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  1. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  2. Motor Developmental Status of Moderately Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tavasoli, Azita; Aliabadi, Faranak; Eftekhari, Rooholah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Motor development is frequently reported to be impaired in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, but little is known about the moderately low birth weight (MLBW) infants. The aim of this study was to investigate whether MLBW preterm infants present developmental delay. Methods: In a historical cohort study, 18±2 month-old infants with a history of low birth weight (LBW) were identified. All infants with complications of LBW with negative effects on development were excluded. Healthy infants with normal birth weight (2500–4000 g) were included as controls. All infants were evaluated by the Peabody Developmental Motor Scale II (PDMS-2) test and final scores compared between the two groups. Finding: 88 infants including 58 MLBW and 30 NBW with a mean birth weight of 1900±382.4 g and 3150±473.5 g respectively, were studied. In the MLBW group, gross and fine motor skill scores were below average in 6 (6.8%) and 10 (17%) infants, respectively. There were no significant differences between the two groups according to gross motor quotient (102.5±5.5 in NBW vs 100.1±7.2 in MLBW; P=0.1), but MLBW infants achieved significantly lower scores in fine motor (93.3±5.4 vs 99.6±5.0; P=0.001) and total motor quotient (97.0±5.9 vs 101.53±5.0; P=0.001). Conclusion: The finding of this study show developmental defects in fine motor skills in MLBW infants. Accurate monitoring of the developmental status of this population should be emphasized for an earlier recognition and intervention. PMID:25793065

  3. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  4. Preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth occurs in about 5% to 10% of all births in resource-rich countries, but in recent years the incidence seems to have increased in some countries, particularly in the USA. We found little reliable evidence for incidence in resource-poor countries. The rate in northwestern Ethiopia has been reported to vary from 11% to 22%, depending on the age group of mothers studied, and is highest in teenage mothers. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of preventive interventions in women at high risk of preterm delivery? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome after preterm rupture of membranes? What are the effects of treatments to stop contractions in preterm labour? What are the effects of elective compared with selective caesarean delivery for women in preterm labour? What are the effects of interventions to improve neonatal outcome in preterm delivery? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 58 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: amnioinfusion for preterm rupture of membranes, antenatal corticosteroids, antibiotic treatment, bed rest, beta-mimetics, calcium channel blockers, elective caesarean, enhanced antenatal care programmes, magnesium sulphate, oxytocin receptor antagonists (atosiban), progesterone

  5. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  6. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  7. Preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction in three birth cohorts in Southern Brazil: 1982, 1993 and 2004.

    PubMed

    Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Horta, Bernardo L; Silveira, Mariângela F; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2008-01-01

    Three birth cohort studies from 1982, 1993 and 2004, in Pelotas, Southern Brazil provided the data for this study of trends in preterm births, low birth weight, and intrauterine growth restriction. We found a slight increase in the period in the low birth weight prevalence from 9% to 10%. Intrauterine growth restriction decreased from 14.8% in 1982 to 9.4% in 1993, and subsequently increased to 12% in 2004, whereas preterm births increased markedly, from 6.3% in 1982 to 14.7% in 2004. This striking increment could not be explained by changes in maternal characteristics, as mothers in 2004 were heavier, smoked less during pregnancy and attended antenatal clinics more often and earlier than those of previous cohorts. However, pregnancy interruptions due either to caesarean sections or to inductions significantly increased. Caesareans increased from 28% in 1982 to 45% in 2004, and inductions were 2.5% in 1982 but 11.1% in 2004. The increase in preterms could be partially explained by the growing number of pregnancy interruptions, but there must be other causes since this increase was also observed among babies born by non-induced vaginal deliveries.

  8. Temperament and behavior problems in toddlers born preterm and very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Klein, Vivian Caroline; Rocha, Luciana Cosentino; Martinez, Francisco Eulógio; Putnam, Samuel P; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the temperament and behavior problems of 32 toddlers born preterm and very low birth weight and 25 toddlers born full-term without medical problems. Mothers completed the Early Childhood Behavior Questionnaire and the Child Behavior Checklist-1.5-5 for assessing toddler`s temperament and behavior problems, respectively. The results showed that, regarding temperament, toddlers born preterm exhibited higher scores on the temperament dimensions Motor Activation, Perceptual Sensitivity, and High Intensity Pleasure, and lower scores on the temperament dimension Cuddliness than toddlers born full-term. In regard to behavior problems, toddlers born preterm showed higher attention problems scores than the comparison group. These findings indicated that children born preterm presented developmental vulnerabilities in temperament dimensions related to behavior problems at toddlerhood. Early intervention programs for preventing psychological problems in at-risk children, especially those born preterm, could focus on children's temperament dispositions.

  9. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight by 2015

    PubMed Central

    Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Bhandari, Nita; Biloglav, Zrinka; Edmond, Karen; Iyengar, Sharad; Kramer, Michael; Lawn, Joy E.; Manandhar, D. S.; Mori, Rintaro; Rasmussen, Kathleen M.; Sachdev, H. P. S.; Singhal, Nalini; Tomlinson, Mark; Victora, Cesar; Williams, Anthony F.; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Aim This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4. Methods We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. In the process coordinated by the World Health Organization in 2007–2008, 21 researchers with interest in child, maternal and newborn health suggested 82 research ideas that spanned across the broad spectrum of epidemiological research, health policy and systems research, improvement of existing interventions and development of new interventions. The 82 research questions were then assessed for answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for mortality reduction and the effect on equity using the CHNRI method. Results The top 10 identified research priorities were dominated by health systems and policy research questions (eg, identification of LBW infants born at home within 24–48 hours of birth for additional care; approaches to improve quality of care of LBW infants in health facilities; identification of barriers to optimal home care practices including care seeking; and approaches to increase the use of antenatal corticosteriods in preterm labor and to improve access to hospital care for LBW infants). These were followed by priorities for improvement of the existing interventions (eg, early initiation of breastfeeding, including feeding mode and techniques for those unable to suckle directly from the breast; improved cord care, such as chlorhexidine application; and alternative methods to Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to keep LBW infants warm in community settings). The highest-ranked epidemiological question suggested improving criteria for identifying LBW infants who need to be cared for in a hospital. Among the new interventions, the greatest support was shown

  10. The effects of socioeconomic status and indices of physical environment on reduced birth weight and preterm births in Eastern Massachusetts

    PubMed Central

    Zeka, Ariana; Melly, Steve J; Schwartz, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Background Air pollution and social characteristics have been shown to affect indicators of health. While use of spatial methods to estimate exposure to air pollution has increased the power to detect effects, questions have been raised about potential for confounding by social factors. Methods A study of singleton births in Eastern Massachusetts was conducted between 1996 and 2002 to examine the association between indicators of traffic, land use, individual and area-based socioeconomic measures (SEM), and birth outcomes (birth weight, small for gestational age and preterm births), in a two-level hierarchical model. Results We found effects of both individual (education, race, prenatal care index) and area-based (median household income) SEM with all birth outcomes. The associations for traffic and land use variables were mainly seen with birth weight, with an exception for an effect of cumulative traffic density on small for gestational age. Race/ethnicity of mother was an important predictor of birth outcomes and a strong confounder for both area-based SEM and indices of physical environment. The effects of traffic and land use differed by level of education and median household income. Conclusion Overall, the findings of the study suggested greater likelihood of reduced birth weight and preterm births among the more socially disadvantaged, and a greater risk of reduced birth weight associated with traffic exposures. Results revealed the importance of controlling simultaneously for SEM and environmental exposures as the way to better understand determinants of health. PMID:19032747

  11. Associations of Gestational Weight Gain with Preterm Birth among Underweight and Normal Weight Women.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Andrea J; Vesco, Kimberly K; Bulkley, Joanna; Callaghan, William M; Bruce, F Carol; Staab, Jenny; Hornbrook, Mark C; Berg, Cynthia J

    2015-09-01

    Studies report increased risk of preterm birth (PTB) among underweight and normal weight women with low gestational weight gain (GWG). However, most studies examined GWG over gestational periods that differ by term and preterm which may have biased associations because GWG rate changes over the course of pregnancy. Furthermore, few studies have specifically examined the amount and pattern of GWG early in pregnancy as a predictor of PTB. Within one integrated health care delivery system, we examined 12,526 singleton pregnancies between 2000 and 2008 among women with a body mass index <25 kg/m(2), who began prenatal care in the first trimester and delivered a live-birth >28 weeks gestation. Using self-reported pregravid weight and serial measured antenatal weights, we estimated GWG and the area under the GWG curve (AUC; an index of pattern of GWG) during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (≤28 weeks). Using logistic regression adjusted for covariates, we examined associations between each GWG measure, categorized into quartiles, and PTB (<37 weeks gestation). We additionally examined associations according to the reason for PTB by developing a novel algorithm using diagnoses and procedure codes. Low GWG in the first and second trimesters was not associated with PTB [aOR 1.11, (95% CI 0.90, 1.38) with GWG <8.2 kg by 28 weeks compared to pregnancies with GWG >12.9]. Similarly, pattern of GWG was not associated with PTB. Our findings do not support an association between GWG in the first and second trimester and PTB among underweight and normal weight women.

  12. Neuro-Cognitive Performance of Very Preterm or Very Low Birth Weight Adults at 26 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit Madzwamuse, Suna; Baumann, Nicole; Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children born very preterm (VP <32 weeks gestation) and/or with very low birth weight (VBLW <1500 g; subsequently VP/VLBW) have been previously reported to have more cognitive impairment and specific executive functioning problems than term children; however, it remains unclear whether these problems persist into adulthood. This…

  13. Periconception folic acid supplementation, fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight and preterm birth: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Sarah; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Steegers-Theunissen, Régine P M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2009-09-01

    Countries worldwide, including the Netherlands, recommend that women planning pregnancy use a folic acid supplement during the periconception period. Some countries even fortify staple foods with folic acid. These recommendations mainly focus on the prevention of neural tube defects, despite increasing evidence that folic acid may also influence birth weight. We examined whether periconception folic acid supplementation affects fetal growth and the risks of low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth, in the Generation R Study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Main outcome measures were fetal growth measured in mid- and late pregnancy by ultrasound, birth weight, SGA and preterm birth in relation to periconception folic supplementation (0.4-0.5 mg). Data on 6353 pregnancies were available. Periconception folic acid supplementation was positively associated with fetal growth. Preconception folic acid supplementation was associated with 68 g higher birth weight (95 % CI 37.2, 99.0) and 13 g higher placental weight (95 % CI 1.1, 25.5), compared to no folic acid supplementation. In these analyses parity significantly modified the effect estimates. Start of folic acid supplementation after pregnancy confirmation was associated with a reduced risk of low birth weight (OR 0.61, 95 % CI 0.40, 0.94). Similarly, reduced risks for low birth weight and SGA were observed for women who started supplementation preconceptionally, compared to those who did not use folic acid (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.28, 0.69 and OR 0.40, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.72). In conclusion, periconception folic acid supplementation is associated with increased fetal growth resulting in higher placental and birth weight, and decreased risks of low birth weight and SGA.

  14. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Condition Information Skip sharing on social ... links Share this: Page Content What is preterm labor and birth? In general, a normal human pregnancy ...

  15. Language development in very low birth weight preterm children: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Verkasalo, E; Valkama, M; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Ilkko, E; Lehtihalmes, M

    2004-01-01

    The language development of 17 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm children was compared with that of matched controls at the ages of 2 and 4 years. At the age of 2 years, the VLBW preterm children achieved significantly lower scores in the language comprehension test than their matched controls. In addition, they used shorter and more immature sentences. At the age of 4 years, difficulties in the VLBW preterm children manifested as deficiencies in language comprehension, naming and auditory discrimination. The language test results at the age of 2 years significantly correlated with those at the age of 4 years, but mainly in the preterm group. The highest and most frequent correlations were found between the language test scores at 2 years and the auditory discrimination test scores at 4 years. The only significant correlation to be found in the control group was between the vocabulary test score at 2 years and the consonant discrimination test score at 4 years. Therefore, language development of the VLBW preterm children should be measured and monitored from toddler age onwards. Special attention should be paid to measurements of auditory processing. While the results of the present study, however, represent mainly the outcome in a group of VLBW preterm children with changes in the neonatal MRI, the results should not be generalized to all VLBW preterm children.

  16. Longitudinal evaluation of energy expenditure in preterm infants with birth weight less than 1000 g.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jacqueline; Maier, Kathrin; Hellstern, Gerald; Linderkamp, Otwin

    2003-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain serial values of O2 consumption (VO2), CO2 production (VCO2) and energy expenditure (EE) in healthy but extremely-low-birth-weight infants (birth weight <1000 g), during the first 5 weeks after birth. A total of seventeen spontaneously breathing and appropriate-for-gestational-age (birth weight and body length above the 10th and below the 90th percentile) preterm infants with gestational age 25-28 weeks and birth weight 590-990 g were enrolled in the study. Calorimetry was performed using an open-circuit calorimeter on days 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 of postnatal life. During the 5 weeks of observation, VO2 increased from 4.7 (SD 0.5) to 9.1 (SD 1.0) ml/kg per min, VCO2 from 4.5 (SD 0.4) to 8.3 (SD 0.6) ml/kg per min and EE from 115 (SD 12) to 310 (SD 71) kJ/kg per d. The energy intake was always higher than EE, even at days 6 and 12. The RER decreased from 0.99 (SD 0.09) at day 12 to 0.91 (SD 0.05) at day 30. On all study days, there were highly significant positive correlations between energy intake and weight gain, EE and weight gain, and EE and energy intake (P<0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that on most study days EE was more affected by energy intake than by weight gain. We conclude that in healthy preterm infants with birth weight <1000 g, EE increases by about 150 % in the first 5 weeks after birth, and that the EE values are related to energy intake and weight gain independent of postnatal age.

  17. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Preterm Labor and Birth: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... start of the last menstrual period to childbirth. Labor that begins before 37 weeks is called preterm ...

  18. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  19. Cognitive outcomes for extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight children in kindergarten.

    PubMed

    Orchinik, Leah J; Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Minich, Nori; Klein, Nancy; Sheffield, Tiffany; Hack, Maureen

    2011-11-01

    Our objectives were to examine cognitive outcomes for extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, gestational age <28 weeks and/or birth weight <1000 g) children in kindergarten and the associations of these outcomes with neonatal factors, early childhood neurodevelopmental impairment, and socioeconomic status (SES). The sample comprised a hospital-based 2001-2003 birth cohort of 148 EPT/ELBW children (mean birth weight 818 g; mean gestational age 26 weeks) and a comparison group of 111 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls. Controlling for background factors, the EPT/ELBW group had pervasive deficits relative to the NBW group on a comprehensive test battery, with rates of cognitive deficits that were 3 to 6 times higher in the EPT/ELBW group. Deficits on a measure of response inhibition were found in 48% versus 10%, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 7.32 (3.32, 16.16), p < .001. Deficits on measures of executive function and motor and perceptual-motor abilities were found even when controlling for acquired verbal knowledge. Neonatal risk factors, early neurodevelopmental impairment, and lower SES were associated with higher rates of deficits within the EPT/ELBW group. The findings document both global and selective cognitive deficits in EPT/ELBW children at school entry and justify efforts at early identification and intervention.

  20. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rachel Gick; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III) was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8). The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9) compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2). Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001) and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. PMID:23917653

  1. Prediction of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Borg, F; Gravino, G; Schembri-Wismayer, P; Calleja-Agius, J

    2013-06-01

    Preterm delivery is birth occurring before 37 completed weeks of gestation. Preterm birth is the primary cause of morbidity and mortality in children especially if this occurs before 34 weeks of gestation. If preterm birth could be predicted and treated accordingly, this would greatly reduce mortality, morbidity and associated costs. There have been many attempts to develop an accurate and efficient method to predict preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and preterm labor that leads to spontaneous preterm birth (SPB). However, the initial signs and symptoms are most often mild and may even occur in normal pregnancies, making early detection rather difficult. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the current methods employed in predicting preterm birth occurring due to preterm labor and PPROM. Among these methods are risk scoring systems, cervical/vaginal screening for fetal fibronectin, cervical assessment by ultrasonography, uterine activity monitoring, biomarkers such as endocrine factors, cytokines and enzymes, fetal DNA and genetic polymorphism. SPB is multifactorial, and so it is highly unlikely that a single test can accurately predict SPB. A combination of biological markers is also reviewed in the estimation of the risk of preterm delivery.

  2. Paternal occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and birth outcomes of offspring: birth weight, preterm delivery, and birth defects.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Christina C; Schnorr, Teresa M; Whelan, Elizabeth A; Deddens, James A; Dankovic, David A; Piacitelli, Laurie A; Sweeney, Marie H; Connally, L Barbara

    2004-10-01

    Agent Orange is a phenoxy herbicide that was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We studied pregnancy outcomes among wives of male chemical workers who were highly exposed to chemicals contaminated with TCDD and among wives of nonexposed neighborhood referents. For exposed pregnancies, we estimated serum TCDD concentration at the time of conception using a pharmacokinetic model. The mean TCDD concentration for workers' births was 254 pg/g lipid (range, 3-16,340 pg/g). The mean referent concentration of 6 pg/g was assigned to pregnancies fathered by workers before exposure. A total of 1,117 live singleton births of 217 referent wives and 176 worker wives were included. Only full-term births were included in the birth weight analysis (greater than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation). Mean birth weight among full-term babies was similar among referents' babies (n = 604), preexposure workers' babies (n = 221), and exposed workers' babies (n = 292) (3,420, 3,347, and 3,442 g, respectively). Neither continuous nor categorical TCDD concentration had an effect on birth weight for term infants after adjustment for infant sex, mother's education, parity, prenatal cigarette smoking, and gestation length. An analysis to estimate potential direct exposure of the wives during periods of workers' exposure yielded a nonstatistically significant increase in infant birth weight of 130 g in the highest exposure group (TCDD concentration > 254 pg/g) compared with referents (p = 0.09). Mothers' reports of preterm delivery showed a somewhat protective association with paternal TCDD (log) concentration (odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1). We also include descriptive information on reported birth defects. Because the estimated TCDD concentrations in this population were much higher than in other studies, the results indicate that TCDD is unlikely to increase the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery through a paternal mechanism. Key words

  3. The temperament of pre-term, low birth weight infants and its potential biological substrates.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Sandra J; Jonn-Seed, Mary St; Wilson, Peggy

    2004-12-01

    Temperament profiles of pre-term, low birth weight (LBW) infants were assessed at 6 months of age using standardized norms from the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire (RITQ). The contributions of perinatal risk, ethnicity, and gender to various temperament dimensions were examined. The sample included 152 infants with a mean birth weight of 1687 g and a mean gestational age of 31 weeks. Eighty percent of the infants were classified as having temperaments that were difficult to manage. Irregularity of the infants' biorhythms, slowness in their ability to adapt to changes, and distractibility were the most problematic. Birth weight, gestational age, and gender were not associated with temperament. Perinatal morbidity was related to the temperament dimension of infant persistence, with implications for the infant's attention span and task performance. Euro American infants were rated as more persistent and less intense in emotional expression than were infants of other ethnic groups. Results suggest the need for a more direct assessment of the effects of neurobiological processes on development of temperament phenotypes and for measurement of temperament that is socioculturally appropriate. PMID:15514956

  4. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Hovi, Petteri; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Doyle, Lex W; McGarvey, Lorcan; Morrison, Katherine M; Evensen, Kari Anne I; van der Pal, Sylvia; Grunau, Ruth E; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Sture; Saigal, Saroj; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-10-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To identify possible risk or protective factors, we combined individual-level data from 9 cohorts that measured blood pressure in young adults born at VLBW or with a more stringent birth weight criterion. In the absence of major heterogeneity, we performed linear regression analysis in our pooled sample of 1571 adults born at VLBW and 777 controls. Adults born at VLBW had 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.6) higher systolic and 2.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) higher diastolic pressure, with adjustment for age, sex, and cohort. The difference in systolic pressure was present in men (1.8 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-3.5) but was stronger in women (4.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-6.3). Among the VLBW group, blood pressure was unrelated to gestational age, maternal smoking, multiple pregnancy, retinopathy of prematurity, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Blood pressure was higher than that of controls among VLBW adults unexposed to maternal preeclampsia. Among those exposed, it was even higher, especially if born appropriate for gestational age. In conclusion, although female sex and maternal preeclampsia are additional risk factors, the risk of higher blood pressure is not limited to any etiologic subgroup of VLBW adults, arguing for vigilance in early detection of high blood pressure in all these individuals. PMID:27572149

  5. Outdoor Air Pollution, Preterm Birth, and Low Birth Weight: Analysis of the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health

    PubMed Central

    Merialdi, Mario; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Martin, Randall V.; Betran, Ana Pilar; Souza, João Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Inhaling fine particles (particulate matter with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) can induce oxidative stress and inflammation, and may contribute to onset of preterm labor and other adverse perinatal outcomes. Objectives: We examined whether outdoor PM2.5 was associated with adverse birth outcomes among 22 countries in the World Health Organization Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health from 2004 through 2008. Methods: Long-term average (2001–2006) estimates of outdoor PM2.5 were assigned to 50-km–radius circular buffers around each health clinic where births occurred. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between clinic-level PM2.5 levels and preterm birth and low birth weight at the individual level, adjusting for seasonality and potential confounders at individual, clinic, and country levels. Country-specific associations were also investigated. Results: Across all countries, adjusting for seasonality, PM2.5 was not associated with preterm birth, but was associated with low birth weight [odds ratio (OR) = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.39 for fourth quartile of PM2.5 (> 20.2 μg/m3) compared with the first quartile (< 6.3 μg/m3)]. In China, the country with the largest PM2.5 range, preterm birth and low birth weight both were associated with the highest quartile of PM2.5 only, which suggests a possible threshold effect (OR = 2.54; CI: 1.42, 4.55 and OR = 1.99; CI: 1.06, 3.72 for preterm birth and low birth weight, respectively, for PM2.5 ≥ 36.5 μg/m3 compared with PM2.5 < 12.5 μg/m3). Conclusions: Outdoor PM2.5 concentrations were associated with low birth weight but not preterm birth. In rapidly developing countries, such as China, the highest levels of air pollution may be of concern for both outcomes. Citation: Fleischer NL, Merialdi M, van Donkelaar A, Vadillo-Ortega F, Martin RV, Betran AP, Souza JP, O´Neill MS. 2014. Outdoor air pollution, preterm birth, and low birth weight: analysis of the World Health

  6. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. PMID:25662564

  7. School Performance and Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: First Report From Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koç, Özden; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Ramoğlu, Mehmet G; Aldemir, Esin; Aktalay, Ayşegül; Eras, Zeynep

    2016-02-01

    Very low birth weight preterm infants are under significant risk of neurologic, developmental, and somatic problems. In this study, 90 infants born with a birth weight <1500 g and/or with a gestational age <32 weeks were evaluated after the first year of elementary school to assess neurodevelopment. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) test, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and Parent Evaluation of Developmental Status were performed. Mental retardation, cerebral palsy, blindness, epilepsy, and posthemorrhagic hydrocephaly incidences were 14%, 7%, 2%, 5%, and 2%, respectively. The WISC-R score of 32 patients (35.5%) were below 85. Perinatal asphyxia, abnormal neurologic examination, and delayed or impaired speech correlated significantly with low WISC-R scores. Education and income of the father had positive impact on WISC-R scores (P = .042 and P = .026). Parents' concern and presence of cognitive problems were correlated (P = .026). Environmental factors, as well as the prevention of morbidity, affected school performance positively.

  8. Behavior Disorders in Extremely Preterm/Extremely Low Birth Weight Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Megan N.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Fristad, Mary A.; Klein, Nancy; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of behavior disorders in a 2001–2003 birth cohort of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, <28 weeks gestational age and/or <1000 g) children in kindergarten. Method We compared 148 EPT/ELBW children to 111 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls on reports of psychiatric symptoms obtained from parent interview (P-ChIPS), parent and teacher ratings of behavior (CBCL, TRF, BRIEF), and teacher ratings of social functioning (SSBS-2). Associations of behavior disorders with global cognitive ability and tests of executive function were also examined within the EPT/ELBW group. Results Rates of ADHD Combined on psychiatric interview were about twice as high for the EPT/ELBW group than for the NBW group, OR (95% CI)=2.50 (1.34, 4.68), p=.004. The EPT/ELBW group also had much higher rates of teacher-identified disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and social functioning, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 3.35 (1.64, 6.83) to 18.03 (4.12, 78.94), all p’s<.01. ADHD and impaired behavior self-regulation were associated with deficits on tests of executive function but not with global cognitive impairment. Conclusions The findings document elevated rates of disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and socialization in EPT/ELBW children and suggest that deficits on tests of executive function are associated with some of these disorders. Early identification and intervention for these disorders are needed to promote early adjustment to school and facilitate learning progress. PMID:22245934

  9. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (<=24 years) and older (>=40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  11. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masayuki; Matsushita, Yuki; Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  12. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  13. Low birth weight, preterm birth or small-for-gestational-age are not associated with dental caries in young Japanese children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to increase and is a major public health problem in Japan. In the present cross-sectional study, we examined the associations between LBW, preterm birth and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and the prevalence of dental caries in young Japanese children. Methods Study subjects were 2,055 children aged 3 years. Data on birth conditions were obtained through the transcription by parents or guardians of the information from their maternal and child health handbook, in which the data were recorded by staff at the birth hospital or clinic, to our self-administered questionnaire. Children were classified as having caries if one or more deciduous teeth were decayed, missing, or had been filled at the time of examination. Adjustments were made for sex, toothbrushing frequency, use of fluoride, regular dental check-ups, between-meal snack frequency, breastfeeding duration, paternal and maternal educational levels, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and secondhand smoke exposure at home. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 20.7%. The mean birth weight was 3018.3 g, and 8.3% were classified as LBW (<2,500 g), 4.5% as preterm birth (<37 weeks), and 7.1% as SGA (<10th percentile). Preterm birth was associated with a 40% decreased prevalence of dental caries (adjusted prevalence ratio = 0.60, 95% confidence interval: 0.36–1.02, p = 0.06). There were no associations between LBW or SGA and the prevalence of dental caries. Conclusions The results of the study failed to detect significant associations between LBW, preterm birth or SGA and the prevalence of dental caries in Japan. Further study is needed in other populations to confirm the generalizability of these findings. PMID:24731399

  14. Preterm birth and low birth weight among in vitro fertilization singletons: a systematic review and meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sarah D; Han, Zhen; Mulla, Sohail; Murphy, Kellie E; Beyene, Joseph; Ohlsson, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Our objective was to determine the risks of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) in singletons conceived through in vitro fertilization (IVF)+/-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) compared to spontaneously conceived singletons after matching or controlling for at least maternal age. The MOOSE guidelines for meta-analysis of observational studies were followed. Medline and Embase were searched using comprehensive search strategies. Bibliographies of identified articles were reviewed. English language studies examining LBW or PTB in singletons conceived by IVF or IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection, compared with spontaneously conceived singletons, that matched or controlled for at least maternal age. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts, full articles and study quality and extracted data. Dichotomous data were meta-analyzed using relative risks (RR) as measures of effect size with a random effects model and for continuous data weighted mean difference was calculated. Seventeen studies were included with 31,032 singletons conceived through IVF (+/-ICSI) and 81,119 spontaneously conceived singletons. After matching or controlling for maternal age and often other factors, compared to spontaneously conceived singletons, IVF singletons had increased risks of our two primary outcomes, PTB (RR 1.84, 95% CI 1.54, 2.21) and LBW (<2500 g, RR 1.60, 95% CI 1.29, 1.98). Singletons conceived through IVF or IVF/ICSI were at increased risk for late PTB (32-36 weeks, RR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01, 2.30), moderate PTB <32-33 weeks (RR 2.27, 95% CI 1.73, 2.97), very LBW (<1500 g, RR 2.65, 95% CI 1.83, 3.84), and intrauterine growth restriction (RR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04, 2.00), lower birth weights (-97 g, 95% CI -161 g, -33 g) and shorter mean gestations (-0.6 weeks, 95% CI -0.9 weeks, -0.4 weeks). In conclusion, IVF singletons have significantly increased risks of PTB, LBW and other adverse perinatal outcomes compared to spontaneously conceived singletons after

  15. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Among Pregnant Indian Women: A Hospital-based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Parvati; Acharya, Shashidhar; Kamath, Asha; Bhat, Shashikala; Rao, Chythra; Nayak, Sathisha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the maternal risk factors for preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) with a special emphasis on assessing the proportions of maternal genitourinary and periodontal infections among Indian women and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A hospital-based prospective study comprising 790 pregnant women visiting the obstetrics clinic for a routine antenatal check-up was undertaken. Once recruited, all study participants underwent clinical and microbiological investigations for genitourinary infections followed by a dental check-up for the presence of periodontitis. The study participants were followed up until their delivery to record the pregnancy outcomes. Infectious and non-infectious risk factors for PTB and LBW were assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Independent risk factors for PTB and LBW were reported in terms of adjusted relative risk (ARR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Rates of PTB and LBW in the study population were 7.6% and 11.4%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery (ARR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.5 to 19.1), periodontitis (ARR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9), Oligohydramnios (ARR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.4 to 11.5), presence of Nugent’s intermediate vaginal flora (ARR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1), gestational diabetes mellitus (ARR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.0 to 8.3), and maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.1) were risk factors for PTB, while periodontitis (ARR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.6 to 6.9), gestational hypertension (ARR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.3 to 10.8), maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.1) and genital infection during later stages of pregnancy (ARR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.1) were independent risk factors for LBW. Conclusions: Our study findings underscore the need to consider screening for potential genitourinary and periodontal infections during routine antenatal care in developing countries. PMID:27255075

  16. Early interactive behaviours in preterm infants and their mothers: influences of maternal depressive symptomatology and neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Agostini, Francesca; Neri, Erica; Dellabartola, Sara; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2014-02-01

    The study evaluated the quality of preterm infant-mother interactions, considering severity of birth weight (ELBW and VLBW) and maternal depression, compared to full term babies. 69 preterm infants (29 ELBW and 40 VLBW) and 80 full-term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, the quality of mother-infant interaction was evaluated through Global Rating Scales; moreover, infant level of development and maternal depression were assessed through Griffith Development Mental Scales and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Results showed adequate sensitivity in preterm infants' mothers and higher involvement with their infants, compared to full term mothers, but ELBW ones exhibited an intrusive interactive pattern and a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms. The study underlined the relevance of paying special attention to both ELBW infants and their mothers, in order to support the parenting role and the co-construction of early interactions.

  17. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  18. PRENATAL AND NEONATAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA IN DECIDUOUS TEETH IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PRETERM INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Kátia Maria Dmytraczenko; Line, Sérgio Roberto Peres; de Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana Leme

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated possible prenatal and neonatal variables that may influence the prevalence of tooth enamel hypoplasia in preterm and low birth weight children (LBW) and a matched control group of term children with normal birth weight (NBW). The study sample consisted of 61 children born preterm and with LBW examined at 18-34 months of age. The control group was formed by 61 infants born full term and with NBW examined at 31-35 months of age. All children were born at the Center of Integrated Attention of Women's Health (CAISM-UNICAMP). FDI criteria were followed for dental examination. Medical data was collected retrospectively from hospital records. Among preterms, 57.4% had some type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE), 52.5 % had opacities and 21.3 % presented hypoplasia. Among full-term children, 24.6% presented DDE, 24.6% had opacities and 3.3% had hypoplasia. LBW preterm infants presented a higher prevalence of hypoplasia than NBW controls. The deciduous teeth most affected by hypoplasia were maxillary incisors. There was no significant association with prenatal variables; among neonatal variables there was a significant association with respiratory distress syndrome and neurological examination at discharge with an altered result. PMID:19089191

  19. Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Schumann, Deise; Zatti, Helen; Mattiello, Rita; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. Methods: We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight < 1,500 g); and those who had been normal-birth-weight full-term infants (controls, birth weight ≥ 2,500 g). Anthropometric and spirometric data were collected from the schoolchildren, who also completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activity. In addition, data regarding the perinatal and neonatal period were collected from the medical records of the VLBWPIs. Results: Of the 93 schoolchildren screened, 48 and 45 were in the VLBWPI and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding anthropometric characteristics, nutritional status, or pulmonary function. No associations were found between perinatal/neonatal variables and lung function parameters in the VLBWPI group. Although the difference was not significant, the level of physical activity was slightly higher in the VLBWPI group than in the control group. Conclusions: Among the schoolchildren evaluated here, neither growth nor lung function appear to have been affected by prematurity birth weight, or level of physical activity.

  20. Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes and Outcome of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in the German Neonatal Network

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Kathrin; Hartz, Annika; Manz, Maike; Bendiks, Meike; Heitmann, Friedhelm; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Müller, Andreas; Olbertz, Dirk; Kühn, Thomas; Siegel, Jens; von der Wense, Axel; Wieg, Christian; Kribs, Angela; Stein, Anja; Pagel, Julia; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang; Härtel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objective It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants < 32 weeks of gestation. Design Observational, epidemiological study design. Setting Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN). Population 6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome) or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age. Results PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03) but not with other major outcomes. Conclusions The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM. PMID:25856083

  1. 'Resuscitation' of extremely preterm and/or low-birth-weight infants - time to 'call it'?

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most.

  2. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  3. Genomics of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J

    2015-02-02

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms.

  4. Smoking and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Ion, Rachel; Bernal, Andrés López

    2015-08-01

    Premature birth is a significant global problem and the leading cause of newborn deaths. Tobacco smoking has been associated with premature birth for over 50 years. The mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effects on pregnancy outcomes remain unclear. In this review, we discuss rates of prematurity and smoking in pregnancy, the evidence of a causal relationship between tobacco and preterm birth, and proposed biochemical pathways through which the interaction is mediated. The suggested mechanisms include nicotine-induced vasoconstriction, carbon monoxide-induced fetal hypoxia, cadmium disruption of calcium signaling, altered steroid hormone production, disruption of prostaglandin synthesis, and changed responses to oxytocin. The relative importance of each of these pathways is yet to be ascertained. Further research is necessary to explore the mechanisms through which smoking exerts its effect on gestational length and the process of parturition. Moreover, the risks of nicotine replacement in pregnancy should be investigated further.

  5. Maternal social support and neighborhood income inequality as predictors of low birth weight and preterm birth outcome disparities: analysis of South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System survey, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Dhawain, Ashish; Hussey, James Robert; Luchok, Kathryn J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of income inequality on health and other social systems have been a subject of considerable debate, but only a few studies have used multilevel models to evaluate these relationships. The main objectives of the study were to (1) Evaluate the relationships among neighborhood income inequality, social support and birth outcomes (low birth weight, and preterm delivery) and (2) Assess variations in racial disparities in birth outcomes across neighborhood contexts of income distribution and maternal social support. We evaluated these relationships by using South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey for 2000-2003 geocoded to 2000 US Census data for South Carolina. Multilevel analysis was used to simultaneously evaluate the association between income inequality (measured as Gini), maternal social relationships and birth outcomes (low birth weight and preterm delivery). The results showed residence in neighborhoods with medium levels of income inequality was independently associated with low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI 1.14-3.26), but not preterm birth; low social support was an independent risk for low birth weight or preterm births. The evidence suggests that non-Hispanic black mothers were at increased risks of low birth weight or preterm birth primarily due to greater exposures of neighborhood deprivations associated with low income and reduced social support and modified by unequal income distribution.

  6. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing the Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Rundjan, Lily; Rohsiswatmo, Rinawati; Paramita, Tiara Nien; Oeswadi, Chrissela Anindita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bloodstream infection (BSI) is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective: To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight. Methods: Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results: Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect toward the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011–0.85, p = 0.026). Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227–90.662, p = 0.026). BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group. Conclusion: The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device, and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously. PMID:25853110

  7. Combination Antiretroviral Use and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Watts, D. Heather; Williams, Paige L.; Kacanek, Deborah; Griner, Raymond; Rich, Kenneth; Hazra, Rohan; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Mendez, Hermann A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Use of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) during pregnancy has been associated with higher risk of preterm birth. Methods. The Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study network's Surveillance Monitoring for ART Toxicities study is a US-based cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–exposed uninfected children. We evaluated maternal ARV use during pregnancy and the risk of any type of preterm birth (ie, birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation), the risk of spontaneous preterm birth (ie, preterm birth that occurred after preterm labor or membrane rupture, without other complications), and the risk of small for gestational age (SGA; ie, a birth weight of <10th percentile for gestational age). Multivariable logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of ARVs and timing of exposure, while adjusting for maternal characteristics. Results. Among 1869 singleton births, 18.6% were preterm, 10.2% were spontaneous preterm, and 7.3% were SGA. A total of 89% used 3-drug combination ARV regimens during pregnancy. In adjusted models, the odds of preterm birth and spontaneous preterm birth were significantly greater among mothers who used protease inhibitors during the first trimester (adjusted odds ratios, 1.55 and 1.59, respectively) but not among mothers who used nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or triple-nucleoside regimens during the first trimester. Combination ARV exposure starting later in pregnancy was not associated with increased risk. No associations were observed between SGA and exposure to combination ARV regimens. Conclusions. Protease inhibitor use early in pregnancy may be associated with increased risk for prematurity. PMID:23204173

  8. Pattern of growth of very low birth weight preterm infants, assessed using the WHO Growth Standards, is associated with neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Nash, Andrea; Dunn, Michael; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Corey, Mary; Mulvihill-Jory, Bridget; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-08-01

    Several Canadian professional organizations recently recommended that the growth of preterm infants be monitored using the World Health Organization Growth Standards (WHO-GS) after hospital discharge. The WHO-GS are a prescriptive set of growth charts that describe how term infants should grow under ideal environmental conditions. Whether preterm infants following this pattern of growth have better outcomes than infants that do not has yet to be evaluated. Our aim was to determine whether the pattern of growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the first 2 years, assessed using the WHO-GS or the traditional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference growth charts (CDC-RGC), is associated with neurodevelopment. Pattern of weight, length, and head circumference gain of appropriate-for-gestation VLBW preterm infants (n = 289) from birth to 18-24 months corrected age was classified, using the WHO-GS and CDC-RGC, as sustained (change in Z-score ≤1 SD), decelerated (decline >1 SD), or accelerated (incline >1 SD). Development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID)-III at 18-24 months corrected age. Using the WHO-GS, children with a decelerated pattern of weight gain had lower cognitive (10 points), language (6 points), and motor (4 points) scores than infants with sustained weight gain (p < 0.05), even after adjustment for morbidities. No association was found using the CDC-RGC. In conclusion, a decelerated pattern of weight gain, determined with the WHO-GS, but not the CDC-GRC, is associated with poorer neurodevelopment scores on the BSID-III than a pattern of sustained growth. PMID:21854163

  9. Intervention effects on emotion regulation in preterm infants with very low birth weight: A randomize controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying-Chin; Hsieh, Wu-Shiun; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Chou, Hung-Chieh; Hsu, Hui-Chin; Chiu, Nan-Chang; Lee, Wang-Tso; Chen, Wei-J; Ho, Yu-Wen; Jeng, Suh-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Preterm infants are at risk for emotional difficulties and behavioral problems. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of a clinic-based intervention program (CBIP) and a home-based intervention program (HBIP) compared with a usual care program (UCP) on emotion regulation to stress in preterm infants with very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight <1500 g). A total of 178 VLBW preterm infants had been previously randomly assigned to receive one of three interventions (57 in CBIP, 63 in HBIP and 58 in UCP). The CBIP and HBIP contained identical child-, parent- and dyad-focused interventions that were provided to infants during hospitalization and were respectively delivered at clinics and at home at PMA 36-38 and 40 weeks, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12 months of corrected age. All infants were prospectively observed for behavioral reactivity and regulation in response to experimentally evoke stress evoked by a toy-behind-barrier procedure at 12, 18, and 24 months of corrected age. Their cognitive and language abilities, and mothers' responsiveness were also assessed at 12 months as potential covariates. Compared to the UCP-group infants, the HBIP-group infants exhibited shorter durations of visual orientation to a toy (adjusted difference [95% CI]=-1.60 [-3.07 to -0.13], p=0.03), and the CBIP-group infants exhibited shorter durations of avoidance (adjusted difference [95% CI]=-0.84 [-1.57 to -0.10], p=0.03) from 12 to 24 months of corrected age. The CBIP and HBIP showed no difference in the stress reactivity from the UCP, however. These results suggest that comprehensive interventions incorporating child-, parent- and dyad-focused services enhanced VLBW preterm infants' emotion regulation in response to stress at toddler age. PMID:26524725

  10. Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... with the placenta and substance abuse by the mother. Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer ...

  11. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Background Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g). Methods The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD), 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet. Results With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0), P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0), P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1) was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8), P = 0.97)]. Conclusions Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth. PMID:27618620

  12. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  13. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alyssa J.; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies. PMID:24362545

  14. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  15. Preterm (Premature) Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... with serious health problems. Some health problems, like cerebral palsy , can last a lifetime. Other problems, such as ... This medication may help reduce the risk of cerebral palsy that is associated with early preterm birth. What ...

  16. Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Multiples.

    PubMed

    Biggio, Joseph R; Anderson, Sarah

    2015-09-01

    The number of multiple gestations has increased over the last several decades and preterm birth is one of the leading causes of perinatal morbidity and mortality for these pregnancies. While screening and treatment strategies have achieved moderate success in singleton gestations, screening strategies are less effective in multiple gestations. In addition, to date no intervention aimed at preventing preterm birth has been conclusively shown to either prolong gestation or improve neonatal outcomes for multiple gestations. As in singleton gestations, cervical length is one of the strongest predictors of preterm birth. While not conclusive, emerging data suggest that vaginal progesterone or cervical pessary may be able to prevent preterm birth in twin gestations with a short cervix.

  17. Preterm birth: Transition to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Allen, Marilee C; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than their peers born fullterm. Compared to individuals born fullterm, more preterm survivors have major neurodevelopmental or psychiatric disability and need financial supports and societal resources. Neuroimaging studies of adolescents and adults born preterm report higher rates of brain injury, differences in regional brain structure, and different brain circuits than in those born fullterm. Making the transition to adulthood is more difficult for young adults who were born preterm than their peers born fullterm, in that fewer complete high school and higher education, find and keep meaningful employment, and live independently from their parents. As a group, they do not tend to be risk-takers, and they have lower rates of alcohol abuse, use of illicit drugs, and criminal offenses than do their peers. Despite their many challenges, the majority of adults born preterm function well, form personal relationships, integrate well into their community, and are as satisfied with their quality of life as are their peers. Concerns regarding current preterm infants, with more extremely preterm survivors, overwhelming our medical, educational, and societal resources should serve as an impetus for research on prevention of preterm births and brain injury, as well as how to support and promote their ongoing neuromaturation and recovery from injury. PMID:25708075

  18. Screening for autism in preterm children with extremely low and very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Dudova, Iva; Kasparova, Martina; Markova, Daniela; Zemankova, Jana; Beranova, Stepanka; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies of children with very low birth weight (VLBW, 1,000–1,500 g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW, less than 1,000 g) indicate that this population seems to be at increased risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Parents of 101 VLBW and ELBW children (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity) agreed to participate in the study and signed informed consents; however, parents of only 75 children (44 boys, 31 girls) completed the screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently invited for a detailed assessment. Results Thirty-two children (42.7%) screened positive on at least one of the screening questionnaires. The screening tool with the most positive results was the CSBS-DP-ITC (26 positive screens), followed by the M-CHAT (19 positive screens) and the ITSP (11 positive screens). Of the 32 children who tested positive, 19 participated in the detailed follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in eight of the 19 children. ASD prevalence, calculated from those 19 children and those with negative screening results (43 children), yielded a prevalence of 12.9% in the sample. The difference in frequency of positive screens between the tests was significant (P=0.011). In pair comparisons, ITSP was found to be significantly less positive than CSBS-DP-ITC (P=0.032). No significant differences were found between the M-CHAT and CSBS-DP-ITC or between the M-CHAT and ITSP. Conclusion The results strongly support the hypothesis of an increased prevalence of autism in children with a birth weight less than 1,500 g. PMID:24627633

  19. Low Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age and Preterm Births before and after the Economic Collapse in Iceland: A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eiríksdóttir, Védís Helga; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey; Bjarnadóttir, Ragnheiður Ingibjörg; Kaestner, Robert; Cnattingius, Sven; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur Anna

    2013-01-01

    Objective Infants born small for gestational age (SGA) or preterm have increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Stressful events have been suggested as potential contributors to preterm birth (PB) and low birth weight (LBW). We studied the effect of the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland on the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Study design The study population constituted all Icelandic women giving birth to live-born singletons from January 1st 2006 to December 31st 2009. LBW infants were defined as those weighing <2500 grams at birth, PB infants as those born before 37 weeks of gestation and SGA as those with a birth weight for gestational age more than 2 standard deviations (SD's) below the mean according to the Swedish fetal growth curve. We used logistic regression analysis to estimate odds ratios [OR] and corresponding 95 percent confidence intervals [95% CI] of adverse birth outcomes by exposure to calendar time of the economic collapse, i.e. after October 6th 2008. Results Compared to the preceding period, we observed an increased adjusted odds in LBW-deliveries following the collapse (aOR = 1.24, 95% CI [1.02, 1.52]), particularly among infants born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.25, 2.72]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.61, 95% CI [1.10, 2.35]). Similarly, we found a tendency towards higher incidence of SGA-births (aOR = 1.14, 95% CI [0.86, 1.51]) particularly among children born to mothers younger than 25 years (aOR = 1.87, 95% CI [1.09, 3.23]) and not working mothers (aOR = 1.86, 95% CI [1.09, 3.17]). No change in risk of PB was observed. The increase of LBW was most distinct 6–9 months after the collapse. Conclusion The results suggest an increase in risk of LBW shortly after the collapse of the Icelandic national economy. The increase in LBW seems to be driven by reduced fetal growth rate rather than shorter gestation. PMID:24324602

  20. Effects of Maternal Cervical Incompetence on Morbidity and Mortality of Preterm Neonates with Birth weight Less than 2000g

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Wang; Wei, Zhang; Ling, Fan; Song, Yu; Jian-Rong, Ma; Ping, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the impact of maternal cervical incompetence (with or without McDonald cerclage) on mortality and morbidity of preterm infant with birth weight <2000g. Methods: 581 neonates were eligible for this study, 79 with cervical incompetence and 502 without it (control). Incidences of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), severe asphyxia, small for gestational age (SGA), early-onset sepsis (EOS), and mortality were compared between the two groups. Findings: Mean gestational age was earlier in cervical incompetence group than in control (30.2±2.1 vs 30.7±1.9, P<0.05). Except lower frequency of SGA, there were no significant differences in the incidences of RDS, BPD, ROP, PVL, IVH, NEC, EOS, severe asphyxia and mortality between the two groups. Infants with no cerclage had a higher prevalence of RDS (21/66 vs 9/13, P<0.05) compared to cerclage group due to lower mean gestational age (30.68±2.1 vs 28.6±1.4, P<0.01) and birth weight (1519.5±274.6 vs 1205.8±204.4, P<0.001), and clinical neonatal outcomes of the elective cerclage were similar to emergency cerclage in cervical incompetence groups. Conclusion: Maternal cervical incompetence was not associated with postnatal adverse neonatal outcomes. Lower mean gestational age was a major risk associated with higher prevalence of RDS in preterm neonates with no McDonald cerclage, and emergency cerclage did not predict poor clinical neonatal outcomes. PMID:26019783

  1. Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Preterm Infants: A EuroHOPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Numerato, Dino; Fattore, Giovanni; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Zanini, Rinaldo; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Mihalicza, Péter; Lehtonen, Liisa; Sveréus, Sofia; Heijink, Richard; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; van der Heijden, Amber; Lundberg, Fredrik; Over, Eelco; Häkkinen, Unto; Seppälä, Timo T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare health outcomes and hospital care use of very low birth weight (VLBW), and very preterm (VLGA) infants in seven European countries. Analysis was performed on linkable patient-level registry data from seven European countries between 2006 and 2008 (Finland, Hungary, Italy (the Province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden). Mortality and length of stay (LoS) were adjusted for differences in gestational age (GA), sex, intrauterine growth, Apgar score at five minutes, parity and multiple births. The analysis included 16,087 infants. Both the 30-day and one-year adjusted mortality rates were lowest in the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden and Norway) and Scotland and highest in Hungary and the Netherlands. For survivors, the adjusted average LoS during the first year of life ranged from 56 days in the Netherlands and Scotland to 81 days in Hungary. There were large differences between European countries in mortality rates and LoS in VLBW and VLGA infants. Substantial data linkage problems were observed in most countries due to inadequate identification procedures at birth, which limit data validity and should be addressed by policy makers across Europe. PMID:26121647

  2. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  3. The Effect of Assisted Exercise Frequency on Bone Strength in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Randomized Control Trial.

    PubMed

    Litmanovitz, Ita; Erez, Hedva; Eliakim, Alon; Bauer-Rusek, Sofia; Arnon, Shmuel; Regev, Rivka H; Sirota, Gisela; Nemet, Dan

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to assess whether a twice daily assisted exercise interventional program will have a greater effect on bone strength compared to a once daily intervention or no intervention in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants. Thirty-four very VLBW preterm infants (mean BW 1217 ± 55 g and mean gestational age 28.6 ± 1.1 weeks) were randomly assigned into one of three study groups: twice daily interventions (n = 13), a once daily intervention (n = 11), and no intervention (control, n = 10). The intervention was initiated at a mean of 8 ± 2.4 days of life and continued for 4 weeks. It included passive extension and flexion range-of-motion exercise of the upper and lower extremities. Bone strength was measured at enrollment and after 2 and 4 weeks using quantitative ultrasound of tibial bone speed of sound (SOS, Sunlight Omnisense™). At enrollment, the mean bone SOS was comparable between the twice daily interventions, once daily intervention and control groups (2918 ± 78, 2943 ± 119, and 2910 ± 48 m/s, respectively). As expected, the bone SOS declined in all groups during the study period (-23.6 ± 24, -68.8 ± 28, and -115.8 ± 30 m/s, respectively, p < 0.05), with a significantly attenuated decrease in bone strength in the twice daily intervention group (p = 0.03). A twice daily intervention program of assisted range-of-motion exercise attenuates the decrease in bone strength and may decrease the risk of osteopenia and future fractures in VLBW preterm infants.

  4. Efficacy of additional psychosocial intervention in reducing low birth weight and preterm birth in teenage pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Wongrathanandha, Chathaya; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Dellow, Alan; Horsuwansak, Pornpot; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2015-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in reducing risk of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in teenage pregnancy. Relevant studies were identified from Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. Randomized controlled trials investigating effect of psychosocial interventions on risk of LBW and PTB, compared to routine antenatal care (ANC) were eligible. Relative risks (RR) of LBW and PTB were pooled using inverse variance method. Mean differences of birth weight (BW) between intervention and control groups were pooled using unstandardized mean difference (USMD). Five studies were included in the review. Compared with routine ANC, psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW by 40% (95%CI: 8%,62%) but not for PTB (pooled RR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.42,1.05). Mean BW of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group with USMD of 200.63 g (95% CI: 21.02, 380.25). Results of our study suggest that psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW in teenage pregnancy.

  5. Neuroprotection with erythropoietin in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Wang, Qiuxia; Xiang, Hong; Xin, Yue; Chang, Ming; Lu, Hongyan

    2014-08-01

    Neonatal brain injury caused by extreme prematurity remains a great challenge for prevention. Erythropoietin (EPO) has shown neuroprotective effects in a series of neonatal experimental models and recent clinical trials of premature infants. In this meta-analysis of seven clinical trials, EPO was associated with a highly reproducible reduction in the risk of neurodevelopmental disability in preterm infants. However, there was no difference in the risk for morbidity, cerebral palsy, visual deficit, severe hearing deficit, necrotizing enterocolitis, intracranial hemorrhage and patent ductus arteriosus. The use of EPO, to some extent, is associated with reduction in neurodevelopmental disability in preterm infants. More double blind randomized controlled trials are needed to establish the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in preterm infants. PMID:24650681

  6. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children. PMID:25952145

  7. [Periodontal disease and preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Malinova, M

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (PB) is a primary public health challenge in both developed and underdeveloped nations. Despite improvements in obstetric care, rates of preterm birth have not decreased during the last 10 years. The etiological role of maternal infection, either in the genital tract or elsewhere, on preterm delivery remains unclear. Periodontal disease (PD) is one of the most common chronic infectious diseases. This type of infection is caused primarily by Gram-negative anaerobic, and microaerophilic bacteria that colonize the subgingival area and produce significant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly interleukin 1 beta and interleukin 6, prostaglandin E2, and Tumor necrosis factor alpha. PD may therefore influence PB through an indirect mechanism involving inflammatory mediators or through a direct bacterial assault on the amnion. PMID:24294762

  8. Global Incidence of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tielsch, James M

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the incidence of preterm birth depends on accurate assessment of gestational age and pregnancy outcomes. In many countries, such data are not routinely collected, making global estimates difficult. A recent systematic approach to this problem has estimated a worldwide incidence of 11.1 per 100 live births in 2010. Significant variation in rates by country and region of the world was noted, but this variation is smaller than observed for a number of other important reproductive outcomes. Rates range from approximately 5% in some northern European countries to over 15% in some countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Time trends suggest that preterm birth incidence is increasing, but much of this change may reflect changes in medically induced early delivery practices as improvements in survival of preterm infants has improved. Whether there have been major changes in spontaneous preterm birth is unknown. New approaches to classifying etiologic heterogeneity have been proposed and offer the promise of developing specific interventions to address the range of underlying causes of this important health problem. PMID:26111559

  9. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  10. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus mandibular osteomyelitis in an extremely low birth weight preterm infant.

