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Sample records for birth weight preterm

  1. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    MedlinePlus

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  2. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  3. Preterm formula use in the preterm very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Hay, William W; Hendrickson, Kendra C

    2017-02-01

    Whereas human milk is the recommended diet for all infants, preterm formulas are indicated for enteral feeding of preterm very low birth weight infants when sufficient maternal breast milk and donor human milk are not available. Feeding with preterm formulas helps to ensure consistent delivery of nutrients. The balance of risks and benefits of feeding preterm formulas versus supplemented maternal and donor breast milk for preterm infants, however, is uncertain. Numerous studies and extensive practice have shown improved growth with preterm formulas, but there is concern for increased risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, possibly from cow milk antigen in the formulas or from different gut microbiomes, increased duration of total parenteral nutrition, and increased rates of sepsis in infants receiving preterm formulas. Furthermore, whereas preterm formulas improve neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to term formulas and unfortified donor milk, they do not produce neurodevelopmental outcomes better than fortified human milk, again indicating that maternal milk has unique properties that formulas need to mimic as closely as possible.

  4. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  5. [Does shift work cause spontaneous abortion, preterm birth or low birth weight?].

    PubMed

    Schlünssen, Vivi; Viskum, Sven; Omland, Øyvind; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2007-03-05

    In Denmark 30% of females in the reproductive age regularly have shift work. 22 epidemiological papers were studied looking at associations between shift work and abortion, stillbirth, preterm birth, and birth weight. No convincing associations were observed between rotating shift work or fixed nightshift and negative pregnancy outcome. Some epidemiological support was found for a relation between fixed nightshift and late abortions/stillbirth. If fixed night work for all pregnant women is avoided, seven late abortion/stillbirths a year can be prevented. Fixed night work for pregnant women should be avoided.

  6. Physical and social predictors for pre-term births and low birth weight infants in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-Li; Wu, Yi-Cheng; Chang, Pi-Chen

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors associated with pre-term labor (PTL) (< 37 gestational weeks) and low birth weight (LBW) (< 2500 gm) infants in a healthy Taiwanese population. From December 1998 through June 1999, a total of 633 healthy pregnant women were recruited at three teaching hospitals in Taipei. Using a prospective study design, the pregnancy outcome information was followed up by telephone or from medical records during the first month postpartum. Data were statistically analyzed by multiple logistic regression. The prevalence of premature births was 5.4%, and the prevalence of LBW infants was 5.1%. Pre-term births were significantly associated with high self-reported fatigue scores (OR = 3.45); extreme maternal age (< 20 and >/= 35 years, OR = 2.38); history of abortion (>/= 2, OR = 3.11); maternal height (birth weight infants was significantly increased when the woman had an extreme maternal age (OR = 2.65), nulliparity (OR = 1.64); multiple pregnancies (OR = 9.3) and no domestic helper (OR = 1.65). The study provides a reference basis for prenatal care.

  7. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  8. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  9. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Name Preterm labor Preterm birth Preterm infant Late-preterm birth ... first-time pregnancies No benefit in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  10. Inattention and development of toddlers born in preterm and with low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Huang, June-Hui; Huang, Huei-Lin; Chen, Hsiu-Lin; Lin, Lung-Chang; Tseng, Hsing-I; Kao, Tsung-Jen

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the impact of low birth weight and preterm birth on a toddler's inattention and development, including cognitive, language, motor, social-emotional and adaptive behaviors. A total of 105 toddlers enrolled for the study; they were divided into four groups: 40 full-term and normal birth weight (NBW, birth weight greater than 2500 g) toddlers, 24 moderate birth weight (MLBW, birth weight between 2499 and 1500 g) toddlers, 20 very to extremely low birth weight (V-ELBW, 12 between 1000 and 1499 g and 8 lower than 1000 g) toddlers, and 21 term toddlers who were recruited from a clinic of developmental delay as the developmental delay at risk (DDR) group. The Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (BSID-III) and Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale-Toddler were used. The findings were as follows: (1) DDR group performed worst in BSID-III; (2) although there were no statistical differences among the NBW, MLBW, and V-ELBW groups in BSID-III, the lower the birth weight, the lower the average performance, especially in language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior; and (3) comparing the inattention score, the DDR group was the poorest, normal and V-ELBW groups were the best, and MLBW group was in the middle. In conclusion, low birth weight and preterm delivery affected children's inattention and development of language, adaptive social behavior, and adaptive practical behavior.

  11. Intention to become pregnant and low birth weight and preterm birth: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Prakesh S; Balkhair, Taiba; Ohlsson, Arne; Beyene, Joseph; Scott, Fran; Frick, Corine

    2011-02-01

    Increased stress, psychosocial problems, economic disadvantages, and lack of prenatal care are proposed to explain discrepancies in the outcome of unintended pregnancies. Studies of maternal intention and pregnancy outcomes have yielded varied results. Objective is to review studies of the risk of low birth weight (LBW)/preterm births (PTB) associated with unintended pregnancies ending in a live birth. We reviewed studies reporting on maternal intentions and outcomes from Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and bibliographies of identified articles. An unintended pregnancy was further classified as mistimed (not intended at that time) or unwanted (not desired at any time). Studies reporting an association between pregnancy intention and any of the outcomes were included. Study quality was assessed for biases in selection, exposure assessment, confounder adjustment, analyses, outcomes assessment, and attrition. Unadjusted and adjusted data from included studies were extracted by two reviewers. There were significantly increased odds of LBW among unintended pregnancies [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.25, 1.48] ending in a live birth. Within the unintended category, mistimed (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.13, 1.52) and unwanted (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.29, 1.78) pregnancies were associated with LBW. There were statistically significantly increased odds of PTB among unintended (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.09, 1.58), and unwanted (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.41, 1.61) but not for mistimed (OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.96, 1.93) pregnancies. Unintended, unwanted, and mistimed pregnancies ending in a live birth are associated with a significantly increased risk of LBW and PTB.

  12. Plastic Bags for Prevention of Hypothermia in Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Leadford, Alicia E.; Warren, Jamie B.; Manasyan, Albert; Chomba, Elwyn; Salas, Ariel A.; Schelonka, Robert

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Hypothermia contributes to neonatal mortality and morbidity, especially in preterm and low birth weight infants in developing countries. Plastic bags covering the trunk and extremities of very low birth weight infants reduces hypothermia. This technique has not been studied in larger infants or in many resource-limited settings. The objective was to determine if placing preterm and low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth maintains normothermia. METHODS: Infants at 26 to 36 weeks’ gestational age and/or with a birth weight of 1000 to 2500 g born at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia, were randomized by using a 1:1 allocation and parallel design to standard thermoregulation (blanket or radiant warmer) care or to standard thermoregulation care plus placement inside a plastic bag at birth. The primary outcome measure was axillary temperature in the World Health Organization–defined normal range (36.5–37.5°C) at 1 hour after birth. RESULTS: A total of 104 infants were randomized. At 1 hour after birth, infants randomized to plastic bag (n = 49) were more likely to have a temperature in the normal range as compared with infants in the standard thermoregulation care group (n = 55; 59.2% vs 32.7%; relative risk 1.81; 95% confidence interval 1.16–2.81; P = .007). The temperature at 1 hour after birth in the infants randomized to plastic bag was 36.5 ± 0.5°C compared with 36.1 ± 0.6°C in standard care infants (P < .001). Hyperthermia (>38.0°C) did not occur in any infant. CONCLUSIONS: Placement of preterm/low birth weight infants inside a plastic bag at birth compared with standard thermoregulation care reduced hypothermia without resulting in hyperthermia, and is a low-cost, low-technology tool for resource-limited settings. PMID:23733796

  13. Neuro-Cognitive Performance of Very Preterm or Very Low Birth Weight Adults at 26 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryigit Madzwamuse, Suna; Baumann, Nicole; Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children born very preterm (VP <32 weeks gestation) and/or with very low birth weight (VBLW <1500 g; subsequently VP/VLBW) have been previously reported to have more cognitive impairment and specific executive functioning problems than term children; however, it remains unclear whether these problems persist into adulthood. This…

  14. Genetics and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Allen, Carolyn M; Founds, Sandra A

    2013-01-01

    Although the etiology of preterm birth is incompletely understood, phenotype classifications combined with recent technologies such as genome-wide association studies and next-generation sequencing could lead to discovering genotypes associated with preterm birth. Identifying genetic contributions will allow for genetic screening tests to predict or detect pregnancies with potential for preterm birth. In this article we discuss current knowledge regarding phenotype classifications, genotypes, and their associations with preterm birth.

  15. Language development in very low birth weight preterm children: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Jansson-Verkasalo, E; Valkama, M; Vainionpää, L; Pääkkö, E; Ilkko, E; Lehtihalmes, M

    2004-01-01

    The language development of 17 very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm children was compared with that of matched controls at the ages of 2 and 4 years. At the age of 2 years, the VLBW preterm children achieved significantly lower scores in the language comprehension test than their matched controls. In addition, they used shorter and more immature sentences. At the age of 4 years, difficulties in the VLBW preterm children manifested as deficiencies in language comprehension, naming and auditory discrimination. The language test results at the age of 2 years significantly correlated with those at the age of 4 years, but mainly in the preterm group. The highest and most frequent correlations were found between the language test scores at 2 years and the auditory discrimination test scores at 4 years. The only significant correlation to be found in the control group was between the vocabulary test score at 2 years and the consonant discrimination test score at 4 years. Therefore, language development of the VLBW preterm children should be measured and monitored from toddler age onwards. Special attention should be paid to measurements of auditory processing. While the results of the present study, however, represent mainly the outcome in a group of VLBW preterm children with changes in the neonatal MRI, the results should not be generalized to all VLBW preterm children.

  16. Association of rotating shiftwork with preterm births and low birth weight among never smoking women textile workers in China.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X; Ding, M; Li, B; Christiani, D C

    1994-01-01

    1035 married women workers in three modern textile mills in Anhui, China were surveyed to investigate the association of rotating shiftwork with low birth weight and preterm birth in 1992. Information on reproductive health, occupational exposure history, and other covariates including age at pregnancy, time and duration of leave from job since pregnancy, and mill location was obtained by trained nurses with a standardised questionnaire. This analysis was limited to 845 women (887 live births), who were middle or high school graduates, never smokers, and non-alcohol drinkers. About 72% of the women worked an eight day cycle with shift changes every two days throughout pregnancy. Mean gestational age was 38.8 and 39.0 weeks for shift and regular schedule workers, respectively. Multiple linear regression was used to adjust for confounding factors including maternal age at pregnancy, order of live birth, mill location, job title, occupational exposure to dust/gases/fumes, stress, carrying and lifting of heavy loads, working in a squat position, time and duration of leave from the job since pregnancy, and indoor coal combustion for heating. The adjusted difference in gestational age associated with rotating shifts was statistically significant (beta = -0.44 (SE 0.20) weeks.) Mean birth weights were 3248 g and 3338 g for rotating shift workers and regular schedule workers respectively. The estimated effect of rotating shiftwork on birth weight was -79 (SE 42) g. When the analysis was restricted to first order live births or to production workers, the estimated effects of rotating shiftwork on both gestational age and birth weight were significant. The proportions of preterm birth (<37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2500 g), respectively, were 20% and 9% for shift workers and 15% and 6% for regular schedule workers. The adjusted odds ratio of shiftwork was 2.0 (95% CI) 1.1-3.4) for preterm birth and 2.1 (95% CI 1.1-4.1) for low birth weight. This association remained

  17. Periodontal infection as a risk factor for preterm low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Gandhimadhi, D.; Mythili, R.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: There is an overwhelming body of evidence strongly suggesting that periodontal infection may have a significant negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. The aim of this study was to determine the association, if any, between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. Materials and Methods: A total of 211 mothers between the ages of 17 and 35 were grouped into two categories based on the gestational age and weight of the baby as cases (< 37 weeks, < 2500 g) and controls (>37 weeks, >2500 g). Relevant obstetric history and information on other primary risk factors for preterm low birth weight were obtained. Investigation reports on blood group, Rh factor and hemoglobin (Hb) were also gathered. Oral assessments included: simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level (CAL). Results: Cases had significantly more attachment loss and probing pocket depth, poor oral hygiene, more percentage of sites with attachment loss (Extent) and more mean attachment loss per site (Severity) and less Hb than controls. The number of visits for prenatal care and the percentage of sites with CAL≥2mm (Extent 2) remained significant when compared to other variables. Conclusions: The study indicated that periodontal disease is a contributing factor for preterm low birth weight. PMID:21691549

  18. Preterm Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... okay to schedule my baby’s birth before 39 weeks of pregnancy? Important growth and development occur throughout pregnancy—all the way through the final few weeks. Unless there is a medical need, delivery should ...

  19. Intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and its association with postconceptional age

    PubMed Central

    Lindenmeyer, Rodrigo L.; Farias, Lucas; Mendonça, Taís; Filho, João Borges Fortes; Procianoy, Renato S.; Silveira, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants and correlate it with postconceptional age. METHODS: The intraocular pressure in a prospective cohort of very low birth weight premature infants (defined as a birth weight ≤1,500 g and gestational age ≤32 weeks) admitted to Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil was evaluated weekly. The evaluated outcome was the variation in the intraocular pressure following changes in the postconceptional age (defined as the gestational age at birth plus the age in weeks at the time of examination) in the weeks following preterm birth. Mixed-effects models were used for the statistical analysis to determine the intraocular pressure variation according to postconceptional age, and means and 10th and 90th percentiles were calculated for the intraocular pressure values. RESULTS: Fifty preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 29.7±1.6 weeks and a mean birth weight of 1,127.7±222.7 g were evaluated. The mean intraocular pressure for the entire cohort considering both eyes was 14.9±4.5 mmHg, and 13.5% of all recorded intraocular pressure values were greater than 20 mmHg. The analysis revealed a mean reduction in the intraocular pressure of 0.29 mmHg for each increase in postconceptional age (p = 0.047; 95% CI: −0.58 to −0.0035). The mean intraocular pressure (P10–P90) decreased from 16.3 mmHg (10.52–22.16) at 26.3 weeks to 13.1 mmHg (7.28–18.92) at 37.6 weeks of postconceptional age. CONCLUSIONS: The mean intraocular pressure in very low birth weight preterm infants was 14.9±4.5 mmHg. This value decreased 0.29 mmHg per week as the postconceptional age increased. PMID:23184197

  20. Replication of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Birth Weight in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Kelli K; Feenstra, Bjarke; Shaffer, John R.; Bream, Elise NA; Geller, Frank; Feingold, Eleanor; Weeks, Daniel E; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Saleme, Cesar; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Merrill, David; Fong, Chin-To; Busch, Tamara; Berends, Susan K; Comas, Belen; Camelo, Jorge L; Boyd, Heather; Laurie, Cathy; Crosslin, David; Zhang, Qi; Doheny, Kim F; Pugh, Elizabeth; Melbye, Mads; Marazita, Mary L; Dagle, John M; Murray, Jeffrey C

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine associations in a preterm population between rs9883204 in ADCY5 and rs900400 near LEKR1 and CCNL1 with birth weight. Both markers were associated with birth weight in a term population in a recent genome-wide association (GWA) study by Freathy et al. Study design A meta-analysis of mother and infant samples was performed for associations of rs900400 and rs9883204 with birth weight in 393 families from the U.S., 265 families from Argentina and 735 mother-infant pairs from Denmark. Z scores adjusted for infant sex and gestational age were generated for each population separately and regressed on allele counts. Association evidence was combined across sites by inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. Results Each additional C allele of rs900400 (LEKR1/CCNL1) in infants was marginally associated with a 0.069 standard deviation (SD) lower birth weight (95% CI = −0.159 – 0.022, P = 0.068). This result was slightly more pronounced after adjusting for smoking (P = 0.036). There were no significant associations identified with rs9883204 or in maternal samples. Conclusions These results indicate the potential importance of this marker on birth weight irrespective of gestational age. PMID:21885063

  1. Serum Zinc in Mothers and from Cord Blood of Appropriate Birth-Weight Full Term and Preterm Newborn Infants, and of Low-Birth-Weight Full Term Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trindade, Cleide Enoir Petean; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Studied the maternal plasmatic zinc behavior at delivery time and the cord blood zinc concentration from appropriate and low-birth-weight full-term infants and appropriate preterm infants. Findings indicated that neither prematurity nor fetal growth delay interfere in maternal or newborn infants' zinc levels. (BJD)

  2. Longitudinal Survey of Microbiota in Hospitalized Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Aloka L.; Mutlu, Ece A.; Sun, Yan; Koenig, Lars; Green, Stefan; Jakubowicz, Andrew; Mryan, Janet; Engen, Phillip; Fogg, Louis; Chen, Andrea L.; Pombar, Xavier; Meier, Paula P.; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the changes in bacteria in hospitalized preterm infants over the first month of life. Methods Rectal swabs were collected daily from 12 preterm infants. DNA was extracted from swabs from day of birth and weekly thereafter. Bacterial taxa were identified with next generation sequencing using universal bacterial primers targeted at the 16S rDNA on a 454 Roche titanium platform. Sequences were clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and taxonomy was assigned against the Greengenes databank using Qiime1.4. Quantitative PCR was used to determine the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. Functional assessment of the microbiome was performed with PICRUSt. Results Average birth weight and gestational age were 1055g and 28 weeks, respectively. There were 6-35 different bacterial families identified in the day of birth samples, unrelated to mode of delivery. Richness decreased over hospitalization (week 1: 16.9±7.7 vs. weeks 3-5: 10.7±3.4, p<0.001). The Shannon diversity index demonstrated lowest diversity at birth, an increase at week 2, followed by a rapid decline at weeks 3-5, suggesting development of a more uniform microbiota composition after 2 weeks of NICU stay. Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcaceae, and Enterococcaceae constituted the majority of the bacterial families. Bifidobacterium spp. were infrequently detected at very low levels. PICRUSt analysis revealed enhancement of peroxisome, PPAR and adipocytokine signaling; plant-pathogen interaction; and aminobenzoate degradation pathways in week 1 samples. Conclusions Our results suggest that while preterm infants have individualized microbiota that are detectable at birth, the differences decrease during the neonatal intensive care unit hospitalization with increasing prominence of pathogenic microbiota. PMID:26230901

  3. Preterm Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical risk factors for preterm labor and premature birth Getting late or no prenatal care . Prenatal care is medical ... your everyday life for preterm labor and premature birth Smoking , drinking ... having little education, low income, being unemployed or having little support from ...

  4. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Rachel Gick; Portuguez, Mirna Wetters; Nunes, Magda Lahorgue

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) and low birth weight (<2,500 g) infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III) was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8). The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9) compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2). Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001) and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. PMID:23917653

  5. Birth Weight Independently Affects Morbidity and Mortality of Extremely Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mamopoulos, Apostolos; Petousis, Stamatios; Tsimpanakos, John; Masouridou, Sophia; Kountourelli, Kelly; Margioula-Siarkou, Chrysoula; Papouli, Maria; Rousso, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Neonates born between 24 + 0 and 27 + 6 gestational weeks, widely known as extremely preterm neonates, present a category characterized by increased neonatal mortality and morbidity. Main objective of the present study is to analyze the effect of various epidemiological and pregnancy-related parameters on unfavorable neonatal mortality and morbidity outcomes. Methods A retrospective study was performed enrolling cases delivered during 2003 - 2008 in our department. Cases of neonatal death as well as pathological Apgar score (≤ 4 in the first and ≤ 7 in the fifth minute of life), need for emergency resuscitation, respiratory disease syndrome (RDS), neonatal asphyxia, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and neonatal death were recorded for neonates of our analysis. A multivariate regression model was used to correlate these outcomes with gestational week at delivery, maternal age, parity, kind of gestation (singleton or multiple), intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), birth weight (BW), preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), mode of delivery (vaginal delivery or cesarean section) and antenatal use of corticosteroids. Results Out of 5,070 pregnancies delivered, 57 extremely preterm neonates were born (1.1%). Mean BW was 780.35 ± 176.0, RDS was observed in 93.0% (n = 53), resuscitation was needed in 54.4% (n = 31) while overall mortality rate was 52.6% (n = 30). BW was independently associated with neonatal death (P = 0.004), pathological Apgar score in the first (P = 0.05) and fifth minute of life (P = 0.04) as well as neonatal sepsis (P = 0.05). Conclusion BW at delivery is independently affecting neonatal mortality and morbidity parameters in extremely preterm neonates. PMID:26015815

  6. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Hovi, Petteri; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Doyle, Lex W; McGarvey, Lorcan; Morrison, Katherine M; Evensen, Kari Anne I; van der Pal, Sylvia; Grunau, Ruth E; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Sture; Saigal, Saroj; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-10-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To identify possible risk or protective factors, we combined individual-level data from 9 cohorts that measured blood pressure in young adults born at VLBW or with a more stringent birth weight criterion. In the absence of major heterogeneity, we performed linear regression analysis in our pooled sample of 1571 adults born at VLBW and 777 controls. Adults born at VLBW had 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.6) higher systolic and 2.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) higher diastolic pressure, with adjustment for age, sex, and cohort. The difference in systolic pressure was present in men (1.8 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-3.5) but was stronger in women (4.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-6.3). Among the VLBW group, blood pressure was unrelated to gestational age, maternal smoking, multiple pregnancy, retinopathy of prematurity, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Blood pressure was higher than that of controls among VLBW adults unexposed to maternal preeclampsia. Among those exposed, it was even higher, especially if born appropriate for gestational age. In conclusion, although female sex and maternal preeclampsia are additional risk factors, the risk of higher blood pressure is not limited to any etiologic subgroup of VLBW adults, arguing for vigilance in early detection of high blood pressure in all these individuals.

  7. The Influence of Aggressive Parenteral Nutrition to Preterm and Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ming-Yi; Chen, Yi-Yin; Hu, Shu-Hui; Chen, Yu-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    Background. To achieve the weight gain of preterm infants who are appropriate for gestational age without adverse effect, there should be no interruption in delivery of nutrients from time of birth. Methods. Twenty-eight very low birth weight infants were eligible for the study. Those administered conventional nutrition (amino acids 2 g/kg/day started on third day of life) were classified as the conventional support (CVS) group, and those administered aggressive early nutrition (amino acid 2 g/kg/day started on first day of life) were classified as the aggressive support (AGS) group. Results. The days babies took to reach the weight of 2000 g in the AGS group was significantly shorter than for babies in the CVS group, and babies in the AGS group showed better tolerance to enteral nutrition and had shortened neonatal intensive care unit days. Conclusion. The results demonstrated that aggressive early nutrition showed better tolerance to enteral nutrition, higher total calories, and shortened the stay in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:27335933

  8. Relationship between Revised Graduated Index (R-GINDEX) of prenatal care utilization & preterm labor and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Tayebi, Tahereh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Ahmad Shirvani, Marjan; Dayhimi, Marjaneh; Danesh, Mahmonir

    2014-02-28

    Prenatal care refers to accurate and consistent performance of the principles important to maintain healthy pregnancy outcomes and also for mother and child health. One of the new indices to assess the adequacy of care is Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (R-GINDEX).The study aims to assess the relationship between quantitative prenatal care factors and preterm labor and low birth weight using R-GINDEX. This historical cohort study has been conducted on 420 mothers during the first two years after delivery in 2010. The adequacy of care was calculated by R-GINDEX. Based on this index, participants have been divided into three care groups including inadequate, adequate and intensive care groups. A significant relationship has been found between R-GINDEX and preterm birth and low birth weight (P<0.05). Thus the probability of premature labor in inadequate care group (RR=3.93) and low birth weight (RR= 2.53) was higher than that of the adequate and intensive care group. The results showed that the quantity of prenatal care is effective in reducing preterm birth and low birth weight.

  9. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant. PMID:25662564

  10. School Performance and Neurodevelopment of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: First Report From Turkey.

    PubMed

    Koç, Özden; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Ramoğlu, Mehmet G; Aldemir, Esin; Aktalay, Ayşegül; Eras, Zeynep

    2016-02-01

    Very low birth weight preterm infants are under significant risk of neurologic, developmental, and somatic problems. In this study, 90 infants born with a birth weight <1500 g and/or with a gestational age <32 weeks were evaluated after the first year of elementary school to assess neurodevelopment. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) test, Pediatric Symptom Checklist, and Parent Evaluation of Developmental Status were performed. Mental retardation, cerebral palsy, blindness, epilepsy, and posthemorrhagic hydrocephaly incidences were 14%, 7%, 2%, 5%, and 2%, respectively. The WISC-R score of 32 patients (35.5%) were below 85. Perinatal asphyxia, abnormal neurologic examination, and delayed or impaired speech correlated significantly with low WISC-R scores. Education and income of the father had positive impact on WISC-R scores (P = .042 and P = .026). Parents' concern and presence of cognitive problems were correlated (P = .026). Environmental factors, as well as the prevention of morbidity, affected school performance positively.

  11. Implementation of a Nutrition Program Reduced Post-Discharge Growth Restriction in Thai Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Japakasetr, Suchada; Sirikulchayanonta, Chutima; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chindavijak, Busba; Kagawa, Masaharu; Nokdee, Somjai

    2016-01-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants are vulnerable to growth restriction after discharge due to cumulative protein and energy deficits during their hospital stay and early post-discharge period. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of the preterm infant, post-discharge nutrition (PIN) program to reduce post-discharge growth restriction in Thai VLBW preterm infants. A prospective, non-randomized interventional cohort study was undertaken to assess the growth of 22 VLBW preterm infants who received the PIN program and compared them with 22 VLBW preterm infants who received conventional nutrition services. Infant’s growth was recorded monthly until the infants reached six months’ corrected age (6-moCA). Intervention infants had significantly greater body weights (p = 0.013) and head circumferences (p = 0.009). Also, a greater proportion of the intervention group recovered their weight to the standard weight at 4-moCA (p = 0.027) and at 6-moCA (p = 0.007) and their head circumference to the standard head circumference at 6-moCA (p = 0.004) compared to their historical comparison counterparts. Enlistment in the PIN program thus resulted in significantly reduced post-discharge growth restriction in VLBW preterm infants. Further research on longer term effects of the program on infant’s growth and development is warranted. PMID:27999313

  12. Memory function and hippocampal volumes in preterm born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) young adults.

    PubMed

    Aanes, Synne; Bjuland, Knut Jørgen; Skranes, Jon; Løhaugen, Gro C C

    2015-01-15

    The hippocampi are regarded as core structures for learning and memory functions, which is important for daily functioning and educational achievements. Previous studies have linked reduction in hippocampal volume to working memory problems in very low birth weight (VLBW; ≤ 1500 g) children and reduced general cognitive ability in VLBW adolescents. However, the relationship between memory function and hippocampal volume has not been described in VLBW subjects reaching adulthood. The aim of the study was to investigate memory function and hippocampal volume in VLBW young adults, both in relation to perinatal risk factors and compared to term born controls, and to look for structure-function relationships. Using Wechsler Memory Scale-III and MRI, we included 42 non-disabled VLBW and 61 control individuals at age 19-20 years, and related our findings to perinatal risk factors in the VLBW-group. The VLBW young adults achieved lower scores on several subtests of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III, resulting in lower results in the immediate memory indices (visual and auditory), the working memory index, and in the visual delayed and general memory delayed indices, but not in the auditory delayed and auditory recognition delayed indices. The VLBW group had smaller absolute and relative hippocampal volumes than the controls. In the VLBW group inferior memory function, especially for the working memory index, was related to smaller hippocampal volume, and both correlated with lower birth weight and more days in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Our results may indicate a structural-functional relationship in the VLBW group due to aberrant hippocampal development and functioning after preterm birth.

  13. Behavior Disorders in Extremely Preterm/Extremely Low Birth Weight Children in Kindergarten

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Megan N.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Fristad, Mary A.; Klein, Nancy; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Minich, Nori; Hack, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of behavior disorders in a 2001–2003 birth cohort of extremely preterm/extremely low birth weight (EPT/ELBW, <28 weeks gestational age and/or <1000 g) children in kindergarten. Method We compared 148 EPT/ELBW children to 111 term-born normal birth weight (NBW) classmate controls on reports of psychiatric symptoms obtained from parent interview (P-ChIPS), parent and teacher ratings of behavior (CBCL, TRF, BRIEF), and teacher ratings of social functioning (SSBS-2). Associations of behavior disorders with global cognitive ability and tests of executive function were also examined within the EPT/ELBW group. Results Rates of ADHD Combined on psychiatric interview were about twice as high for the EPT/ELBW group than for the NBW group, OR (95% CI)=2.50 (1.34, 4.68), p=.004. The EPT/ELBW group also had much higher rates of teacher-identified disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and social functioning, with odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) ranging from 3.35 (1.64, 6.83) to 18.03 (4.12, 78.94), all p’s<.01. ADHD and impaired behavior self-regulation were associated with deficits on tests of executive function but not with global cognitive impairment. Conclusions The findings document elevated rates of disorders in attention, behavior self-regulation, and socialization in EPT/ELBW children and suggest that deficits on tests of executive function are associated with some of these disorders. Early identification and intervention for these disorders are needed to promote early adjustment to school and facilitate learning progress. PMID:22245934

  14. Medicaid and Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight: The Last Two Decades

    PubMed Central

    Anum, Emmanuel A.; Retchin, Sheldon M.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives To determine if (1) birth outcomes among women on Medicaid differ significantly from outcomes of those with private insurance, after controlling for known risk factors, and (2) enhanced prenatal care influences care use and birth outcomes. Methods This is a review of studies published between 1989 and 2009 that examined birth outcomes (1) between women on Medicaid and those with private insurance and (2) among Medicaid enrollees who received comprehensive prenatal care. Results When corrected for risk variables, birth outcomes are not different between private insurance and Medicaid patients. The impact of comprehensive prenatal care programs on birth outcomes varies across states and regions. Conclusions There is a need for critical evaluation of comprehensive programs in a regional and state context to determine opportunities for improvement. PMID:20141370

  15. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle L; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (≤24 years) and older (≥40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  16. The relationship between air pollution and low birth weight: effects by mother's age, infant sex, co-pollutants, and pre-term births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Michelle L.; Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen

    2008-10-01

    Previously we identified associations between the mother's air pollution exposure and birth weight for births in Connecticut and Massachusetts from 1999-2002. Other studies also found effects, though results are inconsistent. We explored potential uncertainties in earlier work and further explored associations between air pollution and birth weight for PM10, PM2.5, CO, NO2, and SO2. Specifically we investigated: (1) whether infants of younger (<=24 years) and older (>=40 years) mothers are particularly susceptible to air pollution's effects on birth weight; (2) whether the relationship between air pollution and birth weight differed by infant sex; (3) confounding by co-pollutants and differences in pollutants' measurement frequencies; and (4) whether observed associations were influenced by inclusion of pre-term births. Findings did not indicate higher susceptibility to the relationship between air pollution and birth weight based on the mother's age or the infant's sex. Results were robust to exclusion of pre-term infants and co-pollutant adjustment, although sample size decreased for some pollutant pairs. These findings provide additional evidence for the relationship between air pollution and birth weight, and do not identify susceptible sub-populations based on infant sex or mother's age. We conclude with discussion of key challenges in research on air pollution and pregnancy outcomes.

  17. Rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index and preterm birth subtypes: a retrospective cohort study from Peru

    PubMed Central

    Carnero, AM; Mejía, CR; García, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the shape (functional form) of the association between the rate of gestational weight gain, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and preterm birth and its subtypes. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting National reference obstetric centre in Lima, Peru. Population Pregnant women who delivered singleton babies during the period 2006–2009, resident in Lima, and beginning prenatal care at ≤12 weeks of gestation (n = 8964). Methods Data were collected from the centre database. The main analyses consisted of logistic regression with fractional polynomial modelling. Main outcome measures Preterm birth and its subtypes. Results Preterm birth occurred in 12.2% of women, being mostly idiopathic (85.7%). The rate of gestational weight gain was independently associated with preterm birth, and the shape of this association varied by pre-pregnancy BMI. In women who were underweight, the association was linear (per 0.1 kg/week increase) and protective (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.82–1.00). In women of normal weight or who were overweight, the association was U-shaped: the odds of delivering preterm increased exponentially with rates <0.10 or >0.66 kg/week, and <0.04 or >0.50 kg/week, respectively. In women who were obese, the association was linear, but nonsignificant (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.95–1.06). The association described for preterm birth closely resembled that of idiopathic preterm birth, although the latter was stronger. The rate of gestational weight gain was not associated with indicated preterm birth or preterm prelabour rupture of membranes. Conclusions In Peruvian pregnant women starting prenatal care at ≤12 weeks of gestation, the rate of gestational weight gain is independently associated with preterm birth, mainly because of its association with idiopathic preterm birth, and the shape of both associations varies by pre-pregnancy BMI. PMID:22607522

  18. Preterm birth in the first pregnancy and risk of neonatal death in the second pregnancy: a propensity score-weighted matching approach.

    PubMed

    Whiteman, V E; August, E M; Mogos, M; Naik, E; Garba, M; Sanchez, E; Weldeselasse, H E; Salihu, H M

    2015-01-01

    The study purpose was to assess the relationship between various grades of preterm birth (moderate preterm: 33-36 weeks; severe preterm: 27-32 weeks; extreme preterm: ≤ 26 weeks) in the first pregnancy and neonatal mortality (death within 28 days of birth; early: 0-7 days; late: 8-28 days) in the second pregnancy. Using the Missouri maternally-linked dataset (1989-2005), a population-based, retrospective cohort analysis with propensity score-weighted matching was conducted on mothers with two consecutive singleton live births (n = 310,653 women). Women with a prior preterm birth were more likely to subsequently experience neonatal death. The odds increased in a dose-dependent pattern with ascending severity of the preterm event in the first pregnancy (moderate preterm: AOR = 1.32; 95% CI: 1.10-1.60; severe preterm: AOR = 2.62; 95% CI: 2.01-3.41; extreme preterm: AOR = 5.84; 95% CI: 4.28-7.97; p value for trend < 0.001). However, the pathway for the relationship between prior preterm birth and subsequent neonatal mortality may be the recurrence of preterm birth.

  19. Executive functions in extremely low birth weight and late-preterm preschoolers: effects on working memory and response inhibition.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ida Sue; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich; Ahronovich, Margot D; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to fundamental capacities that underlie more complex cognition and have ecological relevance across the individual's lifespan. However, emerging executive functions have rarely been studied in young preterm children (age 3) whose critical final stages of fetal development are interrupted by their early birth. We administered four novel touch-screen computerized measures of working memory and inhibition to 369 participants born between 2004 and 2006 (52 Extremely Low Birth Weight [ELBW]; 196 late preterm; 121 term-born). ELBW performed worse than term-born on simple and complex working memory and inhibition tasks and had the highest percentage of incomplete performance on a continuous performance test. The latter finding indicates developmental immaturity and the ELBW group's most at-risk preterm status. Additionally, late-preterm participants performed worse compared with term-born on measures of complex working memory but did not differ from those term-born on response inhibition measures. These results are consistent with a recent literature that identifies often subtle but detectable neurocognitive deficits in late-preterm children. Our results support the development and standardization of computerized touch-screen measures to assess EF subcomponent abilities during the formative preschool period. Such measures may be useful to monitor the developmental trajectory of critical executive function abilities in preterm children, and their use is necessary for timely recognition of deficit and application of appropriate interventional strategies.

  20. Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight after In Utero Exposure to Antiretrovirals Initiated during Pregnancy in Yaoundé, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Njom Nlend, Anne Esther; Nga Motazé, Annie; Moyo Tetang, Suzie; Zeudja, Cécile; Ngantcha, Marcus; Tejiokem, Mathurin

    2016-01-01

    Background Effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on birth outcomes remain controversial. Objective To assess the impact of antenatal exposure to ART on the occurrence of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Methods A cross-sectional study conducted at the Essos Hospital Center in Yaounde from 2008 to 2011 among HIV vertically exposed infants with two distinct maternal antiretroviral experiences: monotherapy group (Zidovudine, ZDV) and the combination ART group (cART). Mothers already receiving cART before pregnancy were ineligible. In both groups, events of PTB (<37 weeks) and LBW (<2,500g) were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression; with p<0.05 considered statistically significant. Results Of the 760 infants, 481 were born from cART-exposed mothers against 279 from maternal-ZDV. Median maternal CD4 count was 378 [interquartile range (IQR): 253–535] cells/mm3. Median duration of ART at onset of delivery was 13 [IQR: 10–17] weeks. In the cART-group, 64.9% (312/481) of mothers were exposed to Zidovudine/Lamuvidine/Nevirapine and only 2% (9/481) were on protease inhibitor-based regimens. Events of PTB were not significantly higher in the cART-group compared to the ZDV-group (10.2% vs. 6.4% respectively, p = 0.08), while onsets of LBW were significantly found in the cART-group compared to ZDV-group (11.6% vs. 7.2% respectively, p = 0.05). Other factors (parity, maternal age at delivery or CD4 cell count) were not associated with PTB. Conclusion cART, initiated during pregnancy, would be an independent factor of LBW. In the era of option B+ (lifelong ART to all HIV-pregnant women), further studies would guide towards measures limiting onsets of LBW. PMID:26999744

  1. Mortality in the first 24h of very low birth weight preterm infants in the Northeast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Eveline Campos Monteiro; Leite, Álvaro Jorge Madeiro; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate factors associated with neonatal death within 24 hours after birth in very low birth weight preterm newborns. Methods: Prospective cohort of live births with gestational age of 230/7–316/7 weeks, birth weight of 500–1499g without malformations, in 19 public maternity hospitals in nine capitals in northeastern Brazil from July to December 2007. The 19 hospitals were assessed in relation to physical resources, equipment, human resources and aiming at quality in care initiatives. Hospital, maternal and neonatal characteristics, neonatal morbidity, neonatal procedures and interventions were compared between preterm newborns that died or survived up to 24 hours of life. The variables associated with death within 24 hours after birth were determined by logistic regression. Results: Of the 627 newborns enrolled in the study, 179 (29%) died within 168 hours after birth, of which 59 (33%) up to 24 hours and 97 (54%) up to 48 hours after birth. The variables associated with death <24h were: weight <1000g (2.94; 1.32–6.53), 5th minute Apgar <7 (7.17; 3.46–14.88), male gender (2.99; 1.39–6.47). A better hospital structure was a protective factor for early neonatal death (odds ratio: 0.34; 95% confidence interval: 0.17–0.71). Conclusions: The high neonatal mortality on the first day of life in capital cities of Northeast Brazil is associated with biological variables such as weight and gender of the newborn, as well as low vitality at birth and a worse infrastructure of the hospital where the birth occurred. PMID:26726002

  2. Nutritional management of the low birth weight/preterm infant in community settings: a perspective from the developing world.

    PubMed

    Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-03-01

    Globally, about 20 million infants are born with low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g). Of all LBW infants, approximately 95% are born in developing countries. The greatest incidence of LBW occurs in South-Central Asia; the second greatest is in Africa. The two main reasons for LBW are preterm birth (<37 weeks) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), which are risk factors for increased morbidity and mortality in newborn infants. Maternal nutrition status is one of the most important risk factors for LBW/IUGR. Providing balanced protein energy and multiple micronutrient supplements to pregnant women will reduce incidence of IUGR. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy will reduce the incidence of pre-eclampsia and preterm birth in developing countries. Exclusive breastfeeding is protective for a mother and her infant and has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in infancy. Kangaroo mother care for preterm infants will reduce severe morbidity and mortality as well. Community-based intervention packages are among the most effective methods of reducing morbidity and mortality in mothers and children. Future research should focus on improving triage of preterm and IUGR infants. Exclusive breastfeeding should be promoted, and appropriate alternative food supplements should be provided when breastfeeding is not possible.

  3. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Among Pregnant Indian Women: A Hospital-based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Parvati; Acharya, Shashidhar; Kamath, Asha; Bhat, Shashikala; Rao, Chythra; Nayak, Sathisha; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was undertaken to study the maternal risk factors for preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW) with a special emphasis on assessing the proportions of maternal genitourinary and periodontal infections among Indian women and their association with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods: A hospital-based prospective study comprising 790 pregnant women visiting the obstetrics clinic for a routine antenatal check-up was undertaken. Once recruited, all study participants underwent clinical and microbiological investigations for genitourinary infections followed by a dental check-up for the presence of periodontitis. The study participants were followed up until their delivery to record the pregnancy outcomes. Infectious and non-infectious risk factors for PTB and LBW were assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Independent risk factors for PTB and LBW were reported in terms of adjusted relative risk (ARR) with the 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: Rates of PTB and LBW in the study population were 7.6% and 11.4%, respectively. Previous preterm delivery (ARR, 5.37; 95% CI, 1.5 to 19.1), periodontitis (ARR, 2.39; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.9), Oligohydramnios (ARR, 5.23; 95% CI, 2.4 to 11.5), presence of Nugent’s intermediate vaginal flora (ARR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.4 to 5.1), gestational diabetes mellitus (ARR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.0 to 8.3), and maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.1 to 4.1) were risk factors for PTB, while periodontitis (ARR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.6 to 6.9), gestational hypertension (ARR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.3 to 10.8), maternal height <1.50 m (ARR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.3 to 5.1) and genital infection during later stages of pregnancy (ARR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.2 to 6.1) were independent risk factors for LBW. Conclusions: Our study findings underscore the need to consider screening for potential genitourinary and periodontal infections during routine antenatal care in developing countries. PMID:27255075

  4. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  5. PRENATAL AND NEONATAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH ENAMEL HYPOPLASIA IN DECIDUOUS TEETH IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT PRETERM INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Kátia Maria Dmytraczenko; Line, Sérgio Roberto Peres; de Moura-Ribeiro, Maria Valeriana Leme

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated possible prenatal and neonatal variables that may influence the prevalence of tooth enamel hypoplasia in preterm and low birth weight children (LBW) and a matched control group of term children with normal birth weight (NBW). The study sample consisted of 61 children born preterm and with LBW examined at 18-34 months of age. The control group was formed by 61 infants born full term and with NBW examined at 31-35 months of age. All children were born at the Center of Integrated Attention of Women's Health (CAISM-UNICAMP). FDI criteria were followed for dental examination. Medical data was collected retrospectively from hospital records. Among preterms, 57.4% had some type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE), 52.5 % had opacities and 21.3 % presented hypoplasia. Among full-term children, 24.6% presented DDE, 24.6% had opacities and 3.3% had hypoplasia. LBW preterm infants presented a higher prevalence of hypoplasia than NBW controls. The deciduous teeth most affected by hypoplasia were maxillary incisors. There was no significant association with prenatal variables; among neonatal variables there was a significant association with respiratory distress syndrome and neurological examination at discharge with an altered result. PMID:19089191

  6. Growth, lung function, and physical activity in schoolchildren who were very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Winck, Aline Dill; Heinzmann-Filho, João Paulo; Schumann, Deise; Zatti, Helen; Mattiello, Rita; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Stein, Renato Tetelbom

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare somatic growth, lung function, and level of physical activity in schoolchildren who had been very-low-birth-weight preterm infants (VLBWPIs) or normal-birth-weight full-term infants. Methods: We recruited two groups of schoolchildren between 8 and 11 years of age residing in the study catchment area: those who had been VLBWPIs (birth weight < 1,500 g); and those who had been normal-birth-weight full-term infants (controls, birth weight ≥ 2,500 g). Anthropometric and spirometric data were collected from the schoolchildren, who also completed a questionnaire regarding their physical activity. In addition, data regarding the perinatal and neonatal period were collected from the medical records of the VLBWPIs. Results: Of the 93 schoolchildren screened, 48 and 45 were in the VLBWPI and control groups, respectively. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding anthropometric characteristics, nutritional status, or pulmonary function. No associations were found between perinatal/neonatal variables and lung function parameters in the VLBWPI group. Although the difference was not significant, the level of physical activity was slightly higher in the VLBWPI group than in the control group. Conclusions: Among the schoolchildren evaluated here, neither growth nor lung function appear to have been affected by prematurity birth weight, or level of physical activity. PMID:27832232

  7. Preterm Prelabor Rupture of Membranes and Outcome of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants in the German Neonatal Network

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Kathrin; Hartz, Annika; Manz, Maike; Bendiks, Meike; Heitmann, Friedhelm; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Müller, Andreas; Olbertz, Dirk; Kühn, Thomas; Siegel, Jens; von der Wense, Axel; Wieg, Christian; Kribs, Angela; Stein, Anja; Pagel, Julia; Herting, Egbert; Göpel, Wolfgang; Härtel, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Objective It was the aim of our study to evaluate the independent effect of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) as a cause of preterm delivery on mortality during primary hospital stay and significant morbidities in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants < 32 weeks of gestation. Design Observational, epidemiological study design. Setting Population-based cohort, German Neonatal Network (GNN). Population 6102 VLBW infants were enrolled in GNN from 2009-2012, n=4120 fulfilled criteria for primary analysis (< 32 gestational weeks, no pre-eclampsia, HELLP (highly elevated liver enzymes and low platelets syndrome) or placental abruption as cause of preterm birth). Methods Multivariable logistic regression analyses included PPROM as potential risk factors for adverse outcomes and well established items such as gestational age in weeks, birth weight, antenatal steroids, center, inborn delivery, multiple birth, gender and being small-for-gestational-age. Results PPROM as cause of preterm delivery had no independent effect on the risk of early-onset sepsis, clinical sepsis and blood-culture proven sepsis, while gestational age proved to be the most important contributor to sepsis risk. The diagnosis of PPROM was associated with an increased risk for bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD; OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.02-1.55, p=0.03) but not with other major outcomes. Conclusions The diagnosis of PPROM per se is not associated with adverse outcome in VLBW infants < 32 weeks apart from a moderately increased risk for BPD. Randomized controlled trials with primary neonatal outcomes are needed to determine which subgroup of VLBW infants benefit from expectant or intentional management of PPROM. PMID:25856083

  8. 'Resuscitation' of extremely preterm and/or low-birth-weight infants - time to 'call it'?

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most.

  9. Temporal-spatial gait parameters and neurodevelopment in very-low-birth-weight preterm toddlers at 18-22 months.

    PubMed

    Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Rose, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    Children born preterm with very-low birth-weight (VLBW) have increased risk of motor impairment. Early identification of impairment guides treatment to improve long-term function. Temporal-spatial gait parameters are an easily-recorded assessment of gross motor function. The objective of this study was to characterize preterm toddlers' gait and its relationship with neurodevelopment. Velocity, cycle time, step width, step length and time asymmetry, %stance, %single-limb support, and %double-limb support were calculated for 81 VLBW preterm and 43 typically-developing (TD) toddlers. Neurodevelopment was assessed with Bayley Scales of Infant Development-3rd Edition (BSID-III) motor composite and gross motor scores. Mean step width (p=.009) was wider in preterm compared to TD toddlers. Preterm toddlers with <85 BSID-III motor composite scores, indicating mild-to-moderate delay, had significantly increased step width, step length asymmetry, and step time compared to TD toddlers. Step time was also significantly longer for lower-scoring compared to higher-scoring (≥85 BSID-III motor composite scores) preterm toddlers, suggesting that step time may be particularly sensitive to gradations of motor performance. Velocity, cycle time, step length asymmetry, %stance, step length, and step time significantly correlated with BSID-III gross motor scores, suggesting that these parameters may be revealing of gross motor function. The differences in gait between lower-scoring preterm toddlers and TD toddlers, together with the correlations between gait and BSID-III motor scores, suggest that temporal-spatial gait parameters may be useful in building a clinically-relevant, easily-conducted assessment of toddler gross motor development.

  10. Is periodontitis associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and preterm and/or low birth weight births?

    PubMed

    Madianos, Phoebus N; Bobetsis, Georgios A; Kinane, Denis F

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to determine whether periodontal disease is associated with an increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and preterm and/or low birth weight deliveries (PLBW). A literature search was performed to identify cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies as well as clinical trials addressing different aspects of periodontal disease (clinical, microbial, immunological) and clinical outcomes of CHD or PLBW. The periodontitis-CHD association was evaluated in eight cohort, four case-control- and four cross-sectional studies. Meta-analysis was not performed due to the extensive heterogeneity of the studies, particularly with regard to periodontitis measures, which varied from full mouth probing assessments to questionnaires. Percentage-wise, 50% of the cohort studies (4/8), 75% of the case-control studies (3/4) and 50% of the cross-sectional studies (2/4) reported a significant association between clinical measures of periodontitis and CHD (excess risk ranged from 0 to 3.3-fold). The periodontitis-PLBW association was evaluated in one cohort and two case-control studies. The cohort study as well as one of the two case-control studies reported a significant association between periodontitis and PLBW (odds ratios 4.4-7.9). From two additional case-control studies microbiological data could be extracted. Bacteroides forsythus was found to be associated with PLBW in both studies. In conclusion, the evidence linking periodontitis with an increased risk for CHD and PLBW is limited. There is a clear need for new, well designed observational and intervention studies to confirm the thus far observed associations, explore the validity of the associations in diverse populations, establish whether they are causal in nature and determine potential benefits of periodontal intervention in reducing the risk for these conditions.

  11. Mother-preterm infant interactions at 3 months of corrected age: influence of maternal depression, anxiety and neonatal birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Neri, Erica; Agostini, Francesca; Salvatori, Paola; Biasini, Augusto; Monti, Fiorella

    2015-01-01

    Maternal depression and anxiety represent risk factors for the quality of early mother-preterm infant interactions, especially in the case of preterm birth. Despite the presence of many studies on this topic, the comorbidity of depressive and anxious symptoms has not been sufficiently investigated, as well as their relationship with the severity of prematurity and the quality of early interactions. The Aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of early mother-infant interactions and the prevalence of maternal depression and anxiety comparing dyads of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants with full-term ones. Seventy seven preterm infants (32 ELBW; 45 VLBW) and 120 full term (FT) infants and their mothers were recruited. At 3 months of corrected age, 5 min of mother-infant interactions were recorded and later coded through the Global Ratings Scales. Mothers completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale and Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Infant levels of development were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales. A relation emerged among the severity of prematurity, depression, anxiety, and the quality of interactions. When compared with the FT group, the ELBW interactions were characterized by high maternal intrusiveness and low remoteness, while the VLBW dyads showed high levels of maternal sensitivity and infant communication. Depression was related to maternal remoteness and negative affective state, anxiety to low sensitivity, while infant interactive behaviors were impaired only in case of comorbidity. ELBW’s mothers showed the highest prevalence of depressive and anxious symptoms; moreover, only in FT dyads, low maternal sensitivity, negative affective state and minor infant communication were associated to the presence of anxious symptoms. The results confirmed the impact of prematurity on mother–infant interactions and on maternal affective state. Early diagnosis can help to plan

  12. Genomics of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A.; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms. PMID:25646385

  13. Genomics of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Pavlicev, Mihaela; Muglia, Louis J

    2015-02-02

    The molecular mechanisms controlling human birth timing at term, or resulting in preterm birth, have been the focus of considerable investigation, but limited insights have been gained over the past 50 years. In part, these processes have remained elusive because of divergence in reproductive strategies and physiology shown by model organisms, making extrapolation to humans uncertain. Here, we summarize the evolution of progesterone signaling and variation in pregnancy maintenance and termination. We use this comparative physiology to support the hypothesis that selective pressure on genomic loci involved in the timing of parturition have shaped human birth timing, and that these loci can be identified with comparative genomic strategies. Previous limitations imposed by divergence of mechanisms provide an important new opportunity to elucidate fundamental pathways of parturition control through increasing availability of sequenced genomes and associated reproductive physiology characteristics across diverse organisms.

  14. Maternal social support and neighborhood income inequality as predictors of low birth weight and preterm birth outcome disparities: analysis of South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System survey, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Nkansah-Amankra, Stephen; Dhawain, Ashish; Hussey, James Robert; Luchok, Kathryn J

    2010-09-01

    Effects of income inequality on health and other social systems have been a subject of considerable debate, but only a few studies have used multilevel models to evaluate these relationships. The main objectives of the study were to (1) Evaluate the relationships among neighborhood income inequality, social support and birth outcomes (low birth weight, and preterm delivery) and (2) Assess variations in racial disparities in birth outcomes across neighborhood contexts of income distribution and maternal social support. We evaluated these relationships by using South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment and Monitoring System (PRAMS) survey for 2000-2003 geocoded to 2000 US Census data for South Carolina. Multilevel analysis was used to simultaneously evaluate the association between income inequality (measured as Gini), maternal social relationships and birth outcomes (low birth weight and preterm delivery). The results showed residence in neighborhoods with medium levels of income inequality was independently associated with low birth weight (OR: 2.00; 95% CI 1.14-3.26), but not preterm birth; low social support was an independent risk for low birth weight or preterm births. The evidence suggests that non-Hispanic black mothers were at increased risks of low birth weight or preterm birth primarily due to greater exposures of neighborhood deprivations associated with low income and reduced social support and modified by unequal income distribution.

  15. Pattern of growth of very low birth weight preterm infants, assessed using the WHO Growth Standards, is associated with neurodevelopment.

    PubMed

    Nash, Andrea; Dunn, Michael; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Corey, Mary; Mulvihill-Jory, Bridget; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-08-01

    Several Canadian professional organizations recently recommended that the growth of preterm infants be monitored using the World Health Organization Growth Standards (WHO-GS) after hospital discharge. The WHO-GS are a prescriptive set of growth charts that describe how term infants should grow under ideal environmental conditions. Whether preterm infants following this pattern of growth have better outcomes than infants that do not has yet to be evaluated. Our aim was to determine whether the pattern of growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the first 2 years, assessed using the WHO-GS or the traditional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference growth charts (CDC-RGC), is associated with neurodevelopment. Pattern of weight, length, and head circumference gain of appropriate-for-gestation VLBW preterm infants (n = 289) from birth to 18-24 months corrected age was classified, using the WHO-GS and CDC-RGC, as sustained (change in Z-score ≤1 SD), decelerated (decline >1 SD), or accelerated (incline >1 SD). Development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID)-III at 18-24 months corrected age. Using the WHO-GS, children with a decelerated pattern of weight gain had lower cognitive (10 points), language (6 points), and motor (4 points) scores than infants with sustained weight gain (p < 0.05), even after adjustment for morbidities. No association was found using the CDC-RGC. In conclusion, a decelerated pattern of weight gain, determined with the WHO-GS, but not the CDC-GRC, is associated with poorer neurodevelopment scores on the BSID-III than a pattern of sustained growth.

  16. Modelling the effects of maternal socio-demographic characteristics on the preterm and term birth weight distributions in Greece using quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Verropoulou, Georgia; Tsimbos, Cleon

    2013-05-01

    The present study aims at modelling the effects of maternal socio-demographic characteristics on the birth weight distribution in Greece. The analysis is based on nationwide vital registration micro-data; 103,266 single live births recorded in 2006 are considered. Quantile regression models, allowing for the effects of covariates to vary across the conditional distribution of the dependent variable, birth weight, are applied to preterm and term births separately. The statistical analysis shows that the effects of most factors differentiate across the birth weight distributions. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) coefficients, on the other hand, systematically underestimate effects at the lower tail and overestimate effects among heavier babies. Hence, quantile regression has a strong advantage over the OLS method. The findings also indicate that birth weight distributions of term and preterm infants are distinct and should be analysed separately. For both distributions female sex, primiparity, age of mother over 35 and prior history of stillbirths and child deaths are related to lower birth weight while higher educational attainment has a protective effect. Among term births, illegitimacy, living in big metropolitan areas and immigrant status of the mother are also significant predictors. For preterm births the impact of age of mother, parity and, in particular, prior stillbirths or deceased children is very pronounced.

