Nevertheless, they also affect family and caregiver functioning. This is important because the participation and involvement of families and caregivers is essential to achieve an optimal treatment. To describe the level of expressed emotions, burden, and family functioning of bipolar and schizophrenic patients and, to evaluate the efficacy of the multimodal intervention (MI) versus traditional intervention (TI) in family functioning and its perception by patients and caregivers. A prospective, longitudinal, therapeutic-comparative study was conducted with 302 patients (104 schizophrenic and 198 bipolar patients) who were randomly assigned to a MI or TI groups of a multimodal intervention program PRISMA. MI group received care from psychiatry, general medicine, neuropsychology, family therapy, and occupational therapy. TI group received care from psychiatry and general medicine. Hamilton, Young and SANS, SAPS scales were applied to bipolar and schizophrenic patients, respectively. The EEAG, FEICS, FACES III and ECF were also applied at the initial and final time. There were statistically significant differences in socio- demographic and clinical variables in schizophrenia vs bipolar group: 83% vs 32.2% were male, 37 vs 43 mean age, 96% vs 59% were single, 50% vs 20% unemployed, and 20% vs 40% had college studies. In addition, 2 vs 2.5 numbers of hospitalisations, 18 vs 16 mean age of substance abuse onset and, 55 vs 80 points in EEAG. There were no statistically significant differences in family scales after conducting a multivariate analysis on thr initial and final time in both groups. This study did not show changes in variables of burden and family functioning between bipolar and schizophrenic groups that were under TI vs MI. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Milienne-Petiot, Morgane; Geyer, Mark A.; Young, Jared W.
Rationale Bipolar disorder (BD) is a disabling and life-threatening disease characterized by states of depression and mania. New and efficacious treatments have not been forthcoming partly due to a lack of well-validated models representing both facets of BD. Objectives We hypothesized that cholinergic- and dopaminergic-pharmacological manipulations would model depression and mania respectively, each attenuated by lithium treatment. Methods C57BL/6J mice received the acetylcholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine or saline before testing for ‘behavioral despair’ (immobility) in the tail-suspension test (TST) and forced-swim test (FST). Physostigmine effects on exploration and sensorimotor gating were assessed using the cross-species behavioral pattern monitor (BPM) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigms. Other C57BL/6J mice received chronic lithium drinking water (300, 600, or 1200 mg/l) before assessing their effects alone in the BPM or with physostigmine on FST performance. Another group was tested with acute GBR12909 (dopamine transporter inhibitor) and chronic lithium (1000 mg/l) in the BPM. Results Physostigmine (0.03 mg/kg) increased immobility in the TST and FST without affecting activity, exploration, or PPI. Lithium (600 mg/l) resulted in low therapeutic serum concentrations and normalized the physostigmine-increased immobility in the FST. GBR12909 induced mania-like behavior in the BPM of which hyper-exploration was attenuated, though not reversed, after chronic lithium (1000 mg/ml). Conclusions Increased cholinergic levels induced depression-like behavior and hyperdopaminergia induced mania-like behavior in mice, while chronic lithium treated some, but not all, facets of these effects. These data support a cholinergic-monoaminergic mechanism for modeling BD aspects and provide a way to assess novel therapeutics. PMID:26141192
De Luca, Vincenzo; Strauss, John; Kennedy, James L
Suicidality is a major health concern worldwide particularly in affective disorder patients. Attempted suicide is familial. There is strong neurobiological evidence showing that serotonergic and noradrenergic dysfunction is implicated in suicidal behaviours. We will apply now a new family based association strategy aimed to explain the genetic influence in suicidal behaviour by power based association test statistics (PBAT) in 336 bipolar patients assessed for suicidality within nuclear families. By use of conditional power calculations, the approach screens all possible null hypotheses without biasing the nominal significance level, and it identifies the subset of phenotypes that has optimal power when tested for association by either univariate or multivariate family based association test (FBAT). Using this statistical approach (PBAT) we investigated polymorphisms in serotonergic and noradrenergic genes, considering suicidal behaviour severity instead of the dichotomous phenotype (presence of suicide attempt). COMT Val/Met polymorphism was not associated with suicide with high confidence (power=91%). On the other hand, the analysis of the other 12 markers in the adrenergic and serotonergic genes revealed that the TH allele tended towards association with higher severity of suicidal behaviour (p=0.060) but the power obtained was very low. The marginal finding of association between TH and severe suicidal behaviour are convergent with previous reports. On the other hand, our sample has enough power to exclude the other polymorphisms investigated as major candidate for suicidality in bipolar disorder.