    PubMed

    Martini, Silvia; Tumietto, Fabio; Sciutti, Rita; Greco, Laura; Faldella, Giacomo; Corvaglia, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is an established nosocomial pathogen with frequent multidrug resistance. The immaturity of the immune system along with intravascular lines and empirical antibiotic treatments place hospitalized preterm infants at major risk of MRSA infection.We report a case of MRSA mandibular osteomyelitis complicating a persistent S. aureus bacteremia in a 23-week preterm infant. From the first weeks of life, the infant showed recurrent C-reactive protein (CRP) elevation, associated with S. aureus bacteremia. Antibiotic courses, including vancomycin and linezolid, were performed with transitory normalization of blood parameters. On day 74, the infant suddenly deteriorated and showed a significant increase of both CRP and procalcitonin. Empiric vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam treatment was started; nevertheless, she developed a progressive hard swelling of neck and mandible. Radiological evaluation revealed a mandibular osteomyelitis complicated by an abscess, whose culture grew MRSA. Vancomycin was thus changed to teicoplanin and complete clinical and radiological healing was gradually achieved.In the presence of major risk factors, persistent bacteremia and nonspecific symptoms, a localized focus of infection should be suspected. Microbiological diagnosis should always be attempted and antibiotic treatment should be guided by both susceptibility results and clinical response. PMID:26239708

  11. The Role of Immunonutrients in the Prevention of Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Li, Yanqi; Ma, Li-Ya; Lin, Hung-Chih

    2015-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a critical intestinal emergency condition, which mainly occurs in preterm very low birth weight (PVLBW) infants. Despite remarkable advances in the care of PVLBW infants, with considerable improvement of the survival rate in recent decades, the incidence of NEC and NEC-related mortality have not declined accordingly. The fast progression from nonspecific signs to extensive necrosis also makes primary prevention the first priority. Recently, increasing evidence has indicated the important role of several nutrients in primary prevention of NEC. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize some potential immunomodulatory nutrients in the prevention of NEC, including bovine colostrum, probiotics, prebiotics (e.g., human milk oligosaccharides), long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, and amino acids (glutamine, cysteine and N-acetylcysteine, l-arginine and l-citrulline). Based on current research evidence, probiotics are the most documented effective method to prevent NEC, while others still require further investigation in animal studies and clinical randomized controlled trials. PMID:26343718

  12. Does Social Health Insurance Close the Gap: The Case of Socioeconomic Status and Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Survival.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Vivian Chia-Rong; Shieh, Shwn-Huey; Chen, Chiu-Ying; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Hsiao, Yu-Chen; Wu, Trong-Neng

    2015-07-01

    Using a retrospective cohort study design, we report empirical evidence on the effect of parental socioeconomic status, primary care, and health care expenditure associated with preterm or low-birth-weight (PLBW) babies on their mortality (neonatal, postneonatal, and under-5 mortality) under a universal health care system. A total of 4668 singleton PLBW babies born in Taiwan between January 1 and December 31, 2001, are extracted from a population-based medical claims database for a follow-up of up to 5 years. Multivariate survival models suggest the positive effect of higher parental income is significant in neonatal period but diminishes in later stages. Consistent inverse relationship is observed between adequate antenatal care and the three outcomes: neonatal hazard ratio (HR) = 0.494, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.312 to 0.783; postneonatal HR = 0.282, 95% CI = 0.102 to 0.774; and under-5 HR = 0.575, 95% CI = 0.386 to 0.857. Primary care services uptake should be actively promoted, particularly in lower income groups, to prevent premature PLBW mortality. PMID:25922387

  13. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Olson, David M.; Severson, Emily M.; Verstraeten, Barbara S. E.; Ng, Jane W. Y.; McCreary, J. Keiko; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk. PMID:26694355

  14. Visual-motor deficits relate to altered gray and white matter in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Kam; Løhaugen, Gro C; Eikenes, Live; Bjørlykke, Kjerstin M; Håberg, Asta K; Skranes, Jon; Rimol, Lars M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals born preterm and at very low birth weight (birth weight ≤ 1500 g) are at an increased risk of perinatal brain injury and neurodevelopmental deficits over the long term. This study examined whether this clinical group has more problems with visual-motor integration, motor coordination, and visual perception compared to term-born controls, and related these findings to cortical surface area and thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy. Forty-seven preterm-born very low birth weight individuals and 56 term-born controls were examined at 18-22 years of age with a combined cognitive, morphometric MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging evaluation in Trondheim, Norway. Visual-motor skills were evaluated with the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-V (VMI) copying test and its supplemental tests of motor coordination and visual perception. 3D T1-weighted MPRAGE images and diffusion tensor imaging were done at 1.5 T. Cortical reconstruction generated in FreeSurfer and voxelwise maps of fractional anisotropy calculated with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics were used to explore the relationship between MRI findings and cognitive results. Very low birth weight individuals had significantly lower scores on the copying and motor coordination tests compared with controls. In the very low birth weight group, VMI scores showed significant positive relationships with cortical surface area in widespread regions, with reductions of the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and medial occipital lobe in conjunction with the posterior ventral temporal lobe. Visual perception scores also showed positive relationships with cortical thickness in the very low birth weight group, primarily in the lateral occipito-temporo-parietal junction, the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and superior parietal regions. In the very low birth weight group, visual-motor performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy especially in the corpus callosum

  15. Visual-motor deficits relate to altered gray and white matter in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Kam; Løhaugen, Gro C; Eikenes, Live; Bjørlykke, Kjerstin M; Håberg, Asta K; Skranes, Jon; Rimol, Lars M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals born preterm and at very low birth weight (birth weight ≤ 1500 g) are at an increased risk of perinatal brain injury and neurodevelopmental deficits over the long term. This study examined whether this clinical group has more problems with visual-motor integration, motor coordination, and visual perception compared to term-born controls, and related these findings to cortical surface area and thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy. Forty-seven preterm-born very low birth weight individuals and 56 term-born controls were examined at 18-22 years of age with a combined cognitive, morphometric MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging evaluation in Trondheim, Norway. Visual-motor skills were evaluated with the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-V (VMI) copying test and its supplemental tests of motor coordination and visual perception. 3D T1-weighted MPRAGE images and diffusion tensor imaging were done at 1.5 T. Cortical reconstruction generated in FreeSurfer and voxelwise maps of fractional anisotropy calculated with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics were used to explore the relationship between MRI findings and cognitive results. Very low birth weight individuals had significantly lower scores on the copying and motor coordination tests compared with controls. In the very low birth weight group, VMI scores showed significant positive relationships with cortical surface area in widespread regions, with reductions of the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and medial occipital lobe in conjunction with the posterior ventral temporal lobe. Visual perception scores also showed positive relationships with cortical thickness in the very low birth weight group, primarily in the lateral occipito-temporo-parietal junction, the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and superior parietal regions. In the very low birth weight group, visual-motor performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy especially in the corpus callosum

  16. Strategies to Prevent Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Newnham, John P.; Dickinson, Jan E.; Hart, Roger J.; Pennell, Craig E.; Arrese, Catherine A.; Keelan, Jeffrey A.

    2014-01-01

    After several decades of research, we now have evidence that at least six interventions are suitable for immediate use in contemporary clinical practice within high-resource settings and can be expected to safely reduce the rate of preterm birth. These interventions involve strategies to prevent non-medically indicated late preterm birth; use of maternal progesterone supplementation; surgical closure of the cervix with cerclage; prevention of exposure of pregnant women to cigarette smoke; judicious use of fertility treatments; and dedicated preterm birth prevention clinics. Quantification of the extent of success is difficult to predict and will be dependent on other clinical, cultural, societal, and economic factors operating in each environment. Further success can be anticipated in the coming years as other research discoveries are translated into clinical practice, including new approaches to treating intra-uterine infection, improvements in maternal nutrition, and lifestyle modifications to ameliorate maternal stress. The widespread use of human papillomavirus vaccination in girls and young women will decrease the need for surgical interventions on the cervix and can be expected to further reduce the risk of early birth. Together, this array of clinical interventions, each based on a substantial body of evidence, is likely to reduce rates of preterm birth and prevent death and disability in large numbers of children. The process begins with an acceptance that early birth is not an inevitable and natural feature of human reproduction. Preventative strategies are now available and need to be applied. The best outcomes may come from developing integrated strategies designed specifically for each health-care environment. PMID:25477878

  17. Maternal Emotional Responses to Preterm Birth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pederson, David R.; And Others

    This report describes the results of three studies of Canadian mothers with preterm infants that support three conclusions about mothers' experiences of preterm birth. The first conclusion is that preterm birth is a very stressful experience, even for mothers with relatively healthy infants. Mothers' major concerns focused on their infants'…

  18. Vagal Regulation of Heart Rate in the Prediction of Developmental Outcome for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…

  19. Comparison of three screening tests for autism in preterm children with birth weights less than 1,500 grams

    PubMed Central

    Dudova, Iva; Markova, Daniela; Kasparova, Martina; Zemankova, Jana; Beranova, Stepanka; Urbanek, Tomas; Hrdlicka, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm children seem to be at increased risk for autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Methods Parents of 157 children with birth weights less than 1,500 g (age 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls) completed screening questionnaires. The screening battery included the Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT), Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC), and the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Children with disabilities were excluded. All children who screened positive on any of the screening tools were subsequently assessed by clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Results Fifty-six children (35.7%) screened positive on at least one of the parental screening questionnaires. Of the 56 children who tested positive, 33 participated in the detailed clinical follow-up assessment. A diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 13 of the 33 children. The ASD prevalence was 9.7% of the sample. Analysis of children with and without an ASD diagnosis found significant differences relative to gestational age (26.9 weeks vs 28.3 weeks, P=0.033) and length of the stay in hospital (89.5 days vs 75.4 days, P=0.042). The screening tool with the most positive results was CSBS-DP-ITC (42 positive screens [PS]), followed by M-CHAT (28 PS), and ITSP (22 PS). Differences in the frequency of PS among the tests were significant (P=0.008). CSBS-DP-ITC had the highest sensitivity (0.846), followed by M-CHAT (0.692) and ITSP (0.462). Conclusion Our results indicate a higher prevalence of autism in children with birth weights <1,500 g at 2 years of age compared to the general population prevalence. The ASD diagnosis was associated with shorter gestation times and longer hospital stays. Our findings support the simultaneous use of more than one screening tests in order to increase screening sensitivity. PMID:25484588

  20. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  1. Intrapericardial teratoma in a low birth weight preterm infant: a successful multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gabriele M; Barber, Miguel A; Medina, Margarita; Abella, Raul

    2011-02-01

    We report the case of an intrapericardial teratoma, a rare tumour in infants, prenatally diagnosed and successfully treated thanks to a multidisciplinary approach. An intrapericardial cystic mass (2.5 cm) with pericardial effusion was identified in a foetus at 32 weeks gestational age (GA). Intrauterine pericardiocentesis was performed immediately (40 ml) and repeated at 33 weeks (25 ml) and then at 34 weeks GA, just before birth (36 ml). Considering the rapid growth of the mass and the risk of hydrops, vaginal delivery was induced. A baby girl weighing 1.98 kg was born without cardiorespiratory compromise. Echocardiography and thoracic CT-scan located the 4.0×3.0 cm cystic mass between the left atrial appendage and the left superior pulmonary vein. At three days of life, the mass was completely removed without cardiobypass. It arose from the ascending aorta. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathology diagnosed an immature intrapericardial teratoma. As long-term follow-up is required, alpha-fetoprotein can be a valid tool to monitor a possible recurrence. A multidisciplinary approach allows successful prenatal management and postnatal tumour surgery.

  2. MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation as genetic factors for preterm delivery, fetal death and low birth weight: A Northeast Indian population based study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Diptika; Bose, Purabi Deka; Das, Somdatta; Das, Chandana Ray; Datta, Ratul; Bose, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is one of the most significant contributors to neonatal mortality, morbidity, and long-term adverse consequences for health; with highest prevalence reported from India. The incidence of PTD is alarmingly very high in Northeast India. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the associative role of MTHFR gene polymorphism and progesterone receptor (PR) gene mutation (PROGINS) in susceptibility to PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and low birth weights (LBW) in Northeast Indian population. Methods A total of 209 PTD cases {extreme preterm (< 28 weeks of gestation, n = 22), very preterm (28–32 weeks of gestation, n = 43) and moderate preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, n = 144) and 194 term delivery cases were studied for MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) gene mutation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Distribution of MTHFR and PR mutation was higher in PTD cases. Presence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated and resulted in the increased risk of PTD (p < 0.001), negative pregnancy outcome (p < 0.001) and LBW (p = 0.001); more significantly in extreme and very preterm cases. Presence of PR mutation (PROGINS) also resulted in increased risk of PTD and negative pregnancy outcome; but importantly was found to increase the risk of LBW significantly in case of very preterm (p < 0.001) and moderately preterm (p < 0.001) delivery cases. Conclusions Both MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation are evident genetic risk factors associated with the susceptibility of PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and LBW. MTHFR C677T may be used as a prognostic marker to stratify subpopulation of pregnancy cases predisposed to PTD; thereby controlling the risks associated with PTD. PMID:25709895

  3. Reporting Outcomes of Extremely Preterm Births.

    PubMed

    Rysavy, Matthew A; Marlow, Neil; Doyle, Lex W; Tyson, Jon E; Serenius, Frederik; Iams, Jay D; Stoll, Barbara J; Barrington, Keith J; Bell, Edward F

    2016-09-01

    Published reports of extremely preterm birth outcomes provide important information to families, clinicians, and others and are widely used to make clinical and policy decisions. Misreporting or misunderstanding of outcome reports may have significant consequences. This article presents 7 recommendations to improve reporting of extremely preterm birth outcomes in both the primary and secondary literature. The recommendations should facilitate clarity in communication about extremely preterm birth outcomes and increase the value of existing and future work in this area. PMID:27516525

  4. A Meta-analysis of Depression During Pregnancy and the Risk of Preterm Birth, Low Birth Weight, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Gavin, Amelia R.; Melville, Jennifer L.; Iyengar, Satish; Katon, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Context Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been reported in some, but not all, studies to be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Objective To estimate the risk of PTB, LBW, and IUGR associated with antenatal depression. Data Sources and Study Selection We searched for English-language and non–English-language articles via the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Work Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Dissertation Abstracts International databases (January 1980 through December 2009). We aimed to include prospective studies reporting data on antenatal depression and at least 1 adverse birth outcome: PTB (<37 weeks’ gestation), LBW (<2500 g), or IUGR (<10th percentile for gestational age). Of 862 reviewed studies, 29 US-published and non–US-published studies met the selection criteria. Data Extraction Information was extracted on study characteristics, antenatal depression measurement, and other biopsychosocial risk factors and was reviewed twice to minimize error. Data Synthesis Pooled relative risks (RRs) for the effect of antenatal depression on each birth outcome were calculated using random-effects methods. In studies of PTB, LBW, and IUGR that used a categorical depression measure, pooled effect sizes were significantly larger (pooled RR [95% confidence interval]=1.39 [1.19–1.61], 1.49 [1.25–1.77], and 1.45 [1.05–2.02], respectively) compared with studies that used a continuous depression measure (1.03 [1.00–1.06], 1.04 [0.99–1.09], and 1.02 [1.00–1.04], respectively). The estimates of risk for categorically defined antenatal depression and PTB and LBW remained significant when the trim-and-fill procedure was used to correct for publication bias. The risk of LBW associated with antenatal depression was significantly larger in developing countries (RR=2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–2.93) compared with the United States (RR=1

  5. The use of psychosocial stress scales in preterm birth research

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, Melissa J.; GROBMAN, William A.; GOLLAN, Jackie K.; BORDERS, Ann E.B.

    2011-01-01

    Psychosocial stress has been identified as a potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, an association has not consistently been found, and a consensus on the extent to which stress and preterm birth are linked is still lacking. A literature search was performed with a combination of keywords and MeSH terms to detect studies of psychosocial stress and preterm birth. Studies were included in the review if psychosocial stress was measured with a standardized, validated instrument and the outcomes included either preterm birth or low birth weight. Within the 138 studies that met inclusion criteria, 85 different instruments were used. Measures designed specifically for pregnancy were used infrequently, although scales were sometimes modified for the pregnant population. The many different measures used may be one factor that accounts for the inconsistent associations that have been observed. PMID:21816383

  6. Progesterone to prevent spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn; Hassan, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and its prevention is an important healthcare priority. Preterm parturition is one of the ‘great obstetrical syndromes’ and is caused by multiple etiologies. One of the mechanisms of disease is the untimely decline in progesterone action, which can be manifested by a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester. The detection of a short cervix in the midtrimester is a powerful risk factor for preterm delivery. Vaginal progesterone can reduce the rate of preterm delivery by 45%, and the rate of neonatal morbidity (admission to neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, need for mechanical ventilation, etc.). To prevent one case of spontaneous preterm birth <33 weeks of gestation, 12 patients with a short cervix would need to be treated. Vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix both with and without a prior history of preterm birth. In patients with a prior history of preterm birth, vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm delivery. 17α-Hydroxyprogesterone caproate has not been shown to be effective in reducing the rate of spontaneous preterm birth in women with a short cervix. PMID:24315687

  7. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  8. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010). Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties. PMID:21714885

  9. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age.

    PubMed

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-12-28

    In very preterm ( < 32 weeks of gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW, < 1500 g birth weight) children, serious neonatal infections are among the main causes of poor developmental outcomes later in childhood. The amino acid glutamine has been shown to reduce the incidence of serious neonatal infections in very preterm and/or VLBW children, while developmental effects beyond 24 months are unknown. We determined the cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes at school age of a cohort of sixty-four very preterm and/or VLBW children (aged 7·5 (sd 0·4) years) who participated in a randomised placebo-controlled trial using enteral glutamine between day 3 and day 30 of life. Cognitive and motor outcomes were studied using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC), the Attention Network Test and a visual working memory task. Behavioural outcomes were evaluated using parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. Intelligence quotient, processing speed, attentional functioning, working memory and parent- and teacher-rated behavioural outcomes were not different between children treated with glutamine or placebo; only visuomotor abilities as measured by the Ball Skills scale of the MABC (P = 0·002; d = 0·67) were poorer in the glutamine group. This effect persisted after taking into account the beneficial effects of lower serious neonatal infections rates in children treated with glutamine (P = 0·005). In conclusion, glutamine supplementation between day 3 and day 30 of life had neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on long-term cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes of very preterm and/or VLBW children at school age, although visuomotor abilities were poorer in children that received glutamine.

  10. Dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA) – A systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayadeep; Bakker, Rachel; Irving, Hyacinth; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Malini, Shobha; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent. Objective To review systematically and perform meta-analyses on the effect of maternal alcohol exposure on the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA). Search Strategy Using Medical Subject Headings, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science between 1 January 1980 and 1 August 2009 was performed followed by manual searches. Selection Criteria Case control or cohort studies were assessed for quality (STROBE), 36 available studies were included. Data collection and Analysis Two reviewers independently extracted the information on low birth weight, preterm birth and SGA using a standardized protocol. Meta-analyses on dose-response relationship were performed using linear as well as first-order and second-order fractional polynomial regressions to estimate best fitting curves to the data. Main Results Compared to abstainers, the overall dose-response relationships for low birth weight and SGA had no effect up to 10 g/day (an average of about 1 drink/day) and preterm birth had no effect up to 18 g/day (an average of 1.5 drinks/day) of pure alcohol consumption; thereafter, the relationship had monotonically increasing risk for increasing maternal alcohol consumption. Moderate consumption during pre-pregnancy was associated with reduced risks for both outcomes. Conclusions Dose-response relationship indicates that heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risks of all three outcomes while light to moderate alcohol consumption shows no effect. Preventive measures during antenatal consults should be initiated. PMID:21729235

  11. Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldof, C. J. A.; van Wassenaer, A. G.; de Kieviet, J. F.; Kok, J. H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    A range of neurobehavioral impairments, including impaired visual perception and visual-motor integration, are found in very preterm born children, but reported findings show great variability. We aimed to aggregate the existing literature using meta-analysis, in order to provide robust estimates of the effect of very preterm birth on visual…

  12. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  13. Stress, self-esteem, and racism: relationships with low birth weight and preterm delivery in African American women.

    PubMed

    Murrell, N L

    1996-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is two times greater for African Americans than for Whites. Stress, self-esteem, and racism were proposed as correlates for LBW. A sample of African American women (N = 165) were interviewed in a prenatal HMO. Multiple regressions analyses run on the final sample (N = 147) demonstrated no significant relationship between stress, self-esteem, and racism with newborn birth weight or gestational age. A significant positive relationship, however, between racism and stress (p < .001) and a significant negative relationship between self-esteem and stress (p < .001) were demonstrated. Continued research on variables such as stress, self-esteem, and racism is necessary to understand their relationships to LBW in the African American childbearing family.

  14. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  15. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  16. Current understanding of genetic factors in preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Varner, Michael W; Esplin, M Sean

    2005-03-01

    Several lines of evidence support a genetic predisposition to spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth. Firstly, a leading risk factor for spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth is a personal or family history. If a woman previously delivered preterm, her subsequent babies are also more likely to be born preterm. Women who experienced an early preterm birth (<32 completed weeks) in their first pregnancy have the highest rate of recurrent preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies. Spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies tend to recur at equivalent gestational ages. If a woman herself was born preterm, she is also at an increased risk of spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth, with the risks being highest for those women who themselves were born most preterm. This predisposition does not apply to men who were born preterm. Racial predispositions to preterm birth have also been observed. Black women suffer twice the rate of preterm birth compared with Caucasians, even when confounding social and economic variables are controlled. It is well established that upper genital tract infection and/or inflammation is seen in association with spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth. Previous investigations have focussed primarily on an infectious aetiology for this finding. However, an alternative hypothesis has emerged, which suggests that this finding may represent an abnormal inflammatory response. The frequent association of spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth with histological infection/inflammation and elevated body fluid concentrations of inflammatory cytokines has focussed investigations on single gene polymorphisms of these cytokines in both mother and fetus. The polymorphisms tumour necrosis factor-alpha-308 (TNF-alpha-308), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) + 3953/3954 and IL-6-174 have been most consistently associated with spontaneous preterm labour and preterm birth. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important

  17. [Risk of preterm birth in twin pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Wilczyński, J; Nowakowska, D; Jaczewski, B; Wenerski, J; Oszukowski, P; Krasomski, G

    2000-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the selected risk factors in twin pregnancies. Retrospective analysis was carried out in the Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital (ICZMP) in Lodz and covered data from the period of time between 1989-1999. Out of 38,066 deliveries which had place in the ICZMP 538 twin pregnancies were enrolled in the study. We evaluated usual risk factors for preterm birth such as body mass index, short cervical length, beta-mimetics admission, presence of bleeding and contractions as well as socio-demographical characteristics such as age, parity, martial status and educational level. Univariate analysis and ?2 test were preformed. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. For multivariate analysis logistic regression model was used. Most of the risk factors for preterm birth were not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth of twins. PMID:11216165

  18. Effect of intravenous amino acids on glutamine and protein kinetics in low-birth-weight preterm infants during the immediate neonatal period.

    PubMed

    Kadrofske, Mark M; Parimi, Prabhu S; Gruca, Lourdes L; Kalhan, Satish C

    2006-04-01

    Glutamine may be a conditionally essential amino acid in low-birth-weight (LBW) preterm neonates. Exogenously administered amino acids, by providing anaplerotic carbon into the tricarboxylic acid cycle, could result in greater cataplerotic efflux and glutamine de novo synthesis. The effect of dose and duration of amino acid infusion on glutamine and nitrogen (N) kinetics was examined in LBW infants in the period immediately after birth. Preterm neonates (<32 weeks gestation, birth weights 809-1,755 g) were randomized to initially receive either 480 or 960 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) of an intravenous amino acid solution for 19-24 hours, followed by a higher or lower amino acid load for either 5 h or 24 h. Glutamine de novo synthesis, leucine N, phenylalanine, and urea kinetics were determined using stable isotopic tracers. An increase in amino acid infusion from 480 to 960 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1) for 5 h resulted in decreased glutamine de novo synthesis in every neonate (384.4 +/- 38.0 to 368.9 +/- 38.2 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1), P < 0.01) and a lower whole body rate of proteolysis (P < 0.001) and urea synthesis (P < 0.001). However, when the increased amino acid infusion was extended for 24 h, glutamine de novo synthesis increased (369.7 +/- 92.6 to 483.4 +/- 97.5 micromol x kg(-1) x h(-1), P < 0.001), whole body rate of proteolysis did not change, and urea production increased. Decreasing the amino acid load resulted in a decrease in glutamine rate of appearance (R(a)) and leucine N R(a), but had no effect on phenylalanine R(a). Acutely stressed LBW infants responded to an increase in amino acid load by transiently suppressing whole body rate of glutamine synthesis, proteolysis, and oxidation of protein. The mechanisms of this transient effect on whole body protein/nitrogen metabolism remain unknown.

  19. Abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and mental health outcomes in adolescents born extremely preterm and/or at an extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Ganella, Eleni P; Burnett, Alice; Cheong, Jeanie; Thompson, Deanne; Roberts, Gehan; Wood, Stephen; Lee, Katherine; Duff, Julianne; Anderson, Peter J; Pantelis, Christos; Doyle, Lex W; Bartholomeusz, Cali

    2015-03-01

    Extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) infants are at high risk of aberrant neurodevelopment. Sulcogyral folding patterns of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are determined during the third trimester, however little is known about OFC patterning in EP/ELBW cohorts, for whom this gestational period is disturbed. This study investigated whether the distribution of OFC pattern types and frequency of intermediate and/or posterior orbital sulci (IOS/POS) differed between EP/ELBW and control adolescents. This study also investigated whether OFC pattern type was associated with mental illness or executive function outcome in adolescence. Magnetic resonance images of 194 EP/ELBW and 147 full term (>37 completed weeks) and/or normal birth weight (> 2500 g) adolescents were acquired, from which the OFC pattern of each hemisphere was classified as Type I, II, or III. Compared with controls, more EP/ELBW adolescents possessed a Type II in the left hemisphere (P = 0.019). The EP/ELBW group had fewer IOS (P = 0.024) and more POS (P = 0.021) in the left hemisphere compared with controls. OFC pattern type was not associated with mental illness, however in terms of executive functioning, Type III in the left hemisphere was associated with better parent-reported metacognition scores overall (P = 0.008) and better self-reported behavioral regulation scores in the control group (P = 0.001) compared with Type I. We show, for the first time that EP/ELBW birth is associated with changes in orbitofrontal development, and that specific patterns of OFC folding are associated with executive function at age 18 years in both EP/ELBW and control subjects.

  20. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  1. Preterm birth in twin pregnancies: Clinical outcomes and predictive parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Inan, Cihan; Altintas, Ahmet Salih; Okten, Sabri Berkem; Sayin, Niyazi Cenk

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the neonatal outcomes of preterm birth in twin pregnancies and to investigate whether perinatal and obstetric parameters are associated with clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective trial was conducted on data gathered from 176 preterm twins delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of our tertiary care center. Data extracted from medical files of 88 pregnant women who gave preterm birth (at 260/7 to 366/7 gestational weeks) to twins were analyzed. Maternal/fetal descriptive and obstetric parameters, sonographic data, route of delivery, indication for cesarean section, birth weight, Apgar scores, head circumference, umbilical cord length and placental weight were noted. Results: The average age of the pregnant women was 28.8±6.4 years and ultrasonographic gestational age was 31.9±2.6 weeks. Apgar scores at 1st minute were affected significantly by fetal body weight (p=0.001), gestational age (p=0.001), height (p=0.004) and head circumference (p=0.011). None of these variables exhibited a noteworthy effect on Apgar scores at 5th minute. Conclusion: Efforts must be made to achieve advancement of gestational age until delivery in the follow-up preterm of twins. A well-established algorithm with special emphasis to risk factors is necessary to standardize and popularize the appropriate management strategy.

  2. Preterm birth in twin pregnancies: Clinical outcomes and predictive parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Inan, Cihan; Altintas, Ahmet Salih; Okten, Sabri Berkem; Sayin, Niyazi Cenk

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the neonatal outcomes of preterm birth in twin pregnancies and to investigate whether perinatal and obstetric parameters are associated with clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective trial was conducted on data gathered from 176 preterm twins delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of our tertiary care center. Data extracted from medical files of 88 pregnant women who gave preterm birth (at 260/7 to 366/7 gestational weeks) to twins were analyzed. Maternal/fetal descriptive and obstetric parameters, sonographic data, route of delivery, indication for cesarean section, birth weight, Apgar scores, head circumference, umbilical cord length and placental weight were noted. Results: The average age of the pregnant women was 28.8±6.4 years and ultrasonographic gestational age was 31.9±2.6 weeks. Apgar scores at 1st minute were affected significantly by fetal body weight (p=0.001), gestational age (p=0.001), height (p=0.004) and head circumference (p=0.011). None of these variables exhibited a noteworthy effect on Apgar scores at 5th minute. Conclusion: Efforts must be made to achieve advancement of gestational age until delivery in the follow-up preterm of twins. A well-established algorithm with special emphasis to risk factors is necessary to standardize and popularize the appropriate management strategy. PMID:27648040

  3. Neonatal physiological correlates of near-term brain development on MRI and DTI in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Stecher Guzman, Ximena; Hintz, Susan R; Stevenson, David K; Barnea-Goraly, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities identified at near-term age have been recognized as potential predictors of neurodevelopment in children born preterm. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between neonatal physiological risk factors and early brain structure in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants using structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at near-term age. Structural brain MRI, diffusion-weighted scans, and neonatal physiological risk factors were analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of 102 VLBW preterm infants (BW ≤ 1500 g, gestational age (GA) ≤ 32 weeks), who were admitted to the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford NICU and recruited to participate prior to routine near-term brain MRI conducted at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) from 2010 to 2011; 66/102 also underwent a diffusion-weighted scan. Brain abnormalities were assessed qualitatively on structural MRI, and white matter (WM) microstructure was analyzed quantitatively on DTI in six subcortical regions defined by DiffeoMap neonatal brain atlas. Specific regions of interest included the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, the thalamus, and the globus pallidus. Regional fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated using DTI data and examined in relation to neonatal physiological risk factors including gestational age (GA), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and sepsis, as well as serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, albumin, and total bilirubin. Brain abnormalities were observed on structural MRI in 38/102 infants including 35% of females and 40% of males. Infants with brain abnormalities observed on MRI had higher incidence of BPD (42% vs. 25%) and sepsis (21% vs. 6%) and higher mean and peak serum CRP levels, respectively, (0.64 vs. 0.34 mg/dL, p = .008; 1.57 vs. 0.67

  4. [Cervical pessary and prevention of preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Sentilhes, L; Descamps, P; Legendre, G

    2014-01-01

    Cervical pessary is a promising tool to prevent preterm birth in high risk pregnant women with shortened midtrimester ultrasonographic cervical length. It is well tolerated by women. PECEP and ProTWIN trials have opened new fields of clinical research. Their results suggest that cervical pessary may prevent preterm birth in women with (i) singleton and cervical length ≤25 mm at 18-22weeks, and with (ii) twins and cervical length ≤37mm at 16-22weeks. These results must be confirmed by other randomized controlled trial before a generalization of cervical pessary in these situations. The role of cervical pessary in the existing strategies to prevent birth (progesterone, cerclage or combinations thereof) has to be determined.

  5. Genetic Contributions to Disparities in Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Anum, Emmanuel A.; Springel, Edward H.; Shriver, Mark D.; Strauss, Jerome F.

    2008-01-01

    Ethnic disparity in preterm delivery between African Americans and European Americans has existed for decades, and is likely the consequence of multiple factors, including socioeconomic status, access to care, environment, and genetics. This review summarizes existing information on genetic variation and its association with preterm birth in African Americans. Candidate gene-based association studies, in which investigators have evaluated particular genes selected primarily because of their potential roles in the process of normal and pathological parturition, provide evidence that genetic contributions from both mother and fetus account for some of the disparity in preterm births. To date, most attention has been focused on genetic variation in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes and their respective receptors. These genes, particularly the pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and their receptors, are linked to matrix metabolism since these cytokines increase expression of matrix degrading metalloproteinases. However, the role that genetic variants that are different between populations play in preterm birth cannot yet be quantified. Future studies based on genome wide association or admixture mapping may reveal other genes that contribute to disparity in prematurity. PMID:18787421

  6. Passive smoking and preterm birth in urban China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jie; He, Xiaochun; Cui, Hongmei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Hanru; Bai, Haiya; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Lv, Ling; Xu, Xiaoying; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Ma, Bin; Liu, Sufen; Huang, Huang; Lerro, Catherine; Zhao, Nan; Liang, Jiaxin; Ma, Shuangge; Ehrenkranz, Richard A; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2014-07-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between maternal passive smoking and the risk of preterm birth have reached inconsistent conclusions. A birth cohort study that included 10,095 nonsmoking women who delivered a singleton live birth was carried out in Lanzhou, China, between 2010 and 2012. Exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth (<32 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 2.76) but not moderate preterm birth (32-36 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 1.19). Risk of very preterm birth increased with the duration of exposure (P for trend = 0.0014). There was no variability in exposures by trimester. The associations were consistent for both medically indicated and spontaneous preterm births. Overall, our findings support a positive association between passive smoking and the risk of very preterm birth. PMID:24838804

  7. Passive Smoking and Preterm Birth in Urban China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Jie; He, Xiaochun; Cui, Hongmei; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Honghong; Dang, Yun; Han, Xudong; Chen, Ya; Tang, Zhongfeng; Zhang, Hanru; Bai, Haiya; Xu, Ruifeng; Zhu, Daling; Lin, Xiaojuan; Lv, Ling; Xu, Xiaoying; Lin, Ru; Yao, Tingting; Su, Jie; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Wendi; Wang, Yueyuan; Ma, Bin; Liu, Sufen; Huang, Huang; Lerro, Catherine; Zhao, Nan; Liang, Jiaxin; Ma, Shuangge; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Liu, Qing; Zhang, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between maternal passive smoking and the risk of preterm birth have reached inconsistent conclusions. A birth cohort study that included 10,095 nonsmoking women who delivered a singleton live birth was carried out in Lanzhou, China, between 2010 and 2012. Exposure to passive smoking during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of very preterm birth (<32 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 1.98, 95% confidence interval: 1.41, 2.76) but not moderate preterm birth (32–36 completed weeks of gestation; odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.81, 1.19). Risk of very preterm birth increased with the duration of exposure (P for trend = 0.0014). There was no variability in exposures by trimester. The associations were consistent for both medically indicated and spontaneous preterm births. Overall, our findings support a positive association between passive smoking and the risk of very preterm birth. PMID:24838804

  8. Center Variation in the Delivery of Indicated Late Preterm Births.

    PubMed

    Aliaga, Sofia; Zhang, Jun; Long, D Leann; Herring, Amy H; Laughon, Matthew; Boggess, Kim; Reddy, Uma M; Grantz, Katherine Laughon

    2016-08-01

    Objective Evidence for optimal timing of delivery for some pregnancy complications at late preterm gestation is limited. The purpose of this study was to identify center variation of indicated late preterm births. Study design We performed an analysis of singleton late preterm and term births from a large U.S. retrospective obstetrical cohort. Births associated with spontaneous preterm labor, major congenital anomalies, chorioamnionitis, and emergency cesarean were excluded. We used modified Poisson fixed effects logistic regression with interaction terms to assess center variation of indicated late preterm births associated with four medical/obstetric comorbidities after adjusting for socio-demographics, comorbidities, and hospital/provider characteristics. Results We identified 150,055 births from 16 hospitals; 9,218 were indicated late preterm births. We found wide variation of indicated late preterm births across hospitals. The extent of center variation was greater for births associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes (risk ratio [RR] across sites: 0.45-3.05), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (RR across sites: 0.36-1.27), and placenta previa/abruption (RR across sites: 0.48-1.82). We found less center variation for births associated with diabetes (RR across sites: 0.65-1.39). Conclusion Practice variation in the management of indicated late preterm deliveries might be a source of preventable late preterm birth. PMID:27120474

  9. Maternal microbiome - A pathway to preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Vinturache, Angela E; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia; Hwang, Joseph; Mysorekar, Indira U; Jacobsson, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Despite great medical advances in preventing maternal and infant mortality in the past century, one issue remains unresolved: why do so many women give birth prematurely? A major new field of human microbiome studies has begun to shed light on the impact of microbes (of both the commensal and pathogen varieties) on pregnancy outcomes. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing and metagenomic analysis have revealed that maternal microbiomes at a variety of niches including the oral, vaginal, gut, cervical, and even the placenta itself govern pregnancy outcomes. In this review, we describe how alterations in the microbial biomasses impact preterm birth and we discuss the major research questions concerning the cause and/or interdependent relationships between microbiome, infection, and preterm delivery. PMID:26936188

  10. Recent advances in the prevention and management of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Min Yi

    2015-01-01

    The management of preterm birth has seen major transformations in the last few decades with increasing interest worldwide, due to the impact of preterm birth on neonatal morbidity and mortality. The prevention strategies currently available for asymptomatic women at risk of preterm birth include progesterone, cervical cerclage and cervical pessary. Each approach has varying effects depending on the patient's prior history of preterm birth, cervical length and the presence of multiple gestations. There is a shift in the focus of antenatal treatment, with the use of prenatal magnesium sulphate and corticosteroids, to reduce neonatal intensive care admissions and longer-term disabilities associated with preterm birth, consequently relieving emotional and economical burden. This article provides an update on the recent advances in prevention and management approaches available for women at risk of preterm birth. PMID:26097713

  11. Bacterial Hyaluronidase Promotes Ascending GBS Infection and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Vornhagen, Jay; Quach, Phoenicia; Boldenow, Erica; Merillat, Sean; Whidbey, Christopher; Ngo, Lisa Y.; Adams Waldorf, K. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm birth increases the risk of adverse birth outcomes and is the leading cause of neonatal mortality. A significant cause of preterm birth is in utero infection with vaginal microorganisms. These vaginal microorganisms are often recovered from the amniotic fluid of preterm birth cases. A vaginal microorganism frequently associated with preterm birth is group B streptococcus (GBS), or Streptococcus agalactiae. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying GBS ascension are poorly understood. Here, we describe the role of the GBS hyaluronidase in ascending infection and preterm birth. We show that clinical GBS strains associated with preterm labor or neonatal infections have increased hyaluronidase activity compared to commensal strains obtained from rectovaginal swabs of healthy women. Using a murine model of ascending infection, we show that hyaluronidase activity was associated with increased ascending GBS infection, preterm birth, and fetal demise. Interestingly, hyaluronidase activity reduced uterine inflammation but did not impact placental or fetal inflammation. Our study shows that hyaluronidase activity enables GBS to subvert uterine immune responses, leading to increased rates of ascending infection and preterm birth. These findings have important implications for the development of therapies to prevent in utero infection and preterm birth. PMID:27353757

  12. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    PubMed

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults.

  13. The relationship between preterm birth and underweight in Asian women.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2015-08-15

    Although vast improvements have been made in the survival of preterm infants, the toll of preterm birth (PTB) is particularly severe in Asia, with the Indian subcontinent leading the preterm birth rate. Despite the obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence in developing countries. An association between maternal underweight and preterm birth has been reported in developed countries. A review of epidemiological studies in Asian women in whom association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of PTB was measured, indicated no significant association between low maternal BMI and preterm birth. A hindrance in comparison of these studies is the use of different cut-off point for BMI in defining maternal underweight. As a commentary on published studies it is proposed that that country-specific BMI cut points should be applied for defining underweight for Asian women for the purpose of evaluating the association between maternal underweight and preterm birth.

  14. Microbiome in parturition and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Mysorekar, Indira U; Cao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Preterm parturition is a one of the most significant global maternal-child health problem. In recent years, there has been an explosion in reports on a role for microbiomes (i.e., a microbial biomass) on a plethora of physiologic and pathologic human conditions. This review aims to describe our current understanding of the microbiome and its impact on parturition, with particular emphasis on preterm birth. We will focus on the roles of vaginal and oral mucosal microbiomes in premature parturition and describe the state-of-the-art methodologies used in microbiome studies. Next, we will present new studies on a potential microbiome in the placenta and how it may affect pregnancy outcomes. Finally, we will propose that host genetic factors can perturb the normal "pregnancy microbiome" and trigger adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  15. Risk factors associated with preterm birth in the Gaza Strip: hospital-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abu Hamad, Kh; Abed, Y; Abu Hamad, B

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the main maternal risk factors associated with preterm birth in the Gaza Strip. A hospital-based case-control study was carried out at El-Shifa and Khan-Younis hospitals with 200 women with preterm births and 200 control women. Significant risk factors for preterm birth were: maternal age > or = 35 years, being a refugee, inadequate antenatal care, failure to gain adequate weight during pregnancy and previous history of preterm birth. Other significant risk factors included: short stature, short interval between the last 2 pregnancies, presence of congenital gynaecological abnormalities, previous history of caesarean delivery and previous history of stillbirth. PMID:18290407

  16. Indicated preterm birth for fetal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Craigo, Sabrina D

    2011-10-01

    Between 2% and 3% of pregnancies are complicated by fetal anomalies. For most anomalies, there is no advantage to late preterm or early-term delivery. The risks of maternal or fetal complication are specific for each anomaly. Very few anomalies pose potential maternal risk. Some anomalies carry ongoing risks to the fetus, such as an increased risk of fetal death, hemorrhage, or organ damage. In a limited number of select cases, the advantages of late preterm or early-term birth may include avoiding an ongoing risk of fetal death related to the anomaly, allowing delivery in a controlled setting with availability of subspecialists and allowing direct care for the neonate with organ injury. The optimal gestational age for delivery cannot be determined for all pregnancies complicated by fetal anomalies. For most pregnancies complicated by anomalies, there is no change to obstetrical management regarding timing of delivery. For those that may benefit from late preterm or early-term delivery, variability exists such that each management plan should be individualized. PMID:21962626

  17. Maternal Adjustment Following Preterm Birth: Contributions of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Heffner, Michelle; Poe, Susannah; Ritchie, Susan; Polak, Mark; Lynch, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has been linked with parental distress and adjustment difficulties, yet little is known about the psychosocial factors contributing to this association. Using a cross-sectional design, we therefore examined maternal adjustment following preterm birth, with an emphasis on the potential role of experiential avoidance.…

  18. The genetics of preterm birth: Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Monangi, Nagendra K; Brockway, Heather M; House, Melissa; Zhang, Ge; Muglia, Louis J

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth is the single leading cause of mortality for neonates and children less than 5 years of age. Compared to other childhood diseases, such as infections, less progress in prevention of prematurity has been made. In large part, the continued high burden of prematurity results from the limited understanding of the mechanisms controlling normal birth timing in humans, and how individual genetic variation and environmental exposures disrupt these mechanisms to cause preterm birth. In this review, we summarize the outcomes and limitations from studies in model organisms for birth timing in humans, the evidence that genetic factors contribute to birth timing and risk for preterm birth, and recent genetic and genomic studies in women and infants that implicate specific genes and pathways. We conclude with discussing areas of potential high impact in understanding human parturition and preterm birth in the future.

  19. Cost of Racial Disparity in Preterm Birth: Evidence from Michigan

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiao; Grigorescu, Violanda; Siefert, Kristine A.; Lori, Jody R.; Ransom, Scott B.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the economic costs associated with racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death in Michigan. Linked 2003 Michigan vital statistics and hospital discharge data were used for data analysis. Thirteen percent of the singleton births among non-Hispanic Blacks were before 37 completed weeks of gestation, compared to only 7.7% among non-Hispanic Whites (risk ratio = 1.66, 95% confidence interval: 1.59-1.72; p<0.0001). One thousand one hundred and eighty four non-Hispanic Black, singleton preterm births and preterm fetal deaths would have been avoided in 2003 had their preterm birth rate been the same as Michigan non-Hispanic Whites. Economic costs associated with these excess Black preterm births and preterm fetal deaths amounted to $329 million (range: $148 million - $598 million) across their lifespan over and above the costs if they were born at term, including costs associated with the initial hospitalization, productivity loss due to perinatal death, and major developmental disabilities. Hence, racial disparity in preterm birth and preterm fetal death has substantial cost implications for society. Improving pregnancy outcomes for African American women and reducing the disparity between Blacks and Whites should continue to be a focus of future research and interventions. PMID:19648701

  20. Prevention of preterm birth based on a short cervix: cerclage

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Melissa S.; Owen, John

    2009-01-01

    In an attempt to prevent preterm birth, clinicians have recommended cerclage for women with shortened cervical length and other worrisome sonographic cervical features in the mid-trimester, although randomized trials have not supported this practice. Emerging data suggests that preterm birth is a complex and poorly understood syndrome comprising several anatomic and functional components. As a result, preventive efforts have been mostly empiric and generally ineffective. Plausibly, effective preterm birth therapies exist, but matching the effective treatment with the correct patient has been problematic. Mid-trimester cervical changes visualized with vaginal sonography likely represent a pathologic process of premature cervical ripening and not real mechanical disability which has been traditionally treated with suture support. Cerclage may be an effectively reduce preterm birth in carefully selected women who have experienced a prior early preterm birth and who have shortened mid-trimester cervical length. PMID:19796730

  1. [Prevention of preterm birth with vaginal progesterone in women with preterm labor: which are the evidences?].

    PubMed

    Martinez de Tejada, B; Othenin-Girard, V; Irion, O

    2015-10-28

    The presence of uterine contractions and a short cervix at less than 37 weeks of gestation (preterm labor) is an important risk factor for a preterm birth. Currently, there is not treatment able to reduce the risk of preterm birth in this high risk group of women. Vaginal progesterone has been shown to be effective in reducing the risk of preterm birth in asymptomatic women with a prior preterm birth and in women with a short cervix, measured by vaginal ultrasound before 24 weeks of gestation. Unfortunately, vaginal progesterone has not been shown to be efficacious in women with preterm labor. A recent clinical trial has shown that it can even be deleterious in this group of women.

  2. Expanded care for women and families after preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Kantrowitz-Gordon, Ira

    2013-01-01

    Prematurity is a complication of pregnancy for 1 in 8 families in the United States. The focus of care after preterm birth shifts to the fragile newborn, while the needs of the woman and her family may be overlooked. There are many challenges for parents, including impaired parent-newborn attachment, difficulties with breastfeeding, postpartum mental health, and family disruption. Premature birth may even risk the developing relationship between parents and their child. Comprehensive care is recommended for parents who have experienced a preterm birth, including support of effective lactation, promotion of skin-to-skin care, reflection on the birth experience, support and evaluation of postpartum mental health, and provision of family-centered care. Preconception care after preterm birth needs to include guidance about the recurrence risk for preterm birth as well as recommendations for risk reduction.

  3. Paternal contribution to birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Magnus, P; Gjessing, H; Skrondal, A; Skjarven, R

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Understanding causes of variation in birth weight has been limited by lack of sufficient sets of data that include paternal birth weight. The objective was to estimate risks of low birth weight dependent on parental birth weights and to estimate father-mother-offspring correlations for birth weight to explain the variability in birth weight in terms of effects of genes and environmental factors.
DESIGN—A family design, using trios of father-mother-firstborn child.
SETTING—The complete birth population in Norway 1967-98.
PARTICIPANTS—67 795 families.
MAIN RESULTS—The birth weight correlations were 0.226 for mother-child and 0.126 for father-child. The spousal correlation was low, 0.020. The relative risk of low birth weight in the first born child was 8.2 if both parents were low birth weight themselves, with both parents being above 4 kg as the reference. The estimate of heritability is about 0.25 for birth weight, under the assumption that cultural transmission on the paternal side has no effect on offspring prenatal growth.
CONCLUSIONS—Paternal birth weight is a significant and independent predictor of low birth weight in offspring. The estimate of the heritability of birth weight in this study is lower than previously estimated from data within one generation in the Norwegian population.


Keywords: birth weight; genes; paternal effects PMID:11707480

  4. Cumulative psychosocial stress, coping resources, and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Sheila W; Kingston, Dawn; Bayrampour, Hamideh; Dolan, Siobhan M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a significant international public health issue, with implications for child and family well-being. High levels of psychosocial stress and negative affect before and during pregnancy are contributing factors to shortened gestation and preterm birth. We developed a cumulative psychosocial stress variable and examined its association with early delivery controlling for known preterm birth risk factors and confounding environmental variables. We further examined this association among subgroups of women with different levels of coping resources. Utilizing the All Our Babies (AOB) study, an ongoing prospective pregnancy cohort study in Alberta, Canada (n = 3,021), multinomial logistic regression was adopted to examine the independent effect of cumulative psychosocial stress and preterm birth subgroups compared to term births. Stratified analyses according to categories of perceived social support and optimism were undertaken to examine differential effects among subgroups of women. Cumulative psychosocial stress was a statistically significant risk factor for late preterm birth (OR = 1.73; 95 % CI = 1.07, 2.81), but not for early preterm birth (OR = 2.44; 95 % CI = 0.95, 6.32), controlling for income, history of preterm birth, pregnancy complications, reproductive history, and smoking in pregnancy. Stratified analyses showed that cumulative psychosocial stress was a significant risk factor for preterm birth at <37 weeks gestation for women with low levels of social support (OR = 2.09; 95 % CI = 1.07, 4.07) or optimism (OR = 1.87; 95 % CI = 1.04, 3.37). Our analyses suggest that early vulnerability combined with current anxiety symptoms in pregnancy confers risk for preterm birth. Coping resources may mitigate the effect of cumulative psychosocial stress on the risk for early delivery.

  5. Targeted Sequencing and Meta-Analysis of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Jessica; McGonnigal, Bethany; Dewan, Andrew; Padbury, James

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the genetic contribution(s) to the risk of preterm birth may lead to the development of interventions for treatment, prediction and prevention. Twin studies suggest heritability of preterm birth is 36–40%. Large epidemiological analyses support a primary maternal origin for recurrence of preterm birth, with little effect of paternal or fetal genetic factors. We exploited an “extreme phenotype” of preterm birth to leverage the likelihood of genetic discovery. We compared variants identified by targeted sequencing of women with 2–3 generations of preterm birth with term controls without history of preterm birth. We used a meta-genomic, bi-clustering algorithm to identify gene sets coordinately associated with preterm birth. We identified 33 genes including 217 variants from 5 modules that were significantly different between cases and controls. The most frequently identified and connected genes in the exome library were IGF1, ATM and IQGAP2. Likewise, SOS1, RAF1 and AKT3 were most frequent in the haplotype library. Additionally, SERPINB8, AZU1 and WASF3 showed significant differences in abundance of variants in the univariate comparison of cases and controls. The biological processes impacted by these gene sets included: cell motility, migration and locomotion; response to glucocorticoid stimulus; signal transduction; metabolic regulation and control of apoptosis. PMID:27163930

  6. Racial disparities in preterm births. The role of urogenital infections.

    PubMed Central

    Fiscella, K

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of urogenital infections on the racial gap between black and white women in preterm birth rates. METHODS: A computer-assisted search of the medical literature was conducted through MEDLINE aided by a manual bibliographic search of published articles and relevant books. Estimates of the relative risk for preterm birth were extracted from published studies for the following infections: N. gonorrhea, syphilis, trichomoniasis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Group B streptococcal vaginal colonization, asymptomatic bacteriuria, genital mycoplasmas, and bacterial vaginosis. Estimates of the prevalence among black and white women by race for each of these infections were extracted from published studies. The attributable risk for preterm birth for selected infections was then calculated for the black and white populations and the impact on the racial gap in preterm births was estimated. RESULTS: Only bacterial vaginosis and bacteriuria appear to be established risk factors for preterm births. Significantly higher rates of bacterial vaginosis among black women may account for nearly 30% of the racial gap in preterm births. Higher rates of bacteriuria among black women may account for roughly 5% of the gap. CONCLUSION: Although these findings are limited by the reliability of published estimates of prevalence and relative risk for these infections, treatment of infections during pregnancy, particularly bacterial vaginosis, offers hope for reducing the racial gap in preterm births. Images p104-a p110-a PMID:8606905

  7. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth: a potential mechanistic link.