  17. Brazilian Multicentre Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP): Prevalence and Factors Associated with Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Passini, Renato; Cecatti, Jose G.; Lajos, Giuliane J.; Tedesco, Ricardo P.; Nomura, Marcelo L.; Dias, Tabata Z.; Haddad, Samira M.; Rehder, Patricia M.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Costa, Maria L.; Sousa, Maria H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm birth rate is increasing and is currently a worldwide concern. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of preterm birth in a sample of health facilities in Brazil and to identify the main risk factors associated with spontaneous preterm births. Methods and Findings This was a multicentre cross sectional study on preterm births in 20 referral obstetric hospitals with a case-control component to identify factors associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Surveillance was implemented at all centres to identify preterm births. For eligible consenting women, data were collected through a post-delivery questionnaire completed with information from all mother-newborn medical records until death or discharge or at a maximum of 60 days post-delivery, whichever came first. The risk of spontaneous preterm birth was estimated with OR and 95%CI for several predictors. A non-conditional logistic regression analysis was then performed to identify independently associated factors. The overall prevalence of preterm birth was 12.3%. Among them, 64.6% were spontaneous and 35.4% therapeutic. In the case-control component, 2,682 spontaneous preterm births were compared to a sample of 1,146 term births. Multivariate analyses identified the following as risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth among women with at least one previous birth: a previous preterm birth (ORadj = 3.19, 2.30–4.43), multiple pregnancy (ORadj = 29.06, 8.43–100.2), cervical insufficiency (ORadj = 2.93, 1.07–8.05), foetal malformation (ORadj = 2.63, 1.43–4.85), polyhydramnios (ORadj = 2.30, 1.17–4.54), vaginal bleeding (ORadj = 2.16, 1.50–3.11), and previous abortion (ORadj = 1.39, 1.08–1.78). High BMI (ORadj = 0.94, 0.91–0.97) and weight gain during gestation (ORadj = 0.92, 0.89–0.95) were found to be protective factors. Conclusions The preterm birth rate in these health facilities in Brazil is high and spontaneous preterm

  18. Diurnal Cortisol Patterns and Dexamethasone Suppression Test Responses in Healthy Young Adults Born Preterm at Very Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Räikkönen, Katri; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Andersson, Sture; Eriksson, Johan G.; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-01-01

    Background Early life stress, such as painful and stressful procedures during neonatal intensive care after preterm birth, can permanently affect physiological, hormonal and neurobiological systems. This may contribute to altered programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPAA) and provoke changes in HPAA function with long-term health impacts. Previous studies suggest a lower HPAA response to stress in young adults born preterm compared with controls born at term. We assessed whether these differences in HPAA stress responsiveness are reflected in everyday life HPAA functioning, i.e. in diurnal salivary cortisol patterns, and reactivity to a low-dose dexamethasone suppression test (DST), in unimpaired young adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g). Methods The participants were recruited from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults cohort study. At mean age 23.3 years (2.1 SD), 49 VLBW and 36 controls born at term participated in the study. For cortisol analyzes, saliva samples were collected on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30 and 60 min after wake-up, at 12:00 h, 17:00 h and 22:00 h. After the last salivary sample of the first study day the participants were instructed to take a 0.5 mg dexamethasone tablet. Results With mixed-effects model no difference was seen in overall diurnal salivary cortisol between VLBW and control groups [13.9% (95% CI: -11.6, 47.0), P = 0.31]. Salivary cortisol increased similarly after awakening in both VLBW and control participants [mean difference -2.9% (29.2, 33.0), P = 0.85]. Also reactivity to the low-dose DST (awakening cortisol ratio day2/day1) was similar between VLBW and control groups [-1.1% (-53.5, 103.8), P = 0.97)]. Conclusions Diurnal cortisol patterns and reactivity to a low-dose DST in young adulthood were not associated with preterm birth. PMID:27618620

  19. The relationship between maternal characteristics, birth weight and pre-term delivery: evidence from Germany at the end of the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Manfred; Heineck, Guido; Hesse, Volker

    2004-06-01

    Using data from a sample of German women, this paper analyzes the relationship between maternal characteristics and infants' birth weight and pre-term delivery. Besides typical epidemiological factors that influence the weight of infants, such as the gestational age and maternal BMI at the beginning of the pregnancy, we find a West--East gradient. Within West Germany, there is a small North-South gradient in birth weight, with larger birth weights in the north. Better educated mothers give birth to heavier babies and have a somewhat decreased risk of pre-term delivery. Income plays a minor role, while occupational status is not associated with the weight of infants at all.

  20. Associations of meteorology with adverse pregnancy outcomes: a systematic review of preeclampsia, preterm birth and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Beltran, Alyssa J; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-12-20

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies.

  1. Associations of Meteorology with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: A Systematic Review of Preeclampsia, Preterm Birth and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Beltran, Alyssa J.; Wu, Jun; Laurent, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The relationships between meteorology and pregnancy outcomes are not well known. This article reviews available evidence on the relationships between seasonality or meteorology and three major pregnancy outcomes: the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (including preeclampsia, eclampsia and gestational hypertension), gestational length and birth weight. In total 35, 28 and 27 studies were identified for each of these outcomes. The risks of preeclampsia appear higher for women with conception during the warmest months, and delivery in the coldest months of the year. Delivery in the coldest months is also associated with a higher eclampsia risk. Patterns of decreased gestational lengths have been observed for births in winter, as well as summer months. Most analytical studies also report decreases in gestational lengths associated with heat. Birth weights are lower for deliveries occurring in winter and in summer months. Only a limited number of studies have investigated the effects of barometric pressure on gestational length or the effects of temperature and sunshine exposure on birth weight, but these questions appear worth investigating further. Available results should encourage further etiological research aiming at enhancing our understanding of the relationships between meteorology and adverse pregnancy outcomes, ideally via harmonized multicentric studies. PMID:24362545

  2. Preterm Birth: Transition to Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Marilee C.; Cristofalo, Elizabeth; Kim, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with greater difficulty with transitions from childhood to adolescence to adulthood. Adolescents and young adults born preterm have higher rates of cerebral palsy, intellectual disability, cognitive impairment, learning disability, executive dysfunction, attention deficit disorder, and social-emotional difficulties than…

  3. Nevirapine concentrations in preterm and low birth weight HIV-exposed infants: implications for dosing recommendations.

    PubMed

    de Waal, Reneé; Kroon, S Max; Holgate, Sandi L; Horn, Alan R; Tooke, Lloyd J; Norman, Jennifer; Smith, Peter; Blockman, Marc; Cotton, Mark F; McIlleron, Helen M; Cohen, Karen

    2014-12-01

    World Health Organisation guidelines recommend nevirapine 2 mg/kg/d for HIV-exposed infants <2 kg, but 4-6 mg/kg/d for infants >2 kg. In 116 low birth weight infants, nevirapine 2 mg/kg/d until 14 days, and 4 mg/kg/d thereafter, was safe (1 mild possibly related rash) and achieved target plasma concentrations. Concentrations decreased with treatment duration. Routine dose increase at 14 days should be considered.

  4. Preterm (Premature) Labor and Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... with serious health problems. Some health problems, like cerebral palsy , can last a lifetime. Other problems, such as ... This medication may help reduce the risk of cerebral palsy that is associated with early preterm birth. What ...

  5. Early intervention for low birth weight, preterm infants: the role of negative emotionality in the specification of effects.

    PubMed

    Blair, Clancy

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the relation of negative emotionality in infancy to child social and cognitive developmental outcomes among low birth weight (LBW) preterm infants participating in the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP), a comprehensive compensatory education intervention beginning in infancy and lasting through age 3 years. In this analysis, intervention effects at age 36 months on maternal report of child behavior as assessed by the Child Behavior Checklist externalizing and internalizing scales and on intelligence as measured by the Stanford-Binet scale were largest among children characterized by higher levels of negative emotionality in infancy. Findings indicate that for LBW preterm infants characterized by negative emotionality at age 12 months the intervention was associated with a twofold decrease in the occurrence of clinically meaningful levels of behavior problems at age 3 years and a fourfold decrease in the occurrence of a high-risk profile in which both internalizing and externalizing scores are in the clinically meaningful range. The intervention was also associated with a fivefold decrease in the occurrence of IQ < or = 75 at age 3 years among children with higher levels of negative emotionality and heavier LBW (2001-2500 g). However, specific aspects of temperamental difficulty such as fearfulness and anger were related to internalizing and externalizing, respectively, in both the intervention and control groups. Findings are consistent with research linking negative emotionality in infancy with social and cognitive developmental outcomes in early childhood among normal birth weight infants. Results suggest the need for further attention to child temperament in early intervention research.

  6. A longitudinal study on the catch-up growth of preterm and term infants of low, appropriate, and high birth weight.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yu-Hua; Ji, Cheng-Ye; Shan, Jin-Ping

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of present study was to explore the trajectories of growth of preterm and term infants of low, high, and appropriate birth weight. A total of 2465 infants were recruited from 2005 to 2007. Infants' length and weight were measured at 12 points: birth, 42 days, and monthly from 3 to 12 months. The catch-up growth of preterm infants, measured by weight or length of chronological age, occurred from 10th or 12th month of their lives. After adjusted gestational age, preterm infants' weight and length were caught-up from the adjusted birthday, overweight/over-length even occurred from 10th/11th month. For low birth weight term infants, catch-up growth was not found when using single weight or length. The ponderal index catch-up growth occurred earlier than measured by single weight or length. The catch-down growth of high birth weight term infants was not found in the first year of their lives.

  7. Mortality and Length of Stay of Very Low Birth Weight and Very Preterm Infants: A EuroHOPE Study

    PubMed Central

    Numerato, Dino; Fattore, Giovanni; Tediosi, Fabrizio; Zanini, Rinaldo; Peltola, Mikko; Banks, Helen; Mihalicza, Péter; Lehtonen, Liisa; Sveréus, Sofia; Heijink, Richard; Klitkou, Søren Toksvig; Fletcher, Eilidh; van der Heijden, Amber; Lundberg, Fredrik; Over, Eelco; Häkkinen, Unto; Seppälä, Timo T.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to compare health outcomes and hospital care use of very low birth weight (VLBW), and very preterm (VLGA) infants in seven European countries. Analysis was performed on linkable patient-level registry data from seven European countries between 2006 and 2008 (Finland, Hungary, Italy (the Province of Rome), the Netherlands, Norway, Scotland, and Sweden). Mortality and length of stay (LoS) were adjusted for differences in gestational age (GA), sex, intrauterine growth, Apgar score at five minutes, parity and multiple births. The analysis included 16,087 infants. Both the 30-day and one-year adjusted mortality rates were lowest in the Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden and Norway) and Scotland and highest in Hungary and the Netherlands. For survivors, the adjusted average LoS during the first year of life ranged from 56 days in the Netherlands and Scotland to 81 days in Hungary. There were large differences between European countries in mortality rates and LoS in VLBW and VLGA infants. Substantial data linkage problems were observed in most countries due to inadequate identification procedures at birth, which limit data validity and should be addressed by policy makers across Europe. PMID:26121647

  8. Risk assessment and management to prevent preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Koullali, B; Oudijk, M A; Nijman, T A J; Mol, B W J; Pajkrt, E

    2016-04-01

    Preterm birth is the most important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. In this review, we review potential risk factors associated with preterm birth and the subsequent management to prevent preterm birth in low and high risk women with a singleton or multiple pregnancy. A history of preterm birth is considered the most important risk factor for preterm birth in subsequent pregnancy. General risk factors with a much lower impact include ethnicity, low socio-economic status, maternal weight, smoking, and periodontal status. Pregnancy-related characteristics, including bacterial vaginosis and asymptomatic bacteriuria, appear to be of limited value in the prediction of preterm birth. By contrast, a mid-pregnancy cervical length measurement is independently associated with preterm birth and could be used to identify women at risk of a premature delivery. A fetal fibronectin test may be of additional value in the prediction of preterm birth. The most effective methods to prevent preterm birth depend on the obstetric history, which makes the identification of women at risk of preterm birth an important task for clinical care providers.

  9. Prediction of preterm and low birth weight delivery by maternal periodontal parameters: receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Al Habashneh, Rola; Khader, Yousef S; Jabali, Olfat Al; Alchalabi, Haifa'a

    2013-02-01

    In this study we used receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to comparatively evaluate maternal periodontal parameters to predict preterm (PB) delivery and low birth weight (LBW) delivery among Jordanian women. A total of 277 pregnant women (20 weeks of gestation or less) had periodontal examination at baseline and followed up until delivery. Gestational age and birth weight were retrieved from their medical records. ROC curve analyses were used to examine the overall discriminatory power of the studied periodontal parameters to predict PB, LBW, and PB or LBW. For the three outcome variables, the area under curve (AUC) ranged from 0.84 to 0.87 for average clinical attachment level (CAL), 0.78-0.86 for percent of sites with CAL ≥ 5 mm, 0.63-0.74 for percent of sites with CAL ≥ 6 mm, and 0.71-0.82 for number of missing teeth indicating that they had high discriminating power to predict adverse pregnancy outcomes. All other parameters had AUC less than 0.60 and thus had low discriminating power. Average CAL performed the best in predicting the studied adverse pregnancy outcomes because it has the highest AUC. The severity and extent of periodontal disease as measured by CAL can be used to predict the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  10. Efficacy of additional psychosocial intervention in reducing low birth weight and preterm birth in teenage pregnancy: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sukhato, Kanokporn; Wongrathanandha, Chathaya; Thakkinstian, Ammarin; Dellow, Alan; Horsuwansak, Pornpot; Anothaisintawee, Thunyarat

    2015-10-01

    This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in reducing risk of low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth (PTB) in teenage pregnancy. Relevant studies were identified from Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, and CENTRAL databases. Randomized controlled trials investigating effect of psychosocial interventions on risk of LBW and PTB, compared to routine antenatal care (ANC) were eligible. Relative risks (RR) of LBW and PTB were pooled using inverse variance method. Mean differences of birth weight (BW) between intervention and control groups were pooled using unstandardized mean difference (USMD). Five studies were included in the review. Compared with routine ANC, psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW by 40% (95%CI: 8%,62%) but not for PTB (pooled RR = 0.67, 95%CI: 0.42,1.05). Mean BW of the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group with USMD of 200.63 g (95% CI: 21.02, 380.25). Results of our study suggest that psychosocial interventions significantly reduced risk of LBW in teenage pregnancy.

  11. What Is Preterm Labor and Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... 70% of preterm infants are born during the late-preterm time frame. 3 Preterm birth is the most common cause of infant death ... NICHD News and Spotlights Common tests for preterm birth not useful for ... in treating mildly low thyroid function in pregnancy, NIH Network study finds ...

  12. Associations of Maternal Vitamin B12 Concentration in Pregnancy With the Risks of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Individual Participant Data.

    PubMed

    Rogne, Tormod; Tielemans, Myrte J; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Poston, Lucilla; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Steegers, Eric A P; Joshi, Suyog; Chong, Yap-Seng; Godfrey, Keith M; Yap, Fabian; Yahyaoui, Raquel; Thomas, Tinku; Hay, Gry; Hogeveen, Marije; Demir, Ahmet; Saravanan, Ponnusamy; Skovlund, Eva; Martinussen, Marit P; Jacobsen, Geir W; Franco, Oscar H; Bracken, Michael B; Risnes, Kari R

    2017-01-20

    Vitamin B12 (hereafter referred to as B12) deficiency in pregnancy is prevalent and has been associated with both lower birth weight (birth weight <2,500 g) and preterm birth (length of gestation <37 weeks). Nevertheless, current evidence is contradictory. We performed a systematic review and a meta-analysis of individual participant data to evaluate the associations of maternal serum or plasma B12 concentrations in pregnancy with offspring birth weight and length of gestation. Twenty-two eligible studies were identified (11,993 observations). Eighteen studies were included in the meta-analysis (11,216 observations). No linear association was observed between maternal B12 levels in pregnancy and birth weight, but B12 deficiency (<148 pmol/L) was associated with a higher risk of low birth weight in newborns (adjusted risk ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.31). There was a linear association between maternal levels of B12 and preterm birth (per each 1-standard-deviation increase in B12, adjusted risk ratio = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.82, 0.97). Accordingly, B12 deficiency was associated with a higher risk of preterm birth (adjusted risk ratio = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.49). This finding supports the need for randomized controlled trials of vitamin B12 supplementation in pregnancy.

  13. Is the Risk of Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight Affected by the Use of Antidepressant Agents during Pregnancy? A Population-Based Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Merlino, Luca; Monzani, Emiliano; Giaquinto, Carlo; Corrao, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Untreated depression during pregnancy increases the risk of morbidity and mortality in the mother and child. Therefore, specific treatments are required for this population. Objective The study aimed to investigating the effect of antidepressant medication used during pregnancy with reference to the risk of preterm birth (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Methods A population-based study was carried out with data provided by the healthcare utilization database of Lombardy, an Italian region with about ten million inhabitants. The study included 384,673 births from 2005 to 2010. Maternal use of antidepressants before and during pregnancy was investigated. Log-binomial regression was used to estimate the association between the use of antidepressants during pregnancy, compared to the non-use or use just before pregnancy, and the prevalence ratio of PTB and LBW. Results Women who used antidepressants during pregnancy had a 20% (95% CI: 10–40%) increased prevalence of both PTB and LBW compared to those who never used antidepressants. There was no evidence that women who used antidepressants during pregnancy had a higher prevalence of the considered outcomes compared to women who used antidepressants before pregnancy, but stopped during pregnancy. Such findings were confirmed by considering separately the effects of SSRIs and other antidepressants together. Conclusions Our findings suggest that depression in itself, rather than antidepressant medication, might be implicated in the causal pathway of PTB and LBW. PMID:27977749

  14. Amino acid dosing in parenteral nutrition for very low birth weight preterm neonates: an outcome assessment.

    PubMed

    Kamarudin, Nor Aini; Manan, Mohamed Mansor; Zulkifly, Hanis Hanum; Neoh, Chin Fen; Ali, Salmiah Mohd; Ming, Long Chiau

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of parenteral nutrition (PN) administration of amino acids (AA) on physical changes among very low birth weight infants in a local hospital setting in Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out at a hospital in Malaysia. Records of neonates prescribed PN in the neonatal unit in 2012 were screened for eligibility. A total of 199 premature neonates received PN support in the year 2012 and, of these, 100 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The median value of AA intake on the first day of PN was 2.00 (<28 weeks group); 1.00 (28-31 weeks group) and 0.75 (>31 weeks group). Neonates in the <28 weeks group were more likely to receive AA at an earlier time and higher initial dose compared with the other age groups. The study also found that there was no statistically significant difference in the dose of AA on the first day of PN administration and that the significant variations in nutritional parameters among the subjects did not lead to differences in physical outcomes. This study identified that when PN is provided in the local hospital setting, it is likely that the current nutritional practices are inadequate to achieve the standard growth recommendations. Our findings call for a need to optimize AA and calorie intake since growth restriction is a morbidity which will affect the infants' growth and development. Current prescriptions for PN in this hospital need to be reviewed in order to improve patient outcomes.

  15. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    PubMed

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children.

  16. Prognostic Factors for Poor Cognitive Development in Children Born Very Preterm or With Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Marlow, Neil

    2016-01-01

    Importance Cognitive delay is the most common form of impairment among children born very preterm (VPT) at 32 weeks or less or with very low birth weight (VLBW) of 1250 g or less. It is important to identify factors that are robust predictors of long-term outcome because the ability to predict future prognosis will assist in health care and educational service planning and provision. Objective To identify prognostic factors for poor cognitive development in children born VPT or with VLBW. Evidence Review A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PyscINFO databases to identify studies published between January 1, 1990, and June 1, 2014, reporting multivariable prediction models for neurodevelopment in VPT or VLBW children. Thirty-one studies comprising 98 risk factor models for cognitive outcome were identified. Two independent reviewers extracted key information on study design, outcome definition, risk factor selection, model development, and reporting and conducted a risk-of-bias assessment. Findings There was evidence that male sex, nonwhite race/ethnicity, lower level of parental education, and lower birth weight were predictive of global cognitive impairment in children younger than 5 years. In older children, only the influence of parental education was sustained. Male sex was also predictive of language impairment in early infancy, but not in middle childhood. Gestational age was a poor predictor of cognitive outcome, probably because of a reduced discriminatory power in cohorts restricted to a narrow gestational age range. The prognostic value of neonatal brain injury was unclear; however, studies adopted mixed strategies for managing children with physical or neurosensory disability. Conclusions and Relevance The influence of perinatal risk factors on cognitive development of VPT or VLBW children appears to diminish over time as environmental factors become more important. It is difficult to isolate cognitive outcomes from motor and

  17. Particulate matter and preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB) (gestation <37 weeks), but the role played by specific chemical components of PM has been little studied. We examined the association between ambient PM <2.5 micrometers in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.S) ...

  18. The association between pregnancy processes, preterm delivery, low birth weight, and postpartum depressions--the need for interdisciplinary integration.

    PubMed

    Halbreich, Uriel

    2005-10-01

    Pregnancy and peripartum/perinatal periods are characterized by significant biologic as well as psychosocial processes and changes that influence the 2 individuals at focus (mother and fetus), as well as their interactions with the immediate environment. Multiple intertwined pathologic pregnancy processes (hormonal, biologic, stress and other mental occurrences) may lead to fetal distress, preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight (LBW), and other delivery complications as well as to postpartum disorders. PTD and LBW in particular have been demonstrated to be associated with significant mortality as well as short- and long-term morbidity. Underlying processes and risk factors for PTD, LBW and postpartum disorders may overlap. Their impact on the offspring is compounded. Currently, the multiple clinical and research disciplines that are concerned with the various aspects of pregnancy, delivery, and postpartum period are not conceptually and practically integrated. Specifically, obstetricians are more concerned with delivery complications, whereas mental health professionals are concerned with postpartum depression. An interdisciplinary approach is needed for better understanding of developmental processes and the development of measurements and interventions to prevent long-term impact on the offspring.

  19. Intimate partner violence during pregnancy and its association with preterm birth and low birth weight in Tanzania: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mushi, Declare; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf; Manongi, Rachel; Rogathi, Jane Januarius; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health problem that affects millions of women worldwide. The role of violence as an underlying factor in poor birth outcomes remains an area where strong evidence is lacking. The aim of this study was to determine the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and preterm delivery (PTB) and low birth weight (LBW). Materials and methods A prospective cohort study was conducted among 1112 pregnant women attending antenatal care in Moshi–Tanzania. The women were enrolled before 24 weeks gestation, followed-up at week 34 to determine exposure to violence during pregnancy, and after delivery to estimate gestation age at delivery and birth weight. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between exposure to IPV during pregnancy and PTB and LBW while adjusting for possible confounders. In addition, stratified analysis based on previous history of adverse pregnancy outcome was performed. Results One-third of the women experienced IPV during pregnancy, 22.3% reported emotional, 15.4% sexual and 6.3% physical violence. Women exposed to physical IPV were three times more likely to experience PTB (AOR = 2.9; CI 95%: 1.3–6.5) and LBW (AOR = 3.2; CI 95%: 1.3–7.7). Women with previous adverse pregnancy outcomes and exposure to physical IPV had a further increased risk of PTB (AOR = 4.5; CI 95%: 1.5–13.7) and LBW (AOR = 4.8; CI 95%: 1.6–14.8) compared to those without previous history of adverse outcome. Conclusion Women who are exposed to IPV during pregnancy are at increased risk of PTB and LBW. The risk is even stronger if the women additionally have suffered a previous adverse pregnancy outcome. Interventions addressing IPV are urgently needed to prevent occurrence and reoccurrence of PTB and LBW. PMID:28235031

  20. Visual-motor deficits relate to altered gray and white matter in young adults born preterm with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Kam; Løhaugen, Gro C; Eikenes, Live; Bjørlykke, Kjerstin M; Håberg, Asta K; Skranes, Jon; Rimol, Lars M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals born preterm and at very low birth weight (birth weight ≤ 1500 g) are at an increased risk of perinatal brain injury and neurodevelopmental deficits over the long term. This study examined whether this clinical group has more problems with visual-motor integration, motor coordination, and visual perception compared to term-born controls, and related these findings to cortical surface area and thickness and white matter fractional anisotropy. Forty-seven preterm-born very low birth weight individuals and 56 term-born controls were examined at 18-22 years of age with a combined cognitive, morphometric MRI, and diffusion tensor imaging evaluation in Trondheim, Norway. Visual-motor skills were evaluated with the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration-V (VMI) copying test and its supplemental tests of motor coordination and visual perception. 3D T1-weighted MPRAGE images and diffusion tensor imaging were done at 1.5 T. Cortical reconstruction generated in FreeSurfer and voxelwise maps of fractional anisotropy calculated with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics were used to explore the relationship between MRI findings and cognitive results. Very low birth weight individuals had significantly lower scores on the copying and motor coordination tests compared with controls. In the very low birth weight group, VMI scores showed significant positive relationships with cortical surface area in widespread regions, with reductions of the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and medial occipital lobe in conjunction with the posterior ventral temporal lobe. Visual perception scores also showed positive relationships with cortical thickness in the very low birth weight group, primarily in the lateral occipito-temporo-parietal junction, the superior temporal gyrus, insula, and superior parietal regions. In the very low birth weight group, visual-motor performance correlated positively with fractional anisotropy especially in the corpus callosum

  1. Allostatic Load and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Olson, David M.; Severson, Emily M.; Verstraeten, Barbara S. E.; Ng, Jane W. Y.; McCreary, J. Keiko; Metz, Gerlinde A. S.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is a universal health problem that is one of the largest unmet medical needs contributing to the global burden of disease. Adding to its complexity is that there are no means to predict who is at risk when pregnancy begins or when women will actually deliver. Until these problems are addressed, there will be no interventions to reduce the risk because those who should be treated will not be known. Considerable evidence now exists that chronic life, generational or accumulated stress is a risk factor for preterm delivery in animal models and in women. This wear and tear on the body and mind is called allostatic load. This review explores the evidence that chronic stress contributes to preterm birth and other adverse pregnancy outcomes in animal and human studies. It explores how allostatic load can be used to, firstly, model stress and preterm birth in animal models and, secondly, how it can be used to develop a predictive model to assess relative risk among women in early pregnancy. Once care providers know who is in the highest risk group, interventions can be developed and applied to mitigate their risk. PMID:26694355

  2. Vagal Regulation of Heart Rate in the Prediction of Developmental Outcome for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doussard-Roosevelt, Jane A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Used heart rate and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) assessed at 33 to 35 weeks gestational age to predict developmental outcome at 3 years for very low birth weight infants. Found that RSA measures predicted developmental outcome beyond effects of birth weight, medical risk, and socioeconomic status. For infants < 1,000 grams, RSA maturation…

  3. Post Discharge Formula Fortification of Maternal Human Milk of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: An Introduction of a Feeding Protocol in a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    El Sakka, Abeer; El Shimi, Mohamed Sami; Salama, Kareem; Fayez, Hend

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the growth parameters and nutritional biochemical markers and complications of fortification of human milk by post discharge formula of preterm very low birth weight newborns (VLBW). Fifty preterm infants less than 37 weeks with weight less than 1500 g were enrolled in the study. They received parental nutrition and feeding according to our protocol. When enteral feeding reached 100 cc/kg/day, infants were randomized into two groups: group I, Cases, n=25, where post discharge formula (PDF) was used for fortification, group II, Controls, n=25 with no fortification. Infants of both groups were given 50% of required enteral feeding as premature formula. This protocol was used until infants’ weight reached 1800 g. Daily weight, weekly length and head circumference were recorded. Hemoglobin, albumin (Alb), electrolytes, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and clinical complications were documented. Human milk fortification with PDF resulted in better growth with increase in weight 16.8 and 13.78 g/kg/day (P=0.0430), length 0.76 and 0.58 cm/week (P=0.0027), and head circumference of 0.59 and 0.5 cm/week (P=0.0217) in cases and controls respectively. Duration of hospital stay was less in cases (22.76 versus 28.52 days in Controls), P=0.02. No significant changes were found in serum electrolytes, BUN, or Alb between both groups. Hemoglobin was significantly higher in Cases, P=0.04. There were no significant clinical complications. Our feeding protocol of fortification of human milk with PDF in preterm very low birth weight newborns resulted in better growth and decrease in length of hospital stay. The use of PDF could be an alternative option for fortification of mothers’ milk for preterm VLBW infants in developing countries with low resources. PMID:27777705

  4. The contribution of visual processing to academic achievement in adolescents born extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Molloy, Carly S; Di Battista, Ashley M; Anderson, Vicki A; Burnett, Alice; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie Ly; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2017-04-01

    Children born extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) have more academic deficiencies than their term-born peers, which may be due to problems with visual processing. The aim of this study is to determine (1) if visual processing is related to poor academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents, and (2) how much of the variance in academic achievement in EP/ELBW adolescents is explained by visual processing ability after controlling for perinatal risk factors and other known contributors to academic performance, particularly attention and working memory. A geographically determined cohort of 228 surviving EP/ELBW adolescents (mean age 17 years) was studied. The relationships between measures of visual processing (visual acuity, binocular stereopsis, eye convergence, and visual perception) and academic achievement were explored within the EP/ELBW group. Analyses were repeated controlling for perinatal and social risk, and measures of attention and working memory. It was found that visual acuity, convergence and visual perception are related to scores for academic achievement on univariable regression analyses. After controlling for potential confounds (perinatal and social risk, working memory and attention), visual acuity, convergence and visual perception remained associated with reading and math computation, but only convergence and visual perception are related to spelling. The additional variance explained by visual processing is up to 6.6% for reading, 2.7% for spelling, and 2.2% for math computation. None of the visual processing variables or visual motor integration are associated with handwriting on multivariable analysis. Working memory is generally a stronger predictor of reading, spelling, and math computation than visual processing. It was concluded that visual processing difficulties are significantly related to academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents; therefore, specific attention should be paid to academic

  5. Intrapericardial teratoma in a low birth weight preterm infant: a successful multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Iacona, Gabriele M; Barber, Miguel A; Medina, Margarita; Abella, Raul

    2011-02-01

    We report the case of an intrapericardial teratoma, a rare tumour in infants, prenatally diagnosed and successfully treated thanks to a multidisciplinary approach. An intrapericardial cystic mass (2.5 cm) with pericardial effusion was identified in a foetus at 32 weeks gestational age (GA). Intrauterine pericardiocentesis was performed immediately (40 ml) and repeated at 33 weeks (25 ml) and then at 34 weeks GA, just before birth (36 ml). Considering the rapid growth of the mass and the risk of hydrops, vaginal delivery was induced. A baby girl weighing 1.98 kg was born without cardiorespiratory compromise. Echocardiography and thoracic CT-scan located the 4.0×3.0 cm cystic mass between the left atrial appendage and the left superior pulmonary vein. At three days of life, the mass was completely removed without cardiobypass. It arose from the ascending aorta. Postoperative course was uneventful. Pathology diagnosed an immature intrapericardial teratoma. As long-term follow-up is required, alpha-fetoprotein can be a valid tool to monitor a possible recurrence. A multidisciplinary approach allows successful prenatal management and postnatal tumour surgery.

  6. MTHFR (C677T) polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation as genetic factors for preterm delivery, fetal death and low birth weight: A Northeast Indian population based study

    PubMed Central

    Tiwari, Diptika; Bose, Purabi Deka; Das, Somdatta; Das, Chandana Ray; Datta, Ratul; Bose, Sujoy

    2015-01-01

    Preterm delivery (PTD) is one of the most significant contributors to neonatal mortality, morbidity, and long-term adverse consequences for health; with highest prevalence reported from India. The incidence of PTD is alarmingly very high in Northeast India. The objective of the present study is to evaluate the associative role of MTHFR gene polymorphism and progesterone receptor (PR) gene mutation (PROGINS) in susceptibility to PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and low birth weights (LBW) in Northeast Indian population. Methods A total of 209 PTD cases {extreme preterm (< 28 weeks of gestation, n = 22), very preterm (28–32 weeks of gestation, n = 43) and moderate preterm (32–37 weeks of gestation, n = 144) and 194 term delivery cases were studied for MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) gene mutation. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software. Results Distribution of MTHFR and PR mutation was higher in PTD cases. Presence of MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated and resulted in the increased risk of PTD (p < 0.001), negative pregnancy outcome (p < 0.001) and LBW (p = 0.001); more significantly in extreme and very preterm cases. Presence of PR mutation (PROGINS) also resulted in increased risk of PTD and negative pregnancy outcome; but importantly was found to increase the risk of LBW significantly in case of very preterm (p < 0.001) and moderately preterm (p < 0.001) delivery cases. Conclusions Both MTHFR C677T polymorphism and PR (PROGINS) mutation are evident genetic risk factors associated with the susceptibility of PTD, negative pregnancy outcome and LBW. MTHFR C677T may be used as a prognostic marker to stratify subpopulation of pregnancy cases predisposed to PTD; thereby controlling the risks associated with PTD. PMID:25709895

  7. A Meta-analysis of Depression During Pregnancy and the Risk of Preterm Birth, Low Birth Weight, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Grote, Nancy K.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Gavin, Amelia R.; Melville, Jennifer L.; Iyengar, Satish; Katon, Wayne J.

    2011-01-01

    Context Maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy have been reported in some, but not all, studies to be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth (PTB), low birth weight (LBW), and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Objective To estimate the risk of PTB, LBW, and IUGR associated with antenatal depression. Data Sources and Study Selection We searched for English-language and non–English-language articles via the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Social Work Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Dissertation Abstracts International databases (January 1980 through December 2009). We aimed to include prospective studies reporting data on antenatal depression and at least 1 adverse birth outcome: PTB (<37 weeks’ gestation), LBW (<2500 g), or IUGR (<10th percentile for gestational age). Of 862 reviewed studies, 29 US-published and non–US-published studies met the selection criteria. Data Extraction Information was extracted on study characteristics, antenatal depression measurement, and other biopsychosocial risk factors and was reviewed twice to minimize error. Data Synthesis Pooled relative risks (RRs) for the effect of antenatal depression on each birth outcome were calculated using random-effects methods. In studies of PTB, LBW, and IUGR that used a categorical depression measure, pooled effect sizes were significantly larger (pooled RR [95% confidence interval]=1.39 [1.19–1.61], 1.49 [1.25–1.77], and 1.45 [1.05–2.02], respectively) compared with studies that used a continuous depression measure (1.03 [1.00–1.06], 1.04 [0.99–1.09], and 1.02 [1.00–1.04], respectively). The estimates of risk for categorically defined antenatal depression and PTB and LBW remained significant when the trim-and-fill procedure was used to correct for publication bias. The risk of LBW associated with antenatal depression was significantly larger in developing countries (RR=2.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–2.93) compared with the United States (RR=1

  8. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research with vital records finds income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. We examined the effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on preterm birth (PTB <37 weeks completed ...

  9. Plasma Levels of Dimethylarginines in Preterm Very Low Birth Weight Neonates: Its Relation with Perinatal Factors and Short-Term Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moonen, Rob M.; Huizing, Maurice J.; Cavallaro, Giacomo; González-Luis, Gema E.; Bas-Suárez, Pilar; Bakker, Jaap A.; Villamor, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Endogenously produced inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, in particular asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), are currently considered of importance in various disease states characterized by reduced NO availability. We investigated the association between plasma levels of ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), l-arginine, and citrulline and perinatal factors and outcome in 130 preterm (gestational age ≤30 weeks) very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants. Plasma samples were collected 6–12 h after birth. We did not find significant correlations between ADMA, SDMA, l-arginine, and citrulline levels and gestational age or birth weight. However, the arginine:ADMA ratio (AAR, a better indicator of NO availability than either arginine or ADMA separately) was positively correlated with gestational age. ADMA and arginine levels were not significantly different between males and females but males showed a negative correlation between ADMA levels and gestational age. Perinatal factors such as preeclampsia, chrorioamnionitis, prolonged rupture of membranes, or form of delivery did not significantly alter dimethylarginine levels or AAR. In contrast, the AAR was significantly reduced in the infants with respiratory distress, mechanical ventilation, and systemic hypotension Therefore, our data suggest that altered NO availability may play a role in the respiratory and cardiovascular adaptation in preterm VLBW infants. PMID:25546385

  10. Dose-response relationship between alcohol consumption before and during pregnancy and the risks of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA) – A systematic review and meta-analyses

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Jayadeep; Bakker, Rachel; Irving, Hyacinth; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Malini, Shobha; Rehm, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Background The effects of moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy on adverse pregnancy outcomes have been inconsistent. Objective To review systematically and perform meta-analyses on the effect of maternal alcohol exposure on the risk of low birth weight, preterm birth and small-size-for-gestational age (SGA). Search Strategy Using Medical Subject Headings, a literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CABS, WHOlist, SIGLE, ETOH, and Web of Science between 1 January 1980 and 1 August 2009 was performed followed by manual searches. Selection Criteria Case control or cohort studies were assessed for quality (STROBE), 36 available studies were included. Data collection and Analysis Two reviewers independently extracted the information on low birth weight, preterm birth and SGA using a standardized protocol. Meta-analyses on dose-response relationship were performed using linear as well as first-order and second-order fractional polynomial regressions to estimate best fitting curves to the data. Main Results Compared to abstainers, the overall dose-response relationships for low birth weight and SGA had no effect up to 10 g/day (an average of about 1 drink/day) and preterm birth had no effect up to 18 g/day (an average of 1.5 drinks/day) of pure alcohol consumption; thereafter, the relationship had monotonically increasing risk for increasing maternal alcohol consumption. Moderate consumption during pre-pregnancy was associated with reduced risks for both outcomes. Conclusions Dose-response relationship indicates that heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risks of all three outcomes while light to moderate alcohol consumption shows no effect. Preventive measures during antenatal consults should be initiated. PMID:21729235

  11. Preterm birth in ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    PubMed

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2017-01-01

    This report refers to preterm birth in Ancient Greece based on mythological, historical and archeological data. The two antique goddesses, patronesses of labor and birth, Artemis and Eileithyia, cared for full-term, as well as preterm infants, among them for the mythological preterms Dionysos and Eurystheus. The former was rapidly transported by Hermes and received special care by the nymphs Hyades in a mountain cave with "incubator" properties. Historical data are related to the nine months duration of a normal pregnancy, to the definition of "Elitomina" (preterms), the lower limit of viability, the causes for preterm birth, the existence of small for gestational age infants and relevant causes, the physical examination of neonates and postpartum care. Lastly, excavations in Athens and Astypalaia discovered burials - in wells or pots - of preterm infants with gestational age 24-37 weeks.

  12. Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geldof, C. J. A.; van Wassenaer, A. G.; de Kieviet, J. F.; Kok, J. H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    A range of neurobehavioral impairments, including impaired visual perception and visual-motor integration, are found in very preterm born children, but reported findings show great variability. We aimed to aggregate the existing literature using meta-analysis, in order to provide robust estimates of the effect of very preterm birth on visual…

  13. Benefits of periodontal therapy when preterm birth threatens.

    PubMed

    Radnai, M; Pál, A; Novák, T; Urbán, E; Eller, J; Gorzó, I

    2009-03-01

    There is growing evidence that chronic periodontitis may be a risk factor for pre-term birth. The goal of this intervention study was to determine the effect of periodontal treatment on the pregnancy outcome in women with threatening pre-term birth and initial localized chronic periodontitis. Forty-one women with a singleton pregnancy were enrolled in the study. For this treatment group, oral hygiene instruction and periodontal therapy were provided in the third trimester, while those in the control group (42 persons) did not receive any periodontal treatment. In the treatment group, the mean weight of newborns was 3079.0 g, compared with the control group mean of 2602.4 g. The incidence of pre-term birth and low birthweight in the treatment group was significantly less than in the control group (p = 0.015). Periodontal treatment completed before the 35th week appeared to have a beneficial effect on birth weight and time of delivery.

  14. Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163401.html Certain Bacteria May Affect Preterm Birth Risk Bad 'bugs' tied ... Feb. 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Certain types of bacteria in a pregnant woman's cervix and vagina can ...

  15. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  16. Postpartum contraceptive use among women with a recent preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    ROBBINS, Cheryl L.; FARR, Sherry L.; ZAPATA, Lauren B.; D’ANGELO, Denise V.; CALLAGHAN, William M.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the associations between postpartum contraception and having a recent preterm birth. STUDY DESIGN Population-based data from the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in nine states were used to estimate postpartum use of highly or moderately effective contraception (sterilization, intrauterine device, implants, shots, pills, patch, and ring) and user-independent contraception (sterilization, implants, and intrauterine device) among women with recent live births (2009–2011). We assessed differences in contraception by gestational age (≤27, 28–33, or 34–36 weeks versus term [≥37 weeks]) and modeled the associations using multivariable logistic regression with weighted data. RESULTS A higher percentage of women with recent extreme preterm birth (≤27 weeks) reported using no postpartum method (31%) compared with all other women (15%–16%). Women delivering extreme preterm infants had decreased odds of using highly or moderately effective methods (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=0.5, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4 – 0.6) and user-independent methods (aOR=0.5, 95% CI: 0.4 – 0.7) compared with women having term births. Wanting to get pregnant was more frequently reported as a reason for contraceptive non-use by women with an extreme preterm birth overall (45%) compared with all other women (15%–18%, p<.0001). Infant death occurred in 41% of extreme preterm births and over half (54%) of these mothers reported wanting to become pregnant as the reason for contraceptive non-use. CONCLUSIONS During contraceptive counseling with women who had recent preterm births, providers should address optimal pregnancy interval, and consider that women with recent extreme preterm birth, particularly those whose infants died, may not use contraception because they want to get pregnant. PMID:26003062

  17. Preterm Birth: An Overview of Risk Factors and Obstetrical Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Amanda; Graham, Ernest

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and a major public health concern. Risk factors for preterm birth include a history of preterm birth, short cervix, infection, short interpregnancy interval, smoking, and African-American race. The use of progesterone therapy to treat mothers at risk for preterm delivery is becoming more…

  18. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  19. Born Toon Soon: Preterm birth matters

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Urgent action is needed to address preterm birth given that the first country-level estimates show that globally 15 million babies are born too soon and rates are increasing in most countries with reliable time trend data. As the first in a supplement entitled "Born Too Soon", this paper focuses on the global policy context. Preterm birth is critical for progress on Millennium Development Goal 4 (MDG) for child survival by 2015 and beyond, and gives added value to maternal health (MDG 5) investments also linking to non-communicable diseases. For preterm babies who survive, the additional burden of prematurity-related disability may affect families and health systems. Prematurity is an explicit priority in many high-income settings; however, more attention is needed especially in low- and middle-income countries where the invisibility of preterm birth as well as its myths and misconceptions have slowed action on prevention and care. Recent global attention to preterm birth hit a tipping point in 2012, with the May 2 publication of Born Too Soon: The Global Action Report on Preterm Birth and with the 2nd annual World Prematurity Day on November 17 which mobilised the actions of partners in many countries to address preterm birth and newborn health. Interventions to strengthen preterm birth prevention and care span the continuum of care for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health. Both prevention of preterm birth and implementation of care of premature babies require more research, as well as more policy attention and programmatic investment. Declaration This article is part of a supplement jointly funded by Save the Children's Saving Newborn Lives programme through a grant from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and March of Dimes Foundation and published in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). The original article was published in PDF format in the WHO Report "Born Too Soon: the global action report on preterm birth (ISBN 978 92 4 150343

  20. Maternal characteristics of a cohort of preterm infants with a birth weight ≤750 g without major structural anomalies and chromosomal abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Claas, Marieke J; de Vries, Linda S; Bruinse, Hein W

    2011-05-01

    Our objectives were to describe the obstetric complications of women who delivered an extremely low-birth-weight infant by comparing two consecutive 5-year periods and infants appropriate for gestational age (AGA) versus infants small for gestational age (SGA). This descriptive study included women ( N = 261) who delivered an infant ≤750 g (major structural and chromosomal anomalies excluded) between 1996 and 2000 (cohort I, N = 145) and 2001 to 2005 (cohort II, N = 116) in the University Hospital Utrecht, the Netherlands. Of these, 84.3% of the multigravidas ( N = 121) had a complicated obstetric history: 46.3% miscarriage(s), 22.3% preterm deliveries, and 16.5% hypertensive disorders. In the index pregnancies ( N = 261), the most prevalent complications were hypertensive disorders (52.1%, P = 0.002; more in cohort II) and SGA ( P = 0.007), fetal distress (39.5%), and intrauterine growth restriction (32.6%) resulting in a caesarean section in 47.9% and a spontaneous vaginal delivery in 19.2%. Intrauterine deaths occurred in 35.2%, merely due to placental insufficiency (59.8%) and termination of pregnancy because of deteriorating hypertensive disorders (23.9%). A high percentage of parous mothers had a seriously complicated obstetric history. The index pregnancy was largely complicated by hypertensive disorders. The majority of infants with a birth weight ≤750 g were growth-restricted due to placental insufficiency. Follow-up is extremely important to evaluate neonatal morbidity and neurodevelopmental outcome.

  1. Association of preterm birth with brain malformations

    PubMed Central

    Brown, William R.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the rate of preterm birth in babies with congenital brain defects. Autopsy case reports of congenital brain anomalies were obtained from the literature. The control cases were from a large registry, a published report from the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program. From 428 publications, 1168 cases were abstracted that had autopsy studies of congenital brain defects and information on the gestational age at birth. The control data from Atlanta included 7738 infants with significant birth defects of any kind and 264,392 infants without birth defects. In the autopsy cases with brain defects, the mean gestational age was 36.6 weeks, whereas the Atlanta data showed a mean gestational age of 39.3 weeks for infants with no defects and a significantly shorter gestation of 38.1 weeks (p < 0.0001) for infants with defects. In the Atlanta data, the rate of preterm birth was 9.3 % for those with no defects compared to 21.5 % (p < 0.0001) for those with defects. In the autopsy cases with brain defects, the rate of preterm birth was even greater (33.1%, p < 0.0001). In conclusion, these data show an association of brain defects with preterm births. PMID:19218881

  2. Prediction of preterm birth in twins.

    PubMed

    Makrydimas, George; Sotiriadis, Alexandros

    2014-02-01

    About 13% of twins are born before 34 weeks and 7% before 32 weeks. The prediction of preterm birth in twins is based on the same tests as in singleton pregnancies. In twin pregnancies, the cut-off for short cervix at the second trimester scan is less than 25 mm (compared with 15 mm in singletons); length less than 20 mm is associated with 42% risk for birth before 32 weeks and cervical length less than 25 mm is associated with 28% risk for birth before 28 weeks. The measurement of cervical length in pregnancies with symptoms of preterm labour may have limited accuracy in predicting preterm birth. In asymptomatic women, a positive fetal fibronectin test seems to be associated with 35% risk for birth before 32 weeks and 40% risk for birth less than 34 weeks, whereas a negative test decreases the risk to 6% and 17%, respectively. The differences in the predictive value of tests between twins and singletons reflect the diverse pathophysiology of preterm birth between the two groups.

  3. Early nasal injury resulting from the use of nasal prongs in preterm infants with very low birth weight: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Nathalie Tiemi; Davidson, Josy; Guinsburg, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the incidence of early-onset nasal injury in infants with very low birth weight and indication for noninvasive ventilation via nasal prongs. Methods A prospective case series of infants with gestational age <37 weeks, weight <1.500 g and postnatal age <29 days. The patients were evaluated three times daily from the installation of nasal prongs to the 3rd day of use. The patients' clinical conditions and the device's characteristics and its application were analyzed. The initial analysis was descriptive, indicating the prevalence of nasal injury and factors associated with it. Categorical data were analyzed using the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, and numerical data were analyzed using the t-test or the Mann-Whitney test. Results Eighteen infants were included; 12 (with a gestational age of 29.8±3.1 weeks, birth weight of 1.070±194 g and a Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology - Perinatal Extension (SNAPPE) of 15.4±17.5) developed nasal injuries (injury group), and 6 (with a gestational age of 28.0±1.9 weeks, weight of 1.003±317 g and SNAPPE of 26.2±7.5) showed no nasal injury (uninjured group). The injury group subjects were more often male (75% versus 17%), and their injuries appeared after an average of 18 hours, predominantly during the night (75%). Conclusion The incidence of nasal injury in preterm infants who experienced noninvasive ventilation via nasal prongs was high, and a study of associated factors may be planned based on this pilot. PMID:24213089

  4. Abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and mental health outcomes in adolescents born extremely preterm and/or at an extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Ganella, Eleni P; Burnett, Alice; Cheong, Jeanie; Thompson, Deanne; Roberts, Gehan; Wood, Stephen; Lee, Katherine; Duff, Julianne; Anderson, Peter J; Pantelis, Christos; Doyle, Lex W; Bartholomeusz, Cali

    2015-03-01

    Extremely preterm (EP, <28 weeks) and/or extremely low birth weight (ELBW, <1000 g) infants are at high risk of aberrant neurodevelopment. Sulcogyral folding patterns of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are determined during the third trimester, however little is known about OFC patterning in EP/ELBW cohorts, for whom this gestational period is disturbed. This study investigated whether the distribution of OFC pattern types and frequency of intermediate and/or posterior orbital sulci (IOS/POS) differed between EP/ELBW and control adolescents. This study also investigated whether OFC pattern type was associated with mental illness or executive function outcome in adolescence. Magnetic resonance images of 194 EP/ELBW and 147 full term (>37 completed weeks) and/or normal birth weight (> 2500 g) adolescents were acquired, from which the OFC pattern of each hemisphere was classified as Type I, II, or III. Compared with controls, more EP/ELBW adolescents possessed a Type II in the left hemisphere (P = 0.019). The EP/ELBW group had fewer IOS (P = 0.024) and more POS (P = 0.021) in the left hemisphere compared with controls. OFC pattern type was not associated with mental illness, however in terms of executive functioning, Type III in the left hemisphere was associated with better parent-reported metacognition scores overall (P = 0.008) and better self-reported behavioral regulation scores in the control group (P = 0.001) compared with Type I. We show, for the first time that EP/ELBW birth is associated with changes in orbitofrontal development, and that specific patterns of OFC folding are associated with executive function at age 18 years in both EP/ELBW and control subjects.

  5. Prenatal exposure to lead in relation to risk of preterm low birth weight: a matched case-control study in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuanyuan; Bassig, Bryan A.; Zhou, Aifen; Wang, Youjie; Li, Zhengkuan; Yao, Yuanxiang; Hu, Jie; Du, Xiaofu; Zhou, Yanqiu; Liu, Juan; Xue, Weiyan; Ma, Yue; Pan, Xinyun; Peng, Yang; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the association between prenatal exposure to lead (Pb) and the risk of preterm low birth weight (PLBW). Pb concentrations in maternal urine collected at birth from 408 subjects (102 cases and 306 matched controls) were analyzed and adjusted by creatinine. The median Pb concentration in the PLBW cases (10.60 μg Pb/g creatinine) was higher than that of the controls (7.28 μg Pb/g creatinine). An adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 2.96 (95% CI = 1.49-5.87) for PLBW was observed when the highest tertile was compared to the lowest tertile of Pb levels. The association was more pronounced among female infants (adjusted OR = 3.67 for the highest tertile; 95% CI = 1.35-9.93) than male infants (adjusted OR = 1.91 for the highest tertile; 95% CI = 0.74-4.95). Our study suggests that prenatal exposure to levels of Pb encountered today in China is associated with an elevated risk of PLBW. PMID:26122562

  6. Early rapid growth, early birth: Accelerated fetal growth and spontaneous late preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Espinoza, Jimmy; Gotsch, Francesca; Goncalves, Luis; Hassan, Sonia; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A.; Romero, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    The past two decades in the United States have seen a 24 % rise in spontaneous late preterm delivery (34 to 36 weeks) of unknown etiology. This study tested the hypothesis that fetal growth was identical prior to spontaneous preterm (n=221, median gestational age at birth 35.6 weeks) and term (n=3706) birth among pregnancies followed longitudinally in Santiago, Chile. The hypothesis was not supported: Preterm-delivered fetuses were significantly larger than their term-delivered peers by mid-second trimester in estimated fetal weight, head, limb and abdominal dimensions, and they followed different growth trajectories. Piecewise regression assessed time-specific differences in growth rates at 4-week intervals from 16 weeks. Estimated fetal weight and abdominal circumference growth rates faltered at 20 weeks among the preterm-delivered, only to match and/or exceed their term-delivered peers at 24–28 weeks. After an abrupt decline at 28 weeks attenuating growth rates in all dimensions, fetuses delivered preterm did so at greater population-specific sex and age-adjusted weight than their peers from uncomplicated pregnancies (p<0.01). Growth rates predicted birth timing: one standard score of estimated fetal weight increased the odds ratio for preterm birth from 2.8 prior to 23 weeks, to 3.6 (95% confidence interval, 1.82–7.11, p<0.05) between 23 and 27 weeks. After 27 weeks, increasing size was protective (OR: 0.56, 95% confidence interval, 0.38–0.82, p=0.003). These data document, for the first time, a distinctive fetal growth pattern across gestation preceding spontaneous late preterm birth, identify the importance of mid-gestation for alterations in fetal growth, and add perspective on human fetal biological variability. PMID:18988282

  7. [The use of caspofungin in extremely low birth weight preterm infants based on clinical trials and reports considering the own experience (case report)].

    PubMed

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken.

  8. Dydrogesterone and pre-term birth.

    PubMed

    Hudic, Igor; Schindler, Adolf E; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Stray-Pedersen, Babill

    2016-09-01

    Progestin supplementation appears to be a promising approach to both preventing initiation of pre-term labor and treating it once it is already established. Successful pregnancy depends on maternal tolerance of the fetal "semi-allograft". A protein called progesterone-induced blocking factor (PIBF), by inducing a Th2 dominant cytokine production mediates the immunological effects of progesterone. Over time, various attempts have been made to clarify the question, whether progestogens can contribute positively to either prevention or treatment of pre-term labor and birth. Dydrogesterone treatment of women at risk of pre-term delivery results in increased PIBF production and IL-10 concentrations, and lower concentrations of IFNγ and could be effective for prevention or treatment of pre-term labor. Further randomized studies are needed.