Soeiro-de-Souza, Márcio Gerhardt; Post, Robert M; de Sousa, Mario Lucio; Missio, Giovani; do Prado, Carolina Martins; Gattaz, Wagner F; Moreno, Ricardo A; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo
Creativity is a complex human ability influenced by affective and cognitive components but little is known about its underlying neurobiology. Bipolar Disorder (BD) is highly prevalent among creative individuals. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the most widely distributed neurotrophic factor, and has been implicated in the pathophysiology of BD. In contrast to the better functioning of the BDNF polymorphism (Val(66)Met) Val allele, the Met allele decreases BDNF transport and has been associated with worsened performance on several cognitive domains in euthymic BD subjects and controls. We hypothesized that the Val allele is associated with increased creativity in bipolar disorder. Sixty-six subjects with BD (41 in manic and 25 in depressive episodes) and 78 healthy volunteers were genotyped for BDNF Val(66)Met and tested for creativity using the Barrow Welsh Art Scale (BWAS) and neuropsychological tests. Manic patients with the Val allele (Met-) had higher BWAS scores than Met+ carriers. This relationship was not observed among patients in depressive episodes or among control subjects. BDNF Met allele status showed no association with cognitive function in any of the groups. As postulated, these findings suggest that the better functioning allele of BDNF may selectively facilitate creative thinking in subjects with manic episodes, but not in controls or depressives. Further studies exploring the role of BDNF in the neurobiology of creativity in BD and in euthymic phases are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Iakimova, Galina; Moriano, Christian; Farruggio, Lisa; Jover, Frédéric
Bipolar patients show social cognitive disorders. The objective of this study is to review facial expression recognition (FER) disorders in bipolar patients (BP) and explore clinical heterogeneity factors that could affect them in the euthymic phase: socio-demographic level, clinical and changing characteristics of the disorder, history of suicide attempt, and abuse. Thirty-four euthymic bipolar patients and 29 control subjects completed a computer task of explicit facial expression recognition and were clinically evaluated. Compared with control subjects, BP patients show: a decrease in fear, anger, and disgust recognition; an extended reaction time for disgust, surprise and neutrality recognition; confusion between fear and surprise, anger and disgust, disgust and sadness, sadness and neutrality. In BP patients, age negatively affects anger and neutrality recognition, as opposed to education level which positively affects recognizing these emotions. The history of patient abuse negatively affects surprise and disgust recognition, and the number of suicide attempts negatively affects disgust and anger recognition. Cognitive heterogeneity in euthymic phase BP patients is affected by several factors inherent to bipolar disorder complexity that should be considered in social cognition study. © The Author(s) 2016.
Nenadic, Igor; Langbein, Kerstin; Dietzek, Maren; Forberg, Anne; Smesny, Stefan; Sauer, Heinrich
Patients with bipolar disorder show cognitive deficits including executive function, which appear to be related to social functioning and outcome. However, subgroups within the spectrum as well as psychopathological features, current mood state/euthymia and disease stage might be confounding factors. We analysed data tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WIE), verbal fluency (COWA) and trail making tests (TMT-A and TMT-B) obtained in a selected subgroup of currently bipolar I disorder patients, who were currently euthymic and had a history of psychotic symptoms, and compared them to patients with schizophrenia (in remission) and healthy controls, all matched for age, gender, and handedness. Schizophrenia patients showed more severe cognitive impairment, including digit symbol and arithmetic tests, as well as TMT-B (compared to healthy controls), but bipolar patients had stronger impairment on the letter number sequencing test, an indicator of working memory and processing speed. There were no group effects on most verbal fluency tasks (except impairment of schizophrenia patients on one subscale of category fluency). Within the limitations of the study design, our results suggest that even in subgroups of presumably more severely impaired bipolar patients, some cognitive dimensions might achieve remission, possibly related to considerable state effects at testing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moriano, Christian; Farruggio, Lisa; Jover, Frédéric