    PubMed

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  8. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  9. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth: a potential mechanistic link.

    PubMed

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth.

  10. Preterm Birth, Intrauterine Infection, and Fetal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Matthew W.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) (delivery before 37 weeks’ gestation) is a leading cause of neonatal death and disease in industrialized and developing countries alike. Infection (most notably in high-risk deliveries occurring before 28 weeks’ gestation) is hypothesized to initiate an intrauterine inflammatory response that plays a key role in the premature initiation of labor as well as a host of the pathologies associated with prematurity. As such, a better understanding of intrauterine inflammation in pregnancy is critical to our understanding of preterm labor and fetal injury, as well as on-going efforts to prevent PTB. Focusing on the fetal innate immune system responses to intrauterine infection, the present paper will review clinical and experimental studies to discuss the capacity for a fetal contribution to the intrauterine inflammation associated with PTB. Evidence from experimental studies to suggest that the fetus has the capacity to elicit a pro-inflammatory response to intrauterine infection is highlighted, with reference to the contribution of the lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. The paper will conclude that pathological intrauterine inflammation is a complex process that is modified by multiple factors including time, type of agonist, host genetics, and tissue. PMID:25520716

  11. Late preterm births: irreducible because E = mc2.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Suneet P

    2011-06-01

    Defined as delivery at 34(0/7)-36(6/7) weeks, late preterm births have increased by 15% between 1992 and 2002 and currently they occur in about 8% of singletons and 35% of multiple gestations. Compared with newborns at 39 weeks, late preterm births undeniably have a significantly higher rate of morbidity (respiratory distress syndrome, pneumonia, need for ventilation), as well as neonatal and infant mortality. Thus, to lower the rate of late preterm birth seems to be self-evident necessity, but there is a need for judicious caution because there is insufficient evidence that prolonging these pregnancies improves maternal-fetal outcomes. PMID:21752750

  12. Why do Mexican Americans give birth to few low-birth-weight infants?

    PubMed

    Buekens, P; Notzon, F; Kotelchuck, M; Wilcox, A

    2000-08-15

    There are relatively few low-weight births among Mexican Americans, despite their socioeconomic disadvantages. Fewer low-birth-weight (LBW) births result when babies are heavier at term or when there are fewer preterm deliveries. The authors used 1994 US singleton livebirth birth certificates to compare Mexican Americans with non-Hispanic Whites. They found that the lower LBW rate among Mexican Americans (5.8%) compared with non-Hispanic Whites (6.1%) occurred because fewer small, preterm babies were born to Mexican Americans (3.4% vs. 3.9%). This result was obscured by two findings. First, the mean birth weight of Mexican American babies (3,343 g) was lower than that of non-Hispanic White babies (3,393 g). This finding again showed the independence of mean birth weight and LBW. Second, the overall preterm birth rate was higher among Mexican Americans (10.6%) than non-Hispanic Whites (9.3%). Our hypothesis is that this finding reflects errors in recorded gestational age, as illustrated by a strongly bimodal birth-weight distribution at young gestational ages for Mexican Americans. Further studies on the LBW paradox among Mexican Americans should thus focus on gestational age more than on birth weight.

  13. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part II: From Canonical Babbling up to the Appearance of the First Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the preverbal development of preterm infants from canonical babbling up to the first word and to compare it with that of healthy full-term infants. In addition, the amount of vocalization between the preterm and full-term groups was compared. The sample consisted of 18 preterm infants with…

  14. Acute Impact of Hourly Ambient Air Pollution on Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Guo, Yuming; Williams, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is a major perinatal health problem, but factors leading to it are still not completely understood. Objectives: Our goal was to identify the relation between acute increase in ambient air pollution in a few hours before onset of labor and the risk of preterm birth. Methods: We collected registered birth outcome data and hourly ambient air pollution measurements during 2009‒2013 in Brisbane, Australia. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models with natural cubic splines, we assessed the shape of air pollution-preterm birth curve, after controlling for potential confounders. We also examined the effect modification of other factors. Results: The association between air pollution [nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and carbon monoxide (CO)] and preterm birth was nonlinear. Threshold concentrations for the mean of 0‒24 hr NO2, 24‒48 hr SO2, and 24‒48 hr CO before onset of labor were 7.6 parts per billion (ppb), 3.8 ppb, and 162.5 ppb, respectively. Increases in air pollution concentrations above thresholds were associated with increased risks of preterm birth. The odds ratios of preterm birth at the 95th percentile of NO2, SO2, and CO against the thresholds were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.27), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.99, 1.04), and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.06, 1.32), respectively. The associations were modified by demographic factors, such as maternal smoking and socioeconomic status. Conclusion: Acute increases in ambient air pollution concentrations above certain levels before onset of labor may stimulate preterm birth. Citation: Li S, Guo Y, Williams G. 2016. Acute impact of hourly ambient air pollution on preterm birth. Environ Health Perspect 124:1623–1629; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP200 PMID:27128028

  15. Epigenetics, linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the US, more than 16% of African American infants are born before 37 weeks of gestation compared to less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  16. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  17. Towards BirthAlert—A Clinical Device Intended for Early Preterm Birth Detection

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Liu, Jonathan A.; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth causes 1 million infant deaths worldwide every year, making it the leading cause of infant mortality. Existing diagnostic tests such as transvaginal ultrasound or fetal fibronectin either cannot determine if preterm birth will occur in the future or can only predict the occurrence once cervical shortening has begun, at which point it is too late to reverse the accelerated parturition process. Using iterative and rapid prototyping techniques, we have developed an intravaginal proof-of-concept device that measures both cervical bioimpedance and cervical fluorescence to characterize microstructural changes in a pregnant woman's cervix in hopes of detecting preterm birth before macroscopic changes manifest in the tissue. If successful, such an early alert during this “silent phase” of the preterm birth syndrome may open a new window of opportunity for interventions that may reverse and avoid preterm birth altogether. PMID:23893706

  18. Role of the Placenta in Preterm Birth: A Review.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Terry K

    2016-02-01

    Preterm birth is a multifactorial syndrome with a variety of risk factors and long-term health consequences for the child. Placental pathology provides important diagnostic information to ascertain the cause of preterm birth. For example, intra-amniotic infection is one risk factor, but accumulating evidence based on placental pathology, amniotic fluid cultures, and polymerase chain reaction studies suggests infection may be a less common cause of preterm birth than previously suspected, especially after 32 weeks' gestation. Instead, many cases of spontaneous preterm labor leading to preterm birth appear to be caused by placental insufficiency, similar to preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction. Other causes of preterm birth, including retroplacental abruption, chronic villitis, and twin gestations, also have specific placental pathology related to placental insufficiency. New insights into the underlying mechanisms regulating uteroplacental blood flow and the impact of placental malperfusion on placental health may lead to improved early gestation diagnostic testing and a revolution in preventative care for both the mother and her child.

  19. Genetic Influences on Preterm Birth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Paul C.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Comas, Belén; Gili, Juan; Crumley, Suzanne; Bream, Elise N.A.; Byers, Heather M.; Piester, Travis; Schaefer, Amanda; Christine, Paul J.; Lawrence, Amy; Schaa, Kendra L.; Kelsey, Keegan J.P.; Berends, Susan K.; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Camelo, Jorge López; Saleme, Cesar; Day, Lori J.; England, Sarah K.; Marazita, Mary L.; Dagle, John M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate genetic etiologies of preterm birth (PTB) in Argentina through evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes and population genetic admixture. Study Design Genotyping was performed in 389 families. Maternal, paternal, and fetal effects were studied separately. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced in 50 males and 50 females. Y-chromosome anthropological markers were evaluated in 50 males. Results Fetal association with PTB was found in the progesterone receptor (PGR, rs1942836; p= 0.004). Maternal association with PTB was found in small conductance calcium activated potassium channel isoform 3 (KCNN3, rs883319; p= 0.01). Gestational age associated with PTB in PGR rs1942836 at 32 –36 weeks (p= 0.0004). MtDNA sequencing determined 88 individuals had Amerindian consistent haplogroups. Two individuals had Amerindian Y-chromosome consistent haplotypes. Conclusions This study replicates single locus fetal associations with PTB in PGR, maternal association in KCNN3, and demonstrates possible effects for divergent racial admixture on PTB. PMID:23018797

  20. Low birth weight incidence in Lundu, Sarawak.

    PubMed

    Yadav, H

    1994-06-01

    The overall mean birth weight of the total deliveries (1986-1988) in Lundu Hospital was 2.96 kg. The mean birth weight for the male babies was 2.94 kg. The Chinese babies had a significantly higher mean birth weight (3.12 kg) than the other ethnic groups (p < 0.05). The overall incidence of low birth weight (LBW) in this study was 11.84 per cent. The Chinese again had a lower incidence of LBW of 6.73 per cent compared to Ibans who had the highest incidence of LBW, 13.59 per cent, with the Bidayuhs 12.97 per cent and Malays, 12.45 per cent. It was also noticed that of the 14.9 per cent preterm deliveries, 37.5 per cent were LBW. The very young mothers (15-19 years) and older mothers (> 40 years) seem to have a higher incidence of LBW. Mothers who had medical conditions like anaemia, hypertension, pre-eclampsia also had a higher incidence of LBW when compared to mothers who did not have a medical condition. Special emphasis should be given to mothers who have medical conditions, and to very young and very old mothers during antenatal care, to prevent incidence of LBW. PMID:8090096

  1. Preventing admission hypothermia in very low birth weight neonates.

    PubMed

    Fawcett, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia, temperature < 36.5°C, is a major contributor to neonatal mortality and morbidity. hypothermia of preterm infants remains a challenge in the NiCU for many reasons. preterm very low birth weight (VlBW) infants, those infants born <1,500 g, are prone to very rapid heat losses through mechanisms of convection, evaporation, conduction, and radiation. this article reviews current research to reduce and prevent mortality and morbidity from hypothermia in preterm VlBW infants by implementing interventions in the delivery room to minimize heat loss and maintain core body temperatures. PMID:24816875

  2. Young maternal age and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Antônio A M; Simões, Vanda M F; Barbieri, Marco A; Bettiol, Heloisa; Lamy-Filho, Fernando; Coimbra, Liberata C; Alves, Maria T S S B

    2003-10-01

    The association between young maternal age and preterm birth (PTB) remains controversial. In some studies the association disappeared after controlling for socio-economic and reproductive factors, thus indicating that social disadvantage rather than biological factors may be the explanation. However, in other studies the association persisted after adjustment. The relation between young maternal age and PTB was studied in a city located in Brazil, an underdeveloped country, where the prevalence of teenage pregnancy was high, 29%. A systematic sampling of 2541 hospital births, stratified by hospital, was performed in São Luís, Northeast Brazil, from March 1997 to February 1998. The risks of PTB for infants born to two groups of young mothers (<18 and 18-19 years) were calculated with and without adjustment for confounding factors (family income, marital status, mode of delivery, parity, health insurance, and short maternal stature) in a logistic regression model, using mothers 25-29 years of age as the reference group. In the unadjusted analysis, the risk of PTB was higher for mothers < 18 years [odds ratio (OR) = 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64, 3.57]. Those aged 18 or 19 years were not at a higher risk of PTB (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.58, 1.38). After adjustment, the risk of PTB for mothers < 18 years was lower but remained significant after controlling for confounding (OR = 1.70, 95% CI 1.11, 2.60). After performing a stratified analysis according to parity, the risk of PTB among very young primiparae (<18 years) remained significant (OR = 1.77, 95% CI 1.02, 3.08), whereas the risk among non-primiparous adolescents was not significantly higher than the risk among mothers in the reference group. This suggests that the association between young maternal age and PTB may have a biological basis or an artifactual explanation (errors in gestational age estimation may be more common among very young mothers) or may be due to residual confounding. PMID:14629314

  3. Changes in Anti-Mullerian Hormone Levels in Early Pregnancy are Associated with Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Stegmann, Barbara J.; Santillan, Mark; Leader, Benjamin; Smith, Elaine; Santillan, Donna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of preterm birth with anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels, both in isolation and in combination with other markers of feto-placental health commonly measured during Integrated Prenatal Screening (IPS) for aneuploidy. Design Retrospective case-control study Setting State of Iowa Patients All pregnant women in Iowa who elected to undergo IPS and who subsequently delivered in Iowa were eligible for inclusion. Cases included women giving birth at <37 weeks gestation, controls included those who delivered at ≥37 weeks gestation. Interventions none Main outcome measure(s) Probability of a preterm birth Results 2nd trimester AMH levels were not associated with preterm birth, either independently or after controlling for other markers of feto-placental health. AMH difference was not associated with preterm birth when modeled alone, but a statistically significant association was found after adjusting for maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) and maternal weight change between the 1st and 2nd trimester. After stratifying the model by MSAFP level, most of the risk for preterm birth was identified in women with an MSAFP >1 Multiple of the Median (MoM) and who had a stable or rising AMH level in early pregnancy. Conclusions A lack of decline in the AMH level in early pregnancy can be used to identify women with a high probability for preterm birth, especially when MSAFP levels are >1 MoM. Monitoring changes in the AMH level between the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy may help identify women who would benefit from interventional therapies such as supplemental progesterone. PMID:26074093

  4. Preterm Birth Affects Dorsal-Stream Functioning Even after Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, A.; Duret, M.; Mancini, J.; Gire, C.; Deruelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    With increasing numbers of preterm infants surviving, the impact of preterm birth on later cognitive development presents a major interest. This study investigates the impact of preterm birth on later dorsal- and ventral-stream functioning. An atypical pattern of performance was found for preterm children relative to full-term controls, but in the…

  5. Comparative outcome of low birth weight babies.

    PubMed

    Das, B K; Mishra, R N; Mishra, O P; Bhargava, V; Prakash, A

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and fifty six babies with birth weight between 1500-2000 g and 103 full term-appropriate for gestational age (FT-AGA) babies delivered at University Hospital, District Hospital and village homes were included for a comparative study of mortality, morbidity and growth pattern. The low birth weight (LBW) babies from the three centres had similar birth weight and gestational age. Neonatal mortality rates for the LBW babies were similar at the three centres. The main cause of death were infections and aspiration with rates again being similar. Diarrhea and respiratory tract infections were common causes of morbidity. The mortality rates for the LBW babies were significantly higher as compared to FT-AGA babies irrespective of the place of delivery. The incidence of morbidities like diarrhea and respiratory infections were also higher in LBW babies. However, the differences were statistically significant mostly in the preterm group. The weight gain of all LBW babies was similar up to 3 months of age. The findings of an identical outcome for the LBW babies at village level to those managed at hospitals is an encouraging trend to increasing domiciliary care for LBW babies. PMID:8406701

  6. Respiratory Outcome after Preterm Birth: A Long and Difficult Journey.

    PubMed

    Priante, Elena; Moschino, Laura; Mardegan, Veronica; Manzoni, Paolo; Salvadori, Sabrina; Baraldi, Eugenio

    2016-09-01

    Despite notable advances in the survival and management of preterm infants in recent decades, chronic lung disease remains a common complication. Approximately one in three infants born preterm (< 32 weeks of gestation) are hospitalized with respiratory problems (mainly due to infections) in their first 2 years of life, and the risk of childhood wheezing is three times higher in this population. By comparison with infants born at term, there seems to be a higher incidence of respiratory morbidity in those born preterm, even in the absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and in late-preterm babies. Although long-term follow-up data are still not collected systematically, there is evidence of preterm infants' respiratory symptoms, lung function impairments, and radiological abnormalities, tending to persist throughout childhood and into early adulthood. Respiratory conditions associated with preterm birth are often diagnosed and treated as asthma, but the pathophysiological patterns of BPD and asthma are very different. Future research should focus on characterizing preterm infants' pathological pulmonary features by gestational age at birth, and presence or absence of BPD. Improving our current knowledge of the respiratory disorder associated with prematurity might hopefully prompt targeted follow-up protocols, and novel prevention strategies and treatment approaches. PMID:27603531

  7. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Preterm Birth and Its Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Anna K.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is a biological measure predictive of a normal or pathogenic process or response. Biomarkers are often useful for making clinical decisions and determining treatment course. One area where such biomarkers would be particularly useful is in identifying women at risk for preterm delivery and related pregnancy complications. Neonates born preterm have significant morbidity and mortality, both in the perinatal period and throughout the life course, and identifying women at risk of delivering preterm may allow for targeted interventions to prevent or delay preterm birth (PTB). In addition to identifying those at increased risk for preterm birth, biomarkers may be able to distinguish neonates at particular risk for future complications due to modifiable environmental factors, such as maternal smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy. Currently, there are no such biomarkers available, though candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies have identified DNA methylation differences associated with PTB, its risk factors and its long-term outcomes. Further biomarker development is crucial to reducing the health burden associated with adverse intrauterine conditions and preterm birth, and the results of recent DNA methylation studies may advance that goal. PMID:27089367

  8. A mouse model of spontaneous preterm birth based on the genetic ablation of biglycan and decorin.

    PubMed

    Calmus, Megan L; Macksoud, Elyse E; Tucker, Richard; Iozzo, Renato V; Lechner, Beatrice E

    2011-07-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes is responsible for one-third of preterm births. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes in humans. In particular, an EDS variant is caused by a genetic mutation resulting in abnormal secretion of biglycan and decorin, two small leucine-rich proteoglycans highly expressed in reproductive tissues. Because biglycan/decorin null mutant (Bgn(-/-)Dcn(-/-)) mice demonstrate phenotypic changes similar to EDS, we used this model to test whether either biglycan or decorin or both play a role in the attainment of successful term gestation. Wild-type biglycan null mutant, decorin null mutant, and biglycan/decorin null mutant pregnancies were assessed for the length of gestation, pup and placenta weight, and litter size. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to measure biglycan and decorin gene expression, and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess protein expression in placenta and fetal membranes at embryonic days E12, E15, and E18. Bgn(-/-)Dcn(-/-) dams displayed preterm birth, whereas the possession of at least two biglycan or decorin wild-type alleles was protective of preterm birth. The number of Bgn(-/-)Dcn(-/-) pups was decreased at postnatal day P1 but not at E18. Biglycan and decorin were upregulated in the placenta in the absence of each other and were developmentally regulated in fetal membranes, suggesting that these two proteoglycans demonstrate genetic complementation and contribute to gestational success in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, the biglycan/decorin null mutant mouse is a model of genetically induced preterm birth and perinatal loss. This model presents novel targets for preventive or therapeutic manipulation of preterm birth.

  9. Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

  10. Risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth in two urban areas of Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, S C; Little, R E; Hulchiy, O; Strassner, H; Gladen, B C

    2001-04-01

    The economic, social and health problems faced by former eastern bloc countries after the demise of the Soviet Union are unique in the recent history of Europe. We conducted a study in two urban areas of Ukraine, asking if the traditional predictors of preterm delivery continue to be associated with risk under these conditions. Subjects were pregnant women with last menstrual period (LMP) between 25 December 1992 and 23 July 1994. Self-completed questionnaires and the medical record provided data. We compared 137 spontaneous preterm deliveries with 2,886 full-term births, using all established risk factors for which we had data. Maternal age was the variable most strongly related to preterm birth. Being 18 or less had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.7; being 30+ had an OR of 2.5 relative to the reference group of age 25-29. Placental complications and pre-existing hypertension had ORs of 2.7 and 2.3, respectively, but the confidence interval included 1.0. Low net pregnancy weight gain (less than 10 kg) was significantly associated with preterm birth, but the rate of net weight gain was not. Marital status and educational category were only weakly related. We conclude that although Ukraine faced serious difficulties during its transition to a market economy, these problems did not generally alter the outcome of pregnancy in our sample when the classic risk factors for preterm delivery were present. PMID:11383576

  11. A Role for the Liver in Parturition and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Mawson, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Neither the mechanisms of parturition nor the pathogenesis of preterm birth are well understood. Poor nutritional status has been suspected as a major causal factor, since vitamin A concentrations are low in preterm infants. However, even large enteral doses of vitamin A from birth fail to increase plasma concentrations of vitamin A or improve outcomes in preterm and/or extremely low birthweight infants. These findings suggest an underlying impairment in the secretion of vitamin A from the liver, where about 80% of the vitamin is stored. Vitamin A accumulates in the liver and breast during pregnancy in preparation for lactation. While essential in low concentration for multiple biological functions, vitamin A in higher concentration can be pro-oxidant, mutagenic, teratogenic and cytotoxic, acting as a highly surface-active, membrane-seeking and destabilizing compound. Regarding the mechanism of parturition, it is conjectured that by nine months of gestation the hepatic accumulation of vitamin A (retinol) from the liver is such that mobilization and secretion are impaired to the point where stored vitamin A compounds in the form of retinyl esters and retinoic acid begin to spill or leak into the circulation, resulting in amniotic membrane destabilization and the initiation of parturition. If, however, the accumulation and spillage of stored retinoids reaches a critical threshold prior to nine months, e.g., due to cholestatic liver disease, which is common in mothers of preterm infants, the increased retinyl esters and/or retinoic acid rupture the fetal membranes, inducing preterm birth and its complications, including retinopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Subject to testing, the model suggests that measures taken prior to and during pregnancy to improve liver function could reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth. PMID:27595011

  12. Relation of caffeine intake during pregnancy to intrauterine growth retardation and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Fortier, I; Marcoux, S; Beaulac-Baillargeon, L

    1993-05-01

    Whether caffeine intake during pregnancy is related to intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, and preterm birth remains unclear. The purpose of this population-based study is to assess these associations and to evaluate the interaction between caffeine intake and smoking. The study participants (n = 7,025) were women who lived in Quebec City, Canada, and the surrounding area who gave birth between January 1989 and October 1989 to a singleton liveborn neonate. Information on gestational age at delivery, caffeine intake (coffee, tea, chocolate, and colas) during pregnancy, and several potential confounders was obtained by telephone a few weeks after delivery. Birth weight was abstracted from the birth certificate. Caffeine consumption was associated with an increased risk of intrauterine growth retardation (birth weight less than the 10th percentile for sex and gestational age). For women whose average daily caffeine consumption was 0-10, 11-150, 151-300, or > 300 mg, the adjusted odds ratios for delivering a newborn with growth retardation were 1.00, 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.59), 1.42 (95% CI 1.07-1.87), and 1.57 (95% CI 1.05-2.33), respectively. Caffeine intake, however, was not related to preterm delivery or low birth weight. We conclude that caffeine intake during pregnancy is a risk factor for intrauterine growth retardation.

  13. Prepregnancy Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and the Role of Maternal Nativity in a Low-Income, Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Gee, Denise C.; Zhu, Yuda; Whaley, Shannon E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth in a low-income, Hispanic population in Southern California. Additionally, the study assessed whether the prevalence of preterm birth and any associations between risk factors and preterm birth differed between U.S.- and foreign-born mothers. The study sample included 1,174 mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) within 1 year postpartum, including an augment sample of mothers who delivered preterm. Maternal sociodemographic traits, prepregnancy health-related characteristics and behaviors, and birth outcomes were collected by telephone survey. Odds ratios for associations between risk factors and preterm birth were estimated by logistic regression with sampling weights. Effect measure modification of any association by maternal nativity was also assessed using interaction terms. After adjustment for confounding, significant prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth included maternal age ≥35 y (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.84) compared to age 18–24 y, and experience of a financially stressful life event among U.S.-born, but not foreign-born, women (OR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.43, 4.77). The weighted prevalence of preterm birth was 15.1% and did not significantly differ by maternal nativity (P = 0.19). Further investigation with large, prospective studies is needed to better understand the risk factors for and disparities in preterm birth among the growing Hispanic population in the U.S. so that women who are at risk prepregnancy can be identified and provided risk-specific services. PMID:25994418

  14. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  15. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  16. Cluster analysis of spontaneous preterm birth phenotypes identifies potential associations among preterm birth mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Esplin, M Sean; Manuck, Tracy A.; Varner, Michael W.; Christensen, Bryce; Biggio, Joseph; Bukowski, Radek; Parry, Samuel; Zhang, Heping; Huang, Hao; Andrews, William; Saade, George; Sadovsky, Yoel; Reddy, Uma M.; Ilekis, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to employ an innovative tool based on common biological pathways to identify specific phenotypes among women with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), in order to enhance investigators' ability to identify to highlight common mechanisms and underlying genetic factors responsible for SPTB. Study Design A secondary analysis of a prospective case-control multicenter study of SPTB. All cases delivered a preterm singleton at SPTB ≤34.0 weeks gestation. Each woman was assessed for the presence of underlying SPTB etiologies. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify groups of women with homogeneous phenotypic profiles. One of the phenotypic clusters was selected for candidate gene association analysis using VEGAS software. Results 1028 women with SPTB were assigned phenotypes. Hierarchical clustering of the phenotypes revealed five major clusters. Cluster 1 (N=445) was characterized by maternal stress, cluster 2 (N=294) by premature membrane rupture, cluster 3 (N=120) by familial factors, and cluster 4 (N=63) by maternal comorbidities. Cluster 5 (N=106) was multifactorial, characterized by infection (INF), decidual hemorrhage (DH) and placental dysfunction (PD). These three phenotypes were highly correlated by Chi-square analysis [PD and DH (p<2.2e-6); PD and INF (p=6.2e-10); INF and DH (p=0.0036)]. Gene-based testing identified the INS (insulin) gene as significantly associated with cluster 3 of SPTB. Conclusion We identified 5 major clusters of SPTB based on a phenotype tool and hierarchal clustering. There was significant correlation between several of the phenotypes. The INS gene was associated with familial factors underlying SPTB. PMID:26070700

  17. dbPTB: a database for preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Uzun, Alper; Laliberte, Alyse; Parker, Jeremy; Andrew, Caroline; Winterrowd, Emily; Sharma, Surendra; Istrail, Sorin; Padbury, James F

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) query the entire genome in a hypothesis-free, unbiased manner. Since they have the potential for identifying novel genetic variants, they have become a very popular approach to the investigation of complex diseases. Nonetheless, since the success of the GWAS approach varies widely, the identification of genetic variants for complex diseases remains a difficult problem. We developed a novel bioinformatics approach to identify the nominal genetic variants associated with complex diseases. To test the feasibility of our approach, we developed a web-based aggregation tool to organize the genes, genetic variations and pathways involved in preterm birth. We used semantic data mining to extract all published articles related to preterm birth. All articles were reviewed by a team of curators. Genes identified from public databases and archives of expression arrays were aggregated with genes curated from the literature. Pathway analysis was used to impute genes from pathways identified in the curations. The curated articles and collected genetic information form a unique resource for investigators interested in preterm birth. The Database for Preterm Birth exemplifies an approach that is generalizable to other disorders for which there is evidence of significant genetic contributions. PMID:22323062

  18. Antenatal corticosteroids trial in preterm births to increase neonatal survival in developing countries: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    -coded tape to measure uterine height to estimate gestational age in women with unknown gestational age. In both intervention and control clusters, health providers will be trained in essential newborn care for low birth weight babies. The primary outcome is neonatal mortality at 28 days of life in preterm infants. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT01084096 PMID:22992312

  19. Stress, infection and preterm birth: a biobehavioural perspective.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, P D; Culhane, J F; Rauh, V; Barve, S S; Hogan, V; Sandman, C A; Hobel, C J; Chicz-DeMet, A; Dunkel-Schetter, C; Garite, T J; Glynn, L

    2001-07-01

    Preterm birth is currently the most important problem in maternal-child health in the United States. Epidemiological studies have suggested that two factors, maternal stress and maternal urogenital tract infection, are significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth. These factors are also more prevalent in the population of sociodemographically disadvantaged women who are at increased risk for preterm birth. Studies of the physiology of parturition suggest that neuroendocrine and immune processes play important roles in the physiology and pathophysiology of normal and preterm parturition. However, not all women with high levels of stress and/or infection deliver preterm, and little is understood about factors that modulate susceptibility to pathophysiological events of the endocrine and immune systems in pregnancy. We present here a comprehensive, biobehavioural model of maternal stress and spontaneous preterm delivery. According to this model, chronic maternal stress is a significant and independent risk factor for preterm birth. The effects of maternal stress on preterm birth may be mediated through biological and/or behavioural mechanisms. We propose that maternal stress may act via one or both of two physiological pathways: (a) a neuroendocrine pathway, wherein maternal stress may ultimately result in premature and/or greater degree of activation of the maternal-placental-fetal endocrine systems that promote parturition; and (b) an immune/inflammatory pathway, wherein maternal stress may modulate characteristics of systemic and local (placental-decidual) immunity to increase susceptibility to intrauterine and fetal infectious-inflammatory processes and thereby promote parturition through pro-inflammatory mechanisms. We suggest that placental corticotropin-releasing hormone may play a key role in orchestrating the effects of endocrine and inflammatory/immune processes on preterm birth. Moreover, because

  20. EXPOSURE TO AREA-LEVEL PRETERM BIRTH DISPARITY AND EFFECTS ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black–white disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is persistent and not explained by individual factors. Given that exposure to inequality is associated with increased risk of adverse health, we examined PTB risk (birth <37 weeks gestational age) explained by living in U.S. census tra...

  1. Body water content of extremely preterm infants at birth

    PubMed Central

    Hartnoll, G.; Betremieux, P.; Modi, N.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Preterm birth is often associated with impaired growth. Small for gestational age status confers additional risk.
AIM—To determine the body water content of appropriately grown (AGA) and small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants in order to provide a baseline for longitudinal studies of growth after preterm birth.
METHODS—All infants born at the Hammersmith and Queen Charlotte's Hospitals between 25 and 30 weeks gestational age were eligible for entry into the study. Informed parental consent was obtained as soon after delivery as possible, after which the extracellular fluid content was determined by bromide dilution and total body water by H218O dilution.
RESULTS—Forty two preterm infants were studied. SGA infants had a significantly higher body water content than AGA infants (906 (833-954) and 844 (637-958) ml/kg respectively; median (range); p = 0.019). There were no differences in extracellular and intracellular fluid volumes, nor in the ratio of extracellular to intracellular fluid. Estimates of relative adiposity suggest a body fat content of about 7% in AGA infants, assuming negligible fat content in SGA infants and lean body tissue hydration to be equivalent in the two groups.
CONCLUSIONS—Novel values for the body water composition of the SGA preterm infant at 25-30 weeks gestation are presented. The data do not support the view that SGA infants have extracellular dehydration, nor is their regulation of body water impaired.

 PMID:10873174

  2. EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children born at low gestational ages face a range of risks and number of neonates surviving very preterm birth is increasing. We present the objectives and methods of a French national cohort of very and moderately preterm children, the EPIPAGE 2 study. It aims to examine short- and long-term outcomes of very preterm children and their determinants. Methods/Design Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all infants live born or stillborn and all terminations of pregnancy between 22 and 31 completed weeks of gestation in all the maternity units in 25 French regions. In addition, a sample of moderate preterm births, i.e. births and late terminations at 32–34 weeks, was included in the same regions. In all, 7804 babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France in 2011 that were either very (22–31 weeks) or moderately preterm (32–34 weeks) were included. Data on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal events were extracted from the obstetric and neonatal records. The follow-up will collect information at corrected ages of one and 2 years and at 5, 8, and 12 years of age. Of the 4467 children discharged alive from the hospital and eligible for follow-up, 155 (4%) families refused further follow-up and 22 died before one-year of age. Finally, 4290 were included in the follow-up. Eight additional projects investigating specific hypotheses among subsamples of the cohort by collecting specific data in addition to the core cohort data are being conducted to investigate 1) diagnosis of histologic chorioamnionitis, 2) early biomarkers of child health, 3) attitudes of care for extremely preterm infants, 4) painful procedures in neonatal intensive care units, 5) neonatal MRI cerebral abnormalities and their relation to executive functions, 6) associations between early gut colonization and early and late onset diseases, 7) impact of neonatal nutrition on child development

  3. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (3 of 7): evidence for effectiveness of interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Interventions directed toward mothers before and during pregnancy and childbirth may help reduce preterm births and stillbirths. Survival of preterm newborns may also be improved with interventions given during these times or soon after birth. This comprehensive review assesses existing interventions for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods Approximately 2,000 intervention studies were systematically evaluated through December 31, 2008. They addressed preterm birth or low birth weight; stillbirth or perinatal mortality; and management of preterm newborns. Out of 82 identified interventions, 49 were relevant to LMICs and had reasonable amounts of evidence, and therefore selected for in-depth reviews. Each was classified and assessed by the quality of available evidence and its potential to treat or prevent preterm birth and stillbirth. Impacts on other maternal, fetal, newborn or child health outcomes were also considered. Assessments were based on an adaptation of the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. Results Most interventions require additional research to improve the quality of evidence. Others had little evidence of benefit and should be discontinued. The following are supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence and strongly recommended for LMICs: • Two interventions prevent preterm births—smoking cessation and progesterone • Eight interventions prevent stillbirths—balanced protein energy supplementation, screening and treatment of syphilis, intermittant presumptive treatment for malaria during pregnancy, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, birth preparedness, emergency obstetric care, cesarean section for breech presentation, and elective induction for post-term delivery • Eleven interventions improve survival of preterm newborns—prophylactic steroids in preterm labor, antibiotics for PROM, vitamin K supplementation at delivery, case management of neonatal sepsis and pneumonia

  4. [SOME CLINICAL AND IMMUNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PRETERM BIRTH].

    PubMed

    Zhumakanova, K; Abeuova, B; Kuzgibekova, A; Kenzhebayeva, K; Eremicheva, G

    2016-04-01

    Aim - to make a comparative assessment of the cytokines level in women with preterm labor with chronic infection and without it in order to determine the risk of implementation of intrauterine infection in their preterm infants. There was prospective investigation of 141 pregnant and their 141 premature infants with different gestation terms. There was identify cytokines levels in mother's blood with immune enzyme analysis method due implementation of intrauterine infection in compare with control group. It wasinterconnection ofinfection pathology withgestation terms, it lead to preterm labor. Prematurity which cause by mothers chronic infection, lead to heavier, extended period of bacterial infection in premature infants. It was increasing of cytokines levels IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α of mother's blood during implementation of intrauterine infection in premature infants. Multiparous pregnant, adverse outcomes of previous pregnancies in anamnesis, high frequency carrier of bacterial infection were risk factors for preterm labor among explored pregnant women. To study cytokine profile among the explored pregnant women from main group showed a pattern in increasing of level IL-1β, IL- 6 and TNF-α serum during pregnancy , indicating the course of pregnancy and can be used as a nonspecific marker for early diagnosis of preterm birth and implementing infection in premature . The level of IL-2 did not have a diagnostic value. PMID:27249429

  5. Cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Owen, John; Mancuso, Melissa

    2012-03-01

    Contemporary evidence supports the concept that cervical insufficiency is anything but a well-defined and distinct clinical entity. Instead, it is only 1 component of the larger and more complex preterm birth syndrome. Premature cervical ripening, as evidenced by shortening and effacement beginning at the internal os, provides strong evidence that parturition has begun and is the result of multiple interrelated pathways and inciting factors. Ultrasonographic screening of the cervix and treatment with cerclage for cervical shortening in the mid-trimester is reserved for women with prior spontaneous preterm birth (Fig. 1). Although cerclage benefit increases as the cervix shortens to less than 25 mm, it is appropriate to offer cerclage to women with shortened cervical length of less than 25 mm, and particularly those with a coexistent U-shaped funnel.

  6. Epidemiology of spontaneous premature rupture of membranes: factors in pre-term births.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, H. C.; Jekel, J. F.

    1989-01-01

    The frequency of spontaneous premature rupture of membranes (PROM) was determined in the pregnancies of 1,848 white mothers and their singleton infants, born at the University of Kansas Medical Center between April 1975 and April 1978. The frequency of PROM increased significantly from a low of 34/707 (4.8 percent) among low-risk mothers, to 40/444 (9.0 percent) among mothers smoking one to 60 cigarettes a day, to 21/204 (10.3 percent) among mothers with multiple adverse maternal practices, and to 12/46 (26 percent) among mothers with selected complications of their pregnancies. The proportion of low birth weight (LBW) (less than 2,500 g) pre-term infants born to PROM mothers increased among the risk factor groups in a similar manner, from a low of 2/34 (6 percent) in low-risk pregnancies to 8/40 (20 percent) among mothers smoking one to 60 cigarettes a day, to 7/21 (33 percent) among mothers with multiple adverse practices, and to 7/12 (58 percent) among mothers with selected complications of pregnancy. The increased incidence of low birth weight pre-term infants born to mothers with PROM was associated with evidence of growth retardation among full-term infants in the high-risk groups. This finding was manifested by reductions in mean birth weights of full-term infants born to high-risk mothers but not observed in full-term infants born to low-risk mothers. The attained growth at birth of low birth weight pre-term infants could not be determined, because appropriate birth weight standards for pre-term infants born to mothers with low-risk pregnancies are not available. These results suggest that growth retardation in fetuses increased the probability of the mothers having PROM prior to the onset of labor, and, if PROM did occur, of having a premature delivery. We hypothesize that the tensile strength of the amnion and chorion is diminished by the same conditions that retard fetal growth, and that this reduction in strength of the fetal membranes contributes to

  7. Counselling and management for anticipated extremely preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, Ann L; Kirpalani, Haresh M

    2012-01-01

    Extremely preterm birth (birth between 220/7 and 256/7 weeks’ gestational age [GA]) often requires parents to make complex choices about the care of their infant. Health professionals have a significant role in providing information, guidance and support. Parents facing the birth of an extremely preterm infant should have the chance to meet with both obstetrical and paediatric/neonatal care providers to receive accurate information about their infant’s prognosis, provided with clarity and compassion. Decision making between parents and health professionals should be an informed and shared process, with documentation of all management decisions. Consultation with and transfer to tertiary perinatal centres are important for the care of both mother and fetus. As the survival of infants born before or at 22 completed weeks’ GA remains uncommon, a noninterventional approach is recommended, whereas at 23, 24 and 25 weeks’ GA, counselling about outcomes and decision making should be individualized for each infant and family, using factors which influence prognosis. All extremely preterm infants who are not resuscitated, or for whom resuscitation is not successful, must receive compassionate palliative care. PMID:24082807

  8. Region-specific growth restriction of brain following preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Sachiko; Katayama, Reiji; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Sachio; Abe, Toshi; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    Regional brain sizes of very-preterm infants at term-equivalent age differ from those of term-born peers, which have been linked with later cognitive impairments. However, dependence of regional brain volume loss on gestational age has not been studied in detail. To investigate the spatial pattern of brain growth in neonates without destructive brain lesions, head MRI of 189 neonates with a wide range of gestational age (24–42 weeks gestation) was assessed using simple metrics measurements. Dependence of MRI findings on gestational age at birth (Agebirth) and the corrected age at MRI scan (AgeMRI) were assessed. The head circumference was positively correlated with AgeMRI, but not Agebirth. The bi-parietal width, deep grey matter area and the trans-cerebellar diameter were positively correlated with both Agebirth and AgeMRI. The callosal thickness (positive), atrial width of lateral ventricle (negative) and the inter-hemispheric distance (negative) were exclusively correlated with Agebirth. The callosal thickness and cerebral/cerebellar transverse diameters showed predominant dependence on Agebirth over AgeMRI, suggesting that brain growth after preterm-birth was considerably restricted or even became negligible compared with that in utero. Such growth restriction after preterm birth may extensively affect relatively more matured infants, considering the linear relationships observed between brain sizes and Agebirth. PMID:27658730

  9. Measures of placental growth in relation to birth weight and gestational age.

    PubMed

    Salafia, Carolyn M; Maas, Elizabeth; Thorp, John M; Eucker, Barbara; Pezzullo, John C; Savitz, David A

    2005-11-15

    Fetal growth depends in part on placental growth. The authors tested placental measures derived from digital images for reliability and to evaluate their association with birth weight and gestational age. A total of 628 women recruited into the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Study, a prospective cohort study of preterm birth in central North Carolina between 2002 and 2004, delivered singleton liveborn infants after 24 completed weeks' gestation. Novel chorionic plate morphometric parameters captured off digital images of the gross placenta were analyzed as estimators of gestational age and birth weight. Without acknowledgment to placental weight, digitally obtained lateral chorionic plate growth measures accounted for 17 percent of gestational age variance and 35 percent of birth weight variance, overall. Chorionic plate measures accounted for 10 percent of birth weight variance beyond that accounted for by placental weight alone. Among preterm births, 34 percent of gestational age variance and 63 percent of birth weight variance were accounted for by lateral chorionic plate growth measures. Intraclass correlation coefficients for the novel digital measures ranged from 0.96 to 0.98. Reliable digital measures of lateral chorionic plate growth estimate birth weight variance more strongly than gestational age, project variance that is not accounted for by placental weight, and project these outcomes to a greater degree in preterm births than at term.

  10. Prevention of preterm birth: early detection and aggressive treatment with terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Adkins, R T; Van Hooydonk, J E; Bressman, P L; Growdon, J H; Bolen, P R; Varin, J C; Thompson, B R

    1993-02-01

    We evaluated a program for prevention of preterm birth involving early detection and aggressive intervention with subcutaneous terbutaline pump therapy in a high-risk, private patient population. Risk factor screening, frequent cervical examinations, and intensive patient education were used to detect preterm labor before it progressed to an advanced stage. Home terbutaline pump therapy was prescribed for patients with uterine contractions associated with progressive cervical change, after stabilization with IV magnesium sulfate. In this study of 51 patients, home terbutaline pump therapy was successful in 98% of the cases, prolonging pregnancy an average of 6.6 weeks. Mean gestational age at delivery was 37 +/- 1.4 weeks, and infant birth weight averaged 3 kg. Only 22% of infants required admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, with a mean length of stay of 7.25 days. Population factors in this compliant, well-educated patient group may have contributed to the positive outcomes achieved.

  11. DEPRESSION and SEROTONIN REUPTAKE INHIBITOR TREATMENT AS RISK FACTORS FOR PRETERM BIRTH

    PubMed Central

    Yonkers, Kimberly A.; Norwitz, Errol R.; Smith, Megan V.; Lockwood, Charles J.; Gotman, Nathan; Luchansky, Edward; Lin, Haiqun; Belanger, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder as well as the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy have been associated with preterm birth. Studies that have attempted to separate effects of illness from treatment have been inconclusive. We sought to explore the separate effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitor use and major depressive episodes in pregnancy on risk of preterm birth. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study of 2793 pregnant women, oversampled for a recent episode of major depression or use of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor. We extracted data on birth outcomes from hospital charts and used binary logistic regression to model preterm birth (<37 weeks’ gestation). We used ordered logistic regression to model early (<34 weeks’ gestation) or late (34-36 weeks) preterm birth, and we used nominal logistic regression to model preterm birth antecedents (spontaneous preterm labor/preterm premature rupture of membranes/preterm for medical indications/term). Results Use of a serotonin reuptake inhibitor, both with (odds ratio=2.1 [95% confidence interval=1.0—4.6]) and without (1.6=[1.0—2.5]) a major depressive episode, was associated with preterm birth. A major depressive episode without serotonin reuptake inhibitor use (1.2; [0.68—2.1]) had no clear effect on preterm risk. None of these exposures was associated with early preterm birth. Use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors in pregnancy was associated with increases in spontaneous but not medically indicated preterm birth. Conclusions Serotonin reuptake inhibitor use increased risk of preterm birth. Although the effect of a major depressive episode alone was unclear, symptomatic women undergoing antidepressant treatment had elevated risk. PMID:22627901

  12. Preterm birth research: from disillusion to the search for new mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Buekens, P; Klebanoff, M

    2001-07-01

    No intervention has been shown to decrease the rate of preterm birth. There was thus a need for a new research agenda. The new emphasis is on social and biological mechanisms, including the impact on stress of racism and poverty, and gene-environment interactions. New markers are also under study, and pertain mostly to infection and inflammation. The impact on preterm birth of broad contextual factors, such as universal social protection, will need to be explored further. The recent trends toward increased rates of preterm births deserve much attention. New policies and interventions to decrease medically indicated preterm births should be urgently developed and evaluated. The failure to prevent preterm deliveries has been so disappointing that there is a risk that high rates of preterm births will be seen as unavoidable. The research programme launched by March of Dimes is a timely effort to foster new enthusiasm, to test new ideas and to generate new hypotheses.

  13. Advances in the Prevention of Infection-Related Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lamont, Ronald F.

    2015-01-01

    Infection-related preterm birth (PTB) is more common at early gestational ages and is associated with major neonatal mortality and morbidity. Abnormal genital tract microflora in early pregnancy predicts late miscarriage and early PTB. Accordingly, it is logical to consider antibiotics as an intervention. Unfortunately, the conclusions of systematic reviews and meta-analyses (SR&MAs) carried out in an attempt to explain the confusion over the heterogeneity of individual studies are flawed by the fact that undue reliance was placed on studies which: (a) had a suboptimal choice of antibiotic (mainly metronidazole) or used antibiotics not recommended for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis (BV) or BV-related organisms; (b) used antibiotics too late in pregnancy to influence outcome (23–27 weeks); and (c) included women whose risk of PTB was not due to abnormal genital tract colonization and hence unlikely to respond to antibiotics. These risks included: (a) previous PTB of indeterminate etiology; (b) low weight/body mass index; or (c) detection of fetal fibronectin, ureaplasmas, Group B streptococcus or Trichomonas vaginalis). While individual studies have found benefit of antibiotic intervention for the prevention of PTB, in meta-analyses these effects have been negated by large methodologically flawed studies with negative results. As a result, many clinicians think that any antibiotic given at any time in pregnancy to any woman at risk of PTB will cause more harm than good. Recently, a more focused SR&MA has demonstrated that antibiotics active against BV-related organisms, used in women whose risk of PTB is due to abnormal microflora, and used early in pregnancy before irreversible inflammatory damage has occurred, can reduce the rate of PTB. This review presents those data, the background and attempts to explain the confusion using new information from culture-independent molecular-based techniques. It also gives guidance on the structure of putative future

  14. A blueprint for the prevention of preterm birth: vaginal progesterone in women with a short cervix

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Yeo, Lami; Miranda, Jezid; Hassan, Sonia; Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is the most important challenge to modern obstetrics. A major obstacle has been that preterm birth is treated (implicitly or explicitly) as a single condition. Two-thirds of preterm births occur after the spontaneous onset of labor, and the remaining one-third after “indicated” preterm birth; however, the causes of spontaneous preterm labor and “indicated” preterm birth are different. Spontaneous preterm birth is a syndrome caused by multiple etiologies, one of which is a decline in progesterone action, which induces cervical ripening. A sonographic short cervix (identified in the midtrimester) is a powerful predictor of spontaneous preterm delivery. Randomized clinical trials and individual patient meta-analyses have shown that vaginal progesterone reduces the rate of preterm delivery at <33 weeks of gestation by 44%, along with the rate of admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, respiratory distress syndrome, requirement for mechanical ventilation, and a composite score of neonatal morbidity/mortality. There is no evidence that 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate can reduce the rate of preterm delivery in women with a short cervix, and therefore, the compound of choice is natural progesterone (not the synthetic progestin). Routine assessment of the risk of preterm birth with cervical ultrasound coupled with vaginal progesterone for women with a short cervix is cost-effective, and implementation of such a policy is urgently needed. Vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage in reducing the rate of preterm delivery in women with a singleton gestation, history of preterm birth, and a short cervix (<25mm). PMID:23314512

  15. Low Birth Weight and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichman, Nancy E.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States black women have for decades been twice as likely as white women to give birth to babies of low birth weight who are at elevated risk for developmental disabilities. Does the black-white disparity in low birth weight contribute to the racial disparity in readiness? The author summarizes the cognitive and behavioral problems…

  16. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  17. Characterization of Dietary Patterns in the Danish National Birth Cohort in Relation to Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Maslova, Ekaterina; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    2014-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns better reflect eating habits as opposed to single dietary components. However, the use of dietary pattern analysis in nutritional epidemiology has been hampered by the complexity of interpreting and presenting multidimensional dietary data. Methods This study extracts and visualizes dietary patterns from self-reported dietary data collected in mid-pregnancy (25th week of gestation) from nearly 60,000 mother-child pairs part of a prospective, longitudinal cohort (Danish National Birth Cohort) and further examines their associations with spontaneous and induced preterm birth (gestational age<259 days (<37 weeks)). Results A total of seven dietary patterns were extracted by principal component analysis, characterized and visualized by color-coded spider plots, and referred to as: Vegetables/Prudent, Alcohol, Western, Nordic, Seafood, Candy and Rice/Pasta/Poultry. A consistent dose-response association with preterm birth was only observed for Western diet with an odds ratio of 1.30 (95% CI: 1.13, 1.49) comparing the highest to the lowest quintile. This association was primarily driven by induced preterm deliveries (odds ratio = 1.66, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.11, comparing the highest to the lowest quintile) while the corresponding odds ratio for spontaneous preterm deliveries was more modest (odds ratio = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.39). All based on adjusted analyses. Conclusions In conclusion, this study presented a simple and novel framework for visualizing correlation structures between overall consumption of foods group and their relation to nutrient intake and maternal characteristics. Our results suggest that Western-type diet, high in meat and fats and low in fruits and vegetables, is associated with increased odds of induced preterm birth. PMID:24747715

  18. Postnatal Weight Gain in Preterm Infants with Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Girija; Johnson, Yvette R.; Brozanski, Beverly; Farrow, Kathryn N.; Zaniletti, Isabella; Padula, Michael A.; Asselin, Jeanette M.; Durand, David J.; Short, Billie L.; Pallotto, Eugenia K.; Dykes, Francine D.; Reber, Kristina M.; Evans, Jacquelyn R.; Murthy, Karna

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterize postnatal growth failure (PGF), defined as weight < 10th percentile for postmenstrual age (PMA) in preterm (≤27 weeks’ gestation) infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) at specified time points during hospitalization, and to compare these in subgroups of infants who died/underwent tracheostomy and others. Study Design Retrospective review of data from the multicenter Children’s Hospital Neonatal Database (CHND). Results Our cohort (n = 375) had a mean ± standard deviation gestation of 25 ± 1.2 weeks and birth weight of 744 ± 196 g. At birth, 20% of infants were small for gestational age (SGA); age at referral to the CHND neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was 46 ± 50 days. PGF rates at admission and at 36, 40, 44, and 48 weeks’ PMA were 33, 53, 67, 66, and 79% of infants, respectively. Tube feedings were administered to > 70% and parenteral nutrition to a third of infants between 36 and 44 weeks’ PMA. At discharge, 34% of infants required tube feedings and 50% had PGF. A significantly greater (38 versus 17%) proportion of infants who died/underwent tracheostomy (n = 69) were SGA, compared with those who did not (n = 306; p < 0.01). Conclusions Infants with sBPD commonly had progressive PGF during their NICU hospitalization. Fetal growth restriction may be a marker of adverse outcomes in this population. PMID:23690052

  19. Sociodemographic characteristics of mother’s population and risk of preterm birth in Chile

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a global problem in Perinatal and infant Health. Currently is gaining a growing attention. Rates of preterm birth have increased in most countries, producing a dramatic impact on public health. Factors of diverse nature have been associated to these trends. In Chile, preterm birth has increased since 90. Simultaneously, the advanced demographic transition has modified the characteristics of woman population related to maternity. The principal objective of this study is to analyze some sociodemographic characteristics of the maternal population over time, and their possible association to rates of preterm birth. The second aim is to identify groups of mothers at high risk of having a preterm child. Methods This population-based study examined all liveborn singletons in Chile from 1991 to 2008; divided in three periods. Preterm birth rates were measured as % births <37 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression assessed the risk of preterm birth associated with mother’s age, parity, and marital status, expressed as crude and adjusted odds ratios. Results Over time, rates of preterm birth increased in overall population, especially during the third period (2001–2008). In the same time, characteristics of maternal population changed: significant increase of extreme reproductive ages, significant decrease in parity and increase in mothers living without a partner. Risk of preterm birth remained higher in groups of mothers: <18 and >38 years of age; without a partner; primiparas and grandmultiparas. However, global increase in preterm birth was not explained by the modification of socio demographics characteristics of maternal population. Conclusions Some socio demographic characteristics remained associated with preterm birth over time. These associations allowed identifying five groups of mothers at higher risk to have a preterm child in the population. Increase in overall preterm birth affected all women, even those considered at

  20. Medicaid and Preterm Births in Virginia: An Analysis of Recent Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Anum, Emmanuel A.; Retchin, Sheldon M.; Garland, Sheryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The study objectives were to evaluate adequacy of prenatal care and risk for preterm birth among Medicaid clients in Virginia and to determine if payment method is associated with the risk of preterm birth. Methods Birth certificate data for the Commonwealth of Virginia for 2007 and 2008 were linked with Medicaid claims data. Analysis was limited to singleton births. Three payment methods were evaluated: private insurance, self-pay, and Medicaid. The prevalence of preterm birth for each level of prenatal care defined by the Kotelchuck prenatal care index was assessed for each payment method. Unconditional logistic regression modeling was used to assess the association between payment method and preterm birth risk while controlling for known preterm birth risk factors. Results Preterm birth prevalences (95% confidence interval [CI]) for the different payment methods were 7.9% (4.79-8.07) for the privately insured, 10.1% (9.57-10.60) for the self-pay group, and 10.2% (9.95-10.45) for Medicaid recipients. Compared with those with private insurance, women on Medicaid had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) for preterm birth (95% CI) of 0.99 (0.94-1.03). Self-pay mothers had a 32% increase in the odds of preterm birth relative to the privately insured. All payment groups show a trend toward significant reduction in preterm birth prevalence as adequacy of prenatal care improved from inadequate to adequate. Medicaid enrollees had a high prevalence of known risk factors, including smoking and illicit drug use and cervical insufficiency. Conclusions When known risk factors have been controlled, preterm birth risk for Medicaid enrollees did not differ significantly from the privately insured. PMID:20831442

  1. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Developmental Outcome Following Preterm Birth: Review of Current Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Anthony R.; Whitby, Elspeth W.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Smith, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of developmental difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to identify damage to the brain following preterm birth. It is hoped this information will aid prognostication and identify neonates who would benefit from early therapeutic intervention. Cystic…

  3. Risk factors for preterm birth: a case-control study in rural area of western China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaosong; Zhou, Min; Chen, Lijun; Hao, Bo; Zhao, Gengli

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in China, the study is to learn risk factors for preterm birth in rural area of western China. A 1:1 case-control study in which cases included the pregnant women of preterm birth and controls included the matched pregnant women of normal deliver was conducted in 5 counties in western China. Data about the general situation, pregnancy history, reproductive health infection (RTI) symptoms, pregnancy complications, et al were obtained by using questionnaire. The results showed that the risk factors related to preterm birth were including: family income, mother’s age ≥ 35 years old, antennal visiting ≤ 4 times, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications. The logistic regression analysis showed that only 3 factors of preterm birth were left at the last step, which of antenatal visiting ≤ 4 times, PROM and placenta previa had significant difference. We show that family income, age, antennal visiting, low education level, preterm birth history, abnormal vaginal discharge, pregnancy complications are the risk factors of preterm birth. PMID:26064379

  4. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  5. Activity in Pregnancy for Patients with a History of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Satterfield, Nichelle; Newton, Edward R.; May, Linda E.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Numerous risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, including non-Hispanic black race, a variety of social and behavioral factors, infections, and history of a prior preterm delivery. Of these, a history of prior spontaneous preterm birth is one of the strongest risk factors. Traditionally, women with a history of preterm birth or those deemed at high risk for preterm delivery have been placed on bed rest or a reduced activity regimen during their pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Recent research has suggested that regular physical activity and exercise during pregnancy is safe and does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Therefore, physicians should encourage women with a history of preterm birth to exercise throughout pregnancy according to guidelines published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as long as they are receiving regular prenatal care and their current health status permits exercise. However, there are no randomized controlled trials evaluating exercise prescription in women with a history of preterm birth, hence additional research is needed in this area. PMID:27226741

  6. Activity in Pregnancy for Patients with a History of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Satterfield, Nichelle; Newton, Edward R; May, Linda E

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Numerous risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, including non-Hispanic black race, a variety of social and behavioral factors, infections, and history of a prior preterm delivery. Of these, a history of prior spontaneous preterm birth is one of the strongest risk factors. Traditionally, women with a history of preterm birth or those deemed at high risk for preterm delivery have been placed on bed rest or a reduced activity regimen during their pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to support this recommendation. Recent research has suggested that regular physical activity and exercise during pregnancy is safe and does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Therefore, physicians should encourage women with a history of preterm birth to exercise throughout pregnancy according to guidelines published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists as long as they are receiving regular prenatal care and their current health status permits exercise. However, there are no randomized controlled trials evaluating exercise prescription in women with a history of preterm birth, hence additional research is needed in this area.