  9. Preterm birth in twin pregnancies: Clinical outcomes and predictive parameters

    PubMed Central

    Dolgun, Zehra Nihal; Inan, Cihan; Altintas, Ahmet Salih; Okten, Sabri Berkem; Sayin, Niyazi Cenk

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the neonatal outcomes of preterm birth in twin pregnancies and to investigate whether perinatal and obstetric parameters are associated with clinical outcomes. Methods: This retrospective trial was conducted on data gathered from 176 preterm twins delivered in the obstetrics and gynecology department of our tertiary care center. Data extracted from medical files of 88 pregnant women who gave preterm birth (at 260/7 to 366/7 gestational weeks) to twins were analyzed. Maternal/fetal descriptive and obstetric parameters, sonographic data, route of delivery, indication for cesarean section, birth weight, Apgar scores, head circumference, umbilical cord length and placental weight were noted. Results: The average age of the pregnant women was 28.8±6.4 years and ultrasonographic gestational age was 31.9±2.6 weeks. Apgar scores at 1st minute were affected significantly by fetal body weight (p=0.001), gestational age (p=0.001), height (p=0.004) and head circumference (p=0.011). None of these variables exhibited a noteworthy effect on Apgar scores at 5th minute. Conclusion: Efforts must be made to achieve advancement of gestational age until delivery in the follow-up preterm of twins. A well-established algorithm with special emphasis to risk factors is necessary to standardize and popularize the appropriate management strategy. PMID:27648040

  10. Prognostic Factors for Behavioral Problems and Psychiatric Disorders in Children Born Very Preterm or Very Low Birth Weight: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Linsell, Louise; Malouf, Reem; Johnson, Samantha; Morris, Joan; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J.; Marlow, Neil

    2017-01-01

    Objective Risk factors associated with adverse behavioral outcomes in very preterm (VPT) or very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are poorly understood. The aim of this article is to identify prognostic factors for behavioral problems and psychiatric disorders in children born ≤32 weeks gestational age or with birth weight ≤1250 g. Method A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, Embase, and Pyscinfo databases to identify studies published between January 1, 1990 and June 1, 2014 reporting multivariable prediction models for behavioral problems or psychiatric disorders in VPT/VLBW children. Fifteen studies were identified and 2 independent reviewers extracted key information on study design, outcome definition, risk factor selection, model development, reporting, and conducted a risk of bias assessment. Results The 15 studies included reported risk factor analyses for the following domains: general behavioral problems (n = 8), any psychiatric disorder (n = 2), autism spectrum symptoms/disorders (n = 5), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (n = 1). Findings were inconclusive because of the following: small number of studies in each domain, heterogeneity in outcome measures, lack of overlap in the risk factors examined, and differences in strategies for dealing with children with neurological impairments. Conclusion There is a lack of evidence concerning risk factors for behavior problems and psychiatric disorders among VPT/VLBW survivors. This review has identified the need for further research examining the etiology of disorders of psychological development in the VPT/VLBW population to refine risk prediction and identify targets for intervention. Large well-conducted studies that use standard diagnostic evaluations to assess psychiatric disorders throughout childhood and adolescence are required. PMID:26703327

  11. Visual perception and visual-motor integration in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Geldof, C J A; van Wassenaer, A G; de Kieviet, J F; Kok, J H; Oosterlaan, J

    2012-01-01

    A range of neurobehavioral impairments, including impaired visual perception and visual-motor integration, are found in very preterm born children, but reported findings show great variability. We aimed to aggregate the existing literature using meta-analysis, in order to provide robust estimates of the effect of very preterm birth on visual perceptive and visual-motor integration abilities. Very preterm born children showed deficits in visual-spatial abilities (medium to large effect sizes) but not in visual closure perception. Tests reporting broad visual perceptive indices showed inconclusive results. In addition, impaired visual-motor integration was found (medium effect size), particularly in boys compared to girls. The observed visual-spatial and visual-motor integration deficits may arise from affected occipital-parietal-frontal neural circuitries.

  12. A randomized study of the impact of a sensitizing intervention on the child-rearing attitudes of parents of low birth weight preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Nordhov, Solveig Marianne; Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Dahl, Lauritz B

    2010-10-01

    The background for this study was that nurturant child-rearing attitudes are associated with positive development in low birth weight (LBW) infants. The objective was to study child-rearing attitudes and early intervention (EI) in parents of LBW infants from 12-36 months corrected age. LBW infants (BW< 2000 g) were randomized to an intervention (IG) or a control group (CG). The EI consisted of seven in-hospital sessions prior to discharge, then four home visits. A Child Rearing Practices Report was administered at 12 (mothers only), 24 and 36 months. A total of 146 infants were randomized. The mean BW in IG was 1396 (SD 429) g and 1381 (436) g in CG. The mean GA was 30.2 (3.1) weeks in IG and 29.9 (3.5) weeks in CG. Mothers in IG reported significantly more nurturant child-rearing attitudes at 12 and 24 months. There was a significant change in restrictive and nurturant attitudes over time. It was concluded that EI may lead to more nurturant child-rearing attitudes in mothers of preterms.

  13. Neonatal cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis in a preterm extremely-low-birth-weight infant with favourable outcome at 3-year follow-up: a case report.

    PubMed

    Manzoni, P; Rizzollo, S; Monetti, C; Carbonara, C; Priolo, C; Mastretta, E; Barberis, L; Galletto, P; Cigna, P; Leonessa, M L; Sala, U; Gomirato, G; Mostert, M; Stronati, M; Ruffinazzi, G; Tzialla, C; Jacqz-Aigrain, E; Kaguelidou, F; Farina, D

    2012-05-01

    Invasive disseminated neonatal aspergillosis is an uncommon disease, with only scattered reports in literature in the last few years. Here we report on a 25-week gestational age, 730 g at birth preterm female infant who developed on day-of-life 10 multiple cutaneous exhulcerative lesions in her right arm, trunk and abdomen. Early recognition and diagnosis of these lesions as a due to cutaneous initial symptom of cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis, as well as prompt treatment with Liposomal amphotericin B + Itraconazole, secured successful recovery from the systemic infection. Skin lesions healed without any surgical treatment. The infant was discharged in good health. Long-term follow-up at three years of age revealed normality of all neurodevelopmental and cognitive parameters. To our knowledge, this is one of the very few cases of survival, free from sequelae, for a preterm infant affected by neonatal cutaneous disseminated aspergillosis.

  14. Brain microstructural development at near-term age in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants: an atlas-based diffusion imaging study.

    PubMed

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Guzman, Ximena Stecher; Stevenson, David K; Barnea-Goraly, Naama

    2014-02-01

    At near-term age the brain undergoes rapid growth and development. Abnormalities identified during this period have been recognized as potential predictors of neurodevelopment in children born preterm. This study used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine white matter (WM) microstructure in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants to better understand regional WM developmental trajectories at near-term age. DTI scans were analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of 45 VLBW preterm infants (BW≤1500g, GA≤32weeks) within a cohort of 102 neonates admitted to the NICU and recruited to participate prior to standard-of-care MRI, from 2010 to 2011, 66/102 also had DTI. For inclusion in this analysis, 45 infants had DTI, no evidence of brain abnormality on MRI, and were scanned at PMA ≤40weeks (34.7-38.6). White matter microstructure was analyzed in 19 subcortical regions defined by DiffeoMap neonatal brain atlas, using threshold values of trace <0.006mm(2)s(-1) and FA >0.15. Regional fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated and temporal-spatial trajectories of development were examined in relation to PMA and brain region location. Posterior regions within the corona radiata (CR), corpus callosum (CC), and internal capsule (IC) demonstrated significantly higher mean FA values compared to anterior regions. Posterior regions of the CR and IC demonstrated significantly lower RD values compared to anterior regions. Centrally located projection fibers demonstrated higher mean FA and lower RD values than peripheral regions including the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), cerebral peduncle, retrolenticular part of the IC, posterior thalamic radiation, and sagittal stratum. Centrally located association fibers of the external capsule had higher FA and lower RD than the more peripherally-located superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF). A significant relationship between PMA-at-scan and

  15. Biochemical markers of spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Chan, Ronna L

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a delivery that occurs at less than 37 completed weeks of gestation and it is associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm birth accounts for up to 75% of all preterm births. A number of maternal or fetal characteristics have been associated with preterm birth, but the use of individual or group biochemical markers have advanced some of the understanding on the mechanisms leading to spontaneous preterm birth. This paper provides a summary on the current literature on the use of biochemical markers in predicting spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. Evidence from the literature suggests fetal fibronectin, cervical interleukin-6, and α-fetoprotein as promising biochemical markers in predicting spontaneous preterm birth in asymptomatic women. The role of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions, as well as epigenetics, has the potential to further elucidate and improve understanding of the underlying mechanisms or pathways of spontaneous preterm birth. Refinement in study design and methodology is needed in future research for the development and validation of individual or group biochemical marker(s) for use independently or in conjunction with other potential risk factors such as genetic variants and environmental and behavioral factors in predicting spontaneous preterm birth across diverse populations.

  16. Vocal Development of Infants with Very Low Birth Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rvachew, Susan; Creighton, Dianne; Feldman, Naida; Sauve, Reg

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the vocal development of infants born with very low birth weights (VLBW). Samples of vocalizations were recorded from three groups of infants when they were 8, 12 and 18 months of age: preterm VLBW infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), preterm VLBW infants without BPD, and healthy full-term infants. Infants with BPD…

  17. Preterm birth: a cost benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Rushing, Susan; Ment, Laura R

    2004-12-01

    Advances in prenatal and perinatal treatment of preterm and VLBW infants have dramatically increased the survival rate of these infants. Some interventions decrease long term sequelae associated with preterm birth, making them more cost-effective than other treatments. This paper reviews the cost-effectiveness of therapies targeted to protect the preterm brain. Birth in a center with a NICU improves survival and decreases the rate of severe neurologic disability. Administration of antenatal steroids increases survival and decreases rates of periventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, necrotizing enterocolitis, respiratory distress syndrome, and severe disability. Administration of antenatal steroids decreases costs per additional survivor. Addition of surfactant to the treatment of PT infants has also decreased treatment costs. Administration of surfactant is beneficial for symptomatic RDS but recognizes a greater benefit when given to infants younger than 30 weeks gestation prophylactically. Treatment with prophylactic indomethacin decreases the rate of intraventricular hemorrhage and results in cost savings in survivors. Postnatal administration of dexamethasone can lead to severe disability when administered before 7 to 10 days of life. Postnatal dexamethasone does not increase survival or decrease rates of chronic lung disease.

  18. The relationship between preterm birth and underweight in Asian women.

    PubMed

    Neggers, Yasmin H

    2015-08-15

    Although vast improvements have been made in the survival of preterm infants, the toll of preterm birth (PTB) is particularly severe in Asia, with the Indian subcontinent leading the preterm birth rate. Despite the obesity epidemic, maternal underweight remains a common occurrence in developing countries. An association between maternal underweight and preterm birth has been reported in developed countries. A review of epidemiological studies in Asian women in whom association between maternal body mass index (BMI) and risk of PTB was measured, indicated no significant association between low maternal BMI and preterm birth. A hindrance in comparison of these studies is the use of different cut-off point for BMI in defining maternal underweight. As a commentary on published studies it is proposed that that country-specific BMI cut points should be applied for defining underweight for Asian women for the purpose of evaluating the association between maternal underweight and preterm birth.

  19. Preterm Birth and Adult Wealth: Mathematics Skills Count.

    PubMed

    Basten, Maartje; Jaekel, Julia; Johnson, Samantha; Gilmore, Camilla; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-10-01

    Each year, 15 million babies worldwide are born preterm. Preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes across the life span. Recent registry-based studies suggest that preterm birth is associated with decreased wealth in adulthood, but the mediating mechanisms are unknown. This study investigated whether the relationship between preterm birth and low adult wealth is mediated by poor academic abilities and educational qualifications. Participants were members of two British population-based birth cohorts born in 1958 and 1970, respectively. Results showed that preterm birth was associated with decreased wealth at 42 years of age. This association was mediated by decreased intelligence, reading, and, in particular, mathematics attainment in middle childhood, as well as decreased educational qualifications in young adulthood. Findings were similar in both cohorts, which suggests that these mechanisms may be time invariant. Special educational support in childhood may prevent preterm children from becoming less wealthy as adults.

  20. Microbiome in parturition and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Mysorekar, Indira U; Cao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Preterm parturition is a one of the most significant global maternal-child health problem. In recent years, there has been an explosion in reports on a role for microbiomes (i.e., a microbial biomass) on a plethora of physiologic and pathologic human conditions. This review aims to describe our current understanding of the microbiome and its impact on parturition, with particular emphasis on preterm birth. We will focus on the roles of vaginal and oral mucosal microbiomes in premature parturition and describe the state-of-the-art methodologies used in microbiome studies. Next, we will present new studies on a potential microbiome in the placenta and how it may affect pregnancy outcomes. Finally, we will propose that host genetic factors can perturb the normal "pregnancy microbiome" and trigger adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Birth weight is forever.

    PubMed

    Basso, Olga

    2008-03-01

    Birth weight is associated not just with infant morbidity and mortality, but with outcomes occurring much later in life, including adult mortality, as reported by a paper by Baker and colleagues in this issue of Epidemiology. While these associations are tantalizing per se, the truly interesting question concerns the mechanisms that underlie these links. The prevailing hypothesis suggests a "fetal origin" of diseases resulting from alterations in fetal nutrition that permanently program organ function. The most commonly proposed alternative is that factors, mainly genetic, that affect both fetal growth and disease risk are responsible for the observed associations. Although both mechanisms are intellectually attractive-and may well coexist-we should be cautious to not focus excessively on fetal growth. Doing this may lead us in the wrong direction, as has likely happened in the case of birth weight in relation to infant survival.

  2. Total parenteral nutrition for the very low birth weight infant.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinkal; Bhatia, Jatinder

    2017-02-01

    Preterm infants, especially very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) infants, are susceptible to growth failure in postnatal life if nutritional demands are not met. Poor postnatal growth in preterm infants is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes during childhood. Early parental nutrition is of paramount importance to provide appropriate protein and energy in VLBW infants when enteral nutrition is not feasible or is suboptimal. An "early and aggressive" approach of parenteral nutrition in preterm infants has been shown to prevent protein catabolism, induce positive nitrogen balance and improve postnatal growth.

  3. Estimation of preterm birth rate, associated factors and maternal morbidity from a demographic and health survey in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, Ricardo P; Passini, Renato; Cecatti, José G; Camargo, Rodrigo S; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C; Sousa, Maria H

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of preterm birth from self-reports by Brazilian women, to assess complications, interventions and outcomes, to identify factors associated with preterm birth, and to improve the preterm birth rates estimates. This is a secondary analysis of data from a Demographic Health Survey. It interviewed a sample of 4,743 Brazilian women who had 6,113 live births from 2001 to 2007. Estimates of preterm birth rates were obtained per region and per year according to self-reported gestational age. The prevalence rate and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for preterm was determined according to the characteristics of mothers and offspring. Odds ratios and 95 % CI were estimated for complications such as severe maternal morbidity. The preterm birth rate was 9.9 %, with regional variations. Preterm birth was more likely to be associated with neonatal death, low birth weight, and longer hospital stay. Maternal factors associated with preterm birth were: white ethnicity, living in an urban area, history of hypertension or heart disease, twin gestation, non-elective Cesarean section, medical insurance for delivery, low number of antenatal visits, and severe morbidity. A self-report survey has indicated that the preterm birth rate in Brazil is higher than official data suggest, with an increasing trend in more developed areas, and is associated with poor neonatal and maternal outcomes.

  4. Immigrants and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-08-01

    To examine, nationwide, if there is an association between country of birth in mothers and preterm birth and to study whether any such association remains in second-generation immigrant women. In this follow-up study, a nationwide research database located at Lund University, Sweden, was used to identify all preterm born singletons in Sweden between January 1, 1982, and December 31, 2006. Incidence ratios were standardized with regard to maternal age at birth, marital status, geographical region, body height, and smoking history as well as period of birth, family income, and gender of the infant. Singletons of mothers born in Sweden were used as the reference group. There were 2,192,843 records for singletons over the study period, of whom 4.9 % were preterm births and 0.8 % were very preterm births. Increased risk of preterm birth was observed for mothers from Austria, Yugoslavia, Romania, Central Europe, and Asia. Increased risk of very preterm birth was observed for mothers from Eastern Europe, Central Europe, Africa, and Asia; these increased risk disappeared, however, in the second-generation female immigrants. Country of birth in mothers affected the risk of preterm birth; maternity care should pay special attention to women from certain population groups.

  5. Systematic review and meta-analysis of preterm birth and later systolic blood pressure.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Monuteaux, Michael C; van Elburg, Ruurd M; Gillman, Matthew W; Belfort, Mandy B

    2012-02-01

    Lower birth weight because of fetal growth restriction is associated with higher blood pressure later in life, but the extent to which preterm birth (<37 completed weeks' gestation) or very low birth weight (<1500 g) predicts higher blood pressure is less clear. We performed a systematic review of 27 observational studies that compared the resting or ambulatory systolic blood pressure or diagnosis of hypertension among children, adolescents, and adults born preterm or very low birth weight with those born at term. We performed a meta-analysis with the subset of 10 studies that reported the resting systolic blood pressure difference in millimeters of mercury with 95% CIs or SEs. We assessed methodologic quality with a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The 10 studies were composed of 1342 preterm or very low birth weight and 1738 term participants from 8 countries. The mean gestational age at birth of the preterm participants was 30.2 weeks (range: 28.8-34.1 weeks), birth weight was 1280 g (range: 1098-1958 g), and age at systolic blood pressure measurement was 17.8 years (range: 6.3-22.4 years). Former preterm or very low birth weight infants had higher systolic blood pressure than term infants (pooled estimate: 2.5 mm Hg [95% CI: 1.7-3.3 mm Hg]). For the 5 highest quality studies, the systolic blood pressure difference was slightly greater, at 3.8 mm Hg (95% CI: 2.6-5.0 mm Hg). We conclude that infants who are born preterm or very low birth weight have modestly higher systolic blood pressure later in life and may be at increased risk for developing hypertension and its sequelae.

  6. Maternal Adjustment Following Preterm Birth: Contributions of Experiential Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greco, Laurie A.; Heffner, Michelle; Poe, Susannah; Ritchie, Susan; Polak, Mark; Lynch, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    The birth of a preterm infant has been linked with parental distress and adjustment difficulties, yet little is known about the psychosocial factors contributing to this association. Using a cross-sectional design, we therefore examined maternal adjustment following preterm birth, with an emphasis on the potential role of experiential avoidance.…

  7. Maternal activity restriction and the prevention of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Sciscione, Anthony C

    2010-03-01

    Activity restriction is 1 of the most common interventions used in obstetrics. Although it is used for many reasons, 1 of the most common is to prevent preterm birth in those at risk. This review of the literature describes the potential advantages, disadvantages, and efficacy of activity restriction for the prevention of preterm birth.

  8. Novel Toll-like receptor-4 antagonist (+)-naloxone protects mice from inflammation-induced preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Peck Yin; Dorian, Camilla L.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Olson, David M.; Rice, Kenner C.; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M.; Robertson, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation by bacterial infection, or by sterile inflammatory insult is a primary trigger of spontaneous preterm birth. Here we utilize mouse models to investigate the efficacy of a novel small molecule TLR4 antagonist, (+)-naloxone, the non-opioid isomer of the opioid receptor antagonist (−)-naloxone, in infection-associated preterm birth. Treatment with (+)-naloxone prevented preterm delivery and alleviated fetal demise in utero elicited by i.p. LPS administration in late gestation. A similar effect with protection from preterm birth and perinatal death, and partial correction of reduced birth weight and postnatal mortality, was conferred by (+)-naloxone administration after intrauterine administration of heat-killed E. coli. Local induction by E. coli of inflammatory cytokine genes Il1b, Il6, Tnf and Il10 in fetal membranes was suppressed by (+)-naloxone, and cytokine expression in the placenta, and uterine myometrium and decidua, was also attenuated. These data demonstrate that inhibition of TLR4 signaling with the novel TLR4 antagonist (+)-naloxone can suppress the inflammatory cascade of preterm parturition, to prevent preterm birth and perinatal death. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of small molecule inhibition of TLR-driven inflammation as a component of strategies for fetal protection and delaying preterm birth in the clinical setting. PMID:27819333

  9. The genetics of preterm birth: Progress and promise.

    PubMed

    Monangi, Nagendra K; Brockway, Heather M; House, Melissa; Zhang, Ge; Muglia, Louis J

    2015-12-01

    Preterm birth is the single leading cause of mortality for neonates and children less than 5 years of age. Compared to other childhood diseases, such as infections, less progress in prevention of prematurity has been made. In large part, the continued high burden of prematurity results from the limited understanding of the mechanisms controlling normal birth timing in humans, and how individual genetic variation and environmental exposures disrupt these mechanisms to cause preterm birth. In this review, we summarize the outcomes and limitations from studies in model organisms for birth timing in humans, the evidence that genetic factors contribute to birth timing and risk for preterm birth, and recent genetic and genomic studies in women and infants that implicate specific genes and pathways. We conclude with discussing areas of potential high impact in understanding human parturition and preterm birth in the future.

  10. The Correlation Between Serum Vitamin D Deficiency and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lixia; Pan, Shilei; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Xiaoyang; Qin, Aikai; Huang, Yuxin; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is an important cause of death and developmental disorder in neonates. Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to regulate body inflammatory factor levels that stimulate elevation of uterine contraction hormones, such as prostaglandin, thus causing preterm birth. However, current observations regarding the relationship between vitamin D and preterm birth are inconsistent. We performed a nested case-control study to investigate the effect of vitamin D on preterm birth. Material/Methods A prospective cohort study included 200 cases of pregnant women in our hospital from May 2013 to May 2015. Blood samples were collected from early, middle, and late stages of pregnancy. Forty-six patients with preterm delivery were compared with age-matched full-term delivery cases (N=92). High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was used to detect serum levels of 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D2, and 25(OH)D3. Logistic regression was performed to analyze the correlation between 25(OH)D and risk of preterm birth. Results No significant difference in age, smoking/drinking, education level, BMI and vitamin D levels was found between the preterm birth group and full-term delivery group. No significant difference was found for vitamin D levels across different stages of pregnancy; no difference in concentration of 25(OH)D related to preterm birth risk was found. After adjusting for potentially confounding factors, serum vitamin D level did not increase the risk of preterm birth. Conclusions This study did not found evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk related to vitamin D level during pregnancy. PMID:27851719

  11. The Growing Trend of Moderate Preterm Births: An Ecological Study in One Region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Emiliana Cristina; Falavina, Larissa Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a serious public health problem, as it is linked to high rates of neonatal and child morbidity and mortality, with Brazil listed among the countries with the ten highest numbers of premature births. Nonetheless, knowledge is scarce regarding prematurity and associated factors in mid-sized cities. The objective of this study was to analyze the trend of preterm births and associated factors in a municipality located in the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This was an ecological time series study of births recorded into the Live Birth Information System for residents of Maringá, Paraná, Brazil, between 2000 and 2013. The polynomial regression model was used for trend analysis of preterm birth, characteristics of the mother, gestation and delivery, and newborn. The association with preterm birth was analyzed using odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 61,634 live births were analyzed, of which 5,632 were preterm births. Prematurity increased from 7.9% in 2000 to 11.2% in 2013 –an average increase of 0.54% per year (r2 = 0.93)–with a growing share of moderate preterm births (32 to <37 weeks), which rose from 7.0% in 2000 to 9.7% in 2013. Between 2011 and 2013, multiple pregnancy (OR = 16.64; CI = 13.24–20.92), inadequate number of prenatal visits (OR = 2.81; CI = 2.51–3.15), Apgar score below 7 at 1 (OR = 4.07; CI = 3.55–4.67) and 5 minutes (OR = 10.88; CI = 7.71–15.36), low birth weight (OR = 38.75; CI = 33.72–44.55) and congenital malformations (OR = 3.18; CI = 2.14–4.74) were associated with preterm birth. A growing trend was observed for multiple pregnancies, with an average annual increase of 0.32% (r2 = 0.90), as well as for C-section birth (2.38% yearly increase). Of all newborn characteristics, Apgar score below 7 at 5 minutes (-0.19% per year) and low birth weight (-1.43%) decreased, whereas congenital malformations rose (0.20% per year). Conclusions Efforts are required to prevent premature delivery, particularly

  12. AIR POLLUTION, INFLAMMATION AND PRETERM BIRTH: A POTENTIAL MECHANISTIC LINK

    PubMed Central

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A.; Sánchez, Brisa N.; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G.; O´Neill, Marie S.

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:24382337

  13. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth: a potential mechanistic link.

    PubMed

    Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Viveros-Alcaráz, Martin; Castillo-Castrejón, Marisol; Beltrán-Montoya, Jorge; Brown, Daniel G; O'Neill, Marie S

    2014-02-01

    Preterm birth is a public health issue of global significance, which may result in mortality during the perinatal period or may lead to major health and financial consequences due to lifelong impacts. Even though several risk factors for preterm birth have been identified, prevention efforts have failed to halt the increasing rates of preterm birth. Epidemiological studies have identified air pollution as an emerging potential risk factor for preterm birth. However, many studies were limited by study design and inadequate exposure assessment. Due to the ubiquitous nature of ambient air pollution and the potential public health significance of any role in causing preterm birth, a novel focus investigating possible causal mechanisms influenced by air pollution is therefore a global health priority. We hypothesize that air pollution may act together with other biological factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Evaluation and testing of this hypothesis is currently being conducted in a prospective cohort study in Mexico City and will provide an understanding of the pathways that mediate the effects of air pollution on preterm birth. The important public health implication is that crucial steps in this mechanistic pathway can potentially be acted on early in pregnancy to reduce the risk of preterm birth.

  14. The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes of very low birth weight, very preterm neonates (iNeo): a protocol for collaborative comparisons of international health services for quality improvement in neonatal care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The International Network for Evaluating Outcomes in Neonates (iNeo) is a collaboration of population-based national neonatal networks including Australia and New Zealand, Canada, Israel, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK. The aim of iNeo is to provide a platform for comparative evaluation of outcomes of very preterm and very low birth weight neonates at the national, site, and individual level to generate evidence for improvement of outcomes in these infants. Methods/design Individual-level data from each iNeo network will be used for comparative analysis of neonatal outcomes between networks. Variations in outcomes will be identified and disseminated to generate hypotheses regarding factors impacting outcome variation. Detailed information on physical and environmental factors, human and resource factors, and processes of care will be collected from network sites, and tested for association with neonatal outcomes. Subsequently, changes in identified practices that may influence the variations in outcomes will be implemented and evaluated using quality improvement methods. Discussion The evidence obtained using the iNeo platform will enable clinical teams from member networks to identify, implement, and evaluate practice and service provision changes aimed at improving the care and outcomes of very low birth weight and very preterm infants within their respective countries. The knowledge generated will be available worldwide with a likely global impact. PMID:24758585

  15. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part II: From Canonical Babbling up to the Appearance of the First Word

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically describe the preverbal development of preterm infants from canonical babbling up to the first word and to compare it with that of healthy full-term infants. In addition, the amount of vocalization between the preterm and full-term groups was compared. The sample consisted of 18 preterm infants with…

  16. Cost effects of preterm birth: a comparison of health care costs associated with early preterm, late preterm, and full-term birth in the first 3 years after birth.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Josephine; Lehne, Moritz; Mischker, Andrea; Klinger, Normen; Zickermann, Claudia; Walker, Jochen

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth is one of the main causes for infant morbidity and mortality. Apart from negative health outcomes, preterm birth also produces significant health care expenditures. This study evaluates the costs associated with preterm birth in different health sectors during the first 3 years of infants' lives. In a retrospective observational study based on claims data from a German statutory health insurance company, average costs for medication, hospital treatment, ambulatory treatment, and non-medical remedies during the first 3 years after birth were analyzed for early preterm, late preterm, and full-term births. Costs associated with preterm births were generally higher than for full-term births, with the highest costs for the hospital treatment of early preterm births. Cost differences tended to decrease in the second and third year after birth except for ambulatory treatment costs, which decreased for late preterm and full-term births but not for early preterm births. The study shows that preterm birth is associated with increased health care costs, particularly during the first year after birth, indicating that the implementation of adequate programs and policies for preventing preterm birth is not only desirable from a medical but also from a health economic perspective.

  17. Cervical Pessary for Prevention of Preterm Birth: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Xin-Hang; Li, Dan; Huang, Li-Li

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of cervical pessary placement in preventing preterm birth and perinatal morbidity and mortality in asymptomatic women with a singleton pregnancy and a short cervix, we searched literature in relevant databases. The meta-analysis of the 3 included trials (1412 women) showed cervical pessary placement did not reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm birth <34 weeks in these women (risk ratio (RR), 0.71; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.21–2.43, P = 0.59; I2 = 90%). The sensitivity analyses by excluding one trial at one time showed the same results. This meta-analysis also showed that cervical pessary did not prevent preterm birth <34, 30, 28 weeks and was not associated with respiratory distress syndrome, necrotising enterocolitis, intraventricular haemorrhage, neonatal sepsis, retinopathy of prematurity, fetal death, neonatal death, perinatal death, birth weight <1500 g, birth weight <2500 g, premature preterm rupture of membranes, corticosteroid treatment for fetal maturation, and admission to neonatal intensive care unit. Although this meta-analysis showed cervical pessary placement did not reduce the risk of preterm birth in women with a singleton pregnancy and a short cervix, we could not confirm or refute this conclusion, and large-scale randomised controlled trials are urgently needed. PMID:28209998

  18. How is maternal nutrition related to preterm birth?

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Frank H

    2011-08-21

    The incidence of preterm birth in developed countries is increasing, and in some countries, including the United States, it is almost as high as in developing countries. Demographic changes in women becoming pregnant can account for only a relatively small proportion of the increase. A significant proportion of spontaneous preterm birth continues to be of unknown cause. Experimental data from animal studies suggesting that maternal undernutrition may play a role in spontaneous, noninfectious, preterm birth are supported by observational data in human populations, which support a role for maternal prepregnancy nutritional status in determining gestation length. In addition, intakes or lack of specific nutrients during pregnancy may influence gestation length and thus the risk of preterm birth. As yet, the role of paternal nutrition in contributing to gestation length is unexplored.

  19. The preterm birth syndrome: a prototype phenotypic classification.

    PubMed

    Villar, Jose; Papageorghiou, Aris T; Knight, Hannah E; Gravett, Michael G; Iams, Jay; Waller, Sarah A; Kramer, Michael; Culhane, Jennifer F; Barros, Fernando C; Conde-Agudelo, Agustín; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Goldenberg, Robert L

    2012-02-01

    Preterm birth is a syndrome with many causes and phenotypes. We propose a classification that is based on clinical phenotypes that are defined by ≥ 1 characteristics of the mother, the fetus, the placenta, the signs of parturition, and the pathway to delivery. Risk factors and mode of delivery are not included. There are 5 components in a preterm birth phenotype: (1) maternal conditions that are present before presentation for delivery, (2) fetal conditions that are present before presentation for delivery, (3) placental pathologic conditions, (4) signs of the initiation of parturition, and (5) the pathway to delivery. This system does not force any preterm birth into a predefined phenotype and allows all relevant conditions to become part of the phenotype. Needed data can be collected from the medical records to classify every preterm birth. The classification system will improve understanding of the cause and improve surveillance across populations.

  20. Role of structural birth defects in preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Shaw, G M; Savitz, D A; Nelson, V; Thorp, J M

    2001-04-01

    The proportion of preterm births associated with structural birth defects has not been adequately quantified. We explored the proportion of preterm infants with structural birth defects diagnosed in the first year of life, as well as the specific phenotypes of birth defects occurring among preterm infants. The data used were from the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program, a population-based registry, as well as data from California vital records corresponding to births and fetal deaths in the period 1984-96. The prevalence of structural birth defects exceeded 8% among deliveries with gestational ages < or = 30 weeks, and prevalence decreased to 2% as gestational age increased to > or = 37 weeks gestation. The decreasing prevalence pattern with increasing gestational age was observed for a variety of anatomically defined birth defect groups suggesting that certain birth defects were not the sole contributors to the elevated prevalences among preterm births. Decreasing prevalence with increasing gestational age was also observed across strata of maternal race/ethnicities, ages, infant's sex and each year studied. These data indicate that structural birth defects may contribute significantly to the proportion of infants who are delivered before 37 weeks gestation.

  1. The prevalence of preterm birth and season of conception

    PubMed Central

    Bodnar, Lisa M.; Simhan, Hyagriv N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Preterm birth is a major obstetric problem. An exploration of the season of conception in relation to preterm birth may provide direction in the search for risk factors. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 82 213 singleton livebirths (20–45 weeks’ gestation) to 61 630 women at Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA, from 1995 to 2005. Conception was estimated based on gestational age determined by best obstetric estimate. Fourier series analysis was used to model seasonal trends. Spontaneous preterm birth at <37 weeks was associated with conception season (P < 0.05). The peak prevalence occurred among conceptions in winter and spring (peaking February 23 at 6.9%), with an average trough among late summer/early autumn conceptions (August 25 at 6.2%). The pattern for spontaneous preterm birth <32 weeks was similar (P < 0.05), with the peak on March 13 (1.7%), and nadir on September 12 (1.4%). Results were similar when indicated preterm births were included. These seasonal changes may increase our insight into the role of exposures with seasonal periodicity in the pathophysiology of preterm birth. PMID:19000291

  2. Epigenetics, linking social and environmental exposures to preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Burris, Heather H; Baccarelli, Andrea A; Wright, Robert O; Wright, Rosalind J

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity. Despite decades of research, marked racial and socioeconomic disparities in preterm birth persist. In the US, more than 16% of African American infants are born before 37 weeks of gestation compared to less than 11% of white infants. While income and education differences predict a portion of these racial disparities, income and education are proxies of the underlying causes rather than the true cause. How these differences lead to the pathophysiology remains unknown. Beyond tobacco smoke exposure, most preterm birth investigators overlook environment exposures that often correlate with poverty. Environmental exposures to industrial contaminants track along both socioeconomic and racial/ethnic lines due to cultural variation in personal product use, diet and residential geographical separation. Emerging evidence suggests that environmental exposure to metals and plasticizers contribute to preterm birth and epigenetic modifications. The extent to which disparities in preterm birth result from interactions between the social and physical environments that produce epigenetic modifications remains unclear. In this review, we highlight studies that report associations between environmental exposures and preterm birth as well as perinatal epigenetic sensitivity to environmental contaminants and socioeconomic stressors. PMID:26460521

  3. Environmental contaminant exposures and preterm birth: A comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; O’Neill, Marie S.; Meeker, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a significant public health concern, as it is associated with high risk of infant mortality, various morbidities in both the neonatal period and later in life, and a significant societal economic burden. As many cases are of unknown etiology, identification of the contribution of environmental contaminant exposures is a priority in the study of preterm birth. This is a comprehensive review of all known studies published from 1992 through August 2012 linking maternal exposure to environmental chemicals during pregnancy with preterm birth. Using PubMed searches studies were identified that examined associations between preterm birth and exposure to 5 categories of environmental toxicants, including persistent organic pollutants, drinking water contaminants, atmospheric pollutants, metals and metalloids, and other environmental contaminants. Individual studies were summarized and specific suggestions made for future work in regard to exposure and outcome assessment methods as well as study design, with the recommendation of focusing on potential mediating toxicological mechanisms. In conclusion, no consistent evidence was found for positive associations between individual chemical exposures and preterm birth. By identifying limitations and addressing the gaps that may have impeded the ability to identify true associations thus far, this review can guide future epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and preterm birth. PMID:23682677

  4. Towards BirthAlert—A Clinical Device Intended for Early Preterm Birth Detection

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Liu, Jonathan A.; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth causes 1 million infant deaths worldwide every year, making it the leading cause of infant mortality. Existing diagnostic tests such as transvaginal ultrasound or fetal fibronectin either cannot determine if preterm birth will occur in the future or can only predict the occurrence once cervical shortening has begun, at which point it is too late to reverse the accelerated parturition process. Using iterative and rapid prototyping techniques, we have developed an intravaginal proof-of-concept device that measures both cervical bioimpedance and cervical fluorescence to characterize microstructural changes in a pregnant woman's cervix in hopes of detecting preterm birth before macroscopic changes manifest in the tissue. If successful, such an early alert during this “silent phase” of the preterm birth syndrome may open a new window of opportunity for interventions that may reverse and avoid preterm birth altogether. PMID:23893706

  5. Genetic Influences on Preterm Birth in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Paul C.; Cooper, Margaret E.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Comas, Belén; Gili, Juan; Crumley, Suzanne; Bream, Elise N.A.; Byers, Heather M.; Piester, Travis; Schaefer, Amanda; Christine, Paul J.; Lawrence, Amy; Schaa, Kendra L.; Kelsey, Keegan J.P.; Berends, Susan K.; Gadow, Enrique; Cosentino, Viviana; Castilla, Eduardo E.; Camelo, Jorge López; Saleme, Cesar; Day, Lori J.; England, Sarah K.; Marazita, Mary L.; Dagle, John M.; Murray, Jeffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate genetic etiologies of preterm birth (PTB) in Argentina through evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in candidate genes and population genetic admixture. Study Design Genotyping was performed in 389 families. Maternal, paternal, and fetal effects were studied separately. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was sequenced in 50 males and 50 females. Y-chromosome anthropological markers were evaluated in 50 males. Results Fetal association with PTB was found in the progesterone receptor (PGR, rs1942836; p= 0.004). Maternal association with PTB was found in small conductance calcium activated potassium channel isoform 3 (KCNN3, rs883319; p= 0.01). Gestational age associated with PTB in PGR rs1942836 at 32 –36 weeks (p= 0.0004). MtDNA sequencing determined 88 individuals had Amerindian consistent haplogroups. Two individuals had Amerindian Y-chromosome consistent haplotypes. Conclusions This study replicates single locus fetal associations with PTB in PGR, maternal association in KCNN3, and demonstrates possible effects for divergent racial admixture on PTB. PMID:23018797

  6. [Medically indicated preterm birth. Maternal and fetal consequences].

    PubMed

    Vargas González, Alejandro; Canales Muñoz, José Luis; Torres Gómez, Luis Guillermo; Barba Bustos, Ana María

    2002-03-01

    One of the principal challenges of obstetrics is to reduce the percentage of perinatal mortality. Preterm birth is considered the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Preterm birth by medical indication, is a condition rarely documented in medical literature, but it requires analysis to determine the effect in perinatal health. In a third care hospital setting, a prospective study was performed on 154 pregnant women that delivered preterm babies between 25 and 36 weeks of gestation. The Relative Risk (RR) was obtained to compare the association between the medical indication of the preterm birth, the use of fetal pulmonary maturants, type of delivery, the health status of the newborn at birth and hospital discharge. The main causes of preterm birth by medical indication were: premature rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth retardation and fetal distress. Neonatal mortality was 13%. The rate of cesarean section was higher than expected. Despite the various types of delivery, there were no significant differences between mortality, length of hospital stay or hospital complications. The probability of death to preterm born was explained to gestational age and was not modified for medical decision to interrupt pregnancy.

  7. Offspring preterm birth and birth size are related to long-term risk of maternal diabetes.

    PubMed

    Naver, Klara Vinsand; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Ovesen, Per Glud; Gorst-Rasmussen, Anders; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren; Nilas, Lisbeth

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the association between gestational age, birth size, and the long-term risk of maternal diabetes. We conducted a nation-wide prospective follow-up study of the cohort of all Danish women with a singleton delivery in 1982/1983 (index delivery) and no history of diabetes (n = 100,669). Registries were used to extract information on patients with a hospital or outpatient diagnosis of diabetes, subsequent deliveries, and death/emigration in the period from the index delivery until the end of 2006. The association between the maternal risk of diabetes and the index gestational age and index offspring birth size (birth weight adjusted for gestational age) was investigated by using Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified according to young (≤33 years) and old age (>33 years). During a median follow-up period of 24 years, 2,021 women (2.0 %) were diagnosed as having diabetes. The risk of maternal diabetes was positively associated with increasing index birth size and negatively associated with increasing duration of index gestation in both age strata. Among young women, the highest hazard ratios were found for the exposure category of large index offspring birth size (adjusted HR 9.0, 95 % CI 6.17-13.12) and a preterm delivery at 32-37 weeks (adjusted HR 2.22, 95 % CI 1.46-3.40). Offspring preterm birth and large size for gestational age at birth are associated with increased risk of maternal diabetes.

  8. Effects of Maternal Age and Age-Specific Preterm Birth Rates on Overall Preterm Birth Rates - United States, 2007 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Ferré, Cynthia; Callaghan, William; Olson, Christine; Sharma, Andrea; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-11-04

    Reductions in births to teens and preterm birth rates are two recent public health successes in the United States (1,2). From 2007 to 2014, the birth rate for females aged 15-19 years declined 42%, from 41.5 to 24.2 per 1,000 females. The preterm birth rate decreased 8.4%, from 10.41% to 9.54% of live births (1). Rates of preterm births vary by maternal age, being higher among the youngest and oldest mothers. It is unknown how changes in the maternal age distribution in the United States have affected preterm birth rates. CDC used birth data to assess the relative contributions of changes in the maternal age distribution and in age-specific preterm birth rates to the overall decrease in preterm birth rates. The preterm birth rate declined in all age groups. The effects of age distribution changes on the preterm birth rate decrease were different in younger and older mothers. The decrease in the proportion of births to mothers aged ≤19 and 20-24 years and reductions in age-specific preterm rates in all age groups contributed to the overall decline in the preterm birth rate. The increase in births to mothers aged ≥30 years had no effect on the overall preterm birth rate decrease. The decline in preterm births from 2007 to 2014 is related, in part, to teen pregnancy prevention and the changing maternal age distribution. Effective public health strategies for further reducing preterm birth rates need to be tailored to different age groups.

  9. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Hazarika, Jayant; Dutta, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008) at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%). Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population. PMID:27335924

  10. Role of Maternal Periodontitis in Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyu; Du, Minquan

    2017-01-01

    In the last two decades, many studies have focused on whether periodontitis is a risk factor for preterm birth (PTB). However, both epidemiological investigation and intervention trials have reached contradictory results from different studies. What explains the different findings, and how should future studies be conducted to better assess this risk factor? This article reviews recent epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies as well as intervention trials that evaluate the link between periodontitis and PTB. Periodontitis may act as a distant reservoir of microbes and inflammatory mediators and contribute to the induction of PTB. Animal studies revealed that maternal infections with periodontal pathogens increase levels of circulating IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, and TNF-α and induce PTB. In vitro models showed that periodontal pathogens/byproducts induce COX-2, IL-8, IFN-γ, and TNF-α secretion and/or apoptosis in placental tissues/cells. The effectiveness of periodontal treatment to prevent PTB is influenced by the diagnostic criteria of periodontitis, microbial community composition, severity of periodontitis, treatment strategy, treatment efficiency, and the period of treatment during pregnancy. Although intervention trials reported contradictory results, oral health maintenance is an important part of preventive care that is both effective and safe throughout pregnancy and should be supported before and during pregnancy. As contradictory epidemiological and intervention studies continue to be published, two new ideas are proposed here: (1) severe and/or generalized periodontitis promotes PTB and (2) periodontitis only promotes PTB for pregnant women who are young or HIV-infected or have preeclampsia, pre-pregnancy obesity, or susceptible genotypes. PMID:28243243

  11. Invasive candidiasis in low birth weight preterm infants: risk factors, clinical course and outcome in a prospective multicenter study of cases and their matched controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This multicenter prospective study of invasive candidiasis (IC) was carried out to determine the risk factors for, incidence of, clinical and laboratory features, treatment and outcome of IC in infants of birth weight <1250 g. Methods Neonates <1250 g with IC and their matched controls (2:1) were followed longitudinally and descriptive analysis was performed. Survivors underwent neurodevelopmental assessment at 18 to 24 months corrected age. Neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) was defined as blindness, deafness, moderate to severe cerebral palsy, or a score <70 on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development 2nd edition. Multivariable analyses were performed to determine risk factors for IC and predictors of mortality and NDI. Results Cumulative incidence rates of IC were 4.2%, 2.2% and 1.5% for birth-weight categories <750 g, <1000 g, <1500 g, respectively. Forty nine infants with IC and 90 controls were enrolled. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was the only independent risk factor for IC (p = 0.03). CNS candidiasis occurred in 50% of evaluated infants, while congenital candidiasis occurred in 31%. Infants with CNS candidiasis had a higher mortality rate (57%) and incidence of deafness (50%) than the overall cohort of infants with IC. NDI (56% vs. 33%; p = 0.017) and death (45% vs. 7%; p = 0.0001) were more likely in cases than in controls, respectively. IC survivors were more likely to be deaf (28% vs. 7%; p = 0.01). IC independently predicted mortality (p = 0.0004) and NDI (p = 0.018). Conclusion IC occurred in 1.5% of VLBW infants. Preceding NEC increased the risk of developing IC. CNS candidiasis is under-investigated and difficult to diagnose, but portends a very poor outcome. Mortality, deafness and NDI were independently significantly increased in infants with IC compared to matched controls. PMID:24924877

  12. Epigenetic Biomarkers of Preterm Birth and Its Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Anna K.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    A biomarker is a biological measure predictive of a normal or pathogenic process or response. Biomarkers are often useful for making clinical decisions and determining treatment course. One area where such biomarkers would be particularly useful is in identifying women at risk for preterm delivery and related pregnancy complications. Neonates born preterm have significant morbidity and mortality, both in the perinatal period and throughout the life course, and identifying women at risk of delivering preterm may allow for targeted interventions to prevent or delay preterm birth (PTB). In addition to identifying those at increased risk for preterm birth, biomarkers may be able to distinguish neonates at particular risk for future complications due to modifiable environmental factors, such as maternal smoking or alcohol use during pregnancy. Currently, there are no such biomarkers available, though candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies have identified DNA methylation differences associated with PTB, its risk factors and its long-term outcomes. Further biomarker development is crucial to reducing the health burden associated with adverse intrauterine conditions and preterm birth, and the results of recent DNA methylation studies may advance that goal. PMID:27089367

  13. A mouse model of spontaneous preterm birth based on the genetic ablation of biglycan and decorin

    PubMed Central

    Calmus, Megan L.; Macksoud, Elyse E.; Tucker, Richard; Iozzo, Renato V.; Lechner, Beatrice E.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm premature rupture of membranes is responsible for one third of preterm births. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is associated with preterm premature rupture of membranes in humans. Notably, an EDS variant is caused by a genetic mutation resulting in abnormal secretion of biglycan and decorin, two small leucine-rich proteoglycans highly expressed in reproductive tissues. Because biglycan/decorin null mutant (Bgn−/−Dcn−/−) mice demonstrate phenotypic changes similar to EDS, we utilized this model to test whether either or both biglycan and decorin play a role in the attainment of successful term gestation. Wild-type, biglycan null mutant, decorin null mutant and biglycan/decorin null mutant pregnancies were assessed for length of gestation, pup and placenta weight and litter size. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to measure biglycan and decorin gene expression and immunohistochemistry was performed to assess protein expression in placenta and fetal membranes at embryonic day E12, E15 and E18. Bgn−/−Dcn−/− dams displayed preterm birth, whereas the possession of at least two biglycan or decorin wild-type alleles was protective of preterm birth. Bgn−/−Dcn−/− pups were decreased at postnatal day P1 but not at E18. Biglycan and decorin were upregulated in the placenta in each other’s absence and were developmentally regulated in fetal membranes, suggesting that these two proteoglycans demonstrate genetic complementation and contribute to gestational success in a dose dependent manner. Thus, the biglycan/decorin null mutant mouse is a model of genetically induced preterm birth and perinatal loss. This model presents novel targets for preventive or therapeutic manipulation of preterm birth. PMID:21502335

  14. Particulate matter, its elemental carbon fraction, and very early preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth, with potentially increased vulnerability during weeks 20-27 of gestation (extremely preterm birth (EPTB)), but the role of PM components have been less studied. Objectives: To estimate associati...

  15. Association between unintentional injury during pregnancy and excess risk of preterm birth and its neonatal sequelae.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang; Basso, Olga; Kramer, Michael S

    2015-11-01

    The sequelae of preterm births may differ, depending on whether birth follows an acute event or a chronic condition. In a population-based cohort study of 2,711,645 Canadian hospital deliveries from 2003 to 2012, 3,059 women experienced unintentional injury during pregnancy. We assessed the impact of the acute event on pregnancy outcome and on neonatal complications, such as nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, respiratory distress syndrome, intubation, and death. We adjusted for maternal age, parity, pregnancy conditions, and (for neonates) gestational age in logistic regression analyses. Injury was significantly associated with fetal mortality and early preterm delivery. For preterm infants born to injured women during the hospitalization for injury versus those born to noninjured women, the adjusted odds ratios were 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23, 4.17) for neonatal death, 2.44 (95% CI: 1.76, 3.37) for respiratory distress, 2.20 (95% CI: 1.26, 3.84) for nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage, and 2.17 (95% CI: 1.60, 2.96) for intubation, despite more favorable fetal growth in those born to noninjured women (adjusted birth-weight-for-gestational-age z score: 0.154 vs. 0.024, P = 0.041; small-for-gestational-age rate: 4.5% vs. 9.5%, P = 0.001). Our findings suggest that adaptation to the suboptimal intrauterine environment underlying chronic causes of preterm birth may protect preterm infants from adverse sequelae.

  16. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among HIV-Infected Tanzanian Women: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zack, Rachel M.; Golan, Jenna; Aboud, Said; Msamanga, Gernard; Spiegelman, Donna; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2014-01-01

    Premature delivery, a significant cause of child mortality and morbidity worldwide, is particularly prevalent in the developing world. As HIV is highly prevalent in much of sub-Saharan Africa, it is important to determine risk factors for prematurity among HIV-positive pregnancies. The aims of this study were to identify risk factors of preterm (<37 weeks) and very preterm (<34 weeks) birth among a cohort of 927 HIV positive women living in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, who enrolled in the Tanzania Vitamin and HIV Infection Trial between 1995 and 1997. Multivariable relative risk regression models were used to determine the association of potential maternal risk factors with premature and very premature delivery. High rates of preterm (24%) and very preterm birth (9%) were found. Risk factors (adjusted RR (95% CI)) for preterm birth were mother <20 years (1.46 (1.10, 1.95)), maternal illiteracy (1.54 (1.10, 2.16)), malaria (1.42 (1.11, 1.81)), Entamoeba coli (1.49 (1.04, 2.15)), no or low pregnancy weight gain, and HIV disease stage ≥2 (1.41 (1.12, 1.50)). Interventions to reduce pregnancies in women under 20, prevent and treat malaria, reduce Entamoeba coli infection, and promote weight gain in pregnant women may have a protective effect on prematurity. PMID:25328529

  17. Families with birth defects: is birth weight of nonmalformed siblings affected?

    PubMed

    Melve, Kari Klungsøyr; Skjaerven, Rolv

    2002-05-15

    Infants with congenital malformations have on average lower birth weight than do infants without malformations. Preterm delivery and low birth weight are known to recur in sibships. The aim of the study was to compare the birth weight of siblings to malformed infants with the birth weight of infants in families without malformed infants. Data were from the Medical Birth Registry in Norway from 1967 to 1998. Births were linked to their mothers through the unique personal identification number, providing sibship files with the mother as the observation unit. The study was based on 551,478 mothers with at least two singleton infants and 209,423 mothers with at least three singletons. The authors grouped the families according to whether and in which birth order an infant had a registered congenital malformation and compared birth weight and gestational age between infants of the same birth order in families with malformations and without. Overall, in families where one or two infants had a congenital malformation, the crude and adjusted mean birth weight of nonmalformed siblings did not differ from that of infants in unaffected families, whereas it was significantly reduced for the malformed infant itself. We conclude that reduced birth weight associated with congenital anomalies is specific to the affected pregnancy.

  18. Epigenetics—a potential mediator between air pollution and preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Vania W.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Burris, Heather H.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality and a potential risk factor for adult chronic disease. With over 15 million infants born preterm worldwide each year, preterm birth poses a global health concern. There is a possible association between air pollution and preterm birth, though studies have been inconsistent, likely due to variation in study design. How air pollution induces health effects is uncertain; however, studies have repeatedly demonstrated the effects of air pollution on epigenetic modifications. More recent evidence suggests that epigenetics may, in turn, be linked to preterm birth. Discovery of environmentally modifiable epigenetic processes connected to preterm birth may help to identify women at risk of preterm birth, and ultimately lead to development of new preterm birth prevention measures. PMID:26900485

  19. A Role for the Liver in Parturition and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Mawson, Anthony R

    Neither the mechanisms of parturition nor the pathogenesis of preterm birth are well understood. Poor nutritional status has been suspected as a major causal factor, since vitamin A concentrations are low in preterm infants. However, even large enteral doses of vitamin A from birth fail to increase plasma concentrations of vitamin A or improve outcomes in preterm and/or extremely low birthweight infants. These findings suggest an underlying impairment in the secretion of vitamin A from the liver, where about 80% of the vitamin is stored. Vitamin A accumulates in the liver and breast during pregnancy in preparation for lactation. While essential in low concentration for multiple biological functions, vitamin A in higher concentration can be pro-oxidant, mutagenic, teratogenic and cytotoxic, acting as a highly surface-active, membrane-seeking and destabilizing compound. Regarding the mechanism of parturition, it is conjectured that by nine months of gestation the hepatic accumulation of vitamin A (retinol) from the liver is such that mobilization and secretion are impaired to the point where stored vitamin A compounds in the form of retinyl esters and retinoic acid begin to spill or leak into the circulation, resulting in amniotic membrane destabilization and the initiation of parturition. If, however, the accumulation and spillage of stored retinoids reaches a critical threshold prior to nine months, e.g., due to cholestatic liver disease, which is common in mothers of preterm infants, the increased retinyl esters and/or retinoic acid rupture the fetal membranes, inducing preterm birth and its complications, including retinopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Subject to testing, the model suggests that measures taken prior to and during pregnancy to improve liver function could reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth.

  20. A Role for the Liver in Parturition and Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Mawson, Anthony R.

    2016-01-01

    Neither the mechanisms of parturition nor the pathogenesis of preterm birth are well understood. Poor nutritional status has been suspected as a major causal factor, since vitamin A concentrations are low in preterm infants. However, even large enteral doses of vitamin A from birth fail to increase plasma concentrations of vitamin A or improve outcomes in preterm and/or extremely low birthweight infants. These findings suggest an underlying impairment in the secretion of vitamin A from the liver, where about 80% of the vitamin is stored. Vitamin A accumulates in the liver and breast during pregnancy in preparation for lactation. While essential in low concentration for multiple biological functions, vitamin A in higher concentration can be pro-oxidant, mutagenic, teratogenic and cytotoxic, acting as a highly surface-active, membrane-seeking and destabilizing compound. Regarding the mechanism of parturition, it is conjectured that by nine months of gestation the hepatic accumulation of vitamin A (retinol) from the liver is such that mobilization and secretion are impaired to the point where stored vitamin A compounds in the form of retinyl esters and retinoic acid begin to spill or leak into the circulation, resulting in amniotic membrane destabilization and the initiation of parturition. If, however, the accumulation and spillage of stored retinoids reaches a critical threshold prior to nine months, e.g., due to cholestatic liver disease, which is common in mothers of preterm infants, the increased retinyl esters and/or retinoic acid rupture the fetal membranes, inducing preterm birth and its complications, including retinopathy, necrotizing enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Subject to testing, the model suggests that measures taken prior to and during pregnancy to improve liver function could reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth. PMID:27595011

  1. Disparities in perinatal medicine: preterm birth, stillbirth, and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Spong, Catherine Y; Iams, Jay; Goldenberg, Robert; Hauck, Fern R; Willinger, Marian

    2011-04-01

    Infant mortality, stillbirths, and preterm births are major public health priorities with significant disparities based on race and ethnicity. Interestingly, when evaluating the rates over the past 30 to 50 years, the disparity persists in all three and is remarkably consistent. In the United States, the infant mortality rate is 6.7 deaths per 1,000 live births, the stillbirth rate is 6.2 per 1,000 deliveries, and the preterm birth rate is 12.8% of live births. The rates among non-Hispanic African Americans are dramatically higher, nearly double the infant mortality at 13.4 infant deaths per 1,000 live births, nearly double the stillbirth rate at 11.1 stillbirths per 1,000 deliveries, and one third higher with preterm births at 18.4% of live births. Despite numerous conferences, workshops, articles, and investigators focusing on this line of work, the disparities persist and, in some cases, are growing. In this article, we summarize a Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development workshop that focused on these disparities to identify the associated factors to determine their relative contributions, identify gaps in knowledge, and develop specific strategies to address the disparities in the short-term and long-term.