Objective: Bipolar patients show social cognitive disorders. The objective of this study is to review facial expression recognition (FER) disorders in bipolar patients (BP) and explore clinical heterogeneity factors that could affect them in the euthymic phase: socio-demographic level, clinical and changing characteristics of the disorder, history of suicide attempt, and abuse. Method: Thirty-four euthymic bipolar patients and 29 control subjects completed a computer task of explicit facial expression recognition and were clinically evaluated. Results: Compared with control subjects, BP patients show: a decrease in fear, anger, and disgust recognition; an extended reaction time for disgust, surprise and neutrality recognition; confusion between fear and surprise, anger and disgust, disgust and sadness, sadness and neutrality. In BP patients, age negatively affects anger and neutrality recognition, as opposed to education level which positively affects recognizing these emotions. The history of patient abuse negatively affects surprise and disgust recognition, and the number of suicide attempts negatively affects disgust and anger recognition. Conclusions: Cognitive heterogeneity in euthymic phase BP patients is affected by several factors inherent to bipolar disorder complexity that should be considered in social cognition study. PMID:27310226
Kumar, Vijaya; Varambally, Shivarama
Comorbidity of bipolar disorder (BD) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequent. The management of comorbid ADHD and BD is complicated by the risk of induction of (hypo) mania by the medications used for ADHD treatment. Earlier reports in children and adolescents with ADHD-BD suggest that the possibility of (hypo) mania induction is low when atomoxetine is used along mood stabilizers or antipsychotics. Here, we report induction of hypomania by atomoxetine when used for the treatment of comorbid ADHD in a BD patient while on prophylactic treatment with mood stabilizers. This report indicates that atomoxetine carries the risk of induction of (hypo) mania even in stabilized BD patients. Clinicians should closely monitor such patients for (hypo) mania symptoms. PMID:28250566
Salvini, Rogerio; da Silva Dias, Rodrigo; Lafer, Beny; Dutra, Inês
Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a chronic and disabling disease that usually appears around 20 to 30 years old. Patients who suffer with BD may struggle for years to achieve a correct diagnosis, and only 50% of them generally receive adequate treatment. In this work we apply a machine learning technique called Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) in order to model relapse and no-relapse patients in a first attempt in this area to improve diagnosis and optimize psychiatrists' time spent with patients. We use ILP because it is well suited for our multi-relational dataset and because a human can easily interpret the logical rules produced. Our classifiers can predict relapse cases with 92% Recall and no-relapse cases with 73% Recall. The rules and variable theories generated by ILP reproduce some findings from the scientific literature. The generated multi-relational models can be directly interpreted by clinicians and researchers, and also open space to research biological mechanisms and interventions.
Bilderbeck, Amy C; Atkinson, Lauren Z; McMahon, Hannah C; Voysey, Merryn; Simon, Judit; Price, Jonathan; Rendell, Jennifer; Hinds, Chris; Geddes, John R; Holmes, Emily; Miklowitz, David J; Goodwin, Guy M
Psychoeducation is an effective adjunct to medications in bipolar disorder (BD). Brief psychoeducational approaches have been shown to improve early identification of relapse. However, the optimal method of delivery of psychoeducation remains uncertain. Here, our objective was to compare a short therapist-facilitated vs. self-directed psychoeducational intervention for BD. BD outpatients who were receiving medication-based treatment were randomly assigned to 5 psychoeducation sessions administered by a therapist (Facilitated Integrated Mood Management; FIMM; n=60), or self-administered psychoeducation (Manualized Integrated Mood Management; MIMM; n=61). Follow-up was based on patients' weekly responses to an electronic mood monitoring programme over 12 months. Over follow-up, there were no group differences in weekly self-rated depression symptoms or relapse/readmission rates. However, knowledge of BD (assessed with the Oxford Bipolar Knowledge questionnaire (OBQ)) was greater in the FIMM than the MIMM group at 3 months. Greater illness knowledge at 3 months was related to a higher proportion of weeks well over 12 months. Features of the trial may have reduced the sensitivity to our psychoeducation approach, including that BD participants had been previously engaged in self-monitoring. Improved OBQ score, while accelerated by a short course of therapist-administered psychoeducation (FIMM), was seen after both treatments. It was associated with better outcome assessed as weeks well. When developing and testing a new psychosocial intervention, studies should consider proximal outcomes (e.g., acquired knowledge) and their short-term impact on illness course in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Delgado, V.B.; Kapczinski, F.; Chaves, M.L.F.