  7. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, R.L.; Gonçalves, F.L.; Simões, A.L.; Bernardino, C.A.; Lopes, L.S.; Castro e Silva, O.; Sbragia, L.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05), and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005). PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex) and TA (cortex/hippocampus) (P<0.005). I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005) and TA (ileum) (P<0.05). I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001). Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers. PMID:27356106

  8. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Figueira, R L; Gonçalves, F L; Simões, A L; Bernardino, C A; Lopes, L S; Castro E Silva, O; Sbragia, L

    2016-06-23

    Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05), and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005). PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex) and TA (cortex/hippocampus) (P<0.005). I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005) and TA (ileum) (P<0.05). I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001). Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers.

  9. Birth Weight Reference Percentiles for Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Li; Deng, Changfei; Li, Yanhua; Zhu, Jun; Mu, Yi; Deng, Ying; Mao, Meng; Wang, Yanping; Li, Qi; Ma, Shuangge; Ma, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yawei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To develop a reference of population-based gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for contemporary Chinese. Methods Birth weight data was collected by the China National Population-based Birth Defects Surveillance System. A total of 1,105,214 live singleton births aged ≥28 weeks of gestation without birth defects during 2006–2010 were included. The lambda-mu-sigma method was utilized to generate percentiles and curves. Results Gestational age-specific birth weight percentiles for male and female infants were constructed separately. Significant differences were observed between the current reference and other references developed for Chinese or non-Chinese infants. Conclusion There have been moderate increases in birth weight percentiles for Chinese infants of both sexes and most gestational ages since 1980s, suggesting the importance of utilizing an updated national reference for both clinical and research purposes. PMID:25127131

  10. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  11. Genome-wide association studies in preterm birth: implications for the practicing obstetrician-gynaecologist.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Siobhan M; Christiaens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth has the highest mortality and morbidity of all pregnancy complications. The burden of preterm birth on public health worldwide is enormous, yet there are few effective means to prevent a preterm delivery. To date, much of its etiology is unexplained, but genetic predisposition is thought to play a major role. In the upcoming year, the international Preterm Birth Genome Project (PGP) consortium plans to publish a large genome wide association study in early preterm birth. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are designed to identify common genetic variants that influence health and disease. Despite the many challenges that are involved, GWAS can be an important discovery tool, revealing genetic variations that are associated with preterm birth. It is highly unlikely that findings of a GWAS can be directly translated into clinical practice in the short run. Nonetheless, it will help us to better understand the etiology of preterm birth and the GWAS results will generate new hypotheses for further research, thus enhancing our understanding of preterm birth and informing prevention efforts in the long run. PMID:23445776

  12. Use of nonhuman primate models to investigate mechanisms of infection-associated preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Adams Waldorf, Kristina M.; Rubens, Craig E.; Gravett, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the most important direct cause of neonatal mortality and remains a major challenge for obstetrics and global health. Intrauterine infection causes approximately 50% of early preterm births. Animal models using pregnant mice, rabbits, or sheep, demonstrate the key link between infection and premature birth, but differ in mechanisms of parturition and placental structure from humans. The nonhuman primate (NHP) is a powerful model which emulates many features of human placentation and parturition. The contributions of the NHP model to preterm birth research are reviewed emphasizing the role of infections, and potential development of preventative and therapeutic strategies. PMID:21040390

  13. Long-Term Impact of Preterm Birth on Exercise Capacity in Healthy Young Men: A National Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Svedenkrans, Jenny; Henckel, Ewa; Kowalski, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Increasing numbers of survivors of preterm birth are growing into adulthood today. Long-term health-effects of prematurity are still poorly understood, but include increased risk for diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases in adult life. To test if reduced physical fitness may be a link in the causal chain of preterm birth and diseases in later life, the association of preterm birth and adult exercise capacity was investigated. The hypothesis was that preterm birth contributes independently of other risk factors to lower physical fitness in adulthood. Methods and Findings Population-based national cohort study of all males conscripting for military service in 1993–2001 and born in Sweden 1973–1983, n = 218,820. Data were retrieved from the Swedish Conscript Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Population and Housing Census 1990. Primary outcome was the results from maximal exercise test (Wmax in Watt) performed at conscription. Association to perinatal and socioeconomic risk factors, other co-variates and confounders were analysed. General linear modelling showed that preterm birth predicted low Wmax in a dose-response related pattern, with 25 Watt reduction in Wmax for the lowest gestational ages, those born ≤27 weeks. Low birth weight for gestational age also independently predicted low Wmax compared to normal and high birth weight (32 Watt reduction for those with a birth weight Standard Deviation Score <2). Low parental education was significantly associated with reduced Wmax (range 17 Watt), as well as both low and high current BMI, with severe obesity resulting in a 16 Watt deficit compared to Wmax top performance. Conclusion Being born preterm as well as being born small for gestational age predicts low exercise capacity in otherwise healthy young men. The effect size of being born preterm equal or exceed that of other known risk factors for unfitness in adults, such as low parental education and overweight. PMID:24324639

  14. Increased risk of preterm birth among non- smoking, non- alcohol drinking women with maternal periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Le, Hang Thi Thu; Jareinpituk, Sutthi; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Pitiphat, Waranuch

    2007-05-01

    The aim of this case-control study was to examine the association between periodontitis and preterm birth among non-smoking, non-alcohol drinking women. The cases were 130 women who delivered a live singleton newborn before 37 weeks gestation. A random sample of 260 women who delivered a normal child on the same day as the cases were selected as controls. Periodontal examinations were performed during 24-hour period postpartum at bedside. Other related information was collected by structured questionnaire and medical records. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed controlling for age, ethnicity, place of residence, education, occupation, income, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), weight gain, antenatal care (ANC), parity, systematic infections, genitourinary infections, antibiotics used, and history of periodontal treatment. Periodontitis (defined as presence of at least 4 teeth having > or = 1 site with a probing depth (PD) > or = 4 mm, clinical attachment loss (CAL) > or = 3 mm and bleeding on probing (BOP) after 10 seconds at the same site) was diagnosed in 33.9% of cases and 10.4% of controls. Periodontitis was significantly associated with preterm birth (adjusted OR = 4.47, 95%Cl= 2.43, 8.20). These findings suggest that periodontitis may increase the risk of preterm delivery even among women who do not smoke or drink. PMID:17877238

  15. Born Too Soon: The global epidemiology of 15 million preterm births

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This second paper in the Born Too Soon supplement presents a review of the epidemiology of preterm birth, and its burden globally, including priorities for action to improve the data. Worldwide an estimated 11.1% of all livebirths in 2010 were born preterm (14.9 million babies born before 37 weeks of gestation), with preterm birth rates increasing in most countries with reliable trend data. Direct complications of preterm birth account for one million deaths each year, and preterm birth is a risk factor in over 50% of all neonatal deaths. In addition, preterm birth can result in a range of long-term complications in survivors, with the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes rising with decreasing gestational age and decreasing quality of care. The economic costs of preterm birth are large in terms of immediate neonatal intensive care, ongoing long-term complex health needs, as well as lost economic productivity. Preterm birth is a syndrome with a variety of causes and underlying factors usually divided into spontaneous and provider-initiated preterm births. Consistent recording of all pregnancy outcomes, including stillbirths, and standard application of preterm definitions is important in all settings to advance both the understanding and the monitoring of trends. Context specific innovative solutions to prevent preterm birth and hence reduce preterm birth rates all around the world are urgently needed. Strengthened data systems are required to adequately track trends in preterm birth rates and program effectiveness. These efforts must be coupled with action now to implement improved antenatal, obstetric and newborn care to increase survival and reduce disability amongst those born too soon. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the Partnership for Maternal

  16. Low birth weight in Spain associated with sociodemographic factors.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, C; Regidor, E; Gutiérrez-Fisac, J L

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--To describe the effect of different social and demographic characteristics on low birth weight (LBW) (less than 2500 g) in Spain, in both preterm (less than 37 weeks' gestation) and term infants (between 37 and 42 weeks' gestation). DESIGN--The study used data obtained from the Spanish birth registry. SETTING--The study was based on those live born infants registered in 1988 from provinces where the birthweight details were completed in at least 99.5% of the birth registration records. PARTICIPANTS--A total of 1332 preterm LBW infants, 1292 term LBW infants, and 38,967 controls were included in the study. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS--The odds ratio (OR) calculated by logistic regression was used as the measure of association between LBW and the sociodemographic variables. The highest ORs of preterm LBW were found in mothers younger than 20 years (1.32; 95% CI 0.98, 1.77) and older than 34 years (1.28; 95% CI 1.04, 1.59), in unmarried mothers (1.68; 95% CI 1.36, 2.07), and in fathers with manual occupations (1.26; 95% CI 1.08, 1.46). In term, live born infants the highest ORs were found in adolescent mothers (1.63; 95% CI 1.25, 2.14), in first born live born infants (1.38; 95% CI 1.09, 1.74) or the fourth born or more (1.28; 95% CI 0.91, 1.80), in unmarried mothers (1.55; 95% CI 1.27, 1.90), in housewives (1.13; 95% CI 0.99, 1.29), and in fathers with manual occupations (1.21; 95% CI 1.04, 1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The results have allowed documentation of the risk of preterm and term LBW in various age and social groups in Spain. PMID:7707003

  17. The Burden of Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Renato T.; Cecatti, Jose G.; Passini, Renato; Tedesco, Ricardo P.; Lajos, Giuliane J.; Nomura, Marcelo L.; Rehder, Patricia M.; Dias, Tabata Z.; Haddad, Samira M.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Costa, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Background About 15 million children are born under 37 weeks of gestation worldwide. Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal deaths and short/long term morbidities, entailing consequences not only for the individual, but also their family, health agencies, facilities and all community. The provider-initiated preterm birth is currently one of the most important obstetric conditions related to preterm births, particularly in middle and high income countries, thus decreasing the need for therapeutic preterm birth is essential to reduce global prematurity. Therefore detailed knowledge on the factors associated with provider-initiated preterm birth is essential for the efforts to reduce preterm birth rates and its consequences. In this current analysis we aimed to assess the proportion of provider-initiated (pi-PTB) among preterm births in Brazil and identify associated factors. Methods and Findings This is an analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case-control component called Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP). EMIP was conducted in 20 referral obstetric hospitals located in the three most populated of the five Brazilian regions. We analysed data of women with pi-PTB, defined as childbirth occurring at less than 37 weeks, medically indicated for maternal/fetal compromise or both; and women with term birth, childbirth at or after 37 weeks. Maternal, sociodemographic, obstetric, prenatal care, delivery, and postnatal characteristics were assessed as possible factors associated with pi-PTB, compared to term births. The overall prevalence of preterm births was 12.3%. Of these, approximately one-third of cases were initiated by the provider. Hypertensive disorders, placental abruption, and diabetes were the main maternal conditions leading to pi-PTB. Caesarean section was the most common mode of delivery. Chronic hypertension (OR 7.47; 95%CI 4.02–13.88), preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP syndrome (OR 15.35; 6.57–35.88), multiple

  18. Geographic distribution of unexplained low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, C.J.; Samuhel, M.E.; Glick, B.J.; Welsh, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    Low birth weight, largely in the form of intrauterine growth retardation, has been used in animal studies as a sensitive indicator of adverse reproductive outcomes to suspect toxic agents. Methodological problems have severely curtailed studies of low birth weight for human risk assessment. For white and black births, we explore the use of statistical techniques to adjust for maternal risk factors and to isolate US counties having a significantly elevated rate of unexplained low-birth-weight births in 1979. The data are derived from individual birth certificate information made available by the National Center for Health Statistics. Removing variation due to socioeconomic and other intrinsic factors available on birth certificates, clusters of high-risk counties appear. This paper discusses the methodology used to identify these counties.

  19. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pilecki, Bartosz; Duelund, Lars; Marcussen, Niels; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001). Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001), lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002), SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002) as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001). At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001). The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted. PMID:27571350

  20. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring.

    PubMed

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pilecki, Bartosz; Duelund, Lars; Marcussen, Niels; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001). Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001), lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002), SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002) as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001). At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001). The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted. PMID:27571350

  1. Incidence and risk factors of preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, about 15 million neonates are born preterm and about 85% of global preterm birth occurs in Asia and Africa regions. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk factors for preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort. Methods Between June 2007 and September 2009, community health workers prospectively collected data from 32,126 mother-live-born baby pairs on household socio-demographic status, pregnancy history, antenatal care seeking and newborn gestational age determined by recall of date of last menstrual period. Results Among all live births, 22.3% were delivered prior to 37 weeks of gestation (i.e. preterm); of which 12.3% were born at 35–36 weeks of gestation (late preterm), 7.1% were born at 32–34 weeks (moderate preterm), and 2.9% were born at 28–31 weeks of gestation (very preterm). Overall, the majority of preterm births (55.1%) were late preterm. Risk of preterm birth was lower among women with primary or higher level of education (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), women who sought antenatal care at least once during the index pregnancy (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.90), and women who had completed all birth preparedness steps (RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.34). In contrast, risk of preterm birth was higher among women with a history of child death (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10), who had mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) ≤250 mm, indicative of under nutrition (for women having MUAC <214 mm the risk was higher; RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.35), who reported an antenatal complication (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.53), and who received iron-folic acid supplementation for 2–6 months during the index pregnancy (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.44). Conclusions In resource poor settings with high burden of preterm birth, alike Bangladesh, preterm birth risk could be reduced by close monitoring and/or frequent follow-up of women with history of child death and antenatal complications, by encouraging women to seek antenatal care from qualified

  2. Sphingosine kinase: a novel putative target for the prevention of infection-triggered preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vibhuti; Ashby, Charles R; Reznik, Sandra E

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing an exorbitant cost of $5.8 billion. Infection-associated premature rupture of membranes (PROM) accounts for 40% of extremely preterm births (<28 weeks of gestation). Major research efforts are directed towards improving the understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm birth and ways to prevent or at least postpone delivery. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor that plays a significant role in infection-triggered preterm birth. Its involvement in a number of pathological mechanisms and its elevation in preterm delivered amniotic fluid samples implicate it in preterm birth. Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P acts as second messenger in a number of cell proliferation and survival pathways. SphK is found to play a key role in ET-1 mediated myometrial contraction. This review highlights SphK as a prospective target with great potential to prevent preterm birth. PMID:23818902

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (<38 weeks) with full-term infants (38 and 42 weeks) of normal birth weight (32.500g), low birth weight (< 2.500g) and very low birth weight (<1.500g), in order to evaluate if premature birth and low birth weight would affect tooth eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  4. Effects of social and psychosocial factors on risk of preterm birth in black women.

    PubMed

    Misra, Dawn; Strobino, Donna; Trabert, Britton

    2010-11-01

    Our objective was to examine how social and psychosocial factors may influence the risk of preterm birth. The design of the study was a hybrid retrospective and prospective cohort. African-American women residing in Baltimore, Maryland, were enrolled prenatally if they received care at one of three Johns Hopkins Medical Institution prenatal clinics (n=384) or enrolled post-partum if they delivered at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution with late, none or intermittent prenatal care (N=459). Preterm birth was defined as less than 37 weeks completed gestation. Interview data were collected on 832 enrolled women delivering singletons between March 2001 and July 2004. The preterm birth rate was 16.4%. In both unadjusted and adjusted models, exposure to racism over a woman's lifetime had no effect on risk of preterm birth in our sample. However, we found evidence of a three-way interaction between reported lifetime experiences of racism, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and stress during pregnancy on preterm birth risk. Racism scores above the median (more racism) were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in three subgroups with the effect moderated by depressive symptoms and stress. Social and psychosocial factors may operate in a complex manner related to risk of preterm birth.

  5. What contributes to disparities in the preterm birth rate in European countries?

    PubMed Central

    Delnord, Marie; Blondel, Béatrice; Zeitlin, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review In countries with comparable levels of development and healthcare systems, preterm birth rates vary markedly – a range from 5 to 10% among live births in Europe. This review seeks to identify the most likely sources of heterogeneity in preterm birth rates, which could explain differences between European countries. Recent findings Multiple risk factors impact on preterm birth. Recent studies reported on measurement issues, population characteristics, reproductive health policies as well as medical practices, including those related to subfertility treatments and indicated deliveries, which affect preterm birth rates and trends in high-income countries. We showed wide variation in population characteristics, including multiple pregnancies, maternal age, BMI, smoking, and percentage of migrants in European countries. Summary Many potentially modifiable population factors (BMI, smoking, and environmental exposures) as well as health system factors (practices related to indicated preterm deliveries) play a role in determining preterm birth risk. More knowledge about how these factors contribute to low and stable preterm birth rates in some countries is needed for shaping future policy. It is also important to clarify the potential contribution of artifactual differences owing to measurement. PMID:25692506

  6. Is preterm birth a human-specific syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie Baker; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Human preterm birth (PTB), a multifactorial syndrome affecting offspring born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of newborn death worldwide. Remarkably, the degree to which early parturition contributes to mortality in other placental mammals remains unclear. To gain insights on whether PTB is a human-specific syndrome, we examined within- and between-species variation in gestation length across placental mammals and the impact of early parturition on offspring fitness. Within species, gestation length is normally distributed, and all species appear to occasionally give birth before the ‘optimal’ time. Furthermore, human gestation length, like that of many mammalian species, scales proportionally to body mass, suggesting that this trait, like many others, is constrained by body size. Premature humans suffer from numerous cognitive impairments, but little is known of cognitive impairments in other placental mammals. Human gestation differs in the timing of the ‘brain growth spurt’, where unlike many mammals, including closely related primates, the trajectory of human brain growth directly overlaps with the parturition time window. Thus, although all mammals experience early parturition, the fitness costs imposed by the cognitive impairments may be unique to our species. Describing PTB broadly in mammals opens avenues for comparative studies on the physiological and genetic regulators of birth timing as well as the development of new mammalian models of the disease. PMID:26077822

  7. Is preterm birth a human-specific syndrome?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Julie Baker; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Human preterm birth (PTB), a multifactorial syndrome affecting offspring born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of newborn death worldwide. Remarkably, the degree to which early parturition contributes to mortality in other placental mammals remains unclear. To gain insights on whether PTB is a human-specific syndrome, we examined within- and between-species variation in gestation length across placental mammals and the impact of early parturition on offspring fitness. Within species, gestation length is normally distributed, and all species appear to occasionally give birth before the 'optimal' time. Furthermore, human gestation length, like that of many mammalian species, scales proportionally to body mass, suggesting that this trait, like many others, is constrained by body size. Premature humans suffer from numerous cognitive impairments, but little is known of cognitive impairments in other placental mammals. Human gestation differs in the timing of the 'brain growth spurt', where unlike many mammals, including closely related primates, the trajectory of human brain growth directly overlaps with the parturition time window. Thus, although all mammals experience early parturition, the fitness costs imposed by the cognitive impairments may be unique to our species. Describing PTB broadly in mammals opens avenues for comparative studies on the physiological and genetic regulators of birth timing as well as the development of new mammalian models of the disease. PMID:26077822

  8. Child abuse registration, fetal growth, and preterm birth: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Nick; Wallace, Ann; Sundrum, Ratna; Bacchus, Claire; Logan, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study the relation of intra‐uterine growth and gestational age with child protection registration in a 20 year whole population birth cohort. Setting West Sussex area of England. Study design Retrospective whole population birth cohort. Outcomes Child protection registration; individual categories of registration—sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. Population and participants 119 771 infants born in West Sussex between January 1983 and December 2001 with complete data including birth weight, gestational age, maternal age, and postcode. Results In all categories of registration a linear trend was noted such that the lower the birth weight z score the higher the likelihood of child protection registration. Similar trends were noted for gestational age. All these trends were robust to adjustment for maternal age and socioeconomic status. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that lower levels of fetal growth and shorter gestational duration are associated with increased likelihood of child protection registration in all categories including sexual abuse independent of maternal age or socioeconomic status. This study does not permit comment on whether poor fetal growth or preterm birth predispose to child abuse and neglect or the association arises because they share a common pathway. PMID:16537351

  9. Racial Residential Segregation and Low Birth Weight in Michigan's Metropolitan Areas

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Michael D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the influence of racial residential segregation, independent of neighborhood economic factors, on the overall and specific etiological risks of low birth weight. Methods. We geocoded all singleton births in Michigan metropolitan areas during 2000 to census tracts. We used hierarchical generalized linear models to investigate the association between low birth weight (< 2500 g) and neighborhood-level economic and racial segregation, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. We analyzed competing risks of the 2 etiologies of low birth weight: intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. Results. Living in a Black segregated area was associated with increased odds (odds ratio [OR] = 1.15; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 1.29; P < .05) of low birth weight after adjusting for individual- and tract-level measures. The analysis suggested that the association between low birth weight and racial segregation was attributable primarily to increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.03, 1.37; P < .05). Conclusions. Odds of low birth weight are higher in racially segregated Black neighborhoods in Michigan's metropolitan areas, independent of economic factors. The association appears to operate through intrauterine growth restriction rather than preterm birth. PMID:21778487

  10. Effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate: a systematic review of meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    López, Néstor J; Uribe, Sergio; Martinez, Benjamín

    2015-02-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality in both developed and developing countries. Preterm birth is a highly complex syndrome that includes distinct clinical subtypes in which many different causes may be involved. The results of epidemiological, molecular, microbiological and animal-model studies support a positive association between maternal periodontal disease and preterm birth. However, the results of intervention studies carried out to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on reducing the risk of preterm birth are controversial. This systematic review critically analyzes the methodological issues of meta-analyses of the studies to determine the effect of periodontal treatment to reduce preterm birth. The quality of the individual randomized clinical trials selected is of highest relevance for a systematic review. This article describes the methodological features that should be identified a priori and assessed individually to determine the quality of a randomized controlled trial performed to evaluate the effect of periodontal treatment on pregnancy outcomes. The AMSTAR and the PRISMA checklist tools were used to assess the quality of the six meta-analyses selected, and the bias domain of the Cochrane Collaboration's Tool was applied to evaluate each of the trials included in the meta-analyses. In addition, the methodological characteristics of each clinical trial were assessed. The majority of the trials included in the meta-analyses have significant methodological flaws that threaten their internal validity. The lack of effect of periodontal treatment on preterm birth rate concluded by four meta-analyses, and the positive effect of treatment for reducing preterm birth risk concluded by the remaining two meta-analyses are not based on consistent scientific evidence. Well-conducted randomized controlled trials using rigorous methodology, including appropriate definition of the exposure, adequate control of confounders for

  11. The Perfect Storm: Preterm Birth, Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms, and Autism Causation.

    PubMed

    Erdei, Carmina; Dammann, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    A unifying model of autism causation remains elusive, and thus well-designed explanatory models are needed to develop appropriate therapeutic and preventive interventions. This essay argues that autism is not a static disorder, but rather an ongoing process. We discuss the link between preterm birth and autism and briefly review the evidence supporting the link between immune system characteristics and both prematurity and autism. We then propose a causation process model of autism etiology and pathogenesis, in which both neurodevelopment and ongoing/prolonged neuroinflammation are necessary pathogenetic component mechanisms. We suggest that an existing model of sufficient cause and component causes can be interpreted as a mechanistic view of etiology and pathogenesis and can serve as an explanatory model for autism causal pathways.

  12. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Thayath, Muhamad Nishad; Singh, Shikha; Sinha, Anju

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm and low birthweight children comprise approximately 6% of all live births. It is now a well-known fact that premature children experience many oral complications associated with their preterm births. Prematurely born infants have a short prenatal development period and they are prone to many serious medical problems during the neonatal period, which may affect the development of oral tissues. Adverse perinatal factors, premature birth and exceptional early adaptation to extra-uterine life and functional activity may influence dental occlusal development and symmetry in the jaws. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to elucidate further the effect of preterm birth on the development of the dentition. How to cite this article: Zaidi I, Thayath MN, Singh S, Sinha A. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 215-219. PMID:26628856

  13. Functional Polymorphisms of Matrix Metalloproteinases 1 and 9 Genes in Women with Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Pleša, Ivana; Peterlin, Ana; Jan, Žiga; Tul, Nataša; Kapović, Miljenko; Ostojić, Saša; Peterlin, Borut

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of functional MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB; preterm birth with intact membranes) in European Caucasian women, as well as the contribution of these polymorphisms to different clinical features of women with SPTB. Methods and Patients. A case-control study was conducted in 113 women with SPTB and 119 women with term delivery (control group). Genotyping of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms was performed using the combination of polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Results. There were no statistically significant differences in the distribution of neither individual nor combinations of genotype and allele frequencies of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T polymorphisms between women with SPTB and control women. Additionally, these polymorphisms do not contribute to any of the clinical characteristics of women with SPTB, including positive and negative family history of SPTB, gestational age at delivery, and maternal age at delivery, nor fetal birth weight. Conclusion. We did not find the evidence to support the association of MMP-1-1607 1G/2G and MMP-9-1562 C/T gene polymorphisms with SPTB in European Caucasian women. PMID:25530657

  14. Can low birth weight be prevented?

    PubMed

    Brown, S S

    1985-01-01

    In the US low birth weight is the major factor associated with the death of infants in the 1st 4 weeks of life. Over the 1st 1/2 of the century, infant mortality declined from about 100 to about 30 deaths/1000 live births. But most of this decline has been attributed to decreases in the rate of postneonatal mortality (deaths from 28 days to the 1st birthday). Declines in low-birth-weight rates have been concentrated among babies whose mothers are at lowest risk. Low-birth-weight infants who do survive face increased risk of a range of childhood illnesses and developmental problems. The problem of low birth weight is also important for economic reasons. More than US$1.5 billion is spent annually on neonatal intensive care services in the US. Teenage mothers, blacks, and women of low socioeconomic status are at high risk of having a baby of low birth weight. Pregnancy intervals of shorter than 6 months, a variety of chronic illnesses, multiple pregnancies, smoking, and failure to obtain, or delay in initiating, prenatal care also increase the risk that a woman will have a low-birth-weight baby. The Institute of Medicine committee has outlined an approach to the prevention of low birth weight that emphasizes 5 principal points: 1) pre-pregnancy identification of high risk women with more and improved counseling, health education, and family planning services; 2) increase the availability and quality of early prenatal care; 3) strengthen and expand the content of prenatal services; 4) mount a public information campaign aimed at preventing low-birth-weight; 5) research. If these measures are implemented, it has been estimated that US$41 million can be saved each year from the US$188 million the government spends annually for the care of low-birth-weight babies. The federal government must take a leadership role if these measures are to be successful. PMID:3842660

  15. Comparison of black–white disparities in preterm birth between Canada and the United States

    PubMed Central

    McKinnon, Britt; Yang, Seungmi; Kramer, Michael S.; Bushnik, Tracey; Sheppard, Amanda J.; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: A higher risk of preterm birth among black women than among white women is well established in the United States. We compared differences in preterm birth between non-Hispanic black and white women in Canada and the US, hypothesizing that disparities would be less extreme in Canada given the different historical experiences of black populations and Canada’s universal health care system. Methods: Using data on singleton live births in Canada and the US for 2004–2006, we estimated crude and adjusted risk ratios and risk differences in preterm birth (< 37 wk) and very preterm birth (< 32 wk) among non-Hispanic black versus non-Hispanic white women in each country. Adjusted models for the US were standardized to the covariate distribution of the Canadian cohort. Results: In Canada, 8.9% and 5.9% of infants born to black and white mothers, respectively, were preterm; the corresponding figures in the US were 12.7% and 8.0%. Crude risk ratios for preterm birth among black women relative to white women were 1.49 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32 to 1.66) in Canada and 1.57 (95% CI 1.56 to 1.58) in the US (p value for heterogeneity [pH] = 0.3). The crude risk differences for preterm birth were 2.94 (95% CI 1.91 to 3.96) in Canada and 4.63 (95% CI 4.56 to 4.70) in the US (pH = 0.003). Adjusted risk ratios for preterm birth (pH = 0.1) were slightly higher in Canada than in the US, whereas adjusted risk differences were similar in both countries. Similar patterns were observed for racial disparities in very preterm birth. Interpretation: Relative disparities in preterm birth and very preterm birth between non-Hispanic black and white women were similar in magnitude in Canada and the US. Absolute disparities were smaller in Canada, which reflects a lower overall risk of preterm birth in Canada than in the US in both black and white populations. PMID:26553860

  16. Is the accuracy of prior preterm birth history biased by delivery characteristics?

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, David N; Durie, Danielle; Dozier, Ann M; Suter, Barbara J; Glantz, J Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the sensitivity of birth certificates to preterm birth history and determine whether omissions are randomly or systemically biased. Methods Subjects who experienced a preterm birth followed by a subsequent pregnancy were identified in a regional database. The variable “previous preterm birth” was abstracted from birth certificates of the subsequent pregnancy. Clinical characteristics were compared between subjects who were correctly versus incorrectly coded. Results 713 subjects were identified, of whom 65.5% were correctly coded in their subsequent pregnancy. Compared to correctly coded patients, patients who were not correctly identified tended to have late and non-recurrent preterm births or deliveries that were secondary to maternal or fetal indications. A recurrence of preterm birth in the subsequent pregnancy was also associated with correct coding. Conclusions The overall sensitivity of birth certificates to preterm birth history is suboptimal. Omissions are not random, and are associated with obstetrical characteristics from both the current and prior deliveries. As a consequence, resulting associations may be flawed. PMID:21948198

  17. Race, Ethnicity, Concentrated Poverty, and Low Birth Weight Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L.; Bruce, Marino A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (< 2500 grams) rates were calculated for non-Hispanic Black, Latino, and non-Hispanic White live singleton births. Concentrated poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW. These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group. PMID:18807774

  18. Amniotic Fluid Metabolomic Analysis in Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Janice; Gunst, Phillip R.; Kacerovsky, Marian; Fortunato, Stephen J.; Saade, George R.; Basraon, Sanmaan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify metabolic changes associated with early spontaneous preterm birth (PTB; <34 weeks) and term births, using high-throughput metabolomics of amniotic fluid (AF) in African American population. Method: In this study, AF samples retrieved from spontaneous PTB (<34 weeks [n = 25]) and normal term birth (n = 25) by transvaginal amniocentesis at the time of labor prior to delivery were subjected to metabolomics analysis. Equal volumes of samples were subjected to a standard solvent extraction method and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Biochemicals were identified through matching of ion features to a library of biochemical standards. After log transformation and imputation of minimum observed values for each compound, t test, correlation tests, and false discovery rate corrections were used to identify differentially regulated metabolites. Data were controlled for clinical/demographic variables and medication during pregnancy. Results: Of 348 metabolites measured in AF samples, 121 metabolites had a gestational age effect and 116 differed significantly between PTB and term births. A majority of significantly altered metabolites could be classified into 3 categories, namely, (1) liver function, (2) fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism, and (3) histidine metabolism. The signature of altered liver function was apparent in many cytochrome P450-related pathways including bile acids, steroids, xanthines, heme, and phase II detoxification of xenobiotics with the largest fold change seen with pantothenol, a CoA synthesis inhibitor that was 8-fold more abundant in PTB. Conclusion: Global metabolic profiling of AF revealed alteration in hepatic metabolites involving xenobiotic detoxification and CoA metabolism in PTB. Maternal and/or fetal hepatic function differences may be developmentally related and its contribution PTB as a cause or effect of PTB is still unclear. PMID:24440995

  19. Investigation of maternal environmental exposures in association with self-reported preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag J; Yang, Ting; Hu, Zhongkai; Wen, Qiaojun; Sung, Joyce; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Cohen, Harvey; Gould, Jeffrey; Stevenson, David K; Shaw, Gary M; Ling, Xuefeng Bruce; Butte, Atul J

    2014-06-01

    Identification of maternal environmental factors influencing preterm birth risks is important to understand the reasons for the increase in prematurity since 1990. Here, we utilized a health survey, the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to search for personal environmental factors associated with preterm birth. 201 urine and blood markers of environmental factors, such as allergens, pollutants, and nutrients were assayed in mothers (range of N: 49-724) who answered questions about any children born preterm (delivery <37 weeks). We screened each of the 201 factors for association with any child born preterm adjusting by age, race/ethnicity, education, and household income. We attempted to verify the top finding, urinary bisphenol A, in an independent study of pregnant women attending Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. We conclude that the association between maternal urinary levels of bisphenol A and preterm birth should be evaluated in a larger epidemiological investigation.

  20. Association between preterm birth and thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Kessey M. B.; Davidson, Josy; Goulart, Ana L.; dos Santos, Amelia M. N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents born prematurely with those born at term and investigate neonatal and post-neonatal variables associated with thoracic alterations. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study with 57 adolescents aged 10-15 years born prematurely and 57 adolescents born at term paired by gender and age. Photographs of the head and thorax in the front, back, and right side views were studied using a computer program. The two groups were compared in regards to: elevation of clavicles, elevation of shoulders, protrusion of the head, and anteroposterior and mediolateral thoracic length. Factor associated with thoracic disorders were evaluated by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The Preterm group had mean gestational age of 32.0±2.8 weeks and the birth weight was 1462±338 and 3342±430 g for the Preterm and Term adolescents, respectively. Preterm adolescents had higher elevation of the left shoulder (22.7±5.4o vs. 20.6±5.3o;sim, p=0.038) and the right shoulder (22.2±4.4o vs. 18.5±5.7o; p<0.001). Smaller protrusion of the head (27.8±6.1o vs. 32.4±7.9o; p=0.008), mediolateral thoracic length (22.9±2.3 cm vs. 25.1±3.1 cm; p<0.001) and anteroposterior thoracic length (19.7±2.2 cm vs. 21.1±3.4 cm; p<0.001) were found in preterm adolescents. By multiple regression analysis, factors associated with higher shoulder elevation were birth weight <1500 g (p<0.001) and mechanical ventilation during neonatal period >5 days (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Adolescents born prematurely presented greater thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations compared to those born at term. Factors associated with these alterations were: very low birth weight and longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the neonatal unit. PMID:25651130

  1. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  2. Pragmatic prevention of preterm birth and evidence based medicine.

    PubMed

    Hoyme, Udo B

    2016-07-01

    Effective prevention of preterm birth is one of the unsolved problems in modern medicine. In the Thuringia campaign 2000 based on a simple screening with intravaginal pH self-measurements, adequate medical diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial therapy of genital infection, the rate of newborns <1000 g was reduced to 0.38 %, the lowest incidence ever seen in any of the German states. Therefore, the regime should be implicated as a necessary step of optimizing and rationalizing the health care system. However, in the discussion we had to learn that the best way to inhibit progress is to cope with problems by preferring the most complicated policies under persistent renunciation of simple solutions. As long as we do not have other alternative safe, simple and cheap methods, do we really have to wait even more decades to come for a prospectively randomized double-blinded almost impracticable study to convince the latest skeptical scientist that we have plenty of evidence-based means to reduce the incidence of premature birth, now, by decreasing infectious morbidity in pregnancy and by the same action childbed fever as well? Insisting scholastically on nothing but the 100 % pure evidence sometimes can hamper innovations and potential benefit. Would a similar caution ever had allowed us for instance to introduce handwashing according to Semmelweis? Good news, the Government of the State of Thuringia has decided this year to reestablish a pH selfcare screening programme. PMID:27146862

  3. Pragmatic prevention of preterm birth and evidence based medicine.

    PubMed

    Hoyme, Udo B

    2016-07-01

    Effective prevention of preterm birth is one of the unsolved problems in modern medicine. In the Thuringia campaign 2000 based on a simple screening with intravaginal pH self-measurements, adequate medical diagnosis and immediate antimicrobial therapy of genital infection, the rate of newborns <1000 g was reduced to 0.38 %, the lowest incidence ever seen in any of the German states. Therefore, the regime should be implicated as a necessary step of optimizing and rationalizing the health care system. However, in the discussion we had to learn that the best way to inhibit progress is to cope with problems by preferring the most complicated policies under persistent renunciation of simple solutions. As long as we do not have other alternative safe, simple and cheap methods, do we really have to wait even more decades to come for a prospectively randomized double-blinded almost impracticable study to convince the latest skeptical scientist that we have plenty of evidence-based means to reduce the incidence of premature birth, now, by decreasing infectious morbidity in pregnancy and by the same action childbed fever as well? Insisting scholastically on nothing but the 100 % pure evidence sometimes can hamper innovations and potential benefit. Would a similar caution ever had allowed us for instance to introduce handwashing according to Semmelweis? Good news, the Government of the State of Thuringia has decided this year to reestablish a pH selfcare screening programme.

  4. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  5. Significance of mast cell distribution in placental tissue and membranes in spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Needham, Kate; Fadia, Mitali; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Harrington, Kirsti; Shadbolt, Bruce; Robson, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a common cause of adverse neonatal and childhood outcomes, in both the short and long term. Preterm labor is commonly associated with inflammation at the maternal–fetal interface. There is some indirect evidence that mast cells (MCs) might represent a link between hormonal influences and local reactions leading to the onset of labor. Patients and methods The placentas and membranes of 51 uncomplicated spontaneous term births were compared to those from 50 spontaneous preterm births. Immunohistochemical staining for MC tryptase was undertaken allowing MC concentration, location, and degranulation status to be determined. Regression modeling was used to compare results. Results There were no significant differences in the demographic characteristics of the two cohorts. There were significantly more MCs in the decidua for term births than preterm births (P=0.03). The presence of histological chorioamnionitis did not affect MC concentrations. Conclusion Despite evidence suggesting a possible role for MCs in spontaneous preterm birth, this study found that the concentration of decidual MCs was in fact significantly lower in preterm compared to term birth. PMID:27468246

  6. Are Early Grammatical and Phonological Working Memory Abilities Affected by Preterm Birth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Giovanelli, Giuliana; Salvioli, Gianpaolo

    2007-01-01

    There have been few investigations of the effects of very immature preterm birth on specific linguistic competencies and phonological working memory at preschool age. Study 1 aimed to investigate early grammatical abilities in very immature healthy preterms, taking into account their cognitive development and biological and social factors. The…

  7. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  8. Assisted reproductive technology and the risk of preterm birth among primiparas

    PubMed Central

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Holzman, Claudia; McKane, Patricia; Li, Chenxi; Boulet, Sheree L.; Todem, David; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Copeland, Glenn; Bernson, Dana; Sappenfield, William M.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of preterm birth among liveborn singletons to primiparas who conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) using four mutually exclusive categories of infertility (female infertility only, male infertility only, female and male infertility, and unexplained infertility) and to examine preterm birth risk along the gestational age continuum. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Singletons born to primiparas who conceived with or without ART. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Preterm (<37 weeks’ gestation) and preterm/early term birth <39 weeks’ gestation). Result(s) For the male infertility only, female infertility only, combined male and female infertility, and unexplained infertility groups, ART-conceived singletons were significantly more likely than non-ART singletons to be born preterm: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI, 1.13, 1.37), aOR 1.60 (95% CI, 1.50, 1.70), aOR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.35, 1.64), and aOR 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) respectively. Among infants whose mothers were diagnosed with infertility, the odds of preterm birth were highest between 28–30 weeks [female infertility only, aOR 1.95 (95% CI, 1.59, 2.39); male and female infertility: 2.21 (95% CI, 1.62, 3.00)] compared with infants in the general population. Within the ART population, singletons of couples with female infertility only were more likely to be born preterm than singletons born to couples with other infertility diagnoses. Conclusion(s) Among singleton births to primiparas, those conceived with ART had an increased risk for preterm birth, even when only the male partner had been diagnosed with infertility. The risk of preterm birth for ART-conceived infants whose mothers were diagnosed with infertility included the earliest deliveries. PMID:25707336

  9. Prevention of preterm birth: harnessing science to address the global epidemic.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Craig E; Sadovsky, Yoel; Muglia, Louis; Gravett, Michael G; Lackritz, Eve; Gravett, Courtney

    2014-11-12

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide, but current interventions to prevent prematurity are largely ineffective. Preterm birth is increasingly recognized as an outcome that can result from a variety of pathological processes. Despite current research efforts, the mechanisms underlying these processes remain poorly understood and are influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors. Research with modern techniques is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for preterm labor and birth and identify targets for diagnostic and therapeutic solutions. This review evaluates the state of reproductive science relevant to understanding the causes of preterm birth, identifies potential targets for prevention, and outlines challenges and opportunities for translating research findings into effective interventions.

  10. Preterm preeclampsia in relation to country of birth

    PubMed Central

    Ray, J G; Wanigaratne, S; Park, A L; Bartsch, E; Dzakpasu, S; Urquia, M L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between maternal country of birth and the risk of preeclampsia+preterm birth (PTB). Study Design: We completed a population-based study in the entire province of Ontario, where there is universal access to obstetrical care. We included 881 700 singleton livebirths among Canadian-born mothers and 305 547 births among immigrant mothers. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were adjusted for maternal age, parity and income quintile. Results: Compared with a rate of preeclampsia+PTB of 4.0 per 1000 among Canadian-born mothers, the aRR of preeclampsia+PTB at 24 to 36 weeks was significantly higher for immigrant women from Nigeria (1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 2.84), the Philippines (1.54, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.86), Colombia (1.68, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.73), Jamaica (2.06, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.57) and Ghana (2.12, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.21). The aRRs generally followed a similar pattern for secondary outcomes. Specifically, women from Ghana were at highest risk of preeclampsia+very PTB (4.55, 95% CI 2.57 to 8.06), and women from Jamaica at the highest risk of preeclampsia+indicated PTB (1.89, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.50). Conclusion: The risk of preeclampsia+PTB is highest among women from a select number of countries. This information can enhance initiatives aimed at reducing the risk of PTB related to preeclampsia. PMID:27149056

  11. Preterm birth prevention: a mandate for psychosocial assessment.

    PubMed

    Lederman, Regina P

    2011-01-01

    Reviews panels on the prevention of preterm birth (PTB) conducted by the Office of the Surgeon General and the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development made numerous novel recommendations for research on the assessment of risk factors for PTB and the development of personalized, specific interventions for the prevention of PTB. This paper discusses the particularly significant roles for nurses in assessment and intervention based on their education in pregnancy and in multiple health-related disciplines. General differences and specific anxiety assessment are presented based on the goals of research. An emphasis is placed on assessment of pregnancy-specific anxiety, and assessment and intervention methods that include the father/partner and couple using family system methodologies. The risks occurring with differences in partner intentions for pregnancy are discussed, and especially the benefits of male partner involvement and support. It is noted that interventions may need to be varied based on differences in gender, ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic status. Differences in individual or group intervention psychotherapy approaches are considered. The special risks and needs of pregnant military couples, especially those with deployed partners are presented. Variations in anxiety are discussed in terms of implications for maternal/paternal fetal and child attachment from birth to adulthood. Discussion includes the considerable and varied parenting and financial strains that continue long after birth, with significant impact for parent-child mental and physical health, and the need for development of long-term interventions that include parental coping strategies and parental empowerment.

  12. Preterm Birth and Its Long-Term Effects: Methylation to Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Parets, Sasha E.; Bedient, Carrie E.; Menon, Ramkumar; Smith, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    The epigenetic patterns established during development may influence gene expression over a lifetime and increase susceptibility to chronic disease. Being born preterm (<37 weeks of gestation) is associated with increased risk mortality and morbidity from birth until adulthood. This brief review explores the potential role of DNA methylation in preterm birth (PTB) and its possible long-term consequences and provides an overview of the physiological processes central to PTB and recent DNA methylation studies of PTB. PMID:25256426

  13. [Perinatal factors which affect low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Bissot, A; Villera, K; Solano, H; Bethancourt, L; Lawson, A

    1995-01-01

    The incidence of low-birth weight babies in the Santo Tomás maternity ward was 9% between the first of August of 1992 and the 31 of July of 1993. We found a higher risk of having low birth weight babies if the mother was toxemic, without prenatal care of low socioeconomic status and if she was single. We did not find an association with adolescence, short mother's height, low educational status and primi- or multiparity of 5 or more.

  14. The Relationship Between Birth Weight, Gestational Age and Perfluorooctanoic Acid (PFOA)-Contaminated Public Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Lynda A.; Nolan, John M.; Shofer, Frances S.; Rodway, Nancy V.; Emmett, Edward A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies have examined the associations between perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) levels in cord blood and maternal plasma with lowered birth weight and gestational age in humans; however, no study has examined these effects in a population of known high PFOA exposure. Residents drinking PFOA-contaminated water from the Little Hocking Water Association (LHWA) in Washington County, Ohio have serum PFOA levels approximately 80 times those in the general U.S. population. Objectives To compare birth weights and gestational ages of neonates born to mothers residing in zip codes with water service provided completely, partially or not at all by the LHWA. Methods Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on singleton neonatal birth weight data supplied by the Ohio Department of Health to examine the associations between LHWA water service category (used as a surrogate for PFOA exposure) with mean birth weight, mean gestational age, the likelihood of low birth weight (<2500 grams), and the likelihood of preterm birth (<37 completed weeks of gestation). All models were adjusted for maternal age, gestational age, sex, race and population-level socioeconomic status. Results The incidence of low birth weight, preterm birth, mean birth weight and mean gestational age of neonates did not significantly differ among water service categories. Conclusion Markedly elevated PFOA exposure, as categorized by water service category, is not associated with increased risk of lowered birth weight or gestational age. This study does not confirm earlier findings of an association between PFOA and lowered birth weight observed at normal population levels. PMID:19049861

  15. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  16. PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    dos REIS, Helena Lucia Barroso; ARAUJO, Karina da Silva; RIBEIRO, Lilian Paula; da ROCHA, Daniel Ribeiro; ROSATO, Drielli Petri; PASSOS, Mauro Romero Leal; de VARGAS, Paulo Roberto Merçon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal HIV infection and related co-morbidities may have two outstanding consequences to fetal health: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and adverse perinatal outcomes. After Brazilian success in reducing MTCT, the attention must now be diverted to the potentially increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). Objective: To determine the prevalence of PTB and IUGR in low income, antiretroviral users, publicly assisted, HIV-infected women and to verify its relation to the HIV infection stage. Patients and Methods: Out of 250 deliveries from HIV-infected mothers that delivered at a tertiary public university hospital in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, from November 2001 to May 2012, 74 single pregnancies were selected for study, with ultrasound validated gestational age (GA) and data on birth dimensions: fetal weight (FW), birth length (BL), head and abdominal circumferences (HC, AC). The data were extracted from clinical and pathological records, and the outcomes summarized as proportions of preterm birth (PTB, < 37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW, < 2500g) and small (SGA), adequate (AGA) and large (LGA) for GA, defined as having a value below, between or beyond the ±1.28 z/GA score, the usual clinical cut-off to demarcate the 10th and 90th percentiles. Results: PTB was observed in 17.5%, LBW in 20.2% and SGA FW, BL, HC and AC in 16.2%, 19.1%, 13.8%, and 17.4% respectively. The proportions in HIV-only and AIDS cases were: PTB: 5.9 versus 27.5%, LBW: 14.7% versus 25.0%, SGA BW: 17.6% versus 15.0%, BL: 6.0% versus 30.0%, HC: 9.0% versus 17.9%, and AC: 13.3% versus 21.2%; only SGA BL attained a significant difference. Out of 15 cases of LBW, eight (53.3%) were preterm only, four (26.7%) were SGA only, and three (20.0%) were both PTB and SGA cases. A concomitant presence of, at least, two SGA dimensions in the same fetus was frequent. Conclusions: The proportions of preterm

  17. The impact of changes in preterm birth among twins on stillbirth and infant mortality in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, D; Demissie, K; Marcella, SW; Rhoads, GG

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine trends for preterm births, stillbirths, neonatal and infant deaths in twin births by gestational age and birth weight categories, as well as trends in induction of labor and cesarean delivery during 1995–2006. STUDY DESIGN A trend analysis was performed on data derived from the National Centers for Health Statistics’ Vital Statistics Data files (1995–2006). The primary outcomes examined were preterm birth, stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality. RESULT During the study period, rates of labor induction among twins decreased by 8% and rates of cesarean delivery increased by 35%. Concurrently, the preterm birth rate increased by 13% from 54% in 1995–96 to 61% in 2005–06. The overall stillbirth rate, and neonatal and infant death rates decreased during the same period by 21% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18–25%), 13% (95% CI: 9–16%) and 12% (95% CI: 8–15%), respectively. There were significant reductions in neonatal death rates related to respiratory distress syndrome (RDS; 48%, 95% CI: 41–54%) and congenital anomalies (25%, 95% CI: 16–33%) during the study period. Reductions in post-neonatal infant mortality were mainly in RDS (88%) and sudden infant death syndrome (26%). Mortality rates among infants born by either induction of labor or cesarean delivery fell during the study period and remained much lower than the overall infant mortality rate. CONCLUSION The findings of this study suggest that during 1995–2006 there was an increase in preterm birth rates and a decrease in labor inductions with a sharp decline in stillbirth, neonatal and infant mortality rates. PMID:24968177

  18. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-12

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  19. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-01

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes. PMID:26274966

  20. Preterm birth: the interaction of traffic-related air pollution with economic hardship in Los Angeles neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Ninez A; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Wilhelm, Michelle; Ritz, Beate

    2005-07-15

    Preterm birth may be affected by the interaction of residential air pollution with neighborhood economic hardship. The authors examined variations in traffic-related pollution exposure--measured by distance-weighted traffic density--using a framework reflecting the social and physical environments. An adverse social environment was conceptualized as low socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods--census tracts with concentrated poverty, unemployment, and dependence on public assistance. An adverse physical environment was depicted by the winter season, when thermal inversions trap motor vehicle pollutants, thereby increasing traffic-related air pollution. Los Angeles County, California, birth records from 1994 to 1996 were linked to traffic counts, census data, and ambient air pollution measures. The authors fit multivariate logistic models of preterm birth, stratified by neighborhood SES and third pregnancy trimester season. Traffic-related air pollution exposure disproportionately affected low SES neighborhoods in the winter. Further, in these poorer neighborhoods, the winter season evidenced increased susceptibility among women with known risk factors. Health insurance was most beneficial to women residing in neighborhoods exposed to economic hardship and an adverse physical environment. Reducing preterm births warrants a concerted effort of social, economic, and environmental policies, focused on not only individual risk factors but also the reduction of localized air pollution, expansion of health-care coverage, and improvement of neighborhood resources.