  2. Folic Acid Supplementation and Preterm Birth: Results from Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Franchi, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Folic acid (FA) supplementation is recommended worldwide in the periconceptional period for the prevention of neural tube defects. Due to its involvement in a number of cellular processes, its role in other pregnancy outcomes such as miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage, low birth weight, preterm birth (PTB), preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, and stillbirth has been investigated. PTB is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity; therefore its association with FA supplementation is of major interest. The analysis of a small number of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) has not found a beneficial role of FA in reducing the rate of PTBs. Aim of the Study. The aim of this review was to examine the results from recent observational studies about the effect of FA supplementation on PTB. Materials and Methods. We carried out a search on Medline and by manual search of the observational studies from 2009 onwards that analyzed the rate of PTB in patients who received supplementation with FA before and/or throughout pregnancy. Results. The results from recent observational studies suggest a slight reduction of PTBs that is not consistent with the results from RCTs. Further research is needed to better understand the role of FA supplementation before and during pregnancy in PTB. PMID:24724083

  3. Prepregnancy Risk Factors for Preterm Birth and the Role of Maternal Nativity in a Low-Income, Hispanic Population

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Stephanie A.; Crespi, Catherine M.; Gee, Denise C.; Zhu, Yuda; Whaley, Shannon E.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess potential prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth in a low-income, Hispanic population in Southern California. Additionally, the study assessed whether the prevalence of preterm birth and any associations between risk factors and preterm birth differed between U.S.- and foreign-born mothers. The study sample included 1,174 mothers participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) within 1 year postpartum, including an augment sample of mothers who delivered preterm. Maternal sociodemographic traits, prepregnancy health-related characteristics and behaviors, and birth outcomes were collected by telephone survey. Odds ratios for associations between risk factors and preterm birth were estimated by logistic regression with sampling weights. Effect measure modification of any association by maternal nativity was also assessed using interaction terms. After adjustment for confounding, significant prepregnancy risk factors for preterm birth included maternal age ≥35 y (OR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.04, 3.84) compared to age 18–24 y, and experience of a financially stressful life event among U.S.-born, but not foreign-born, women (OR = 2.61; 95% CI: 1.43, 4.77). The weighted prevalence of preterm birth was 15.1% and did not significantly differ by maternal nativity (P = 0.19). Further investigation with large, prospective studies is needed to better understand the risk factors for and disparities in preterm birth among the growing Hispanic population in the U.S. so that women who are at risk prepregnancy can be identified and provided risk-specific services. PMID:25994418

  4. Intravaginal use of natural micronised progesterone to prevent pre-term birth: a randomised trial in India.

    PubMed

    Majhi, P; Bagga, R; Kalra, J; Sharma, M

    2009-08-01

    In a prospective, randomised trial, 100 pregnant women with >/= one prior spontaneous pre-term birth were randomised into two groups. Group 1 women received 100 mg natural micronised progesterone intravaginally once daily from 20-24 weeks' gestation until 36 weeks. Group 2 women did not receive progesterone. Both groups were regularly supervised until delivery. Pre-term birth (<37 and <34 weeks) and other maternal, neonatal outcomes were primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to compare categorical variables. Independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA were used to compare continuous variables and multiple comparisons, respectively. Pre-term births <37 weeks were significantly lower in Group 1 (12% vs 38%, p = 0.002), but pre-term births <34 weeks were similar. The mean birth weight of neonates born to women in Group 1 was significantly higher (2800 vs 2,500 g, p = 0.023). We concluded intravaginal administration of 100 mg of natural micronised progesterone significantly reduced the incidence of pre-term birth <37 weeks in women with > or = one prior pre-term birth. Future research is warranted to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of progesterone.

  5. INCOME INCONGRUITY, RACE AND PRETERM BIRTH (PTB)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research using birth records has found income incongruity associated with adverse birth outcomes. The effects of negative income incongruity (reporting lower household income than the census tract median household income) on PTB (<37 weeks completed gestation) are examin...

  6. Cluster analysis of spontaneous preterm birth phenotypes identifies potential associations among preterm birth mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Esplin, M Sean; Manuck, Tracy A.; Varner, Michael W.; Christensen, Bryce; Biggio, Joseph; Bukowski, Radek; Parry, Samuel; Zhang, Heping; Huang, Hao; Andrews, William; Saade, George; Sadovsky, Yoel; Reddy, Uma M.; Ilekis, John

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to employ an innovative tool based on common biological pathways to identify specific phenotypes among women with spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB), in order to enhance investigators' ability to identify to highlight common mechanisms and underlying genetic factors responsible for SPTB. Study Design A secondary analysis of a prospective case-control multicenter study of SPTB. All cases delivered a preterm singleton at SPTB ≤34.0 weeks gestation. Each woman was assessed for the presence of underlying SPTB etiologies. A hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify groups of women with homogeneous phenotypic profiles. One of the phenotypic clusters was selected for candidate gene association analysis using VEGAS software. Results 1028 women with SPTB were assigned phenotypes. Hierarchical clustering of the phenotypes revealed five major clusters. Cluster 1 (N=445) was characterized by maternal stress, cluster 2 (N=294) by premature membrane rupture, cluster 3 (N=120) by familial factors, and cluster 4 (N=63) by maternal comorbidities. Cluster 5 (N=106) was multifactorial, characterized by infection (INF), decidual hemorrhage (DH) and placental dysfunction (PD). These three phenotypes were highly correlated by Chi-square analysis [PD and DH (p<2.2e-6); PD and INF (p=6.2e-10); INF and DH (p=0.0036)]. Gene-based testing identified the INS (insulin) gene as significantly associated with cluster 3 of SPTB. Conclusion We identified 5 major clusters of SPTB based on a phenotype tool and hierarchal clustering. There was significant correlation between several of the phenotypes. The INS gene was associated with familial factors underlying SPTB. PMID:26070700

  7. Endotracheal resuscitation of preterm infants at birth.

    PubMed

    Hoskyns, E W; Milner, A D; Boon, A W; Vyas, H; Hopkin, I E

    1987-07-01

    The adequacy of initial ventilation in 21 preterm babies (25-36 weeks' gestation), who required endotracheal intubation and positive pressure ventilation, were studied. Pressure and flow were measured at the proximal end of the endotracheal intubation tube and expiratory volume calculated from the flow trace. The results were compared with those from a group of 26 term infants who also required resuscitation. Five of 21 preterm babies (24%) had adequate tidal ventilation with the first inflation. This rose to seven of 21 (33%) by the third inflation. This was significantly less than the results in the term infants (chi 2 = 4.38 p less than 0.05). Respiratory reflex responses to resuscitation were seen in 41% of inflations in preterm and 56% of inflations in term infants. There was a significant correlation between reflex activity and adequate ventilation in the preterm group (chi 2 = 11.83, p less than 0.001) but not in the term group (chi 2 = 0.212, p = NS). No correlation was seen between initial ventilation and outcome.

  8. Basic Information Processing Abilities at 11 years Account for Deficits in IQ Associated with Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Rose, Susan A; Feldman, Judith F; Jankowski, Jeffery J; Van Rossem, Ronan

    2011-07-01

    Although it is well established that preterms as a group do poorly relative to their full-term peers on tests of global cognitive functioning, the basis for this relative deficiency is less understood. The present paper examines preterm deficits in core cognitive abilities and determines their role in mediating preterm/full-term differences in IQ. The performance of 11-year-old children born preterm (birth weight <1750g) and their full-term controls were compared on a large battery of 15 tasks, covering four basic cognitive domains -- memory, attention, speed of processing and representational competence. The validity of these four domains was established using latent variables and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Preterms showed pervasive deficits within and across domains. Additionally, preterm deficits in IQ were completely mediated by these four cognitive domains in a structural equation model involving a cascade from elementary abilities (attention and speed), to more complex abilities (memory and representational competence), to IQ. The similarity of findings to those obtained with this cohort in infancy and toddlerhood suggest that preterm deficits persist - across time, across task, and from the non-verbal to the verbal period.

  9. Preterm birth time trends in Europe: a study of 19 countries

    PubMed Central

    Zeitlin, J; Szamotulska, K; Drewniak, N; Mohangoo, AD; Chalmers, J; Sakkeus, L; Irgens, L; Gatt, M; Gissler, M; Blondel, B

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate time trends in preterm birth in Europe by multiplicity, gestational age, and onset of delivery. Design Analysis of aggregate data from routine sources. Setting Nineteen European countries. Population Live births in 1996, 2000, 2004, and 2008. Methods Annual risk ratios of preterm birth in each country were estimated with year as a continuous variable for all births and by subgroup using log-binomial regression models. Main outcome measures Overall preterm birth rate and rate by multiplicity, gestational age group, and spontaneous versus non-spontaneous (induced or prelabour caesarean section) onset of labour. Results Preterm birth rates rose in most countries, but the magnitude of these increases varied. Rises in the multiple birth rate as well as in the preterm birth rate for multiple births contributed to increases in the overall preterm birth rate. About half of countries experienced no change or decreases in the rates of singleton preterm birth. Where preterm birth rates rose, increases were no more prominent at 35–36 weeks of gestation than at 32–34 weeks of gestation. Variable trends were observed for spontaneous and non-spontaneous preterm births in the 13 countries with mode of onset data; increases were not solely attributed to non-spontaneous preterm births. Conclusions There was a wide variation in preterm birth trends in European countries. Many countries maintained or reduced rates of singleton preterm birth over the past 15 years, challenging a widespread belief that rising rates are the norm. Understanding these cross-country differences could inform strategies for the prevention of preterm birth. PMID:23700966

  10. EXPOSURE TO AREA-LEVEL PRETERM BIRTH DISPARITY AND EFFECTS ON BIRTH OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Black–white disparity in preterm birth (PTB) is persistent and not explained by individual factors. Given that exposure to inequality is associated with increased risk of adverse health, we examined PTB risk (birth <37 weeks gestational age) explained by living in U.S. census tra...

  11. Mothers and Fathers in NICU: The Impact of Preterm Birth on Parental Distress

    PubMed Central

    Ionio, Chiara; Colombo, Caterina; Brazzoduro, Valeria; Mascheroni, Eleonora; Confalonieri, Emanuela; Castoldi, Francesca; Lista, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is a stressful event for families. In particular, the unexpectedly early delivery may cause negative feelings in mothers and fathers. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between preterm birth, parental stress and negative feelings, and the environmental setting of NICU. 21 mothers (age = 36.00 ± 6.85) and 19 fathers (age = 34.92 ± 4.58) of preterm infants (GA = 30.96 ± 2.97) and 20 mothers (age = 40.08 ± 4.76) and 20 fathers (age = 40.32 ± 6.77) of full-term infants (GA = 39.19 ± 1.42) were involved. All parents filled out the Parental Stressor Scale: Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, the Impact of Event Scale Revised, Profile of Mood States, the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support and the Post-Partum Bonding Questionnaire. Our data showed differences in emotional reactions between preterm and full-term parents. Results also revealed significant differences between mothers and fathers’ responses to preterm birth in terms of stress, negative feelings, and perceptions of social support. A correlation between negative conditions at birth (e.g., birth weight and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit stay) and higher scores in some scales of Impact of Event Scale Revised, Profile of Mood States and Post-Partum Bonding Questionnaire were found. Neonatal Intensive Care Unit may be a stressful place both for mothers and fathers. It might be useful to plan, as soon as possible, interventions to help parents through the experience of the premature birth of their child and to begin an immediately adaptive mode of care. PMID:27872669

  12. Periodontal disease and spontaneous preterm birth: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Stephen; Frydman, Albert; Cox, Stephen; Brant, Rollin; Needoba, Sheilia; Eley, Barry; Sauve, Reg

    2006-01-01

    Background Several studies have suggested an association between periodontal disease and prematurity but this finding has not been consistently observed. Methods Case control study. Cases (n = 50) were women who had delivered after spontaneous preterm labor at <35 weeks gestation. Two groups of controls (n = 101) were recruited: women who were undelivered but at a preterm gestation and women who delivered at term. A standard, clinical, periodontal examination was performed and gingival crevicular fluid was obtained from standardized locations and tested for neutrophil elastase along with the bacterial enzymes gingipain and dipeptidylpeptidase. Data were analyzed with Fisher's exact tests, ANOVA and multivariate logistic regression. Results There was no difference in the proportion of sites with significant attachment loss (≥3 mm): Cases-3.2%, Controls-2.2% p = 0.21. The gingival crevicular fluid concentrations of elastase and gingipain were elevated in cases vs. controls 238.8 uU/ul vs. 159.6 uU/ul p = .007 and 2.70 uU/ul vs. 1.56 uU/ul p = .001. On multivariate analysis, the mean log concentration of elastase, but not of gingipain, remained a significant predictor of preterm labor p = .0.015. Conclusion We found no evidence that clinical periodontal disease is associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Elevated gingival crevicular fluid levels of elastase were associated with preterm birth but further research is needed before this can be assumed to be a causal relationship. PMID:16848912

  13. EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in 2011

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Children born at low gestational ages face a range of risks and number of neonates surviving very preterm birth is increasing. We present the objectives and methods of a French national cohort of very and moderately preterm children, the EPIPAGE 2 study. It aims to examine short- and long-term outcomes of very preterm children and their determinants. Methods/Design Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all infants live born or stillborn and all terminations of pregnancy between 22 and 31 completed weeks of gestation in all the maternity units in 25 French regions. In addition, a sample of moderate preterm births, i.e. births and late terminations at 32–34 weeks, was included in the same regions. In all, 7804 babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France in 2011 that were either very (22–31 weeks) or moderately preterm (32–34 weeks) were included. Data on pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal events were extracted from the obstetric and neonatal records. The follow-up will collect information at corrected ages of one and 2 years and at 5, 8, and 12 years of age. Of the 4467 children discharged alive from the hospital and eligible for follow-up, 155 (4%) families refused further follow-up and 22 died before one-year of age. Finally, 4290 were included in the follow-up. Eight additional projects investigating specific hypotheses among subsamples of the cohort by collecting specific data in addition to the core cohort data are being conducted to investigate 1) diagnosis of histologic chorioamnionitis, 2) early biomarkers of child health, 3) attitudes of care for extremely preterm infants, 4) painful procedures in neonatal intensive care units, 5) neonatal MRI cerebral abnormalities and their relation to executive functions, 6) associations between early gut colonization and early and late onset diseases, 7) impact of neonatal nutrition on child development

  14. Relation of arterial stiffness with gestational age and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Y; Wong, K; Lam, B.; Tsoi, N

    2004-01-01

    Background: The cardiovascular risk of individuals who are born small as a result of prematurity remains controversial. Given the previous findings of stiffer peripheral conduit arteries in growth restricted donor twins in twin–twin transfusion syndrome regardless of gestational age, we hypothesised that among children born preterm, only those with intrauterine growth retardation are predisposed to an increase in cardiovascular risks. Aim: To compare brachioradial arterial stiffness and systemic blood pressure (BP) among children born preterm and small for gestational age (group 1, n = 15), those born preterm but having birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 2, n = 36), and those born at term with birth weight appropriate for gestational age (group 3, n = 35). Methods: Systemic BP was measured by an automated device (Dinamap), while stiffness of the brachioradial arterial segment was assessed by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV). The birth weight was adjusted for gestational age and expressed as a z score for analysis. Results: The 86 children were studied at a mean (SD) age of 8.2 (1.7) years. Subjects from group 1, who were born at 32.3 (2.0) weeks' gestation had a significantly lower z score of birth weight (-2.29 (0.63), p<0.001), compared with those from groups 2 and 3. They had a significantly higher mean blood pressure (p<0.001) and their diastolic blood pressure also tended to be higher (p = 0.07). Likewise, their brachioradial PWV, and hence arterial stiffness, was the highest of the three groups (p<0.001). While subjects from group 2 were similarly born preterm, their PWV was not significantly different from that of group 3 subjects (p = 1.00) and likewise their z score of birth weight did not differ (-0.01 (0.71) v -0.04 (1.1), p = 1.00). Brachioradial PWV correlated significantly with systolic (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), diastolic (r = 0.38, p<0.001), and mean (0.47, p<0.001) BP, and with z score of birth weight (r = -0.43, p<0

  15. Long-term renal consequences of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Megan; Ryan, Dana; Black, M Jane; Kent, Alison L

    2014-09-01

    The normal development of the kidney may be affected by several factors, including abnormalities in placental function, resulting in fetal growth restriction, exposure to maternal disease states, including hypertension and diabetes, antenatal steroids, chorioamnionitis, and preterm delivery. After preterm birth, several further insults may occur that may influence nephrogenesis and renal health, including exposure to nephrotoxic medications, postnatal growth failure, and obesity after growth restriction. In this review article, common clinical neonatal scenarios are used to highlight these renal risk factors, and the animal and human evidence on which these risk factors are based are discussed.

  16. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (3 of 7): evidence for effectiveness of interventions

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Interventions directed toward mothers before and during pregnancy and childbirth may help reduce preterm births and stillbirths. Survival of preterm newborns may also be improved with interventions given during these times or soon after birth. This comprehensive review assesses existing interventions for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods Approximately 2,000 intervention studies were systematically evaluated through December 31, 2008. They addressed preterm birth or low birth weight; stillbirth or perinatal mortality; and management of preterm newborns. Out of 82 identified interventions, 49 were relevant to LMICs and had reasonable amounts of evidence, and therefore selected for in-depth reviews. Each was classified and assessed by the quality of available evidence and its potential to treat or prevent preterm birth and stillbirth. Impacts on other maternal, fetal, newborn or child health outcomes were also considered. Assessments were based on an adaptation of the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. Results Most interventions require additional research to improve the quality of evidence. Others had little evidence of benefit and should be discontinued. The following are supported by moderate- to high-quality evidence and strongly recommended for LMICs: • Two interventions prevent preterm births—smoking cessation and progesterone • Eight interventions prevent stillbirths—balanced protein energy supplementation, screening and treatment of syphilis, intermittant presumptive treatment for malaria during pregnancy, insecticide-treated mosquito nets, birth preparedness, emergency obstetric care, cesarean section for breech presentation, and elective induction for post-term delivery • Eleven interventions improve survival of preterm newborns—prophylactic steroids in preterm labor, antibiotics for PROM, vitamin K supplementation at delivery, case management of neonatal sepsis and pneumonia

  17. [Methods of growth assessment for low-birth-weight children ].

    PubMed

    Furmaga-Jabłońska, Wanda

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to establish the trend of physical growth in low-birth-weight (LBW) children, to predict the best method for early diagnosis of growth failure and to make use of biological growth standards for estimation of their postnatal growth. Physical growth of 283 LBW children was longitudinally analysed. The investigated children were divided into 3 groups: group I - AGA preterms, group II - S-f-D infants, group III - SGA preterms. Body weight, length, head circumference and chest circumference were measured at the time of birth and after 1, 2, 3, 6, 9. 12, 18, 24 months of chronological age. In the two groups of preterms (AGA, SGA preterms) chronological age and real values of anthropometric traits were adjusted according to gestational age. For the estimation of growth dynamics, growth velocity indices were calculated. Data basis was statistically analysed (ANOVA, Duncan, Tukey, t-Student tests), and compared with biological standards. Significant differences for physical growth in the 2 groups of preterms according to chronological and gestational age observed (p<0.001; 0.05). It was demonstrated that accelerated growth of preterms in the first months of postnatal life results from the intrauterine growth velocity. The phenomenon of catch-up growth was detected for S-f-D infants. Analysis of physical growth in LBW children showed that not considering gestational age could lead to statistically important mistakes in the estimation of their growth. The method of adjustment of anthropometric traits to gestational age permits the usage of biological standards for the estimation of postnatal physical growth of AGA preterms.

  18. Modelling sequence of prior pregnancies on subsequent risk of very preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Watson, Lyndsey F; Rayner, Jo-Anne; King, James; Jolley, Damien; Forster, Della; Lumley, Judith

    2010-09-01

    The prevalence and intractability of preterm birth is known as is its association with reproductive history, but the relationship with sequence of pregnancies is not well studied. The data were from a population-based case-control study, conducted in Victoria, Australia. The study recruited women giving birth between April 2002 and April 2004 from 73 maternity hospitals. Detailed reproductive histories were collected by interview a few weeks after the birth. The cases were 603 women having a singleton birth between 20 and <32 weeks gestation (very preterm births including terminations of pregnancy). The controls were 796 randomly selected women from the population having a singleton birth of at least 37 completed weeks gestation. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess the association of very preterm birth with sequence of pregnancies defined by their outcome (prior abortion - spontaneous or induced, and prior preterm or term birth) with adjustment for sociodemographic factors. The outcomes of each prior pregnancy, stratified by pregnancy order, and starting with the pregnancy immediately before the index or control pregnancy, were categorised as one of abortion, preterm birth or term birth. We showed that each of these prior pregnancy events was an independent risk of very preterm birth. This finding does not support the hypothesis of a neutralising effect of a term birth after an abortion on the subsequent risk for very preterm birth and is further evidence for the cumulative or increasing risk associated with increasing numbers of prior abortions or preterm births.

  19. Region-specific growth restriction of brain following preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Sachiko; Katayama, Reiji; Kinoshita, Masahiro; Saikusa, Mamoru; Araki, Yuko; Takashima, Sachio; Abe, Toshi; Iwata, Osuke

    2016-01-01

    Regional brain sizes of very-preterm infants at term-equivalent age differ from those of term-born peers, which have been linked with later cognitive impairments. However, dependence of regional brain volume loss on gestational age has not been studied in detail. To investigate the spatial pattern of brain growth in neonates without destructive brain lesions, head MRI of 189 neonates with a wide range of gestational age (24–42 weeks gestation) was assessed using simple metrics measurements. Dependence of MRI findings on gestational age at birth (Agebirth) and the corrected age at MRI scan (AgeMRI) were assessed. The head circumference was positively correlated with AgeMRI, but not Agebirth. The bi-parietal width, deep grey matter area and the trans-cerebellar diameter were positively correlated with both Agebirth and AgeMRI. The callosal thickness (positive), atrial width of lateral ventricle (negative) and the inter-hemispheric distance (negative) were exclusively correlated with Agebirth. The callosal thickness and cerebral/cerebellar transverse diameters showed predominant dependence on Agebirth over AgeMRI, suggesting that brain growth after preterm-birth was considerably restricted or even became negligible compared with that in utero. Such growth restriction after preterm birth may extensively affect relatively more matured infants, considering the linear relationships observed between brain sizes and Agebirth. PMID:27658730

  20. The preterm placental microbiome varies in association with excess maternal gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Antony, Kathleen M.; Ma, Jun; Mitchell, Kristen B.; Racusin, Diana A.; Versalovic, James; Aagaard, Kjersti

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although a higher maternal body mass index is associated with preterm birth, it is unclear whether excess gestational weight gain (GWG) or obesity drives increased risk. We and others have shown that the placenta harbors microbiota, which is significantly different among preterm births. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether the preterm placental microbiome varies by virtue of obesity or alternately by excess GWG. STUDY DESIGN Placentas (n = 320) were collected from term and preterm pregnancies. Genomic DNA was extracted and subjected to metagenomic sequencing. Data were analyzed by clinical covariates that included the 2009 Institute of Medicine’s GWG guideline and obesity. RESULTS Analysis of 16S recombinant RNA–based metagenomics revealed no clustering of the microbiome by virtue of obesity (P = .161). Among women who spontaneously delivered preterm, there was again no clustering by obesity (P = .480), but there was significant clustering by excess GWG (P = .022). Moreover, among pretermbirths, detailed analysis identified microbial genera (family and genus level) and bacterial metabolic gene pathways that varied among pregnancies with excess GWG. Notably, excess GWG was associated with decreased microbial folate biosynthesis pathways and decreased butanoate metabolism (linear discriminate analysis, >3.0-fold). CONCLUSION Although there were no significant alterations in the microbiome by virtue of obesity per se, excess GWG was associated with an altered microbiome and its metabolic profile among those women who experienced a preterm birth. PMID:25557210

  1. Early preterm delivery due to placenta previa is an independent risk factor for a subsequent spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To determine whether patients with placenta previa who delivered preterm have an increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth. Methods This retrospective population based cohort study included patients who delivered after a primary cesarean section (n = 9983). The rate of placenta previa, its recurrence, and the risk for recurrent preterm birth were determined. Results Patients who had a placenta previa at the primary CS pregnancy had an increased risk for its recurrence [crude OR of 2.65 (95% CI 1.3-5.5)]. The rate of preterm birth in patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy was 55.9%; and these patients had a higher rate of recurrent preterm delivery than the rest of the study population (p < .001). Among patients with placenta previa in the primary CS pregnancy, those who delivered preterm had a higher rate of recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless of the location of their placenta in the subsequent delivery [OR 3.09 (95% CI 2.1-4.6)]. In comparison to all patients with who had a primary cesarean section, patients who had placenta previa and delivered preterm had an independent increased risk for recurrent preterm birth [OR of 3.6 (95% CI 1.5-8.5)]. Conclusions Women with placenta previa, who deliver preterm, especially before 34 weeks of gestation, are at increased risk for recurrent spontaneous preterm birth regardless to the site of placental implantation in the subsequent pregnancy. Thus, strict follow up by high risk pregnancies specialist is recommended. PMID:22876799

  2. Community education on preterm birth. Does it change practice?

    PubMed Central

    Sprague, Ann; Stewart, Paula; Niday, Patricia; Nimrod, Carl; Walker, Robin

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how well physicians and other prenatal care providers educate women about early recognition of and appropriate response to the signs and symptoms of preterm labour (PTL). To assess use of antenatal steroids for babies born at less than 34 weeks' gestation. DESIGN: Before-after study using a population-based approach. SETTING: Health care providers' offices, hospitals, and prenatal classes in Ottawa, Ont. PARTICIPANTS: Prenatal care providers, women in hospital after giving birth, prenatal class participants. INTERVENTIONS: Prenatal care providers received information and educational materials on PTL and preterm birth (PTB). They passed this information on to pregnant women at their 18- to 20-week prenatal visits. Teachers of prenatal classes gave the same information in early-series classes. Clinical practice guidelines were developed, and hospital staff received education on appropriate response to PTL. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Use of educational materials and steroid treatment. RESULTS: Statistically significant increases were seen in the numbers of care providers who had educational material about PTL and PTB, who reported giving the educational material to all women, and who reported discussing signs and symptoms of PTL and PTB with all women; women who reported that their care providers talked with them about PTL and PTB, and women delivering preterm (< 34 weeks) babies who received steroids. CONCLUSION: Providing knowledge and standardized educational materials to health care providers can help improve preventive practice for PTL and educate women about PTL. PMID:12046368

  3. Green teeth are a late complication of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extremely low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Battineni, Sireesha; Clarke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Eruption of green, discolored teeth affecting the primary dentition has been described in association with congenital viral infection, sepsis, hemolytic jaundice, and cholestasis. The purpose of this paper was to present the cases of 3 extremely low birth weight preterm infants who were noted to have green teeth at the corrected ages of 10 to 12 months. All had a history of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia during their time in neonatal intensive care. For infants with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, extreme preterm birth and/or extremely low birth weight may be additional risk factors predisposing to the eruption of green teeth in later infancy.

  4. Fecal sodium and potassium losses in low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Verma, R P; John, E; Fornell, L; Vidyasagar, D

    1993-01-01

    We measured 24-hour fecal losses of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) in immediate post natal period of preterm neonates to determine the role of this route in the electrolyte imbalances seen in such infants. The values from preterm infants were compared to a group of age matched term infants. Eleven studies were done on unfed extremely low birth weight infants (group I, birth weight < 1200 gms), seven on fed preterm infants (group II, birth weight 1201-2500 gms) and nine on fed term infants (group III, birth weight 2501-4000 gms). Measured and derived variables compared between the groups were 24 hour fecal volume, total fecal electrolyte contents, Na or K lost per kg of body weight and per gm. of stool and Na or K losses as percent of intake. Although 24 hour fecal volume was lowest in group I, none of the variables related to Na differed between groups I and II whereas all of them were significantly lower in group I when compared with group III. Groups II and III differed only in terms of Na loss/gm stool which was lower in the previous group. Conversely K loss/gm of stool was significantly higher in group I when compared with both groups II and III and the only variable that differed between groups II and III was a higher fecal K content as fraction of intake. Fecal K/Na ratio was highest in group I, and decreased progressively with advancing gestational age, whereas creatinine clearance was lowest in group I and increased along with gestational age.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Seasonal Pattern of Preterm Births in Korea for 2000-2012.

    PubMed

    Woo, Yoonmi; Ouh, Yung Taek; Ahn, Ki Hoon; Cho, Geum Joon; Hong, Soon Cheol; Oh, Min Jeong; Kim, Hai Joong

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a seasonal pattern of preterm births in Korea. Data were obtained from the national birth registry of the Korean Statistics Office and included all births in Korea during the period 2000-2012 (n = 6,310,800). Delivery dates were grouped by month of the year or by season (winter [December, January, February], spring [March, April, May], summer [June, July, August], and autumn [September, October, November]). The seasonal patterns of prevalence of preterm births were assessed. The rates of preterm births at 37 weeks were highest twice a year (once in winter and again in summer). The rates of preterm births increased by 13.9% in summer and 7.5% in winter, respectively, than in spring (OR, 1.139; 95% CI, 1.127-1.152, and OR, 1.075; 95% 1.064-1.087, respectively) after controlling for age, the educational level of the parents, maternal parity, and neonatal gender. The pattern for spontaneous preterm births < 34 weeks was similar. In Korea, a seasonal pattern of preterm births was observed, with peak prevalence in summer and winter. A seasonal pattern of preterm births may provide new insights for the pathophysiology of preterm births.

  6. Progestin Treatment for the Prevention of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Lucovnik, Miha; Kuon, Ruben J.; Chambliss, Linda R.; Maner, William L.; Shi, Shao-Qing; Shi, Leili; Balducci, James; Garfield, Robert E.

    2011-01-01

    Progestin supplementation appears to be a promising approach to both preventing initiation of preterm labor and treating it once it is already established, given progesterone’s role in maintaining pregnancy as well as support from basic and clinical research. Progesterone and 17- alpha-hydroxyprogesterone-acetate (17-OH P) slow the process of cervical ripening and this is the rationale for prophylactic long-term progestin supplementation mostly studied so far. However, progesterone (but not 17-OH P) also inhibits myometrial activity even after the cervix is already ripened. Moreover, these effects depend greatly on the vehicle used and the route of administration. Understanding different mechanisms of action, as well as the importance of progestin formulation, vehicle, and route of administration is the key to finding the optimal progestin treatment for prevention of preterm birth. PMID:21564026

  7. Low Birth Weight and School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichman, Nancy E.

    2005-01-01

    In the United States black women have for decades been twice as likely as white women to give birth to babies of low birth weight who are at elevated risk for developmental disabilities. Does the black-white disparity in low birth weight contribute to the racial disparity in readiness? The author summarizes the cognitive and behavioral problems…

  8. Predictors of birth weight and gestational age among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-10-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994-1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24-32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context.

  9. Predictors of Birth Weight and Gestational Age Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Xie, Yiqiong

    2012-01-01

    Although pregnant adolescents are at high risk of poor birth outcomes, the majority of adolescents go on to have full-term, healthy babies. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7–12 in the United States who were surveyed from 1994–1995 through 2008, were used to examine the epidemiology of preterm birth and low birth weight within this population. Outcomes of pregnancies were reported by participants in the fourth wave of data collection (when participants were 24–32 years of age); data were compared between female participants who reported a first singleton livebirth at less than 20 years of age (n = 1,101) and those who were 20 years of age or older (n = 2,846). Multivariable modeling was used to model outcomes; predictors included demographic characteristics and maternal health and behavior. Among black adolescents, low parental educational levels and older age at pregnancy were associated with higher birth weight, whereas low parental educational levels and being on birth control when one got pregnant were associated with higher gestational age. In nonblack adolescents, lower body mass index was associated with lower birth weight, whereas being unmarried was associated with lower gestational age. Predictors of birth outcomes may differ by age group and social context. PMID:23035139

  10. CXCR3 Polymorphism and Expression Associate with Spontaneous Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Minna K; Ojaniemi, Marja; Haapalainen, Antti M; Mahlman, Mari; Salminen, Annamari; Huusko, Johanna M; Määttä, Tomi A; Kaukola, Tuula; Anttonen, Julia; Ulvila, Johanna; Haataja, Ritva; Teramo, Kari; Kingsmore, Stephen F; Palotie, Aarno; Muglia, Louis J; Rämet, Mika; Hallman, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) is a major factor associating with deaths and with lowered quality of life in humans. Environmental and genetic factors influence the susceptibility. Previously, by analyzing families with recurrent SPTB in linkage analysis, we identified a linkage peak close to the gene encoding CXCR3. Present objectives were to investigate the association of CXCR3 with SPTB in Finnish mothers (n = 443) and infants (n = 747), to analyze CXCR3 expression levels in human placenta and levels of its ligands in umbilical cord blood, and to verify the influence of Cxcr3 on SPTB-associating cytokines in mice. We detected an association between an intronic CXCR3 polymorphism, rs2280964, and SPTB in infants from families with recurrent preterm births (p = 0.009 versus term controls, odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.86). The minor allele was protective and undertransmitted to SPTB infants (p = 0.007). In the placenta and fetal membranes, the rs2280964 major allele homozygotes had higher expression levels than minor allele homozygotes; decidual trophoblasts showed strong CXCR3 immunoreactivity. Expression was higher in SPTB placentas compared with those from elective deliveries. Concentration of a CXCR3 ligand, CXCL9, was increased in cord blood from SPTB, and the protective rs2280964 allele was associated with low CXCL9. In CXCR3-deficient mice (Mus musculus), SPTB-associating cytokines were not acutely increased in amniotic fluid after preterm birth-inducing dose of maternal LPS. Our results indicate that CXCR3 contributes to SPTB. Activation of CXCR3 signaling may disturb the maternal-fetal tolerance, and this may promote labor.

  11. Preterm birth alters neonatal, functional rich club organization.

    PubMed

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Shen, Xilin; Lacadie, Cheryl; Schneider, Karen C; Dai, Feng; Ment, Laura R; Constable, R Todd

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in neural networks are associated with the cognitive difficulties of the prematurely born. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we analyzed functional connectivity for preterm (PT) and term neonates at term equivalent age. Specifically, we constructed whole-brain networks and examined rich club (RC) organization, a common construct among complex systems where important (or "rich") nodes connect preferentially to other important nodes. Both PT and term neonates showed RC organization with PT neonates exhibiting significantly reduced connections between these RC nodes. Additionally, PT neonates showed evidence of weaker functional segregation. Our results suggest that PT birth is associated with fundamental changes of functional organization in the developing brain.

  12. Trends in gestational age and birth weight in Chile, 1991–2008. A descriptive epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gestational age and birth weight are the principal determinants of newborn’s health status. Chile, a middle income country traditionally has public policies that promote maternal and child health. The availability of an exhaustive database of live births has allows us to monitor over time indicators of newborns health. Methods This descriptive epidemiological study included all live births in Chile, both singleton and multiple, from 1991 through 2008. Trends in gestational age affected the rate of prevalence (%) of preterm births (<37 weeks, including the categories < 32 and 32–36 weeks), term births (37–41) and postterm births (42 weeks or more). Trends in birth weight affected the prevalence of births < 1500 g, 1500–2499 g, 2500–3999 g, and 4000 g or more. Results Data from an exhaustive register of live births showed that the number of term and postterm births decreased and the number of multiple births increased significantly. Birth weights exceeding 4000 g did not vary. Total preterm births rose from 5.0% to 6.6%, with increases of 28% for the singletons and 31% for multiple births (p for trend < 0.0001). Some categories increased even more: specifically preterm birth < 32 weeks increased 32.3% for singletons and 50.6% for multiple births (p for trend 0.0001). The overall rate of low birth weight infants (<2500 g) increased from 4.6% to 5.3%. This variation was not statistically significant for singletons (p for trend = 0.06), but specific analyses exhibited an important increase in the category weighing <1500 g (42%) similar to that observed in multiple births (43%). Conclusions The gestational age and birth weight of live born child have significantly changed over the past two decades in Chile. Monitoring only overall rates of preterm births and low-birth-weight could provide restricted information of this important problem to public health. Monitoring them by specific categories provides a solid

  13. Born Toon Soon: Care before and between pregnancy to prevent preterm births: from evidence to action

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Providing care to adolescent girls and women before and between pregnancies improves their own health and wellbeing, as well as pregnancy and newborn outcomes, and can also reduce the rates of preterm birth. This paper has reviewed the evidence based interventions and services for preventing preterm births; reported the findings from research priority exercise; and prescribed actions for taking this call further. Certain factors in the preconception period have been shown to increase the risk for prematurity and, therefore, preconception care services for all women of reproductive age should address these risk factors through preventing adolescent pregnancy, preventing unintended pregnancies, promoting optimal birth spacing, optimizing pre-pregnancy weight and nutritional status (including a folic acid containing multivitamin supplement, and ensuring that all adolescent girls have received complete vaccination. Preconception care must also address risk factors that may be applicable to only some women. These include screening for and management of chronic diseases, especially diabetes; sexually-transmitted infections; tobacco and smoke exposure; mental health disorders, notably depression; and intimate partner violence. The approach to research in preconception care to prevent preterm births should include a cycle of development and delivery research that evaluates how best to scale up coverage of existing, evidence-based interventions, epidemiologic research that assesses the impact of implementing these interventions, and discovery science that better elucidates the complex causal pathway of preterm birth and helps to develop new screening and intervention tools. In addition to research, policy and financial investment is crucial to increasing opportunities to implement preconception care, and rates of prematurity should be included as a tracking indicator in global and national maternal child health assessments. Declaration This article is part of a supplement

  14. The Influence of Meteorological Factors and Atmospheric Pollutants on the Risk of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Giorgis-Allemand, Lise; Pedersen, Marie; Bernard, Claire; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Beelen, Rob M J; Chatzi, Leda; Cirach, Marta; Danileviciute, Asta; Dedele, Audrius; van Eijsden, Manon; Estarlich, Marisa; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Fernández, Mariana F; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Grazuleviciene, Regina; Gruzieva, Olena; Heude, Barbara; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; van den Hooven, Edith H; Håberg, Siri E; Iñiguez, Carmen; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Korek, Michal; Lertxundi, Aitana; Lepeule, Johanna; Nafstad, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Patelarou, Evridiki; Porta, Daniela; Postma, Dirkje; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Rudnai, Peter; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Stephanou, Euripides; Sørensen, Mette; Eriksen, Kirsten Thorup; Tuffnell, Derek; Varró, Mihály J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet; Wright, John; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Pershagen, Göran; Brunekreef, Bert; Kogevinas, Manolis; Slama, Rémy

    2017-01-13

    Atmospheric pollutants and meteorological conditions are suspected to be causes of preterm birth. We aimed to characterize their possible association with the risk of preterm birth (defined as birth occurring before 37 completed gestational weeks). We pooled individual data from 13 birth cohorts in 11 European countries (71,493 births from the period 1994-2011, European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE)). City-specific meteorological data from routine monitors were averaged over time windows spanning from 1 week to the whole pregnancy. Atmospheric pollution measurements (nitrogen oxides and particulate matter) were combined with data from permanent monitors and land-use data into seasonally adjusted land-use regression models. Preterm birth risks associated with air pollution and meteorological factors were estimated using adjusted discrete-time Cox models. The frequency of preterm birth was 5.0%. Preterm birth risk tended to increase with first-trimester average atmospheric pressure (odds ratio per 5-mbar increase = 1.06, 95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.11), which could not be distinguished from altitude. There was also some evidence of an increase in preterm birth risk with first-trimester average temperature in the -5°C to 15°C range, with a plateau afterwards (spline coding, P = 0.08). No evidence of adverse association with atmospheric pollutants was observed. Our study lends support for an increase in preterm birth risk with atmospheric pressure.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Developmental Outcome Following Preterm Birth: Review of Current Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Anthony R.; Whitby, Elspeth W.; Griffiths, Paul D.; Smith, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk of developmental difficulties. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is increasingly being used to identify damage to the brain following preterm birth. It is hoped this information will aid prognostication and identify neonates who would benefit from early therapeutic intervention. Cystic…

  16. Species of fine particulate matter and the risk of preterm birth

    EPA Science Inventory

    Particulate matter (PM) has been variably associated with preterm birth (PTB), but the roles of PM species have been less studied. We estimated risk of birth in 4 preterm categories (risks reported as PTBs per 106 pregnancies; PTB categories = gestational age of 20-27; 28-31; 32-...

  17. Invited Commentary: Troubling Trends in Birth Weight.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Clarice R

    2016-01-01

    Birth weight is a strong predictor of the health of newborns. Consequently, the report by Catov et al. in this issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(1):15-23), in which they showed downward trends in birth weights in a Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, hospital from 1997 to 2011, raises concerns. The widening gap reported between birth weights of babies born to white and African-American women could correspond to a widening gap in actual health outcomes. However, if the relation between birth weight and health outcomes is not causal, these trends may be epiphenomena of limited concern.

  18. Brain caspase-3 and intestinal FABP responses in preterm and term rats submitted to birth asphyxia

    PubMed Central

    Figueira, R.L.; Gonçalves, F.L.; Simões, A.L.; Bernardino, C.A.; Lopes, L.S.; Castro e Silva, O.; Sbragia, L.

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal asphyxia can cause irreversible injury of multiple organs resulting in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). This injury is dependent on time, severity, and gestational age, once the preterm babies need ventilator support. Our aim was to assess the different brain and intestinal effects of ischemia and reperfusion in neonate rats after birth anoxia and mechanical ventilation. Preterm and term neonates were divided into 8 subgroups (n=12/group): 1) preterm control (PTC), 2) preterm ventilated (PTV), 3) preterm asphyxiated (PTA), 4) preterm asphyxiated and ventilated (PTAV), 5) term control (TC), 6) term ventilated (TV), 7) term asphyxiated (TA), and 8) term asphyxiated and ventilated (TAV). We measured body, brain, and intestine weights and respective ratios [(BW), (BrW), (IW), (BrW/BW) and (IW/BW)]. Histology analysis and damage grading were performed in the brain (cortex/hippocampus) and intestine (jejunum/ileum) tissues, as well as immunohistochemistry analysis for caspase-3 and intestinal fatty acid-binding protein (I-FABP). IW was lower in the TA than in the other terms (P<0.05), and the IW/BW ratio was lower in the TA than in the TAV (P<0.005). PTA, PTAV and TA presented high levels of brain damage. In histological intestinal analysis, PTAV and TAV had higher scores than the other groups. Caspase-3 was higher in PTAV (cortex) and TA (cortex/hippocampus) (P<0.005). I-FABP was higher in PTAV (P<0.005) and TA (ileum) (P<0.05). I-FABP expression was increased in PTAV subgroup (P<0.0001). Brain and intestinal responses in neonatal rats caused by neonatal asphyxia, with or without mechanical ventilation, varied with gestational age, with increased expression of caspase-3 and I-FABP biomarkers. PMID:27356106

  19. Provider-Initiated Late Preterm Births in Brazil: Differences between Public and Private Health Services

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Maria do Carmo; Esteves-Pereira, Ana Paula; Nakamura-Pereira, Marcos; Torres, Jacqueline Alves; Domingues, Rosa Maria Soares Madeira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos; Moreira, Maria Elizabeth; Theme-Filha, Mariza; da Gama, Silvana Granado Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of the rise in prematurity worldwide is owing to late preterm births, which may be due to the expansion of obstetric interventions, especially pre-labour caesarean section. Late preterm births pose similar risks to overall prematurity, making this trend a concern. In this study, we describe factors associated with provider-initiated late preterm birth and verify differences in provider-initiated late preterm birth rates between public and private health services according to obstetric risk. Methods This is a sub-analysis of a national population-based survey of postpartum women entitled “Birth in Brazil”, performed between 2011 and 2012. We included 23,472 singleton live births. We performed non-conditional multiple logistic regressions assessing associated factors and analysing differences between public and private health services. Results Provider-initiated births accounted for 38% of late preterm births; 32% in public health services and 61% in private health services. They were associated with previous preterm birth(s) and maternal pathologies for women receiving both public and private services and with maternal age ≥35 years for women receiving public services. Women receiving private health services had higher rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth (rate of 4.8%) when compared to the ones receiving public services (rate of 2.4%), regardless of obstetric risk–adjusted OR of 2.3 (CI 1.5–3.6) for women of low obstetric risk and adjusted OR of 1.6 (CI 1.1–2.3) for women of high obstetric risk. Conclusion The high rates of provider-initiated late preterm birth suggests a considerable potential for reduction, as such prematurity can be avoided, especially in women of low obstetric risk. To promote healthy births, we advise introducing policies with incentives for the adoption of new models of birth care. PMID:27196102

  20. Neighbourhood deprivation and very preterm birth in an English and French cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social factors affect the risk of very preterm birth and may affect subsequent outcomes in those born preterm. We assessed the influence of neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics on the risk and outcomes of singleton very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation) in two European regions with different health systems. Methods Live births (n=1118) from a population-based cohort of very preterm infants in 2003 in Trent (UK) and Ile-de-France (France) regions were geocoded to their neighbourhood census tracts. Odds ratios for very preterm singleton birth by neighbourhood characteristics (unemployment rate, proportion manual workers, proportion with high school education only, non home ownership) were computed using infants enumerated in the census as a control population. The impact of neighbourhood variables was further assessed by pregnancy and delivery characteristics and short term infant outcomes. Results Risk of very preterm singleton birth was higher in more deprived neighbourhoods in both regions (OR between 2.5 and 1.5 in the most versus least deprived quartiles). No consistent associations were found between neighbourhood deprivation and maternal characteristics or health outcomes for very preterm births, although infants in more deprived neighbourhoods were less likely to be breastfed at discharge. Conclusions Neighbourhood deprivation had a strong consistent impact on the risk of singleton very preterm birth in two European regions, but did not appear to be associated with maternal characteristics or infant outcomes. Differences in breastfeeding at discharge suggest that socio-economic factors may affect long term outcomes. PMID:23617598

  1. Human milk oligosaccharide effects on intestinal function and inflammation after preterm birth in pigs.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Stine O; Martin, Lena; Østergaard, Mette V; Rudloff, Silvia; Roggenbuck, Michael; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Sangild, Per T; Bering, Stine B

    2017-02-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) may mediate prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects in newborns. This is particularly important for preterm infants who are highly susceptible to intestinal dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that HMO supplementation of infant formula (IF) improves intestinal function, bacterial colonization and NEC resistance immediately after preterm birth, as tested in a preterm pig model. Mixtures of HMOs were investigated in intestinal epithelial cells and in preterm pigs (n=112) fed IF supplemented without (CON) or with a mixture of four HMOs (4-HMO) or >25 HMOs (25-HMO, 5-10 g/L given for 5 or 11 days). The 25-HMO blend decreased cell proliferation and both HMO blends decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-8 secretion in IPEC-J2 cells, relative to control (P<.05). All HMOs were found in urine and feces of HMO-treated pigs, and short-chain fatty acids in the colon were higher in HMO vs. CON pigs (P<.05). After 5 days, NEC lesions were similar between HMO and CON pigs and 25-HMO increased colon weights (P<.01). After 11 days, the 4-HMO diet did not affect NEC (56 vs. 79%, P=.2) but increased dehydration and diarrhea (P<.05) and expression of immune-related genes (IL10, IL12, TGFβ, TLR4; P<.05). Bacterial adherence and diversity was unchanged after HMO supplementation.

  2. Multidimensional system biology: genetic markers and proteomic biomarkers of adverse pregnancy outcome in preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Buhimschi, Catalin S; Rosenberg, Victor A; Dulay, Antonette T; Thung, Stephen; Sfakianaki, Anna K; Bahtiyar, Mert-Ozan; Buhimschi, Irina A

    2008-03-01

    Premature birth before 37 weeks of gestation is a significant public health problem. Each year, 4.5 million premature infants are born worldwide. Despite extensive research and a variety of interventions, the rate of preterm birth has steadily increased over the past 20 years and reached a high of 12.8% in 2006. The etiology of most preterm births remains elusive and is likely multifactorial, with many pathophysiological pathways involved, such as excessive stretching, oxidative stress, decidual hemorrhage, and infection. Genomics and proteomics have emerged to provide a better comprehension of the pathophysiological conditions leading to preterm birth, thereby providing a perspective for improving neonatal outcome.

  3. Geographic distribution of unexplained low birth weight

    SciTech Connect

    Jason, C.J.; Samuhel, M.E.; Glick, B.J.; Welsh, A.K.

    1986-08-01

    Low birth weight, largely in the form of intrauterine growth retardation, has been used in animal studies as a sensitive indicator of adverse reproductive outcomes to suspect toxic agents. Methodological problems have severely curtailed studies of low birth weight for human risk assessment. For white and black births, we explore the use of statistical techniques to adjust for maternal risk factors and to isolate US counties having a significantly elevated rate of unexplained low-birth-weight births in 1979. The data are derived from individual birth certificate information made available by the National Center for Health Statistics. Removing variation due to socioeconomic and other intrinsic factors available on birth certificates, clusters of high-risk counties appear. This paper discusses the methodology used to identify these counties.

  4. The Burden of Provider-Initiated Preterm Birth and Associated Factors: Evidence from the Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP)

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Renato T.; Cecatti, Jose G.; Passini, Renato; Tedesco, Ricardo P.; Lajos, Giuliane J.; Nomura, Marcelo L.; Rehder, Patricia M.; Dias, Tabata Z.; Haddad, Samira M.; Pacagnella, Rodolfo C.; Costa, Maria L.