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate memory performance in tasks with and without affective content (to confirm the mood congruency phenomenon) in acutely admitted patients with bipolar I disorder (BD) and major depression disorder (MDD) and in healthy participants. Seventy-eight participants (24 BD, 29 MDD, and 25 healthy controls) were evaluated. Three word lists were used as the memory task with affective content (positive, negative and indifferent). Psychiatric symptoms were also evaluated with rating scales (Young Mania Rating Scale for mania and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale for depression). Patients were selected during the first week of hospitalization. BD patients showed higher scores in the word span with positive tone than MDD patients and healthy controls (P = 0.002). No other difference was observed for tests with affective tone. MDD patients presented significantly lower scores in the Mini-Mental State Exam, logical memory test, visual recognition span, and digit span, while BD patients presented lower scores in the visual recognition test and digit span. Mood congruency effect was found for word span with positive tone among BD patients but no similar effect was observed among MDD patients for negative items. MDD patients presented more memory impairment than BD patients, but BD patients also showed memory impairment. PMID:22714812
Siwek, Marcin; Styczeń, Krzysztof; Sowa-Kućma, Magdalena; Dudek, Dominika; Reczyński, Witold; Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Misztak, Paulina; Opoka, Włodzimierz; Topór-Mądry, Roman; Nowak, Gabriel
Few scientific reports indicate changes in the concentration of magnesium in the blood of patients with bipolar disorder (BD). So far very little studies concerning these issues have been conducted. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the serum magnesium level in patients with bipolar disorder (in different phases of the disease) in comparison to healthy volunteers. The study included 129 patients (58 subjects in depressive episode, 23 in manic episode and 48 patients in remission) with the diagnosis of bipolar disorder type I or II. The control group consisted of 50 healthy people. Magnesium concentration was measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). Patients with a current depressive or manic/hypomanic episode had statistically significantly elevated serum magnesium levels compared to healthy volunteers. Moreover, a positive correlation between the duration of the manic/hypomanic episode and the relapse frequency in the last year was observed. The concentration of magnesium in patients in remission was unchanged in relation to the control group. Presented findings suggest a role of serum magnesium level as a potential state marker, reflecting the pathophysiological changes associated with acute episodes of bipolar disorder.
Ostacher, Michael J; Tandon, Rajiv; Suppes, Trisha
This report describes the 2014 update of the Florida Best Practice Psychotherapeutic Medication Guidelines for Adults With Bipolar Disorder, intended to provide frontline clinicians with a simple, evidence-based approach to treatments for 3 phases of bipolar disorder: acute depression, acute mania, and maintenance. The consensus meeting included representatives from the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration, pharmacists, health care policy experts, mental health clinicians, and experts in bipolar disorder. The effort was funded by the Florida Agency for Health Care Administration. The available published and nonpublished data from trials in the treatment of bipolar I disorder were reviewed. Evidence for efficacy and harm from replicated randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and meta-analyses, or non-replicated randomized clinical trials was included. No recommendations were made with evidence from other sources. Decisions regarding the structure of the guidelines were made during a stakeholder meeting in Tampa, Florida, on September 20 and 21, 2013. Better proven and safer/more efficacious treatments were to be utilized before using those with less evidence and/or greater risk. Safety and risk of harm were balanced against potential benefit. Lower-quality evidence was recommended only if higher-level treatments were found to be ineffective or not tolerated, because of patient preference, or because of past treatment success. While respecting patient and clinician choice, the guidelines are structured to encourage evidence-based, safe prescribing first. This iteration of the Florida guidelines for the treatment of bipolar disorder is a practical, simple, patient-focused guide to treatment for acute mania and acute bipolar depression and maintenance treatment that considers safety and harm in the hierarchy of treatment choices. While using strict evidence-based criteria for inclusion in recommendations, it eliminates expert opinion as a level of
Nallet, A; Weber, B; Favre, S; Gex-Fabry, M; Voide, R; Ferrero, F; Zullino, D; Khazaal, Y; Aubry, J M
Comorbidity of bipolar disorder and alcohol or substance abuse/dependence is frequent and has marked negative consequences on the course of the illness and treatment compliance. The objective of this study was to compare the validity of two short instruments aimed at screening bipolar disorders among patients treated for substance use disorders. The Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32) were tested with reference to the mood section of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders (SCID) in 152 patients, recruited in two outpatient clinics providing specialized treatment for alcohol and opiate dependence. According to the SCID, 33 patients (21.7%) had a diagnosis within the bipolar spectrum (two bipolar I, 21 bipolar II and 10 bipolar not otherwise specified). The HCL-32 was more sensitive (90.9% vs. 66.7%) and the MDQ more specific (38.7% vs. 77.3%) for the whole sample. The MDQ displayed higher sensitivity and specificity in patients treated for alcohol than for opiate dependence, whereas the HCL-32 was highly sensitive but poorly specific in both samples. Both instruments had a positive predictive value under 50%. Caution is needed when using the MDQ and HCL-32 in patients treated for substance use disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Suazo, Vanessa; Lubeiro, Alba; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Moreno-Ortega, Marta; Dompablo, Mónica; Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Rodriguez-Jimenez, Roberto; Palomo, Tomas; Molina, Vicente