  1. Maternal Resolution of Grief After Preterm Birth: Implications for Infant Attachment Security

    PubMed Central

    Clements, Melissa; Poehlmann, Julie

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study explored the association between mothers' unresolved grief regarding their infant's preterm birth and infant-mother attachment security. We hypothesized that mothers with unresolved grief would be more likely to have insecurely attached infants at 16 months and that this association would be partially mediated by maternal interaction quality. METHODS: This longitudinal study focused on 74 preterm infants (age of <36 weeks) and their mothers who were part of a larger study of high-risk infants. The present analysis included assessment of neonatal and socioeconomic risks at NICU discharge; maternal depression, Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview findings, and quality of parenting at a postterm age of 9 months; and infant-mother attachment at postterm age of 16 months. Associations among findings of grief resolution with the Reaction to Preterm Birth Interview, quality of parenting interactions, and attachment security were explored by using relative risk ratios and logistic and multivariate regression models. RESULTS: The relative risk of developing insecure attachment when mothers had unresolved grief was 1.59 (95% confidence interval: 1.03–2.44). Controlling for covariates (adjusted odds ratio: 2.94), maternal feelings of resolved grief regarding the preterm birth experience were associated with secure infant-mother attachment at 16 months. Maternal grief resolution and interaction quality were independent predictors of attachment security. CONCLUSION: Maternal grief resolution regarding the experience of preterm birth and the quality of maternal interactions have important implications for emerging attachment security for infants born prematurely. PMID:21242223

  2. Placental Microbiome and Its Role in Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bin; Stout, Molly J.; Lee, Iris; Mysorekar, Indira U.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known fact that the placenta has long-term effects on maternal and fetal health, the placenta remains a poorly understood and understudied organ. Not only is the placenta a site of exchange of nutrients and blood and gases between the fetal and maternal systems, but it also performs critical metabolic functions for supporting fetal development and maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance. It is also abundantly clear that impairment of placental function leads to severe pregnancy complications, including preterm birth (PTB), a significant cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Understanding the causes of PTB and other adverse outcomes is clearly essential for the development of effective methods of prevention and treatment. We focus our review of one major known cause of PTB, namely, infection. We also introduce a new and somewhat unexpected factor(s) that may well affect PTB and every aspect of placental biology and function: the placental microbiome. We discuss the implications of the placenta housing a microbial biomass for PTB and the effect of maternal microbiomes at various niches for fetal colonization and health outcomes. We suggest that the placenta is an integral part of the pipeline for microbe-powered driver of fetal destiny. PMID:25635174

  3. Preterm birth and single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is an important issue in neonates because of its complications as well as high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PTB is approximately 12-13% in USA and 5-9% in many other developed countries. China represents 7.8% (approximately one million) of 14.9 million babies born prematurely annually worldwide. The rate of PTB is still increasing. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are the major causes of PTB. Inflammation is regarded as an enabling characteristic factor of PTB. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literatures to illustrate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes in PTB. These polymorphisms are different among different geographic regions and different races, thus different populations may have different risk factors of PTB. SNPs affect the ability to metabolize poisonous substances and determine inflammation susceptibility, which in turn has an influence on reproduction-related risks and on delivery outcomes after exposure to environmental toxicants and pathogenic organisms. PMID:26835330

  4. Transdisciplinary translational science and the case of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D K; Shaw, G M; Wise, P H; Norton, M E; Druzin, M L; Valantine, H A; McFarland, D A

    2013-04-01

    Medical researchers have called for new forms of translational science that can solve complex medical problems. Mainstream science has made complementary calls for heterogeneous teams of collaborators who conduct transdisciplinary research so as to solve complex social problems. Is transdisciplinary translational science what the medical community needs? What challenges must the medical community overcome to successfully implement this new form of translational science? This article makes several contributions. First, it clarifies the concept of transdisciplinary research and distinguishes it from other forms of collaboration. Second, it presents an example of a complex medical problem and a concrete effort to solve it through transdisciplinary collaboration: for example, the problem of preterm birth and the March of Dimes effort to form a transdisciplinary research center that synthesizes knowledge on it. The presentation of this example grounds discussion on new medical research models and reveals potential means by which they can be judged and evaluated. Third, this article identifies the challenges to forming transdisciplines and the practices that overcome them. Departments, universities and disciplines tend to form intellectual silos and adopt reductionist approaches. Forming a more integrated (or 'constructionist'), problem-based science reflective of transdisciplinary research requires the adoption of novel practices to overcome these obstacles.

  5. Whole Blood Gene Expression Profile Associated with Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Women with Threatened Preterm Labor

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Yujing Jan; Pennell, Craig Edward; Chua, Hon Nian; Perkins, Jonathan Edward; Lye, Stephen James

    2014-01-01

    Threatened preterm labor (TPTL) is defined as persistent premature uterine contractions between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation and is the most common condition that requires hospitalization during pregnancy. Most of these TPTL women continue their pregnancies to term while only an estimated 5% will deliver a premature baby within ten days. The aim of this work was to study differential whole blood gene expression associated with spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) within 48 hours of hospital admission. Peripheral blood was collected at point of hospital admission from 154 women with TPTL before any medical treatment. Microarrays were utilized to investigate differential whole blood gene expression between TPTL women who did (n = 48) or did not have a sPTB (n = 106) within 48 hours of admission. Total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (35% and 41% respectively) in women who had sPTB than women who did not deliver within 48 hours (p<0.001). Fetal fibronectin (fFN) test was performed on 62 women. There was no difference in the urine, vaginal and placental microbiology and histopathology reports between the two groups of women. There were 469 significant differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05); 28 differentially expressed genes were chosen for microarray validation using qRT-PCR and 20 out of 28 genes were successfully validated (p<0.05). An optimal random forest classifier model to predict sPTB was achieved using the top nine differentially expressed genes coupled with peripheral clinical blood data (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 75.5%). These differentially expressed genes may further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sPTB and pave the way for future systems biology studies to predict sPTB. PMID:24828675

  6. Whole blood gene expression profile associated with spontaneous preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Heng, Yujing Jan; Pennell, Craig Edward; Chua, Hon Nian; Perkins, Jonathan Edward; Lye, Stephen James

    2014-01-01

    Threatened preterm labor (TPTL) is defined as persistent premature uterine contractions between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation and is the most common condition that requires hospitalization during pregnancy. Most of these TPTL women continue their pregnancies to term while only an estimated 5% will deliver a premature baby within ten days. The aim of this work was to study differential whole blood gene expression associated with spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) within 48 hours of hospital admission. Peripheral blood was collected at point of hospital admission from 154 women with TPTL before any medical treatment. Microarrays were utilized to investigate differential whole blood gene expression between TPTL women who did (n = 48) or did not have a sPTB (n = 106) within 48 hours of admission. Total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (35% and 41% respectively) in women who had sPTB than women who did not deliver within 48 hours (p<0.001). Fetal fibronectin (fFN) test was performed on 62 women. There was no difference in the urine, vaginal and placental microbiology and histopathology reports between the two groups of women. There were 469 significant differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05); 28 differentially expressed genes were chosen for microarray validation using qRT-PCR and 20 out of 28 genes were successfully validated (p<0.05). An optimal random forest classifier model to predict sPTB was achieved using the top nine differentially expressed genes coupled with peripheral clinical blood data (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 75.5%). These differentially expressed genes may further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sPTB and pave the way for future systems biology studies to predict sPTB. PMID:24828675

  7. Inhibition of infection-mediated preterm birth by administration of broad spectrum chemokine inhibitor in mice.

    PubMed

    Shynlova, Oksana; Dorogin, Anna; Li, Yunqing; Lye, Stephen

    2014-09-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is the single most important cause of perinatal and infant mortality worldwide. Maternal infection can result in PTB. We investigated the ability of a Broad Spectrum Chemokine Inhibitor (BSCI) to prevent infection-induced PTB in mice. PTB was initiated in pregnant mice by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 50 μg). Half the mice received BSCI (10 mg/kg) 24 hrs prior to and immediately before LPS administration. The impact of LPS alone or LPS plus BSCI was assessed on (i) injection-to-delivery interval, foetal survival rate, placental and neonates' weight; (ii) amniotic fluid and maternal plasma cytokine levels (by Luminex assay); foetal and maternal tissue cytokine gene expression levels (by Real-Time RT-PCR); (iii) immune cells infiltration into the uterine tissue (by stereological immunohistochemistry). Pre-treatment with BSCI (i) decreased LPS-induced PTB (64% versus 100%, P < 0.05); (ii) significantly attenuated cytokine/chemokine expression in maternal tissues (plasma, liver, myometrium, decidua); (iii) significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration in the mouse myometrium. BSCI-treated mice in which PTB was delayed till term had live foetuses with normal placental and foetal weight. BSCI represents a promising new class of therapeutics for PTB. In a mouse model of preterm labour, BCSI suppresses systemic inflammation in maternal tissues which resulted in the reduced incidence of LPS-mediated PTB. These data provide support for efforts to target inflammatory responses as a means of preventing PTB. PMID:24894878

  8. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  9. Segregation and preterm birth: The effects of neighborhood racial composition in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic research suggests that racial segregation is associated with poor health among blacks in the United States (US). We used geocoded birth records and US census data to investigate whether neighborhood-level percent black is associated with preterm birth (PTB) for blac...

  10. The effect of preterm birth on infant negative affect and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms: A preliminary examination in an underrepresented minority sample

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Nicole; Hartley, Chelsey M.; Bagner, Daniel M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of preterm birth on maternal postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect in an underrepresented minority sample. Method Participants were 102 mothers and their 3- to 10-month-old infants. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and the Infant Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Results Relative to normative samples, the current underrepresented minority sample of mostly Hispanics and Blacks displayed high rates of preterm birth (30%) and maternal postpartum depressive symptoms (17%). Preterm birth had a significant direct effect on postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect. Additionally, there was an indirect effect of postpartum depressive symptoms on the relation between preterm birth and infant negative affect. Specifically, lower birth weight and gestational age predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, and higher levels of depressive symptoms in the mother, in turn, predicted higher levels of infant negative affect. Conclusion Findings emphasize the importance of screening for postpartum depressive symptoms and infant negative affect among mothers and their preterm infants, especially among families from underrepresented minority backgrounds. PMID:25879520

  11. Term induction of labor and subsequent preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    LEVINE, Lisa D.; BOGNER, Hillary R.; HIRSHBERG, Adi; ELOVITZ, Michal A.; SAMMEL, Mary D.; SRINVAS, Sindhu K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the rate of inductions continues to rise, there is a paucity of data investigating subsequent pregnancy outcomes after induction. Our objective was to compare term inductions to term spontaneous labor and evaluate the rate of subsequent spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). Study Design A retrospective cohort study of women with 2 consecutive deliveries from 2005–2010 was performed. Term inductions or term spontaneous labor in the index pregnancy were included, and those with a prior sPTB were excluded. Data were obtained through chart abstraction. The primary outcome was sPTB (<37wks) in a subsequent pregnancy. Categorical variables were compared with χ2 analyses and logistic regression was used to calculate odds. Results 887 women were included (622 inductions, 265 spontaneous labor). The overall subsequent sPTB rate was 7.2%. Term inductions were less likely to have a subsequent sPTB compared to term spontaneous labor (6 vs. 11%; OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.29–0.81, p=0.005). This remained after adjusting for confounders (aOR 0.55, p=0.04). The sPTB risk depended on gestational age of index delivery. At 37–38.9wks, the sPTB rate after spontaneous labor was 24% vs. 9% after induction (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.44–6.16, p=0.003). This was not significant for 39–39.9wks (p=0.2) or ≥40wks (p=0.8). Conclusions Induction is not a risk factor for subsequent sPTB. Spontaneous labor; however, in the early term period is associated with subsequent sPTB. Further investigation among early term deliveries is warranted to evaluate the risk of sPTB and target interventions in this cohort. PMID:24184339

  12. Downward economic mobility and preterm birth: an exploratory study of Chicago-born upper class White mothers.

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    A paucity of published data exists on the factors underlying the relatively poor birth outcome of non-Hispanic White women in the United States. To determine whether downward economic mobility is a risk factor for preterm birth (<37 weeks, PTB) among upper class-born White women. Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Hispanic White infants (1989-1991) and their women (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. The study sample was restricted to singleton births of Chicago-born upper-class (defined by early-life residence in affluent neighborhoods) non-Hispanic White women. Upper class-born White women (n = 4,891) who did not experience downward economic mobility by the time of delivery had a PTB rate of 5.4 %. Those women who experienced slight (n = 5,112), moderate (n = 2,158), or extreme (n = 339) downward economic mobility had PTB rates of 6.5, 8.5, and 10.1 %, respectively; RR (95 % CI) = 1.2 (1.0-4.0), 1.6 (1.3-1.9), and 1.9 (1.3-2.6), respectively. Maternal downward economic mobility was also associated with an increased prevalence of biologic, medical, and behavioral risk factors. Interestingly, the relationship between moderate to extreme downward mobility and preterm birth was stronger among former low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW) than non-LBW women: 2.8 (1.4-5.8) versus 1.6 (1.3-1.9), respectively. In multilevel logistic regression models, the adjusted odds ratio of preterm birth for former LBW and non-LBW women who experienced any downward mobility (compared to those women with lifelong upper class status) equaled 2.4 (1.1-5.3) and 1.1 (1.0-1.1), respectively. Downward economic mobility is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth among upper class-born White urban women; this phenomenon is strongest among former low birth weight women. PMID:25656715

  13. Prepregnancy Depressive Mood and Preterm Birth in Black and White Women: Findings from the CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Chae, David H.; Mustillo, Sarah; Kiefe, Catarina I.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objectives We examine associations among race, prepregnancy depressive mood, and preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) in a cohort study of black and white women. Methods We tested for mediation of the association between race and preterm birth by prepregnancy depressive mood among 555 women enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Results Black women had significantly higher levels of prepregnancy depressive mood (modified CES-D score 13.0 vs. 9.5, t = −4.64, p < 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, black women had 2.70 times the odds of preterm birth as white women (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.41, 5.17). When adding prepregnancy depressive mood to this model, higher depressive mood was associated with greater odds of preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] 1.04; 95% CI 1.01, 1.07), and the effect of black race was attenuated (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.28, 4.77). Conclusions Our data suggest that prepregnancy depressive mood may be a risk factor for preterm birth among black and white women. PMID:19445645

  14. Preterm birth and structural brain alterations in early adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Nosarti, Chiara; Nam, Kie Woo; Walshe, Muriel; Murray, Robin M.; Cuddy, Marion; Rifkin, Larry; Allin, Matthew P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in cortical development and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes have been described following very preterm (VPT) birth in childhood and adolescence, but only a few studies to date have investigated grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maturation in VPT samples in early adult life. Using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we studied regional GM and WM volumes in 68 VPT-born individuals (mean gestational age 30 weeks) and 43 term-born controls aged 19–20 years, and their association with cognitive outcomes (Hayling Sentence Completion Test, Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Visual Reproduction test of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised) and gestational age. Structural MRI data were obtained with a 1.5 Tesla system and analysed using the VBM8 toolbox in SPM8 with a customized study-specific template. Similarly to results obtained at adolescent assessment, VPT young adults compared to controls demonstrated reduced GM volume in temporal, frontal, insular and occipital areas, thalamus, caudate nucleus and putamen. Increases in GM volume were noted in medial/anterior frontal gyrus. Smaller subcortical WM volume in the VPT group was observed in temporal, parietal and frontal regions, and in a cluster centred on posterior corpus callosum/thalamus/fornix. Larger subcortical WM volume was found predominantly in posterior brain regions, in areas beneath the parahippocampal and occipital gyri and in cerebellum. Gestational age was associated with GM and WM volumes in areas where VPT individuals demonstrated GM and WM volumetric alterations, especially in temporal, parietal and occipital regions. VPT participants scored lower than controls on measures of IQ, executive function and non-verbal memory. When investigating GM and WM alterations and cognitive outcome scores, subcortical WM volume in an area beneath the left inferior frontal gyrus accounted for 14% of the variance of full-scale IQ (F = 12.9, p < 0.0001). WM volume in posterior corpus callosum

  15. Maternal experiences of racism and violence as predictors of preterm birth: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Rich-Edwards, J; Krieger, N; Majzoub, J; Zierler, S; Lieberman, E; Gillman, M

    2001-07-01

    Chronic psychological stress may raise the risk of preterm delivery by raising levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Women who have been the targets of racism or personal violence may be at particularly high risk of preterm delivery. The aims of this study are to examine the extent to which: (1) maternal experiences of racism or violence in childhood, adulthood, or pregnancy are associated with the risk of preterm birth; (2) CRH levels are prospectively associated with risk of preterm birth; and (3) CRH levels are associated with past and current maternal experiences of racism or violence. We have begun to examine these questions among women enrolled in Project Viva, a Boston-based longitudinal study of 6000 pregnant women and their children.

  16. Long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy at eight years.

    PubMed

    Guarini, Annalisa; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fabbri, Cristina; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether specific linguistic difficulties in preterm children persist at eight years and to examine the interrelationships between language and literacy in this population, compared with a control group of full-term children. Sixty-eight monolingual Italian preterms and 26 chronologically matched controls were recruited. Language (grammar comprehension, lexical production and phonological awareness), literacy (reading comprehension, reading and writing) and general cognitive development were investigated. Results showed no general delay in preterms, but slight difficulties in specific linguistic abilities (grammar, lexicon, phoneme synthesis and deletion of the first syllable), more difficulties in literacy (speed in reading and accuracy in writing) and certain correlations among competencies turning out to be different from the control group. In conclusion, our study established that a partially atypical trajectory emerged in preterms, showing specific long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy development. PMID:19698208

  17. A whole brain morphometric analysis of changes associated with pre-term birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, C. E.; Boardman, J. P.; Counsell, S.; Hill, D. L. G.; Hajnal, J. V.; Edwards, A. D.; Rutherford, M. A.; Gillies, D. F.; Rueckert, D.

    2006-03-01

    Pre-term birth is strongly associated with subsequent neuropsychiatric impairment. To identify structural differences in preterm infants we have examined a dataset of magnetic resonance (MR) images containing 88 preterm infants and 19 term born controls. We have analyzed these images by combining image registration, deformation based morphometry (DBM), multivariate statistics, and effect size maps (ESM). The methodology described has been performed directly on the MR intensity images rather than on segmented versions of the images. The results indicate that the approach described makes clear the statistical differences between the control and preterm samples, showing a leave-one-out classification accuracy of 94.74% and 95.45% respectively. In addition, finding the most discriminant direction between the groups and using DBM features and ESM we are able to identify not only what are the changes between preterm and term groups but also how relatively relevant they are in terms of volume expansion and contraction.

  18. Long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy at eight years.

    PubMed

    Guarini, Annalisa; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fabbri, Cristina; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2010-09-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate whether specific linguistic difficulties in preterm children persist at eight years and to examine the interrelationships between language and literacy in this population, compared with a control group of full-term children. Sixty-eight monolingual Italian preterms and 26 chronologically matched controls were recruited. Language (grammar comprehension, lexical production and phonological awareness), literacy (reading comprehension, reading and writing) and general cognitive development were investigated. Results showed no general delay in preterms, but slight difficulties in specific linguistic abilities (grammar, lexicon, phoneme synthesis and deletion of the first syllable), more difficulties in literacy (speed in reading and accuracy in writing) and certain correlations among competencies turning out to be different from the control group. In conclusion, our study established that a partially atypical trajectory emerged in preterms, showing specific long-term effects of preterm birth on language and literacy development.

  19. Low birth weight in Kuala Lumpur.

    PubMed

    Tahir, H M; Ismail, N N; Gebbie, D A

    1991-06-01

    Low birth weight babies are defined as those weighing under 2,500 g. They make 13.5% of all births at the Maternity Hospital, Kuala Lumpur but contribute to 74.8% of all deaths. They are most likely to be Indian babies and least likely to be Chinese. Among all 3 communities, the primigravidae tend to produce smaller babies than multiparae but this is also true for the Indian of parity more than 3. The Malay teenager is more likely to produce small babies than their older counterparts but not so with the Indian and Chinese. There are definite clinical factors associated with or causing the births of small babies and the lighter the baby, the more influential are these factors. Maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, multiple pregnancy and unexplained intrauterine death are the 4 outstanding associations with both low birth weight and perinatal death. Although the spontaneous (often premature) onset of labour was the commonest preceding factor, it was much less important in the lowest birth weight groups of babies and was a less important contributor to perinatal death.

  20. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and the risk of preterm births in China: a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Folic acid-containing multivitamins have been associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth. We examined whether periconceptional use of folic acid alone reduced this risk. Methods: Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study conducted in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 207 936 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 20–42 weeks to women from two provinces in southern China. Healthcare workers recorded folic acid intake prospectively each month. Gestational age calculation was based on the first day of the last menstrual period. Preterm births were categorized into three clinical subtypes: iatrogenic preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between folic acid use and the risk of preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower among folic acid users (5.28%) than among non-users (6.10%). Folic acid use showed a 14% risk reduction for preterm birth overall [adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–0.90]. This association was strongest for spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.78–0.86) and was not significant for iatrogenic preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88–1.07) or PPROM (adjusted RR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.93–1.23). Conclusions: Daily intake of 400 μg folic acid alone during the periconceptional period was associated with a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:24603317

  1. Ambient Fine Particulate Matter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah; Bobb, Jennifer F.; Ito, Kazuhiko; Savitz, David A.; Elston, Beth; Shmool, Jessie L.C.; Dominici, Francesca; Ross, Zev; Clougherty, Jane E.; Matte, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have suggested associations between air pollution and various birth outcomes, but the evidence for preterm birth is mixed. Objective: We aimed to assess the relationship between air pollution and preterm birth using 2008–2010 New York City (NYC) birth certificates linked to hospital records. Methods: We analyzed 258,294 singleton births with 22–42 completed weeks gestation to nonsmoking mothers. Exposures to ambient fine particles (PM2.5) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) during the first, second, and cumulative third trimesters within 300 m of maternal address were estimated using data from the NYC Community Air Survey and regulatory monitors. We estimated the odds ratio (OR) of spontaneous preterm (gestation < 37 weeks) births for the first- and second-trimester exposures in a logistic mixed model, and the third-trimester cumulative exposures in a discrete time survival model, adjusting for maternal characteristics and delivery hospital. Spatial and temporal components of estimated exposures were also separately analyzed. Results: PM2.5 was not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. NO2 in the second trimester was negatively associated with spontaneous preterm birth in the adjusted model (OR = 0.90; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.97 per 20 ppb). Neither pollutant was significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth based on adjusted models of temporal exposures, whereas the spatial exposures showed significantly reduced odds ratios (OR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.96 per 10 μg/m3 PM2.5 and 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79, 0.98 per 20 ppb NO2). Without adjustment for hospital, these negative associations were stronger. Conclusion: Neither PM2.5 nor NO2 was positively associated with spontaneous preterm delivery in NYC. Delivery hospital was an important spatial confounder. Citation: Johnson S, Bobb JF, Ito K, Savitz DA, Elston B, Shmool JL, Dominici F, Ross Z, Clougherty JE, Matte T. 2016. Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and

  2. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  3. It's About Time: A Survival Approach to Gestational Weight Gain and Preterm Delivery.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Emily M; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2016-03-01

    There is substantial interest in understanding the impact of gestational weight gain on preterm delivery (delivery <37 weeks). The major difficulty in analyzing the association between gestational weight gain and preterm delivery lies in their mutual dependence on gestational age, as weight naturally increases with increasing pregnancy duration. In this study, we untangle this inherent association by reframing preterm delivery as time to delivery and assessing the relationship through a survival framework, which is particularly amenable to dealing with time-dependent covariates, such as gestational weight gain. We derive the appropriate analytical model for assessing the relationship between weight gain and time to delivery when weight measurements at multiple time points are available. Since epidemiologic data may be limited to weight gain measurements taken at only a few time points or at delivery only, we conduct simulation studies to illustrate how several strategically timed measurements can yield unbiased risk estimates. Analysis of the study of successive small-for-gestational-age births demonstrates that a naive analysis that does not account for the confounding effect of time on gestational weight gain suggests a strong association between higher weight gain and later delivery (hazard ratio: 0.89, 95% confidence interval = 0.84, 0.93). Properly accounting for the confounding effect of time using a survival model, however, mitigates this bias (hazard ratio: 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97, 1.00). These results emphasize the importance of considering the effect of gestational age on time-varying covariates during pregnancy, and the proposed methods offer a convenient mechanism to appropriately analyze such data.See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/EDE/B13. PMID:26489043

  4. Sonography in Fetal Birth Weight Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Oyekan, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of fetal birth weight is an important factor in the management of high risk pregnancies. The information and knowledge gained through this study, comparing a combination of various fetal parameters using computer assisted analysis, will help the obstetrician to screen the high risk pregnancies, monitor the growth and development,…

  5. Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Fred W.; Yang, Wei; Tager, Ira B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is an important marker of health and has a prevalence of 12-13% in the U.S. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic contaminants that form during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, such as coal, diesel and gasoline. Studies suggest that exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is related to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PAHs during the pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods The study population included births from years 2001-2006 of women whose maternal residence was within 20 km of the primary monitoring site in Fresno, California. Data in the Fresno area were used to form a spatio-temporal model to assign daily exposure to PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings at the maternal residence throughout pregnancy of all of the births in the study area. Gestational age at birth and relevant covariates were extracted from the birth certificate. Results We found an association between PAHs during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and birth at 20-27 weeks (OR=2.74; 95% CI: 2.24-3.34) comparing the highest quartile to the lower three. The association was consistent when each quartile was compared to the lowest (OR2nd=1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.06; OR3rd=2.63, 95% CI:1.93-3.59; OR4th=3.94, 95% CI:3.03-5.12). Inverse associations were also observed for exposure to PAHs during the entire pregnancy and the first trimester and birth at 28-31 weeks and 20-27 weeks. Conclusion An association between PAH exposure during the 6 weeks before delivery and early preterm birth was observed. However, the inverse association with early preterm birth offers an unclear, and potentially complex, inference of these associations. PMID:25282280

  6. Fortification of human milk in very low birth weight infants (VLBW <1500 g birth weight).

    PubMed

    Adamkin, David H; Radmacher, Paula G

    2014-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the feeding of human milk for all infants. Very-low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants especially can benefit from the immune and neurodevelopmental effects of human milk. However, human milk alone is nutritionally inadequate for the rapid growth of the very-low-birth-weight infant during a critical window for brain development and requires fortification to meet current recommendations. There are a variety of products, devices, and strategies that can be used to fine tune nutritional support of these very vulnerable infants.

  7. [Oxidative stress after preterm birth: origins, biomarkers, and possible therapeutic approaches].

    PubMed

    Yzydorczyk, C; Mitanchez, D; Buffat, C; Ligi, I; Grandvuillemin, I; Boubred, F; Simeoni, U

    2015-10-01

    The survival of preterm babies has increased over the last few decades. However, disorders associated with preterm birth, known as oxygen radical diseases of neonatology, such as retinopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, periventricular leukomalacia, and necrotizing enterocolitis are severe complications related to oxidative stress, which can be defined by an imbalance between oxidative reactive species production and antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress causes lipid, protein, and DNA damage. Preterm infants have decreased antioxidant defenses in response to oxidative challenges, because the physiologic increase of antioxidant capacity occurs at the end of gestation in preparation for the transition to extrauterine life. Therefore, preterm infants are more sensitive to neonatal oxidative stress, notably when supplemental oxygen is being delivered. Furthermore, despite recent advances in the management of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome, controversies persist concerning the oxygenation saturation targets that should be used in caring for preterm babies. Identification of adequate biomarkers of oxidative stress in preterm infants such as 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, and adduction of malondialdehyde to hemoglobin is important to promote specific therapeutic approaches. At present, no therapeutic strategy has been validated as prevention or treatment against oxidative stress. Breastfeeding should be considered as the main measure to improve the antioxidant status of preterm infants. In the last few years, melatonin has emerged as a protective molecule against oxidative stress, with antioxidant and free-radical scavenger roles, in experimental and preliminary human studies, giving hope that it can be used in preterm infants in the near future.

  8. Elective cesarean section and induction and their impact on late preterm births.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Karin; Wapner, Ronald

    2006-12-01

    At all gestational ages, the risks of continuing a pregnancy must be carefully balanced against the risks of delivery and the associates risk of prematurity. This concept is of increasing importance in late preterm pregnancy when medical or obstetric complications frequently warrant delivery and the risk of prematurity persists. Given that morbidity exists for infants born between 34 and 37 weeks gestations, efforts should be focused on minimizing the late preterm birth rate and at improving the outcome of these infants. Published guidelines outlining the appropriate timing of elective induction of labor and elective Cesarean section should be closely followed to avoid unintended iatrogenic prematurity. Research should continue to investigate the etiology of spontaneous preterm deliveries and aim to develop strategies of primary prevention. The incidence and etiology of iatrogenic late preterm birth should also be further investigated and alternative management strategies should be considered. To gain information about the impact of elective delivery on late preterm births, the data collected from birth records should reflect the changing obstetric practices in the United States and be revised to include specific information on elective deliveries.

  9. The matrix metalloproteases and endothelin-1 in infection-associated preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Olgun, Nicole S; Reznik, Sandra E

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is clinically defined as any delivery which occurs before the completion of 37 weeks of gestation, and is currently the most important problem in obstetrics. In the United States, PTB accounts for 12-13% of all live births, and, with the exception of fetuses suffering from anomalies, is the primary cause of perinatal mortality. While the risk factors for PTB are numerous, the single most common cause is intrauterine infection. As there is currently no FDA-approved therapy for infection-associated PTB, understanding the pathogenesis of preterm labor (PTL) and delivery should be given high priority. The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of enzymes that have been implicated in normal parturition as well as infection-triggered rupture of membranes and preterm birth. Several lines of evidence also suggest a role for endothelin-1 (ET-1) in infection-associated preterm delivery. This paper focuses on the evidence that the MMPs and ET-1 act in the same molecular pathway in preterm birth.

  10. [Paradise lost - Reflexion of preterm birth from the perspective after a brain injury. A case study].

    PubMed

    Cignacco, Eva; Zuñiga, Franziska; Kurth, Elisabeth

    2011-04-01

    This case study describes the history of an older person, born in 1942 preterminally, who suffered from a brain injury in 2005. Problems in rehabilitation elicited the search for a new meaning in life. In analysing and interpreting the brain injury, preterm birth played a crucial role. The theme of lifelong compensation of deficits, caused by preterm birth, gained new importance. The consequences of brain injury left unsuccessful his former modes of compensation. He was confronted with finding new strategies in order to counterbalance the growing decompensation. This report is based on and was developed through respect for the principles of user involvement in research.

  11. The interaction between chronic stress and pregnancy: preterm birth from a biobehavioral perspective.

    PubMed

    Latendresse, Gwen

    2009-01-01

    Women's health care providers are increasingly aware that chronic stressors--such as poverty, ongoing perceived stress and anxiety, intimate partner violence, and experiences of racism--are associated with an increased incidence of preterm birth in the United States. It is important to increase our understanding of the explanatory pathways involved in these associations. This article discusses the concepts of stress, chronic stress response, allostatic load, the physiology of labor initiation, and the pathophysiologic interactions that may contribute to the occurrence of chronic stress-related preterm birth. Implications for future research and interventions are explored.

  12. Necrotizing Enterocolitis in Very Low Birth Weight Infants: A Systemic Review

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Bhoomika K.; Shah, Jigna S.

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common serious gastrointestinal disorder affecting very preterm or very low birth weight infants. The risk is inversely proportional to gestational age and weight at birth. Fetal growth restriction and compromise may be additional specific risk factors. Despite extensive research and animal studies etiopathogenesis, preventive strategies and management options remain controversial. The present paper reviews the literature for recent advances and newer insights for changing epidemiological trends, pathogenesis, role of inflammatory cytokines, and various preventive and management strategies. PMID:22997587

  13. Eikenella corrodens Sepsis with Cerebrospinal Fluid Pleocytosis in a Very Low Birth Weight Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Christopher; Angelis, Dimitrios; Bennett, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of Eikenella corrodens sepsis associated with CSF pleocytosis in a very low birth weight neonate. A 1000-gram male neonate was born at 27-week gestation due to preterm labor. The patient presented with signs and symptoms of sepsis and was treated for suspected meningitis with intravenous ampicillin and gentamicin for 7 days, with cefotaxime added for three weeks. He had a normal brain MRI at discharge and normal development at 6 months of life. To our knowledge, this is the first case of E. corrodens sepsis and associated meningitis in a very low birth weight neonate. PMID:26635988

  14. Association between HIV in pregnancy and antiretroviral therapy, including protease inhibitors and low birth weight infants.

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, P J; Smit, R; Stevens, M; Sever, J L

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of low birth weight infants born to HIV seropositive women and to demonstrate any effects of antiretroviral therapy on birth weight. METHODS: Retrospective review of all obstetrical medical records from January 1, 1995 through June 30, 1998 to identify HIV seropositive women. We evaluated their antiretroviral therapy, CD4 counts, and birth weights of their newborns. We conducted detailed review of the clinical and laboratory findings for the HIV-infected untreated patients, women who received ZDV antepartum alone, and those who received PIs as part of antiretroviral treatment. RESULTS: The frequency of low birth weight infants was significantly increased in HIV seropositive compared to HIV seronegative parturients. Low birth weight infants were more frequent among HIV infected women with lower CD4 counts but the association was not statistically significant. Women who received no antepartum treatment, antepartum only ZDV, and those treated with PIs had significantly more low birth weight infants than did comparison groups. HIV seropositive women also had high frequencies of several obstetrical risk factors for low birth weight infants. CONCLUSION: The present study showed a significantly increased frequency of low birth weight infants among HIV infected women and especially the subgroups of infected women who received no antepartum treatment, antepartum ZDV only, and those treated with PIs. This association, however, may be related to the presence of many other preterm obstetrical risk factors noted in this study. Increasing numbers of HIV seropositive women are being treated with PIs according to the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) guidelines. If PIs are a cause of low birth weight infants, women taking these drugs may have incremental risk of low birth weight. PMID:10805364

  15. Heart morphology differences induced by intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth measured on the ECG at preadolescent age.

    PubMed

    Ortigosa, Nuria; Rodriguez-Lopez, Merida; Bailón, Raquel; Sarvari, Sebastian Imre; Sitges, Marta; Gratacos, Eduard; Bijnens, Bart; Crispi, Fatima; Laguna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) and premature birth are associated with higher risk of cardiovascular diseases throughout adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of these factors in ventricular electrical remodeling in preadolescents. Electrocardiography was performed in a cohort of 33-IUGR, 32-preterm with appropriate weight and 60 controls. Depolarization and repolarization processes were studied by means of the surface ECG, including loops and angles corresponding to QRS and T-waves. The angles between the dominant vector of QRS and the frontal plane XY were different among the study groups: controls [20.03°(10.11°-28.64°)], preterm [25.48°(19.79°-33.56°)], and IUGR [27.77°(16.59°-33.23°)]. When compared to controls, IUGR subjects also presented wider angles between the difference of QRS and T-wave dominant vectors and the XY-plane [5.28°±12.15° vs 0.49°±14.15°, p<0.05] while preterm ones showed smaller frontal QRS-T angle [4.68°(2.20°-12.89°) vs 6.57°(2.72°-11.31°), p<0.05]. Thus, electrical remodeling is present in IUGR and preterm preadolescents, and might predispose them to cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Follow-up studies are warranted. PMID:27036371

  16. Lower Urinary and Serum Progesterone-Induced Blocking Factor in Women with Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Hudić, Igor; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Fatušić, Zlatan; Polgar, Beata; Ećim-Zlojutro, Vesna

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare urine and serum concentrations of PIBF at 24-28 gestational weeks in women with preterm birth, with those of women who delivered at term and to evaluate the impact of PIBF on the outcome of pregnancy. Case-control study was performed in period from 1.6.2010-31.7.2013. Biological samples (urine and serum) were collected from 126 pregnant women. All biological samples were obtained at 24-28 gestation weeks. We measured PIBF concentration and compared women who delivered preterm and those who delivered at term. Thirteen of 126 pregnant women (10.3%) who were included in the study delivered preterm. Among women that actually delivered preterm, median concentrations of PIBF were significantly lower (12.3ng/ml; 101.3ng/ml) than in women who delivered at term (77.0ng/ml; 412.7ng/ml). The serum and urine 24-28 gestational weeks PIBF in those who delivered preterm were generally low from 24 to 37 gestational weeks, while the serum and urine PIBF concentration reached a peak in those delivering between 37-38 gestational weeks, even significantly different from those delivering at 39 to 40 and after 40 gestational weeks. Preterm birth may be predictable at 24-28 gestational week by lower than normal pregnancy PIBF values and measurement of PIBF concentration in biological fluids at that time may be of importance in clinical practice. PMID:27479613

  17. Born early and born poor: An eco-bio-developmental model for poverty and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Brumberg, H L; Shah, S I

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is associated with adverse long-term cognitive outcomes in children. Poverty is also linked with preterm delivery which, in turn, is associated with adverse cognitive outcomes. However, the extent of the effect of poverty on preterm delivery, as well as proposed mechanisms by which they occur, have not been well described. Further, the impact of poverty on preterm school readiness has not been reviewed. As the childhood poverty level continues to increase in the U.S., we examine the evidence around physiological, neurological, cognitive and learning outcomes associated with prematurity in the context of poverty. We use the evidence gathered to suggest an Eco-Bio-Developmental model, emphasizing poverty as a toxic stress which predisposes preterm birth and which, via epigenetic forces, can continue into the next generation. Continued postnatal social disadvantage for these developmentally high-risk preterm infants is strongly linked with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, decreased school readiness, and decreased educational attainment which can perpetuate the poverty cycle. We suggest social remedies aimed at decreasing the impact of poverty on mothers, fathers, and children which may be effective in reducing the burden of preterm birth.

  18. Vitamin D status among preterm and full-term infants at birth

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H.; Van Marter, Linda J.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Tabatabai, Patrik; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Weiss, Scott T.; Christou, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Risk factors for maternal vitamin D deficiency and preterm birth overlap but the distribution of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels among preterm infants is not known. We aimed to determine associations between 25(OH)D levels and gestational age. Methods We measured umbilical cord plasma levels of 25(OH)D from 471 infants born at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston. We used generalized estimating equations to determine whether preterm (<37 weeks’ gestation) or very preterm (<32 weeks’ gestation) infants had greater odds of 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/ml than more mature infants. We adjusted for potential confounding by season of birth, maternal age, race, marital status and singleton or multiple gestation. Results Mean cord plasma 25(OH)D level was 34.0 ng/ml (range 4.1 to 95.3, and SD 14.1). Infants born before 32 weeks’ gestation had increased odds of 25(OH)D levels < 20 ng/ml in unadjusted (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1, 4.3) and adjusted models (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2, 5.3) compared to more mature infants. Conclusion Infants born < 32 weeks’ gestation are at higher risk than more mature infants for low 25(OH)D levels. Further investigation of the relationships between low 25(OH)D levels and preterm birth and its sequelae is thus warranted. PMID:24121425

  19. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight. RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents. CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight. PMID:26398873

  20. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight. PMID:26398873

  1. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Theme Filha, Mariza Miranda

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight.METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight.RESULTS Four patterns of consumption - which explain 36.4% of the variability - were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents.CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby's birth weight.

  2. Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Smets, Eline; van Schayck, Constant P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Mommers, Monique; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61–3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55–3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual

  3. Tract shape modeling detects changes associated with preterm birth and neuroprotective treatment effects

    PubMed Central

    Anblagan, Devasuda; Bastin, Mark E.; Sparrow, Sarah; Piyasena, Chinthika; Pataky, Rozalia; Moore, Emma J.; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair Graham; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Semple, Scott I.; Boardman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with altered connectivity of neural circuits. We developed a tract segmentation method that provides measures of tract shape and integrity (probabilistic neighborhood tractography, PNT) from diffusion MRI (dMRI) data to test the hypotheses: 1) preterm birth is associated with alterations in tract topology (R), and tract-averaged mean diffusivity (〈D〉) and fractional anisotropy (FA); 2) neural systems are separable based on tract-averaged dMRI parameters; and 3) PNT can detect neuroprotective treatment effects. dMRI data were collected from 87 preterm infants (mean gestational age 29+1 weeks, range 23+2 –34+6) at term equivalent age and 24 controls (mean gestational age 39+6 weeks). PNT was used to segment eight major fasciculi, characterize topology, and extract tract-averaged 〈D〉 and FA. Tract topology was altered by preterm birth in all tracts except the splenium (p < 0.05, false discovery rate [FDR] corrected). After adjustment for age at scan, tract-averaged 〈D〉 was increased in the genu and splenium, right corticospinal tract (CST) and the left and right inferior longitudinal fasciculi (ILF) in preterm infants compared with controls (p < 0.05, FDR), while tract-averaged FA was decreased in the splenium and left ILF (p < 0.05, FDR). Specific fasciculi were separable based on tract-averaged 〈D〉 and FA values. There was a modest decrease in tract-averaged 〈D〉 in the splenium of preterm infants who had been exposed to antenatal MgSO4 for neuroprotection (p = 0.002). Tract topology is a biomarker of preterm brain injury. The data provide proof of concept that tract-averaged dMRI parameters have utility for evaluating tissue effects of perinatal neuroprotective strategies. PMID:26106527

  4. Maternal Postsecondary Education Associated With Improved Cerebellar Growth After Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Stiver, Mikaela L; Kamino, Daphne; Guo, Ting; Thompson, Angela; Duerden, Emma G; Taylor, Margot J; Tam, Emily W Y

    2015-10-01

    The preterm cerebellum is vulnerable to impaired development impacting long-term outcome. Preterm newborns (<32 weeks) underwent serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The association between parental education and cerebellar volume at each time point was assessed, adjusting for age at scan. In 26 infants, cerebellar volumes at term (P = .001), but not birth (P = .4), were associated with 2-year volumes. For 1 cm(3) smaller cerebellar volume (4% total volume) at term, the cerebellum was 3.18 cm(3) smaller (3% total volume) by 2 years. Maternal postsecondary education was not associated with cerebellar volume at term (P = .16). Maternal postsecondary education was a significant confounder in the relationship between term and 2-year cerebellar volumes (P = .016), with higher education associated with improved volumes by 2 years. Although preterm birth has been found to be associated with smaller cerebellar volumes at term, maternal postsecondary education is associated with improved growth detectable by 2 years.

  5. An integrated systems biology approach to the study of preterm birth using "-omic" technology - a guideline for research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and perinatal morbidity. The etiology of preterm is multi-factorial and still unclear. As evidence increases for a genetic contribution to PTB, so does the need to explore genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics in its study. This review suggests research guidelines for the conduct of high throughput systems biology investigations into preterm birth with the expectation that this will facilitate the sharing of samples and data internationally through consortia, generating the power needed to study preterm birth using integrated "-omics" technologies. The issues to be addressed include: (1) integrated "-omics" approaches, (2) phenotyping, (3) sample collection, (4) data management-integrative databases, (5) international consortia and (6) translational feasibility. This manuscript is the product of discussions initiated by the "-Omics" Working Group at the Preterm Birth International Collaborative Meeting held at the World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland in April 2009. PMID:21992798

  6. Preterm Birth and Leisure Participation: A Synthesis of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahan-Oliel, Noemi; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Leisure participation has been associated with happiness and well-being in children. Individuals born preterm are at greater risk for motor, cognitive and behavioral difficulties which may contribute to difficulties participating in leisure activities. This systematic review examined the current knowledge on participation in leisure activities in…

  7. Cervical Pessaries for the Prevention of Preterm Birth: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Sophie M. S.; van Pampus, Mariëlle G.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Bekedam, Dick J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Reduction of preterm birth is a major goal in obstetric care. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials and cohort studies on the effectiveness of the cervical pessary to prevent preterm birth. Methods. We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE and Embase from inception until April 2012 to identify studies investigating treatment with a cervical pessary to prevent preterm birth. We constructed two-by-two tables for delivery before 28, 34, and 37 weeks of gestation and calculated relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals. Results. The search revealed 103 potentially eligible abstracts of which six cohort studies and four randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigated the effectiveness of the pessary. One RCT (n = 380) demonstrated a lower delivery rate prior to 34 weeks (RR 0.24; 95% CI 0.13–0.43) in the pessary group, while another RCT (n = 108) showed no positive effect of pessary for delivery before 34 weeks (RR 1.73; 95% CI 0.43–6.88). Two older quasi randomized studies and cohort studies indicated potential effect of the pessary. Conclusions. Available randomized and nonrandomized studies indicate potential effectiveness of a cervical pessary in the prevention of preterm birth. More randomized clinical trials are needed before this device can be used in clinical practice. PMID:23606848

  8. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth in Mexico City: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Mordhukovich, Irina B; Brown, Daniel G; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2013-03-15

    Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and is associated with long-term adverse health consequences for surviving infants. Preterm birth rates are rising worldwide, and no effective means for prevention currently exists. Air pollution exposure may be a significant cause of prematurity, but many published studies lack the individual, clinical data needed to elucidate possible biological mechanisms mediating these epidemiological associations. This paper presents the design of a prospective study now underway to evaluate those mechanisms in a cohort of pregnant women residing in Mexico City. We address how air quality may act together with other factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Data collection includes: biomarkers relevant to inflammation in cervico-vaginal exudate and peripheral blood, along with full clinical information, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and air pollution data to evaluate spatial and temporal variability in air pollution exposure. Samples are collected on a monthly basis and participants are followed for the duration of pregnancy. The data will be used to evaluate whether ambient air pollution is associated with preterm birth, controlling for other risk factors. We will evaluate which time windows during pregnancy are most influential in the air pollution and preterm birth association. In addition, the epidemiological study will be complemented with a parallel toxicology invitro study, in which monocytic cells will be exposed to air particle samples to evaluate the expression of biomarkers of inflammation. PMID:23177781

  9. The genomics of preterm birth: from animal models to human studies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (delivery at less than 37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of infant mortality worldwide. So far, the application of animal models to understand human birth timing has not substantially revealed mechanisms that could be used to prevent prematurity. However, with amassing data implicating an important role for genetics in the timing of the onset of human labor, the use of modern genomic approaches, such as genome-wide association studies, rare variant analyses using whole-exome or genome sequencing, and family-based designs, holds enormous potential. Although some progress has been made in the search for causative genes and variants associated with preterm birth, the major genetic determinants remain to be identified. Here, we review insights from and limitations of animal models for understanding the physiology of parturition, recent human genetic and genomic studies to identify genes involved in preterm birth, and emerging areas that are likely to be informative in future investigations. Further advances in understanding fundamental mechanisms, and the development of preventative measures, will depend upon the acquisition of greater numbers of carefully phenotyped pregnancies, large-scale informatics approaches combining genomic information with information on environmental exposures, and new conceptual models for studying the interaction between the maternal and fetal genomes to personalize therapies for mothers and infants. Information emerging from these advances will help us to identify new biomarkers for earlier detection of preterm labor, develop more effective therapeutic agents, and/or promote prophylactic measures even before conception. PMID:23673148

  10. Cnr2 deficiency confers resistance to inflammation-induced preterm birth in mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaofei; Cappelletti, Monica; Li, Yingju; Karp, Christopher L; Divanovic, Senad; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2014-10-01

    Infection-induced inflammation, frequently associated with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines, is considered a significant contributor to preterm birth. A G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2), encoded by Cnr2, is expressed in various immune cells and was shown to modulate immune responses. We show here that Cnr2, but not Cnr1, deficient mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-driven preterm birth and suppression of serum progesterone levels. After LPS challenge, Cnr2(-/-) mice exhibited increased serum levels of IL-10 with decreased IL-6 levels. These changes were associated with reduced LPS-induced Ptgs2 expression at the maternal-conceptus interface on day 16 of pregnancy. LPS stimulation of Cnr2(-/-) dendritic cells in vitro resulted in increased IL-10 with reduced IL-6 production and correlated with increased cAMP accumulation. Collectively, our results suggest that increased IL-10 production occurring via augmented cAMP accumulation represents a potential mechanism for the resistance of Cnr2(-/-) mice to LPS-induced preterm birth. These results may have clinical relevance, because currently, there are limited options to prevent preterm birth. PMID:25051450

  11. Cervical remodeling in term and preterm birth: insights from an animal model.

    PubMed

    Mahendroo, Mala

    2012-04-01

    Proper cervical function is essential for a normal pregnancy and birth to occur. Understanding the mechanisms that take place in normal pregnancy will allow a better comprehension of the complications involved in premature cervical remodeling and lead to better methods of diagnostics and prevention for preterm birth. Unfortunately, human samples are not easily available, and samples that are collected are often confounded by variations in timing and region of cervix from which sample is collected. Animal models, specifically the mouse, have facilitated a great deal of exploration into the mechanisms of cervical function and pathways of preterm birth. This review highlights some of the groundbreaking discoveries that have arisen from murine research including 1) the identification of early pregnancy changes in collagen fibril processing and assembly that result in progressive modifications to collagen architecture with subsequent loss of tissue stiffness during pregnancy, 2) the determination that immune cells are not key to cervical ripening at term but have diverse phenotypes and functions in postpartum repair, and 3) the finding that the process of preterm cervical ripening can differ from term ripening and is dependent on the etiology of prematurity. These findings, which are relevant to human cervical biology, provide new insights that will allow targeted studies on the human cervix as well as identify potential biomarkers for early detection of premature cervical ripening and development of improved therapies to prevent premature ripening of the cervix and subsequent preterm birth. PMID:22344465

  12. Administration of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934, Two Strains Isolated from Human Milk, to Very Low and Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moles, Laura; de Andrés, Javier; Montes, María Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Sáenz de Pipaón, Miguel; Espinosa-Martos, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The preterm infant gut has been described as immature and colonized by an aberrant microbiota. Therefore, the use of probiotics is an attractive practice in hospitals to try to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. The objective of this pilot study was to elucidate if administration of two probiotic strains isolated from human milk to preterm infants led to their presence in feces. In addition, the evolution of a wide spectrum of immunological compounds, including the inflammatory biomarker calprotectin, in both blood and fecal samples was also assessed. For this purpose, five preterm infants received two daily doses (~109 CFU) of a 1 : 1 mixture of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934. Bacterial growth was detected by culture-dependent techniques in all the fecal samples. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in nearly all fecal samples while L. salivarius PS12934 was detected in all the infants at numerous sample collection points and B. breve PS12929 appeared in five fecal samples. Finally, a noticeable decrease in the fecal calprotectin levels was observed along time. PMID:25759843

  13. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Butali, Azeez; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Ekhaguere, Osayame; Weathers, Nancy; Ladd, Jenna; Fajolu, Iretiola; Esezobor, Christopher; Makwe, Christian; Odusanya, Bukola; Anorlu, Rose; Adeyemo, Wasiu; Iroha, Edna; Egri-Okwaji, Mathias; Adejumo, Prisca; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Abiodun, Moses; Badejoko, Bolaji; Ryckman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria from 2011 to 2013. Methods We obtained Information from 5,561 maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric records from the labor ward. We excluded delivery at less than 22 weeks (0.25%), post-term birth at ≥42 weeks gestation (1.3%), and unknown gestation (1.4%). Additionally, we excluded records of multiple births (5.4%) and stillbirths (8.3%) leaving 4,691 records of singleton live-births for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed comparing preterm birth (22-36 weeks gestation) to term birth (37-41 weeks gestation). Multiple variable models adjusting for maternal age, parity, fetal position, delivery method and booking status were also evaluated. Multinomial regression was used to identify characteristics associated with preterm birth (PTB) defined as early PTB (22-31 weeks gestation), moderate PTB (32-34 weeks gestation), late PTB (35-36 weeks gestation), compared to term birth (37-41 completed weeks gestation). Results From our data, 16.8% of the singleton live-birth deliveries were preterm (<37 weeks gestation). Of these, 4.7% were early (22-31 weeks), 4.5% were moderate (32-34 weeks) and 7.7% were late (35-36) PTBs. Older maternal age (≥35 years) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41], hypertension (OR = 3.44) and rupture of membranes (OR = 4.03) were significantly associated with increased odds of PTB. Women being treated for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV were at a significantly decreased risk for PTB (OR = 0.70). Sixteen percent of women in this cohort were not registered for antenatal care in LUTH. These non-registered subjects had significantly greater odds of all categories of PTB, including

  14. Association of maternal serum cadmium level during pregnancy with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Liu, Lu; Hu, Yong-Fang; Hao, Jia-Hu; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Su, Pu-Yu; Yu, Zhen; Fu, Lin; Tao, Fang-Biao; Xu, De-Xiang

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) was a developmental toxicant that induces fetal malformation and growth restriction in mice. However, epidemiological studies about the association of maternal serum Cd level with risk of preterm birth were limited. This study was to investigate whether maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy is associated with risk of preterm birth in a Chinese population. Total 3254 eligible mother-and-singleton-offspring pairs were recruited. Maternal serum Cd level was measured by GFAAS. Based on tertiles, maternal serum Cd concentration was classified as low (LCd, <0.65 μg/L), medium (MCd, 0.65-0.94 μg/L) and high (HCd, ≥0.95 μg/L). Odds ratio (OR) for preterm birth was estimated using multiple logistic regression models. Results showed the rate of preterm birth among LCd, M-Cd and HCd was 3.5%, 3.8%, and 9.4%, respectively. Subjects with HCd had a significantly higher risk for preterm birth (OR: 2.86; 95%CI: 1.95, 4.19; P < 0.001) than did those with LCd. Adjusted OR for preterm birth was 3.02 (95%CI: 2.02, 4.50; P < 0.001) among subjects with HCd compared to subjects with LCd. Taken together, the above results suggest that maternal serum Cd level during pregnancy is positively associated with risk of preterm birth.