    2016-01-01

    Background About 15 million children are born under 37 weeks of gestation worldwide. Prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal deaths and short/long term morbidities, entailing consequences not only for the individual, but also their family, health agencies, facilities and all community. The provider-initiated preterm birth is currently one of the most important obstetric conditions related to preterm births, particularly in middle and high income countries, thus decreasing the need for therapeutic preterm birth is essential to reduce global prematurity. Therefore detailed knowledge on the factors associated with provider-initiated preterm birth is essential for the efforts to reduce preterm birth rates and its consequences. In this current analysis we aimed to assess the proportion of provider-initiated (pi-PTB) among preterm births in Brazil and identify associated factors. Methods and Findings This is an analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional study with a nested case-control component called Brazilian Multicenter Study on Preterm Birth (EMIP). EMIP was conducted in 20 referral obstetric hospitals located in the three most populated of the five Brazilian regions. We analysed data of women with pi-PTB, defined as childbirth occurring at less than 37 weeks, medically indicated for maternal/fetal compromise or both; and women with term birth, childbirth at or after 37 weeks. Maternal, sociodemographic, obstetric, prenatal care, delivery, and postnatal characteristics were assessed as possible factors associated with pi-PTB, compared to term births. The overall prevalence of preterm births was 12.3%. Of these, approximately one-third of cases were initiated by the provider. Hypertensive disorders, placental abruption, and diabetes were the main maternal conditions leading to pi-PTB. Caesarean section was the most common mode of delivery. Chronic hypertension (OR 7.47; 95%CI 4.02–13.88), preeclampsia/eclampsia/HELLP syndrome (OR 15.35; 6.57–35.88), multiple

  5. Vitamin D Depletion in Pregnancy Decreases Survival Time, Oxygen Saturation, Lung Weight and Body Weight in Preterm Rat Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Lykkedegn, Sine; Sorensen, Grith Lykke; Beck-Nielsen, Signe Sparre; Pilecki, Bartosz; Duelund, Lars; Marcussen, Niels; Christesen, Henrik Thybo

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies suggest a role of vitamin D in fetal lung development although not studied in preterm animals. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates respiratory insufficiency in preterm rat offspring. Furthermore, the effects of vitamin D depletion on growth and lung surfactant were investigated. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned low vitamin D (VDL) or control diet before mating and followed with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (s-25(OH)D) determinations. After cesarean section at gestational day 19 (E19) or day 22 (E22), placental weight, birth weight, crown-rump-length (CRL), oxygenation (SaO2) at 30 min and survival time were recorded. The pup lungs were analyzed for phospholipid levels, surfactant protein A-D mRNA and the expression of the vitamin D receptor (VDR). S-25(OH)D was significantly lower in the VDL group at cesarean section (12 vs. 30nmol/L, p<0.0001). Compared to the controls, E19 VDL pups had lower birth weight (2.13 vs. 2.29g, p<0.001), lung weight (0.09 vs. 0.10g, p = 0.002), SaO2 (54% vs. 69%, p = 0.002) as well as reduced survival time (0.50 vs. 1.25h, p<0.0001). At E22, the VDL-induced pulmonary differences were leveled out, but VDL pups had lower CRL (4.0 vs. 4.5cm, p<0.0001). The phospholipid levels and the surfactant protein mRNA expression did not differ between the dietary groups. In conclusion, Vitamin D depletion led to lower oxygenation and reduced survival time in the preterm offspring, associated with reduced lung weight and birth weight. Further studies of vitamin D depletion in respiratory insufficiency in preterm neonates are warranted. PMID:27571350

  6. Cytokines and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Carlo, Waldemar A.; McDonald, Scott A.; Tyson, Jon E.; Stoll, Barbara J.; Ehrenkranz, Richard A.; Shankaran, Seetha; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Das, Abhik; Schendel, Diana; Thorsen, Poul; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, David M.; Oh, William; Laptook, Abbot R.; Duara, Shahnaz; Fanaroff, Avroy A.; Donovan, Edward F.; Korones, Sheldon B.; Stevenson, David K.; Papile, Lu-Ann; Finer, Neil N.; O’Shea, T. Michael; Poindexter, Brenda B.; Wright, Linda L.; Ambalavanan, Namasivayam; Higgins, Rosemary D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine if selected pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines/mediators of inflammation reported to be related to development of cerebral palsy predict neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight infants. Study design Infants with birth weights ≤ 1000 g (n=1067) had blood samples collected at birth and on days 3±1, 7±1, 14±3, and 21±3 to examine the association between cytokines and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The analyses were focused on five cytokines (IL-1β, IL-8, TNF-α, RANTES, and IL-2) reported to be most predictive of CP in term and late preterm infants. Results IL-8 was higher on days 0–4 and subsequently in infants who developed CP compared with infants who did not develop CP in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Other cytokines (IL-12, IL-17, TNF-β, SIL-rα, MIP-1β) were found to be altered on days 0–4 in infants who developed CP. Conclusions CP in former preterm infants may, in part, have a late perinatal and/or early neonatal inflammatory origin. PMID:21798559

  7. Incidence and risk factors of preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Globally, about 15 million neonates are born preterm and about 85% of global preterm birth occurs in Asia and Africa regions. We aimed to estimate the incidence and risk factors for preterm birth in a rural Bangladeshi cohort. Methods Between June 2007 and September 2009, community health workers prospectively collected data from 32,126 mother-live-born baby pairs on household socio-demographic status, pregnancy history, antenatal care seeking and newborn gestational age determined by recall of date of last menstrual period. Results Among all live births, 22.3% were delivered prior to 37 weeks of gestation (i.e. preterm); of which 12.3% were born at 35–36 weeks of gestation (late preterm), 7.1% were born at 32–34 weeks (moderate preterm), and 2.9% were born at 28–31 weeks of gestation (very preterm). Overall, the majority of preterm births (55.1%) were late preterm. Risk of preterm birth was lower among women with primary or higher level of education (RR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.88, 0.97), women who sought antenatal care at least once during the index pregnancy (RR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.83, 0.90), and women who had completed all birth preparedness steps (RR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.30, 0.34). In contrast, risk of preterm birth was higher among women with a history of child death (RR: 1.05; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.10), who had mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) ≤250 mm, indicative of under nutrition (for women having MUAC <214 mm the risk was higher; RR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.35), who reported an antenatal complication (RR: 1.32; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.53), and who received iron-folic acid supplementation for 2–6 months during the index pregnancy (RR: 1.33; 95% CI: 1.24, 1.44). Conclusions In resource poor settings with high burden of preterm birth, alike Bangladesh, preterm birth risk could be reduced by close monitoring and/or frequent follow-up of women with history of child death and antenatal complications, by encouraging women to seek antenatal care from qualified

  8. Sphingosine Kinase: A Novel Putative Target for the Prevention of Infection-Triggered Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Vibhuti; Ashby, Charles R.; Reznik, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is defined as any delivery before 37 complete weeks of gestation. It is a universal challenge in the field of obstetrics owing to its high rate of mortality, long-term morbidity, associated human suffering and economic burden. In the United States, about 12.18% deliveries in 2009 were preterm, producing an exorbitant cost of $5.8 billion. Infection-associated premature rupture of membranes (PROM) accounts for 40% of extremely preterm births (<28 weeks of gestation). Major research efforts are directed towards improving the understanding of the pathophysiology of preterm birth and ways to prevent or at least postpone delivery. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor that plays a significant role in infection-triggered preterm birth. Its involvement in a number of pathological mechanisms and its elevation in preterm delivered amniotic fluid samples implicate it in preterm birth. Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a ubiquitous enzyme responsible for the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P). S1P acts as second messenger in a number of cell proliferation and survival pathways. SphK is found to play a key role in ET-1 mediated myometrial contraction. This review highlights SphK as a prospective target with great potential to prevent preterm birth. PMID:23818902

  9. Intra-amniotic Administration of HMGB1 Induces Spontaneous Preterm Labor and Birth

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; Romero, Roberto; Plazyo, Olesya; Panaitescu, Bogdan; Furcron, Amy E.; Miller, Derek; Roumayah, Tamara; Flom, Emily; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2016-01-01

    Problem Sterile intra-amniotic inflammation is associated with spontaneous preterm labor. Alarmins are proposed to mediate this inflammatory process. The aim of this study was to determine whether intra-amniotic administration of an alarmin, HMGB1, could induce preterm labor/birth. Method of Study Pregnant B6 mice were intra-amniotically or intraperitoneally injected with HMGB1 or PBS (control). Following injection, the gestational age and the rates of preterm birth and pup mortality were recorded. Results Intra-amniotic injection of HMGB1 led to preterm labor/birth [HMGB1 57% (4/7) vs. PBS 0% (0/6); p=0.049], and a high rate of pup mortality at week one [HMGB1 60.9±11.7% (25/41) vs. PBS 28.9±12.6% (11/38); p=0.001]. Conclusion Intra-amniotic administration of HMGB1 induces preterm labor/birth. PMID:26781934

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF GESTATIONAL AGE AND BIRTH WEIGHT OF THE NEWBORN ON TOOTH ERUPTION

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sandra Regina Piovezani; Gugisch, Renato Cordeiro; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the beginning of eruption of the first deciduous tooth in preterm infants (<38 weeks) with full-term infants (38 and 42 weeks) of normal birth weight (32.500g), low birth weight (< 2.500g) and very low birth weight (<1.500g), in order to evaluate if premature birth and low birth weight would affect tooth eruption. Methods: The neonatal records and the moment of eruption of the first deciduous tooth of 146 infants - 77 preterm infants and 69 full-term infants, ranging from 5 to 36 months old, of both genders – were recorded. All of them were under care at the Pediatric Ambulatory of Hospital Universitário Evangélico at Curitiba – Parana. Data were analyzed considering biological age and post-conception, or corrected, age – which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of eruption of the first deciduous tooth. Results: Results showed that when chronological age is considered, tooth eruption in preterm and very low birth weight infants is importantly delayed. However, when corrected age is considered, no statistically significant differences were found among groups. Conclusion: The delayed eruption may be related to the premature birth and not to a delay in dental development. PMID:19089267

  11. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  12. Relationships among Neighborhood Environment, Racial Discrimination, Psychological Distress, and Preterm Birth in African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Park, Chang G.; Dieber, William; Block, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To (a) examine the relationships among objective and perceived indicators of neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, psychological distress, and gestational age at birth; (b) determine if neighborhood environment and racial discrimination predicted psychological distress; (c) determine if neighborhood environment, racial discrimination, and psychological distress predicted preterm birth; and (d) determine if psychological distress mediated the effects of neighborhood environment and racial discrimination on preterm birth. Design Descriptive correlational comparative. Setting Postpartum unit of a medical center in Chicago. Participants African American women (n1 = 33 with preterm birth; n2 = 39 with full-term birth). Methods Women completed the instruments 24 to 72 hours after birth. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Results Women who reported higher levels of perceived social and physical disorder and perceived crime also reported higher levels of psychological distress. Women who reported more experiences of racial discrimination also had higher levels of psychological distress. Objective social disorder and perceived crime predicted psychological distress. Objective physical disorder and psychological distress predicted preterm birth. Psychological distress mediated the effect of objective social disorder and perceived crime on preterm birth. Conclusion Women’s neighborhood environments and racial discrimination were related to psychological distress, and these factors may increase the risk for preterm birth. PMID:23030593

  13. Effects of social and psychosocial factors on risk of preterm birth in black women.

    PubMed

    Misra, Dawn; Strobino, Donna; Trabert, Britton

    2010-11-01

    Our objective was to examine how social and psychosocial factors may influence the risk of preterm birth. The design of the study was a hybrid retrospective and prospective cohort. African-American women residing in Baltimore, Maryland, were enrolled prenatally if they received care at one of three Johns Hopkins Medical Institution prenatal clinics (n=384) or enrolled post-partum if they delivered at Johns Hopkins Medical Institution with late, none or intermittent prenatal care (N=459). Preterm birth was defined as less than 37 weeks completed gestation. Interview data were collected on 832 enrolled women delivering singletons between March 2001 and July 2004. The preterm birth rate was 16.4%. In both unadjusted and adjusted models, exposure to racism over a woman's lifetime had no effect on risk of preterm birth in our sample. However, we found evidence of a three-way interaction between reported lifetime experiences of racism, depressive symptoms during pregnancy and stress during pregnancy on preterm birth risk. Racism scores above the median (more racism) were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth in three subgroups with the effect moderated by depressive symptoms and stress. Social and psychosocial factors may operate in a complex manner related to risk of preterm birth.

  14. Provider type and preterm birth in New York City births, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Mary

    2014-11-01

    This cross- sectional analysis assessed the role of provider type in preterm birth (PTB) using birth certificates (2009– 2010) from the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene for singleton births to adult, low- risk women (n=73,887). Provider was categorized as a midwife led model or physician led model; PTB as less than 37 weeks gestation. Thirteen percent (13%) received care from a midwife led model. Preterm birth was significantly lower for women who received care from a midwife led model than for those with a physician led model (2.8% vs. 4.6%, p<.0001). The prevalence of PTB was significantly lower among women who used a midwife led model than among women who used a physician led model. After adjustment, the use of a midwife led model significantly reduced the likelihood of PTB (AOR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.63). These results have implications for clinical care and health care costs.

  15. Is preterm birth a human-specific syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Julie Baker; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Human preterm birth (PTB), a multifactorial syndrome affecting offspring born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of newborn death worldwide. Remarkably, the degree to which early parturition contributes to mortality in other placental mammals remains unclear. To gain insights on whether PTB is a human-specific syndrome, we examined within- and between-species variation in gestation length across placental mammals and the impact of early parturition on offspring fitness. Within species, gestation length is normally distributed, and all species appear to occasionally give birth before the ‘optimal’ time. Furthermore, human gestation length, like that of many mammalian species, scales proportionally to body mass, suggesting that this trait, like many others, is constrained by body size. Premature humans suffer from numerous cognitive impairments, but little is known of cognitive impairments in other placental mammals. Human gestation differs in the timing of the ‘brain growth spurt’, where unlike many mammals, including closely related primates, the trajectory of human brain growth directly overlaps with the parturition time window. Thus, although all mammals experience early parturition, the fitness costs imposed by the cognitive impairments may be unique to our species. Describing PTB broadly in mammals opens avenues for comparative studies on the physiological and genetic regulators of birth timing as well as the development of new mammalian models of the disease. PMID:26077822

  16. Is preterm birth a human-specific syndrome?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Julie Baker; Abbot, Patrick; Rokas, Antonis

    2015-06-14

    Human preterm birth (PTB), a multifactorial syndrome affecting offspring born before 37 completed weeks of gestation, is the leading cause of newborn death worldwide. Remarkably, the degree to which early parturition contributes to mortality in other placental mammals remains unclear. To gain insights on whether PTB is a human-specific syndrome, we examined within- and between-species variation in gestation length across placental mammals and the impact of early parturition on offspring fitness. Within species, gestation length is normally distributed, and all species appear to occasionally give birth before the 'optimal' time. Furthermore, human gestation length, like that of many mammalian species, scales proportionally to body mass, suggesting that this trait, like many others, is constrained by body size. Premature humans suffer from numerous cognitive impairments, but little is known of cognitive impairments in other placental mammals. Human gestation differs in the timing of the 'brain growth spurt', where unlike many mammals, including closely related primates, the trajectory of human brain growth directly overlaps with the parturition time window. Thus, although all mammals experience early parturition, the fitness costs imposed by the cognitive impairments may be unique to our species. Describing PTB broadly in mammals opens avenues for comparative studies on the physiological and genetic regulators of birth timing as well as the development of new mammalian models of the disease.

  17. Subsequent pregnancy following the birth of an extremely low birth-weight infant.

    PubMed

    Yu, V Y; Davis, N G; Mercado, M F; Bajuk, B; Astbury, J

    1986-05-01

    Of 103 mothers who delivered an extremely low birth-weight (ELBW, less than 1,000g) infant, 29% were primiparous; 51% of those who were multiparous had at least one previous miscarriage or perinatal death. The 41 (40%) mothers who decided against subsequent pregnancy were significantly older than the remaining mothers. Mothers were also significantly more likely to decide against subsequent pregnancy if their ELBW infant had survived. The outcome of subsequent pregnancies within 3 years of the ELBW birth was ascertained; 28% ended in miscarriage, 3% in stillbirth, 1% in neonatal death, 21% in a surviving preterm infant and 51% in a survivor born at term. Mothers diagnosed to have cervical incompetence had a significantly higher risk of a subsequent preterm birth. During the study period, 87% of mothers who became pregnant subsequent to their ELBW infant gave birth to at least one surviving child. Of the subsequent livebirths, 36% were less than 2,500g, 11% were less than 1,500g and 5% were less than 1,000g. Significantly more mothers whose ELBW infant had died conceived again within 1 year compared to those whose ELBW infant had survived. The necessary time for recovery from bereavement may be cut short by the subsequent pregnancy. The psychological problems as a result of unresolved mourning which mothers experience and their effects on subsequent children need to be further studied.

  18. Longitudinal Profiles of Thyroid Hormone Parameters in Pregnancy and Associations with Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Lauren E.; Ferguson, Kelly K.; McElrath, Thomas F.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Seely, Ellen W.; Meeker, John D.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Overt thyroid disease in pregnancy is associated with numerous maternal and neonatal complications including preterm birth. Less is known about the contribution of trimester-specific subclinical alterations in individual thyroid hormones, especially in late gestation, on the risk of preterm birth. Herein, we examined the associations between subclinical changes in maternal thyroid hormone concentrations (TSH, total T3, free and total T4), measured at multiple time points in pregnancy, and the odds of preterm birth in pregnant women without clinical thyroid disease. Participants and Methods Data were obtained from pregnant women participating in a nested case-control study of preterm birth within on ongoing birth cohort study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, MA (N = 439; 116 cases and 323 controls). We measured thyroid hormones in plasma collected at up to four time points in pregnancy (median = 10, 18, 26, and 35 weeks). We used multivariate logistic regression models stratified by study visit of sample collection to examine associations. To reveal potential biological pathways, we also explored these relationships by obstetric presentation of preterm birth (e.g., spontaneous preterm delivery) that have been previously hypothesized to share common underlying mechanisms. Results In samples collected at median 10 and 26 weeks of gestation, we found inverse associations between FT4 and the odds of overall preterm birth (odds ratio [OR] = 0.57, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.33, 1.00; and OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.34, 0.84, respectively). Positive associations were detected for total T3 at these same time points (OR = 2.52, 95% CI = 1.20, 5.31; and OR = 3.40, 95% CI = 1.56, 7.40, respectively). These effect estimates were stronger for spontaneous preterm birth. Conclusions Our results suggest that subclinical alterations in individual maternal thyroid hormones may influence the risk of preterm birth, and the strength of these associations vary by

  19. The Perfect Storm: Preterm Birth, Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms, and Autism Causation.

    PubMed

    Erdei, Carmina; Dammann, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    A unifying model of autism causation remains elusive, and thus well-designed explanatory models are needed to develop appropriate therapeutic and preventive interventions. This essay argues that autism is not a static disorder, but rather an ongoing process. We discuss the link between preterm birth and autism and briefly review the evidence supporting the link between immune system characteristics and both prematurity and autism. We then propose a causation process model of autism etiology and pathogenesis, in which both neurodevelopment and ongoing/prolonged neuroinflammation are necessary pathogenetic component mechanisms. We suggest that an existing model of sufficient cause and component causes can be interpreted as a mechanistic view of etiology and pathogenesis and can serve as an explanatory model for autism causal pathways.

  20. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development

    PubMed Central

    Thayath, Muhamad Nishad; Singh, Shikha; Sinha, Anju

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Preterm and low birthweight children comprise approximately 6% of all live births. It is now a well-known fact that premature children experience many oral complications associated with their preterm births. Prematurely born infants have a short prenatal development period and they are prone to many serious medical problems during the neonatal period, which may affect the development of oral tissues. Adverse perinatal factors, premature birth and exceptional early adaptation to extra-uterine life and functional activity may influence dental occlusal development and symmetry in the jaws. Thus, the goal of the present paper is to elucidate further the effect of preterm birth on the development of the dentition. How to cite this article: Zaidi I, Thayath MN, Singh S, Sinha A. Preterm Birth: A Primary Etiological Factor for Delayed Oral Growth and Development. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3): 215-219. PMID:26628856

  1. Brazilian multicenter study on prevalence of preterm birth and associated factors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The occurrence of preterm birth remains a complex public health condition. It is considered the main cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, resulting in a high likelihood of sequelae in surviving children. With variable incidence in several countries, it has grown markedly in the last decades. In Brazil, however, there are still difficulties to estimate its real occurrence. Therefore, it is essential to establish the prevalence and causes of this condition in order to propose prevention actions. This study intend to collect information from hospitals nationwide on the prevalence of preterm births, their associated socioeconomic and environmental factors, diagnostic and treatment methods resulting from causes such as spontaneous preterm labor, prelabor rupture of membranes, and therapeutic preterm birth, as well as neonatal results. Methods/Design This proposal is a multicenter cross-sectional study plus a nested case-control study, to be implemented in 27 reference obstetric centers in several regions of Brazil (North: 1; Northeast: 10; Central-west: 1; Southeast: 13; South: 2). For the cross sectional component, the participating centers should perform, during a period of six months, a prospective surveillance of all patients hospitalized to give birth, in order to identify preterm birth cases and their main causes. In the first three months of the study, an analysis of the factors associated with preterm birth will also be carried out, comparing women who have preterm birth with those who deliver at term. For the prevalence study, 37,000 births will be evaluated (at term and preterm), corresponding to approximately half the deliveries of all participating centers in 12 months. For the case-control study component, the estimated sample size is 1,055 women in each group (cases and controls). The total number of preterm births estimated to be followed in both components of the study is around 3,600. Data will be collected through a questionnaire all

  2. Placental hormone profiles as predictors of preterm birth in twin pregnancy: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hui; Powell, Sioned; Mcnamara, Helen C.; Howie, A. Forbes; Doust, Ann; Bowman, Maria E.; Smith, Roger; Norman, Jane E.

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to analyse placental hormone profiles in twin pregnancies to determine if they could be used to predict preterm birth. Study design Progesterone, estradiol, estriol and corticotropin-releasing hormone were measured using competitive immunoassay and radioimmunoassay in serum and saliva samples of 98 women with twin pregnancies,at 3 or more gestational timepoints. Hormone profiles throughout gestation were compared between very preterm (<34 weeks; n = 8), preterm (<37 weeks; n = 40) and term (37+ weeks; n = 50) deliveries. Results No significant differences were found between preterm and term deliveries in either absolute hormone concentrations or ratios. Estimated hormone concentrations and ratios at 26 weeks did not appear to predict preterm delivery. Salivary and serum hormone concentrations were generally poorly correlated. Conclusion Our results suggest that serial progesterone, estradiol, estriol and corticotropin-releasing hormone measurements in saliva and serum are not robust biomarkers for preterm birth in twin pregnancies. PMID:28278220

  3. Amniotic Fluid Metabolomic Analysis in Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Janice; Gunst, Phillip R.; Kacerovsky, Marian; Fortunato, Stephen J.; Saade, George R.; Basraon, Sanmaan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify metabolic changes associated with early spontaneous preterm birth (PTB; <34 weeks) and term births, using high-throughput metabolomics of amniotic fluid (AF) in African American population. Method: In this study, AF samples retrieved from spontaneous PTB (<34 weeks [n = 25]) and normal term birth (n = 25) by transvaginal amniocentesis at the time of labor prior to delivery were subjected to metabolomics analysis. Equal volumes of samples were subjected to a standard solvent extraction method and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (MS) and liquid chromatography/MS/MS. Biochemicals were identified through matching of ion features to a library of biochemical standards. After log transformation and imputation of minimum observed values for each compound, t test, correlation tests, and false discovery rate corrections were used to identify differentially regulated metabolites. Data were controlled for clinical/demographic variables and medication during pregnancy. Results: Of 348 metabolites measured in AF samples, 121 metabolites had a gestational age effect and 116 differed significantly between PTB and term births. A majority of significantly altered metabolites could be classified into 3 categories, namely, (1) liver function, (2) fatty acid and coenzyme A (CoA) metabolism, and (3) histidine metabolism. The signature of altered liver function was apparent in many cytochrome P450-related pathways including bile acids, steroids, xanthines, heme, and phase II detoxification of xenobiotics with the largest fold change seen with pantothenol, a CoA synthesis inhibitor that was 8-fold more abundant in PTB. Conclusion: Global metabolic profiling of AF revealed alteration in hepatic metabolites involving xenobiotic detoxification and CoA metabolism in PTB. Maternal and/or fetal hepatic function differences may be developmentally related and its contribution PTB as a cause or effect of PTB is still unclear. PMID:24440995

  4. Investigation of maternal environmental exposures in association with self-reported preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Patel, Chirag J; Yang, Ting; Hu, Zhongkai; Wen, Qiaojun; Sung, Joyce; El-Sayed, Yasser Y; Cohen, Harvey; Gould, Jeffrey; Stevenson, David K; Shaw, Gary M; Ling, Xuefeng Bruce; Butte, Atul J

    2014-06-01

    Identification of maternal environmental factors influencing preterm birth risks is important to understand the reasons for the increase in prematurity since 1990. Here, we utilized a health survey, the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to search for personal environmental factors associated with preterm birth. 201 urine and blood markers of environmental factors, such as allergens, pollutants, and nutrients were assayed in mothers (range of N: 49-724) who answered questions about any children born preterm (delivery <37 weeks). We screened each of the 201 factors for association with any child born preterm adjusting by age, race/ethnicity, education, and household income. We attempted to verify the top finding, urinary bisphenol A, in an independent study of pregnant women attending Lucile Packard Children's Hospital. We conclude that the association between maternal urinary levels of bisphenol A and preterm birth should be evaluated in a larger epidemiological investigation.

  5. Young adult outcomes of very-low-birth-weight children.

    PubMed

    Hack, Maureen

    2006-04-01

    Information on the young adult outcomes of the initial survivors of neonatal intensive care has been reported from the United States, Canada, Australia, Great Britain and other European countries. The studies have varied with regard to whether they were regional or hospital-based, their birth-weight group and gestational age, rates of survival, socio-demographic background, and measures of assessment and types of outcome studied. Despite these differences the overall results reveal that neurodevelopment and growth sequelae persist to young adulthood. Very-low-birth-weight young adults have, with few exceptions, poorer educational achievement than normal-birth-weight controls, and fewer continue with post-high-school study. Rates of employment are, however, similar. There are no major differences in general health status, but the young adults demonstrate poorer physical abilities, higher mean blood pressure and poorer respiratory function. There is no evidence of major psychiatric disorder, although anxiety and depression are reported more often. The young adults report less risk-taking than control populations. They report fairly normal social lives and quality of life. When differences are noted they are usually due to neurosensory disabilities. Longer-term studies are needed to evaluate ultimate educational and occupational achievement. It will also be important to assess the effects of preterm birth, early growth failure and catch-up growth on later metabolic and cardiovascular health.

  6. Association between preterm birth and thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Kessey M. B.; Davidson, Josy; Goulart, Ana L.; dos Santos, Amelia M. N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations in adolescents born prematurely with those born at term and investigate neonatal and post-neonatal variables associated with thoracic alterations. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional study with 57 adolescents aged 10-15 years born prematurely and 57 adolescents born at term paired by gender and age. Photographs of the head and thorax in the front, back, and right side views were studied using a computer program. The two groups were compared in regards to: elevation of clavicles, elevation of shoulders, protrusion of the head, and anteroposterior and mediolateral thoracic length. Factor associated with thoracic disorders were evaluated by linear regression analysis. RESULTS: The Preterm group had mean gestational age of 32.0±2.8 weeks and the birth weight was 1462±338 and 3342±430 g for the Preterm and Term adolescents, respectively. Preterm adolescents had higher elevation of the left shoulder (22.7±5.4o vs. 20.6±5.3o;sim, p=0.038) and the right shoulder (22.2±4.4o vs. 18.5±5.7o; p<0.001). Smaller protrusion of the head (27.8±6.1o vs. 32.4±7.9o; p=0.008), mediolateral thoracic length (22.9±2.3 cm vs. 25.1±3.1 cm; p<0.001) and anteroposterior thoracic length (19.7±2.2 cm vs. 21.1±3.4 cm; p<0.001) were found in preterm adolescents. By multiple regression analysis, factors associated with higher shoulder elevation were birth weight <1500 g (p<0.001) and mechanical ventilation during neonatal period >5 days (p=0.009). CONCLUSION: Adolescents born prematurely presented greater thoracic musculoskeletal static alterations compared to those born at term. Factors associated with these alterations were: very low birth weight and longer duration of mechanical ventilation in the neonatal unit. PMID:25651130

  7. Residential proximity to gasoline service stations and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Huppé, Vicky; Kestens, Yan; Auger, Nathalie; Daniel, Mark; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2013-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a growing public health problem potentially associated with ambient air pollution. Gasoline service stations can emit atmospheric pollutants, including volatile organic compounds potentially implicated in PTB. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between residential proximity to gasoline service stations and PTB. Singleton live births on the Island of Montreal from 1994 to 2006 were obtained (n=267,478). Gasoline service station locations, presence of heavy-traffic roads, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) were determined using a geographic information system. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze the association between PTB and residential proximity to gasoline service stations (50, 100, 150, 200, 250, and 500 m), accounting for maternal covariates, neighborhood SES, and heavy-traffic roads. For all distance categories beyond 50 m, presence of service stations was associated with a greater odds of PTB. Associations were robust to adjustment for maternal covariates for distance categories of 150 and 200 m but were nullified when adjusting for neighborhood SES. In analyses accounting for the number of service stations, the likelihood of PTB within 250 m was statistically significant in unadjusted models. Associations were, however, nullified in models accounting for maternal covariates or neighborhood SES. Our results suggest that there is no clear association between residential proximity to gasoline service stations in Montreal and PTB. Given the correlation between proximity of gasoline service stations and SES, it is difficult to delineate the role of these factors in PTB.

  8. Are Early Grammatical and Phonological Working Memory Abilities Affected by Preterm Birth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sansavini, Alessandra; Guarini, Annalisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Giovanelli, Giuliana; Salvioli, Gianpaolo

    2007-01-01

    There have been few investigations of the effects of very immature preterm birth on specific linguistic competencies and phonological working memory at preschool age. Study 1 aimed to investigate early grammatical abilities in very immature healthy preterms, taking into account their cognitive development and biological and social factors. The…

  9. Corpus Callosum and Prefrontal Functions in Adolescents with History of Very Preterm Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narberhaus, Ana; Segarra, Dolors; Caldu, Xavier; Gimenez, Monica; Pueyo, Roser; Botet, Francesc; Junque, Carme

    2008-01-01

    Very preterm (VPT) birth can account for thinning of the corpus callosum and poorer cognitive performance. Research findings about preterm and VPT adolescents usually describe a small posterior corpus callosum, although our research group has also found reductions of the anterior part, specifically the genu. The aim of the present study was to…

  10. Assisted reproductive technology and the risk of preterm birth among primiparas

    PubMed Central

    Dunietz, Galit Levi; Holzman, Claudia; McKane, Patricia; Li, Chenxi; Boulet, Sheree L.; Todem, David; Kissin, Dmitry M.; Copeland, Glenn; Bernson, Dana; Sappenfield, William M.; Diamond, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the risk of preterm birth among liveborn singletons to primiparas who conceived with assisted reproductive technology (ART) using four mutually exclusive categories of infertility (female infertility only, male infertility only, female and male infertility, and unexplained infertility) and to examine preterm birth risk along the gestational age continuum. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Singletons born to primiparas who conceived with or without ART. Intervention(s) None. Main Outcome Measure(s) Preterm (<37 weeks’ gestation) and preterm/early term birth <39 weeks’ gestation). Result(s) For the male infertility only, female infertility only, combined male and female infertility, and unexplained infertility groups, ART-conceived singletons were significantly more likely than non-ART singletons to be born preterm: adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.24 (95% CI, 1.13, 1.37), aOR 1.60 (95% CI, 1.50, 1.70), aOR 1.49 (95% CI, 1.35, 1.64), and aOR 1.26 (1.12, 1.43) respectively. Among infants whose mothers were diagnosed with infertility, the odds of preterm birth were highest between 28–30 weeks [female infertility only, aOR 1.95 (95% CI, 1.59, 2.39); male and female infertility: 2.21 (95% CI, 1.62, 3.00)] compared with infants in the general population. Within the ART population, singletons of couples with female infertility only were more likely to be born preterm than singletons born to couples with other infertility diagnoses. Conclusion(s) Among singleton births to primiparas, those conceived with ART had an increased risk for preterm birth, even when only the male partner had been diagnosed with infertility. The risk of preterm birth for ART-conceived infants whose mothers were diagnosed with infertility included the earliest deliveries. PMID:25707336

  11. Prevention of preterm birth: harnessing science to address the global epidemic.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Craig E; Sadovsky, Yoel; Muglia, Louis; Gravett, Michael G; Lackritz, Eve; Gravett, Courtney

    2014-11-12

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality worldwide, but current interventions to prevent prematurity are largely ineffective. Preterm birth is increasingly recognized as an outcome that can result from a variety of pathological processes. Despite current research efforts, the mechanisms underlying these processes remain poorly understood and are influenced by a range of biological and environmental factors. Research with modern techniques is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for preterm labor and birth and identify targets for diagnostic and therapeutic solutions. This review evaluates the state of reproductive science relevant to understanding the causes of preterm birth, identifies potential targets for prevention, and outlines challenges and opportunities for translating research findings into effective interventions.

  12. Common Tests for Preterm Birth Not Useful for Routine Screening of First-Time Pregnancies

    MedlinePlus

    ... birth not useful for routine screening of first-time pregnancies Skip sharing on social media links Share ... hold promise in predicting preterm delivery in first-time pregnancies identified only a small proportion of cases ...

  13. Preterm preeclampsia in relation to country of birth

    PubMed Central

    Ray, J G; Wanigaratne, S; Park, A L; Bartsch, E; Dzakpasu, S; Urquia, M L

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between maternal country of birth and the risk of preeclampsia+preterm birth (PTB). Study Design: We completed a population-based study in the entire province of Ontario, where there is universal access to obstetrical care. We included 881 700 singleton livebirths among Canadian-born mothers and 305 547 births among immigrant mothers. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) were adjusted for maternal age, parity and income quintile. Results: Compared with a rate of preeclampsia+PTB of 4.0 per 1000 among Canadian-born mothers, the aRR of preeclampsia+PTB at 24 to 36 weeks was significantly higher for immigrant women from Nigeria (1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12 to 2.84), the Philippines (1.54, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.86), Colombia (1.68, 95% CI 1.04 to 2.73), Jamaica (2.06, 95% CI 1.66 to 2.57) and Ghana (2.12, 95% CI 1.40 to 3.21). The aRRs generally followed a similar pattern for secondary outcomes. Specifically, women from Ghana were at highest risk of preeclampsia+very PTB (4.55, 95% CI 2.57 to 8.06), and women from Jamaica at the highest risk of preeclampsia+indicated PTB (1.89, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.50). Conclusion: The risk of preeclampsia+PTB is highest among women from a select number of countries. This information can enhance initiatives aimed at reducing the risk of PTB related to preeclampsia. PMID:27149056

  14. The Relationships of Health Behaviour and Psychological Characteristics with Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Nulliparous Women.

    PubMed

    Baron, Ruth; Te Velde, Saskia J; Heymans, Martijn W; Klomp, Trudy; Hutton, Eileen K; Brug, Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Objectives Preterm birth is the leading pregnancy outcome associated with perinatal morbidity and mortality and remains difficult to prevent. There is evidence that some modifiable maternal health characteristics may influence the risk of preterm birth. Our aim was to investigate the relationships of self-reported maternal health behaviour and psychological characteristics in nulliparous women with spontaneous preterm birth in prenatal primary care. Methods The data of our prospective study was obtained from the nationwide DELIVER multicentre cohort study (September 2009-March 2011), which was designed to examine perinatal primary care in the Netherlands. In our study, consisting of 2768 nulliparous women, we estimated the relationships of various self-reported health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, folic acid supplementation, daily fruit, daily fresh vegetables, daily hot meal and daily breakfast consumption) and psychological characteristics (anxious/depressed mood and health control beliefs) with spontaneous preterm birth as a dichotomous outcome. Due to the clustering of clients within midwife practices, Generalized Estimating Equations was used for these analyses. Results Low health control beliefs was the sole characteristic significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth (odds ratio 2.26; 95 % confidence interval 1.51, 3.39) after being adjusted for socio-demographics, anthropometrics and the remaining health behaviour and psychological characteristics. The other characteristics were not significantly associated with spontaneous preterm birth. Conclusions for Practice Maternal low health control beliefs need to be explored further as a possible marker for women at risk for preterm birth, and as a potentially modifiable characteristic to be used in interventions which are designed to reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm birth.

  15. Maternal religious attendance and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Amy M; Weeks, Janet; Hill, Terrence D; Eberstein, Isaac W

    2012-06-01

    We use data from the U.S. Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study to test whether maternal religious attendance is protective against low birth weight. Building on previous research, we also consider the mediating influence of mental health, cigarette use, alcohol use, illicit drug use, poor nutrition, and prenatal care. Our results indicate that maternal religious attendance is protective against low birth weight. In fact, each unit increase in the frequency of religious attendance reduces the odds of low birth weight by 15%. Religious attendance is also associated with lower odds of cigarette use and poor nutrition, but is unrelated to mental health, alcohol use, illicit drug use, and prenatal care. Although lower rates of cigarette use help to mediate or explain 11% of the association between maternal religious attendance and low birth weight, we find no evidence to substantiate the mediating influence of mental health, alcohol use, illicit drug use, poor nutrition, or prenatal care. Our results suggest that the health benefits of religious involvement may extend across generations (from mother to child); however, additional research is needed to fully explain the association between maternal religious attendance and low birth weight. It is also important for future research to consider the extent to which the apparent health advantages of religious adults might be attributed to health advantages in early life, especially those related to healthy birth weight.

  16. Perinatal Risks in "Late Motherhood" Defined Based On Parity and Preterm Birth Rate - an Analysis of the German Perinatal Survey (20th Communication).

    PubMed

    Schure, V; Voigt, M; Schild, R L; Hesse, V; Carstensen, M; Schneider, K T M; Straube, S

    2012-01-01

    Aim: "Late motherhood" is associated with greater perinatal risks but the term lacks precise definition. We present an approach to determine what "late motherhood" associated with "high risk" is, based on parity and preterm birth rate. Materials and Methods: Using data from the German Perinatal Survey of 1998-2000 we analysed preterm birth rates in women with zero, one, or two previous live births. We compared groups of "late" mothers (with high preterm birth rates) with "control" groups of younger women (with relatively low preterm birth rates). Data of 208 342 women were analysed. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, the "control" group included women aged 22-26 (27-31; 29-33) years. Women in the "late motherhood" group were aged > 33 (> 35; > 38) years. Results: The "late motherhood" groups defined in this way were also at higher risk of adverse perinatal events other than preterm birth. For women with zero (one; two) previous live births, normal cephalic presentation occurred in 89 % (92.7 %; 93.3 %) in the "control" group, but only in 84.5 % (90 %; 90.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. The mode of delivery was spontaneous or at most requiring manual help in 71.3 % (83.4 %; 85.8 %) in the "control" group, but only in 51.4 % (72.2 %; 76.4 %) in the "late motherhood" group. Five-minute APGAR scores were likewise worse for neonates of "late" mothers and the proportion with a birth weight ≤ 2499 g was greater. Conclusion: "Late motherhood" that is associated with greater perinatal risks can be defined based on parity and preterm birth rate.

  17. Rising preterm birth rates, 1989-2004: changing demographics or changing obstetric practice?

    PubMed

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Lantos, John D; Lauderdale, Diane S

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth rates are higher in the United States than in most industrialized countries, and have been rising steadily. Some attribute these trends to changing demographics, with more older mothers, more infertility, and more multiple births. Others suggest that changes in obstetrics are behind the trends. We sought to determine what the preterm birth rate in 2004 would have been if demographic factors had not changed since 1989. We examined complete US birth certificate files from 1989 and 2004 and used logistic regression models to estimate what the 2004 preterm birth rates (overall, spontaneous, and medically induced) would have been if maternal age, race, nativity, gravidity, marital status, and education among childbearing women had not changed since 1989. While the overall preterm births increased from 11.2% to 12.8% from 1989 to 2004, medically induced rates increased 94%, from 3.4% to 6.6%, and spontaneous rates declined by 21%, from 7.8% to 6.2%. Had demographic factors in 2004 been what they were in 1989, the 2004 rates would have been almost identical. Changes in multiple births accounted for only 16% of the increase in medically induced rates. Our analysis suggests that the increase in preterm births is more likely due primarily to changes in obstetric practice, rather than to changes in the demographics of childbearing. Further research should examine the degree to which these changes in obstetric practice affect infant morbidity and mortality.

  18. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  19. PRETERM BIRTH AND FETAL GROWTH RESTRICTION IN HIV-INFECTED BRAZILIAN PREGNANT WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    dos REIS, Helena Lucia Barroso; ARAUJO, Karina da Silva; RIBEIRO, Lilian Paula; da ROCHA, Daniel Ribeiro; ROSATO, Drielli Petri; PASSOS, Mauro Romero Leal; de VARGAS, Paulo Roberto Merçon

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Maternal HIV infection and related co-morbidities may have two outstanding consequences to fetal health: mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) and adverse perinatal outcomes. After Brazilian success in reducing MTCT, the attention must now be diverted to the potentially increased risk for preterm birth (PTB) and intrauterine fetal growth restriction (IUGR). Objective: To determine the prevalence of PTB and IUGR in low income, antiretroviral users, publicly assisted, HIV-infected women and to verify its relation to the HIV infection stage. Patients and Methods: Out of 250 deliveries from HIV-infected mothers that delivered at a tertiary public university hospital in the city of Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, from November 2001 to May 2012, 74 single pregnancies were selected for study, with ultrasound validated gestational age (GA) and data on birth dimensions: fetal weight (FW), birth length (BL), head and abdominal circumferences (HC, AC). The data were extracted from clinical and pathological records, and the outcomes summarized as proportions of preterm birth (PTB, < 37 weeks), low birth weight (LBW, < 2500g) and small (SGA), adequate (AGA) and large (LGA) for GA, defined as having a value below, between or beyond the ±1.28 z/GA score, the usual clinical cut-off to demarcate the 10th and 90th percentiles. Results: PTB was observed in 17.5%, LBW in 20.2% and SGA FW, BL, HC and AC in 16.2%, 19.1%, 13.8%, and 17.4% respectively. The proportions in HIV-only and AIDS cases were: PTB: 5.9 versus 27.5%, LBW: 14.7% versus 25.0%, SGA BW: 17.6% versus 15.0%, BL: 6.0% versus 30.0%, HC: 9.0% versus 17.9%, and AC: 13.3% versus 21.2%; only SGA BL attained a significant difference. Out of 15 cases of LBW, eight (53.3%) were preterm only, four (26.7%) were SGA only, and three (20.0%) were both PTB and SGA cases. A concomitant presence of, at least, two SGA dimensions in the same fetus was frequent. Conclusions: The proportions of preterm

  20. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-12

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  1. Preterm milk.

    PubMed

    Baum, J D

    1980-03-01

    This editorial addresses the question of how best to feed the low birth weight infant. A study by Atkinson et al. on the composition of preterm mothers' milk found the nitrogen concentration in preterm milk to be considerably higher than in term milk. Preterm milk may be uniquely suited to the growth requirements of preterm infants. With the exception of calcium and phosphorus, preterm milk fits the requirements for preterm infant growth. Because of the difficulties of sustaining lactation without the infant sucking at the breast, partly due to the mother's motivation in the face of all the difficulties of having a baby in a Special Care Baby Unit, and partly due to the associated socioeconomic disadvantages, it is not possible for all mothers who deliver preterm babies to sustain their lactation. The composition of preterm milk should be used as a guide for the preparation of a human milk formula built from human milk products from a milk bank. The development of a human milk formula must take into account variations in the absorption of nutrients in low birth weight infants which may be affected by the processing of the milk, and variations in fat absorption in preterm infants which occur even when they are fed their mothers' fresh unprocessed milk.

  2. Weak functional connectivity in the human fetal brain prior to preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Thomason, Moriah E; Scheinost, Dustin; Manning, Janessa H; Grove, Lauren E; Hect, Jasmine; Marshall, Narcis; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Berman, Susan; Pappas, Athina; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R; Romero, Roberto

    2017-01-09

    It has been suggested that neurological problems more frequent in those born preterm are expressed prior to birth, but owing to technical limitations, this has been difficult to test in humans. We applied novel fetal resting-state functional MRI to measure brain function in 32 human fetuses in utero and found that systems-level neural functional connectivity was diminished in fetuses that would subsequently be born preterm. Neural connectivity was reduced in a left-hemisphere pre-language region, and the degree to which connectivity of this left language region extended to right-hemisphere homologs was positively associated with the time elapsed between fMRI assessment and delivery. These results provide the first evidence that altered functional connectivity in the preterm brain is identifiable before birth. They suggest that neurodevelopmental disorders associated with preterm birth may result from neurological insults that begin in utero.

  3. Weak functional connectivity in the human fetal brain prior to preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Thomason, Moriah E.; Scheinost, Dustin; Manning, Janessa H.; Grove, Lauren E.; Hect, Jasmine; Marshall, Narcis; Hernandez-Andrade, Edgar; Berman, Susan; Pappas, Athina; Yeo, Lami; Hassan, Sonia S.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.; Romero, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that neurological problems more frequent in those born preterm are expressed prior to birth, but owing to technical limitations, this has been difficult to test in humans. We applied novel fetal resting-state functional MRI to measure brain function in 32 human fetuses in utero and found that systems-level neural functional connectivity was diminished in fetuses that would subsequently be born preterm. Neural connectivity was reduced in a left-hemisphere pre-language region, and the degree to which connectivity of this left language region extended to right-hemisphere homologs was positively associated with the time elapsed between fMRI assessment and delivery. These results provide the first evidence that altered functional connectivity in the preterm brain is identifiable before birth. They suggest that neurodevelopmental disorders associated with preterm birth may result from neurological insults that begin in utero. PMID:28067865

  4. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; <37 gestational weeks) rate between infants of Native only ancestry and those of European only ancestry in Argentina and Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  5. Twin's sex and risk of pre-term birth.

    PubMed

    Haghighi, L; Najmi, Z; Barzegar, S H; Barzegar, N

    2013-11-01

    Male sex is a risk factor for pre-term birth (PTB) among singleton pregnancies; however, in twin pregnancies, the effect of sex on PTB is not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of twin's sex on risk of PTB. During this analytical cross-sectional study, we evaluated the effect of twin's sex, chorionicity and other factors on risk of PTB in 676 pregnant women in a university hospital in Tehran, Iran. Existence of male gender in pregnancy was a risk factor for PTB. Comparing same sex twins together, male-male gender was a risk factor for PTB (OR = 1.67 (1.19-2.34), p = 0.002), early PTB (OR = 1.18 (1.04-1.34), p = 0.01) and very early PTB (OR = 1.06 (1-1.13), p = 0.04). Monoamnion twins were at higher risk for early PTB (OR = 1.44 (1.08-1.92), p = 0.02), and very early PTB (OR = 1.95 (1.1-3.44), p = 0.03) but the risk did not increase in monochorion twins. History of abortion was also shown to be a risk factor (p < 0.05). Maternal age, multiparity, body mass index (BMI) and assisted reproductive techniques (ART) did not reach the significance levels to be considered as risk factors.

  6. Transdisciplinary translational science and the case of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, D K; Shaw, G M; Wise, P H; Norton, M E; Druzin, M L; Valantine, H A; McFarland, D A

    2013-04-01

    Medical researchers have called for new forms of translational science that can solve complex medical problems. Mainstream science has made complementary calls for heterogeneous teams of collaborators who conduct transdisciplinary research so as to solve complex social problems. Is transdisciplinary translational science what the medical community needs? What challenges must the medical community overcome to successfully implement this new form of translational science? This article makes several contributions. First, it clarifies the concept of transdisciplinary research and distinguishes it from other forms of collaboration. Second, it presents an example of a complex medical problem and a concrete effort to solve it through transdisciplinary collaboration: for example, the problem of preterm birth and the March of Dimes effort to form a transdisciplinary research center that synthesizes knowledge on it. The presentation of this example grounds discussion on new medical research models and reveals potential means by which they can be judged and evaluated. Third, this article identifies the challenges to forming transdisciplines and the practices that overcome them. Departments, universities and disciplines tend to form intellectual silos and adopt reductionist approaches. Forming a more integrated (or 'constructionist'), problem-based science reflective of transdisciplinary research requires the adoption of novel practices to overcome these obstacles.

  7. Placental Microbiome and Its Role in Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bin; Stout, Molly J.; Lee, Iris; Mysorekar, Indira U.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known fact that the placenta has long-term effects on maternal and fetal health, the placenta remains a poorly understood and understudied organ. Not only is the placenta a site of exchange of nutrients and blood and gases between the fetal and maternal systems, but it also performs critical metabolic functions for supporting fetal development and maintaining maternal-fetal tolerance. It is also abundantly clear that impairment of placental function leads to severe pregnancy complications, including preterm birth (PTB), a significant cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Understanding the causes of PTB and other adverse outcomes is clearly essential for the development of effective methods of prevention and treatment. We focus our review of one major known cause of PTB, namely, infection. We also introduce a new and somewhat unexpected factor(s) that may well affect PTB and every aspect of placental biology and function: the placental microbiome. We discuss the implications of the placenta housing a microbial biomass for PTB and the effect of maternal microbiomes at various niches for fetal colonization and health outcomes. We suggest that the placenta is an integral part of the pipeline for microbe-powered driver of fetal destiny. PMID:25635174

  8. Transdisciplinary translational science and the case of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, D K; Shaw, G M; Wise, P H; Norton, M E; Druzin, M L; Valantine, H A; McFarland, D A

    2013-01-01

    Medical researchers have called for new forms of translational science that can solve complex medical problems. Mainstream science has made complementary calls for heterogeneous teams of collaborators who conduct transdisciplinary research so as to solve complex social problems. Is transdisciplinary translational science what the medical community needs? What challenges must the medical community overcome to successfully implement this new form of translational science? This article makes several contributions. First, it clarifies the concept of transdisciplinary research and distinguishes it from other forms of collaboration. Second, it presents an example of a complex medical problem and a concrete effort to solve it through transdisciplinary collaboration: for example, the problem of preterm birth and the March of Dimes effort to form a transdisciplinary research center that synthesizes knowledge on it. The presentation of this example grounds discussion on new medical research models and reveals potential means by which they can be judged and evaluated. Third, this article identifies the challenges to forming transdisciplines and the practices that overcome them. Departments, universities and disciplines tend to form intellectual silos and adopt reductionist approaches. Forming a more integrated (or ‘constructionist'), problem-based science reflective of transdisciplinary research requires the adoption of novel practices to overcome these obstacles. PMID:23079774

  9. Preterm birth and single nucleotide polymorphisms in cytokine genes

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Qin; Sun, Jian

    2014-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is an important issue in neonates because of its complications as well as high morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of PTB is approximately 12-13% in USA and 5-9% in many other developed countries. China represents 7.8% (approximately one million) of 14.9 million babies born prematurely annually worldwide. The rate of PTB is still increasing. Both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are the major causes of PTB. Inflammation is regarded as an enabling characteristic factor of PTB. The aim of this review is to summarize the current literatures to illustrate the role of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of cytokine genes in PTB. These polymorphisms are different among different geographic regions and different races, thus different populations may have different risk factors of PTB. SNPs affect the ability to metabolize poisonous substances and determine inflammation susceptibility, which in turn has an influence on reproduction-related risks and on delivery outcomes after exposure to environmental toxicants and pathogenic organisms. PMID:26835330

  10. Resveratrol Protects Against Pathological Preterm Birth by Suppression of Macrophage-Mediated Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Hitomi; Taguchi, Ayumi; Kawana, Kei; Yamashita, Aki; Inoue, Eri; Yoshida, Mitsuyo; Nakamura, Hiroe; Fujimoto, Asaha; Inoue, Tomoko; Sato, Masakazu; Nishida, Haruka; Nagasaka, Kazunori; Adachi, Katsuyuki; Hoya, Mari; Nagamatsu, Takeshi; Wada-Hiraike, Osamu; Yamashita, Takahiro; Osuga, Yutaka; Fujii, Tomoyuki

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory cytokines play a major role in spontaneous preterm birth. Resveratrol has strong anti-inflammatory effects, but its effect on preterm birth in vivo is unknown. We investigated whether resveratrol protects against preterm birth in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced preterm mouse model. Twelve-day-old pregnant mice were fed 20 to 40 mg/kg resveratrol daily. On day 15, 10 μg of LPS was injected into uterine cervices. Resveratrol administration significantly decreased the rate of preterm birth. Resveratrol administration abolished LPS-induced elevation of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL) 1β but not IL-6 levels. The TNF-α messenger RNA levels were decreased in the cervices of resveratrol-administered mice compared with controls. Resveratrol treatment suppressed the elevation in TNF-α and IL-1β levels in LPS-exposed peritoneal macrophages. Further resveratrol treatment eradicated the proinflammatory cytokine-mediated elevation in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) in peritoneal macrophages. Resveratrol may protect against pathological preterm birth by suppression of elevated proinflammatory cytokines and consequent elevation of COX-2 in macrophages.

  11. Whole blood gene expression profile associated with spontaneous preterm birth in women with threatened preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Heng, Yujing Jan; Pennell, Craig Edward; Chua, Hon Nian; Perkins, Jonathan Edward; Lye, Stephen James

    2014-01-01

    Threatened preterm labor (TPTL) is defined as persistent premature uterine contractions between 20 and 37 weeks of gestation and is the most common condition that requires hospitalization during pregnancy. Most of these TPTL women continue their pregnancies to term while only an estimated 5% will deliver a premature baby within ten days. The aim of this work was to study differential whole blood gene expression associated with spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) within 48 hours of hospital admission. Peripheral blood was collected at point of hospital admission from 154 women with TPTL before any medical treatment. Microarrays were utilized to investigate differential whole blood gene expression between TPTL women who did (n = 48) or did not have a sPTB (n = 106) within 48 hours of admission. Total leukocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly higher (35% and 41% respectively) in women who had sPTB than women who did not deliver within 48 hours (p<0.001). Fetal fibronectin (fFN) test was performed on 62 women. There was no difference in the urine, vaginal and placental microbiology and histopathology reports between the two groups of women. There were 469 significant differentially expressed genes (FDR<0.05); 28 differentially expressed genes were chosen for microarray validation using qRT-PCR and 20 out of 28 genes were successfully validated (p<0.05). An optimal random forest classifier model to predict sPTB was achieved using the top nine differentially expressed genes coupled with peripheral clinical blood data (sensitivity 70.8%, specificity 75.5%). These differentially expressed genes may further elucidate the underlying mechanisms of sPTB and pave the way for future systems biology studies to predict sPTB.

  12. Comparison of Bayesian and frequentist approaches in modelling risk of preterm birth near the Sydney Tar Ponds, Nova Scotia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ismaila, Afisi S; Canty, Angelo; Thabane, Lehana

    2007-01-01

    Background This study compares the Bayesian and frequentist (non-Bayesian) approaches in the modelling of the association between the risk of preterm birth and maternal proximity to hazardous waste and pollution from the Sydney Tar Pond site in Nova Scotia, Canada. Methods The data includes 1604 observed cases of preterm birth out of a total population of 17559 at risk of preterm birth from 144 enumeration districts in the Cape Breton Regional Municipality. Other covariates include the distance from the Tar Pond; the rate of unemployment to population; the proportion of persons who are separated, divorced or widowed; the proportion of persons who have no high school diploma; the proportion of persons living alone; the proportion of single parent families and average income. Bayesian hierarchical Poisson regression, quasi-likelihood Poisson regression and weighted linear regression models were fitted to the data. Results The results of the analyses were compared together with their limitations. Conclusion The results of the weighted linear regression and the quasi-likelihood Poisson regression agrees with the result from the Bayesian hierarchical modelling which incorporates the spatial effects. PMID:17845717

  13. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G.; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants. PMID:28228752

  14. Intestinal Microbiota and Weight-Gain in Preterm Neonates.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Silvia; Martinez-Camblor, Pablo; Solís, Gonzalo; Suárez, Marta; Fernández, Nuria; de Los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara G; Gueimonde, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    The involvement of the gut microbiota on weight-gain and its relationship with childhood undernutrition and growth has been reported. Thus, the gut microbiota constitutes a potential therapeutic target for preventing growth impairment. However, our knowledge in this area is limited. In this study we aimed at evaluating the relationship among early microbiota, growth, and development in preterm infants. To this end we assessed the levels of specific microorganisms by qPCR, and those of short chain fatty acids by mean of gas-chromatography, in feces from 63 preterm newborns and determined their weight-gain during the first months. The statistical analyses performed indicate an influence of the intestinal microbiota in weight-gain, with the levels of some microorganisms showing a significant association with the weight-gain of the infant. The levels of specific microbial groups during the first days of life were found to affect weight gain by the age of 1 month. Moreover, clustering of the infants on the basis of the microbiota composition at 1 month of age rendered groups which showed differences in weight z-scores. Our results suggest an association between the gut microbiota composition and weight-gain in preterm infants at early life and point out potential microbial targets for favoring growth and maturation in these infants.

  15. Maternal inflammation, growth retardation, and preterm birth: insights into adult cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Lynette K; Velten, Markus

    2011-09-26

    The "fetal origin of adult disease Hypothesis" originally described by Barker et al. identified the relationship between impaired in utero growth and adult cardiovascular disease risk and death. Since then, numerous clinical and experimental studies have confirmed that early developmental influences can lead to cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, and psychological diseases during adulthood with and without alterations in birth weight. This so called "fetal programming" includes developmental disruption, immediate adaptation, or predictive adaptation and can lead to epigenetic changes affecting a specific organ or overall health. The intrauterine environment is dramatically impacted by the overall maternal health. Both premature birth or low birth weight can result from a variety of maternal conditions including undernutrition or dysnutrition, metabolic diseases, chronic maternal stresses induced by infections and inflammation, as well as hypercholesterolemia and smoking. Numerous animal studies have supported the importance of both maternal health and maternal environment on the long term outcomes of the offspring. With increasing rates of obesity and diabetes and survival of preterm infants born at early gestational ages, the need to elucidate mechanisms responsible for programming of adult cardiovascular disease is essential for the treatment of upcoming generations.