Gamma oscillations are key in coordinating brain activity and seem to be altered in schizophrenia. In previous work, we studied the spatial distribution of a noise power measure (scalp-recorded electroencephalographic activity unlocked to stimuli) and found higher magnitudes in the gamma band related to symptoms and cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we sought to replicate those findings and to study its specificity for schizophrenia in a completely independent sample. A principal component analysis (PCA) was used to determine the factorial structure of gamma noise power acquired with an electroencephalographic recording during an odd-ball P300 paradigm in the 250- to 550-ms window in 70 patients with schizophrenia (16 patients with first episode), 45 bipolar patients and 65 healthy controls. Clinical and cognitive correlates of the resulting factors were also assessed. Three factors arose from the PCA. The first displayed a midline-parietal distribution (roughly corresponding to the default mode network), the second was centro-temporal and the third anterior-frontal. Schizophrenia but not bipolar patients showed higher gamma noise power loadings in the first factor in comparison with controls. Scores for this factor were significantly and directly associated with positive and total symptoms in patients and inversely associated with global cognition in all participants. The results of this study replicate those of our previous publication and suggest an elevated midline-parietal gamma noise power specific to schizophrenia. The gamma noise power measure seems to be a useful tool for studying background oscillatory activity during performance of cognitive tasks.
Sandyk, R; Pardeshi, R
It has been suggested recently that the therapeutic effects of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) may be mediated in part through stimulation of pineal melatonin secretion. If melatonin does mediate the antidepressant effects of ECT and depression itself is associated in some patients with reduced melatonin secretion, patients with reduced melatonin secretion could respond less readily to ECT. There is evidence to suggest an inverse relationship between melatonin secretion and the degree of pineal calcification. Specifically, heavy pineal calcifications in animals have been reported to be associated with reduced plasma melatonin levels. In this study, an investigation was conducted to establish more precisely the relationship between the clinical response to ECT in 17 bipolar patients and the degrees of pineal calcification present on CT scan. There was a significant association between ECT nonresponsiveness and the presence of pathologically enlarged pineal calcification (i.e., greater than 1 cm in diameter) (p.01). In addition, there was a significant difference in ECT responsiveness in patients without pineal calcification compared to those with pathologically enlarged pineal calcification (F = 6.10; p = .01, one-way ANOVA). These findings indicate an association between enlarged pineal calcification and ECT nonresponsiveness and suggest that reduced melatonin secretion may be associated with ECT nonresponsiveness. An enlarged pineal calcification could be a useful radiological marker of ECT nonresponsiveness and administration of melatonin precursors (i.e., L-tryptophan; 5-HTP) and its cofactors (i.e., pyridoxine, folate) as well as melatonin-release enhancing agents (i.e., 5-methoxypsoralen) prior to ECT might augment its antidepressant effects in bipolar patients.
Abé, Christoph; Ekman, Carl-Johan; Sellgren, Carl; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Landén, Mikael
Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common chronic psychiatric disorder mainly characterized by episodes of mania, hypomania and depression. The disorder is associated with cognitive impairments and structural brain abnormalities, such as lower cortical volumes in primarily frontal brain regions than healthy controls. Although bipolar disorder types I (BDI) and II (BDII) exhibit different symptoms and severity, previous studies have focused on BDI. Furthermore, the most frequently investigated measure in this population is cortical volume. The aim of our study was to investigate abnormalities in patients with BDI and BDII by simultaneously analyzing cortical volume, thickness and surface area, which yields more information about disease- and symptom-related neurobiology. Methods We used MRI to measure cortical volume, thickness and area in patients with BDI and BDII as well as in healthy controls. The large study cohort enabled us to adjust for important