  15. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T

    2016-07-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors. PMID:27462071

  16. Limited effects of preterm birth and the first enteral nutrition on cerebellum morphology and gene expression in piglets.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Anders; Kaalund, Sanne S; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Andersen, Anders D; Pakkenberg, Bente; Rosenørn, Ann; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Thymann, Thomas; Greisen, Gorm O; Sanglid, Per T

    2016-07-01

    Preterm pigs show many signs of immaturity that are characteristic of preterm infants. In preterm infants, the cerebellum grows particularly rapid and hypoplasia and cellular lesions are associated with motor dysfunction and cognitive deficits. We hypothesized that functional brain delays observed in preterm pigs would be paralleled by both structural and molecular differences in the cerebellum relative to term born piglets. Cerebella were collected from term (n = 56) and preterm (90% gestation, n = 112) pigs at 0, 5, and 26 days after birth for stereological volume estimations, large-scale qPCR gene expression analyses (selected neurodevelopmental genes) and western blot protein expression analysis (Sonic Hedgehog pathway). Memory and learning was tested using a T-maze, documenting that preterm pigs showed delayed learning. Preterm pigs also showed reduced volume of both white and gray matter at all three ages but the proportion of white matter increased postnatally, relative to term pigs. Early initiation of enteral nutrition had limited structural or molecular effects. The Sonic Hedgehog pathway was unaffected by preterm birth. Few differences in expression of the selected genes were found, except consistently higher mRNA levels of Midkine, p75, and Neurotrophic factor 3 in the preterm cerebellum postnatally, probably reflecting an adaptive response to preterm birth. Pig cerebellar development appears more affected by postconceptional age than by environmental factors at birth or postnatally. Compensatory mechanisms following preterm birth may include faster white matter growth and increased expression of selected genes for neurotrophic factors and regulation of angiogenesis. While the pig cerebellum is immature in 90% gestation preterm pigs, it appears relatively mature and resilient toward environmental factors.

  17. The case of late preterm birth: sliding forwards the critical window for cognitive outcome risk.

    PubMed

    Mento, Giovanni; Nosarti, Chiara

    2015-07-01

    Many survivors of preterm birth experience neurodevelopmental disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, visual and hearing problems. However, even in the absence of major neurological complications, premature babies show significant neuropsychological and behavioural deficits during childhood and beyond. While the clinical tools routinely used to assess neurocognitive development in those infants have been useful in detecting major clinical complications in early infancy, they have not been equally sensitive in identifying subtle cognitive impairments emerging during childhood. These methodological concerns become even more relevant when considering the case of late preterm children (born between 34 and 36 gestational weeks). Although these children have been traditionally considered as having similar risks for developmental problems as neonates born at term, a recent line of research has provided growing evidence that even late preterm children display altered structural and functional brain maturation, with potential life-long implications for neurocognitive functioning. A recent study by Heinonen put forward the hypothesis that environmental factors, in this case educational attainment, could moderate the association between late preterm birth (LPT) and neuropsychological impairments commonly associated with aging. In this paper we bring together clinical literature and recent neuroimaging evidence in order to provide two different but complementary approaches for a better understanding of the "nature-nurture" interplay underlying the lifespan neurocognitive development of preterm babies. PMID:26835378

  18. Hydrogen Sulfide Delays LPS-Induced Preterm Birth in Mice via Anti-Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Chen; You, Xingji; Olson, David M.; Chemtob, Sylvain; Gao, Lu; Ni, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of preterm labor in pregnant women is intra-amniotic infection, which is mediated by an inflammatory process. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter, has been implicated to be involved in inflammatory responses. We sought to investigate whether H2S affects infectious preterm birth using the mouse model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced preterm birth. Administration of LPS at 0.4 mg/kg with two injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) on gestational day 14.5 induced preterm labor. LPS significantly increased leukocyte infiltration in uterus, stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), CCL2 and CXCL15 in myometrium. Administration of NaHS (i.p.) delayed the onset of labor induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS prevented leukocyte infiltration into intrauterine tissues and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myometrium and decreased the levels of these cytokines in maternal circulation. H2S also decreased LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2/ nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways in myometrium. This study provides new in vivo evidence for the roles of H2S in attenuating inflammation, and a potential novel therapeutic strategy for infection-related preterm labor. PMID:27035826

  19. Static balance function in children with a history of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incomplete maturation of brain in preterm children results in long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. This study aimed to investigate the static balance function in children with a history of preterm birth. Methods: Participants were 31 preterm children including 21 moderately preterm (MPT), 10 very preterm (VPT), and 20 term children aged 5.5 and 6.5 years. The cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test and four static balance subscales of BOT-2 were performed. Results: The VPT children showed a significant increase in P1 and N1 wave latencies in cVEMP test compared to those in the term children (p= 0.041). Mean scores in the four static balance subscales of BOT-2 were significantly lower in the preterm children compared to those in the term children (p= 0.025). The P1 wave latency (p= 0.003) and mean score of standing on a balance beam with open eyes (p= 0.039) were significantly lower in the VPT children compared to those in the MPT children. A significant correlation was observed between the mean score in exercise 4 (standing on one leg on a balance beam with closed eyes) of static balance subscales of BOT-2 and P1 (r= -0.267, p= 0.036) and N1 (r= -0.304, p= 0.016) wave latencies of cVEMP. Conclusion: The longer latency of cVEMP waves along with a poor performance of children with a history of preterm birth suggests a possible defect in central vestibular pathway. PMID:26913273

  20. Understanding spontaneous preterm birth: from underlying mechanisms to predictive and preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Voltolini, Chiara; Torricelli, Michela; Conti, Nathalie; Vellucci, Francesca L; Severi, Filiberto M; Petraglia, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestational age. With an incidence of 7% to 11%, it is one of the major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Preterm birth is considered a clinical syndrome, which arises from different pathological processes that activate prematurely one or more components of the mechanisms leading to parturition. The premature activation of labor may be caused by multiple pathological conditions; in particular a deregulation of the immune system and an exaggeration of inflammatory processes represent common central mechanisms. The complex pathogenesis, the main risk factors and the different therapeutic options will be described in the present review. Since its incidence is still increasing in the last decades, the goal is to improve the primary and secondary prevention.

  1. Cellular and biochemical mechanisms, risk factors and management of preterm birth: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Vitale, S G; Marilli, I; Rapisarda, A M; Rossetti, D; Belluomo, G; Iapichino, V; Stancanelli, F; Cianci, A

    2014-12-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is usually defined as a delivery before 37 completed weeks or 259 days of gestation. World Health Organization estimates a worldwide incidence of PTB of 9.6%. Infants born preterm are at higher risks than infants born at term for mortality, and acute and chronic morbidity. Major causes of PTB are the following: spontaneous preterm labor with intact membranes (50%), labor induction or caesarean delivery for maternal or fetal indications (30%), and preterm premature rupture of membranes or PPROM (20%). The aim of this review is to analyze this medical condition, focusing on cellular and biochemical mechanisms, maternal risk factors and role of inflammation and infections in preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and PTB. Moreover we will discuss about the proper therapeutic strategies for its management. Although different methods have been introduced to predict the advent of preterm labour in asymptomatic women, possibilities for real primary prevention are rare. An early estimation of potential risk factors is pivotal in the secondary prevention of PTB. Finally most efforts so far have been tertiary interventions. These measures have reduced perinatal morbidity and mortality. Advances in primary and secondary care will be needed to prevent prematurity-related illness in infants and children.

  2. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010-2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283

  3. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010–2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283

  4. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H

    2016-09-23

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010-2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants.

  5. Relationship Between Common Mental Disorder Symptoms During Pregnancy and Preterm Birth Among Chinese Women in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Liang, Shengwen; Flick, Louise H; Yang, Shaoping; Hu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Hu, Ronghua; Huang, Zhen; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Yiming; Shen, Longjiao; Peng, Anna; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing; Zhang, Bin; Qian, Zhengmin

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Few studies focus on the symptoms of common mental disorders during pregnancy (CMDP) and risk of preterm birth subtypes (PTB). The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between CMDP and PTB, and to examine whether or not the association between CMDP and PTB varies with the subtype of PTB in Chinese. Methods This population-based case control study, conducted in Wuhan, China, defined cases as every pregnant woman who had a PTB among all births in Wuhan, from June 10, 2011, to June 9, 2013. The same number of pregnant women who had term births was randomly selected as controls. The Electronic Perinatal Health Care Information System, a questionnaire designed for the study, provided data about the participants. Logistic regression analyses were used to model associations between CMDP and PTB, and to test associations between CMDP and two subtypes of PTB. Results The study recruited 8616 cases and an equal number of controls. We successfully collected maternal information on 6656 cases and controls for a response rate of 77.3 %. The incidence of PTB in Wuhan was 4.5 %. Spontaneous preterm births (SPTB) accounted for 60.1 %, and medically induced preterm births (IPTB) accounted for 39.9 % of preterm births. The prevalence rate of CMDP was 15.8 %. CMDP was slightly associated with PTB (crude OR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.01-1.32; adjusted OR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.00-1.32), further analyses showed CMDP was associated with IPTB (aOR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.04-1.50), but not with SPTB. Conclusion Our data suggest that CMDP is related to an increased risk of PTB, and that this association is primarily due to IPTB rather than SPTB. PMID:27352288

  6. Relationship Between Common Mental Disorder Symptoms During Pregnancy and Preterm Birth Among Chinese Women in Wuhan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rong; Liang, Shengwen; Flick, Louise H; Yang, Shaoping; Hu, Ke; Wang, Jing; Hu, Ronghua; Huang, Zhen; Dong, Guanghui; Zhang, Yiming; Shen, Longjiao; Peng, Anna; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing; Zhang, Bin; Qian, Zhengmin

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Few studies focus on the symptoms of common mental disorders during pregnancy (CMDP) and risk of preterm birth subtypes (PTB). The purpose of this study was to estimate the association between CMDP and PTB, and to examine whether or not the association between CMDP and PTB varies with the subtype of PTB in Chinese. Methods This population-based case control study, conducted in Wuhan, China, defined cases as every pregnant woman who had a PTB among all births in Wuhan, from June 10, 2011, to June 9, 2013. The same number of pregnant women who had term births was randomly selected as controls. The Electronic Perinatal Health Care Information System, a questionnaire designed for the study, provided data about the participants. Logistic regression analyses were used to model associations between CMDP and PTB, and to test associations between CMDP and two subtypes of PTB. Results The study recruited 8616 cases and an equal number of controls. We successfully collected maternal information on 6656 cases and controls for a response rate of 77.3 %. The incidence of PTB in Wuhan was 4.5 %. Spontaneous preterm births (SPTB) accounted for 60.1 %, and medically induced preterm births (IPTB) accounted for 39.9 % of preterm births. The prevalence rate of CMDP was 15.8 %. CMDP was slightly associated with PTB (crude OR 1.16, 95 % CI 1.01-1.32; adjusted OR 1.15, 95 % CI 1.00-1.32), further analyses showed CMDP was associated with IPTB (aOR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.04-1.50), but not with SPTB. Conclusion Our data suggest that CMDP is related to an increased risk of PTB, and that this association is primarily due to IPTB rather than SPTB.

  7. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  8. Endogenous Human Milk Peptide Release Is Greater after Preterm Birth than Term Birth123

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, David C; Smink, Christina J; Robinson, Randall C; Tian, Tian; Guerrero, Andres; Parker, Evan A; Smilowitz, Jennifer T; Hettinga, Kasper A; Underwood, Mark A; Lebrilla, Carlito B; German, J Bruce; Barile, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hundreds of naturally occurring milk peptides are present in term human milk. Preterm milk is produced before complete maturation of the mammary gland, which could change milk synthesis and secretion processes within the mammary gland, leading to differences in protein expression and enzymatic activity, thereby resulting in an altered peptide profile. Objective: This study examined differences in peptides present between milk from women delivering at term and women delivering prematurely. Methods: Nano-LC tandem mass spectrometry was employed to identify naturally occurring peptides and compare their abundances between term and preterm human milk samples at multiple time points over lactation. Term milk samples were collected from 8 mothers and preterm milk was collected from 14 mothers. The 28 preterm and 32 term human milk samples were divided into 4 groups based on day of collection (<14, 14–28, 29–41, and 42–58 d). Results: Preterm milk peptide counts, ion abundance, and concentration were significantly higher in preterm milk than term milk. Bioinformatic analysis of the cleavage sites for peptides identified suggested that plasmin was more active in preterm milk than term milk and that cytosol aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidase B2 likely contribute to extensive milk protein breakdown. Many identified milk peptides in both term and preterm milk overlapped with known functional peptides, including antihypertensive, antimicrobial, and immunomodulatory peptides. Conclusion: The high protein degradation by endogenous proteases in preterm milk might attenuate problems because of the preterm infant’s immature digestive system. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01817127. PMID:25540406

  9. Outcomes Following Candiduria in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.; Tan, Sylvia; Gantz, Marie G.; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Stoll, Barbara J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Auten, Kathy J.; Miller, Nancy A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Cotten, C. Michael; Smith, P. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background. Candidiasis carries a significant risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW; <1000 g). We sought to determine the impact of candiduria in ELBW preterm infants. Methods. Our study was a secondary analysis of the Neonatal Research Network study Early Diagnosis of Nosocomial Candidiasis. Follow-up assessments included Bayley Scales of Infant Development examinations at 18–22 months of corrected age. Risk factors were compared between groups using exact tests and general linear modeling. Death, NDI, and death or NDI were compared using generalized linear mixed modeling. Results. Of 1515 infants enrolled, 34 (2.2%) had candiduria only. Candida was isolated from blood only (69 of 1515 [4.6%]), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) only (2 of 1515 [0.1%]), other sterile site only (not urine, blood, or CSF; 4 of 1515 [0.3%]), or multiple sources (28 of 1515 [2%]). Eleven infants had the same Candida species isolated in blood and urine within 3 days; 3 (27%) had a positive urine culture result first. Most urine isolates were Candida albicans (21 of 34 [62%]) or Candida parapsilosis (7 of 34 [29%]). Rate of death or NDI was greater among those with candiduria (50%) than among those with suspected but not proven infection (32%; odds ratio, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.2–5.3]) after adjustment. No difference in death and death or NDI was noted between infants with candiduria and those with candidemia. Conclusions. These findings provide compelling evidence that ELBW infants with candiduria are at substantial risk of death or NDI. Candiduria in ELBW preterm infants should prompt a systemic evaluation (blood, CSF, and abdominal ultrasound) for disseminated Candida infection and warrants treatment. PMID:22144537

  10. Caffeine intake and low birth weight: a population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Santos, I S; Victora, C G; Huttly, S; Carvalhal, J B

    1998-04-01

    The authors conducted a matched case-control study to investigate the effects of caffeine intake during pregnancy on birth weight. From January to November 1992, in the first 24 hours after delivery, 1,205 mothers (401 cases and 804 controls) were interviewed and their newborns were examined to assess birth weight and gestational age by means of the method of Capurro et al. (J Pediatr 1978;93:120-2). The cases were children with birth weight < 2,500 g and gestational age > or = 28 weeks. Cases and controls were matched for time of birth and hospital of delivery and were recruited from the four maternity hospitals in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Daily maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy for each trimester was estimated. To assess caffeine intake, 10% of the mothers were reinterviewed at their households and samples of reported information on drip coffee and maté (a caffeine-containing drink widely used in South America) were collected and sent to the laboratory for caffeine determination through liquid chromatography. When instant coffee was reported, the weight of powder was measured using a portable scale, and caffeine intake was estimated from a reference table. Caffeine intake from tea, chocolate, soft drinks, and medicines was estimated from a reference table. Analyses were performed by conditional logistic regression. Crude analyses showed no effect of caffeine on low birth weight, preterm births or intrauterine growth retardation. The results did not change after allowing for confounders.

  11. Pneumopericardium in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Hook, B; Hack, M; Morrison, S; Borawski-Clark, E; Newman, N S; Fanaroff, A

    1995-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, neonatal correlates, and outcome of pneumopericardium (PPC) in very low birth weight (VLBW) < or = 1.5 kg infants. Forty-seven VLBW infants with a PPC, born during 1977 to 1989, were compared with a cohort of 1302 ventilated VLBW infants. PPC developed in 2% of 2389 VLBW infants and 3.5% of 1349 ventilated infants. The mean birth weight (1008 +/- 220 gm), and mean gestation (27 +/- 2 weeks) of the PPC cohort was similar to the control cohort. Thirty-two (68%) of the infants with PPC were male, compared with 691 (53%) of the ventilated infants (p < 0.05). Eight (17%) of the infants with PPC survived, compared with 780 (60%) of the control cohort (p < 0.00001). The oxygenation index significantly increased before PPC, and was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors. Four (50%) of the PPC survivors had neurodevelopmental impairment at 20 months, compared with 35% of the control cohort. Pneumopericardium is a rare event with high morbidity and mortality. Clinicians should suspect this diagnosis in VLBW infants with a rising oxygenation index and subsequent acute deterioration.

  12. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, K. E.; Jakobson, L. S.; Saunders, D. R.; Troje, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and matched, full-term controls completed tasks that required the extraction of local motion cues, the ability to perceptually group these cues to extract information about body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children—a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = −.36, p < .05), but positively correlated with the ability to extract identity, r(30) = .45, p < .05). These findings extend previous reports of vulnerability in systems involved in processing dynamic cues in preterm children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools. PMID:25103588

  13. Hot Executive Function Following Moderate-to-Late Preterm Birth: Altered Delay Discounting at 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Morris, Alyssa R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm…

  14. Increase in Preterm Birth during Demographic Transition in Chile from 1991 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    López Orellana, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Universally mothers at 35 years or more have had higher maternal and perinatal risks. This study analyzed the trend of this group in maternal population and determined their risk of having premature children, during the demographic transition period in Chile. Materials and Methods. Epidemiological study conducted in the population of simple live births registered in the Chilean National Database Births of 1991–2012. Analyses were performed in three categories of maternal age: 35 or more, under 35, and 20 to 29 years. The risk of prematurity was measured by crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio from logistic regression model. Results. Mothers aged 35 and older increased in population from 10.6% in 1991 to 16.7% in 2012 and presented an overall prevalence of preterm delivery of 6.7%, higher prevalence than 20–29 age group (4.7%). In aging mothers, the Odds Ratio for preterm birth adjusted for education, marital status, and parity was 1.68 (95% CI (1.66–1.70)) compared to mothers aged 20–29. All differences were significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions. During Chilean demographic transition, mothers aged 35 or older increased steadily and significantly maintaining higher risks of preterm births. Policies to prevent and monitor the late motherhood could contribute to stopping the current trend. PMID:26413549

  15. What Causes Racial Disparities in Very Preterm Birth? A Biosocial Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Michael R.; Hogue, Carol R.

    2015-01-01

    Very preterm birth (<32 weeks’ gestation) occurs in approximately 2% of live births but is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the United States. African-American women have a 2-fold to 3-fold elevated risk compared with non-Hispanic white women for reasons that are incompletely understood. This paper reviews the evidence for the biologic and social patterning of very preterm birth, with attention to leading hypotheses regarding the etiology of the racial disparity. A systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and EMBASE indices was conducted. The literature to date suggests a complex, multifactorial causal framework for understanding racial disparities in very preterm birth, with maternal inflammatory, vascular, or neuroendocrine dysfunction as proximal pathways and maternal exposure to stress, racial differences in preconceptional health, and genetic, epigenetic, and gene-environment interactions as more distal mediators. Interpersonal and institutionalized racism are mechanisms that may drive racially patterned differences. Current literature is limited in that research on social determinants and biologic processes of prematurity has been generally disconnected. Improved etiologic understanding and the potential for effective intervention may come with better integration of these research approaches. PMID:19477907

  16. Unexpected: an interpretive description of parental traumas’ associated with preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) places a considerable emotional, psychological, and financial burden on parents, families, health care resources, and society as a whole. Efforts to estimate these costs have typically considered the direct medical costs of the initial hospital and outpatient follow-up care but have not considered non-financial costs associated with PTB such as adverse psychosocial and emotional effects, family disruption, strain on relationships, alterations in self-esteem, and deterioration in physical and mental health. The aim of this inquiry is to understand parents’ experience of PTB to inform the design of subsequent studies of the direct and indirect cost of PTB. The study highlights the traumatic nature of having a child born preterm and discusses implications for clinical care and further research. Method Through interviews and focus groups, this interpretive descriptive study explored parents’ experiences of PTB. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed for themes. Analysis was ongoing throughout the study and in subsequent interviews, parents were asked to reflect and elaborate on the emerging themes as they were identified. Results PTB is a traumatic event that shattered parents’ taken-for-granted expectations of parenthood. For parents in our study, the trauma they experienced was not related to infant characteristics (e.g., gestational age, birth weight, Apgar scores, or length of stay in the NICU), but rather to prolonged uncertainty, lack of agency, disruptions in meaning systems, and alterations in parental role expectations. Our findings help to explain why things like breast feeding, kangaroo care, and family centered practices are so meaningful to parents in the NICU. As well as helping to (re)construct their role as parents, these activities afford parents a sense of agency, thereby moderating their own helplessness. Conclusion These findings underscore the traumatic nature and resultant psychological

  17. Associations between preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and neonatal morbidity and cognitive function among school-age children in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long term consequences of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA, defined as birth weight for given gestational age less than the 10th percentile of the reference), and early newborn morbidity on functional outcomes are not well described in low income settings. Methods In rural Nepal, we conducted neurocognitive assessment of children (n = 1927) at 7–9 y of age, for whom birth condition exposures were available. At follow-up they were tested on aspects of intellectual, executive, and motor function. Results The prevalence of LBW (39.6%), preterm birth (21.2%), and SGA (55.4%) was high, whereas symptoms of birth asphyxia and sepsis were reported in 6.7% and 9.1% of children. In multivariable regression analyses, adjusted for confounders, LBW was strongly associated with scores on the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), tests of executive function, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Preterm was not associated with any of the test scores. Conversely, SGA was significantly (all p < 0.005) associated with lower UNIT scores (−2.04 SE = 0.39); higher proportion failure on Stroop test (0.06, SE = 0.02); and lower scores on the backward digit span test (−0.16, SE = 0.04), MABC (0.98, SE = 0.25), and finger tapping test (−0.66, SE = 0.22) after adjusting for confounders. Head circumference at birth was strongly and significantly associated with all test scores. Neither birth asphyxia nor sepsis symptoms were significantly associated with scores on cognitive or motor tests. Conclusion In this rural South Asian setting, intrauterine growth restriction is high and, may have a negative impact on long term cognitive, executive and motor function. PMID:24575933

  18. VAGINAL PROGESTERONE VERSUS CERVICAL CERCLAGE FOR THE PREVENTION OF PRETERM BIRTH IN WOMEN WITH A SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX, SINGLETON GESTATION, AND PREVIOUS PRETERM BIRTH: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND INDIRECT COMPARISON META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustin; ROMERO, Roberto; NICOLAIDES, Kypros; CHAIWORAPONGSA, Tinnakorn; O'BRIEN, John M.; CETINGOZ, Elcin; DA FONSECA, Eduardo; CREASY, George; SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; FUSEY, Shalini; CAM, Cetin; ALFIREVIC, Zarko; HASSAN, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE No randomized controlled trial has directly compared vaginal progesterone and cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester, singleton gestation, and previous spontaneous preterm birth. We performed an indirect comparison of vaginal progesterone versus cerclage, using placebo/no cerclage as the common comparator. STUDY DESIGN Adjusted indirect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Four studies evaluating vaginal progesterone versus placebo (158 patients) and five evaluating cerclage versus no cerclage (504 patients) were included. Both interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation and composite perinatal morbidity and mortality compared with placebo/no cerclage. Adjusted indirect meta-analyses did not show statistically significant differences between vaginal progesterone and cerclage in reducing preterm birth or adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSION Based on state-of-the-art methodology for indirect comparisons, either vaginal progesterone or cerclage are equally efficacious in the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester, singleton gestation, and previous preterm birth. The selection of the optimal treatment may depend upon adverse events, cost and patient/clinician preferences. PMID:23157855

  19. Early Zinc Supplementation and Enhanced Growth of the Low-Birth Weight Neonate

    PubMed Central

    El-Farghali, Ola; El-Wahed, Mohamed Abd; Hassan, Nayera E.; Imam, Safaa; Alian, Khadija

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nutritional deficits are almost universal in Low-Birth Weight babies. Zinc is essential for normal infant growth and its supplementation assists growth probably through insulin-like growth factor-1. AIM: This double-blind randomized-controlled trial aimed at evaluating the role of zinc in catch-up growth of low-birth-weight infants and investigating its proposed mediator. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Ain Shams University Maternity Hospital. Two hundred low-birth-weight neonates were simply randomized to either oral zinc therapy or placebo. Anthropometric measurements were recorded at birth, 3, 6, and 12 months; including weight, recumbent length, head, waist, chest, and mid-upper arm circumferences, and triceps and sub-scapular skin fold thickness. RESULTS: We found that initial and 3-months measurements, except weight, were comparable in the 2 groups. All measurements at 6- and 12-months, except sub-scapular skin-fold-thickness, were significantly higher in zinc group than placebo. Catch-up growth, at 12-months, was significant in zinc group and was significantly higher in appropriate-for-gestational-age vs. small-for-gestational-age, in preterm vs. term, and in male vs. female infants. The median 6-months insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly higher in zinc group. CONCLUSION: We conclude that early start of oral zinc supplementation in low-birth-weight neonates assists catch-up growth, probably through rise of insulin-like growth factor-1. PMID:27275198

  20. Potential Peripartum Markers of Infectious-Inflammatory Complications in Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Tambor, Vojtech; Vajrychova, Marie; Kacerovsky, Marian; Link, Marek; Domasinska, Petra; Menon, Ramkumar; Lenco, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth significantly contributes to the overall neonatal morbidity associated with preterm deliveries. Nearly 50% of cases are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity followed by an inflammatory response. Robust diagnostic tools for neonates jeopardized by infection and inflammation may thus decrease the overall neonatal morbidity substantially. Amniotic fluid retrieved during labor retains fetal and pregnancy-related protein fingerprint and its sampling does not place any unwanted stress on women. Using exploratory and targeted methods we analyzed proteomes of amniotic fluid sampled at the end of spontaneous preterm labor prior to delivery from women with and without infection and inflammation. Exploratory data indicated several amniotic fluid proteins to be associated with infectious-inflammatory complications in spontaneous preterm birth. LC-SRM analysis subsequently verified statistically significant changes in lipocalin-1 (P = 0.047 and AUC = 0.67, P = 0.046), glycodelin (P = 0.013 and AUC = 0.73, P = 0.013), and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (P = 0.018 and AUC = 0.71, P = 0.01).

  1. Potential Peripartum Markers of Infectious-Inflammatory Complications in Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Tambor, Vojtech; Vajrychova, Marie; Kacerovsky, Marian; Link, Marek; Domasinska, Petra; Menon, Ramkumar; Lenco, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth significantly contributes to the overall neonatal morbidity associated with preterm deliveries. Nearly 50% of cases are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity followed by an inflammatory response. Robust diagnostic tools for neonates jeopardized by infection and inflammation may thus decrease the overall neonatal morbidity substantially. Amniotic fluid retrieved during labor retains fetal and pregnancy-related protein fingerprint and its sampling does not place any unwanted stress on women. Using exploratory and targeted methods we analyzed proteomes of amniotic fluid sampled at the end of spontaneous preterm labor prior to delivery from women with and without infection and inflammation. Exploratory data indicated several amniotic fluid proteins to be associated with infectious-inflammatory complications in spontaneous preterm birth. LC-SRM analysis subsequently verified statistically significant changes in lipocalin-1 (P = 0.047 and AUC = 0.67, P = 0.046), glycodelin (P = 0.013 and AUC = 0.73, P = 0.013), and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (P = 0.018 and AUC = 0.71, P = 0.01). PMID:26120581

  2. Oxidative Stress Damage as a Detrimental Factor in Preterm Birth Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Ramkumar

    2014-01-01

    Normal term and spontaneous preterm births (PTB) are documented to be associated with oxidative stress (OS), and imbalances in the redox system (balance between pro- and antioxidant) have been reported in the maternal–fetal intrauterine compartments. The exact mechanism of labor initiation either at term or preterm by OS is still unclear, and this lack of understanding can partially be blamed for failure of antioxidant supplementation trials in PTB prevention. Based on recent findings from our laboratory, we postulate heterogeneity in host OS response. The physiologic (at term) and pathophysiologic (preterm) pathways of labor are not mediated by OS alone but by OS-induced damage to intrauterine tissues, especially fetal membranes of the placenta. OS damage affects all major cellular elements in the fetal cells, and this damage promotes fetal cell senescence (aging). The aging of the fetal cells is predominated by p38 mitogen activated kinase (p38MAPK) pathways. Senescing cells generate biomolecular signals that are uterotonic, triggering labor process. The aging of fetal cells is normal at term. However, aging is premature in PTB, especially in those PTBs complicated by preterm premature rupture of the membranes, where elements of redox imbalances and OS damage are more dominant. We postulate that fetal cell senescence signals generated by OS damage are likely triggers for labor. This review highlights the mechanisms involved in senescence development at term and preterm by OS damage and provides insight into novel fetal signals of labor initiation pathways. PMID:25429290

  3. The Gestational Vaginal Microbiome and Spontaneous Preterm Birth among Nulliparous African American Women.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Deborah B; Shin, Hakdong; Wu, Jingwei; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Early markers to identify pregnant women at high risk for spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) have not been established and preventive options are limited. Recent attention has focused on examining the importance of characterizing the vaginal microbiome to predict SPTB. Results We examined the diversity and structure of the vaginal microbiome in nulliparous African American women during early pregnancy and compared 13 women who delivered preterm and 27 women who delivered at term. Samples were taken at one of two points in gestation, before 16 weeks or between 20 and 24 weeks. Among women who delivered preterm, we found lower bacterial diversity with lower abundance of Coriobacteriaceae, Sneathia, Prevotella, and Aerococcus compared with women delivering at term (linear discriminant analysis score > 3.0). The Shannon diversity index was not significantly different between the groups (p-value = 0.239). Phylogenetic diversity and Chao1 suggested a lower diversity in the vaginal microbiota of women who delivered preterm compared with term, but these findings were not significantly different (p = 0.077 and p = 0.066, respectively). Conclusion These data suggest that the vaginal microbiome of women delivering preterm had lower diversity than women delivering after 37 weeks, although these findings need to be explored in a larger sample of nulliparous African American women.

  4. Cervical pessaries for prevention of spontaneous preterm birth: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Arabin, B; Alfirevic, Z

    2013-01-01

    This Review describes the rationale for the use of cervical pessaries to prevent spontaneous preterm birth and their gradual introduction into clinical practice, discusses technical aspects of the more commonly used designs and provides guidance for their use and future evaluation. Possible advantages of cervical pessaries include the easy, ‘one-off’ application, good side-effect profile, good patient tolerance and relatively low cost compared with current alternatives. Use of transvaginal sonography to assess cervical length in the second trimester allows much better selection of patients who may benefit from the use of a cervical pessary, but future clinical trials are needed to establish clearly the role of pessaries as a preterm birth prevention strategy worldwide. PMID:23775862

  5. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Background Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants have compromised bone mass accrual during childhood, but it is unclear whether this results in subnormal peak bone mass and increased risk of impaired skeletal health in adulthood. We hypothesized that VLBW is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Methods and Findings The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults is a multidisciplinary cohort study representative of all VLBW births within the larger Helsinki area from 1978 to 1985. This study evaluated skeletal health in 144 such participants (all born preterm, mean gestational age 29.3 wk, birth weight 1,127 g, birth weight Z score 1.3), and in 139 comparison participants born at term, matched for sex, age, and birth hospital. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at age 18.5 to 27.1 y. Adults born with VLBW had, in comparison to participants born at term, a 0.51-unit (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.75) lower lumbar spine Z score and a 0.56-unit (95% CI 0.34–0.78) lower femoral neck Z score for areal BMD. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for the VLBW adults' shorter height and lower self-reported exercise intensity. Conclusions Young adults born with VLBW, when studied close to the age of peak bone mass, have significantly lower BMD than do their term-born peers. This suggests that compromised childhood bone mass accrual in preterm VLBW children translates into increased risk for osteoporosis in adulthood, warranting vigilance in osteoporosis prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19707270

  6. Breastfeeding of very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Furman, L; Minich, N M; Hack, M

    1998-03-01

    This research examines the rate of breastfeeding among mothers of very low birth weight infants (VLBW, < 1500 grams), and the correlates of breast milk pumping and transition to nursing at the breast. Eighty-two mothers and their 69 singleton and 21 twin VLBW infants admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (January 1-June 30, 1995) of an urban tertiary care hospital. Maternal demographic, infant birth, and neonatal data were compared according to breast or bottle feeding, and a telephone interview was administered retrospectively to mothers pumping breast milk at the time of the infant's discharge home. Of 39 mothers who chose to pump breast milk, 19 were still pumping at the time of the infant's discharge home. Only 8 made a successful transition to nursing at the breast. Mothers who continued pumping tended to be white, married, and older, and their infants had fewer neonatal complications. The rates of prolonged breast milk pumping and of nursing are very low. Specific interventions and better support might improve the success rates.

  7. [Nutrition of low birth weight infants].

    PubMed

    Dragomir, Cristiana; Florescu, Laura; Stârcea, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    The low birth weight infant's (LBW) nutrition needs special attention. Energy requirements are increased due to a high metabolic rate and a low thermogenesis. Increased protein requirements are, easy to be absorbed (from lacto-serum). Lipids, as important energetic source requires an appropriate content in essential fatty acids and medium chain triglycerides (TGM) which are easy absorbed in absence of lipase and deficit of bile salt secretion. The carbohydrates should be represented by lactose or equivalents like di-, oligo or polysaccharides. The addition of maltodextrin avoid an exaggerate supply and incomplete digestion of lactose. Sodium requirement are increased due to exaggerated loss consequence of renal immaturity. The rapid rate of growth impose the addition of Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Copper, and vitamins, especially Vitamin D, E and Folic acid. The appropriate nutrition of LBW must cover his special needs to maintain the homeostasis and rapid growth. Precise nutrient requirements are, however, difficult to establish.

  8. Preterm Birth and Antidepressant Medication Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huybrechts, Krista F.; Sanghani, Reesha Shah; Avorn, Jerry; Urato, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and its rate has been increasing over the past two decades. Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has also been rising, with rates up to 7.5% in the US. The objective was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of the available evidence relating to a possible association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods We conducted a computerized search in PUBMED, MEDLINE and PsycINFO through September 2012, supplemented with a manual search of reference lists, to identify original published research on preterm birth rates in women taking antidepressants during pregnancy. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers, and absolute and relative risks abstracted or calculated. Our a priori design was to group studies by level of confounding adjustment and by timing of antidepressant use during pregnancy; we used random-effects models to calculate summary measures of effect. Results Forty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.53 (1.40–1.66) for antidepressant use at any time and 1.96 (1.62–2.38) for 3rd trimester use. Controlling for a diagnosis of depression did not eliminate the effect. There was no increased risk [1.16 (0.92–1.45)] in studies that identified patients based on 1st trimester exposure. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated unmeasured confounding would have to be strong to account for the observed association. Discussion Published evidence is consistent with an increased risk of preterm birth in women taking antidepressants during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, although the possibility of residual confounding cannot be completely ruled out. PMID:24671232

  9. Effect of interpregnancy interval on risk of spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasmi, Fatima; Al-Mansoor, Fatima; Alsheiba, Aisha; Carter, Anne O.; Carter, Thomas P.; Hossain, M. Moshaddeque

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for preterm birth in Emirati women, where there is a wide range of interpregnancy intervals and uniformity in potentially confounding factors. METHODS: A case-control design based on medical records was used. A case was defined as a healthy multiparous Emirati woman delivering a healthy singleton spontaneously before 37 weeks of gestation between 1997 and 2000, and a control was defined as the next eligible similar woman delivering after 37 weeks of gestation. Women were excluded if there was no information available about their most recent previous pregnancy or if it had resulted in a multiple or preterm birth. Data collected from charts and delivery room records were analysed using the STATA statistical package. All variables found to be valid, stable and significant by univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis. FINDINGS: There were 128 cases who met the eligibility criteria; 128 controls were selected. Short interpregnancy intervals were significantly associated with case status (P<0.05). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for the 1st, 2nd, and 4th quartiles of interpregnancy interval compared with the lowest-risk 3rd quartile were 8.2, 5.4, and 2.0 (95% confidence intervals: 3.5-19.2, 2.4-12.6, and 0.9- 4.5 respectively). CONCLUSION: A short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women. The magnitude of the risk and the risk gradient between exposure quartiles suggest that the risk factor is causal and that its modification would reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:12481208

  10. Low birth weight: causes and consequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    During our phylogenetic evolution we have selected genes, the so called thrifty genes, that can help to maximize the amount of energy stored from every consumed calorie. An imbalance in the amount of stored calories can lead to many diseases. In the early 80’s the distinguished English epidemiologist David Barker, formulated a hypothesis suggesting that many events that occur during the intrauterine life and early in infancy can influence the occurrence of many diseases that will develop in adulthood. This theory proposes that under-nutrition and other insult or adverse stimulus in utero and during infancy can permanently change the body’s structure, physiology and metabolism. The lasting or lifelong effects of under-nutrition will depend on the period in the development at which it occurs. The clues that led Barker to his conclusions started to be discovered when he was studying the temporal trends in the incidence of ischemic heart disease in England and Wales. Examining data found in The Hertfordshire records, collected in the beginning of the last century, he found that the rates of mortality by ischemic heart disease was much higher in children born in less affluent counties and mostly in those with low birth weight. After his initial findings a myriad of diseases have been found to be linked to low birth weight and under-nutrition in utero and in the neonatal period. These diseases were then nominated adult diseases with fetal origin. Epidemiological studies that led to these findings suggest that in utero and early postnatal life have critical importance for long-term programming of health and disease, opening unique chances for primary prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:24128325

  11. Early educational and behavioral RCT interventions to reduce maternal symptoms of psychological trauma following preterm birth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kraljevic, Marijana; Warnock, Fay F

    2013-01-01

    Early behavioral and educational interventions have been developed to reduce maternal symptoms of psychological trauma (depression, anxiety, parenting stress, acute stress disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) following preterm birth (PTB). Aims of this systematic review were to critically assess study methodology and provide a synthesis of existing randomized control trial (RCT) interventions and to estimate effects of the interventions in reducing the maternal symptoms across studies. Four electronic databases were systematically searched to locate relevant RCTs using preestablished eligibility criteria. Data from 8 qualifying RCTs were synthesized. Two reviewers independently assessed study methodology using appraisal checklists. Considerable heterogeneity precluded calculation of pooled estimates. There is evidence that mothers of very preterm infants of low-birth-weight experience major depression for up to 12 months following PTB. Sound interventions implemented during and following infant hospitalization and grounded in coping and self-regulation had a small to moderate effect in reducing maternal depression and anxiety and parenting stress for up to 2 months and 12 months respectively. Clinicians can use existing evidence to help guide best practices. Future high-quality RCTs and meta-analysis require that researchers improve study methodology and include analysis of data on maternal hormonal stress and history of psychological symptoms including during the pregnancy. PMID:24164814

  12. Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: Caveats When Conducting Retrospective Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Benitez, Gabriela; Kharbanda, Elyse O; Naleway, Allison L; Lipkind, Heather; Sukumaran, Lakshmi; McCarthy, Natalie L; Omer, Saad B; Qian, Lei; Xu, Stanley; Jackson, Michael L; Vijayadev, Vinutha; Klein, Nicola P; Nordin, James D

    2016-08-01

    Vaccines are increasingly targeted toward women of reproductive age, and vaccines to prevent influenza and pertussis are recommended during pregnancy. Prelicensure clinical trials typically have not included pregnant women, and when they are included, trials cannot detect rare events. Thus, postmarketing vaccine safety assessments are necessary. However, analysis of observational data requires detailed assessment of potential biases. Using data from 8 Vaccine Safety Datalink sites in the United States, we analyzed the association of monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccine (MIV) during pregnancy with preterm birth (<37 weeks) and small-for-gestational-age birth (birth weight < 10th percentile). The cohort included 46,549 pregnancies during 2009-2010 (40% of participants received the MIV). We found potential biases in the vaccine-birth outcome association that might occur due to variable access to vaccines, the time-dependent nature of exposure to vaccination within pregnancy (immortal time bias), and confounding from baseline differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women. We found a strong protective effect of vaccination on preterm birth (relative risk = 0.79, 95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.85) when we ignored potential biases and no effect when accounted for them (relative risk = 0.91; 95% confidence interval: 0.83, 1.0). In contrast, we found no important biases in the association of MIV with small-for-gestational-age birth. Investigators conducting studies to evaluate birth outcomes after maternal vaccination should use statistical approaches to minimize potential biases. PMID:27449414

  13. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  14. What Are the Risks Factors for Preterm Labor and Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... developmental abnormalities in the fetus Pregnancy resulting from in vitro fertilization Being underweight or obese before pregnancy Short time period between pregnancies (less than 6 months between a birth and the beginning of the ... previa, a condition in which the placenta grows in the lowest part ...

  15. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life. PMID:26676400

  16. What causes racial disparities in very preterm birth? A biosocial perspective.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Michael R; Hogue, Carol R

    2009-01-01

    Very preterm birth (<32 weeks' gestation) occurs in approximately 2% of livebirths but is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the United States. African-American women have a 2-fold to 3-fold elevated risk compared with non-Hispanic white women for reasons that are incompletely understood. This paper reviews the evidence for the biologic and social patterning of very preterm birth, with attention to leading hypotheses regarding the etiology of the racial disparity. A systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and EMBASE indices was conducted. The literature to date suggests a complex, multifactorial causal framework for understanding racial disparities in very preterm birth, with maternal inflammatory, vascular, or neuroendocrine dysfunction as proximal pathways and maternal exposure to stress, racial differences in preconceptional health, and genetic, epigenetic, and gene-environment interactions as more distal mediators. Interpersonal and institutionalized racism are mechanisms that may drive racially patterned differences. Current literature is limited in that research on social determinants and biologic processes of prematurity has been generally disconnected. Improved etiologic understanding and the potential for effective intervention may come with better integration of these research approaches.

  17. The Contribution of Maternal Stress to Preterm Birth: Issues and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Lu, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth represents the most significant problem in maternal-child health. The ongoing search to elucidate its underlying causes and pathophysiological mechanisms has identified maternal stress as a variable of interest. Based on emerging models of causation of complex common disorders, we suggest that the effects of maternal stress on risk of preterm birth may, for the most part, vary as a function of context. In this paper we focus on select key issues and questions that highlight the need to develop a better understanding of which particular subgroups of pregnant women, under what circumstances, and at which stage(s) of gestation, may be especially vulnerable to the potentially detrimental effects of maternal stress. Our discussion addresses issues related to the characterization and assessment of maternal stress and candidate biological (maternal-placental-fetal endocrine, immune, vascular and genetic) mechanisms. We propose the adoption of newer approaches (ecological momentary assessment) and a life-course perspective to further our understanding of the contribution of maternal stress to preterm birth. PMID:21890014

  18. Evaluation of Maternal Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Paraoxonase 1 Levels, and Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Akkar, Ozlem Bozoklu; Sancakdar, Enver; Karakus, Savas; Yildiz, Caglar; Akkar, Ismail; Arslan, Murat; Sahin, Irfan Oguz; Yenicesu, Ayse Gonca Imir; Cetin, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, paraoxonase 1, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio in women having early spontaneous preterm birth without clinical chorioamnionitis. Material/Methods This study was prospectively administered in women referred to our obstetrics service with preterm labor that resulted in preterm birth (n=35) and term labor that ended in term birth (n=44). The maternal serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 were measured and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio was calculated. Results The 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels of the preterm group were significantly lower than those of the term group (p<0.05). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio value of the preterm group was significantly higher than that of the term group (p<0.05). There was a significant but small positive correlation between the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 in the preterm group (r=0.35; p=0.021). Conclusions Decreased maternal serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and paraoxonase 1 levels and increased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio may have a role in the etiology of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:27072780

  19. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  20. Epidemiological and chronological profile of preterm birth in the region of Monastir (Tunisia) between 1994 and 2012.

    PubMed

    El Mhamdi, S; El Ghardallou, M; Salah, A Ben; Bouanene, I; Sriha, A; Salem, K Ben; Falah, R; Soltani, M S

    2015-02-25

    Data about the profile and risk factors of premature births in Tunisia are scarce. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of preterm births in Monastir, Tunisia, and to study the chronological trends of associated factors over the years 1994-2012. A population-based study was conducted using data from the regional births database on all deliveries in public maternity units. The overall prevalence of preterm births among the 161 116 deliveries in the 19-year period was 5.60% (95% CI: 5.13%-6.07%). The rate of preterm births and of adequate prenatal care increased significantly over the study period. Extremes of maternal age (≤ 19 and ≥ 35 years), having a twin pregnancy and the occurrence of complications during pregnancy were significant predictors of prematurity in the final regression model. Efforts should be made to improve the quality of health care in the region, especially for high-risk pregnancies.

  1. Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram 1 h after birth in a preterm infant with cystic periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Kato, Toru; Okumura, Akihisa; Hayakawa, Fumio; Tsuji, Takeshi; Hayashi, Seiji; Natsume, Jun

    2013-01-01

    We report a preterm infant, who showed abnormal amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) findings 1 h after birth and later developed cystic periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). The patient was a girl with a gestational age of 29 weeks. She was delivered by emergency cesarean section because of placental abruption and intrauterine co-twin demise. Artificial ventilation and administration of surfactant were needed to treat respiratory distress syndrome. Her cardiovascular condition was stable with artificial ventilation. Cranial ultrasonography showed extended cystic PVL after 11 days of age. aEEG 1 h after birth showed a consistently inactive pattern that resolved completely 28 h after birth. The neurophysiological findings of this patient suggest that aEEG findings during the very early period after birth provide significant information for predicting PVL.

  2. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Vederhus, Bente Johanne; Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991-92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  3. Health-related quality of life and emotional and behavioral difficulties after extreme preterm birth: developmental trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Eide, Geir Egil; Natvig, Gerd Karin; Markestad, Trond; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background. Knowledge of long-term health related outcomes in contemporary populations born extremely preterm (EP) is scarce. We aimed to explore developmental trajectories of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and behavior from mid-childhood to early adulthood in extremely preterm and term-born individuals. Methods. Subjects born at gestational age ≤28 weeks or with birth weight ≤1,000 g within a region of Norway in 1991–92 and matched term-born control subjects were assessed at 10 and 18 years. HRQoL was measured with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) and behavior with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL), using parent assessment at both ages and self-assessment at 18 years. Results. All eligible EP (n = 35) and control children participated at 10 years, and 31 (89%) and 29 (83%) at 18 years. At 10 years, the EP born boys were given significantly poorer scores by their parents than term-born controls on most CHQ and CBCL scales, but the differences were minor at 18 years; i.e., significant improvements had occurred in several CHQ (self-esteem, general health and parental impact-time) and CBCL (total problem, internalizing and anxious/depressed) scales. For the girls, the differences were smaller at 10 years and remained unchanged by 18 years. Emotional/behavioral difficulties at 10 years similarly predicted poorer improvement on CHQ-scales for both EP and term-born subjects at 18 years. Self-assessment of HRQoL and behavior at 18 years was similar in the EP and term-born groups on most scales. Conclusions. HRQoL and behavior improved towards adulthood for EP born boys, while the girls remained relatively similar, and early emotional and behavioral difficulties predicted poorer development in HRQoL through adolescence. These data indicate that gender and a longitudinal perspective should be considered when addressing health and wellbeing after extremely preterm birth. PMID:25653912

  4. Low-birth-weight babies among hospital deliveries in Nepal: a hospital-based study

    PubMed Central

    Koirala, Arun K; Bhatta, Dharma N

    2015-01-01

    Background Birth weight is an important indicator of a population’s health and is associated with numerous interrelated factors in the infant, mother, and physical environment. The objective of this study was to assess the proportion of low birth weight and identify the associated factors for low birth weight in a liveborn infant among the women in Morang, Nepal. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out from December 2010 to March 2011 among 255 mothers who gave birth during the study period at the Koshi Zonal Hospital, Nepal. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire with face-to-face interviews. Data were analyzed through logistic regression and presented with crude and adjusted odds ratios (AORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The study showed that the prevalence of low-birth-weight babies was 23.1% (95% CI: 17.9–28.1). The mean (standard deviation) age of mothers was 23.23 (4.18) years. The proportion of low birth weight of previous baby was 3.9% (95% CI: 0.1–7.9), and 15.7% (95% CI: 11.5–20.5) of the respondents had preterm delivery. Nearly one-third (36.1%; 95% CI: 26.4–45.6) of the respondents had >2 years’ gap after the previous delivery. Nonformal employment (AOR: 2.14; 95% CI: 0.523–8.74), vegetarian diet (AOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 0.23–9.36), and no rest during pregnancy (AOR: 1.38; 95% CI: 0.41–4.39) were factors more likely to determine low birth weight. However, none of the variables showed a significant association between low birth weight and other dependent variables. Conclusion Low birth weight is an important factor for perinatal morbidity and mortality and is a common problem in the developing world. The proportion of low-birth-weight babies was high in hospital delivery, and ethnicities, Hindu religion, education, nonformal employment, food habit, rest during pregnancy, and type of delivery were found to influence the birth weight. Hence, it is important to strengthen health education services at the

  5. Race and the inheritance of low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Conley, D; Bennett, N G

    2000-01-01

    This paper uses intergenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to address the black-white difference in propensities toward low birth weight (LBW). We determine that socioeconomic conditions account for some variation in low birth weight across race. Further, while race differences in the risk of low birth weight cannot be explained entirely, we find that the inheritance of parental birth weight status dramatically reduces the black-white gap in low birth weight. Intergenerational legacies of poor infant health explain the largest share of racial disparities in filial birth weight. We then try to assess whether this intergenerational transmission of low birth weight is indeed genetic by using grandparent-fixed effects models to factor out, to a great extent, family socioeconomic circumstances. We find that even within this framework, both father's and mother's birth weight status have an important impact on filial outcomes. However, the degree of inheritance is weaker for African Americans than for other races. Finally, we theorize that the importance of paternal birth weight status implies a genetic association that does not work through the uterine environment but rather through the fetus itself.