  16. Preconception Stress, Birth Weight, and Birth Weight Disparities Among US Women

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Vijaya K.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Suchindran, Chirayath M.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Hussey, Jon M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the impact of preconception acute and chronic stressors on offspring birth weight and racial/ethnic birth weight disparities. Methods. We included birth weights for singleton live first (n = 3512) and second (n = 1901) births to White, Mexican-origin Latina, other-origin Latina, and Black women reported at wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (2007–2008; ages 24–32 years). We generated factor scores for preconception acute and chronic stressors from wave I (1994–1995; ages 11–19 years) or wave III (2001–2002; ages 18–26 years) for the same cohort of women. Results. Linear regression models indicated that chronic stressors, but not acute stressors, were inversely associated with birth weight for both first and second births (b = −192; 95% confidence interval = −270, −113; and b = −180; 95% confidence interval = −315, −45, respectively), and partially explained the disparities in birth weight between the minority racial/ethnic groups and Whites. Conclusions. Preconception chronic stressors contribute to restricted birth weight and to racial/ethnic birth weight disparities. PMID:24922164

  17. Accuracy of cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test in predicting risk of spontaneous preterm birth: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Honest, Honest; Bachmann, Lucas M; Gupta, Janesh K; Kleijnen, Jos; Khan, Khalid S

    2002-01-01

    Objective To determine the accuracy with which a cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test predicts spontaneous preterm birth in women with or without symptoms of preterm labour. Design Systematic quantitative review of studies of test accuracy. Data sources Medline, Embase, PASCAL, Biosis, Cochrane Library, Medion, National Research Register, SCISEARCH, conference papers, manual searching of bibliographies of known primary and review articles, and contact with experts and manufacturer. Study selection Two reviewers independently selected and extracted data on study characteristics, quality, and accuracy. Data extraction Accuracy data were used to form 2×2 contingency tables with spontaneous preterm birth before 34 and 37 weeks' gestation and birth within 7-10 days of testing (for symptomatic pregnant women) as reference standards. Data were pooled to produce summary receiver operating characteristic curves and summary likelihood ratios for positive and negative test results. Data synthesis 64 primary articles were identified, consisting of 28 studies in asymptomatic women and 40 in symptomatic women, with a total of 26 876 women. Among asymptomatic women the best summary likelihood ratio for positive results was 4.01 (95% confidence interval 2.93 to 5.49) for predicting birth before 34 weeks' gestation, with corresponding summary likelihood ratio for negative results of 0.78 (0.72 to 0.84). Among symptomatic women the best summary likelihood ratio for positive results was 5.42 (4.36 to 6.74) for predicting birth within 7-10 days of testing, with corresponding ratio for negative results of 0.25 (0.20 to 0.31). Conclusion Cervicovaginal fetal fibronectin test is most accurate in predicting spontaneous preterm birth within 7-10 days of testing among women with symptoms of threatened preterm birth before advanced cervical dilatation. What is already known on this topicSpontaneous preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortalityIf spontaneous preterm

  18. Ambient Temperature and the Risk of Preterm Birth in Guangzhou, China (2001–2011)

    PubMed Central

    He, Jian-Rong; Liu, Yu; Xia, Xiao-Yan; Ma, Wen-Jun; Lin, Hua-Liang; Kan, Hai-Dong; Lu, Jin-Hua; Feng, Qiong; Mo, Wei-Jian; Wang, Ping; Xia, Hui-Min; Qiu, Xiu; Muglia, Louis J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although effects of weather changes on human health have been widely reported, there is limited information regarding effects on pregnant women in developing countries. Objective: We investigated the association between maternal exposure to ambient temperature and the risk of preterm birth (< 37 weeks of gestation) in Guangzhou, China. Methods: We used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate associations between preterm birth and average temperature during each week of gestation, with weekly temperature modeled as a time-varying exposure during four time windows: 1 week (the last week of the pregnancy), 4 weeks (the last 4 weeks of the pregnancy), late pregnancy (gestational week 20 onward), and the entire pregnancy. Information on singleton vaginal birth between 2001 and 2011 was collected. Daily meteorological data during the same period were obtained from the Guangzhou Meteorological Bureau. Results: A total of 838,146 singleton vaginal births were included, among which 47,209 (5.6%) were preterm births. High mean temperatures during the 4 weeks, late pregnancy, and the entire pregnancy time windows were associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. Compared with the median temperature (24.4°C), weekly exposures during the last 4 weeks of the pregnancy to extreme cold (7.6°C, the 1st percentile) and extreme heat (31.9°C, the 99th percentile) were associated with 17.9% (95% CI: 10.2, 26.2%) and 10.0% (95% CI: 2.9, 17.6%) increased risks of preterm birth, respectively. The association between extreme heat and preterm birth was stronger for preterm births during weeks 20–31 and 32–34 than those during weeks 35–36. Conclusions: These findings might have important implications in preventing preterm birth in Guangzhou as well as other areas with similar weather conditions. Citation: He JR, Liu Y, Xia XY, Ma WJ, Lin HL, Kan HD, Lu JH, Feng Q, Mo WJ, Wang P, Xia HM, Qiu X, Muglia LJ. 2016. Ambient temperature and the risk of preterm birth

  19. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  20. Prenatal Exposure to Nitrosatable Drugs, Dietary Intake of Nitrites, and Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Ann M; Shinde, Mayura U; Brender, Jean D; Shipp, Eva M; Huber, John C; Sharkey, Joseph R; McDonald, Thomas J; Werler, Martha M; Kelley, Katherine E; Griesenbeck, John S; Langlois, Peter H; Canfield, Mark A

    2016-04-01

    Prenatal exposure to nitrosatable drugs, including secondary or tertiary amines, has been associated with preterm birth. Associations may be accentuated by higher intakes of dietary nitrites because of the increased formation of N-nitroso compounds. Using data from mothers of babies without major birth defects (controls) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we examined the relationship between nitrosatable drug exposure in conjunction with dietary nitrite intake and preterm birth among 496 mothers of preterm infants and 5,398 mothers with full-term deliveries in 1997-2005. A protective association was observed with a high intake of plant nitrites (adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) = 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.53, 0.97). Secondary amines in conjunction with high nitrite intake were associated with preterm birth during the first (AHR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98), second (AHR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.17, 3.07), and third (AHR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.22, 3.29) trimesters. The adjusted hazard ratios for tertiary amine use in the third trimester by increasing tertiles of nitrite intake were 0.67 (95% CI: 0.35, 1.31), 1.25 (95% CI: 0.71, 2.19), and 2.02 (95% CI: 1.17, 3.49). Prenatal exposure to nitrosatable drugs, particularly secondary and tertiary amines, in conjunction with higher levels of dietary nitrite intake may increase the risk of preterm birth.

  1. Metropolitan isolation segregation and Black-White disparities in very preterm birth: A test of mediating pathways and variance explained

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Michael R; Cooper, Hannah L; Drews-Botsch, Carolyn D; Waller, Lance A; Hogue, Carol R

    2010-01-01

    Residential isolation segregation (a measure of residential inter-racial exposure) has been associated with rates of preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation) experienced by black women. Epidemiologic differences between very preterm (<32 weeks gestation) and moderately preterm births (32–36 weeks) raise questions about whether this association is similar across gestational ages, and through what pathways it might be mediated. Hierarchical Bayesian models were fit to answer three questions: is the isolation-prematurity association similar for very and moderately preterm birth; is this association mediated by maternal chronic disease, socioeconomic status, or metropolitan area crime and poverty rates; and how much of the geographic variation in black-white very preterm birth disparities is explained by isolation segregation? Singleton births to black and white women in 231 U.S. metropolitan statistical areas in 2000–2002 were analyzed and isolation segregation was calculated for each. We found that among black women, isolation is associated with very preterm birth and moderately preterm birth. The association may be partially mediated by individual level socioeconomic characteristics and metropolitan level violent crime rates. There is no association between segregation and prematurity among white women. Isolation segregation explains 28% of the geographic variation in black-white very preterm birth disparities. Our findings highlight the importance of isolation segregation for the high-burden outcome of very preterm birth, but unexplained excess risk for prematurity among black women is substantial. PMID:20947234

  2. Preterm birth and unintentional injuries: risks to children, adolescents and young adults show no consistent pattern

    PubMed Central

    Calling, Susanna; Palmér, Karolina; Jönsson, Lena; Sundquist, Jan; Winkleby, Marilyn; Sundquist, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Aim Preterm birth is associated with a number of physical and mental health issues. The aim of this study was to find out if there was also any association between individuals born preterm in Sweden between 1984 and 2006 and the risk of unintentional injuries during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Methods The study followed 2,297,134 individuals, including 5.9% born preterm, from 1985 to 2007 for unintentional injuries leading to hospitalisation or death (n=244,021). The males and females were divided into four age groups: 1–5 years, 6–12 years, 13–18 years and 19–23 years. Hazard ratios were calculated for falls, transport injuries and other injuries. Results After adjusting for a comprehensive set of covariates, some of the preterm subgroups demonstrated slightly increased risks of unintentional injuries, while others showed slightly decreased risks. However, most of the estimates were borderline or non-significant in both males and females. In addition, the absolute risk differences between individuals born preterm and full term were small. Conclusion Despite the association between preterm birth and a variety of physical and mental health consequences, this study shows that there is no consistent risk pattern between preterm birth and unintentional injuries in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. PMID:23181809

  3. Segregation and preterm birth: The effects of neighborhood racial composition in North Carolina

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiologic research suggests that racial segregation is associated with poor health among blacks in the United States (US). We used geocoded birth records and US census data to investigate whether neighborhood-level percent black is associated with preterm birth (PTB) for blac...

  4. Very preterm birth is reduced in women receiving an integrated behavioral intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    El-Mohandes, Ayman A E; Kiely, Michele; Gantz, Marie G; El-Khorazaty, M Nabil

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether an integrated behavioral intervention with proven efficacy in reducing psycho-behavioral risks (smoking, environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETSE), depression, and intimate partner violence (IPV)) in African-Americans is associated with improved pregnancy outcomes. A randomized controlled trial targeting risks during pregnancy was conducted in the District of Columbia. African-American women were recruited if reporting at least one of the risks mentioned above. Randomization to intervention or usual care was site and risk specific. Sociodemographic, health risk and pregnancy outcome data were collected. Data on 819 women, and their singleton live born infants were analyzed using an intent-to-treat approach. Bivariate analyses preceded a reduced logistical model approach to elucidate the effect of the intervention on the reduction of prematurity and low birth weight. The incidence of low birthweight (LBW) was 12% and very low birthweight (VLBW) was 1.6%. Multivariate logistic regression results showed that depression was associated with LBW (OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.12-2.62). IPV was associated with preterm birth (PTB) and very preterm birth (VPTB) (OR 1.64, 95% CI = 1.07-2.51, OR = 2.94, 95% CI = 1.40-6.16, respectively). The occurrence of VPTB was significantly reduced in the intervention compared to the usual care group (OR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.19-0.93). Our study confirms the significant associations between multiple psycho-behavioral risks and poor pregnancy outcomes, including LBW and PTB. Our behavioral intervention with demonstrated efficacy in addressing multiple risk factors simultaneously reduced VPTB within an urban minority population.

  5. Clinical and Cost Impact Analysis of a Novel Prognostic Test for Early Detection of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caughey, Aaron B.; Zupancic, John A. F.; Greenberg, James M.; Garfield, Susan S.; Thung, Stephen F.; Iams, Jay D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential impact to the U.S. health care system by adopting a novel test that identifies women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth. Methods A decision-analytic model was developed to assess clinical and cost outcomes over a 1-year period. The use of a prognostic test to predict spontaneous preterm birth in a hypothetical population of women reflective of the U.S. population (predictive arm) was compared with the current baseline rate of spontaneous preterm birth and associated infant morbidity and mortality (baseline care arm). Results In a population of 3,528,593 births, our model predicts a 23.5% reduction in infant mortality (8,300 vs. 6,343 deaths) with use of the novel test. The rate of acute conditions at birth decreased from 11.2 to 8.1%; similarly, the rate of developmental disabilities decreased from 13.2 to 11.5%. The rate of spontaneous preterm birth decreased from 9.8 to 9.1%, a reduction of 23,430 preterm births. Direct medical costs savings was $511.7M (− 2.1%) in the first year of life. Discussion The use of a prognostic test for reducing spontaneous preterm birth is a dominant strategy that could reduce costs and improve outcomes. More research is needed once such a test is available to determine if these results are borne out upon real-world use. PMID:27917307

  6. Hormonal changes accompanying cigarette smoke-induced preterm births in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ng, Sheung P; Steinetz, Bernard G; Lasano, Salamia G; Zelikoff, Judith T

    2006-09-01

    Epidemiologic evidence indicates that maternal smoking increases the risk of preterm birth. While a number of plausible mechanisms for early delivery have been offered, the role of gestational hormones in this smoke-induced outcome is uncertain. Thus, a toxicologic study was performed to examine the effects and underlying hormonal mechanisms of mainstream cigarette smoke (MCS) exposure on gestational duration. Pregnant B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to MCS for 5 days/week (4 hrs/day) from Gestational Day (GD) 4 to parturition. Smoke-induced effects on gestational length, interpubic ligament length, maternal hormone secretion patterns (estradiol-17beta, progesterone, prolactin, and relaxin), body weight gain, postimplantation loss, litter size, and offspring sex ratio were examined. Dams exposed to MCS at a concentration equivalent to smoking less than one pack of cigarettes/day (carbon monoxide = 25 parts per million, total suspended particulates = 16 mg/m3) demonstrated a significant (P < 0.05) shortening of gestational duration (compared with pregnant, air-exposed mice). In addition, MCS-exposed mice sacrificed on GD 18 had significantly (P < 0.05) increased interpubic ligament length, elevated serum estrogen levels, and a reduced progesterone to estradiol-17beta ratio (compared with air-exposed controls); levels of progesterone and prolactin were only modestly decreased and increased, respectively, in the MCS-exposed mice. Smoke exposure had no significant effects on maternal relaxin levels, body weight gain, postimplantation loss, litter size, or sex ratio. Results of this study demonstrate that inhalation exposure of pregnant mice to a low dose of MCS shortens gestation and alters hormone secretory patterns, which are important for maintaining pregnancy and inducing parturition. These findings support the view that pregnant women who smoke (even modestly) may be at increased risk for preterm birth, and that early delivery may be related (at least

  7. Downward economic mobility and preterm birth: an exploratory study of Chicago-born upper class White mothers.

    PubMed

    Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J

    2015-07-01

    A paucity of published data exists on the factors underlying the relatively poor birth outcome of non-Hispanic White women in the United States. To determine whether downward economic mobility is a risk factor for preterm birth (<37 weeks, PTB) among upper class-born White women. Stratified and multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on an Illinois transgenerational dataset of non-Hispanic White infants (1989-1991) and their women (1956-1976) with appended US census income information. The study sample was restricted to singleton births of Chicago-born upper-class (defined by early-life residence in affluent neighborhoods) non-Hispanic White women. Upper class-born White women (n = 4,891) who did not experience downward economic mobility by the time of delivery had a PTB rate of 5.4 %. Those women who experienced slight (n = 5,112), moderate (n = 2,158), or extreme (n = 339) downward economic mobility had PTB rates of 6.5, 8.5, and 10.1 %, respectively; RR (95 % CI) = 1.2 (1.0-4.0), 1.6 (1.3-1.9), and 1.9 (1.3-2.6), respectively. Maternal downward economic mobility was also associated with an increased prevalence of biologic, medical, and behavioral risk factors. Interestingly, the relationship between moderate to extreme downward mobility and preterm birth was stronger among former low birth weight (<2500 g, LBW) than non-LBW women: 2.8 (1.4-5.8) versus 1.6 (1.3-1.9), respectively. In multilevel logistic regression models, the adjusted odds ratio of preterm birth for former LBW and non-LBW women who experienced any downward mobility (compared to those women with lifelong upper class status) equaled 2.4 (1.1-5.3) and 1.1 (1.0-1.1), respectively. Downward economic mobility is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth among upper class-born White urban women; this phenomenon is strongest among former low birth weight women.

  8. Maternal experiences of racism and violence as predictors of preterm birth: rationale and study design.

    PubMed

    Rich-Edwards, J; Krieger, N; Majzoub, J; Zierler, S; Lieberman, E; Gillman, M

    2001-07-01

    Chronic psychological stress may raise the risk of preterm delivery by raising levels of placental corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). Women who have been the targets of racism or personal violence may be at particularly high risk of preterm delivery. The aims of this study are to examine the extent to which: (1) maternal experiences of racism or violence in childhood, adulthood, or pregnancy are associated with the risk of preterm birth; (2) CRH levels are prospectively associated with risk of preterm birth; and (3) CRH levels are associated with past and current maternal experiences of racism or violence. We have begun to examine these questions among women enrolled in Project Viva, a Boston-based longitudinal study of 6000 pregnant women and their children.

  9. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (6 of 7): ethical considerations

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Despite the substantial global burden of preterm and stillbirth, little attention has been given to the ethical considerations related to research and interventions in the global context. Ethical dilemmas surrounding reproductive decisions and the care of preterm newborns impact the delivery of interventions, and are not well understood in low-resource settings. Issues such as how to address the moral and cultural attitudes surrounding stillbirths, have cross-cutting implications for global visibility of the disease burden. This analysis identifies ethical issues impacting definitions, discovery, development, and delivery of effective interventions to decrease the global burden of preterm birth and stillbirth. Methods This review is based on a comprehensive literature review; an ethical analysis of other articles within this global report; and discussions with GAPPS's Scientific Advisory Council, team of international investigators, and a community of international experts on maternal, newborn, and child health and bioethics from the 2009 International Conference on Prematurity and Stillbirth. The literature review includes articles in PubMed, Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), and Philosopher's Index with a range of 1995-2008. Results Advancements in discovery science relating to preterm birth and stillbirth require careful consideration in the design and use of repositories containing maternal specimens and data. Equally important is the need to improve clinical translation from basic science research to delivery of interventions, and to ensure global needs inform discovery science agenda-setting. Ethical issues in the development of interventions include a need to balance immediate versus long-term impacts—such as caring for preterm newborns rather than preventing preterm births. The delivery of interventions must address: women's health disparities as determinants of preterm birth and stillbirth; improving measurements of impact on equity in

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BIRTH WEIGHT AND HYPODONTIA IN TWINS,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The relationship between birth weight and congenitally missing teeth (hypodontia) was investigated in 262 twins from the naval recruit population... birth weight 5.5 pounds or less). Hypodontia frequency was higher in ’premature’ twins than in twins with birth weight over 5.5 pound. Mean birth weight was...number variability in twins. The increased frequency of hypodontia in twins and the low birth weight -hypodontia relationship suggest that prenatal

  11. A whole brain morphometric analysis of changes associated with pre-term birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomaz, C. E.; Boardman, J. P.; Counsell, S.; Hill, D. L. G.; Hajnal, J. V.; Edwards, A. D.; Rutherford, M. A.; Gillies, D. F.; Rueckert, D.

    2006-03-01

    Pre-term birth is strongly associated with subsequent neuropsychiatric impairment. To identify structural differences in preterm infants we have examined a dataset of magnetic resonance (MR) images containing 88 preterm infants and 19 term born controls. We have analyzed these images by combining image registration, deformation based morphometry (DBM), multivariate statistics, and effect size maps (ESM). The methodology described has been performed directly on the MR intensity images rather than on segmented versions of the images. The results indicate that the approach described makes clear the statistical differences between the control and preterm samples, showing a leave-one-out classification accuracy of 94.74% and 95.45% respectively. In addition, finding the most discriminant direction between the groups and using DBM features and ESM we are able to identify not only what are the changes between preterm and term groups but also how relatively relevant they are in terms of volume expansion and contraction.

  12. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  13. Periconceptional folic acid supplementation and the risk of preterm births in China: a large prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Folic acid-containing multivitamins have been associated with a reduced risk of preterm birth. We examined whether periconceptional use of folic acid alone reduced this risk. Methods: Data were derived from a large population-based cohort study conducted in China to evaluate the prevention of neural tube defects with folic acid supplementation. The sample comprised 207 936 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 20–42 weeks to women from two provinces in southern China. Healthcare workers recorded folic acid intake prospectively each month. Gestational age calculation was based on the first day of the last menstrual period. Preterm births were categorized into three clinical subtypes: iatrogenic preterm birth, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between folic acid use and the risk of preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. Results: The incidence of preterm birth was significantly lower among folic acid users (5.28%) than among non-users (6.10%). Folic acid use showed a 14% risk reduction for preterm birth overall [adjusted risk ratio (RR) = 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82–0.90]. This association was strongest for spontaneous preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.78–0.86) and was not significant for iatrogenic preterm birth (adjusted RR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.88–1.07) or PPROM (adjusted RR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.93–1.23). Conclusions: Daily intake of 400 μg folic acid alone during the periconceptional period was associated with a reduced risk of spontaneous preterm birth. PMID:24603317

  14. Qualitative assessment of attitudes and knowledge on preterm birth in Malawi and within country framework of care

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The overarching goal of this study was to qualitatively assess baseline knowledge and perceptions regarding preterm birth (PTB) and oral health in an at-risk, low resource setting surrounding Lilongwe, Malawi. The aims were to determine what is understood regarding normal length of gestation and how gestational age is estimated, to identify common language for preterm birth, and to assess what is understood as options for PTB management. As prior qualitative research had largely focused on patient or client-based focused groups, we primarily focused on groups comprised of community health workers (CHWs) and providers. Methods A qualitative study using focus-group discussions, incidence narrative, and informant interviews amongst voluntary participants. Six focus groups were comprised of CHWs, patient couples, midwives, and clinical officers (n = 33) at two rural health centers referring to Kamuzu Central Hospital. Semi-structured questions facilitated discussion of PTB and oral health (inclusive of periodontal disease), including definitions, perception, causation, management, and accepted interventions. Results Every participant knew of women who had experienced “a baby born too soon”, or preterm birth. All participants recognized both an etiology conceptualization and disease framework for preterm birth, distinguished PTB from miscarriage and macerated stillbirth, and articulated a willingness to engage in studies aimed at prevention or management. Identified gaps included: (1) discordance in the definition of PTB (i.e., 28–34 weeks or less than the 8th month, but with a corresponding fetal weight ranging 500 to 2300 grams); (2) utility and regional availability of antenatal steroids for prevention of preterm infant morbidity and mortality; (3) need for antenatal referral for at-risk women, or with symptoms of preterm birth. There was no evident preference for route of progesterone for the prevention of recurrent PTB. Conclusions Qualitative

  15. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (2 of 7): discovery science

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normal and abnormal processes of pregnancy and childbirth are poorly understood. This second article in a global report explains what is known about the etiologies of preterm births and stillbirths and identifies critical gaps in knowledge. Two important concepts emerge: the continuum of pregnancy, beginning at implantation and ending with uterine involution following birth; and the multifactorial etiologies of preterm birth and stillbirth. Improved tools and data will enable discovery scientists to identify causal pathways and cost-effective interventions. Pregnancy and parturition continuum The biological process of pregnancy and childbirth begins with implantation and, after birth, ends with the return of the uterus to its previous state. The majority of pregnancy is characterized by rapid uterine and fetal growth without contractions. Yet most research has addressed only uterine stimulation (labor) that accounts for <0.5% of pregnancy. Etiologies The etiologies of preterm birth and stillbirth differ by gestational age, genetics, and environmental factors. Approximately 30% of all preterm births are indicated for either maternal or fetal complications, such as maternal illness or fetal growth restriction. Commonly recognized pathways leading to preterm birth occur most often during the gestational ages indicated: (1) inflammation caused by infection (22-32 weeks); (2) decidual hemorrhage caused by uteroplacental thrombosis (early or late preterm birth); (3) stress (32-36 weeks); and (4) uterine overdistention, often caused by multiple fetuses (32-36 weeks). Other contributors include cervical insufficiency, smoking, and systemic infections. Many stillbirths have similar causes and mechanisms. About two-thirds of late fetal deaths occur during the antepartum period; the other third occur during childbirth. Intrapartum asphyxia is a leading cause of stillbirths in low- and middle-income countries. Recommendations Utilizing new systems biology tools

  16. Sonography in Fetal Birth Weight Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinola, R. A.; Akinola, O. I.; Oyekan, O. O.

    2009-01-01

    The estimation of fetal birth weight is an important factor in the management of high risk pregnancies. The information and knowledge gained through this study, comparing a combination of various fetal parameters using computer assisted analysis, will help the obstetrician to screen the high risk pregnancies, monitor the growth and development,…

  17. Epidemiologic Factors and Urogenital Infections Associated With Preterm Birth in a Midwestern U.S. Population

    PubMed Central

    Agger, William A.; Siddiqui, Danish; Lovrich, Steven D.; Callister, Steven M; Borgert, Andrew J.; Merkitch, Kenneth W.; Mason, Tina C.; Baumgardner, Dennis J.; Burmester, James K.; Shukla, Sanjay K.; Welter, Joseph D.; Stewart, Katharina S.; Washburn, M.J.; Bailey, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To correlate epidemiologic factors with urogenital infections associated with preterm birth. Methods Pregnant women were sequentially included from four Wisconsin cohorts: large urban, midsize urban, small city, and rural city. Demographic, clinical, and current pregnancy data were collected. Cervical and urine specimens were analyzed by microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for potential pathogens. Results Six hundred seventy-six women were evaluated. Fifty-four (8.0%) had preterm birth: 12.1% (19/157) large urban, 8.8% (15/170) midsize urban, 9.4% (16/171) small city, and 2.3% (4/178) rural city. Associated host factors and infections varied significantly among sites. Urogenital infection rates, especially Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma parvum, were highest at the large urban site. Large urban site, minority ethnicity, multiple infections, and certain historical factors were associated with preterm birth by univariable analysis. By multivariable analysis, preterm birth was associated with prior preterm birth (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.27–6.02) and urinary tract infection (aOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.32–519), and negatively associated with provider-assessed good health (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.23–0.76) and group B streptococcal infection treatment (surrogate for healthcare utilization) (aOR 0.38, 95% CI 0.15–.99). Risk and protective factors were similar for women with birth at < 35 weeks, and additionally associated with M hominis (aOR 3.6, 95% CI 1.4–9.7). Conclusion These measured differences between sites are consistent with observations that link epidemiologic factors, both environmental and genetic, with minimally pathogenic vaginal bacteria, inducing preterm birth, especially at less than 35 weeks of gestation. PMID:25437726

  18. The neuroanatomy of prematurity: normal brain development and the impact of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Ortinau, Cynthia; Neil, Jeffrey

    2015-03-01

    Brain development is a complex process of micro- and macrostructural events that include neuronal and glial proliferation and migration, myelination, and organizational development of cortical layers and circuitry. Recent progress in understanding these processes has provided insight into the pathophysiology of brain injury and alterations of cerebral development in preterm infants. A key factor of abnormalities in the preterm infant is the maturational stage of the brain at the time of birth. This review summarizes current data on normal brain development, patterns of brain injury in the preterm infant, and the associated axonal/neuronal disturbances that occur in the setting of this injury, often termed encephalopathy of prematurity.

  19. Effect of aspirin treatment on TNFalpha production by women with a history of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Morgan R; Faux, David S; Hamblin, Steven D; Cooper, Corrina; Silver, Robert M; Esplin, M Sean

    2009-06-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TNFalpha production is reported to be greater for whole blood (WB) cultures prepared from patients with a history of preterm birth than cultures obtained from women with a history of term birth. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine if there is a similar differential responsiveness for peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBML) and (2) to determine if treatment with aspirin influences LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production in these patients. WB and PBML were obtained from women with a history of preterm delivery before 32 weeks (cases; n=5) and age- and race-matched controls (n=5) with a history of uncomplicated term delivery. WB and PBML were cultured and stimulated with LPS. All participants then took aspirin daily for 1 week and responsiveness of PBML and WB cultures to LPS was retested. The history of preterm labor was found to have no effect on LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production in cultures of WB or PBML. Aspirin treatment enhanced LPS-stimulated TNFalpha production by PBML from controls but not cases. We conclude that endotoxin responsiveness of women with a history of preterm birth is similar to that of women with a history of term birth in terms of in vitro TNFalpha production. Aspirin increases TNFalpha production by PBML in control women but not in women with a history of preterm birth. The divergent responses to aspirin treatment in patients with and without prior preterm labor may reflect differential regulation of cytokine production by prostaglandins in women with preterm labor associated with infection or inflammation.

  20. Fortification of human milk in very low birth weight infants (VLBW <1500 g birth weight).

    PubMed

    Adamkin, David H; Radmacher, Paula G

    2014-06-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics supports the feeding of human milk for all infants. Very-low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants especially can benefit from the immune and neurodevelopmental effects of human milk. However, human milk alone is nutritionally inadequate for the rapid growth of the very-low-birth-weight infant during a critical window for brain development and requires fortification to meet current recommendations. There are a variety of products, devices, and strategies that can be used to fine tune nutritional support of these very vulnerable infants.

  1. Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Amy M.; Noth, Elizabeth M.; Hammond, S. Katharine; Lurmann, Fred W.; Yang, Wei; Tager, Ira B.; Shaw, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is an important marker of health and has a prevalence of 12-13% in the U.S. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic contaminants that form during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, such as coal, diesel and gasoline. Studies suggest that exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is related to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PAHs during the pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods The study population included births from years 2001-2006 of women whose maternal residence was within 20 km of the primary monitoring site in Fresno, California. Data in the Fresno area were used to form a spatio-temporal model to assign daily exposure to PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings at the maternal residence throughout pregnancy of all of the births in the study area. Gestational age at birth and relevant covariates were extracted from the birth certificate. Results We found an association between PAHs during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and birth at 20-27 weeks (OR=2.74; 95% CI: 2.24-3.34) comparing the highest quartile to the lower three. The association was consistent when each quartile was compared to the lowest (OR2nd=1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.06; OR3rd=2.63, 95% CI:1.93-3.59; OR4th=3.94, 95% CI:3.03-5.12). Inverse associations were also observed for exposure to PAHs during the entire pregnancy and the first trimester and birth at 28-31 weeks and 20-27 weeks. Conclusion An association between PAH exposure during the 6 weeks before delivery and early preterm birth was observed. However, the inverse association with early preterm birth offers an unclear, and potentially complex, inference of these associations. PMID:25282280

  2. Toll-like 4 receptor /NFκB inflammatory/miR-146a pathway contributes to the ART-correlated preterm birth outcome

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peiwen; He, Wenzhi; Xiong, Zhongtang; Chang, Weijie; Zhu, Jiandong; Cui, Qiliang

    2016-01-01

    Assisted reproductive technology (ART) is widely used for the women with infertility conditions to achieve pregnancy. However, the adverse effects of ART may lead to poor perinatal and neonatal outcomes, e.g., preterm birth and low body weight. In this study, we investigated the inflammatory molecular factors and microRNA that might be involved in ART related preterm birth. We found the elevation of Toll-like 4 receptor (TLR4), activation of NFκB pathway and down-regulation of microRNA-146a (miR-146a), a negative regulator of NFκB, in the placenta of preterm birth and ART, indicating preterm birth and ART were associated with inflammation signaling activation. In vitro experiments demonstrated that miR-146a suppressed NFκB pathway and shifted the balance of cytokines in the cord blood toward a repertoire of pro-inflammatory outcomes by down-regulating IRAK1 and TRAF6. The pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IFNγ and TNFα in the cord blood were highly expressed in the preterm and ART, while anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was the lower in the preterm and ART. In summary, we firstly uncovered that TLR4/NFκB mediated inflammation signaling and miR-146a participated in ART-related preterm birth patients, which suggests that importance of TLR4/NFκB/miR-146a signaling in clinical interventions and biomarkers of ART-related perinatal or neonatal outcomes. PMID:27636999

  3. [Low birth weight, life style of mothers during pregnancy and chlorinated drinking water].

    PubMed

    Fabiani, L; Materazzo, F; Ensabella, F; Giuliani, A R; Patacchiola, F; Oleandri, V; Leoni, V

    2003-01-01

    Numerous environmental factors such as smoking habits, alcohol intake, economic and social status, and by-product chlorination present in drinking water can determine adverse pregnancy outcomes like a low weight birth, small for gestational age or preterm delivery. In 1998 the Italian Ministry of University and Scientific Technological Research (MURST) has financed a multicentric study in order to evaluate the association between exposure to by-products chlorination in drinking water during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes at birth such as preterm delivery and low birth weight. We describe the socio demographics characteristics, personal habits and the health status during pregnancy and exposure to the VOX of 171 women recruited from the Research Unit of Rome and L'Aquila. A case control study with incident cases was performed. Exposure to Chlorination By Products (CBP) and confounding factors for studied outcomes, were assessed by a validated questionnaire. At the same time, collection and analysis of 124 tap water samples were carried out directly at women's home. No association was found between CBPs level and low birth weight or preterm delivery. We found an excess risk statistically significantly between preterm delivery and hypertension (OR = 5.06; IC 95% = 1.70-15.44) an excess risk statistically significantly between low birth weight and smokers (OR = 3.43, IC 95% = 1.15-10.26). The CBPs levels were rather low (range cases = 0.09-6.28 microg/L; range controls = 0.01-6.44 microg/L). The results confirm the literature data and the validity of the epidemiological method adopted. The low CBPs levels, under the Law level, are probably imputable to the good quality of sorgive waters. Considering the CBPs level temporal variability in chlorinated waters, is to be hoped a careful and continues surveillance of the CBPs spike levels for better exposure assessment.

  4. Cervical length for predicting preterm birth and a comparison of ultrasonic measurement techniques

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Sandra; Zelesco, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality not attributable to congenital anomalies or aneuploidy. It has been shown that a shortened cervix is a powerful indicator of preterm births in women with singleton and twin gestations – the shorter the cervical length, the higher the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Ultrasound measurements of the cervix are a more accurate way of determining cervical length (CL) than using a digital method. Background: There are three approaches that may be used to perform ultrasound measurements of the cervix; these are the transabdominal (TA), transperineal (TP) and the transvaginal (TV) approach. The TV approach is considered to be the gold standard. In women who are considered to be at a high risk of preterm birth it is now recommended that the cervix is measured at the mid‐trimester ultrasound using the TV ultrasound approach. For women considered to be at a historical low risk the TV scan is not recommended, however it has been found that many women who deliver a preterm baby have no known risk factors. Conclusion: There is contradictory evidence in the literature with regard to the correlation between TA, TP and TV measurements. This article provides an overview of these three approaches with a focus on the clinical value for the assessment of the maternal cervix. PMID:28191186

  5. The scope of the problem: the epidemiology of late preterm and early-term birth.

    PubMed

    Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2011-10-01

    Late preterm birth (defined as birth between 34 0/7 to 36 6/7 weeks gestation) and early-term birth (defined as birth between 37 0/7 to 38 6/7 weeks gestation) have become the topic of much recent literature and discussion as the morbidity associated with delivery at these gestational ages becomes evident. Although infants delivered during this time period remain at relatively low risk for complications, the rate of morbidities in this group, particularly as it relates to respiratory function, is increased several-fold when they are compared to infants delivered at 39 weeks. The following article reviews the morbidities and mortality associated with both late preterm and early-term birth, as well available data on long-term outcomes of neonates born at these gestational ages.

  6. The Prevention of Preterm Birth: An Introduction to Some European Developments Aimed at the Prevention of Handicap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, Margaret; Wynn, Arthur

    The report presents information on the incidence and prevention of preterm births which are related to infant death and subsequent handicapping conditions. The first chapter analyzes statistics from Sweden, Britain, Scotland, Canada and the U.S. on optimum birthweight. European developments in the prevention of preterm birth are reviewed as well…

  7. Preterm Birth Prevention Post-Conization: A Model of Cervical Length Screening with Targeted Cerclage

    PubMed Central

    Kindinger, Lindsay M.; MacIntyre, David A.; Cacciatore, Stefano; Yulia, Angela; Cook, Joanna; Terzidou, Vasso; Teoh, T. G.; Bennett, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Women with a history of excisional treatment (conization) for cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) are at increased risk of preterm birth, perinatal morbidity and mortality in subsequent pregnancy. We aimed to develop a screening model to effectively differentiate pregnancies post-conization into low- and high-risk for preterm birth, and to evaluate the impact of suture material on the efficacy of ultrasound indicated cervical cerclage. We analysed longitudinal cervical length (CL) data from 725 pregnant women post-conization attending preterm surveillance clinics at three London university Hospitals over a ten year period (2004–2014). Rates of preterm birth <37 weeks after targeted cerclage for CL<25mm were compared with local and national background rates and expected rates for this cohort. Rates for cerclage using monofilament or braided suture material were also compared. Of 725 women post-conization 13.5% (98/725) received an ultrasound indicated cerclage and 9.7% (70/725) delivered prematurely, <37weeks; 24.5% (24/98) of these despite insertion of cerclage. The preterm birth rate was lower for those that had monofilament (9/60, 15%) versus braided (15/38, 40%) cerclage (RR 0.7, 95% CI 0.54 to 0.94, P = 0.008). Accuracy parameters of interval reduction in CL between longitudinal second trimester screenings were calculated to identify women at low risk of preterm birth, who could safely discontinue surveillance. A reduction of CL <10% between screening timepoints predicts term birth, >37weeks. Our triage model enables timely discharge of low risk women, eliminating 36% of unnecessary follow-up CL scans. We demonstrate that preterm birth in women post-conization may be reduced by targeted cervical cerclage. Cerclage efficacy is however suture material-dependant: monofilament is preferable to braided suture. The introduction of triage prediction models has the potential to reduce the number of unnecessary CL scan for women at low risk of preterm birth

  8. Placental Weight Mediates the Effects of Prenatal Factors on Fetal Growth: the Extent Differs by Preterm Status

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Fengxiu; Parker, Margaret; Cerda, Sandra; Pearson, Colleen; Fu, Lingling; Gillman, Matthew W.; Zuckerman, Barry; Wang, Xiaobin

    2012-01-01

    Elevated pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), excessive gestational weight gain (GWG), and gestational diabetes (GDM) are known determinants of fetal growth. The role of placental weight is unclear. We aimed to examine the extent to which placental weight mediates the associations of pre-pregnancy BMI, GWG, and GDM with birthweight-for-gestational age, and whether the relationships differ by preterm status. We examined 1035 mother-infant pairs at birth from the Boston Birth Cohort. Data were collected by questionnaire and clinical measures. Placentas were weighed without membranes or umbilical cords. We performed sequential models excluding and including placental weight, stratified by preterm status. We found that 21% of mothers were obese, 42% had excessive GWG, and 5% had GDM. 41% were preterm. Among term births, after adjustment for sex, gestational age, maternal age, race, parity, education, smoking and stress during pregnancy, birthweight-for-gestational age z-score was 0.55 (0.30, 0.80) units higher for pre-pregnancy obesity vs. normal weight. It was 0.34 (0.13, 0.55) higher for excessive vs. adequate GWG, 0.67 (0.24, 1.10) for GDM vs. no DM, with additional adjustment for pre-pregnancy BMI. Adding placental weight to the models attenuated the estimates for pre-pregnancy obesity by 20%, excessive GWG by 32%, and GDM by 21%. Among preterm infants, GDM was associated with 0.67 (0.34, 1.00) higher birthweight-for-gestational age z-score, but pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive GWG were not. Attenuation by placental weight was 36% for GDM. These results suggest that placental weight partially mediates the effects of pre-pregnancy obesity, GDM and excessive GWG on fetal growth among term infants. PMID:23592670

  9. Does time since immigration modify neighborhood deprivation gradients in preterm birth? A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Urquia, Marcelo Luis; Frank, John William; Moineddin, Rahim; Glazier, Richard Henry

    2011-10-01

    Immigrants' health is jointly influenced by their pre- and post-migration exposures, but how these two influences operate with increasing duration of residence has not been well-researched. We aimed to examine how the influence of maternal country of birth and neighborhood deprivation effects, if any, change over time since migration and how neighborhood effects among immigrants compare with those observed in the Canadian-born population. Birth data from Ontario hospital records (2002-2007) were linked with an official Canadian immigration database (1985-2000). The outcome measure was preterm birth. Neighborhoods were ranked according to a neighborhood deprivation index developed for Canadian urban areas and collapsed into tertiles of approximately equal size. Time since immigration was measured from the date of arrival to Canada to the date of delivery, ranging from 1 to 22 years. We used cross-classified random effect models to simultaneously account for the membership of births (N = 83,233) to urban neighborhoods (N = 1,801) and maternal countries of birth (N = 168). There were no differences in preterm birth between neighborhood deprivation tertiles among immigrants with less than 15 years of residence. Among immigrants with 15 years of stay or more, the adjusted absolute risk difference (ARD%, 95% confidence interval) between high-deprived (tertile 3) and low-deprived (tertile 1) neighborhoods was 1.86 (0.68, 2.98), while the ARD% observed among the Canadian-born (N = 314,237) was 1.34 (1.11, 1.57). Time since migration modifies the neighborhood deprivation gradient in preterm birth among immigrants living in Ontario cities. Immigrants reached the level of inequalities in preterm birth observed at the neighborhood level among the Canadian-born after 14 years of stay, but neighborhoods did not influence preterm birth among more recent immigrants, for whom the maternal country of birth was more predictive of preterm birth.

  10. Predicting preterm birth among participants of North Carolina’s Pregnancy Medical Home Program

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Christine M.; Berrien, Kate; Menard, M. Kathryn; Herring, Amy H.; Daniels, Julie; Rowley, Diane L.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine which combination of risk factors from Community Care of North Carolina’s (CCNC) Pregnancy Medical Home (PMH) risk screening form was most predictive of preterm birth (PTB) by parity and race/ethnicity. Methods This retrospective cohort included pregnant Medicaid patients screened by the PMH program before 24 weeks gestation who delivered a live birth in North Carolina between September 2011-September 2012 (N=15,428). Data came from CCNC’s Case Management Information System, Medicaid claims, and birth certificates. Logistic regression with backward stepwise elimination was used to arrive at the final models. To internally validate the predictive model, we used bootstrapping techniques. Results The prevalence of PTB was 11%. Multifetal gestation, a previous PTB, cervical insufficiency, diabetes, renal disease, and hypertension were the strongest risk factors with odds ratios ranging from 2.34 to 10.78. Non-Hispanic black race, underweight, smoking during pregnancy, asthma, other chronic conditions, nulliparity, and a history of a low birth weight infant or fetal death/second trimester loss were additional predictors in the final predictive model. About half of the risk factors prioritized by the PMH program remained in our final model (ROC=0.66). The odds of PTB associated with food insecurity and obesity differed by parity. The influence of unsafe or unstable housing and short interpregnancy interval on PTB differed by race/ethnicity. Conclusions Evaluation of the PMH risk screen provides insight to ensure women at highest risk are prioritized for care management. Using multiple data sources, salient risk factors for PTB were identified, allowing for better-targeted approaches for PTB prevention. PMID:26112751

  11. Born early and born poor: An eco-bio-developmental model for poverty and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Brumberg, H L; Shah, S I

    2015-01-01

    Poverty is associated with adverse long-term cognitive outcomes in children. Poverty is also linked with preterm delivery which, in turn, is associated with adverse cognitive outcomes. However, the extent of the effect of poverty on preterm delivery, as well as proposed mechanisms by which they occur, have not been well described. Further, the impact of poverty on preterm school readiness has not been reviewed. As the childhood poverty level continues to increase in the U.S., we examine the evidence around physiological, neurological, cognitive and learning outcomes associated with prematurity in the context of poverty. We use the evidence gathered to suggest an Eco-Bio-Developmental model, emphasizing poverty as a toxic stress which predisposes preterm birth and which, via epigenetic forces, can continue into the next generation. Continued postnatal social disadvantage for these developmentally high-risk preterm infants is strongly linked with poor neurodevelopmental outcomes, decreased school readiness, and decreased educational attainment which can perpetuate the poverty cycle. We suggest social remedies aimed at decreasing the impact of poverty on mothers, fathers, and children which may be effective in reducing the burden of preterm birth.

  12. Dietary patterns in pregnancy and birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Natália de Lima Pereira; Cunha, Diana Barbosa; Esteves, Ana Paula Pereira; Lacerda, Elisa Maria de Aquino; Filha, Mariza Miranda Theme

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if dietary patterns during the third gestational trimester are associated with birth weight. METHODS Longitudinal study conducted in the cities of Petropolis and Queimados, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Southeastern Brazil, between 2007 and 2008. We analyzed data from the first and second follow-up wave of a prospective cohort. Food consumption of 1,298 pregnant women was assessed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire about food frequency. Dietary patterns were obtained by exploratory factor analysis, using the Varimax rotation method. We also applied the multivariate linear regression model to estimate the association between food consumption patterns and birth weight. RESULTS Four patterns of consumption – which explain 36.4% of the variability – were identified and divided as follows: (1) prudent pattern (milk, yogurt, cheese, fruit and fresh-fruit juice, cracker, and chicken/beef/fish/liver), which explained 14.9% of the consumption; (2) traditional pattern, consisting of beans, rice, vegetables, breads, butter/margarine and sugar, which explained 8.8% of the variation in consumption; (3) Western pattern (potato/cassava/yams, macaroni, flour/farofa/grits, pizza/hamburger/deep fried pastries, soft drinks/cool drinks and pork/sausages/egg), which accounts for 6.9% of the variance; and (4) snack pattern (sandwich cookie, salty snacks, chocolate, and chocolate drink mix), which explains 5.7% of the consumption variability. The snack dietary pattern was positively associated with birth weight (β = 56.64; p = 0.04) in pregnant adolescents. CONCLUSIONS For pregnant adolescents, the greater the adherence to snack pattern during pregnancy, the greater the baby’s birth weight. PMID:26398873

  13. Abnormal screening for gestational diabetes, maternal mood disorder, and preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Sit, Dorothy; Luther, James; Dills, Jesse; Eng, Heather; Wisniewski, Stephen; Wisner, Katherine L

    2013-01-01

    Objective Gestational diabetes (GDM) affects 7% of pregnant mothers and those with GDM have increased rates of perinatal complications. Major depressive disorder (MDD) and its pharmacologic treatments are associated with obesity and adverse pregnancy outcomes. In this prospective study, we investigated the relationship between abnormal GDM screens, maternal mood disorders, and adverse outcomes. Methods We examined mothers with MDD, bipolar disorder (BD), and healthy controls (HC) at 20, 30, and 36 weeks gestation and delivery. We obtained demographic data and pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), and confirmed diagnoses with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. We evaluated smoking, alcohol, substance use, and medication treatments with the Longitudinal Interval Follow-up Evaluation interview. Mothers received the one-hour 50 g glucose challenge test (GCT) at 26–28 weeks gestation. Outcome variables were preterm birth, birth weight (BW) and peripartum events. Results We enrolled 62 HC, 50 BD, 41 past MDD, and 39 current MDD mother–infant pairs. Mean GCT levels and the frequency of abnormal GCT (> 140 mg/dL) did not differ across groups. Rates of smoking (χ2 = 20.68, df = 3, p < 0.001), substance use (χ2 = 21.76, df = 3, p < 0.001), and pre-pregnancy obesity [BMI ≥ 30 (χ2 = 9.97, df = 3, p = 0.019)] differed significantly across groups. Mothers with BD received medications associated with weight gain significantly more often than others [13/45 (29%), p < 0.001). After adjusting for group differences, GCT levels were associated significantly with increased odds for preterm birth (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.0–1.7; p = 0.05) and increased perinatal events (beta = 0.11, p = 0.04) but not associated with BW. Conclusions In mothers with or without mood disorders, having increased GCT levels contributes to a higher likelihood for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Mothers with BD or current MDD can have additional risks for adverse outcomes

  14. Preterm Birth and Childhood Wheezing Disorders: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Been, Jasper V.; Lugtenberg, Marlies J.; Smets, Eline; van Schayck, Constant P.; Kramer, Boris W.; Mommers, Monique; Sheikh, Aziz

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence implicates early life factors in the aetiology of non-communicable diseases, including asthma/wheezing disorders. We undertook a systematic review investigating risks of asthma/wheezing disorders in children born preterm, including the increasing numbers who, as a result of advances in neonatal care, now survive very preterm birth. Methods and Findings Two reviewers independently searched seven online databases for contemporaneous (1 January 1995–23 September 2013) epidemiological studies investigating the association between preterm birth and asthma/wheezing disorders. Additional studies were identified through reference and citation searches, and contacting international experts. Quality appraisal was undertaken using the Effective Public Health Practice Project instrument. We pooled unadjusted and adjusted effect estimates using random-effects meta-analysis, investigated “dose–response” associations, and undertook subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses to assess the robustness of associations. We identified 42 eligible studies from six continents. Twelve were excluded for population overlap, leaving 30 unique studies involving 1,543,639 children. Preterm birth was associated with an increased risk of wheezing disorders in unadjusted (13.7% versus 8.3%; odds ratio [OR] 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.87; 26 studies including 1,500,916 children) and adjusted analyses (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.29–1.65; 17 studies including 874,710 children). The risk was particularly high among children born very preterm (<32 wk gestation; unadjusted: OR 3.00, 95% CI 2.61–3.44; adjusted: OR 2.81, 95% CI 2.55–3.12). Findings were most pronounced for studies with low risk of bias and were consistent across sensitivity analyses. The estimated population-attributable risk of preterm birth for childhood wheezing disorders was ≥3.1%. Key limitations related to the paucity of data from low- and middle-income countries, and risk of residual

  15. A debate about ultrasound and anatomic aspects of the cervix in spontaneous preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Bohîlțea, RE; Munteanu, O; Turcan, N; Baros, A; Bodean, O; Voicu, D; Cîrstoiu, MM

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth is the legal first global cause of neonatal death. The cervix has two roles: it has to stay closed to allow the fetus to undergo a normal development during gestation, and at term, the cervix has to dilate under the pressure of uterine contractions to allow the delivery. The purpose of this article is to establish if the ultrasound measured length of the cervix and its appearance are predictive for the spontaneous preterm birth. Cervical insufficiency can be described by painless cervical dilatation leading to pregnancy losses/ births, with no other risk factors present. During gestation, the physiological softening of the cervix is determined by the extracellular matrix components, particular decorin, and thrombospondin 2. The direction of the collagen fibers remains the same – circumferential direction, but the collagen solubility increases. Therefore, during pregnancy, the cervical tissue is more hydrated and has higher collagen extractability than non-pregnant tissue. Women with cervical incompetence have increased levels of smooth muscle cells than normal pregnant women, the number of elastic fibers is low, and also the concentration of hydroxyproline is decreased. Transvaginal ultrasound is the suitable gold standard exam that can offer essential information about the cervical length and state of the internal os in early asymptomatic stage of cervical insufficiency for predicting and preventing preterm birth. In our experience, a transvaginal ultrasound screening for the measurement of the cervix is required. We consider that the proper gestational age for the prediction of a preterm birth is at 18-22 weeks of gestation for the general population and earlier for patients with a history of preterm birth. Just from an observational point of view, we concluded with the fact that the cerclage of the cervix is unnecessary if the cervical length is above 2 cm and if the internal cervical os is closed. In the absence of funneling, the probability of

  16. Maternal Postsecondary Education Associated With Improved Cerebellar Growth After Preterm Birth.

    PubMed

    Stiver, Mikaela L; Kamino, Daphne; Guo, Ting; Thompson, Angela; Duerden, Emma G; Taylor, Margot J; Tam, Emily W Y

    2015-10-01

    The preterm cerebellum is vulnerable to impaired development impacting long-term outcome. Preterm newborns (<32 weeks) underwent serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. The association between parental education and cerebellar volume at each time point was assessed, adjusting for age at scan. In 26 infants, cerebellar volumes at term (P = .001), but not birth (P = .4), were associated with 2-year volumes. For 1 cm(3) smaller cerebellar volume (4% total volume) at term, the cerebellum was 3.18 cm(3) smaller (3% total volume) by 2 years. Maternal postsecondary education was not associated with cerebellar volume at term (P = .16). Maternal postsecondary education was a significant confounder in the relationship between term and 2-year cerebellar volumes (P = .016), with higher education associated with improved volumes by 2 years. Although preterm birth has been found to be associated with smaller cerebellar volumes at term, maternal postsecondary education is associated with improved growth detectable by 2 years.

  17. Air pollution, inflammation and preterm birth in Mexico City: study design and methods.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Marie S; Osornio-Vargas, Alvaro; Buxton, Miatta A; Sánchez, Brisa N; Rojas-Bracho, Leonora; Castillo-Castrejon, Marisol; Mordhukovich, Irina B; Brown, Daniel G; Vadillo-Ortega, Felipe

    2013-03-15

    Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of perinatal mortality and is associated with long-term adverse health consequences for surviving infants. Preterm birth rates are rising worldwide, and no effective means for prevention currently exists. Air pollution exposure may be a significant cause of prematurity, but many published studies lack the individual, clinical data needed to elucidate possible biological mechanisms mediating these epidemiological associations. This paper presents the design of a prospective study now underway to evaluate those mechanisms in a cohort of pregnant women residing in Mexico City. We address how air quality may act together with other factors to induce systemic inflammation and influence the duration of pregnancy. Data collection includes: biomarkers relevant to inflammation in cervico-vaginal exudate and peripheral blood, along with full clinical information, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms and air pollution data to evaluate spatial and temporal variability in air pollution exposure. Samples are collected on a monthly basis and participants are followed for the duration of pregnancy. The data will be used to evaluate whether ambient air pollution is associated with preterm birth, controlling for other risk factors. We will evaluate which time windows during pregnancy are most influential in the air pollution and preterm birth association. In addition, the epidemiological study will be complemented with a parallel toxicology invitro study, in which monocytic cells will be exposed to air particle samples to evaluate the expression of biomarkers of inflammation.

  18. Nucleated red blood cell count in term and preterm newborns: reference values at birth.

    PubMed

    Perrone, S; Vezzosi, P; Longini, M; Marzocchi, B; Tanganelli, D; Testa, M; Santilli, T; Buonocore, G

    2005-03-01

    The prognostic value of nucleated red blood cell count at birth in relation to neonatal outcome has been established. However, reference values were needed to usefully interpret this variable. The normal range of reference values for absolute nucleated red blood cell count in 695 preterm and term newborns is reported.

  19. Administration of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934, Two Strains Isolated from Human Milk, to Very Low and Extremely Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Moles, Laura; de Andrés, Javier; Montes, María Teresa; Rodríguez, Juan M.; Sáenz de Pipaón, Miguel; Espinosa-Martos, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The preterm infant gut has been described as immature and colonized by an aberrant microbiota. Therefore, the use of probiotics is an attractive practice in hospitals to try to reduce morbidity and mortality in this population. The objective of this pilot study was to elucidate if administration of two probiotic strains isolated from human milk to preterm infants led to their presence in feces. In addition, the evolution of a wide spectrum of immunological compounds, including the inflammatory biomarker calprotectin, in both blood and fecal samples was also assessed. For this purpose, five preterm infants received two daily doses (~109 CFU) of a 1 : 1 mixture of Bifidobacterium breve PS12929 and Lactobacillus salivarius PS12934. Bacterial growth was detected by culture-dependent techniques in all the fecal samples. The phylum Firmicutes dominated in nearly all fecal samples while L. salivarius PS12934 was detected in all the infants at numerous sample collection points and B. breve PS12929 appeared in five fecal samples. Finally, a noticeable decrease in the fecal calprotectin levels was observed along time. PMID:25759843

  20. Prenatal gastrointestinal development in the pig and responses after preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Buddington, R K; Sangild, P T; Hance, B; Huang, E Y; Black, D D

    2012-12-01

    Despite clinical research and medical advances, care of the preterm infant remains a clinical challenge, with the immature gastrointestinal (GI) system limiting the types and amounts of nutrients that can be provided enterally to meet energy and nutrient requirements. Progress in understanding the relationship between dietary inputs and the developing GI system after preterm birth has been limited by ethical constraints of using preterm infants as experimental subjects and a lack of relevant animal models. We review development of the GI system of the pig during gestation, the similarities shared with human fetuses, and the responses to dietary stimuli. The GI systems of pigs and humans develop early in gestation, with growth and maturation accelerating during the final weeks prior to birth. As a consequence, deficits in GI digestive capacities are directly related to how early in gestation an infant or pig is delivered, thereby complicating attempts to provide adequate enteral nutrients for growth and development. Pigs differ from humans by being born with low activities of the brush border membrane carbohydrases necessary for hydrolysis of nonlactose carbohydrates. Fetuses of both species have impaired lipid digestion coinciding with lipid malabsorption after preterm birth. Protease activity, although present, may not be adequate and may limit growth potential. Undigested enteral inputs are available to the resident bacteria and the production of metabolites can influence health and nutrition. The preterm pig represents a relevant and translational animal model for understanding GI development and for identifying diet and regulatory factors that stimulate GI growth and maturation after preterm birth and thereby accelerate the transition from parenteral nutrition to full enteral nutrition.