confounding factors. Results We included 81 patients with BDI, 59 with BDII and 85 controls in our analyses. Cortical volume, thickness and surface area abnormalities were present in frontal, temporal and medial occipital regions in patients with BD. Lithium and antiepileptic drug use had an effect on the observed differences in medial occipital regions. Patients with the subtypes BDI and BDII displayed common cortical abnormalities, such as lower volume, thickness and surface area than healthy controls in frontal brain regions but differed in temporal and medial prefrontal regions, where only those with BDI had abnormally low cortical volume and thickness. Limitations The group differences can be explained by progressive changes, but also by premorbid conditions. They could also have been influenced by unknown factors, such as social, environmental or genetic factors. Conclusion Our findings suggest diagnosis-related neurobiological differences between the BD subtypes, which could explain distinct symptoms and
Li, Dian-Jeng; Tseng, Ping-Tao; Chen, Yen-Wen; Wu, Ching-Kuan; Lin, Pao-Yen
Abstract Bupropion is widely used for treating bipolar disorder (BD), and especially those with depressive mood, based on its good treatment effect, safety profile, and lower risk of phase shifting. However, increasing evidence indicates that the safety of bupropion in BD patients may not be as good as previously thought. The aim of this study was to summarize data on the treatment effect and safety profile of bupropion in the treatment of BD via a meta-analysis. Electronic search through PubMed and ClinicalTrials.gov was performed. The inclusion criteria were: (i) studies comparing changes in disease severity before and after bupropion treatment or articles comparing the treatment effect of bupropion in BD patients with those receiving other standard treatments; (ii) articles on clinical trials in humans. The exclusion criteria were (i) case reports/series, and (ii) nonclinical trials. All effect sizes from 10 clinical trials were pooled using a random effects model. We examined the possible confounding variables using meta-regression and subgroup analysis. Bupropion significantly improved the severity of disease in BD patients (P < 0.001), and the treatment effect was similar to other antidepressants/standard treatments (P = 0.220). There were no significant differences in the dropout rate (P = 0.285) and rate of phase shifting (P = 0.952) between BD patients who received bupropion and those who received other antidepressants. We could not perform a detailed meta-analysis of every category of antidepressant, nor could we rule out the possible confounding effect of concurrent psychotropics or include all drug side effects. Furthermore, the number of studies recruited in the meta-analysis was relatively small. Our findings reconfirm the benefits of bupropion for the treatment of bipolar depression, which are similar to those of other antidepressants. However, the rate of phase shifting with bupropion usage was not as low compared to other
Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) and International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD) collaborative update of CANMAT guidelines for the management of patients with bipolar disorder: update 2009.
Yatham, Lakshmi N; Kennedy, Sidney H; Schaffer, Ayal; Parikh, Sagar V; Beaulieu, Serge; O'Donovan, Claire; MacQueen, Glenda; McIntyre, Roger S; Sharma, Verinder; Ravindran, Arun; Young, L Trevor; Young, Allan H; Alda, Martin; Milev, Roumen; Vieta, Eduard; Calabrese, Joseph R; Berk, Michael; Ha, Kyooseob; Kapczinski, Flávio
The Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT) published guidelines for the management of bipolar disorder in 2005, with a 2007 update. This second update, in conjunction with the International Society for Bipolar Disorders (ISBD), reviews new evidence and is designed to be used in conjunction with the previous publications. The recommendations for the management of acute mania remain mostly unchanged. Lithium, valproate, and several atypical antipsychotics continue to be first-line treatments for acute mania. Tamoxifen is now suggested as a third-line augmentation option. The combination of olanzapine and carbamazepine is not recommended. For the management of bipolar depression, lithium, lamotrigine, and quetiapine monotherapy, olanzapine plus selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and lithium or divalproex plus SSRI/bupropion remain first-line options. New data support the use of adjunctive modafinil as a second-line option, but also indicate that aripiprazole should not be used as monotherapy for bipolar depression. Lithium, lamotrigine, valproate, and olanzapine continue to be first-line options for maintenance treatment of bipolar disorder. New data support the use of quetiapine monotherapy and adjunctive therapy for the prevention of manic and depressive events, aripiprazole monotherapy for the prevention of manic events, and risperidone long-acting injection monotherapy and adjunctive therapy, and adjunctive ziprasidone for the prevention of mood events. Bipolar II disorder is frequently overlooked in treatment guidelines, but has an important clinical impact on patients' lives. This update provides an expanded look at bipolar II disorder.