  6. Does neighborhood deprivation modify the effect of preterm birth on children's first grade academic performance?

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer L; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Williams, Bryan L; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Children's cognitive development and academic performance are linked to both fetal and early childhood factors, including preterm birth and family socioeconomic status. We evaluated whether the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and first grade standardized test performance among Georgia public school students was modified by neighborhood deprivation in early childhood. The Georgia Birth to School cohort followed 327,698 children born in Georgia from 1998 to 2002 through to end-of-year first grade standardized tests. Binomial and log-binomial generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk differences and risk ratios for the associations of both PTB and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index for the census tract in which each child's mother resided at the time of birth with test failure (versus passing). The presence of additive and multiplicative interaction was assessed. PTB was strongly associated with test failure, with increasing risk for earlier gestational ages. There was positive additive interaction between PTB and neighborhood deprivation. The main effect of PTB versus term birth increased risk of mathematics failure: 15.9% (95%CI: 13.3-18.5%) for early, 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1-5.9%) for moderate, and 1.3% (95%CI: 0.9-1.7%) for late preterm. Each 1 standard deviation increase in neighborhood deprivation was associated with 0.6% increased risk of mathematics failure. For children exposed to both PTB and higher neighborhood deprivation, test failure was 4.8%, 1.5%, and 0.8% greater than the sum of two main effects for early, moderate, and late PTB, respectively. Results were similar, but slightly attenuated, for reading and English/language arts. Our results suggest that PTB and neighborhood deprivation additively interact to produce greater risk among doubly exposed children than would be predicted from the sum of the effects of the two exposures. Understanding socioeconomic disparities in the effect of PTB on academic outcomes at school entry is

  7. Poor Sleep Quality and Associated Inflammation Predict Preterm Birth: Heightened Risk among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Lisa M.; Porter, Kyle; Leblebicioglu, Binnaz; Christian, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Poor sleep promotes inflammation. In turn, inflammation is a causal mechanism in term as well as preterm parturition. In the United States, a persistent racial disparity in preterm birth exists, with African Americans showing ∼1.5 times greater risk. This study examined associations among sleep quality, serum proinflammatory cytokines, and length of gestation in a racially diverse sample of 138 pregnant women. Design: Observational. Measurements: Women completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and other psychosocial and behavioral measures during midpregnancy. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-1β, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were determined by high-sensitivity assays. Birth outcomes were determined via medical record review. Results: Among African American women (n = 79), shorter gestation was predicted by poorer overall sleep (rs = −0.35, P = 0.002) as well the following PSQI subscales: subjective sleep quality (rs = −0.34, P = 0.002), sleep latency (rs = −0.27, P = 0.02), and sleep efficiency (rs = −0.27, P = 0.02). African American women with poor sleep quality (PSQI > 5) had 10.2 times the odds of preterm birth compared to those with good sleep quality. In contrast, among European American women (n = 53), gestational length was not significantly predicted by sleep quality (Ps > 0.12). Bootstrapping analyses showed that, among African Americans, IL-8 significantly mediated the association between sleep quality and length of gestation (indirect effect estimate −0.029; 95% confidence interval −0.06, −0.002). Conclusions: The data provide novel evidence that African American women exhibit greater inflammation in response to sleep disturbance than European American women and these effects correspond with length of gestation. Racial differences in susceptibility to sleep induced immune dysregulation may contribute to marked racial disparities in preterm birth. Citation: Blair LM, Porter K, Leblebicioglu B

  8. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth: a meta-analysis1234

    PubMed Central

    Maslova, Ekaterina; Bhattacharya, Sayanti; Lin, Shih-Wen; Michels, Karin B

    2010-01-01

    Background: The effect of caffeine intake during pregnancy on the risk of preterm delivery has been studied for the past 3 decades with inconsistent results. Objective: We performed a meta-analysis examining the association between caffeine consumption during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth. Design: We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE articles published between 1966 and July 2010, cross-referenced reference lists of the retrieved articles, and identified 15 cohort and 7 case-control studies that met inclusion criteria for this meta-analysis. Results: The combined odds ratios (ORs) obtained by using fixed-effects models for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI: 0.96, 1.28), 1.10 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.19), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.27) for risk of preterm birth comparing the highest with the lowest level of caffeine intake (or no intake) (mg/d) during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Results for the case-control studies yielded no associations for the first (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.84, 1.37), second (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.45), or third (OR: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.12) trimesters. No overall heterogeneity was found by region, publication decade, exposure and outcome assessment, caffeine sources, or adjustment for confounding, which was largely driven by individual studies. Conclusion: In this meta-analysis, we observed no important association between caffeine intake during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth for cohort and case-control studies. PMID:20844077

  9. The effect of disinfection by-products and mutagenic activity on birth weight and gestational duration.

    PubMed Central

    Wright, J Michael; Schwartz, Joel; Dockery, Douglas W

    2004-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of disinfection by-products have traditionally focused on total trihalomethane (TTHM) concentration as a surrogate for maternal exposure during pregnancy. We used birth certificate data on 196,000 infants to examine the effect of third-trimester exposures on various indices of fetal development. We examined the effect of town-average concentrations of TTHM and additional exposure metrics in relation to mean birth weight, mean gestational age, small for gestational age (SGA) infancy, and preterm delivery. Trihalomethane data (TTHM, chloroform, and bromodichloromethane) from 1995-1998 were available for 109 towns in Massachusetts. Data from 1997-1998 on haloacetic acid (total haloacetic acids, dichloroacetic acid, and trichloroacetic acid), 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5- hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone (MX), and mutagenicity were available for a limited number of towns. We observed reductions in mean birth weight (12-18 g) for maternal trihalomethane exposures > the 90th percentile compared with those < the 50th percentile. Birth weight reductions were detected for chloroform exposures > 20 microg/L and TTHM exposures > 40 microg/L. Elevated trihalomethanes were associated with increases in gestational duration and a reduced risk of preterm delivery. We found evidence of an exposure-response effect of trihalomethanes on risk of SGA, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 1.09 to 1.23 for bromodichloromethane exposures > 5 microg/L. Elevated mutagenic activity was associated with SGA [OR = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 to 1.51] and mean birth weight (-27 g; 95% CI, -54 to -1). Although smaller in magnitude, our findings are consistent with previous studies reporting associations between trihalomethanes and SGA. These data also suggest a relationship between fetal development indices and mutagenic activity independent of exposure to trihalomethanes, haloacetic acids, and MX. PMID:15175183

  10. Respiratory function at age 8-9 after extremely low birthweight or preterm birth in Victoria in 1997.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Robertson, Colin; Doyle, Lex W

    2013-05-01

    To determine if respiratory function at 8 years of age in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1,000 g) or extremely preterm (EPT, <28 weeks' gestation) children born in 1997 remains worse than normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight, >2,499 g) and term (37-42 weeks) controls, particularly in those ELBW/EPT children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a cohort study of 201 consecutive ELBW/EPT survivors born in the state of Victoria during 1997, and 199 contemporaneous randomly selected NBW/term controls. Respiratory function was measured at 8 years of age according to standard guidelines, and compared with previous cohorts born in 1991-1992. Respiratory function data were available for almost 75% of both cohorts. ELBW/EPT subjects had substantial reductions in airflow compared with controls (e.g., mean difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1 ] -0.91 SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to -0.63 SD, and in maximum expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity [FEF25-75% ] -0.96 SD, 95% CI -1.22 to -0.71). These differences were similar to those observed between ELBW/EPT and controls subjects born in 1991-1992. Within the ELBW/EPT cohort, children who had BPD in the newborn period had significant reductions in both the FEV1 (-0.76 SD) and FEF25-75% (-0.58 SD) compared with those who did not have BPD, which were not statistically significant from those in the 1991-92 cohort. ELBW/EPT children born in 1997 still have significantly abnormal lung function compared with NBW/term controls, but results were similar to an earlier era when survival rates were lower. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:449-455. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22826206

  11. Respiratory function at age 8-9 after extremely low birthweight or preterm birth in Victoria in 1997.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Robertson, Colin; Doyle, Lex W

    2013-05-01

    To determine if respiratory function at 8 years of age in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1,000 g) or extremely preterm (EPT, <28 weeks' gestation) children born in 1997 remains worse than normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight, >2,499 g) and term (37-42 weeks) controls, particularly in those ELBW/EPT children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a cohort study of 201 consecutive ELBW/EPT survivors born in the state of Victoria during 1997, and 199 contemporaneous randomly selected NBW/term controls. Respiratory function was measured at 8 years of age according to standard guidelines, and compared with previous cohorts born in 1991-1992. Respiratory function data were available for almost 75% of both cohorts. ELBW/EPT subjects had substantial reductions in airflow compared with controls (e.g., mean difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1 ] -0.91 SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to -0.63 SD, and in maximum expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity [FEF25-75% ] -0.96 SD, 95% CI -1.22 to -0.71). These differences were similar to those observed between ELBW/EPT and controls subjects born in 1991-1992. Within the ELBW/EPT cohort, children who had BPD in the newborn period had significant reductions in both the FEV1 (-0.76 SD) and FEF25-75% (-0.58 SD) compared with those who did not have BPD, which were not statistically significant from those in the 1991-92 cohort. ELBW/EPT children born in 1997 still have significantly abnormal lung function compared with NBW/term controls, but results were similar to an earlier era when survival rates were lower. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:449-455. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; < 32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  13. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; < 32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  14. A "PROPP" for the Bronx: preterm birth prevention education in the inner city.

    PubMed

    Freda, M C; Damus, K; Andersen, H F; Brustman, L E; Merkatz, I R

    1990-07-01

    As one component of the multifaceted community-wide preterm prevention program known as "A PROPP for the Bronx" (Program to Reduce Obstetric Problems and Prematurity), a prenatal education videotape in both English and Spanish was developed. Its impact was evaluated in 615 high-risk patients at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center. The 12-minute videotape focused on the implications of preterm birth, the signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and behavioral modification to reduce life-style risk factors. An instrument was constructed to examine baseline knowledge, information transfer, and knowledge retention, and was validated and tested for reliability (r = 0.95). The results demonstrated a statistically significant knowledge transfer for patients viewing the videotape (P less than .0001) and significant knowledge retention through the postpartum period (P less than .0001) for Spanish-speaking as well as English-speaking parturients. These data emphasize the importance of the educational component of a preterm prevention program in an impoverished population at risk for early delivery. PMID:2359588

  15. Preterm Birth Results in Alterations in Neural Connectivity at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Katherine M.; Vohr, Betty R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan R.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600 - 1250 grams birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p = 0.003), verbal (p = 0.043), and performance IQ tests (p = 0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p = 0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p = 0.01; right: p = 0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p = 0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p < 0.001; right: p = 0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.314, p = 0.038; right: r = 0.336, p = 0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.424, p = 0.004; right: r = 0.301, p = 0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in

  16. Individual and Community Predictors of Preterm Birth and Low Birthweight along the Rural-Urban Continuum in Central Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Weisman, Carol S.; Chase, Gary A.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Context: Preterm birth and low birthweight remain high priority public health problems and are associated with increased risk of infant mortality as well as long-term health impairments. Although 20% of all births nationally are to rural women, relatively little attention has been paid to pregnancy outcomes in rural areas relative to more…

  17. Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Sthanam, Lakshmi Kavitha; Srivastava, Rohit; Basu, Bhakti; Dutta, Suryendu; Sen, Shamik; Modi, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening. MVs when instilled vaginally are capable of anterograde transport in mouse reproductive tract. Intra-amniotic injections of GBS MVs in mice led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation mimicking features of chorio-amnionitis; it also led to apoptosis in the chorio-decidual tissue. Instillation of MVs in the amniotic sac also resulted in intrauterine fetal death and preterm delivery. Our findings suggest that GBS MVs can independently orchestrate events at the feto-maternal interface causing chorio-amnionitis and membrane damage leading to preterm birth or fetal death. PMID:27583406

  18. Second harmonic generation imaging as a potential tool for staging pregnancy and predicting preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Akins, Meredith L.; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Mahendroo, Mala

    2010-01-01

    We use second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to assess changes in collagen structure of murine cervix during cervical remodeling of normal pregnancy and in a preterm birth model. Visual inspection of SHG images revealed substantial changes in collagen morphology throughout normal gestation. SHG images collected in both the forward and backward directions were analyzed quantitatively for changes in overall mean intensity, forward to backward intensity ratio, collagen fiber size, and porosity. Changes in mean SHG intensity and intensity ratio take place in early pregnancy, suggesting that submicroscopic changes in collagen fibril size and arrangement occur before macroscopic changes become evident. Fiber size progressively increased from early to late pregnancy, while pores between collagen fibers became larger and farther apart. Analysis of collagen features in premature cervical remodeling show that changes in collagen structure are dissimilar from normal remodeling. The ability to quantify multiple morphological features of collagen that characterize normal cervical remodeling and distinguish abnormal remodeling in preterm birth models supports future studies aimed at development of SHG endoscopic devices for clinical assessment of collagen changes during pregnancy in women and for predicting risk of preterm labor which occurs in 12.5% of all pregnancies. PMID:20459265

  19. Second harmonic generation imaging as a potential tool for staging pregnancy and predicting preterm birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akins, Meredith L.; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Mahendroo, Mala

    2010-03-01

    We use second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to assess changes in collagen structure of murine cervix during cervical remodeling of normal pregnancy and in a preterm birth model. Visual inspection of SHG images revealed substantial changes in collagen morphology throughout normal gestation. SHG images collected in both the forward and backward directions were analyzed quantitatively for changes in overall mean intensity, forward to backward intensity ratio, collagen fiber size, and porosity. Changes in mean SHG intensity and intensity ratio take place in early pregnancy, suggesting that submicroscopic changes in collagen fibril size and arrangement occur before macroscopic changes become evident. Fiber size progressively increased from early to late pregnancy, while pores between collagen fibers became larger and farther apart. Analysis of collagen features in premature cervical remodeling show that changes in collagen structure are dissimilar from normal remodeling. The ability to quantify multiple morphological features of collagen that characterize normal cervical remodeling and distinguish abnormal remodeling in preterm birth models supports future studies aimed at development of SHG endoscopic devices for clinical assessment of collagen changes during pregnancy in women and for predicting risk of preterm labor which occurs in 12.5% of all pregnancies.

  20. Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Surve, Manalee Vishnu; Anil, Anjali; Kamath, Kshama Ganesh; Bhutda, Smita; Sthanam, Lakshmi Kavitha; Pradhan, Arpan; Srivastava, Rohit; Basu, Bhakti; Dutta, Suryendu; Sen, Shamik; Modi, Deepak; Banerjee, Anirban

    2016-09-01

    Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening. MVs when instilled vaginally are capable of anterograde transport in mouse reproductive tract. Intra-amniotic injections of GBS MVs in mice led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation mimicking features of chorio-amnionitis; it also led to apoptosis in the chorio-decidual tissue. Instillation of MVs in the amniotic sac also resulted in intrauterine fetal death and preterm delivery. Our findings suggest that GBS MVs can independently orchestrate events at the feto-maternal interface causing chorio-amnionitis and membrane damage leading to preterm birth or fetal death. PMID:27583406

  1. Grandmothers' smoking in pregnancy and grandchildren's birth weight: comparisons by grandmother birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Harlow, Siobán D; Randolph, John F

    2014-09-01

    This study examined whether grandmothers' smoking behavior during pregnancy was associated with birth weights in their grandchildren, considering possible birth cohort effects in the grandmothers' generation. The birth weights of 935 singleton children were compared by grandmothers' and mothers' smoking status during pregnancy. In 2008, women (n = 397) from the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were interviewed about their own birth history, including whether their own mother smoked while pregnant with them, and the birth histories of their offspring. While also accounting for family clustering, linear mixed models were used to evaluate whether birth weight differences in the grandchildren were associated with grandmothers' and mothers' smoking behavior during pregnancy. Associations were compared among grandmothers born from 1904 to 1928 versus grandmothers born from 1929 to 1945 to determine potential birth cohort effects. Forty-six (5 %) grandchildren had grandmothers and mothers who smoked while pregnant, while 455 (49 %) had grandmothers and mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. After adjustment, birth weight was an average of 346 (95 % confidence interval 64-628) grams higher in grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both smoked during pregnancy relative to grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both did not smoke during pregnancy, but only among grandmothers who were born from 1929 to 1945. For grandmothers born from 1904 to 1928, grandchildren birth weights did not differ by grandmother and mother smoking status. Birth weight may be associated with grandmother and mother smoking behaviors during pregnancy, but birth cohort effects should be considered.

  2. Grandmothers’ Smoking in Pregnancy and Grandchildren’s Birth Weight: Comparisons by Grandmother Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether grandmothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy was associated with birth weights in their grandchildren, considering possible birth cohort effects in the grandmothers’ generation. Methods The birth weights of 935 singleton children were compared by grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking status during pregnancy. In 2008, women (n=397) from the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were interviewed about their own birth history, including whether their own mother smoked while pregnant with them, and the birth histories of their offspring. While also accounting for family clustering, linear mixed models were used to evaluate whether birth weight differences in the grandchildren were associated with grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy. Associations were compared among grandmothers born from 1904–1928 versus grandmothers born from 1929–1945 to determine potential birth cohort effects. Results Forty-six (5%) grandchildren had grandmothers and mothers who smoked while pregnant, while 455 (49%) had grandmothers and mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. After adjustment, birth weight was an average of 346 (95% confidence interval: 64 to 628) grams higher in grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both smoked during pregnancy relative to grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both did not smoke during pregnancy, but only among grandmothers who were born from 1929–1945. For grandmothers born from 1904–1928, grandchildren birth weights did not differ by grandmother and mother smoking status. Conclusions Birth weight may be associated with grandmother and mother smoking behaviors during pregnancy, but birth cohort effects should be considered. PMID:24337862

  3. Long-term developmental outcomes of low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Hack, M; Klein, N K; Taylor, H G

    1995-01-01

    Advances in neonatal medicine have resulted in the increased survival of infants at lower and lower birth weight. While these medical success stories highlight the power of medical technology to save many of the tiniest infants at birth, serious questions remain about how these infants will develop and whether they will have normal, productive lives. Low birth weight children can be born at term or before term and have varying degrees of social and medical risk. Because low birth weight children are not a homogeneous group, they have a broad spectrum of growth, health, and developmental outcomes. While the vast majority of low birth weight children have normal outcomes, as a group they generally have higher rates of subnormal growth, illnesses, and neurodevelopmental problems. These problems increase as the child's birth weight decreases. With the exception of a small minority of low birth weight children with mental retardation and/or cerebral palsy, the developmental sequelae for most low birth weight infants include mild problems in cognition, attention, and neuromotor functioning. Long-term follow-up studies conducted on children born in the 1960s indicated that the adverse consequences of being born low birth weight were still apparent in adolescence. Adverse sociodemographic factors negatively affect developmental outcomes across the continuum of low birth weight and appear to have far greater effects on long-term cognitive outcomes than most of the biological risk factors. In addition, the cognitive defects associated with social or environmental risks become more pronounced as the child ages. Enrichment programs for low birth weight children seem to be most effective for the moderately low birth weight child who comes from a lower socioeconomic group. Continued research and attempts to decrease the rate of low birth weight and associated perinatal medical sequelae are of primary importance. Ongoing documentation of the long-term outcome of low birth weight

  4. Intestinal microbiota is different in women with preterm birth: results from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Shiozaki, Arihiro; Yoneda, Satoshi; Yoneda, Noriko; Yonezawa, Rika; Matsubayashi, Takamichi; Seo, Genichiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Studies using a cultivation method or molecular identification have shown that bacterial vaginosis is one of the risk factors for preterm birth. However, an association between preterm birth and intestinal microbiota has not been reported using molecular techniques, although the vaginal microbiota changes during pregnancy. Our aim here was to clarify the difference in intestinal and vaginal microbiota between women with preterm birth and women without preterm labor. 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid genes were amplified from fecal and vaginal DNA by polymerase chain reaction. Using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), we compared the levels of operational taxonomic units of both intestinal and vaginal flora among three groups: pregnant women who delivered term babies without preterm labor (non-PTL group) (n = 20), those who had preterm labor but delivered term babies (PTL group) (n = 11), and those who had preterm birth (PTB group) (n = 10). Significantly low levels of Clostridium subcluster XVIII, Clostridium cluster IV, Clostridium subcluster XIVa, and Bacteroides, and a significantly high level of Lactobacillales were observed in the intestinal microbiota in the PTB group compared with those in the non-PTL group. The levels of Clostridium subcluster XVIII and Clostridium subcluster XIVa in the PTB group were significantly lower than those in the PTL group, and these levels in the PTL group were significantly lower than those in non-PTL group. However, there were no significant differences in vaginal microbiota among the three groups. Intestinal microbiota in the PTB group was found to differ from that in the non-PTL group using the T-RFLP method.

  5. Air pollution and birth weight in Britain in 1946.

    PubMed

    Bobak, M; Richards, M; Wadsworth, M

    2001-05-01

    Recent studies suggested that air pollution might be related to low birth weight. We tested this hypothesis on data from the British 1946 birth cohort. We found a strong association between birth weight and an air pollution index based on coal consumption. Babies born in the most polluted areas were on average 87 grams lighter than those born in the areas with the cleanest air. Adjustment for a number of sociodemographic factors did not change these estimates. While confounding by unmeasured factors cannot be ruled out, these historical data support the hypothesis that birth weight could be affected by air pollution.

  6. Influence of maternal and social factors as predictors of low birth weight in Italy

    PubMed Central

    Nobile, Carmelo GA; Raffaele, Gianluca; Altomare, Carlo; Pavia, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the determinants of low birth weight (LBW) in Italy. Methods The study was carried out in a non-teaching hospital in Catanzaro (Italy). All LBW and very LBW newborns (200) were included in the study and a random sample of 400 newborns weighing ≥ 2500 g was selected. Data were collected from the delivery certificates during one year. Smoking activity of mother and familiar and/or social support during pregnancy was gathered through telephone interviews. Results Overall annual LBW rate was 11.8%. Among LBW newborn there were 125 preterm and 75 term. Younger mothers, those who smoked during pregnancy, and had fewer prenatal care visits were more likely to deliver a LBW child; moreover, preterm newborns, delivered by caesarean section, and twin or multiple birth were significantly more likely to have a LBW. The comparison of very LBW (<1500 g) to LBW newborns showed that a very LBW was significantly more likely in newborns delivered by less educated mothers, those who work outside the home, live in smaller towns, and had less echographies; moreover, as expected, very LBW newborns were more likely to be preterm. Conclusion Several modifiable factors affect the risk of LBW, even when universal access to health care is freely available, but socio-economic status appears to correlate only to very LBW. PMID:17683559

  7. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  8. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  9. INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL CORRELATES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIENER, GERALD

    LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN WERE STUDIED LONGITUDINALLY TO DETERMINE WHETHER--(1) THE RELATIVE INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OF PREMATURE CHILDREN IS STATIC OR CHANGES WITH TIME, (2) A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILD NOT NOTED TO BE IN NEUROLOGICAL DISTRESS COULD HAVE A POOR PROGNOSIS, AND (3) SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS COULD ARISE AS A CONSEQUENCE…

  10. Fungal endocarditis in an extremely low birth weight infant: case report.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Abdurrahman A; Oral, Tugce K; Varol, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    Survival rates of premature infants have increased with developing technology and evolving knowledge but late-onset sepsis is more frequent due to prolonged hospitalization periods of these infants. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight premature infant who was admitted with respiratory distress syndrome, developed necrotizing enterocolitis and fungal sepsis with endocarditis by Candida albicans. He was treated with antifungal therapy until fungal vegetation resolved. Fungal sepsis and endocarditis may be an important morbidity in preterm infants; we review the recent literature about the risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of fungal sepsis in these high risk infants.

  11. The implications of sonographically identified cervical changes in patients not necessarily at risk for preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Riley, L; Frigoletto, F D; Benacerraf, B R

    1992-03-01

    Sonography of the cervix and lower uterine segment has been used in evaluating pregnancies at risk for incompetent cervix and premature labor. Shortened cervix (less than 3 cm) and open internal os with funneling of the membranes into the endocervical canal are sonographic features associated with premature delivery. We identified these sonographic signs in a group of 31 asymptomatic women who were undergoing prenatal sonography for multiple indications, not necessarily related to premature labor or cervical incompetence. Nineteen patients (61%) in this heterogeneous population had pregnancies complicated by preterm labor, clinical evidence of incompetent cervix, or preterm birth. We conclude that the presence of abnormal sonographic features of the cervix seen incidentally during prenatal sonography on asymptomatic patients warrants close clinical attention. PMID:1608077

  12. Lung function following very preterm birth in the era of 'new' bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Shannon J; Hall, Graham L; Wilson, Andrew C

    2015-05-01

    One of the most significant complications of preterm birth is bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). The pathophysiology of BPD has changed in recent years as advances in neonatal care have led to increased survival of smaller, more preterm, infants who display alterations to alveolar and pulmonary microvascular development. It is becoming clear that infants with 'new' BPD experience lung disease that persists into later childhood, however, the oldest of these children are just now entering young adulthood and therefore the longer term pulmonary implications remain unknown. The role of lung function testing in the identification and subsequent management of patients with lung disease resulting from a neonatal classification of BPD is reviewed based on the underlying pathophysiology of the disease.

  13. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Mathewson, Karen J; Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  14. Vaginal progesterone to prevent preterm birth in pregnant women with a sonographic short cervix: clinical and public health implications.

    PubMed

    Conde-Agudelo, Agustin; Romero, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a sonographic short cervix is an efficacious and safe intervention used to prevent preterm birth and neonatal morbidity and mortality. The clinical and public health implications of this approach in the United States have been critically appraised and compared to other therapeutic interventions in obstetrics. Vaginal progesterone administration to women with a transvaginal sonographic cervical length (CL) ≤25 mm before 25 weeks of gestation is associated with a significant and substantial reduction of the risk for preterm birth from <28 to <35 weeks of gestation, respiratory distress syndrome, composite neonatal morbidity and mortality, admission to the neonatal intensive care unit, and mechanical ventilation. These beneficial effects have been achieved in women with a singleton gestation, with or without a history of spontaneous preterm birth, and did not differ significantly as a function of CL (<10 mm, 10-20 mm, or 21-25 mm). The number of patients required for treatment to prevent 1 case of preterm birth or adverse neonatal outcomes ranges from 10-19 women. The number needed to screen for the prevention of 1 case of preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation is 125 women, and 225 for the prevention of 1 case of major neonatal morbidity or neonatal mortality. Several cost-effectiveness and decision analyses have shown that the combination of universal transvaginal CL screening and vaginal progesterone administration to women with a short cervix is a cost-effective intervention that prevents preterm birth and associated perinatal morbidity and mortality. Universal assessment of CL and treatment with vaginal progesterone for singleton gestations in the United States would result in an annual reduction of approximately 30,000 preterm births before 34 weeks of gestation and of 17,500 cases of major neonatal morbidity or neonatal mortality. In summary, there is compelling evidence to recommend universal transvaginal

  15. Use of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth in Latin America: providers knowledge, attitudes and practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal corticosteroids administered to women at risk of preterm birth is an intervention which has been proved to reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neonatal mortality. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding the prevalence of the use of antenatal corticosteroids in Latin American countries and the attitudes and opinions of providers regarding this practice. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth in Latin America. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive study conducted in maternity hospitals in Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay. Physicians and midwives who provide prenatal care or intrapartum care for women delivering in the selected hospitals were approached using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used. Results The percentage of use of ACT in threatened preterm labour (TPL) reported by providers varies from 70% in Mexico to 97% in Ecuador. However, 60% to 20% of the providers mentioned that they would not use this medication in women at risk and would limit its use when there was a threatened preterm labour. In only one country recommended regimens of antenatal corticosteroids are followed by around 90% of providers whereas in the other three countries recommended regimens are followed by only 21%, 61%, 69% of providers. Around 40% of providers mentioned that they would administer a new dose of corticosteroids again, regardless the patient already receiving an entire regimen. Between 11% and 35% of providers, according to the countries, mentioned that they do not have adequate information on the correct use of this medication. Conclusions This study shows that the use of this intervention could be improved by increasing the knowledge of Latin American providers on its indications, benefits, and

  16. The role of microbial communities in parturition: is there evidence of association with preterm birth and perinatal morbidity and mortality?

    PubMed

    Ganu, Radhika S; Ma, Jun; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2013-09-01

    In 2005, the World Health Organization estimated that 9.6% or 12.9 million births worldwide were born preterm at <37 weeks of gestation and were accompanied by a mortality rate as high as 42% (http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/1/08-062554). Significant data suggesting that intrauterine infection is an important modifier for the risk of preterm birth have emerged over the past four decades. However, causative microbial culprits have yet to be identified, and interventional trials with antimicrobials have uniformly failed to demonstrate a significant benefit. To the contrary, treatment for clinically asymptomatic, commonly associated polymicrobial communities (i.e., bacterial vaginosis) has resulted in an increase in the rate of preterm birth. This article discusses the importance of vaginal microbiome and the variance in its composition during normal pregnancy. We will expand this discussion to include possible mechanisms that might trigger preterm birth in at-risk subjects. Finally, we will review why preterm birth may be an ideal forum with which to apply our rapidly expanding metagenomic sequencing and analytic pipelines to discern the role of host and microbe in the relative continuum of health and disease.

  17. The role of microbial communities in parturition: is there evidence of association with preterm birth and perinatal morbidity and mortality?

    PubMed

    Ganu, Radhika S; Ma, Jun; Aagaard, Kjersti M

    2013-09-01

    In 2005, the World Health Organization estimated that 9.6% or 12.9 million births worldwide were born preterm at <37 weeks of gestation and were accompanied by a mortality rate as high as 42% (http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/88/1/08-062554). Significant data suggesting that intrauterine infection is an important modifier for the risk of preterm birth have emerged over the past four decades. However, causative microbial culprits have yet to be identified, and interventional trials with antimicrobials have uniformly failed to demonstrate a significant benefit. To the contrary, treatment for clinically asymptomatic, commonly associated polymicrobial communities (i.e., bacterial vaginosis) has resulted in an increase in the rate of preterm birth. This article discusses the importance of vaginal microbiome and the variance in its composition during normal pregnancy. We will expand this discussion to include possible mechanisms that might trigger preterm birth in at-risk subjects. Finally, we will review why preterm birth may be an ideal forum with which to apply our rapidly expanding metagenomic sequencing and analytic pipelines to discern the role of host and microbe in the relative continuum of health and disease. PMID:23161352

  18. Birth Weight of Infants of Mothers With Aggressive Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Schenkein, Harvey A.; Koertge, Thomas E.; Sabatini, Robert; Brooks, Carol N.; Gunsolley, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Background It was hypothesized that if periodontal infections predispose low birth weights and premature birth, then such outcomes should be apparent when the mother has aggressive periodontitis (AgP). Methods Birth weight data were collected by questionnaire from females with AgP, their periodontally healthy siblings, and unrelated periodontally healthy women. Both prospective and retrospective birth outcome data were used. Because many of the periodontal evaluations were performed after the births, there were incomplete data regarding most of the risk factors for low birth weight. We determined associations between mothers’ periodontal diagnoses and clinical variables and the reported birth weights. Results There were no significant differences in mean birth weights of babies born to control subjects or AgP patients. This was true whether all the births were considered or only those reported <1 or 2 years before periodontal examination. For periodontally healthy controls, 13.2% of babies born to siblings of AgP patients and 12.8% of babies born to unrelated mothers weighed <2,500 g, whereas 9.9% of those born to mothers with generalized AgP and 10.3% of those born to mothers with localized AgP weighed <2,500 g. Conclusions Because of the relative rarity of AgP in the population, and attendant difficulties in performing a prospective study of its association with pregnancy outcomes, we used a compromised approach using prospective data as well as weaker retrospective data assuming that disease onset was likely before the births. Our results, within the limitations of this approach, indicate no evidence that AgP in the mother predisposes low birth weights. AgP has many unique biologic characteristics that differentiate it from chronic forms of periodontal disease, and the possible lack of its association with birth weight may be another such characteristic. PMID:21819247

  19. Preterm Birth, Age at School Entry and Long Term Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the detrimental impact of year of entering education in preterm infants persists into adolescence. Background Preterm infants are often enrolled in school a year earlier than would be expected if this decision is based on their actual date of birth rather than their due date. Initially these infants appear to do disproportionately worse than those who do not ‘skip’ a year. However, it is unclear if this effect remains as the infants grow, to have an important effect on long term achievements in education. Design A cohort study, drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The exposure measurement was gestational age (defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or term (37–42 weeks)). The primary outcome was a low score at the Key Stage 4 (KS4) educational assessment or receiving special educational needs support (both at age 16). We derived conditional regression models matching preterm to term infants on their date of birth (DOB), their expected date of delivery (EDD), or their expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Results After matching for DOB, preterm infants had an increased odds of SEN (OR 1.57 (1.33–1.86)) and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.39 (1.14–1.68)). The association remained in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.43 (1.17–1.74)) but attenuated after restricting to those infants who were enrolled in school in the same year as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.21 (0.97–1.52)). There was less evidence for an impact of prematurity on the KS4 score (Matched for DOB; OR 1.10 (0.91 to 1.34), matched for EDD OR 1.17 (0.96 to 1.42) and EDD and same year of schooling, OR 1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)). Conclusions This modifiable effect of going to school a year earlier than predicted by their due date appears to have measurable consequences for ex-preterm infants in adolescence and is likely to limit adulthood opportunities

  20. The low-birth-weight infant

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471

  1. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very‐low‐birth‐weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for comparisons between the VLBW infants and non‐VLBW infants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter gestational age had a more negative impact than lower birth weight to survival to discharge in infants with trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26307940

  2. Exploration of Preterm Birth Rates Using the Public Health Exposome Database and Computational Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in informatics technology has made it possible to integrate, manipulate, and analyze variables from a wide range of scientific disciplines allowing for the examination of complex social problems such as health disparities. This study used 589 county-level variables to identify and compare geographical variation of high and low preterm birth rates. Data were collected from a number of publically available sources, bringing together natality outcomes with attributes of the natural, built, social, and policy environments. Singleton early premature county birth rate, in counties with population size over 100,000 persons provided the dependent variable. Graph theoretical techniques were used to identify a wide range of predictor variables from various domains, including black proportion, obesity and diabetes, sexually transmitted infection rates, mother’s age, income, marriage rates, pollution and temperature among others. Dense subgraphs (paracliques) representing groups of highly correlated variables were resolved into latent factors, which were then used to build a regression model explaining prematurity (R-squared = 76.7%). Two lists of counties with large positive and large negative residuals, indicating unusual prematurity rates given their circumstances, may serve as a starting point for ways to intervene and reduce health disparities for preterm births. PMID:25464130

  3. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g), 55 term SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 74 control subjects completed the Adult Self-Report (ASR) of the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, the Adult Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), the Short Form 36 Health Survey, the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents-Revised, and the Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale III assessment. Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ). The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW) and social acceptance (SGA). Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term. PMID:23216805

  4. Association of polymorphisms in natural killer cell-related genes with preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Quaker E; Engel, Stephanie M; Olshan, Andrew F; Moran, Thomas; Stuebe, Alison M; Luo, Jingchun; Wu, Michael C; Avery, Christy L

    2013-10-15

    Inflammation is implicated in preterm birth, but genetic studies of inflammatory genes have yielded inconsistent results. Maternal DNA from 1,646 participants in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition Cohort, enrolled in Orange and Wake counties, North Carolina (1995-2005), were genotyped for 432 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 30 candidate genes. Gene-level and SNP associations were modeled within strata of genetic ancestry. Six genes were associated with preterm birth among European Americans: interleukin 12A (IL12A); colony-stimulating factor 2 (CSF2); interferon γ receptor 2 (IFNGR2); killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor, three domain, long cytoplasmic tail, 2 (KIR3DL2); interleukin 4 (IL4); and interleukin 13 (IL13). Of these, relatively strong single-SNP associations were seen in IFNGR2 and KIR3DL2. Among the 4 genes related to natural killer cell function, 2 (IL12A and CSF2) were consistently associated with reduced risk of prematurity for both European and African Americans. SNPs tagging a locus control region for IL4 and IL13 were associated with an increased risk of spontaneous preterm birth for European Americans (rs3091307; risk ratio = 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.5). Although gene-level associations were detected only in European Americans, single-SNP associations among European and African Americans were often similar in direction, though estimated with less precision among African Americans. In conclusion, we identified novel associations between variants in the natural killer cell immune pathway and prematurity in this biracial US population.

  5. Neighborhood deprivation and preterm birth among non-Hispanic black and white women in eight geographic areas in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disparities in preterm birth by race and ethnic group have been demonstrated in the United States. Recent research focuses on the impact of neighborhood environmental context on racial disparities in pregnancy outcomes. The authors utilized vital records birth certificate and...

  6. Community Income, Smoking, and Birth Weight Disparities in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy Harris; Bruce, Marino A.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which community-level income and smoking status were associated with birth-weight disparities in the state of Wisconsin. Data included 1998 and 1999 birth record files with appended census income data for African-American, Latino, and White single births in Wisconsin. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed where the dependent variable included low birth weight (LBW: < 2,500 grams) and very low birth weight (VLBW: < 1,500 grams) relative to normal birth weight. The independent variables included income levels categorized as poor (< $12,499), lower middle ($12,500–34,999), and upper middle to affluent ($35,000 or more) determined by zip code, and smoking status (yes/no). African-American and Latino mothers who lived in poor communities and smoked were almost three times more likely to have a low birth weight (LBW) infant than their more affluent, non-smoking counterparts. Community income and smoking status played significant roles in birth weight disparities. PMID:18318327

  7. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia associated with oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula in a low birth weight infant

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Haium, Abdul Alim; Sim, Siam Wee; Ong, Lin Yin; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and oesophageal atresia with distal tracheo-oesophageal fistula is very rare and carries high mortality. Very few anecdotal case reports and one case series have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a late preterm, low birth weight infant with this rare association who was successfully managed by staged surgical approach and had good outcome. PMID:23964045

  8. Preterm and postterm birth in immigrant- and Swedish-born parents: a population register-based study.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Wedrén, Sara; Essén, Birgitta; Sparén, Pär; Koupil, Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Ethnic minorities/immigrant groups tend to have increased risk for preterm birth. Less is known about this risk in diverse immigrant groups, couples of mixed ethnic-origin and in relation to duration of residence. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,028,303 mothers who gave birth to 1,766,026 singleton live born infants (1982-2002), was linked to the Education and Total Population Registers. Immigrant parents were identified by country of birth. Risk of early preterm, late preterm and postterm birth was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Polish, Yugoslavian, Iranian, South Asian, East Asian and Sub-Saharan African parents, Swedish mothers who had children with non-Swedish fathers, and parents from two different immigrant groups had higher risk of early preterm birth [adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.76 (1.24-2.50), 1.57 (1.31-1.87), 1.67 (1.30-2.14), 1.52 (1.07-2.16), 1.51 (1.08-2.10), 2.03 (1.32-3.12), 1.56 (1.45-1.67), and 1.55 (1.35-1.77) respectively] compared to Swedish-born parents. South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and East Asian immigrants had a higher risk of late preterm birth compared to Swedish-born parents. North African and Middle Eastern, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean groups had increased risk of postterm birth [adjusted RR 1.31 (1.16-1.47), 2.57 (2.31-2.86), 1.85 (1.67-2.04) respectively]. Adjustment for covariates did not substantially change associations. Immigrant mothers resident <3 years had higher risk for early preterm and postterm birth compared to residents >10 years [adjusted RR 1.46 (1.24-1.71) and 1.16 (1.11-1.23) respectively]. In addition to higher risk of preterm birth in select immigrant groups, some immigrant groups are also at higher risk of postterm birth. Shorter duration of residence is associated with higher risk of non-term deliveries. PMID:25687167

  9. Preterm and postterm birth in immigrant- and Swedish-born parents: a population register-based study.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Wedrén, Sara; Essén, Birgitta; Sparén, Pär; Koupil, Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Ethnic minorities/immigrant groups tend to have increased risk for preterm birth. Less is known about this risk in diverse immigrant groups, couples of mixed ethnic-origin and in relation to duration of residence. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,028,303 mothers who gave birth to 1,766,026 singleton live born infants (1982-2002), was linked to the Education and Total Population Registers. Immigrant parents were identified by country of birth. Risk of early preterm, late preterm and postterm birth was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Polish, Yugoslavian, Iranian, South Asian, East Asian and Sub-Saharan African parents, Swedish mothers who had children with non-Swedish fathers, and parents from two different immigrant groups had higher risk of early preterm birth [adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.76 (1.24-2.50), 1.57 (1.31-1.87), 1.67 (1.30-2.14), 1.52 (1.07-2.16), 1.51 (1.08-2.10), 2.03 (1.32-3.12), 1.56 (1.45-1.67), and 1.55 (1.35-1.77) respectively] compared to Swedish-born parents. South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and East Asian immigrants had a higher risk of late preterm birth compared to Swedish-born parents. North African and Middle Eastern, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean groups had increased risk of postterm birth [adjusted RR 1.31 (1.16-1.47), 2.57 (2.31-2.86), 1.85 (1.67-2.04) respectively]. Adjustment for covariates did not substantially change associations. Immigrant mothers resident <3 years had higher risk for early preterm and postterm birth compared to residents >10 years [adjusted RR 1.46 (1.24-1.71) and 1.16 (1.11-1.23) respectively]. In addition to higher risk of preterm birth in select immigrant groups, some immigrant groups are also at higher risk of postterm birth. Shorter duration of residence is associated with higher risk of non-term deliveries.

  10. Practice of enteral nutrition in very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Senterre, Thibault

    2014-01-01

    The perinatal period is critical for human development. The brain of very low birth weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants is particularly vulnerable to undernutrition. Enteral nutrition is of major importance for the growth and the development of the gastrointestinal tract, which depends on the amount and composition of feeds. Feeding intolerance and the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) are key concerns with enteral nutrition in VLBW infants. Controversies exist on how to feed VLBW infants during the first weeks of life, particularly in extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1,000 g) infants. Unreasonable concerns lead to iatrogenic malnutrition, gastrointestinal atrophy, and parenteral nutrition-related complications. Many studies in the field of nutrition during the past decade demonstrated that some feeding regimens have significant benefits. There is strong evidence that the use of human milk (HM) reduces the risk of NEC and provides major advantages in VLBW infants. The feeding of fortified HM should be promoted and HM banking should be further developed to allow access to pasteurized donor HM for VLBW infants with an insufficient intake of their own mother's milk. Early enteral feeding should be promoted soon after birth to enhance gastrointestinal maturation, growth and functional development. Continuous- or short-interval intermittent feeding seems to provide better gastrointestinal tolerance and faster achievement of full enteral feeding. Feeding advancements of 20-30 ml/kg/day in VLBW infants ≥1,000 g and of 15-25 ml/kg/day in ELBW infants are reasonable strategies. Any suspicion of feeding intolerance implies short-interval evaluation to decide whether interruption of enteral feeding or its restart after a transient interruption are appropriate. One should always strive for maintaining at least minimal enteral feeding, rather than complete interruption of enteral feeding. PMID:24751631

  11. Relationship between Birth Weight and Metabolic Status in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David J.; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Jackman, Michelle; Mahmud, Farid H.; Clarson, Cheril

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationships between birth weight and body mass index, percent body fat, blood lipids, glycemia, insulin resistance, adipokines, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a cohort of obese adolescents. Design and Methods. Ninety-five subjects aged 10–16 years (mean age 13.5 years) with a body mass index >95th centile (mean [±SEM] 33.0 ± 0.6) were utilized from two prospective studies for obesity prevention prior to any interventions. The mean term birth weight was 3527 ± 64 g (range 1899–4990 g;). Results. Body mass index z-score correlated positively with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P = 0.03), but not percent body fat. Insulin resistance negatively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001), as did fasting plasma insulin (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001); both being significantly greater for subjects of small versus large birth weight (Δ Homeostasis Model Assessment = 2.5 and Δ insulin = 10 pmol/L for birth weight <2.5 kg versus >4.5 kg). Adiponectin, but not leptin, blood pressure z-scores or peripheral arterial tomography values positively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Excess body mass index in obese adolescents was positively related to birth weight. Birth weight was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors but represented a significant determinant of insulin resistance. PMID:24555145

  12. A spatial measure of neighborhood level racial isolation applied to low birthweight, preterm birth, and birthweight in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Anthopolos, Rebecca; James, Sherman A; Gelfand, Alan E; Miranda, Marie Lynn

    2011-12-01

    Research on racial residential segregation (RRS) and birth outcomes has focused on RRS at a broad geographic scale, in an aspatial framework, and in northern US cities. We developed a spatial measure of neighborhood level racial isolation of blacks. We examined the association between this new measure and low birthweight, preterm birth, and birthweight in the southern state of North Carolina. Natality data were obtained from the North Carolina Detailed Birth Record 1998-2002 files. Using multiple regression with cluster corrected standard errors, infants born to black and white mothers living in black isolated neighborhoods had, on average, decreased birthweight, and increased odds of low birthweight and preterm birth compared to their counterparts in less isolated areas. White mothers in predominantly black neighborhoods experienced greater increases in odds of each poor birth outcome than did black mothers. Black isolation may be proxying concentrated socioeconomic disadvantage, including disamenities in the built environment.

  13. [Low birth weight in Brazil according to live birth data from the Ministry of Health, 2005].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Carla Lourenço Tavares de; Szwarcwald, Celia Landmann; Castilho, Euclides Ayres de

    2008-11-01

    Although the Brazilian Information System on Live Births (SINASC) has expanded its coverage and improved its data quality since the system was implemented, the live birth count in Brazil is still not complete. The current study analyzes inequalities in low birth weight in Brazil in 2005, based on geographic factors, municipality of residence, maternal schooling, and prenatal care. An analysis of all live births showed a low birth weight paradox, namely high percentages in areas with the highest socioeconomic development. The main explanation for these paradoxical findings involves shorter neonatal survival and inadequate recording of premature births in poorer municipalities. Considering at-term live births from non-multiple gestations, inequalities were found in maternal schooling. Comprehensive, quality prenatal care could have a greater impact by reducing negative outcomes of gestation and decreasing the socioeconomic inequalities of perinatal health in Brazil.

  14. Maternal Factors and Complications of Preterm Birth Associated with Neonatal Thyroid Stimulating Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Spracklen, Cassandra N; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormones are important regulators of fetal neurodevelopment. Among preterm infants, TSH is highly variable. Understanding this variability will further improvements in screening for thyroid disorders in preterm infants. We examined 61 maternal and infant clinical and demographic factors for associations with neonatal TSH levels in 698 preterm neonates. TSH was measured as part of routine State-mandated newborn screening in Iowa. Of the maternal characteristics, nulliparous women (P=8x10−4), women with preeclampsia (P=2x10−3), and those with induced labor (P=3x10−3) had infants with higher TSH levels. TSH levels at the time of newborn screening were associated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (P<0.0001) and sepsis (P=3x10−3). We replicated findings between parity and preeclampsia previously observed in primarily term infants. We also observed strong relationships between neonatal TSH and complications of prematurity including RDS and sepsis, which has implications for future studies examining this relationship both prenatally and longitudinally after birth. PMID:24854527

  15. [An unusual case of a 35 days preterm birth of a German Holstein calf].

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Höltershinken, Martin; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    A female calf of the breed German Holstein (GH) was spontaneously born on July 28, 2013 which was 35 days before the expected term of birth. The dam was a heifer when she got pregnant from the first insemination on November 23, 2012. Calving was without complications. The calf was fully viable and without visible anomalies. We assume that the calf was fully mature at the termination of the pregnancy. Growth rate after the second month of life was comparable to calves born in the same herd after normal length of gestation. The sire of this preterm calf was a GH-bull used for artificial insemination. This bull had already sired 151 daughters. For this bull, preterm calvings were not yet reported. The dam was a heifer, and neither external influences on this dam or in the herd could be identified that could have induced this premature calving. In the herd, no further premature calvings were observed or reasons associated with a preterm calving were found. In this exceptional case, however, gestation length was 248 days and the prematurely born calf survived without any signs of debility, organ defects and respiratory distress.

  16. Low birthweight, preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation in relation to maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Horta, B L; Victora, C G; Menezes, A M; Halpern, R; Barros, F C

    1997-04-01

    The association between the intensity and duration of cigarette smoking during pregnancy and the frequency of low birthweight, preterm births and intrauterine growth retardation was investigated in a historical cohort. All 5166 livebirths occurring in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 1993 were identified and mothers interviewed soon after delivery. Children whose mothers smoked during pregnancy had a birthweight 142 g lower than those of non-smoking mothers. The odds ratio for low birthweight among children of smokers was 1.59 [95% CI 1.30-1.95]. There was no association between smoking and preterm delivery assessed by the Dubowitz score. In relation to intrauterine growth retardation, smoking was associated with an odds ratio of 2.07 [95% CI 1.69-2.53]. There was a direct dose-response association between the number of cigarettes smoked and the risk of growth retardation. Women whose partner smoked were also at higher risk of having a child with growth retardation. All the above results were adjusted for confounding factors. The effect of maternal smoking on low birthweight seems to be attributable to intrauterine growth retardation rather than preterm delivery.

  17. [An unusual case of a 35 days preterm birth of a German Holstein calf].

    PubMed

    Reinartz, Sina; Höltershinken, Martin; Distl, Ottmar

    2016-01-01

    A female calf of the breed German Holstein (GH) was spontaneously born on July 28, 2013 which was 35 days before the expected term of birth. The dam was a heifer when she got pregnant from the first insemination on November 23, 2012. Calving was without complications. The calf was fully viable and without visible anomalies. We assume that the calf was fully mature at the termination of the pregnancy. Growth rate after the second month of life was comparable to calves born in the same herd after normal length of gestation. The sire of this preterm calf was a GH-bull used for artificial insemination. This bull had already sired 151 daughters. For this bull, preterm calvings were not yet reported. The dam was a heifer, and neither external influences on this dam or in the herd could be identified that could have induced this premature calving. In the herd, no further premature calvings were observed or reasons associated with a preterm calving were found. In this exceptional case, however, gestation length was 248 days and the prematurely born calf survived without any signs of debility, organ defects and respiratory distress. PMID:26904901

  18. Improving Maternal Mental Health Following Preterm Birth Using an Expressive Writing Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Horsch, Antje; Tolsa, Jean-François; Gilbert, Leah; du Chêne, Lauranne Jan; Müller-Nix, Carole; Bickle Graz, Myriam

    2016-10-01

    Evaluations of evidence-based, easily accessible, psychological interventions to improve maternal mental health following very preterm birth are scarce. This study investigated the efficacy and acceptability of the expressive writing paradigm for mothers of very preterm infants. The level of maternal posttraumatic stress and depressive symptoms was the primary outcome. Participants were 67 mothers of very preterm babies who were randomly allocated into the intervention (expressive writing; n = 33) or control group (treatment-as-usual; n = 32) when their infant was aged 3 months (corrected age, CA). Measurements were taken at 3 months (pre-intervention), 4 months (post-intervention), and 6 months CA (follow-up). Results showed reduced maternal posttraumatic stress (d = 0.42), depressive symptoms (d = 0.67), and an improved mental health status (d = 1.20) in the intervention group, which were maintained at follow-up. Expressive writing is a brief, cost-effective, and acceptable therapeutic approach that could be offered as part of the NICU care.