  1. Maternal Obesity, Uterine Activity, and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenberg, Hugh M.; Iams, Jay D.; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Newman, Roger B.; Weiner, Steven J.; Sibai, Baha M.; Caritis, Steve N.; Miodovnik, Menachem; Dombrowski, Mitchell P.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess the associations between maternal obesity, uterine contraction frequency, and spontaneous preterm birth in at-risk women. METHODS In a secondary analysis, we analyzed data from 253 at-risk women (prior spontaneous preterm birth, vaginal bleeding) enrolled in a multi-center observational study of home uterine activity monitoring at 11 centers. All women wore a uterine activity monitor twice daily from 22 through 34 weeks of gestation. Mean and maximal contractions/hour at 22-24, 25-26, 27-28, 29-30, 31-32, and at or after 33 weeks of gestation were compared between overweight/obese women (a BMI at 22-24 weeks greater than 25 kg/m2) and normal/underweight women (a BMI of at least 25 kg/m2) at each gestational age interval. Multivariable analysis evaluated the influences of BMI, contractions, fetal fibronectin and transvaginal cervical length on spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks. RESULTS Obese/overweight women (n=156) were significantly less likely to experience spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks (8.3 vs 21.7%, p<0.01). For each gestational age interval before 32 weeks, obese/overweight women had fewer mean contractions/hour (P<0.01 for each) and maximal contractions/hour (p<0.01 for each) than normal/underweight women, although their mean cervical lengths (34.3 vs 33.1 mm, p=0.25), and fetal fibronectin levels (7.1% vs. 7.2% ≥50 ng/mL, p=0.97) were similar at study enrollment. Obese/overweight status was associated with a lower risk of spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks after controlling for contraction frequency and other factors evaluated at 22-24 and 31-32 weeks, but not at later time periods. CONCLUSION Obese/overweight women at risk for spontaneous preterm birth exhibit less uterine activity and less frequent spontaneous preterm birth before 35 weeks of gestation than normal/underweight women. PMID:19104359

  2. Characteristics and risk factors of preterm births in a tertiary center in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Butali, Azeez; Ezeaka, Chinyere; Ekhaguere, Osayame; Weathers, Nancy; Ladd, Jenna; Fajolu, Iretiola; Esezobor, Christopher; Makwe, Christian; Odusanya, Bukola; Anorlu, Rose; Adeyemo, Wasiu; Iroha, Edna; Egri-Okwaji, Mathias; Adejumo, Prisca; Oyeneyin, Lawal; Abiodun, Moses; Badejoko, Bolaji; Ryckman, Kelli

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth is a dire complication of pregnancy that poses huge long-term medical and financial burdens for affected children, their families, and the health care system. The aim of the present study was to identify characteristics associated with preterm births at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Lagos, Nigeria from 2011 to 2013. Methods We obtained Information from 5,561 maternal, fetal/neonatal and obstetric records from the labor ward. We excluded delivery at less than 22 weeks (0.25%), post-term birth at ≥42 weeks gestation (1.3%), and unknown gestation (1.4%). Additionally, we excluded records of multiple births (5.4%) and stillbirths (8.3%) leaving 4,691 records of singleton live-births for analysis. Logistic regression analysis was performed comparing preterm birth (22-36 weeks gestation) to term birth (37-41 weeks gestation). Multiple variable models adjusting for maternal age, parity, fetal position, delivery method and booking status were also evaluated. Multinomial regression was used to identify characteristics associated with preterm birth (PTB) defined as early PTB (22-31 weeks gestation), moderate PTB (32-34 weeks gestation), late PTB (35-36 weeks gestation), compared to term birth (37-41 completed weeks gestation). Results From our data, 16.8% of the singleton live-birth deliveries were preterm (<37 weeks gestation). Of these, 4.7% were early (22-31 weeks), 4.5% were moderate (32-34 weeks) and 7.7% were late (35-36) PTBs. Older maternal age (≥35 years) [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41], hypertension (OR = 3.44) and rupture of membranes (OR = 4.03) were significantly associated with increased odds of PTB. Women being treated for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV were at a significantly decreased risk for PTB (OR = 0.70). Sixteen percent of women in this cohort were not registered for antenatal care in LUTH. These non-registered subjects had significantly greater odds of all categories of PTB, including

  3. Birth Weight and Cognitive Ability in Childhood: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shenkin, Susan D.; Starr, John M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2004-01-01

    Individual differences in cognitive ability may in part have prenatal origins. In high-risk (low birth weight/premature) babies, birth weight correlates positively with cognitive test scores in childhood, but it is unclear whether this holds for those with birth weights in the normal range. The authors systematically reviewed literature on the…

  4. Association between SNPs in genes involved in folate metabolism and preterm birth risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, B J; Liu, M J; Wang, Y; Dai, J R; Tao, J Y; Wang, S N; Zhong, N; Chen, Y

    2015-02-02

    We investigated the association between 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes involved in folate metabolic and preterm birth. A subset of SNPs selected from 11 genes/loci involved in the folic acid metabolism pathway were subjected to SNaPshot analysis in a case-control study. Twelve SNPs (CBS-C699T, DHFR-c594+59del19, GST01-C428T, MTHFD-G1958A, MTHFR-C677T, MTHFR-A1298C, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, RFC1-G80A, TCN2-C776G, and TYMS-1494del6) in 503 DNA samples were simultaneously tested, and included 315 preterm births and 188 controls. None of the 12 SNP genotype distributions related to the folic acid metabolism pathway showed a significant difference between preterm and term babies. The frequency of the compound mutation genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G and RFC1-G80A in preterm babies was 7.3%, which was significantly higher than the 2.7% in term babies. Seven babies carried the compound mutation genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and CBS-C699T, but this was not observed in term babies. The frequency of the combined wild-type genotype of MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, MTHFR-A1298C, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, and RFC1- G80A in preterm babies was 3.17%, which was significantly lower than the 7.4% in term babies. The 12 SNPs screened in this study were not independent risk factors of preterm birth. Compound mutation genotypes, including MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and RFC1- G80A and MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, and CBS-C699T, may increase the risk of preterm birth. The combined wild-type genotype MTHFD-G1958A, MTR-A2756G, MTRR-A66G, MTHFR-A1298C, NFE2L2-ins1+C11108T, and RFC1-G80A may decrease the risk of preterm birth.

  5. Multidimensional Proteomics Analysis of Amniotic Fluid to Provide Insight into the Mechanisms of Idiopathic Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Irina A.; Zhao, Guomao; Rosenberg, Victor A.; Abdel-Razeq, Sonya; Thung, Stephen; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2008-01-01

    Background Though recent advancement in proteomics has provided a novel perspective on several distinct pathogenetic mechanisms leading to preterm birth (inflammation, bleeding), the etiology of most preterm births still remains elusive. We conducted a multidimensional proteomic analysis of the amniotic fluid to identify pathways related to preterm birth in the absence of inflammation or bleeding. Methodology/Principal Findings A proteomic fingerprint was generated from fresh amniotic fluid using surface-enhanced laser desorbtion ionization time of flight (SELDI-TOF) mass spectrometry in a total of 286 consecutive samples retrieved from women who presented with signs or symptoms of preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Inflammation and/or bleeding proteomic patterns were detected in 32% (92/286) of the SELDI tracings. In the remaining tracings, a hierarchical algorithm was applied based on descriptors quantifying similarity/dissimilarity among proteomic fingerprints. This allowed identification of a novel profile (Q-profile) based on the presence of 5 SELDI peaks in the 10–12.5 kDa mass area. Women displaying the Q-profile (mean±SD, gestational age: 25±4 weeks, n = 40) were more likely to deliver preterm despite expectant management in the context of intact membranes and normal amniotic fluid clinical results. Utilizing identification-centered proteomics techniques (fluorescence two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis, robotic tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry) coupled with Protein ANalysis THrough Evolutionary Relationships (PANTHER) ontological classifications, we determined that in amniotic fluids with Q-profile the differentially expressed proteins are primarily involved in non-inflammatory biological processes such as protein metabolism, signal transduction and transport. Conclusion/Significance Proteomic profiling of amniotic fluid coupled with non-hierarchical bioinformatics algorithms identified a subgroup of

  6. Maternal dental caries and pre-term birth: results from the EPIPAP study.

    PubMed

    Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Kaminski, Monique; Lelong, Nathalie; Musset, Anne-Marie; Sixou, Michel; Nabet, Cathy

    2011-07-01

    OBJECTIVE. The aim of this study was to analyse the association between maternal dental caries and pre-term birth (PTB), with a particular focus on the infection-suspected causes of pre-term births. MATERIALS AND METHODS. A secondary analysis was performed on data from the EPIPAP study, a French multi-centre case-control study. Cases were 1107 women giving birth to a singleton live-born infant before 37 weeks of gestation and controls were 1094 women delivering at 37 weeks or more. A sub-group of cases was defined as women with spontaneous labour and/or pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, n = 620). A full-mouth dental examination was performed after delivery. The main factor of interest was the presence of decay on at least one tooth. RESULTS. Crude associations between presence of tooth decay and PTB or spontaneous PTB/PPROM were significant (OR = 1.21 [1.01-1.45] and OR = 1.25 [1.01-1.55], respectively). After adjustment for two sets of potential confounders (four pre-term birth risk factors and four social characteristics), for periodontitis status and for inter-examiner variability, tooth decay was not significantly associated with either PTB or spontaneous PTB/PPROM (aOR = 1.10 [0.91-1.32] and aOR = 1.14 [0.91-1.42], respectively). CONCLUSIONS. This study failed to demonstrate a significant association between tooth decay and pre-term birth. However, future well-designed studies are needed to further assess the link between dental caries and adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  7. Timing of indicated late-preterm and early-term birth.

    PubMed

    Spong, Catherine Y; Mercer, Brian M; D'alton, Mary; Kilpatrick, Sarah; Blackwell, Sean; Saade, George

    2011-08-01

    The growing public health awareness of prematurity and its complications has prompted careful evaluation of the timing of deliveries by clinicians and hospitals. Preterm birth is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and affects more than half a million births in the United States each year. In some situations, however, a late-preterm or early-term birth is the optimal outcome for the mother, child, or both owing to conditions that can result in worse outcomes if pregnancy is allowed to continue. These conditions may be categorized as placental, maternal, or fetal, including conditions such as placenta previa, preeclampsia, and multiple gestations. Some risks associated with early delivery are common to all conditions, including prematurity-related morbidities (eg, respiratory distress syndrome and intraventricular hemorrhage) as well as maternal intrapartum morbidities such as failed induction and cesarean delivery. However, when continuation of the pregnancy is associated with more risks such as hemorrhage, uterine rupture, and stillbirth, preterm delivery maybe indicated. In February 2011, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine held a workshop titled "Timing of Indicated Late Preterm and Early Term Births." The goal of the workshop was to synthesize the available information regarding conditions that may result in medically indicated late-preterm and early-term births to determine the potential risks and benefits of delivery compared with continued pregnancy, determine the optimal gestational age for delivery of affected pregnancies when possible, and inform future research regarding these issues. Based on available data and expert opinion, optimal timing for delivery for specific conditions was determined by consensus.

  8. Risk Factors for Preterm Birth in an International Prospective Cohort of Nulliparous Women

    PubMed Central

    Dekker, Gustaaf Albert; Lee, Shalem Y.; North, Robyn A.; McCowan, Lesley M.; Simpson, Nigel A. B.; Roberts, Claire T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation) with intact membranes (SPTB-IM) and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM) for nulliparous pregnant women. Design Prospective international multicentre cohort. Participants 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%). Results Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9%) had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0%) and 60 (1.9%) in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant’s not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene), mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction). Low BMI (<20) nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07–6.51). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC), after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. Conclusion The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. Trial Registration ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493 PMID:22815699

  9. Hydrogen Sulfide Delays LPS-Induced Preterm Birth in Mice via Anti-Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Chen; You, Xingji; Olson, David M.; Chemtob, Sylvain; Gao, Lu; Ni, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of preterm labor in pregnant women is intra-amniotic infection, which is mediated by an inflammatory process. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter, has been implicated to be involved in inflammatory responses. We sought to investigate whether H2S affects infectious preterm birth using the mouse model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced preterm birth. Administration of LPS at 0.4 mg/kg with two injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) on gestational day 14.5 induced preterm labor. LPS significantly increased leukocyte infiltration in uterus, stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), CCL2 and CXCL15 in myometrium. Administration of NaHS (i.p.) delayed the onset of labor induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS prevented leukocyte infiltration into intrauterine tissues and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myometrium and decreased the levels of these cytokines in maternal circulation. H2S also decreased LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2/ nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways in myometrium. This study provides new in vivo evidence for the roles of H2S in attenuating inflammation, and a potential novel therapeutic strategy for infection-related preterm labor. PMID:27035826

  10. Hydrogen Sulfide Delays LPS-Induced Preterm Birth in Mice via Anti-Inflammatory Pathways.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weina; Xu, Chen; You, Xingji; Olson, David M; Chemtob, Sylvain; Gao, Lu; Ni, Xin

    2016-01-01

    A major cause of preterm labor in pregnant women is intra-amniotic infection, which is mediated by an inflammatory process. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous transmitter, has been implicated to be involved in inflammatory responses. We sought to investigate whether H2S affects infectious preterm birth using the mouse model of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced preterm birth. Administration of LPS at 0.4 mg/kg with two injections intraperitoneally (i.p.) on gestational day 14.5 induced preterm labor. LPS significantly increased leukocyte infiltration in uterus, stimulated the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), CCL2 and CXCL15 in myometrium. Administration of NaHS (i.p.) delayed the onset of labor induced by LPS in a dose-dependent manner. NaHS prevented leukocyte infiltration into intrauterine tissues and inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in myometrium and decreased the levels of these cytokines in maternal circulation. H2S also decreased LPS-activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2/ nuclear factor (NF)-κB signaling pathways in myometrium. This study provides new in vivo evidence for the roles of H2S in attenuating inflammation, and a potential novel therapeutic strategy for infection-related preterm labor.

  11. [Relationship between reproductive history and preterm births in the last pregnancy, in Shaanxi province].

    PubMed

    Qin, B W; Ying, J; Lei, Q; Qu, P F; Lei, F L; Li, J M; Yan, H

    2017-02-10

    Objective: To analyze the incidence of preterm delivery among single live neonates and the association between maternal reproductive history and preterm birth. Methods: A questionnaire survey was conducted on reproductive history among women at childbearing age who were selected through multi-stage stratified random sampling method in Shaanxi, during 2010-2013. Samples would include women at childbearing age and in pregnancy or having had definite pregnancy outcomes. Results: A total of 29 608 women at childbearing age with their infants, were studied. The overall incidence of premature delivery among the single live birth neonates under this study, was 2.7% during 2010-2013. Results from the logistic regression model showed that factors as: having had history with preterm delivery (OR=7.99, 95%CI: 5.59-11.43), age of the mothers, older than 35 (OR= 2.03, 95% CI: 1.59-2.59) and with history of birth defects (OR=1.54, 95% CI: 1.01-2.34) were at higher risks for premature delivery in neonates. Intervals on pregnancies between 3-4 years (compared with ≤2 years, OR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.58-0.93), between 5-6 years (compared with ≤2 years, OR=0.66, 95%CI: 0.52-0.82), or> 6 years (compared with ≤2 years, OR=0.48, 95%CI:0.37-0.61) together with numbers of parity as 1 (compared with primiparas, OR=0.80, 95%CI: 0.67-0.95), as ≥2 (compared with primiparas, OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.39-0.97) etc. were protective factors to preterm delivery. Factors as: history of preterm delivery, mothers age (older than 35 years) and intervals of pregnancy, appeared influential to the age of gestation, under the ordinal polytomous logistic regression analysis. Conclusion: The incidence of preterm births among single live birth neonates in Shaanxi was lower than the average national level. Programs related to health care services prior to conception and during pregnancy, together with increasing the self-care consciousness of childbearing aged women etc, should all be strengthened in order to

  12. Static balance function in children with a history of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Eshaghi, Zahra; Jafari, Zahra; Jalaie, Shohreh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incomplete maturation of brain in preterm children results in long-term neurodevelopmental impairment. This study aimed to investigate the static balance function in children with a history of preterm birth. Methods: Participants were 31 preterm children including 21 moderately preterm (MPT), 10 very preterm (VPT), and 20 term children aged 5.5 and 6.5 years. The cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) test and four static balance subscales of BOT-2 were performed. Results: The VPT children showed a significant increase in P1 and N1 wave latencies in cVEMP test compared to those in the term children (p= 0.041). Mean scores in the four static balance subscales of BOT-2 were significantly lower in the preterm children compared to those in the term children (p= 0.025). The P1 wave latency (p= 0.003) and mean score of standing on a balance beam with open eyes (p= 0.039) were significantly lower in the VPT children compared to those in the MPT children. A significant correlation was observed between the mean score in exercise 4 (standing on one leg on a balance beam with closed eyes) of static balance subscales of BOT-2 and P1 (r= -0.267, p= 0.036) and N1 (r= -0.304, p= 0.016) wave latencies of cVEMP. Conclusion: The longer latency of cVEMP waves along with a poor performance of children with a history of preterm birth suggests a possible defect in central vestibular pathway. PMID:26913273

  13. Understanding spontaneous preterm birth: from underlying mechanisms to predictive and preventive interventions.

    PubMed

    Voltolini, Chiara; Torricelli, Michela; Conti, Nathalie; Vellucci, Francesca L; Severi, Filiberto M; Petraglia, Felice

    2013-11-01

    Preterm birth is defined as birth before 37 weeks' gestational age. With an incidence of 7% to 11%, it is one of the major causes of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Preterm birth is considered a clinical syndrome, which arises from different pathological processes that activate prematurely one or more components of the mechanisms leading to parturition. The premature activation of labor may be caused by multiple pathological conditions; in particular a deregulation of the immune system and an exaggeration of inflammatory processes represent common central mechanisms. The complex pathogenesis, the main risk factors and the different therapeutic options will be described in the present review. Since its incidence is still increasing in the last decades, the goal is to improve the primary and secondary prevention.

  14. First Trimester Phthalate Exposure and Infant Birth Weight in the Infant Development and Environment Study

    PubMed Central

    Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Barrett, Emily; Nguyen, Ruby; Redmon, Bruce; Haaland, Wren; Swan, Shanna H.

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate exposure is widespread among pregnant women but whether it is related to fetal growth and birth weight remains to be determined. We examined whether first trimester prenatal phthalate exposure was associated with birth weight in a pregnancy cohort study. We recruited first trimester pregnant women from 2010–2012 from four centers and analyzed mother/infant dyads who had complete urinary phthalate and birth record data (N = 753). We conducted multiple linear regression to examine if prenatal log specific gravity adjusted urinary phthalate exposure was related to birthweight in term and preterm (≤37 weeks) infants, stratified by sex. We observed a significant association between mono carboxy-isononyl phthalate (MCOP) exposure and increased birthweight in term males, 0.13 kg (95% CI 0.03, 0.23). In preterm infants, we observed a 0.49 kg (95% CI 0.09, 0.89) increase in birthweight in relation to a one log unit change in the sum of di-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) metabolite concentrations in females (N = 33). In summary, we observed few associations between prenatal phthalate exposure and birthweight. Positive associations may be attributable to unresolved confounding in term infants and limited sample size in preterm infants. PMID:27669283

  15. Influence of prematurity and birth weight on the concentration of α-tocopherol in colostrum milk

    PubMed Central

    Grilo, Evellyn Câmara; de Lira, Larissa Queiroz; Dimenstein, Roberto; Ribeiro, Karla Danielly da S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess vitamin E levels in the breast milk, analyzing the prematurity and the birth weight influence in α-tocopherol concentration of colostrum milk. METHODS: Cross-sectional study, in which the colostrum was collected from 93 nursing mothers in a public maternity of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Northeast Brazil. The newborns were classified based on gestational age and birth weight. The analysis of α-tocopherol in the milk was carried out by high performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS: The α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born at term was 1,093.6±532.4µg/dL; for preterm infants, the concentration was 1,321.6±708.5µg/dL (p=0.109). In the preterm group, the α-tocopherol concentration in the colostrum of lactating women whose children were born with low and normal birth weight was 1,316.0±790.7 and 1,327.2±655.0µg/dL, respectively (p=0.971). In the term group, the α-tocopherol levels were higher in mothers of children with birth weight >4000g, being 1,821.0±575.4µg/dL, compared to 869.5±532.1µg/dL and 1,039.6±477.5µg/dL with low and adequate birth weight, respectively (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prematurity did not influence α-tocopherol levels in the colostrum milk. Mothers who had macrossomic term neonates presented increased α-tocopherol levels. These results indicate that birth weight can influence α-tocopherol leves in the colostrum milk. PMID:24473952

  16. Novel Device to Trend Impedance and Fluorescence of the Cervix for Preterm Birth Detection

    PubMed Central

    Etemadi, Mozziyar; Chung, Philip; Heller, J. Alex; Liu, Jonathan; Grossman-Kahn, Rebecca; Rand, Larry; Roy, Shuvo

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of worldwide neonatal mortality. It follows a pathologically accelerated form of the normal processes that govern cervical softening and dilation. Softening and dilation occur due to changes in cervical collagen crosslinking, which can be measured non-invasively by changes in tissue fluorescence and impedance. We present a novel device designed specifically to take fluorescence and impedance measurements throughout pregnancy, with the end goal of fusing and trending these measurements to form an early diagnosis of preterm labor. PMID:24109653

  17. Outcomes Following Candiduria in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Wynn, James L.; Tan, Sylvia; Gantz, Marie G.; Das, Abhik; Goldberg, Ronald N.; Adams-Chapman, Ira; Stoll, Barbara J.; Shankaran, Seetha; Walsh, Michele C.; Auten, Kathy J.; Miller, Nancy A.; Sánchez, Pablo J.; Higgins, Rosemary D.; Cotten, C. Michael; Smith, P. Brian

    2012-01-01

    Background. Candidiasis carries a significant risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW; <1000 g). We sought to determine the impact of candiduria in ELBW preterm infants. Methods. Our study was a secondary analysis of the Neonatal Research Network study Early Diagnosis of Nosocomial Candidiasis. Follow-up assessments included Bayley Scales of Infant Development examinations at 18–22 months of corrected age. Risk factors were compared between groups using exact tests and general linear modeling. Death, NDI, and death or NDI were compared using generalized linear mixed modeling. Results. Of 1515 infants enrolled, 34 (2.2%) had candiduria only. Candida was isolated from blood only (69 of 1515 [4.6%]), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) only (2 of 1515 [0.1%]), other sterile site only (not urine, blood, or CSF; 4 of 1515 [0.3%]), or multiple sources (28 of 1515 [2%]). Eleven infants had the same Candida species isolated in blood and urine within 3 days; 3 (27%) had a positive urine culture result first. Most urine isolates were Candida albicans (21 of 34 [62%]) or Candida parapsilosis (7 of 34 [29%]). Rate of death or NDI was greater among those with candiduria (50%) than among those with suspected but not proven infection (32%; odds ratio, 2.5 [95% confidence interval, 1.2–5.3]) after adjustment. No difference in death and death or NDI was noted between infants with candiduria and those with candidemia. Conclusions. These findings provide compelling evidence that ELBW infants with candiduria are at substantial risk of death or NDI. Candiduria in ELBW preterm infants should prompt a systemic evaluation (blood, CSF, and abdominal ultrasound) for disseminated Candida infection and warrants treatment. PMID:22144537

  18. Hidden Toxicity in Neonatal Intensive Care Units: Phthalate Exposure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants

    PubMed Central

    Demirel, Atalay; Çoban, Asuman; Yıldırım, Şükran; Doğan, Canan; Sancı, Rukiye; İnce, Zeynep

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine exposure to endocrine-disrupting phthalates in preterm infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICU). Methods: Urine samples (n=151) from 36 preterm infants (<32 weeks of gestation and/or <1500 g of birth weight) were collected on the first 3 days of admission to the NICU and biweekly thereafter. Diethylhexyl phthalate contents of indwelling medical devices used in various procedures and the concentrations of phthalate metabolites in the urine samples were analyzed. The relationships between urinary excretion, exposure intensity, postnatal age and birth weight were examined. Results: The mean gestational age and mean birth weight of the study infants were 28.9±1.5 weeks and 1024±262 g, respectively. Diethylhexyl phthalate was detected in umbilical catheters, endotracheal tubes, nasogastric tubes, and nasal cannula. Monoethylhydroxyhexyl phthalate (MEHHP) was the most frequently detected metabolite (81.4%); its concentration increased during the first 4 weeks and then started to decrease but never disappeared. Patients who did not need indwelling catheters (except nasogastric tubes) after 2 weeks were classified as group 1 and those who continued to have indwelling catheters as group 2. Although not of statistical significance, MEHHP levels decreased in group 1 but continued to stay high in group 2 (in the 4th week, group 1: 65.9 ng/mL and group 2: 255.3 ng/mL). Levels of MEHHP in the first urinary samples were significantly higher in infants with a birth weight <1000 g (<1000 g: 63.2±93.8 ng/mL, ≥1000 g: 10.9±22.9 ng/mL, p=0.001). Conclusion: Phthalate metabolites were detected even in the first urine samples of very low birth weight newborns. Phthalate levels were higher in the first weeks of intensive invasive procedures and in preterm infants with a birth weight less than 1000 g. MEHHP was the most frequently detected metabolite and could be a suitable biomarker for the detection of phthalate exposure in preterm infants. PMID

  19. Maternal Exposure to Polybrominated and Polychlorinated Biphenyls: Infant Birth Weight and Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Marjory L.; Small, Chanley M.; Terrell, Metrecia L.; Cameron, Lorraine L.; Blanck, Heidi Michels; Tolbert, Paige E.; Rubin, Carol; Henderson, Alden K.; Marcus, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the influence of maternal exposures on gestational age and birth weight is essential given that pre-term and/or low birth weight infants are at risk for increased mortality and morbidity. We performed a retrospective analysis of a cohort exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB) through accidental contamination of cattle feed and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) through residual contamination in the geographic region. Our study population consisted of 444 mothers and their 899 infants born between 1975 and 1997. Using restricted maximum likelihood estimation, no significant association was found between estimated maternal serum PBB at conception or enrollment PCB levels and gestational age or infant birth weight in unadjusted models or in models that adjusted for maternal age, smoking, parity, infant gender, and decade of birth. For enrollment maternal serum PBB, no association was observed for gestational age. However, a negative association with high levels of enrollment maternal serum PBB and birth weight was suggested. We also examined the birth weight and gestational age among offspring of women with the highest (10%) PBB or PCB exposure, and observed no significant association. Because brominated compounds are currently used in consumer products and therefore, are increasingly prevalent in the environment, additional research is needed to better understand the potential relationship between in utero exposure to brominated compounds and adverse health outcomes. PMID:17617441

  20. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  1. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, K. E.; Jakobson, L. S.; Saunders, D. R.; Troje, N. F.

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and matched, full-term controls completed tasks that required the extraction of local motion cues, the ability to perceptually group these cues to extract information about body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children—a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = −.36, p < .05), but positively correlated with the ability to extract identity, r(30) = .45, p < .05). These findings extend previous reports of vulnerability in systems involved in processing dynamic cues in preterm children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools. PMID:25103588

  2. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) and matched, full-term controls completed tasks that required the extraction of local motion cues, the ability to perceptually group these cues to extract information about body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p < .05), but positively correlated with the ability to extract identity, r(30) = .45, p < .05). These findings extend previous reports of vulnerability in systems involved in processing dynamic cues in preterm children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  3. 15 million preterm births annually: what has changed this year?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Each year, more than 1 in 10 of the world’s babies are born preterm, resulting in 15 million babies born too soon. World Prematurity Day, November 17, is a global effort to raise awareness about prematurity. This past year, there has been increased awareness of the problem, through new data and evidence, global partnership and country champions. Actions to improve care would save hundreds of thousands of babies born too soon from death and disability. Accelerated prevention requires urgent research breakthroughs. PMID:23148557

  4. Maternal Dietary Patterns during the Second Trimester Are Associated with Preterm Birth123

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Chantel L; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preterm birth is one of the leading causes of neonatal morbidity in the United States. Despite decades of research, the etiology is largely unknown. Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine the association between maternal dietary patterns during pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods: This prospective cohort study used data from the PIN (Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition) study (n = 3143). Dietary intake was assessed at 26–29 wk of gestation by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and patterns were derived by using factor analysis and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet. Associations between dietary patterns and preterm birth were assessed by logistic regression. Results: Four dietary patterns were identified from the factor analysis characterized by high intakes of the following: 1) fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy, high-fiber and fortified cereals, nonfried chicken and fish, and wheat bread; 2) beans, corn, French fries, hamburgers or cheeseburgers, white potatoes, fried chicken, mixed dishes, and ice cream; 3) collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red and processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks; and 4) shellfish, pizza, salty snacks, and refined grains. Increased odds of preterm birth were found for a diet characterized by a high consumption of collard greens, coleslaw or cabbage, red meats, fried chicken and fish, processed meats, cornbread or hushpuppies, eggs or egg biscuits, gravy, whole milk, and vitamin C–rich drinks such as Kool-Aid (Kraft Foods) and Hi-C (Minute Maid Co.) (adjusted OR for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.07, 2.24). Greater adherence to the DASH diet was associated with decreased odds of preterm birth compared with women in the lowest quartile (adjusted OR for quartile 4 vs. quartile 1: 0.59; 95% CI: 0.40, 0.85). Conclusions: Diet quality during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth; thus, preconceptional and early prenatal dietary

  5. Hot Executive Function Following Moderate-to-Late Preterm Birth: Altered Delay Discounting at 4 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodel, Amanda S.; Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Morris, Alyssa R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm…

  6. What Causes Racial Disparities in Very Preterm Birth? A Biosocial Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Michael R.; Hogue, Carol R.

    2015-01-01

    Very preterm birth (<32 weeks’ gestation) occurs in approximately 2% of live births but is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity in the United States. African-American women have a 2-fold to 3-fold elevated risk compared with non-Hispanic white women for reasons that are incompletely understood. This paper reviews the evidence for the biologic and social patterning of very preterm birth, with attention to leading hypotheses regarding the etiology of the racial disparity. A systematic review of the literature in the MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycInfo, and EMBASE indices was conducted. The literature to date suggests a complex, multifactorial causal framework for understanding racial disparities in very preterm birth, with maternal inflammatory, vascular, or neuroendocrine dysfunction as proximal pathways and maternal exposure to stress, racial differences in preconceptional health, and genetic, epigenetic, and gene-environment interactions as more distal mediators. Interpersonal and institutionalized racism are mechanisms that may drive racially patterned differences. Current literature is limited in that research on social determinants and biologic processes of prematurity has been generally disconnected. Improved etiologic understanding and the potential for effective intervention may come with better integration of these research approaches. PMID:19477907

  7. Increase in Preterm Birth during Demographic Transition in Chile from 1991 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    López Orellana, Paulina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Universally mothers at 35 years or more have had higher maternal and perinatal risks. This study analyzed the trend of this group in maternal population and determined their risk of having premature children, during the demographic transition period in Chile. Materials and Methods. Epidemiological study conducted in the population of simple live births registered in the Chilean National Database Births of 1991–2012. Analyses were performed in three categories of maternal age: 35 or more, under 35, and 20 to 29 years. The risk of prematurity was measured by crude and Adjusted Odds Ratio from logistic regression model. Results. Mothers aged 35 and older increased in population from 10.6% in 1991 to 16.7% in 2012 and presented an overall prevalence of preterm delivery of 6.7%, higher prevalence than 20–29 age group (4.7%). In aging mothers, the Odds Ratio for preterm birth adjusted for education, marital status, and parity was 1.68 (95% CI (1.66–1.70)) compared to mothers aged 20–29. All differences were significant (p < 0.001). Conclusions. During Chilean demographic transition, mothers aged 35 or older increased steadily and significantly maintaining higher risks of preterm births. Policies to prevent and monitor the late motherhood could contribute to stopping the current trend. PMID:26413549

  8. Associations between preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, and neonatal morbidity and cognitive function among school-age children in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The long term consequences of low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, small-for-gestational age (SGA, defined as birth weight for given gestational age less than the 10th percentile of the reference), and early newborn morbidity on functional outcomes are not well described in low income settings. Methods In rural Nepal, we conducted neurocognitive assessment of children (n = 1927) at 7–9 y of age, for whom birth condition exposures were available. At follow-up they were tested on aspects of intellectual, executive, and motor function. Results The prevalence of LBW (39.6%), preterm birth (21.2%), and SGA (55.4%) was high, whereas symptoms of birth asphyxia and sepsis were reported in 6.7% and 9.1% of children. In multivariable regression analyses, adjusted for confounders, LBW was strongly associated with scores on the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT), tests of executive function, and the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC). Preterm was not associated with any of the test scores. Conversely, SGA was significantly (all p < 0.005) associated with lower UNIT scores (−2.04 SE = 0.39); higher proportion failure on Stroop test (0.06, SE = 0.02); and lower scores on the backward digit span test (−0.16, SE = 0.04), MABC (0.98, SE = 0.25), and finger tapping test (−0.66, SE = 0.22) after adjusting for confounders. Head circumference at birth was strongly and significantly associated with all test scores. Neither birth asphyxia nor sepsis symptoms were significantly associated with scores on cognitive or motor tests. Conclusion In this rural South Asian setting, intrauterine growth restriction is high and, may have a negative impact on long term cognitive, executive and motor function. PMID:24575933

  9. VAGINAL PROGESTERONE VERSUS CERVICAL CERCLAGE FOR THE PREVENTION OF PRETERM BIRTH IN WOMEN WITH A SONOGRAPHIC SHORT CERVIX, SINGLETON GESTATION, AND PREVIOUS PRETERM BIRTH: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND INDIRECT COMPARISON META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    CONDE-AGUDELO, Agustin; ROMERO, Roberto; NICOLAIDES, Kypros; CHAIWORAPONGSA, Tinnakorn; O'BRIEN, John M.; CETINGOZ, Elcin; DA FONSECA, Eduardo; CREASY, George; SOMA-PILLAY, Priya; FUSEY, Shalini; CAM, Cetin; ALFIREVIC, Zarko; HASSAN, Sonia S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE No randomized controlled trial has directly compared vaginal progesterone and cervical cerclage for the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester, singleton gestation, and previous spontaneous preterm birth. We performed an indirect comparison of vaginal progesterone versus cerclage, using placebo/no cerclage as the common comparator. STUDY DESIGN Adjusted indirect meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. RESULTS Four studies evaluating vaginal progesterone versus placebo (158 patients) and five evaluating cerclage versus no cerclage (504 patients) were included. Both interventions were associated with a statistically significant reduction in the risk of preterm birth <32 weeks of gestation and composite perinatal morbidity and mortality compared with placebo/no cerclage. Adjusted indirect meta-analyses did not show statistically significant differences between vaginal progesterone and cerclage in reducing preterm birth or adverse perinatal outcomes. CONCLUSION Based on state-of-the-art methodology for indirect comparisons, either vaginal progesterone or cerclage are equally efficacious in the prevention of preterm birth in women with a sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester, singleton gestation, and previous preterm birth. The selection of the optimal treatment may depend upon adverse events, cost and patient/clinician preferences. PMID:23157855

  10. The Effect of Individualized Versus Standardized Parenteral Nutrition on Body Weight in Very Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Evering, Vincent H. M.; Andriessen, Peter; Duijsters, Carola E. P. M.; Brogtrop, Jeroen; Derijks, Luc J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate whether standardizing total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is at least non-inferior to TPN with individualized composition in premature infants with a gestational age (GA) < 32 weeks. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, all preterm born in or transferred to Maxima Medical Center (MMC) within 24 hours after birth with a GA < 32 weeks were included. The individualized group (2011) was compared to the partially standardized group (2012) and completely standardized group (2014) consequently. The primary endpoint was difference in growth. Secondary endpoints included differences in electrolyte concentrations. Results A total of 299 preterm were included in this study. When comparing weight gain, the infants in the (partially) standardized group demonstrated significantly (P < 0.05) less weight loss during the first days of life and grew faster subsequently in the following days than the individualized TPN regimen. Furthermore, significant differences in abnormal serum sodium, chloride, calcium, creatinine, magnesium and triglycerides values were demonstrated. Conclusion TPN with a (partially) standardized composition revealed to be at least non-inferior to TPN with an individualized composition. PMID:28270894

  11. Urinary Bisphenol A Levels during Pregnancy and Risk of Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Kelly K.; Mukherjee, Bhramar; McElrath, Thomas F.; Meeker, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB), a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity, has a complex etiology with a multitude of interacting causes and risk factors. The role of environmental contaminants, particularly bisphenol A (BPA), is understudied with regard to PTB. Objectives In the present study we examined the relationship between longitudinally measured BPA exposure during gestation and PTB. Methods A nested case–control study was performed from women enrolled in a prospective birth cohort study at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts, during 2006–2008. Urine samples were analyzed for BPA concentrations at a minimum of three time points during pregnancy on 130 cases of PTB and 352 randomly assigned controls. Clinical classifications of PTB were defined as “spontaneous,” which was preceded by spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes, or “placental,” which was preceded by preeclampsia or intrauterine growth restriction. Results Geometric mean concentrations of BPA did not differ significantly between cases and controls. In adjusted models, urinary BPA averaged across pregnancy was not significantly associated with PTB. When examining clinical classifications of PTB, urinary BPA late in pregnancy was significantly associated with increased odds of delivering a spontaneous PTB. After stratification on infant’s sex, averaged BPA exposure during pregnancy was associated with significantly increased odds of being delivered preterm among females, but not males. Conclusions These results provide little evidence of a relationship between BPA and prematurity, though further research may be warranted given the generalizability of participant recruitment from a tertiary teaching hospital, limited sample size, and significant associations among females and within the clinical subcategories of PTB. Citation Cantonwine DE, Ferguson KK, Mukherjee B, McElrath TF, Meeker JD. 2015. Urinary bisphenol A levels during

  12. Factors affecting birth weight in sheep: maternal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, D S; Buttery, P J; Daniel, Z; Symonds, M E

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of factors affecting variation in birth weight is especially important given the relationship of birth weight to neonatal and adult health. The present study utilises two large contemporary datasets in sheep of differing breeds to explore factors that influence weight at term. For dataset one (Study 1; n = 154 Blue-faced Leicester×Swaledale (Mule) and 87 Welsh Mountain ewes, 315 separate cases of birth weight), lamb birth weight as the outcome measure was related to maternal characteristics and individual energy intake of the ewe during specified periods of gestation, i.e. early (1-30 days; term ∼147 days gestation), mid (31-80 days) or late (110-147 days) pregnancy. For dataset two (Study 2; n = 856 Mule ewes and 5821 cases of birth weight), we investigated using multilevel modelling the influence of ewe weight, parity, barrenness, lamb sex, litter size, lamb mortality and year of birth on lamb birth weight. For a subset of these ewes (n = 283), the effect of the ewes’ own birth weight was also examined. Interactions between combinations of variables were selectively investigated. Litter size, as expected, had the single greatest influence on birth weight with other significant effects being year of birth, maternal birth weight, maternal nutrition, sex of the lamb, ewe barrenness and maternal body composition at mating. The results of the present study have practical implications not only for sheep husbandry but also for the increased knowledge of factors that significantly influence variation in birth weight; as birth weight itself has become a significant predictor of later health outcomes. PMID:17244755

  13. Potential Peripartum Markers of Infectious-Inflammatory Complications in Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Tambor, Vojtech; Vajrychova, Marie; Kacerovsky, Marian; Link, Marek; Domasinska, Petra; Menon, Ramkumar; Lenco, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous preterm birth significantly contributes to the overall neonatal morbidity associated with preterm deliveries. Nearly 50% of cases are associated with microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity followed by an inflammatory response. Robust diagnostic tools for neonates jeopardized by infection and inflammation may thus decrease the overall neonatal morbidity substantially. Amniotic fluid retrieved during labor retains fetal and pregnancy-related protein fingerprint and its sampling does not place any unwanted stress on women. Using exploratory and targeted methods we analyzed proteomes of amniotic fluid sampled at the end of spontaneous preterm labor prior to delivery from women with and without infection and inflammation. Exploratory data indicated several amniotic fluid proteins to be associated with infectious-inflammatory complications in spontaneous preterm birth. LC-SRM analysis subsequently verified statistically significant changes in lipocalin-1 (P = 0.047 and AUC = 0.67, P = 0.046), glycodelin (P = 0.013 and AUC = 0.73, P = 0.013), and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (P = 0.018 and AUC = 0.71, P = 0.01). PMID:26120581

  14. Decreased Bone Mineral Density in Adults Born with Very Low Birth Weight: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hovi, Petteri; Andersson, Sture; Järvenpää, Anna-Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Kajantie, Eero; Mäkitie, Outi

    2009-01-01

    Background Very-low-birth-weight (VLBW, <1,500 g) infants have compromised bone mass accrual during childhood, but it is unclear whether this results in subnormal peak bone mass and increased risk of impaired skeletal health in adulthood. We hypothesized that VLBW is associated with reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in adulthood. Methods and Findings The Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults is a multidisciplinary cohort study representative of all VLBW births within the larger Helsinki area from 1978 to 1985. This study evaluated skeletal health in 144 such participants (all born preterm, mean gestational age 29.3 wk, birth weight 1,127 g, birth weight Z score 1.3), and in 139 comparison participants born at term, matched for sex, age, and birth hospital. BMD was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry at age 18.5 to 27.1 y. Adults born with VLBW had, in comparison to participants born at term, a 0.51-unit (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28–0.75) lower lumbar spine Z score and a 0.56-unit (95% CI 0.34–0.78) lower femoral neck Z score for areal BMD. These differences remained statistically significant after adjustment for the VLBW adults' shorter height and lower self-reported exercise intensity. Conclusions Young adults born with VLBW, when studied close to the age of peak bone mass, have significantly lower BMD than do their term-born peers. This suggests that compromised childhood bone mass accrual in preterm VLBW children translates into increased risk for osteoporosis in adulthood, warranting vigilance in osteoporosis prevention. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:19707270

  15. Bone mineral density and osteoporosis after preterm birth: the role of early life factors and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claire L; Wood, Alexander M; Harker, Caroline; Embleton, Nicholas D

    2013-01-01

    The effects of preterm birth and perinatal events on bone health in later life remain largely unknown. Bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis risk may be programmed by early life factors. We summarise the existing literature relating to the effects of prematurity on adult BMD and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis and programming of bone growth. Metabolic bone disease of prematurity and the influence of epigenetics on bone metabolism are discussed and current evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding and aluminium exposure on bone metabolism is summarised. This review highlights the need for further research into modifiable early life factors and their effect on long-term bone health after preterm birth.

  16. Effect of interpregnancy interval on risk of spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women, United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jasmi, Fatima; Al-Mansoor, Fatima; Alsheiba, Aisha; Carter, Anne O.; Carter, Thomas P.; Hossain, M. Moshaddeque

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for preterm birth in Emirati women, where there is a wide range of interpregnancy intervals and uniformity in potentially confounding factors. METHODS: A case-control design based on medical records was used. A case was defined as a healthy multiparous Emirati woman delivering a healthy singleton spontaneously before 37 weeks of gestation between 1997 and 2000, and a control was defined as the next eligible similar woman delivering after 37 weeks of gestation. Women were excluded if there was no information available about their most recent previous pregnancy or if it had resulted in a multiple or preterm birth. Data collected from charts and delivery room records were analysed using the STATA statistical package. All variables found to be valid, stable and significant by univariate analysis were included in multivariate logistic regression analysis. FINDINGS: There were 128 cases who met the eligibility criteria; 128 controls were selected. Short interpregnancy intervals were significantly associated with case status (P<0.05). The multivariate adjusted odds ratios for the 1st, 2nd, and 4th quartiles of interpregnancy interval compared with the lowest-risk 3rd quartile were 8.2, 5.4, and 2.0 (95% confidence intervals: 3.5-19.2, 2.4-12.6, and 0.9- 4.5 respectively). CONCLUSION: A short interpregnancy interval is a risk factor for spontaneous preterm birth in Emirati women. The magnitude of the risk and the risk gradient between exposure quartiles suggest that the risk factor is causal and that its modification would reduce the risk of preterm birth. PMID:12481208

  17. Preterm Birth and Antidepressant Medication Use during Pregnancy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huybrechts, Krista F.; Sanghani, Reesha Shah; Avorn, Jerry; Urato, Adam C.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preterm birth is a major contributor to neonatal morbidity and mortality and its rate has been increasing over the past two decades. Antidepressant medication use during pregnancy has also been rising, with rates up to 7.5% in the US. The objective was to systematically review the literature to determine the strength of the available evidence relating to a possible association between antidepressant use during pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods We conducted a computerized search in PUBMED, MEDLINE and PsycINFO through September 2012, supplemented with a manual search of reference lists, to identify original published research on preterm birth rates in women taking antidepressants during pregnancy. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers, and absolute and relative risks abstracted or calculated. Our a priori design was to group studies by level of confounding adjustment and by timing of antidepressant use during pregnancy; we used random-effects models to calculate summary measures of effect. Results Forty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Pooled adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) were 1.53 (1.40–1.66) for antidepressant use at any time and 1.96 (1.62–2.38) for 3rd trimester use. Controlling for a diagnosis of depression did not eliminate the effect. There was no increased risk [1.16 (0.92–1.45)] in studies that identified patients based on 1st trimester exposure. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated unmeasured confounding would have to be strong to account for the observed association. Discussion Published evidence is consistent with an increased risk of preterm birth in women taking antidepressants during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters, although the possibility of residual confounding cannot be completely ruled out. PMID:24671232

  18. Area-level poverty and preterm birth risk: A population-based multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    DeFranco, Emily A; Lian, Min; Muglia, Louis A; Schootman, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Background Preterm birth is a complex disease with etiologic influences from a variety of social, environmental, hormonal, genetic, and other factors. The purpose of this study was to utilize a large population-based birth registry to estimate the independent effect of county-level poverty on preterm birth risk. To accomplish this, we used a multilevel logistic regression approach to account for multiple co-existent individual-level variables and county-level poverty rate. Methods Population-based study utilizing Missouri's birth certificate database (1989–1997). We conducted a multilevel logistic regression analysis to estimate the effect of county-level poverty on PTB risk. Of 634,994 births nested within 115 counties in Missouri, two levels were considered. Individual-level variables included demographics factors, prenatal care, health-related behavioral risk factors, and medical risk factors. The area-level variable included the percentage of the population within each county living below the poverty line (US census data, 1990). Counties were divided into quartiles of poverty; the first quartile (lowest rate of poverty) was the reference group. Results PTB < 35 weeks occurred in 24,490 pregnancies (3.9%). The rate of PTB < 35 weeks was 2.8% in counties within the lowest quartile of poverty and increased through the 4th quartile (4.9%), p < 0.0001. High county-level poverty was significantly associated with PTB risk. PTB risk (< 35 weeks) was increased for women who resided in counties within the highest quartile of poverty, adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.18 (95% CI 1.03, 1.35), with a similar effect at earlier gestational ages (< 32 weeks), adjOR 1.27 (95% CI 1.06, 1.52). Conclusion Women residing in socioeconomically deprived areas are at increased risk of preterm birth, above other underlying risk factors. Although the risk increase is modest, it affects a large number of pregnancies. PMID:18793437

  19. Prematurity, Birth Weight, and Socioeconomic Status Are Linked to Atypical Diurnal Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Activity in Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Winchester, Suzy Barcelos; Sullivan, Mary C; Roberts, Mary B; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-02-01

    In a prospective, case-controlled longitudinal design, 180 preterm and fullterm infants who had been enrolled at birth participated in a comprehensive assessment battery at age 23. Of these, 149 young adults, 34 formerly full-term and 115 formerly preterm (22 healthy preterm, 48 with medical complications, 21 with neurological complications, and 24 small for gestational age) donated five saliva samples from a single day that were assayed for cortisol to assess diurnal variation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Analyses were conducted to determine whether prematurity category, birth weight, and socioeconomic status were associated with differences in HPA axis function. Pre- and perinatal circumstances associated with prematurity influenced the activity of this environmentally sensitive physiological system. Results are consistent with the theory of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and highlight a possible mechanism for the link between prematurity and health disparities later in life.

  20. Black-white preterm birth disparity: a marker of inequality

    EPA Science Inventory

    Purpose. The racial disparity in preterrn birth (PTB) is a persistent feature of perinatal epidemiology, inconsistently modeled in the literature. Rather than include race as an explanatory variable, or employ race-stratified models, we sought to directly model the PTB disparity ...

  1. Examining the Effects of Ambient Temperature on Pre-Term Birth in Central Australia.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Supriya; Mathur, Deepika; Chang, Anne B; McDonald, Elizabeth; Singh, Gurmeet R; Nur, Darfiana; Gerritsen, Rolf

    2017-02-04

    Preterm birth (born before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Several recent studies have examined the association between extreme temperature and preterm births, but there have been almost no such studies in arid Australia. In this paper, we explore the potential association between exposures to extreme temperatures during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy in a Central Australian town. An immediate effect of temperature exposure is observed with an increased relative risk of 1%-2% when the maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the summer season maximum temperature data. Delayed effects are also observed closer to 3 weeks before delivery when the relative risks tend to increase exponentially. Immediate risks to preterm birth are also observed for cold temperature exposures (0 to -6 °C), with an increased relative risk of up to 10%. In the future, Central Australia will face more hot days and less cold days due to climate change and hence the risks posed by extreme heat is of particular relevance to the community and health practitioners.

  2. Examining the Effects of Ambient Temperature on Pre-Term Birth in Central Australia

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, Supriya; Mathur, Deepika; Chang, Anne B.; McDonald, Elizabeth; Singh, Gurmeet R.; Nur, Darfiana; Gerritsen, Rolf

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth (born before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is one of the leading causes of death among children under 5 years of age. Several recent studies have examined the association between extreme temperature and preterm births, but there have been almost no such studies in arid Australia. In this paper, we explore the potential association between exposures to extreme temperatures during the last 3 weeks of pregnancy in a Central Australian town. An immediate effect of temperature exposure is observed with an increased relative risk of 1%–2% when the maximum temperature exceeded the 90th percentile of the summer season maximum temperature data. Delayed effects are also observed closer to 3 weeks before delivery when the relative risks tend to increase exponentially. Immediate risks to preterm birth are also observed for cold temperature exposures (0 to –6 °C), with an increased relative risk of up to 10%. In the future, Central Australia will face more hot days and less cold days due to climate change and hence the risks posed by extreme heat is of particular relevance to the community and health practitioners. PMID:28165406

  3. The Contribution of Maternal Stress to Preterm Birth: Issues and Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Pathik D.; Entringer, Sonja; Buss, Claudia; Lu, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Preterm birth represents the most significant problem in maternal-child health. The ongoing search to elucidate its underlying causes and pathophysiological mechanisms has identified maternal stress as a variable of interest. Based on emerging models of causation of complex common disorders, we suggest that the effects of maternal stress on risk of preterm birth may, for the most part, vary as a function of context. In this paper we focus on select key issues and questions that highlight the need to develop a better understanding of which particular subgroups of pregnant women, under what circumstances, and at which stage(s) of gestation, may be especially vulnerable to the potentially detrimental effects of maternal stress. Our discussion addresses issues related to the characterization and assessment of maternal stress and candidate biological (maternal-placental-fetal endocrine, immune, vascular and genetic) mechanisms. We propose the adoption of newer approaches (ecological momentary assessment) and a life-course perspective to further our understanding of the contribution of maternal stress to preterm birth. PMID:21890014

  4. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18.

    PubMed

    Imai, Ken; Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for comparisons between the VLBW infants and non-VLBW infants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter gestational age had a more negative impact than lower birth weight to survival to discharge in infants with trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure.

  5. Measures of Maternal Stress and Mood in Relation to Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    HOFFMAN, M. Camille; MAZZONI, Sara E.; WAGNER, Brandie D.; LAUDENSLAGER, Mark L.; ROSS, Randal G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationships between psychological and physiologic measures of stress, mood and gestational age at delivery and preterm birth (PTB). METHODS This prospective cohort study recruited healthy women in the early second trimester, 18–45 years of age. Validated psychological measures of perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and anxiety were completed at 16, 22, 28, 34 and 40 weeks of gestation. Cortisol concentration was measured in maternal hair at 16, 28, and 40 weeks of gestation to approximate 1st, 2nd, and 3rd trimester levels of physiologic stress. Statistical methods included: analyses of variance (ANOVA), t-tests, Chi-square, Pearson correlations, regression modeling and mediation analysis as appropriate. Hair cortisol concentrations were natural log transformed to normalize values. RESULTS Eleven (12%) out of 90 included women had a spontaneous preterm birth or preterm premature rupture of the membranes. Perceived stress at 16 weeks of gestation correlated with both 2nd trimester cortisol concentration (r= 0.28, p=0.007) and earlier gestational age at delivery (r= −0.30, p< 0.01). Gestational age at delivery was also negatively correlated with cortisol concentration in the 2nd trimester (r= −0.25, p=0.02) and 2nd trimester cortisol concentration was higher in preterm (2.7 ± 0.4 LN pg/mg) vs term (2.0 ± 0.7 LN pg/mg, P<0.001) delivered women. Using mediation statistics, the association between the psychological measure, the physiologic measure, and gestational age at delivery was mainly driven by increased physiologic stress (hair cortisol concentration) in the 2nd trimester (difference in coefficients (standard error)= −0.05(0.02)),. CONCLUSION Higher perceived stress in the 2nd trimester is associated with both elevated 2nd trimester hair cortisol concentration and gestational age at delivery. Physiologic measure of stress in the 2nd trimester appears most strongly associated with preterm birth. Identification and

  6. [Ultrasound of cervix uteri transvaginal in preterm birth].