Campbell, Austin; O’Connell, Christopher R.; Nallapula, Kishan
Objective: To determine if any monotherapy drug treatment has robust efficacy to treat comorbid bipolar disorder and chronic pain. Data Sources: The American Psychiatric Association (APA) treatment guidelines for bipolar mood disorder and the 2012 Cochrane database for pain disorders. Study Selection: We relied on the treatment guides to determine if the drugs that are APA guideline–supported to treat bipolar disorder have supporting data from the Cochrane database for chronic pain. Data Synthesis: No single drug was mentioned by either guideline to treat this comorbidity. However, carbamazepine was the only drug that has guideline-supported robust efficacy in the management of each condition separately. Conclusions: Carbamazepine was found to have strong preclinical data for the treatment of comorbid bipolar mood disorder and chronic pain disorders. While requiring more studies in this population, we propose that this treatment modality may benefit patients. PMID:25667814
Salvatore, Paola; Baldessarini, Ross J.; Khalsa, Hari-Mandir K.; Vázquez, Gustavo; Perez, Jesus; Faedda, Gianni L.; Amore, Mario; Maggini, Carlo; Tohen, Mauricio
Objective Since initial episode-type can predict later morbidity in bipolar disorder, we tested the hypothesis that clinical antecedents might predict initial episode-types. Method We studied 263 first-episode, adult, DSM-IV-TR type-I bipolar disorder (BD-I) subjects within the McLean-Harvard-International First-Episode Project. Based on blinded assessments of antecedents from SCID examinations and clinical records, we compared first-lifetime Manic vs. Other (mixed, depressive, or nonaffective) major psychotic-episodes. Results We identified 32 antecedents arising at early, intermediate or later times, starting 12.3±10.7 years prior to first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes. Based on multivariate modeling, antecedents associated significantly and independently with Other (n=113) more than Manic (n=150) first-lifetime major psychotic-episodes ranked by Odds Ratio: more early attentional disturbances, more late depression, more early perplexity, more detoxification, more early unstable-mixed affects, more antidepressants, more early dysphoria, more intermediate depression, more early impulsivity, more late anhedonia, longer early-to-intermediate intervals, more intermediate substance abuse, more family history of major depression, and younger at earliest antecedents. Antecedents selectively preceding Manic more than Other first-psychotic episodes included more late behavioral problems and more risk of familial BD-I. Conclusion Clinical antecedents in adult, BD-I patients, beginning a decade before first major-episodes and progressing through sequential stages were dissimilar in Manic versus Other first-psychotic-episodes. PMID:23837831
Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Pezzoni, Franca; Del Puente, Giovanni
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a very common mental health disorder, whose etiology concerning aggressive styles and defense mechanisms is still poorly known despite the efforts dedicated to develop psychological and biological theories. After obtaining written signed informed consent, this study will recruit inpatients with a clinical diagnosis of BD, based on Structured Clinical Interview and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria, and their parents. The Bus-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Defense Style Questionnaire 40, the Symptom check list SCL-90-R, developed by DeRogatis will be administered to the participants, together with a semi-structured questionnaire concerning demographic data (age, gender, employment, education) and only for the patients clinical information (onset year of the disorder, presence of co-morbidities, alcohol and drug use, suicide tendencies, kind of treatment). All the questionnaires are in the Italian validated version. The successful completion of this study will shed light on the relationship between aggressive styles and defensive mechanisms in bipolar inpatients and in their parents, helping the clinicians to develop ad hoc psychological interventions.
Lu, Christine Y; Adams, Alyce S; Ross-Degnan, Dennis; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Yuting; Salzman, Carl; Soumerai, Stephen B
Background Prior authorization policies are commonly used by Medicaid programs to control psychotropic drug expenditures. This study examined the association of a prior-authorization policy for atypical antipsychotic and anticonvulsant agents with medication discontinuation and use of health services among patients with bipolar disorder. Methods A pre-post-with-historical-comparison-group design was used to analyze Maine Medicaid and Medicare claims data. Newly treated patients were identified during the policy (Jul 2003–Feb 2004; N=946) and a comparison group from the pre-policy period (Jul 2002–Feb 2003; N=1,014). Patients were stratified according to their pre-initiation visits to community mental health centers (CMHCs) that target those with the most serious mental illness: CMHC-attenders (at least 2 visits) and non-attenders (fewer than 2 visits). Changes in rates of medication discontinuation, outpatient, emergency room and hospital visits before and after drug initiation were estimated. Results CMHC-attenders had substantially higher rates of comorbidity and use of medications and health services than non-attenders. The policy was associated with increased medication discontinuation in both groups; reductions in psychiatric visits after discontinuing medication among CMHC-attenders (−64/100 patients/month; p<.05); and increases in emergency room visits after discontinuing medication among non-attenders (16/100 patients/month; p<.05). During the 8-month follow-up, the policy had no detectable impact on risk of hospitalization. Conclusion The Maine prior-authorization policy was associated with increased medication discontinuation and subsequent changes in use of health services. Though small, these unintended policy effects raise quality of care concerns for a group of very vulnerable patients. Long-term consequences of prior-authorization policies on patient outcomes warrant further investigation. PMID:21285097