  19. Mechanisms leading to increased risk of preterm birth in growth-restricted guinea pig pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Palliser, Hannah K; Kelleher, Meredith A; Welsh, Toni N; Zakar, Tamas; Hirst, Jonathan J

    2014-02-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a risk factor for preterm labor; however, the mechanisms of the relationship remain unknown. Prostaglandin (PG), key stimulants of labor, availability is regulated by the synthetic enzymes, prostaglandin endoperoxidases 1 and 2 (PTGS1 and 2), and the metabolizing enzyme, 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD). We hypothesized that IUGR increases susceptibility to preterm labor due to the changing balance of synthetic and metabolizing enzymes and hence greater PG availability. We have tested this hypothesis using a surgically induced IUGR model in guinea pigs, which results in significantly shorter gestation. Myometrium, amnion, chorion, and placentas were collected from sham operated or IUGR pregnancies, and PTGS1 and HPGD protein expression were quantified throughout late gestation (>62 days) and labor. The PTGS1 expression was significantly upregulated in the myometrium of IUGR animals, and chorionic HPGD expression was markedly decreased (P < .01 and P < .001, respectively). These findings suggest a shift in the balance of PG production over metabolism in IUGR pregnancies leads to a greater susceptibility to preterm birth. PMID:23885103

  20. Impact of maternal anthropometry and smoking on neonatal birth weight.

    PubMed

    Laml, T; Hartmann, B W; Kirchengast, S; Preyer, O; Albrecht, A E; Husslein, P W

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and maternal smoking habits on neonatal birth weight. We reviewed 10,240 normal singleton term pregnancies between 1985 and 1995 at the University Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Vienna. Birth weights of infants of overweight smokers were greater than those of smokers in general and similar to birth weights of nonsmokers, but smoking did have a fetal growth-retarding effect in overweight smoking mothers. Infants of underweight mothers who increased their daily cigarette consumption during pregnancy had significantly lowest birth weight. Our results suggest that the negative effects of smoking during pregnancy cannot be mitigated by a higher pre-pregnancy BMI and/or an improved weight gain during pregnancy. Especially the infants of underweight mothers benefit from their mothers' decision to cease smoking.

  1. Care of low birth weight babies in slums.

    PubMed

    Patel, R B

    1989-01-01

    We studied 289 newborn infants from birth till one year of age. Low birth weight babies (less than 2.5 kg) were 52.9%. Boys suffered 9.7 episodes of sickness, and girls 8.6 episodes of sickness. The mean episodes of various sicknesses, and their impact on weight gain, feeding pattern and growth pattern are discussed. Six deaths were observed, of which 4 were among the low birth weight babies. Mortality in babies born less than 2 kg was 44.4% and above 2 kg was less than 1%. PMID:2807450

  2. Effects of preterm birth and gender on temperament and behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Cosentino-Rocha, Luciana; Klein, Vivian Caroline; Linhares, Maria Beatriz Martins

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the direct and interactive effects of premature birth and gender on temperament and behavioral problems in 80 children aged 18-36 months. The sample was composed of children born preterm (PT; n=44) and children born full-term (FT; n=36). The children's mothers completed temperament (ECBQ) and behavioral problem (CBCL 1.5-5) assessments. Analyses of variance (ANOVA 2×2) were performed. With regard to temperament, PT children exhibited significantly higher scores on high-intensity pleasure and perceptual sensitivity and lower scores on discomfort, cuddliness, and Attentional Focusing compared with FT children. Girls scored higher on fear and discomfort compared with boys. With concern to behavioral problems, PT children scored higher on attention problems compared with FT children. No interactive effect of premature birth and gender on temperament or behavioral problems was found.

  3. Associations between Passive Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Preterm Birth: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hong; Gong, Ting-Ting; Liu, Cai-Xia; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship between passive maternal smoking and preterm birth reveal inconsistent results. We conducted the current meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the relationship between passive maternal smoking and preterm birth. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary odds ratios (SORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aforementioned association. For the analysis, we included 24 studies that involved a total of 5607 women who experienced preterm birth. Overall, the SORs of preterm birth for women who were ever exposed to passive smoking versus women who had never been exposed to passive smoking at any place and at home were 1.20 (95%CI = 1.07–1.34,I2 = 36.1%) and 1.16 (95%CI = 1.04–1.30,I2 = 4.4%), respectively. When we conducted a stratified analysis according to study design, the risk estimate was slightly weaker in cohort studies (SOR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.00–1.21,n = 16) than in cross-sectional studies (SOR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.23–1.74,n = 5). Additionally, the associations between passive maternal smoking and preterm birth were statistically significant for studies conducted in Asia (SOR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.05–1.52), for studies including more than 100 cases of preterm birth (SOR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.05–1.41), and for studies adjusted for maternal age (SOR = 1.27,95%CI = 1.09–1.47), socioeconomic status and/or education (SOR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.10–1.49), body mass index (SOR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.04–1.71), and parity (SOR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.13–1.43). Our findings demonstrate that passive maternal smoking is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Future prospective cohort studies are warranted to provide more detailed results stratified by passive maternal smoking during different trimesters of pregnancy and by different types and causes of preterm birth. PMID:26808045

  4. Associations between Passive Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Preterm Birth: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hong; Gong, Ting-Ting; Liu, Cai-Xia; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies investigating the relationship between passive maternal smoking and preterm birth reveal inconsistent results. We conducted the current meta-analysis of observational studies to evaluate the relationship between passive maternal smoking and preterm birth. We identified relevant studies by searching PubMed, EMBASE, and ISI Web of Science databases. We used random-effects models to estimate summary odds ratios (SORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aforementioned association. For the analysis, we included 24 studies that involved a total of 5607 women who experienced preterm birth. Overall, the SORs of preterm birth for women who were ever exposed to passive smoking versus women who had never been exposed to passive smoking at any place and at home were 1.20 (95%CI = 1.07-1.34,I(2) = 36.1%) and 1.16 (95%CI = 1.04-1.30,I(2) = 4.4%), respectively. When we conducted a stratified analysis according to study design, the risk estimate was slightly weaker in cohort studies (SOR = 1.10, 95%CI = 1.00-1.21,n = 16) than in cross-sectional studies (SOR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.23-1.74,n = 5). Additionally, the associations between passive maternal smoking and preterm birth were statistically significant for studies conducted in Asia (SOR = 1.26, 95%CI = 1.05-1.52), for studies including more than 100 cases of preterm birth (SOR = 1.22, 95%CI = 1.05-1.41), and for studies adjusted for maternal age (SOR = 1.27,95%CI = 1.09-1.47), socioeconomic status and/or education (SOR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.10-1.49), body mass index (SOR = 1.33, 95%CI = 1.04-1.71), and parity (SOR = 1.27, 95%CI = 1.13-1.43). Our findings demonstrate that passive maternal smoking is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Future prospective cohort studies are warranted to provide more detailed results stratified by passive maternal smoking during different trimesters of pregnancy and by different types and causes of preterm birth.

  5. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  6. Maternal fever at birth and non-verbal intelligence at age 9 years in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Olaf; Drescher, Johannes; Veelken, Norbert

    2003-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that characteristics of perinatal infection are associated with long-term cognitive limitations among preterm infants, we analyzed data from 294 infants (142 females, 152 males) < or = 1500 g birthweight and <37 completed weeks of gestation who were examined at age 9 years. We identified 47 children (20 females, 27 males) who had a non-verbal Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) scale standard value below 70, i.e. more than 2 SDs below the age-adjusted mean. The 247 children (122 females, 125 males) with a score > or = 70 served as control participants. Maternal nationality and education, and low gestational age were significantly associated with a K-ABC non-verbal standard value <70. Both neonatal brain damage (intraventricular hemorrhage) and long-term sequelae (cerebral palsy [CP], diagnosed at age 6 years) were significantly associated with a below-normal non-verbal K-ABC score. Maternal fever at birth was present in five cases (11%) and eight controls (3%; odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 11.4). Clinical chorioamnionitis and preterm labor and/or premature rupture of membranes (as opposed to toxemia and other initiators of preterm delivery) were also more common among cases than control participants. When adjusting for potential confounders such as gestational age, maternal education and nationality, and CP, the risk estimate for maternal fever remained unchanged (3.8, 0.97 to 14.6). We conclude that perinatal infection might indeed contribute to an increased risk for long-term cognitive deficits in preterm infants. PMID:12613769

  7. Geospatial Association between Low Birth Weight and Arsenic in Groundwater in New Hampshire, USA

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xun; Ayotte, Joseph D.; Onda, Akikazu; Miller, Stephanie; Rees, Judy; Gilbert-Diamond, Diane; Onega, Tracy; Gui, Jiang; Karagas, Margaret; Moeschler, John

    2015-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence of the role of arsenic in the etiology of adverse human reproductive outcomes. Since drinking water can be a major source of arsenic to pregnant women, the effect of arsenic exposure through drinking water on human birth may be revealed by a geospatial association between arsenic concentration in groundwater and birth problems, particularly in a region where private wells substantially account for water supply, like New Hampshire, US. Methods We calculated town-level rates of preterm birth and term low birth weight (term LBW) for New Hampshire, using data for 1997-2009 and stratified by maternal age. We smoothed the rates using a locally-weighted averaging method to increase the statistical stability. The town-level groundwater arsenic values are from three GIS data layers generated by the US Geological Survey: probability of local groundwater arsenic concentration > 1 μg/L, probability > 5 μg/L, and probability > 10 μg/L. We calculated Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) between the reproductive outcomes (preterm birth and term LBW) and the arsenic values, at both state and county levels. Results For preterm birth, younger mothers (maternal age < 20) have a statewide r = 0.70 between the rates smoothed with a threshold = 2,000 births and the town mean arsenic level based on the data of probability > 10 μg/L; For older mothers, r = 0.19 when the smoothing threshold = 3,500; A majority of county level r values are positive based on the arsenic data of probability > 10 μg/L. For term LBW, younger mothers (maternal age < 25) have a statewide r = 0.44 between the rates smoothed with a threshold = 3,500 and town minimum arsenic level based on the data of probability > 1 μg/L; For older mothers, r = 0.14 when the rates are smoothed with a threshold = 1,000 births and also adjusted by town median household income in 1999, and the arsenic values are the town minimum based on probability > 10 μg/L. At the county level, for

  8. First-Trimester Antihistamine Exposure and Risk of Spontaneous Abortion or Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge, Tiara D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Michels, Kara A.; Velez Edwards, Digna R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We tested whether antihistamine exposure during early pregnancy is associated with spontaneous abortion (SAB) or preterm birth (PTB). Methods Women were enrolled in Right from the Start (2004-2010), a prospective pregnancy cohort. Data about first-trimester antihistamine use were obtained from screening and first-trimester interviews. Self-reported outcomes included spontaneous abortion and preterm birth and were verified by medical records. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test for an association between antihistamine use and each outcome, both performed adjusting for confounders. Results Among the 2,685 pregnancies analyzed, 14% (n=377) reported use of antihistamines. Among antihistamine users, 12% (n=44) experienced SABs, and 6% (n=21) had PTBs. Antihistamine exposure was not associated with SAB (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.64, 1.21) or PTB, which was modified by maternal race (aHR=1.03, 95% CI 0.61,1.72 among White women and aHR=0.43, 95% CI 0.14, 1.34 among Black women). Conclusions Despite biologic plausibility that antihistamine use may influence pregnancy outcomes, we did not detect evidence of an association with SAB. These data demonstrate the utility of large prospective cohorts for evaluating drug safety in pregnancy when concerns are raised from animal models. PMID:24789281

  9. Progesterone Interactions with the Cervix: Translational Implications for Term and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Bryan; Hwang, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    The uterine cervix plays a vital role in maintaining pregnancy and an equally important role in allowing parturition to occur. Progesterone, either endogenously produced or supplied exogenously, supports the function of the cervix in sustaining intrauterine pregnancy, and the withdrawal of progesterone, either through natural processes or pharmacologic intervention, leads to delivery which underscores the importance of the progesterone's biological activities manifest in normal gestation and pregnancy that ends prematurely. Research crossing many scientific disciplines has demonstrated that progesterone is a pleotropic compound that affects the cervix through cytoplasmic and membrane receptors with profound effects on cellular and molecular functions that influence inflammatory cascades and extracellular matrix, both of which have consequences for parturition. Beyond the local cell and molecular biology of progesterone, it has systemic effects of relevance to pregnancy as well. This paper examines the biology of the cervix from its gross to cellular structure and biological activities of its cell and molecular processes that may be affected by progesterone. The implications of these processes for preterm birth are explored, and direction of current research is in relation to translational medicine implications for diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic approaches to threatened preterm birth. PMID:22114461

  10. Astrocytes and microglia in acute cerebral injury underlying cerebral palsy associated with preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Carina; Davidson, Joanne O; Tan, Sidhartha; Green, Colin R; Bennet, Laura; Robertson, Nicola J; Gunn, Alistair Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is one of the most devastating consequences of brain injury around the time of birth, and nearly a third of cases are now associated with premature birth. Compared with term babies, preterm babies have an increased incidence of complications that may increase the risk of disability, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The response to injury is highly dependent on brain maturity, and although cellular vulnerability is well documented, there is now evidence that premyelinating axons are also particularly sensitive to ischemic injury. In this review, we will explore recent evidence highlighting a central role for glia in mediating increased risk of disability in premature infants, including excessive activation of microglia and opening of astrocytic gap junction hemichannels in spreading injury after brain ischemia, in part likely involving release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and overactivation of purinergic receptors, particularly in white matter. We propose the hypothesis that inflammation-induced opening of connexin hemichannels is a key regulating event that initiates a vicious circle of excessive ATP release, which in turn propagates activation of purinergic receptors on microglia and astrocytes. This suggests that developing effective neuroprotective strategies for preterm infants requires a detailed understanding of glial responses.

  11. Bacterial aetiological agents of intra-amniotic infections and preterm birth in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Mendz, George L.; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection-related preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity; knowledge of bacterial populations invading the amniotic cavity and the routes of invasion is required to make progress in the prevention of preterm birth. Significant advances have been made in understanding bacterial communities in the vagina, but much less studied are intra-uterine bacterial populations during pregnancy. A systematic review of data published on the intra-uterine microbiome was performed; molecular information and summaries of species found in healthy individuals and in women with diagnosed infections served to construct a database and to analyse results to date. Thirteen studies fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. The data of various investigations were collated, organized, and re-analyzed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of microbial populations in the intra-amniotic space. The most common intra-amniotic bacterial taxa were species that can colonies the vagina in health and disease; there were others associated with the habitats of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The results suggest a central role for the ascending route of infections during pregnancy, and point to a possible secondary contribution via haematogenous invasion of the intra-amniotic space. The complete census of the intra-uterine microbiome awaits completion. PMID:24137568

  12. The influence of preterm birth on structural alterations of the vision-deprived brain.

    PubMed

    Wan, Catherine Y; Wood, Amanda G; Chen, Jian; Wilson, Sarah J; Reutens, David C

    2013-04-01

    Differences in brain structures between blind and sighted individuals have not been widely investigated. Furthermore, existing studies have included individuals who were blinded by retinopathy of prematurity, a condition that is associated with premature birth. Recent pediatric research has reported structural differences in individuals who were born prematurely, suggesting that some of the structural abnormalities previously observed in blind individuals may be related to prematurity rather than being specific to blindness. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to investigate gray and white matter differences between 24 blind and 16 sighted individuals. Of the blind individuals, six were born prematurely and 18 at term. Compared to those born at term, blind individuals born preterm showed differences in gray, but not white, matter volumes in various brain regions. When the preterm individuals were excluded from analysis, there were significant differences between blind and sighted individuals. Full-term blind individuals showed regional gray matter decreases in the cuneus, lingual gyrus, middle occipital gyrus, precuneus, inferior and superior parietal lobules, and the thalamus, and gray matter increases in the globus pallidus. They also showed regional white matter decreases in the cuneus, lingual gyrus, and the posterior cingulate. These differences were observed in blind individuals irrespective of blindness onset age, providing evidence for structural alterations in the mature brain. Our findings highlight the importance of considering the potential impact of premature birth on neurodevelopmental outcomes in studies of blind individuals.

  13. Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics for Pre-Eclampsia and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Law, Kai P.; Han, Ting-Li; Tong, Chao; Baker, Philip N.

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-related complications such as pre-eclampsia and preterm birth now represent a notable burden of adverse health. Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. It is an important cause of maternal death worldwide and a leading cause of fetal growth restriction and iatrogenic prematurity. Fifteen million infants are born preterm each year globally, but more than one million of those do not survive their first month of life. Currently there are no predictive tests available for diagnosis of these pregnancy-related complications and the biological mechanisms of the diseases have not been fully elucidated. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics have all the necessary attributes to provide the needed breakthrough in understanding the pathophysiology of complex human diseases thorough the discovery of biomarkers. The mass spectrometry methodologies employed in the studies for pregnancy-related complications are evaluated in this article. Top-down proteomic and peptidomic profiling by laser mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, and bottom-up quantitative proteomics and targeted proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry have been applied to elucidate protein biomarkers and biological mechanism of pregnancy-related complications. The proteomes of serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cervical-vaginal fluid, placental tissue, and cytotrophoblastic cells have all been investigated. Numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates that could distinguish complicated pregnancies from healthy controls have been proposed. Nevertheless, questions as to the clinically utility and the capacity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the pre-eclampsia and preterm birth remain to be answered. PMID:26006232

  14. Sustained inflation at birth did not protect preterm fetal sheep from lung injury

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Matthew W.; Noble, Peter B.; Kallapur, Suhas G.; Jobe, Alan H.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained lung inflations (SI) at birth may recruit functional residual capacity (FRC). Clinically, SI increase oxygenation and decrease need for intubation in preterm infants. We tested whether a SI to recruit FRC would decrease lung injury from subsequent ventilation of fetal, preterm lambs. The preterm fetus (128 ± 1 day gestation) was exteriorized from the uterus, a tracheostomy was performed, and fetal lung fluid was removed. While maintaining placental circulation, fetuses were randomized to one of four 15-min interventions: 1) positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) 8 cmH2O (n = 4), 2) 20 s SI to 50 cmH2O then PEEP 8 cmH2O (n = 10), 3) mechanical ventilation at tidal volume (VT) 7 ml/kg (n = 13), or 4) 20 s SI then ventilation at VT 7 ml/kg (n = 13). Lambs were ventilated with 95% N2/5% CO2 and PEEP 8 cmH2O. Volume recruitment was measured during SI, and fetal tissues were collected after an additional 30 min on placental support. SI achieved a mean FRC recruitment of 15 ml/kg (range 8–27). Fifty percent of final FRC was achieved by 2 s, 65% by 5 s, and 90% by 15 s, demonstrating prolonged SI times are needed to recruit FRC. SI alone released acute-phase proteins into the fetal lung fluid and increased mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines and acute-phase response genes in the lung. Mechanical ventilation further increased all markers of lung injury. SI before ventilation, regardless of the volume of FRC recruited, did not alter the acute-phase and proinflammatory responses to mechanical ventilation at birth. PMID:23873843

  15. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics for pre-eclampsia and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Law, Kai P; Han, Ting-Li; Tong, Chao; Baker, Philip N

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy-related complications such as pre-eclampsia and preterm birth now represent a notable burden of adverse health. Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. It is an important cause of maternal death worldwide and a leading cause of fetal growth restriction and iatrogenic prematurity. Fifteen million infants are born preterm each year globally, but more than one million of those do not survive their first month of life. Currently there are no predictive tests available for diagnosis of these pregnancy-related complications and the biological mechanisms of the diseases have not been fully elucidated. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics have all the necessary attributes to provide the needed breakthrough in understanding the pathophysiology of complex human diseases thorough the discovery of biomarkers. The mass spectrometry methodologies employed in the studies for pregnancy-related complications are evaluated in this article. Top-down proteomic and peptidomic profiling by laser mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, and bottom-up quantitative proteomics and targeted proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry have been applied to elucidate protein biomarkers and biological mechanism of pregnancy-related complications. The proteomes of serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cervical-vaginal fluid, placental tissue, and cytotrophoblastic cells have all been investigated. Numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates that could distinguish complicated pregnancies from healthy controls have been proposed. Nevertheless, questions as to the clinically utility and the capacity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the pre-eclampsia and preterm birth remain to be answered. PMID:26006232

  16. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  17. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  18. Child Health USA 2013: Low Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the 2009 Period Linked Birth/Infant Death Data Set. National Vital Statistics Reports; vol 61 no 8. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2013. ↑ Back to top Graphs This image is described in the Data section. This image is described in the Data ...

  19. Associations of Rhesus and non-Rhesus maternal red blood cell alloimmunization with stillbirth and preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jing; Lee, Brian K; Wikman, Agneta T; Johansson, Stefan; Reilly, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although the risks of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with anti-D antibodies are well-recognized, much less is known concerning alloimmunization with other red blood cell antibodies detected during routine maternal screening. To date, most reports of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with non-anti-D antibodies have been from small case studies. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of maternal alloimmunization with specific red blood cell antibodies and the risks of preterm birth and stillbirth in the Swedish population. Methods: All antibody screening, outcome and covariate data were obtained through linkages of Swedish national health and data registers. Follow-up in these population-based registers was available up to 31 December 2002. The final study sample consisted of 1 022 569 singleton births from 668 952 mothers during 1987–2002. Results: In total, 1.3% of the 1 022 569 study pregnancies were alloimmunized. In adjusted logistic regression models, compared with having no antibodies, alloimmunization with anti-D, anti-E, anti-C and anti-c was associated with increased risk of both stillbirth and preterm birth. In addition, anti-Kell was associated with increased risk of preterm birth and anti-Lea with increased risk of stillbirth. Compared with firstborn children, risk of preterm birth associated with alloimmunization was greater in subsequent births Conclusions: In the largest study to date, alloimmunization with Rhesus, K- and -Lea red blood cell antibodies increased the risk of preterm birth and/or stillbirth. The association of anti-Lea with stillbirth was an unexpected finding. Further study of the consequences of non-anti-D alloimmunization is warranted. PMID:24801308

  20. Preterm Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... in vitro fertilization (IVF) or another assisted reproductive technology (ART) to get pregnant. What is my risk ... be found in the CDC’s 2012 Assisted Reproductive Technology Report . What should I do if I think ...

  1. Clinical Microbiology of Bacterial and Fungal Sepsis in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, David; Fairchild, Karen D.

    2004-01-01

    Twenty percent of very-low-birth-weight (<1500 g) preterm infants experience a serious systemic infection, and despite advances in neonatal intensive care and antimicrobials, mortality is as much as threefold higher for these infants who develop sepsis than their counterparts without sepsis during their hospitalization. Outcomes may be improved by preventative strategies, earlier and accurate diagnosis, and adjunct therapies to combat infection and protect the vulnerable preterm infant during an infection. Earlier diagnosis on the basis of factors such as abnormal heart rate characteristics may offer the ability to initiate treatment prior to the onset of clinical symptoms. Molecular and adjunctive diagnostics may also aid in diagnosing invasive infection when clinical symptoms indicate infection but no organisms are isolated in culture. Due to the high morbidity and mortality, preventative and adjunctive therapies are needed. Prophylaxis has been effective in preventing early-onset group B streptococcal sepsis and late-onset Candida sepsis. Future research in prophylaxis using active and passive immunization strategies offers prevention without the risk of resistance to antimicrobials. Identification of the differences in neonatal intensive care units with low and high infection rates and implementation of infection control measures remain paramount in each neonatal intensive care unit caring for preterm infants. PMID:15258097

  2. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  3. Birth Weights in Sickle Cell Disease Pregnancies: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan E.; Macleod, David

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been linked with an increased incidence of adverse foetal outcomes when compared to women without haemoglobinopathies (HbAA). There’s a paucity of data into foetal outcomes for infants born to women with SCD. Customised growth charts have been demonstrated to be better than population-based growth charts at identifying unhealthy small babies. We analysed the mean birth weight and customised birth weight centiles of infants born to mothers with SCD versus mothers with HbAA genotype, to quantify the risk of having a smaller baby. Birth weight and birth weight centiles were analysed for 88 women with SCD (50 HbSS; 38 HbSC) and 176 controls (HbAA). Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean birth weight (P value = 0.004) and the mean birth weight centiles (P value = 0.016). We conclude that SCD is a risk factor for having a smaller baby. PMID:27776167

  4. Effect of low birth weight on severe childhood diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Ittiravivongs, A; Songchitratna, K; Ratthapalo, S; Pattara-arechachai, J

    1991-12-01

    A hospital-based case-control study was conducted at Phanat Nikhom District Hospital, Chon Buri Province, Thailand to determine the association between low birth weight and severe diarrhea and its magnitude of association among children under two years of age. Data were analyzed from 52 severe diarrheal cases and 121 mild diarrheal children attending the hospital during October 1988 to December 1989. Information regarding birth weight was obtained from hospital record or health care of each subject. Information on variables which may confound the association between low birth weight and severe diarrhea were also collected by interviewing all subjects' mothers with structured questionnaires. It was found that the crude Odds Ratio between low birth weight and severe diarrhea was 4.62. However after controlling for confounding variables: age, concurrent infection, duration of diarrheal attack prior attending hospital and ORT usage, the adjusted Odds Ratio was 3.92. The present study confirms that low birth weight is an important determinant of severe diarrhea and feasible intervention in the case of low birth weight needs to be explored.

  5. The frequency, clinical significance, and pathological features of chronic chorioamnionitis: a lesion associated with spontaneous preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chong Jai; Romero, Roberto; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Yoo, Wonsuk; Dong, Zhong; Topping, Vanessa; Gotsch, Francesca; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Chi, Je Geun; Kim, Jung-Sun

    2010-07-01

    chorioamnionitis than in those without chronic chorioamnionitis (P<0.05). We propose that chronic chorioamnionitis defines a common placental pathological lesion among the preterm labor and preterm prelabor rupture of membranes groups, especially in cases of late preterm birth. Its association with villitis of unknown etiology and the chemokine profile in amniotic fluid suggests an immunological origin, akin to transplantation rejection and graft-versus-host disease in the chorioamniotic membranes.

  6. Birth weight and longitudinal growth in infants born below 32 weeks’ gestation: a UK population study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Tim J; Statnikov, Yevgeniy; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Pan, Huiqi; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe birth weight and postnatal weight gain in a contemporaneous population of babies born <32 weeks’ gestation, using routinely captured electronic clinical data. Design Anonymised longitudinal weight data from 2006 to 2011. Setting National Health Service neonatal units in England. Methods Birth weight centiles were constructed using the LMS method, and longitudinal weight gain was summarised as mean growth curves for each week of gestation until discharge, using SITAR (Superimposition by Translation and Rotation) growth curve analysis. Results Data on 103 194 weights of 5009 babies born from 22–31 weeks’ gestation were received from 40 neonatal units. At birth, girls weighed 6.6% (SE 0.4%) less than boys (p<0.0001). For babies born at 31 weeks’ gestation, weight fell after birth by an average of 258 g, with the nadir on the 8th postnatal day. The rate of weight gain then increased to a maximum of 28.4 g/d or 16.0 g/kg/d after 3 weeks. Conversely for babies of 22 to 28 weeks’ gestation, there was on average no weight loss after birth. At all gestations, babies tended to cross weight centiles downwards for at least 2 weeks. Conclusions In very preterm infants, mean weight crosses centiles downwards by at least two centile channel widths. Postnatal weight loss is generally absent in those born before 29 weeks, but marked in those born later. Assigning an infant's target centile at birth is potentially harmful as it requires rapid weight gain and should only be done once weight gain has stabilised. The use of electronic data reflects contemporary medical management. PMID:23934365

  7. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    PubMed

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes. PMID:6505690

  8. Short- and Long-Term Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants with Admission Hypothermia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shwu-Meei; Lung, Hou-Ling; Chang, Jui-Hsing; Hsu, Chyong-Hsin; Jim, Wai-Tim; Lee, Ching-Hsiao; Hung, Hsiao-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonatal hypothermia remains a common problem and is related to elevated morbidities and mortality. However, the long-term neurodevelopmental effects of admission hypothermia are still unknown. This study attempted to determine the short-term and long-term consequences of admission hypothermia in VLBW preterm infants. Study Design This retrospective study measured the incidence and compared the outcomes of admission hypothermia in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit. Infants were divided into the following groups: normothermia (36.5–37.5°C), mild hypothermia (36.0–36.4°C), moderate hypothermia (32.0–35.9°C), and severe hypothermia (< 32°C). We compared the distribution, demographic variables, short-term outcomes, and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months of corrected age among groups. Results We studied 341 infants: 79 with normothermia, 100 with mild hypothermia, 162 with moderate hypothermia, and 0 with severe hypothermia. Patients in the moderate hypothermia group had significantly lower gestational ages (28.1 wk vs. 29.7 wk, P < .02) and smaller birth weight (1004 g vs. 1187 g, P < .001) compared to patients in the normothermia group. Compared to normothermic infants, moderately hypothermic infants had significantly higher incidences of 1-min Apgar score < 7 (63.6% vs. 31.6%, P < .001), respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) (58.0% vs. 39.2%, P = .006), and mortality (18.5% vs. 5.1%, P = .005). Moderate hypothermia did not affect neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years’ corrected age. Mild hypothermia had no effect on short-term or long-term outcomes. Conclusions Admission hypothermia was common in VLBW infants and correlated inversely with birth weight and gestational age. Although moderate hypothermia was associated with higher RDS and mortality rates, it may play a limited role among multifactorial causes of neurodevelopmental impairment. PMID:26193370

  9. An exploratory study of the variables impacting preterm birth rates in New Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a substantial health problem that accounts for significant infant morbidity and mortality and poses an economic burden to both individuals and the state of residence. The goal of this study was to identify maternal risk factors for PTB in New Mexico, a poor state with a unique ethnic background, in order to identify populations at increased risk that would benefit from intervention. Methods This was a cross-sectional retrospective exploratory analysis of 377,770 singleton live births in the state of New Mexico from 1991-2005. Gestational age of less than 37 weeks was defined as PTB. The Kotelchuck Index was used as a measure for level of prenatal care described as inadequate, intermediate, adequate, and intensive. Results Of the live births analyzed, 28,036 of these were preterm (7.4%). Overall the PTB rate rose at a rate of 0.18% per year from 1991-2005. Among patients with medical risk factors, the absence of prenatal care was associated with higher odds for PTB as compared to adequate prenatal care. Other risk factors were unmarried status, education less than high school, tobacco/alcohol use, black, Asian, and white Hispanic ethnicity, and the presence of one or more medical risk factors. Statistically significant protective factors for PTB were age 25-29, education surpassing high school, and Native American race. Conclusions This study identified several factors that correlate with increased PTB in New Mexico, in particular ethnicity and level of prenatal care. The finding that Native American patients have a lower PTB rate compared to other groups, even though this group is traditionally one of low socioeconomic status in New Mexico, signifies that other factors yet to be identified affect PTB. PMID:22720802

  10. Maternal characteristics and mid-pregnancy serum biomarkers as risk factors for subtypes of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Jelliffe-Pawlowski, LL; Baer, RJ; Blumenfeld, YJ; Ryckman, KK; O’Brodovich, HM; Gould, JB.; Druzin, ML; El-Sayed, YY; Lyell, DJ; Stevenson, DK; Shaw, GM; Currier, RJ

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between maternal characteristics, serum biomarkers, and preterm birth (PTB) by spontaneous and medically-indicated subtypes. Design Population-based cohort. Setting California, United States of America. Population From a total population of 1,004,039 live singleton births in 2009 and 2010, 841,665 pregnancies with linked birth certificate and hospital discharge records were included. Methods Characteristics were compared for term and preterm deliveries by PTB subtype using logistic regression and odds ratios adjusted for maternal characteristics and obstetric factors present in final stepwise models (adjORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). First and second trimester serum marker levels were analyzed in a subset of 125,202 pregnancies with available first and second trimester serum biomarker results. Main Outcome Measure PTB by subtype. Results In fully adjusted models, ten characteristics and three serum biomarkers were associated with increased risk in each PTB subtype (Black race/ethnicity, preexisting hypertension with and without preeclampsia, gestational hypertension with preeclampsia, preexisting diabetes, anemia, previous PTB, one or ≥ two previous cesarean section(s), interpregnancy interval ≥ 60 months, low first trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, high second trimester alpha-fetoprotein, and high second trimester dimeric inhibin A). These risks occurred in 51.6 to 86.2% of all pregnancies ending in PTB depending on subtype. The highest risk observed was for medically-indicated PTB < 32 weeks in women with preexisting hypertension and preeclampsia (adjOR 89.7, 27.3 – 111.2). Conclusions Our findings suggest a shared etiology across PTB subtypes. These commonalities point to targets for further study and exploration of risk reduction strategies. PMID:26111589

  11. The vaginal microbiome, vaginal anti-microbial defence mechanisms and the clinical challenge of reducing infection-related preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Witkin, S S

    2015-01-01

    Ascending bacterial infection is implicated in about 40-50% of preterm births. The human vaginal microbiota in most women is dominated by lactobacilli. In women whose vaginal microbiota is not lactobacilli-dominated anti-bacterial defence mechanisms are reduced. The enhanced proliferation of pathogenic bacteria plus degradation of the cervical barrier increase bacterial passage into the endometrium and amniotic cavity and trigger preterm myometrial contractions. Evaluation of protocols to detect the absence of lactobaciili dominance in pregnant women by self-measuring vaginal pH, coupled with measures to promote growth of lactobacilli are novel prevention strategies that may reduce the occurrence of preterm birth in low-resource areas. PMID:25316066

  12. Use of a simple anthropometric measurement to predict birth weight. WHO Collaborative Study of Birth Weight Surrogates.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Low-birth-weight babies are most at risk of infant mortality. Unfortunately, in many developing countries it is not possible to weigh babies accurately because of the lack of robust scales. This article describes the results of a WHO Collaborative Study to investigate whether birth weight can be predicted accurately using chest circumference and/or arm circumference. The implications of the results for paediatric practice in developing countries are discussed. PMID:8490977

  13. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measur...

  14. Development of Hydro-Epidemiology Studies to Establish Relationships Between Source-Water Contamination and Preterm Birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Meeker, J.; Alshawabkeh, A.; Cordero, J.; Giese, R.; Loch-Caruso, R.

    2010-12-01

    Puerto Rico has the highest rate of preterm birth in United States. Preliminary investigations suggest that the increase in preterm birth rates in Puerto Rico cannot be explained by changes in known factors, and that there is sufficient evidence that exposure to some contaminants contributes to preterm birth. Contamination in Puerto Rico is extensive with more than 150 contaminated sites and a vast contamination of water resources. Of particular concern is the contamination in the north-coast karst aquifer. This aquifer provides important freshwater resources for human consumption. The same characteristics that make karst aquifers highly productive make them highly vulnerable to contamination and impart an enormous capacity to store and convey contaminants from sources to potential exposures zones. As a result, there is an inherent risk of exposure to contamination thorough groundwater. This presentation will address work being conducted to: assess the extent of groundwater contamination in the north coast of Puerto Rico; evaluate potential relationship between exposure to contaminants and preterm birth; develop new technology for discovery, transport characterization, and green remediation of contaminants in karst aquifers.

  15. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    PubMed

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  16. Prevention of preterm birth with vaginal progesterone or 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate: a critical examination of efficacy and safety.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, John M; Lewis, David F

    2016-01-01

    Progestogens are the first drugs to demonstrate reproducibly a reduction in the rate of early preterm birth. The efficacy and safety of progestogens are related to individual pharmacologic properties of each drug within this class of medication and characteristics of the population that is treated. The synthetic 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and natural progesterone have been studied with the use of a prophylactic strategy in women with a history of preterm birth and in women with a multiple gestation. Evidence from a single large comparative efficacy trial suggests that vaginal natural progesterone is superior to 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate as a prophylactic treatment in women with a history of mid-trimester preterm birth. Progestogen therapy is indicated for women with this highest risk profile based on evidence from 2 trials. A therapeutic approach based on the identification of a sonographic short cervix has been studied in several phase III trials. Independent phase III trials and an individual patient metaanalysis suggest that vaginal progesterone is efficacious and safe in women with a singleton and a short cervix. Two trials that tested 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate in women with a short cervix showed no benefit. No consistent benefit for the prophylactic or therapeutic use of progestogens has been demonstrated in larger trials of women whose pregnancies were complicated by a multiple gestation (twins or triplets), preterm labor, or preterm rupture of membranes. Unfortunately, several large randomized trials in multiple gestations have identified harm related to 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate exposure, and the synthetic drug is contraindicated in this population. The current body of evidence is evaluated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation guidelines to derive the strength of recommendation in each of these populations. A large confirmatory trial that is testing 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate exposure in women

  17. Sources of Fine Particulate Matter and Risk of Preterm Birth in Connecticut, 2000–2006: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Michelle L.; Lee, Hyung Joo; Koutrakis, Petros; Belanger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have examined fine particulate matter (≤ 2.5 μm; PM2.5) and preterm birth, but there is a dearth of longitudinal studies on this topic and a paucity of studies that have investigated specific sources of this exposure. Objectives: Our aim was to assess whether anthropogenic sources are associated with risk of preterm birth, comparing successive pregnancies to the same woman. Methods: Birth certificates were used to select women who had vaginal singleton live births at least twice in Connecticut during 2000–2006 (n = 23,123 women, n = 48,208 births). We procured 4,085 daily samples of PM2.5 on Teflon filters from the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection for six cities in Connecticut. Filters were analyzed for chemical composition, and Positive Matrix Factorization was used to determine contributions of PM2.5 sources. Risk estimates were calculated with conditional logistic regression, matching pregnancies to the same women. Results: Odds ratios of preterm birth per interquartile range increase in whole pregnancy exposure to dust, motor vehicle emissions, oil combustion, and regional sulfur PM2.5 sources were 1.01 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.09), 1.01 (95% CI: 0.92, 1.10), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.89, 1.12), and 1.09 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.22), respectively. Conclusion: This was the first study of PM2.5 sources and preterm birth, and the first matched analysis, that better addresses individual-level confounding potentially inherent in all past studies. There was insufficient evidence to suggest that sources were statistically significantly associated with preterm birth. However, elevated central estimates and previously observed associations with mass concentration motivate the need for further research. Future studies would benefit from high source exposure settings and longitudinal study designs, such as that adopted in this study. Citation: Pereira G, Bell ML, Lee HJ, Koutrakis P, Belanger K. 2014. Sources of fine particulate matter and risk

  18. Socio-economic disparities in preterm birth: causal pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M S; Goulet, L; Lydon, J; Séguin, L; McNamara, H; Dassa, C; Platt, R W; Chen, M F; Gauthier, H; Genest, J; Kahn, S; Libman, M; Rozen, R; Masse, A; Miner, L; Asselin, G; Benjamin, A; Klein, J; Koren, G

    2001-07-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant mortality in industrialised societies. Its incidence is greatly increased among the socially disadvantaged, but the reasons for this excess are unclear and have been relatively unexplored. We hypothesise two distinct sets of causal pathways and mechanisms that may explain social disparities in preterm birth. The first set involves chronic and acute psychosocial stressors, psychological distress caused by those stressors, increased secretion of placental corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), changes in sexual behaviours or enhanced susceptibility to bacterial vaginosis and chorioamnionitis, cigarette smoking or cocaine use, and decidual vasculopathy. The second hypothesised pathway is a gene-environment interaction based on a highly prevalent mutation in the gene for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), combined with low folate intake from the diet and from prenatal vitamin supplements, consequent hyperhomocysteinemia, and decidual vasculopathy. We propose to test these hypothesised pathways and mechanisms in a nested case-control study within a prospectively recruited and followed cohort of pregnant women with singleton pregnancies who deliver at one of four Montreal hospitals that serve an ethnically and socio-economically diverse population. Following recruitment during the late first or early second trimester, participating women are seen at 24-26 weeks, when a research nurse obtains a detailed medical and obstetric history; administers several scales to assess chronic and acute stressors and psychological function; obtains blood samples for CRH, red blood cell and plasma folate, homocysteine, and DNA for the MTHFR mutation; and performs a digital and speculum examination to measure cervical length and vaginal pH and to obtain swabs for bacterial vaginosis and fetal fibronectin. After delivery, each case (delivery at < 37 completed weeks following spontaneous onset of labour or prelabour rupture of membranes

  19. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (4 of 7): delivery of interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The efficacious interventions identified in the previous article of this report will fail unless they are delivered at high and equitable coverage. This article discusses critical delivery constraints and strategies. Barriers to scaling up interventions Achieving universal coverage entails addressing major barriers at many levels. An overarching constraint is the lack of political will, resulting from the dearth of preterm birth and stillbirth data and the lack of visibility. Other barriers exist at the household and community levels, such as insufficient demand for interventions or sociocultural barriers; at the health services level, such as a lack of resources and trained healthcare providers; and at the health sector policy and management level, such as poorly functioning, centralized systems. Additional constraints involve weak governance and accountability, political instability, and challenges in the physical environment. Strategies and examples Scaling up maternal, newborn and child health interventions requires strengthening health systems, but there is also a role for focused, targeted interventions. Choosing a strategy involves identifying appropriate channels for reaching high coverage, which depends on many factors such as access to and attendance at healthcare facilities. Delivery channels vary, and may include facility- and community-based healthcare providers, mass media campaigns, and community-based approaches and marketing strategies. Issues related to scaling up are discussed in the context of four interventions that may be given to mothers at different stages throughout pregnancy or to newborns: (1) detection and treatment of syphilis; (2) emergency Cesarean section; (3) newborn resuscitation; and (4) kangaroo mother care. Systematic reviews of the literature and large-scale implementation studies are analyzed for each intervention. Conclusion Equitable and successful scale-up of preterm birth and stillbirth interventions will

  20. The role of lifestyle in preventing low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Chomitz, V R; Cheung, L W; Lieberman, E

    1995-01-01

    Lifestyle behaviors such as cigarette smoking, weight gain during pregnancy, and use of other drugs play an important role in determining fetal growth. The relationship between lifestyle risk factors and low birth weight is complex and is affected by psychosocial, economic, and biological factors. Cigarette smoking is the largest known risk factor for low birth weight. Approximately 20% of all low birth weight could be avoided if women did not smoke during pregnancy. Reducing heavy use of alcohol and other drugs during pregnancy could also reduce the rate of low birth weight births. Pregnancy and the prospect of pregnancy provide an important window of opportunity to improve women's health and the health of children. The adoption before or during pregnancy of more healthful lifestyle behaviors, such as ceasing to smoke, eating an adequate diet and gaining enough weight during pregnancy, and ceasing heavy drug use, can positively affect the long-term health of women and the health of their infants. Detrimental lifestyles can be modified, but successful modification will require large-scale societal changes. In the United States, these societal changes should include a focus on preventive health, family-centered workplace policies, and changes in social norms.

  1. Maternal Serum Magnesium Level and Low Birth Weight Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Parizadeh, Seyed Mohammadreza; Mohammadzadeh, Ashraf; Farhat, Ahmadshah; Valaee, Laya; Khajedaluee, Mohammad; Faal, Gholamreza

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of study was to compare the serum level of magnesium in mothers having low birth weight with those having normal birth weight neonates. Methods: In a case-control study, women who delivered low birth weight neonate (cases), compared with normal birth weight (controls) in serum concentration of magnesium. Blood samples collected within 24 h after delivery. Concentration of magnesium assessed by standard atomic absorption spectro-photometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to control of potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 116 mothers (67 cases and 49 control) were studied. Mothers in two groups did not differ in age, body mass index, and socioeconomic or demographic factors. Maternal magnesium concentration did not differ between two groups 0.86 ± 0.11 m.mol/l versus 0.94 ± 0.22 m.mol/l respectively (P = 0.09). Conclusion: There is no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of low birth weight infants’ mother and normal weight infants’ mother. PMID:24498506

  2. Maternal Serum Serpin B7 Is Associated With Early Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Samuel; Zhang, Heping; Biggio, Joseph; Bukowski, Radek; Varner, Michael; Xu, Yaji; Andrews, William W.; Saade, George R.; Esplin, M. Sean; Leite, Rita; Ilekis, John; Reddy, Uma M.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Blair, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify serum biomarkers of early spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) using semi-quantitative proteomic analyses. Study Design Nested case-control study of pregnant women with previous SPTB. Maternal serum was collected at 19 to 24 and 28 to 32 weeks gestation, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry. Targeted and shotgun proteomics identified 31 candidate proteins that were differentially expressed in pooled serum samples from spontaneous preterm (<34 weeks - cases) and term deliveries (controls). Candidate protein expression was compared in individual serum samples between cases and controls matched by age and race groups, and clinical site. Protein expression was verified by Western blot in the placenta and fetal membranes from cases and controls. Results Serum samples were available for 35 cases and 35 controls at 19 to 24 weeks, and 16 cases and 16 controls at 28 to 32 weeks. One protein, serpin B7, yielded serum concentrations that differed between cases and controls. The mean concentration of serpin B7 at 28 to 32 weeks was 1.5-fold higher in women with subsequent preterm deliveries compared to controls; there was no difference at 19 to 24 weeks. Higher levels of serpin B7 at both gestational age windows were associated with a shorter interval to delivery, and higher levels of serpin B7 in samples from 28 to 32 weeks were associated with a lower gestational age at delivery. Western blotting identified serpin B7 protein in placenta, amnion, and chorion from cases and controls. Conclusion Targeted and shotgun serum proteomics analyses associated one protein, serpin B7, with early SPTB. Our results require validation in other cohorts and analysis of the possible mechanistic role of serpin B7 in parturition. PMID:24954659

  3. PRETERM BIRTH AND FUTURE MATERNAL BLOOD PRESSURE, INFLAMMATION AND INTIMAL MEDIAL THICKNESS: THE CARDIA STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Catov, Janet M; Lewis, Cora E; Lee, Minjae; Wellons, Melissa F; Gunderson, Erica P

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB, <37 weeks) may be a marker of endothelial dysfunction and a pro-inflammatory phenotype; both are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. We studied 916 women (46% Black) with 1,181 live births between enrollment in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (age 18-30 years) and 20 years later. C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured at years 7, 15 and 20. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) which incorporated the common carotid arteries, bifurcations, and internal carotid arteries were measured at year 20. Blood pressure, lipids, anthropometrics, and pregnancy events were assessed at all visits. Change in risk factors and differences in inflammatory markers and IMT according to PTB were evaluated. Women with PTBs (n=226) had higher mean systolic blood pressures (SBP) before pregnancy (106 vs. 105 mmHg, respectively; p=0.03). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased more rapidly over 20 years compared to women with term births (p<0.01 time interaction) even after removing women with self-reported hypertension in pregnancy. Women with PTB vs. term births had similar mean IMT adjusted for age, BMI, race, lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors. CRP and IL-6 did not differ according to PTB. Women with PTB, regardless of hypertension during pregnancy, had higher blood pressure after pregnancy compared to women with term births. In the U.S. where rates of PTB are high and race disparities persist, PTB may identify women with higher blood pressure the years after pregnancy. PMID:23319540

  4. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  5. Birth weight and childhood obesity: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Y; Ma, J; Wang, Y; Li, W; Katzmarzyk, P T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Johnson, W D; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Church, T S; Zhao, P; Hu, G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the association between the full range of birth weight and the risk of childhood obesity in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between different levels of birth weight and the risk of obesity among children aged 9–11 years in 12 countries. METHODS: A multinational, cross-sectional study of 5141 children aged 9–11 years was conducted in 12 countries. Height and weight were obtained using standardized methods. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary and sleeping were objectively measured using 24-h, waist-worn accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+) monitored for 7 days. Birth weight and other factors (regions, parental education, maternal history of gestational diabetes, children age, gender, breast feeding, gestational age, unhealthy diet scores and healthy diet scores) were collected by parental and children's questionnaires. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the nested nature of the data. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity (BMI z-score>+2 s.d.) was 15.4% for boys and 10.0% for girls. There was a positive association between birth weight and BMI z-scores. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood obesity were significantly higher among children whose birth weights were 3500–3999 g (OR 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.92), and >4000 g (OR 2.08; 95% CI: 1.47–2.93), compared with the reference group (2500–2999 g). The positive association between birth weight and the odds of childhood obesity was seen in girls, whereas a U-shaped association appeared in boys. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of birth weight, defined as birth weight ⩾3500 g, were associated with increased odds of obesity among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries. However, sex differences in the association between birth weight and the risk of obesity need to be considered when planning interventions to reduce

  6. Consanguinity: A Risk Factor for Preterm Birth at Less Than 33 Weeks’ Gestation

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Ghina; Nassar, Anwar H.; Mahfoud, Ziyad; El-Khamra, Akaber; Al-Choueiri, Nathalie; Adra, Abdallah; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Zalloua, Pierre; Yunis, Khalid A.

    2010-01-01

    Consanguinity promotes homozygosity of recessive susceptibility gene variants and can be used to investigate a recessive component in diseases whose inheritance is uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the association between consanguinity and preterm birth (PTB), stratified by gestational age and clinical presentation (spontaneous vs. medically indicated). Data were collected on 39,745 singleton livebirths without major birth defects, admitted to 19 hospitals in Lebanon, from September 2003 to December 2007. Deliveries before completed 33 weeks’ gestation and deliveries at 33–36 weeks’ gestation were compared, with respect to cousin marriage, with those after completed 36 weeks’ gestation by using multinomial multiple logistic regression. Overall, infants of consanguineous parents had a statistically significant 1.6-fold net increased risk of being born at less than 33 weeks’ gestation compared with infants of unrelated parents. This association was statistically significant only with spontaneous PTB. There was no increased risk of being born at 33–36 weeks’ gestation associated with consanguinity for both clinical presentations of PTB. Our findings support a genetic contribution to early onset PTB and suggest that early PTB should be targeted in future genetic studies rather than the classic lumping of all births less than 37 weeks’ gestation. PMID:20978088

  7. Gestational age at prior preterm birth does not affect cerclage efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Deborah A.; Szychowski, Jeff; Owen, John; Hankins, Gary; Iams, Jay D.; Sheffield, Jeanne S.; Perez-Delboy, Annette; Berghella, Vincenzo; Guzman, Edwin R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effect of earliest prior spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) gestational age (GA) on cervical length (CL), pregnancy duration, and ultrasound-indicated cerclage efficacy in a subsequent gestation. STUDY DESIGN Planned secondary analysis of the NICHD- trial of cerclage for CL < 25 mm. Women with at least one prior SPTB between 17-33 6/7 weeks underwent serial vaginal ultrasound screening between 16 and 23 6/7 weeks; CL at qualifying randomization evaluation was utilized. RESULTS We observed a significant correlation (p=0.0008) between prior SPTB GA and qualifying CL. In a linear regression model when controlling for CL and cerclage, neither prior SPTB GA nor the interaction between cerclage and prior birth GA was significant predictor of subsequent birth GA. CONCLUSION While there is an association between prior SPTB GA and CL in women with mid-trimester CL < 25 mm, there does not appear to be a disproportionate benefit of cerclage in women with earlier prior SPTB. PMID:20579957

  8. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2016-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of over 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study we investigated whether birth weight and family socio-economic risk measured at the time of the child’s birth predicts placement into special education classes or grade retention in elementary school. Contrary to previous research, we found that low birth weight (< 5 ½ pounds) does not predict special education placement. Rather, these children (especially boys) were more likely to be retained in grade as an alternative approach to addressing poor school performance. Family socio-economic risk at birth was a significant predictor of the need for remedial services. We also assessed whether a high-quality preschool program offered at ages 3 and 4 can reduce the negative effects of low family SES and birth weight on the need for special education and grade retention. Preschool participation in the Child-Parent Centers was found to reduce the likelihood of school remediation. The effects of preschool were greater for children from families with higher levels of socio-economic disadvantage. The beneficial effects of preschool on special education placement were also larger for boys than girls.

  9. Growth and metabolic outcome in adolescents born preterm (GROWMORE): follow-up protocol for the Newcastle preterm birth growth study (PTBGS)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Preterm infants represent up to 10% of births worldwide and have an increased risk of adverse metabolic outcomes in later life. Early life exposures are key factors in determining later health but current lifestyle factors such as diet and physical activity are also extremely important and provide an opportunity for targeted intervention. Methods/Design This current study, GROWMORE, is the fourth phase of the Newcastle Preterm Birth Growth Study (PTBGS), which was formed from two randomised controlled trials of nutrition in early life in p