Azadforouz, Sanaz; Shabani, Amir; Nohesara, Shabnam; Ahmadzad-Asl, Masoud
Background Medication treatment compliance among bipolar patients is quite widespread. Objectives Treatment compliance depends on multiple factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predicting factors of noncompliance in patients with bipolar I disorder admitted to an Iranian hospital during a six-month follow up period. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study included 47 bipolar I disorder subjects who were admitted to the Iran psychiatric hospital and that were chosen using a non-randomized convenient sampling model. The patients were assessed at baseline, and at two and six months after admission. For evaluating the patients, we used the medication possession ratio (MPR), the drug attitude inventory (DIA-10), the young mania rating scale (Y-MRS) and the scale for the assessment of positive symptoms (SAPS). The data were analyzed using a general linear model by SPSS 16 software. Results The repeated measures analysis revealed that medication compliance increased successively (P = 0.045), and age, gender and symptom severity did not alter the pattern. Conclusions There is an increasing pattern in treatment compliance in bipolar I disorder patients, regardless of the known predicting factors for nonadherence. PMID:27803718
van Enkhuizen, Jordy; Geyer, Mark A; Minassian, Arpi; Perry, William; Henry, Brook L; Young, Jared W
Psychiatric patients with bipolar disorder suffer from states of depression and mania, during which a variety of symptoms are present. Current treatments are limited and neurocognitive deficits in particular often remain untreated. Targeted therapies based on the biological mechanisms of bipolar disorder could fill this gap and benefit patients and their families. Developing targeted therapies would benefit from appropriate animal models which are challenging to establish, but remain a vital tool. In this review, we summarize approaches to create a valid model relevant to bipolar disorder. We focus on studies that use translational tests of multivariate exploratory behavior, sensorimotor gating, decision-making under risk, and attentional functioning to discover profiles that are consistent between patients and rodent models. Using this battery of translational tests, similar behavior profiles in bipolar mania patients and mice with reduced dopamine transporter activity have been identified. Future investigations should combine other animal models that are biologically relevant to the neuropsychiatric disorder with translational behavioral assessment as outlined here. This methodology can be utilized to develop novel targeted therapies that relieve symptoms for more patients without common side effects caused by current treatments.
Ehrlich, André; Schubert, Florian; Pehrs, Corinna; Gallinat, Jürgen
The pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD) mostly remains unclear. However, some findings argue for a dysfunction in glutamatergic neurotransmission in BD. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T was used to determine glutamate concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the hippocampus (HC) of euthymic outpatients with BP-I disorder and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In patients with BD, glutamate concentrations were significantly increased in the ACC and decreased in the HC compared with concentrations in controls. Significant group differences were also measured for N-acetyl aspartate and choline; no differences were found for other metabolites examined. An inverse correlation was observed for glutamate concentrations in the ACC and number of episodes. The findings of the study add to the concept of abnormalities in glutamatergic regulation in the ACC and HC in patients with BD.
Koenders, M A; de Kleijn, R; Giltay, E J; Elzinga, B M; Spinhoven, P; Spijker, A T
The longitudinal mood course is highly variable among patients with bipolar disorder(BD). One of the strongest predictors of the future disease course is the past disease course, implying that the vulnerability for developing a specific pattern of symptoms is rather consistent over time. We therefore investigated whether BD patients with different longitudinal course types have symptom correlation networks with typical characteristics. To this end we used network analysis, a rather novel approach in the field of psychiatry. Based on two-year monthly life charts, 125 patients with complete 2 year data were categorized into three groups: i.e., a minimally impaired (n = 47), a predominantly depressed (n = 42) and a cycling course (n = 36). Associations between symptoms were defined as the groupwise Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between each pair of items of the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology (QIDS). Weighted symptom networks and centrality measures were compared among the three groups. The weighted networks significantly differed among the three groups, with manic and depressed symptoms being most strongly interconnected in the cycling group. The symptoms with top centrality that were most interconnected also differed among the course group; central symptoms in the stable group were elevated mood and increased speech, in the depressed group loss of self-esteem and psychomotor slowness, and in the cycling group concentration loss and suicidality. Symptom networks based on the timepoints with most severe symptoms of bipolar patients with different longitudinal course types are significantly different.