    PubMed

    Onofriescu, M; Târnovanu, Mihaela; Scurtu, B; Luca, A; Radu, E; Iftime, Irina

    2006-01-01

    Premature birth is a social problem due to its implications in the natal mortality and morbidity. This is the reason why it is necessary to establish new methods which could identify pregnant women with high risk of premature birth. Besides the measurable biochemical factors such as fetal fibronectin and salivary estriol, I1-6 sonography is a simple method highly efficient and of reasonable financial costs among all the sonographic means of observing the cervix uteri. The transvaginal sonography is the "golden standard", permitting the most faithful assessment of the pursued parameters--the length of the cervix, the aspect of the internal os (funneling), the cervix index. The experience gathered up to now shows that all of these investigations have a predictive value which is more negative than positive, but when used together they could lead to an improved result.

  7. Effect of alcohol consumption and psychosocial stressors on preterm and small-for-gestational-age births in HIV-infected women in South Africa: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sania, Ayesha; Brittain, Kirsty; Phillips, Tamsin K; Zerbe, Allison; Ronan, Agnes; Myer, Landon; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Psychosocial stressors such as depression and stress, intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol use have been linked to preterm and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births in general populations. The prevalence of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse is high in many HIV-infected (HIV+) populations. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of psychosocial stressors and alcohol abuse on birth outcomes in HIV-infected women. Methods Antenatal depression and non-specific psychological distress, periconception IPV and alcohol consumption were measured during the second trimester among HIV+ women initiating antiretroviral treatment with efavirenz + emtricitibine + tenofovir in Cape Town, South Africa. Log binomial regression models were used to estimate the risk ratios (RR) and 95% CIs of the effects of psychosocial stressors and periconception alcohol consumption on birth outcomes: SGA (birth weight <10th centile for gestational age) and preterm (<37 weeks) births. Results Of the 571 mother–infant pairs, 26% of women reported hazardous alcohol consumption (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C score ≥3) periconception periods, 11% reported depressive symptoms, 7% reported non-specific psychological distress and 15% reported experiencing physical or psychological IPV. 14% of infants were born preterm and 12% were SGA. Infants born to women reporting hazardous drinking were twice (adjusted RR 2.00 (95% CI 1.13 to 3.54)) as likely to be SGA compared with women reporting low alcohol intake. Alcohol consumption did not have a significant effect on the incidence of preterm birth. Depressive symptoms, non-specific psychological distress, physical and psychological IPV did not increase the risk of SGA or preterm birth significantly. Conclusions The observed elevated risk of SGA births associated with periconception alcohol consumption underscores the urgent need to reduce alcohol consumption among women of childbearing age. Interventions targeting

  8. Psychosocial stress in pregnancy and its relation to low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Newton, R W; Hunt, L P

    1984-04-21

    The relation of low birth weight to psychosocial stress in pregnancy was examined using a life events inventory and a state anxiety index. Two hundred and fifty women were randomly selected and interviewed three times during pregnancy and shortly after delivery. Twenty six were excluded. Of the remaining 224 women, nine miscarried, 195 had healthy term babies, and 20 gave birth to babies that were either premature or of low birth weight at term. Low birth weight and prematurity were significantly associated with objective major life events but not state anxiety. The occurrence of objective major life events in the third trimester may be important in precipitating preterm labour. Cigarette smoking was the best predictor and objective major life events the second best predictor of low birth weight. The result was not dependent on social class. These findings suggest that cigarette smoking may be an important mediator of stress on the fetus. Antenatal care should take greater account of stress in pregnancy, and social support systems should be evaluated.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in the Southeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina; Kermani, Akram Jabbari Nejad; Bakhshandeh, Marzieh; Foroodnia, Shohreh; Mahmoudabadi, Zahra; Amirzadeh, Raheleh; Safizadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of low birth weight (LBW) in the Southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kerman province. Data were collected from Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network at public and private hospitals. All live births from March 2014 to March 2015 considered as the source population. The risk factors including maternal age, gravida, parity, abortion, pregnancy risk factors, maternal nationality, maternal education, maternity insurance, place of living, consanguinity, neonate sex, preterm labor, place of birth, delivery manager, and delivery type were compared between LBW and normal birth weight groups. Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P < 0.001), neonate female sex (OR: 1.41; P < 0.001), low parity (OR: 0.85; P < 0.001), pregnancy age <18 years (OR: 1.26; P = 0.012), pregnancy age >35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001), delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002), pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P < 0.001), maternal illiteracy (OR: 1.91; P < 0.001), living in the rural area (OR: 1.19; P < 0.001), consanguineous (OR: 1.08; P = 0.025), and delivery by obstetrician (OR: 1.12; P = 0.029) were identified as significant factors associated with LBW in this study. Conclusions: Prevention of preterm labor, consanguineous marriage, pregnancy age <18 and >35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW. PMID:28348722

  10. Respiratory function at age 8-9 after extremely low birthweight or preterm birth in Victoria in 1997.

    PubMed

    Hacking, Douglas F; Gibson, Anne-Marie; Robertson, Colin; Doyle, Lex W

    2013-05-01

    To determine if respiratory function at 8 years of age in extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1,000 g) or extremely preterm (EPT, <28 weeks' gestation) children born in 1997 remains worse than normal birth weight (NBW; birth weight, >2,499 g) and term (37-42 weeks) controls, particularly in those ELBW/EPT children who had bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). This was a cohort study of 201 consecutive ELBW/EPT survivors born in the state of Victoria during 1997, and 199 contemporaneous randomly selected NBW/term controls. Respiratory function was measured at 8 years of age according to standard guidelines, and compared with previous cohorts born in 1991-1992. Respiratory function data were available for almost 75% of both cohorts. ELBW/EPT subjects had substantial reductions in airflow compared with controls (e.g., mean difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec [FEV1 ] -0.91 SD, 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to -0.63 SD, and in maximum expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of vital capacity [FEF25-75% ] -0.96 SD, 95% CI -1.22 to -0.71). These differences were similar to those observed between ELBW/EPT and controls subjects born in 1991-1992. Within the ELBW/EPT cohort, children who had BPD in the newborn period had significant reductions in both the FEV1 (-0.76 SD) and FEF25-75% (-0.58 SD) compared with those who did not have BPD, which were not statistically significant from those in the 1991-92 cohort. ELBW/EPT children born in 1997 still have significantly abnormal lung function compared with NBW/term controls, but results were similar to an earlier era when survival rates were lower. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2013; 48:449-455. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Socio-Emotional Development Following Very Preterm Birth: Pathways to Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Montagna, Anita; Nosarti, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    Very preterm birth (VPT; < 32 weeks of gestation) has been associated with an increased risk to develop cognitive and socio-emotional problems, as well as with increased vulnerability to psychiatric disorder, both with childhood and adult onset. Socio-emotional impairments that have been described in VPT individuals include diminished social competence and self-esteem, emotional dysregulation, shyness and timidity. However, the etiology of socio-emotional problems in VPT samples and their underlying mechanisms are far from understood. To date, research has focused on the investigation of both biological and environmental risk factors associated with socio-emotional problems, including structural and functional alterations in brain areas involved in processing emotions and social stimuli, perinatal stress and pain and parenting strategies. Considering the complex interplay of the aforementioned variables, the review attempts to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the association between very preterm birth, socio-emotional vulnerability and psychopathology. After a comprehensive overview of the socio-emotional impairments associated with VPT birth, three main models of socio-emotional development are presented and discussed. These focus on biological vulnerability, early life adversities and parenting, respectively. To conclude, a developmental framework is used to consider different pathways linking VPT birth to psychopathology, taking into account the interaction between medical, biological, and psychosocial factors. PMID:26903895

  12. A "PROPP" for the Bronx: preterm birth prevention education in the inner city.

    PubMed

    Freda, M C; Damus, K; Andersen, H F; Brustman, L E; Merkatz, I R

    1990-07-01

    As one component of the multifaceted community-wide preterm prevention program known as "A PROPP for the Bronx" (Program to Reduce Obstetric Problems and Prematurity), a prenatal education videotape in both English and Spanish was developed. Its impact was evaluated in 615 high-risk patients at the Bronx Municipal Hospital Center. The 12-minute videotape focused on the implications of preterm birth, the signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and behavioral modification to reduce life-style risk factors. An instrument was constructed to examine baseline knowledge, information transfer, and knowledge retention, and was validated and tested for reliability (r = 0.95). The results demonstrated a statistically significant knowledge transfer for patients viewing the videotape (P less than .0001) and significant knowledge retention through the postpartum period (P less than .0001) for Spanish-speaking as well as English-speaking parturients. These data emphasize the importance of the educational component of a preterm prevention program in an impoverished population at risk for early delivery.

  13. Preterm birth results in alterations in neural connectivity at age 16 years.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Katherine M; Vohr, Betty R; Katz, Karol H; Schneider, Karen C; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W; Reiss, Allan L; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2011-02-14

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600-1250 g birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p=0.003), verbal (p=0.043), and performance IQ tests (p=0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p=0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p=0.01; right: p=0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p<0.001; right: p<0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p=0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p<0.001; right: p=0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.314, p=0.038; right: r=0.336, p=0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r=0.424, p=0.004; right: r=0.301, p=0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in maturation or the engagement of alternative neural

  14. Preterm Birth Results in Alterations in Neural Connectivity at Age 16 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mullen, Katherine M.; Vohr, Betty R.; Katz, Karol H.; Schneider, Karen C.; Lacadie, Cheryl; Hampson, Michelle; Makuch, Robert W.; Reiss, Allan R.; Constable, R. Todd; Ment, Laura R.

    2010-01-01

    Very low birth weight preterm (PT) children are at high risk for brain injury. Employing diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), we tested the hypothesis that PT adolescents would demonstrate microstructural white matter disorganization relative to term controls at 16 years of age. Forty-four PT subjects (600 - 1250 grams birth weight) without neonatal brain injury and 41 term controls were evaluated at age 16 years with DTI, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children - III (WISC), the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test - Revised (PPVT), and the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP). PT subjects scored lower than term subjects on WISC full scale (p = 0.003), verbal (p = 0.043), and performance IQ tests (p = 0.001), as well as CTOPP phonological awareness (p = 0.004), but scored comparably to term subjects on PPVT and CTOPP Rapid Naming tests. PT subjects had lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple regions including bilateral uncinate fasciculi (left: p = 0.01; right: p = 0.004), bilateral external capsules (left: p < 0.001; right: p < 0.001), the splenium of the corpus callosum (p = 0.008), and white matter serving the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally (left: p < 0.001; right: p = 0.011). FA values in both the left and right uncinate fasciculi correlated with PPVT scores (a semantic language task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.314, p = 0.038; right: r = 0.336, p = 0.026). FA values in the left and right arcuate fasciculi correlated with CTOPP Rapid Naming scores (a phonologic task) in the PT subjects (left: r = 0.424, p = 0.004; right: r = 0.301, p = 0.047). These data support for the first time that dual pathways underlying language function are present in PT adolescents. The striking bilateral dorsal correlations for the PT group suggest that prematurely born subjects rely more heavily on the right hemisphere than typically developing adults for performance of phonological language tasks. These findings may represent either a delay in

  15. Grandmothers’ Smoking in Pregnancy and Grandchildren’s Birth Weight: Comparisons by Grandmother Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rillamas-Sun, Eileen; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether grandmothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy was associated with birth weights in their grandchildren, considering possible birth cohort effects in the grandmothers’ generation. Methods The birth weights of 935 singleton children were compared by grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking status during pregnancy. In 2008, women (n=397) from the Michigan Bone Health and Metabolism Study were interviewed about their own birth history, including whether their own mother smoked while pregnant with them, and the birth histories of their offspring. While also accounting for family clustering, linear mixed models were used to evaluate whether birth weight differences in the grandchildren were associated with grandmothers’ and mothers’ smoking behavior during pregnancy. Associations were compared among grandmothers born from 1904–1928 versus grandmothers born from 1929–1945 to determine potential birth cohort effects. Results Forty-six (5%) grandchildren had grandmothers and mothers who smoked while pregnant, while 455 (49%) had grandmothers and mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. After adjustment, birth weight was an average of 346 (95% confidence interval: 64 to 628) grams higher in grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both smoked during pregnancy relative to grandchildren whose grandmother and mother both did not smoke during pregnancy, but only among grandmothers who were born from 1929–1945. For grandmothers born from 1904–1928, grandchildren birth weights did not differ by grandmother and mother smoking status. Conclusions Birth weight may be associated with grandmother and mother smoking behaviors during pregnancy, but birth cohort effects should be considered. PMID:24337862

  16. Preventing preterm births: trends and potential reductions with current interventionsin 39 very high human development index countries

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hannah H.; Larson, Jim; Blencowe, Hannah; Spong, Catherine Y.; Howson, Christopher P.; Cairns-Smith, Sarah; Lackritz, Eve M.; Lee, Shoo K.; Mason, Elizabeth; Serazin, Andrew C.; Walani, Salimah; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Lawn, Joy E.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Each year,1.1 million babies die from prematurity, andmany survivors are disabled. Worldwide, 15 million babies are preterm(<37 weeks’ gestation),withtwo decades of increasing ratesinalmost all countries with reliable data. Improved care of babies has reduced mortality in high-income countries, although effective interventions have yet to be scaled-up in most low-income countries. A 50% reduction goal for preterm-specific mortality by 2025 has been set in the “Born Too Soon” report. However, for preterm birth prevention,understanding of drivers and potential impact of preventive interventions is limited. We examine trends and estimate the potential reduction in preterm birthsforvery high human development index (VHHDI) countries if current evidence-based interventions were widely implemented. This analysis is to inform a “Born Too Soon” rate reduction target. Methods Countries were assessed for inclusion based on availability and quality ofpreterm prevalence data (2000-2010), and trend analyses with projections undertaken. We analysed drivers of rate increases in the USA, 1998-2004. For 39 VHHDI countrieswith >10,000 births, country-by-country analyses were performed based on target population, incremental coverage increase,and intervention efficacy. Cost savings were estimated based on reported costs for preterm care in the USAadjusted usingWorld Bank purchasing power parity. Findings From 2010, even if all VHHDI countries achieved annual preterm birth rate reductions of the best performers, (Sweden and Netherlands), 2000-2010 or 2005-2010(Lithuania, Estonia)), rates would experience a relative reduction of<5% by 2015 on average across the 39 countries.Our analysis of preterm birth rise 1998-2004 in USA suggests half the change is unexplained, but important drivers includeinductions/cesareandelivery and ART.For all 39 VHHDI countries, five interventionsmodeling at high coveragepredicted 5%preterm birth rate relative reduction from 9

  17. Individual and Community Predictors of Preterm Birth and Low Birthweight along the Rural-Urban Continuum in Central Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Weisman, Carol S.; Chase, Gary A.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2007-01-01

    Context: Preterm birth and low birthweight remain high priority public health problems and are associated with increased risk of infant mortality as well as long-term health impairments. Although 20% of all births nationally are to rural women, relatively little attention has been paid to pregnancy outcomes in rural areas relative to more…

  18. Tubular Dysfunction Mimicking Dent's Disease in 2 Infants Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Awazu, Midori; Arai, Mie; Ohashi, Shoko; Takahashi, Hirotaka; Sekine, Takashi; Ikeda, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Two preterm infants, with extremely low birth weight born at gestational weeks 24 and 25, showed generalized proximal tubular dysfunction during their stay in the neonatal intensive care unit, including glucosuria, low molecular weight proteinuria, phosphaturia, uricosuria, enzymuria (elevated urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase), panaminoaciduria, and hypercalciuria, associated with renal calcification. Renal tubular acidosis was not present in either patient. DNA mutation analysis for Dent's disease, performed in patient 1, was negative. Although both patients had rickets of prematurity, tubular dysfunction persisted after its resolution. Patient 2, who had severe chronic lung disease, also had elevated serum creatinine, proteinuria, and hypertension, suggesting glomerular damage. In patient 1, low molecular weight proteinuria, enzymuria, panaminoaciduria, hypercalciuria, and renal calcification were still present at the age of 8 years. In patient 2, tubular dysfunction resolved except for β2 microglobulinuria at the age of 5 years. While a reduced nephron number resulting in focal segmental glomerulosclerosis is well-known, generalized proximal tubular dysfunction can also occur in infants born preterm and/or with extremely low birth weight. PMID:28203565

  19. Second harmonic generation imaging as a potential tool for staging pregnancy and predicting preterm birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akins, Meredith L.; Luby-Phelps, Katherine; Mahendroo, Mala

    2010-03-01

    We use second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to assess changes in collagen structure of murine cervix during cervical remodeling of normal pregnancy and in a preterm birth model. Visual inspection of SHG images revealed substantial changes in collagen morphology throughout normal gestation. SHG images collected in both the forward and backward directions were analyzed quantitatively for changes in overall mean intensity, forward to backward intensity ratio, collagen fiber size, and porosity. Changes in mean SHG intensity and intensity ratio take place in early pregnancy, suggesting that submicroscopic changes in collagen fibril size and arrangement occur before macroscopic changes become evident. Fiber size progressively increased from early to late pregnancy, while pores between collagen fibers became larger and farther apart. Analysis of collagen features in premature cervical remodeling show that changes in collagen structure are dissimilar from normal remodeling. The ability to quantify multiple morphological features of collagen that characterize normal cervical remodeling and distinguish abnormal remodeling in preterm birth models supports future studies aimed at development of SHG endoscopic devices for clinical assessment of collagen changes during pregnancy in women and for predicting risk of preterm labor which occurs in 12.5% of all pregnancies.

  20. Membrane Vesicles of Group B Streptococcus Disrupt Feto-Maternal Barrier Leading to Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Sthanam, Lakshmi Kavitha; Srivastava, Rohit; Basu, Bhakti; Dutta, Suryendu; Sen, Shamik; Modi, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    Infection of the genitourinary tract with Group B Streptococcus (GBS), an opportunistic gram positive pathogen, is associated with premature rupture of amniotic membrane and preterm birth. In this work, we demonstrate that GBS produces membrane vesicles (MVs) in a serotype independent manner. These MVs are loaded with virulence factors including extracellular matrix degrading proteases and pore forming toxins. Mice chorio-decidual membranes challenged with MVs ex vivo resulted in extensive collagen degradation leading to loss of stiffness and mechanical weakening. MVs when instilled vaginally are capable of anterograde transport in mouse reproductive tract. Intra-amniotic injections of GBS MVs in mice led to upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammation mimicking features of chorio-amnionitis; it also led to apoptosis in the chorio-decidual tissue. Instillation of MVs in the amniotic sac also resulted in intrauterine fetal death and preterm delivery. Our findings suggest that GBS MVs can independently orchestrate events at the feto-maternal interface causing chorio-amnionitis and membrane damage leading to preterm birth or fetal death. PMID:27583406

  1. Fetal fibronectin as a predictor of spontaneous preterm birth: a European perspective.

    PubMed

    Chandiramani, Manju; Di Renzo, Gian C; Gottschalk, Elisabeth; Helmer, Hanns; Henrich, Wolfgang; Hoesli, Irene; Mol, Ben; Norman, Jane E; Robson, Stephen; Thornton, Steven; Shennan, Andrew

    2011-02-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is estimated to account for 6-10% of all births worldwide with 13 million PTBs occurring annually and 1 million resulting in death. The diagnosis of spontaneous preterm labor and accurate prediction of preterm delivery is notoriously difficult. Identification of effective risk assessment markers can potentially improve outcomes by enabling targeted therapy while allowing efficient use of resources and avoiding unnecessary interventions. Advances in perinatal medicine have not reduced PTB and effective measures that improve outcome are yet to be established. However, considerable progress has been made in the development of accurate methods (fetal fibronectin and cervical length assessment) to predict PTB in both symptomatic and asymptomatic high-risk women. The excellent negative predictive value of fFN has the ability to facilitate decision-making regarding admission, in utero transfer, administration of antenatal corticosteroids and/or tocolysis and has been shown to be cost-effective. This review describes the European perspective on the use of fFN and describes ongoing European clinical studies, which are appropriately designed with meaningful endpoints, which will undoubtedly facilitate a better understanding of test accuracy and cost-effectiveness within different populations.

  2. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Christiane Fernandes; Lopes, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo da; Ribeiro, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; Ugenti, Luca Cipriani; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively).

  3. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  4. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    PubMed Central

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  5. INTELLECTUAL AND EDUCATIONAL CORRELATES OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WIENER, GERALD

    LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILDREN WERE STUDIED LONGITUDINALLY TO DETERMINE WHETHER--(1) THE RELATIVE INTELLECTUAL IMPAIRMENT OF PREMATURE CHILDREN IS STATIC OR CHANGES WITH TIME, (2) A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT CHILD NOT NOTED TO BE IN NEUROLOGICAL DISTRESS COULD HAVE A POOR PROGNOSIS, AND (3) SPECIAL EDUCATIONAL AND EMOTIONAL PROBLEMS COULD ARISE AS A CONSEQUENCE…

  6. Density of Stromal Cells and Macrophages Associated With Collagen Remodeling in the Human Cervix in Preterm and Term Birth.

    PubMed

    Dubicke, Aurelija; Ekman-Ordeberg, Gunvor; Mazurek, Patricia; Miller, Lindsay; Yellon, Steven M

    2016-05-01

    Remodeling of the cervix occurs in advance of labor both at term and at preterm birth. Morphological characteristics associated with remodeling in rodents were assessed in cervix biopsies from women at term (39 weeks' gestation) and preterm (<33 weeks' gestation). Collagen I and III messenger RNA and hydroxyproline concentrations declined in cervix biopsies from women in labor at term and preterm compared to that in the cervix from nonlaboring women. Extracellular collagen was more degraded in sections of cervix from women at term, based on optical density of picrosirius red stain, versus that in biopsies from nonpregnant women. However, collagen structure was unchanged in the cervix from women at preterm labor versus the nonpregnant group. As an indication of inflammation, cell nuclei density was decreased in cervix biopsies from pregnant women irrespective of labor compared to the nonpregnant group. Moreover, CD68-stained macrophages increased to an equivalent extent in cervix subepithelium and stroma from groups in labor, both at term and preterm, as well as in women not in labor at term. Evidence for a similar inflammatory process in the remodeled cervix of women at term and preterm birth parallels results in rodent models. Thus, a conserved final common mechanism involving macrophages and inflammation may characterize the transition to a ripe cervix before birth at term and in advance of premature birth.

  7. Hot executive function following moderate-to-late preterm birth: altered delay discounting at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hodel, Amanda S; Brumbaugh, Jane E; Morris, Alyssa R; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2016-03-01

    Interest in monitoring long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes of children born moderate-to-late preterm (32-36 weeks gestation) is increasing. Moderate-to-late preterm birth has a negative impact on academic achievement, which may relate to differential development of executive function (EF). Prior studies reporting deficits in EF in preterm children have almost exclusively assessed EF in affectively neutral contexts in high-risk preterm children (< 32 weeks gestation). Disrupted function in motivational or emotionally charged contexts (hot EF) following preterm birth remains uninvestigated, despite evidence that preterm children show differential development of neural circuitry subserving hot EF, including reduced orbitofrontal cortex volume. The present study is the first to examine whether low-risk, healthy children born moderate-to-late preterm exhibit impairments in the development of hot EF. Preterm children at age 4.5 years were less likely to choose larger, delayed rewards across all levels of reward magnitude on a delay discounting task using tangible rewards, but performed more similarly to their full-term peers on a delay aversion task involving abstract rewards and on measures of cool EF. The relationship between gestational age at birth and selection of delayed rewards extended across the entire gestational age range of the sample (32-42 weeks), and remained significant after controlling for intelligence and processing speed. Results imply that there is not a finite cut-off point at which children are spared from potential long-term neurodevelopmental effects of PT birth. Further investigation of reward processing and hot EF in individuals with a history of PT birth is warranted given the susceptibility of prefrontal cortex development to early environmental variations.

  8. Fungal endocarditis in an extremely low birth weight infant: case report.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Abdurrahman A; Oral, Tugce K; Varol, Aydin

    2016-04-01

    Survival rates of premature infants have increased with developing technology and evolving knowledge but late-onset sepsis is more frequent due to prolonged hospitalization periods of these infants. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight premature infant who was admitted with respiratory distress syndrome, developed necrotizing enterocolitis and fungal sepsis with endocarditis by Candida albicans. He was treated with antifungal therapy until fungal vegetation resolved. Fungal sepsis and endocarditis may be an important morbidity in preterm infants; we review the recent literature about the risk factors, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of fungal sepsis in these high risk infants.

  9. Cardiovascular Responses to Psychosocial Stress Reflect Motivation State in Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Pyhälä, Riikka; Hovi, Petteri; Räikkönen, Katri; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Boyle, Michael H.; Saigal, Saroj; Morrison, Katherine M.; Kajantie, Eero; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Adults born extremely preterm appear to have more difficulty managing the stresses of early adulthood than their term-born peers. Objective. To examine the effects of being born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight < 1000 g) versus at full term on cardiovascular responses to stress. Method. Cardiovascular responses were elicited during administration of a widely used laboratory stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Results. Term-born adults exhibited a larger decrease in total peripheral resistance and larger increase in cardiac output for TSST performance, reflecting greater resilience, than did ELBW adults. Furthermore, in ELBW participants but not controls, cardiovascular responses were correlated with anxiety, suggesting that their responses reflected feelings of stress. Conclusions. Skills-training and practice with relevant stressors may be necessary to increase the personal resources of ELBW participants for managing stress as they transition to adulthood. PMID:27335948

  10. Maternal pregravid weight, age, and smoking status as risk factors for low birth weight births.

    PubMed Central

    Nandi, C; Nelson, M R

    1992-01-01

    The Illinois Department of Public Health, in cooperation with the Centers for Disease Control (CDC), monitors trends in the prevalence of prenatal risk factors that are major predictors of infant mortality and low birth weight (LBW). Analyzed data from CDC are available to the department annually. During 1988, a total of 26,767 records of Illinois women giving birth were submitted to CDC. These surveillance data support the fact that women older than 30 years who smoke and enter pregnancy underweight are at greatest risk of delivering LBW babies. Overall, 13.9 percent of underweight smokers had LBW infants compared with 8 percent of underweight nonsmokers. Prevalence of LBW among underweight and smoking women older than 34 years was much higher (29.6 percent) than among those between ages 30 and 34 (15.2 percent). The prevalence of LBW decreased as the pregravid weight increased among normal weight smokers (10 percent) and overweight smokers (8.6 percent). PMID:1333619

  11. Use of antenatal corticosteroids for preterm birth in Latin America: providers knowledge, attitudes and practices

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal corticosteroids administered to women at risk of preterm birth is an intervention which has been proved to reduce the risk of respiratory distress syndrome, intraventricular hemorrhage, and neonatal mortality. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding the prevalence of the use of antenatal corticosteroids in Latin American countries and the attitudes and opinions of providers regarding this practice. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of health care providers regarding the use of antenatal corticosteroids in women at risk of preterm birth in Latin America. Methods This was a multicenter, prospective, descriptive study conducted in maternity hospitals in Ecuador, El Salvador, Mexico and Uruguay. Physicians and midwives who provide prenatal care or intrapartum care for women delivering in the selected hospitals were approached using a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics was used. Results The percentage of use of ACT in threatened preterm labour (TPL) reported by providers varies from 70% in Mexico to 97% in Ecuador. However, 60% to 20% of the providers mentioned that they would not use this medication in women at risk and would limit its use when there was a threatened preterm labour. In only one country recommended regimens of antenatal corticosteroids are followed by around 90% of providers whereas in the other three countries recommended regimens are followed by only 21%, 61%, 69% of providers. Around 40% of providers mentioned that they would administer a new dose of corticosteroids again, regardless the patient already receiving an entire regimen. Between 11% and 35% of providers, according to the countries, mentioned that they do not have adequate information on the correct use of this medication. Conclusions This study shows that the use of this intervention could be improved by increasing the knowledge of Latin American providers on its indications, benefits, and

  12. The low-birth-weight infant

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants have special nutritional requirements arising from their rapid growth rate and developmental immaturity. LBW infants are of many kinds; for example, the nutritional needs and functional capabilities of a small-for-gestational-age full-term infant are not the same as those of a very LBW premature infant. Ideal criteria for evaluating the nutritional management of these infants have not been established, and thus the recommended intakes given here do not represent proven physiological requirements. They nevertheless provide a basis from which more refined recommendations may be made. Although this chapter is not intended as such to be a discussion of applicable feeding techniques, it would be difficult and artificial to divorce two such closely intertwined aspects of the distinctive needs of this highly vulnerable group. Feeding techniques have to be carefully assessed in the light of specific environments and the expertise available, and none is entirely risk-free in any setting. Thus, it is essential to compensate for the immaturity of the infants and to avoid compromising the airway or risking aspiration of gastric contents. The choice between using breast milk or proprietary formulas in feeding LBW infants is complex on both nutritional and immunological grounds as well as for practical reasons. Given that the preponderance (>90%) of LBW infants are born in developing countries, the use of an infant's own mother's fresh milk may be the only realistic option. However, irrespective of the health care facilities, level of technology or alternative formulas that might be available, studies show that there is much to recommend feeding LBW infants their own mothers' milk in any environment. PMID:20604471

  13. Prevalence and factors associated with the occurrence of preterm birth in Irbid governorate of Jordan: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Khitam; Abu Dalou, Ahmad; Kassab, Manal; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K

    2015-10-01

    Prevention is important to reduce the prevalence of preterm births. Although prematurity has been well studied in developed countries, data from developing countries, such as Jordan, are still limited. This retrospective study analysed medical records to determine possible risk factors leading to preterm birth in the Irbid governorate of Jordan. All preterm births during the year 2011 were reviewed. Abstracted data included mother's age and gravidity. Newborn information included gender, birthweight and gestational age at birth. A total of 647 singleton births were included. There were more females than males (54.9% vs. 45.1%), with 75.6% being the second child or more. Half the mothers (50.2%) were 25-35 years of age. Factors associated with preterm birth were male gender (P = 0.008), maternal age > 35 years (P = 0.005) and first birth (P = 0.003). Nurses need to provide support and education to mothers with potential risk about reproductive health and family planning.

  14. Preterm Birth, Age at School Entry and Long Term Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the detrimental impact of year of entering education in preterm infants persists into adolescence. Background Preterm infants are often enrolled in school a year earlier than would be expected if this decision is based on their actual date of birth rather than their due date. Initially these infants appear to do disproportionately worse than those who do not ‘skip’ a year. However, it is unclear if this effect remains as the infants grow, to have an important effect on long term achievements in education. Design A cohort study, drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The exposure measurement was gestational age (defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or term (37–42 weeks)). The primary outcome was a low score at the Key Stage 4 (KS4) educational assessment or receiving special educational needs support (both at age 16). We derived conditional regression models matching preterm to term infants on their date of birth (DOB), their expected date of delivery (EDD), or their expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Results After matching for DOB, preterm infants had an increased odds of SEN (OR 1.57 (1.33–1.86)) and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.39 (1.14–1.68)). The association remained in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.43 (1.17–1.74)) but attenuated after restricting to those infants who were enrolled in school in the same year as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.21 (0.97–1.52)). There was less evidence for an impact of prematurity on the KS4 score (Matched for DOB; OR 1.10 (0.91 to 1.34), matched for EDD OR 1.17 (0.96 to 1.42) and EDD and same year of schooling, OR 1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)). Conclusions This modifiable effect of going to school a year earlier than predicted by their due date appears to have measurable consequences for ex-preterm infants in adolescence and is likely to limit adulthood opportunities

  15. Differences in mortality and morbidity according to gestational ages and birth weights in infants with trisomy 18

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Atsushi; Okamura, Tomoka; Ago, Mako; Suenaga, Hideyo; Sugita, Eri; Ono, Hideko; Shuri, Kyoko; Masumoto, Kenichi; Totsu, Satsuki; Nakanishi, Hidehiko; Kusuda, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of gestational age and birth weight on outcomes of the infants. Medical records of 36 infants with trisomy 18 admitted to Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital from 1991 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. We compared clinical characteristics between term infants (n = 15) and preterm infants (n = 21). There were one very‐low‐birth‐weight (VLBW) term infant (5%) and 12 VLBW preterm infants (80%). Although there were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and provided management between the two groups, none of the preterm infants achieved survival to discharge. On the other hand, 6 of 21 term infants (29%) achieved survival to discharge (P < 0.05). Similar results were obtained for comparisons between the VLBW infants and non‐VLBW infants. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that shorter gestational age had a more negative impact than lower birth weight to survival to discharge in infants with trisomy 18. In both preterm and term groups, the infants who died before 30 days commonly died of respiratory failure or apnea. Whereas, the infants who survived more than 30 days mostly died of heart failure. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26307940

  16. Maternal exposure to ambient temperature and the risks of preterm birth and stillbirth in Brisbane, Australia.

    PubMed

    Strand, Linn B; Barnett, Adrian G; Tong, Shilu

    2012-01-15

    Almost 10% of all births are preterm, and 2.2% are stillbirths. Recent research has suggested that environmental factors may be a contributory cause of these adverse birth outcomes. The authors examined the relation between ambient temperature and preterm birth and stillbirth in Brisbane, Australia, between 2005 and 2009 (n = 101,870). They used a Cox proportional hazards model with livebirth and stillbirth as competing risks. They also examined whether there were periods in pregnancy where exposure to high temperatures had a greater effect. Higher ambient temperatures in the last 4 weeks of the pregnancy increased the risk of stillbirth. The hazard ratio for stillbirth was 0.3 at 12°C relative to the reference temperature of 21°C. The temperature effect was greatest at less than 36 weeks of gestation. There was an association between higher temperature and shorter gestation, as the hazard ratio for livebirth was 0.96 at 15°C and 1.02 at 25°C. This effect was greatest at later gestational ages. These results provide strong evidence of an association between increased temperature and increased risk of stillbirth and shorter gestation.

  17. Exploration of Preterm Birth Rates Using the Public Health Exposome Database and Computational Analysis Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kershenbaum, Anne D.; Langston, Michael A.; Levine, Robert S.; Saxton, Arnold M.; Oyana, Tonny J.; Kilbourne, Barbara J.; Rogers, Gary L.; Gittner, Lisaann S.; Baktash, Suzanne H.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in informatics technology has made it possible to integrate, manipulate, and analyze variables from a wide range of scientific disciplines allowing for the examination of complex social problems such as health disparities. This study used 589 county-level variables to identify and compare geographical variation of high and low preterm birth rates. Data were collected from a number of publically available sources, bringing together natality outcomes with attributes of the natural, built, social, and policy environments. Singleton early premature county birth rate, in counties with population size over 100,000 persons provided the dependent variable. Graph theoretical techniques were used to identify a wide range of predictor variables from various domains, including black proportion, obesity and diabetes, sexually transmitted infection rates, mother’s age, income, marriage rates, pollution and temperature among others. Dense subgraphs (paracliques) representing groups of highly correlated variables were resolved into latent factors, which were then used to build a regression model explaining prematurity (R-squared = 76.7%). Two lists of counties with large positive and large negative residuals, indicating unusual prematurity rates given their circumstances, may serve as a starting point for ways to intervene and reduce health disparities for preterm births. PMID:25464130

  18. Growth perturbations in a phenotype with rapid fetal growth preceding preterm labor and term birth.

    PubMed

    Lampl, Michelle; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Erez, Offer; Gotsch, Francesca; Espinoza, Jimmy; Goncalves, Luis; Lee, Wesley; Gomez, Ricardo; Nien, Jyh Kae; Frongillo, Edward A; Romero, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    The variability in fetal growth rates and gestation duration in humans is not well understood. Of interest are women presenting with an episode of preterm labor and subsequently delivering a term neonate, who is small relative to peers of similar gestational age. To further understand these relationships, fetal growth patterns predating an episode of preterm labor were investigated. Retrospective analysis of fetal biometry assessed by serial ultrasound in a prospectively studied sample of pregnancies in Santiago, Chile, tested the hypothesis that fetal growth patterns among uncomplicated pregnancies (n = 3,706) and those with an episode of preterm labor followed by term delivery (n = 184) were identical across the time intervals 16-22 weeks, 22-28 weeks, and 28-34 weeks in a multilevel mixed-effects regression. The hypothesis was not supported. Fetal weight growth rate was faster from 16 weeks among pregnancies with an episode of preterm labor (P < 0.05), declined across midgestation (22-28 weeks, P < 0.05), and rebounded between 28 and 34 weeks (P = 0.06). This was associated with perturbations in abdominal circumference growth and proportionately larger biparietal diameter from 22 gestational weeks (P = 0.03), greater femur (P = 0.01), biparietal diameter (P = 0.001) and head circumference (P = 0.02) dimensions relative to abdominal circumference across midgestation (22-28 weeks), followed by proportionately smaller femur diaphyseal length (P = 0.02) and biparietal diameter (P = 0.03) subsequently. A distinctive rapid growth phenotype characterized fetal growth preceding an episode of preterm labor among this sample of term-delivered neonates. Perturbations in abdominal circumference growth and patterns of proportionality suggest an altered growth strategy pre-dating the preterm labor episode.

  19. Is international or Asian criteria-based body mass index associated with maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm births among Thai population? An observational study.

    PubMed

    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan

    2011-06-01

    An observational study was conducted in the four southernmost provinces of Thailand aiming at determining the effect of international or Asian criteria-based body mass index (BMI) in predicting maternal anaemia, low birthweight (LBW), and preterm births among pregnant Thai women and the change in haemoglobin (Hb) level during pregnancy. Maternal anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin (Hb) level of <11 g/dL. Anaemia was detected in 27.4% and 26.9% of 1192 pregnant women at their first prenatal visit and the third trimester respectively. The proportions of overweight and obese women according to the Asian criteria-based pre-pregnancy BMI were higher than the international criteria-based BMI (22.4% and 10.1% vs 15.5% and 3.4% respectively). No significant difference between pre-pregnancy BMI and pregnancy BMI at the first prenatal visit was demonstrated (mean +/- standard deviation = 21.8 +/- 4.0 vs. 22.8 +/- 4.1). Underweight women had a significantly higher prevalence of maternal anaemia, LBW, and preterm birth compared to women with normal weight. Overweight and obese women at pre-pregnancy by the Asian criteria-based BMI had a lower prevalence of anaemia. The Hb levels did not change significantly over time. In addition to BMI, maternal age, parity, and late prenatal visit were independently associated with maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth. Underweight pregnant women classified by international or Asian criteria-based BMI increased the risk of maternal anaemia, low birthweight, and preterm birth.

  20. A time-series analysis of any short-term effects of meteorological and air pollution factors on preterm births in London, UK.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sue J; Hajat, Shakoor; Steer, Philip J; Filippi, Veronique

    2008-02-01

    Although much is known about the incidence and burden of preterm birth, its biological mechanisms are not well understood. While several studies have suggested that high levels of air pollution or exposure to particular climatic factors may be associated with an increased risk of preterm birth, other studies do not support such an association. To determine whether exposure to various environmental factors place a large London-based population at higher risk for preterm birth, we analyzed 482,568 births that occurred between 1988 and 2000 from the St. Mary's Maternity Information System database. Using an ecological study design, any short-term associations between preterm birth and various environmental factors were investigated using time-series regression techniques. Environmental exposures included air pollution (ambient ozone and PM(10)) and climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, sunshine, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and largest drop in barometric pressure). In addition to exposure on the day of birth, cumulative exposure up to 1 week before birth was investigated. The risk of preterm birth did not increase with exposure to the levels of ambient air pollution or meteorological factors experienced by this population. Cumulative exposure from 0 to 6 days before birth also did not show any significant effect on the risk of preterm birth. This large study, covering 13 years, suggests that there is no association between preterm births and recent exposure to ambient air pollution or recent changes in the weather.

  1. Maternal age as a predictive factor of pre-term birth. An epidemiological study from 1999 to 2008 in Greece.

    PubMed

    Mousiolis, A; Baroutis, G; Sindos, M; Costalos, C; Antsaklis, A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate the risk of pre-term birth in women giving birth in Greece in different age groups. Data about women giving birth in Greece were retrieved from the Hellenic Vital Statistics covering the years from 1999 to 2008. Relative risk using χ(2) contingency tables was estimated among maternal age groups formed. These groups included mothers < 15 years of age, 15-19, 20-34 (used as a control group) and women > 34 (35-39, 40-44, 45-49 and ≥ 50) years of age. Relative risk of each age group was compared with mothers 20-34 years of age. A total of 1,069,413 valid births were included in the study and 72,156 of them were pre-term (6.75% of total count). Results exhibit a 'U'-shaped distribution of risk. Higher risk of pre-term birth is noted in the groups of < 15 years (Pearson χ(2) = 14.964, p < 0.001, risk = 1.569, CI = 1.249-1.970) and above 34 years of age (Pearson χ(2) = 2991.26, p < 0.001, risk = 1.572, CI = 1.546-1.597). For older women, a steep rise in the relative risk for pre-term birth was noted beyond the 40-44 years of age group. Finally, of interest is the fact that 'late' pre-terms (34-36 gestational weeks) account for most of the pre-term birth in mothers beyond 34 years of age.

  2. Neighborhood deprivation and preterm birth among non-Hispanic black and white women in eight geographic areas in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Disparities in preterm birth by race and ethnic group have been demonstrated in the United States. Recent research focuses on the impact of neighborhood environmental context on racial disparities in pregnancy outcomes. The authors utilized vital records birth certificate and...

  3. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia associated with oesophageal atresia and tracheo-oesophageal fistula in a low birth weight infant

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Haium, Abdul Alim; Sim, Siam Wee; Ong, Lin Yin; Rajadurai, Victor Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The cooccurrence of congenital diaphragmatic hernia and oesophageal atresia with distal tracheo-oesophageal fistula is very rare and carries high mortality. Very few anecdotal case reports and one case series have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a late preterm, low birth weight infant with this rare association who was successfully managed by staged surgical approach and had good outcome. PMID:23964045

  4. Impact of preterm birth on maternal well-being and women's perceptions of their baby: a population-based survey

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jane; Carson, Claire; Redshaw, Maggie

    2016-01-01

    Background Approximately 15 million babies were born preterm worldwide in 2010 and in England in 2014 there were 52 249 preterm births. Preterm babies are at increased risk of poor outcomes and this can put enormous strain on the family. Objective This study aimed to test the hypothesis that giving birth preterm affects maternal health, mood and well-being, and alters women's feelings and perceptions about their baby. Methods Data collected in a population-based survey of maternity care in England in 2014 were used. Women were randomly selected and asked about their pregnancy, birth and postnatal experience when their babies were about 3 months of age. Descriptive statistics were produced, and logistic regression used to estimate ORs, adjusted for key confounders. Main outcome measures—Women's self-reported postnatal health, Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, women's perceptions of their baby. Results 4578 women returned completed questionnaires. Of these, 42 (0.9%) had babies born before 32 weeks' gestation and 243 (5.5%) at 32–36 weeks. Comparing the three gestational age groups, no statistically significant differences in rates of depressive symptoms measured on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were found. However, using a health problems checklist, anxiety, fatigue and flash-backs were more common in mothers of preterm babies. Overall, mothers of preterm babies had less early contact with their baby, more postnatal health problems, substantially less positive feelings towards their baby and made less use of the support options available. Conclusions Women with preterm births are at increased risk of ill-health and negative feelings about their baby in the early months after birth. They make less use of postnatal services and support than other women and this may be an area where the use of specialist services would be appropriate. PMID:27855105

  5. Preterm and postterm birth in immigrant- and Swedish-born parents: a population register-based study.

    PubMed

    Khanolkar, Amal R; Wedrén, Sara; Essén, Birgitta; Sparén, Pär; Koupil, Ilona

    2015-05-01

    Ethnic minorities/immigrant groups tend to have increased risk for preterm birth. Less is known about this risk in diverse immigrant groups, couples of mixed ethnic-origin and in relation to duration of residence. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register on 1,028,303 mothers who gave birth to 1,766,026 singleton live born infants (1982-2002), was linked to the Education and Total Population Registers. Immigrant parents were identified by country of birth. Risk of early preterm, late preterm and postterm birth was analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Polish, Yugoslavian, Iranian, South Asian, East Asian and Sub-Saharan African parents, Swedish mothers who had children with non-Swedish fathers, and parents from two different immigrant groups had higher risk of early preterm birth [adjusted relative risk (RR) (95% CI) 1.76 (1.24-2.50), 1.57 (1.31-1.87), 1.67 (1.30-2.14), 1.52 (1.07-2.16), 1.51 (1.08-2.10), 2.03 (1.32-3.12), 1.56 (1.45-1.67), and 1.55 (1.35-1.77) respectively] compared to Swedish-born parents. South Asian, Sub-Saharan African, and East Asian immigrants had a higher risk of late preterm birth compared to Swedish-born parents. North African and Middle Eastern, Somali, and Ethiopian/Eritrean groups had increased risk of postterm birth [adjusted RR 1.31 (1.16-1.47), 2.57 (2.31-2.86), 1.85 (1.67-2.04) respectively]. Adjustment for covariates did not substantially change associations. Immigrant mothers resident <3 years had higher risk for early preterm and postterm birth compared to residents >10 years [adjusted RR 1.46 (1.24-1.71) and 1.16 (1.11-1.23) respectively]. In addition to higher risk of preterm birth in select immigrant groups, some immigrant groups are also at higher risk of postterm birth. Shorter duration of residence is associated with higher risk of non-term deliveries.

  6. Relationship between Birth Weight and Metabolic Status in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hill, David J.; Prapavessis, Harry; Shoemaker, J. Kevin; Jackman, Michelle; Mahmud, Farid H.; Clarson, Cheril

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine the relationships between birth weight and body mass index, percent body fat, blood lipids, glycemia, insulin resistance, adipokines, blood pressure, and endothelial function in a cohort of obese adolescents. Design and Methods. Ninety-five subjects aged 10–16 years (mean age 13.5 years) with a body mass index >95th centile (mean [±SEM] 33.0 ± 0.6) were utilized from two prospective studies for obesity prevention prior to any interventions. The mean term birth weight was 3527 ± 64 g (range 1899–4990 g;). Results. Body mass index z-score correlated positively with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P = 0.03), but not percent body fat. Insulin resistance negatively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001), as did fasting plasma insulin (r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001); both being significantly greater for subjects of small versus large birth weight (Δ Homeostasis Model Assessment = 2.5 and Δ insulin = 10 pmol/L for birth weight <2.5 kg versus >4.5 kg). Adiponectin, but not leptin, blood pressure z-scores or peripheral arterial tomography values positively correlated with birth weight (r2 = 0.07, P = 0.008). Conclusions. Excess body mass index in obese adolescents was positively related to birth weight. Birth weight was not associated with cardiovascular risk factors but represented a significant determinant of insulin resistance. PMID:24555145

  7. TLR9 provokes inflammation in response to fetal DNA: mechanism for fetal loss in preterm birth and preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Scharfe-Nugent, Andrea; Corr, Sinéad C; Carpenter, Susan B; Keogh, Louise; Doyle, Brendan; Martin, Cara; Fitzgerald, Katherine A; Daly, Sean; O'Leary, John J; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2012-06-01

    Preterm birth, the major cause of neonatal mortality in developed countries, is associated with intrauterine infections and inflammation, although the exact mechanisms underlying this event are unclear. In this study, we show that circulating fetal DNA, which is elevated in pregnancies complicated by preterm labor or preeclampsia, triggers an inflammatory reaction that results in spontaneous preterm birth. Fetal DNA activates NF-κB, shown by IκBα degradation in human PBMCs resulting in production of proinflammatory IL-6. We show that fetal resorption and preterm birth are rapidly induced in mice after i.p. injection of CpG or fetal DNA (300 μg/dam) on gestational day 10-14. In contrast, TLR9(-/-) mice were protected from these effects. Furthermore, this effect was blocked by oral administration of the TLR9 inhibitor chloroquine. Our data therefore provide a novel mechanism for preterm birth and preeclampsia, highlighting TLR9 as a potential therapeutic target for these common disorders of pregnancy.

  8. Bio-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles for the immunoassay of fetal fibronectin: a feasibility study for the prediction of preterm birth

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Chian-Huey; Chen, Chie-Pein; Chang, Chia-Chen; Chen, Chen-Yu

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth is an important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Various biomarkers in cervicovaginal secretions related to preterm birth have been investigated, of which foetal fibronectin (fFN) shows the greatest potential because of its high negative predictive value. The immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay has emerged as a novel quantitative method to detect biomarkers. In this prospective case-control study, we analysed 33 samples of cervicovaginal secretions from pregnant women between 22 and 34 weeks of gestation at high risk of preterm birth. Seventeen samples were from women with term deliveries and 16 from those with preterm deliveries. The fFN concentration in each sample was measured using both an IMR assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The low detection limits of the IMR assay and ELISA were 0.0001 ng/mL and 0.789 ng/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the IMR assay were 0.833 and 0.944, respectively, compared to 0.583 and 0.611 by ELISA. Our results suggest that measuring the concentration of fFN with the IMR assay is a good alternative method to accurately predict the risk of preterm birth. PMID:28198381

  9. Assessing the Association between Oral Hygiene and Preterm Birth by Quantitative Light-Induced Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Christopher K.; Wang, Qian; Adeyemi, Adejumoke A.; Quenby, Siobhan; Smith, Philip W.; Higham, Susan M.; Whitworth, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the purported link between oral hygiene and preterm birth by using image analysis tools to quantify dental plaque biofilm. Volunteers (n = 91) attending an antenatal clinic were identified as those considered to be “at high risk” of preterm delivery (i.e., a previous history of idiopathic preterm delivery, case group) or those who were not considered to be at risk (control group). The women had images of their anterior teeth captured using quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF). These images were analysed to calculate the amount of red fluorescent plaque (ΔR%) and percentage of plaque coverage. QLF showed little difference in ΔR% between the two groups, 65.00% case versus 68.70% control, whereas there was 19.29% difference with regard to the mean plaque coverage, 25.50% case versus 20.58% control. A logistic regression model showed a significant association between plaque coverage and case/control status (P = 0.031), controlling for other potential predictor variables, namely, smoking status, maternal age, and body mass index (BMI). PMID:24511282

  10. Timing of indicated late preterm and early-term birth in chronic medical complications: diabetes.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Patrick M; Sacks, David A

    2011-10-01

    The number of pregnant women who have type 2 diabetes and the number found to have gestational diabetes are progressively increasing. In the future, as many as 20% of pregnant women may be diagnosed with diabetes. Although there is consensus regarding many issues in the treatment of pregnant women with diabetes, there are few evidenced-based studies upon which to base the timing of delivery. There must be a balance between increased neonatal morbidity of late preterm and early-term delivery and fetal mortality. Potential adverse outcomes associated with late preterm and early-term delivery include respiratory problems as well as other metabolic dysfunctions characteristic of the preterm infant of a mother with diabetes. Delivery at term increases the risk of fetal demise, fetal overgrowth, and birth injury. Even among diabetic women who practice good glycemic control, the risk of intrauterine fetal demise in third trimester appears greater than that of neonatal death. Additional prospective data are urgently needed to better understand the short and long-term risks and benefits of the timing of delivery in this very common obstetrical dilemma.

  11. Parental occupation and preterm births: a nationwide epidemiological study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Kane, Kimberly; Jin, Qianren; Sundquist, Kristina

    2010-11-01

    The hypothesis was that some occupations could lead to preterm birth (PTB) because of potential exposures to various agents. The objective in this nationwide follow-up study was to analyse the association between PTB and parental occupational groups, controlling for potential confounders. Data from the Swedish Medical Birth Register, in which all children born in Sweden from 1990 onward are registered with their parents, were linked to census data. Inclusion criteria for the study population were employment (both women and men) and age >20 years (women). There were 816,743 first singleton live births from 1990 to 2004, of whom 43,956 were PTBs. A total of 7659 of the 43,956 PTBs were very PTBs. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated separately for mothers and fathers to estimate the odds of PTB and very PTB in 51 occupational groups (reference groups: mothers or fathers who were 'Technical, science research-related workers and physicians') and by family income level. Women and men with low family incomes had increased ORs of PTB and very PTB. Significantly increased ORs of PTB (including very PTB) were found in four maternal and nine paternal occupational groups after accounting for family income, geographic region of residence, civil status, smoking habits, maternal age at infant's birth and period of birth. Further studies should examine specific agents in those parental occupations that were associated with increased odds of PTB and very PTB.

  12. Piglets’ Surface Temperature Change at Different Weights at Birth

    PubMed Central

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva dos Santos, Rita

    2014-01-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets’ weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets’ surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (−0.824 and −0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet’s surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight. PMID:25049971

  13. Piglets' surface temperature change at different weights at birth.

    PubMed

    Caldara, Fabiana Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Luan Sousa; Machado, Sivanilza Teixeira; Moi, Marta; de Alencar Nääs, Irenilza; Foppa, Luciana; Garcia, Rodrigo Garófallo; de Kássia Silva Dos Santos, Rita

    2014-03-01

    The study was carried out in order to verify the effects of piglets' weight at birth on their surface temperature change (ST) after birth, and its relationship with ingestion time of colostrum. Piglets from four different sows were weighed at birth and divided into a totally randomized design with three treatments according to birth weight (PBW): T1 - less than 1.00 kg, T2 - 1.00 to 1.39 kg, and T3 - higher than or equal to 1.40 kg. The time spent for the first colostrum ingestion was recorded (TFS). Images of piglets' surface by thermal imaging camera were recorded at birth (STB) and 15, 30, 45, 60, and 120 min after birth. The air temperature and relative humidity were recorded every 30 min and the indexes of temperature and humidity (THI) were calculated. A ST drop after 15 min from birth was observed, increasing again after sixty minutes. Positive correlations were found between the PBW and the ST at 30 and 45 min after birth. The PBW was negatively correlated with the TFS. The THI showed high negative correlations (-0.824 and -0.815) with STB and after 15 min from birth. The piglet's surface temperature at birth was positively correlated with temperature thereof to 15 min, influencing therefore the temperatures in the interval of 45 to 120 min. The birth weight contributes significantly to postnatal hypothermia and consequently to the time it takes for piglets ingest colostrum, requiring special attention to those of low birth weight.

  14. Low body weight gain, low white blood cell count and high serum ferritin as markers of poor nutrition and increased risk for preterm delivery.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yin; Wu, Cheng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Charles Tsung-Che; Lo, Hui-Chen; Lin, Jen-Shiou; Kao, Mei-Ding

    2013-01-01

    This study determined factors of preterm delivery in Taiwan. Healthy women (n=520, age 29.1±4.2 y) at 8-12 weeks of pregnancy were recruited from prenatal clinics. Background information, anthropometrics, biochemical parameters, and dietary intake, collected by 24 h-recall were obtained from the first, second, and third trimesters to delivery. Clinical outcomes of neonates were also collected. The results show that 53.7% of women were primiparous and that the incidence of preterm delivery was 6.2%. Body weight gains in the first trimester and throughout pregnancy were significantly lower in mothers with preterm delivery (preterm group) than in mothers with term delivery (term group, p<0.05). Maternal cholesterol intake, circulating white blood cell counts (WBC) and serum albumin were significantly lower and that serum magnesium and ferritin were significantly higher in the preterm group than in the term group. Maternal weight gain was positively correlated with caloric and nutrient intake (p<0.05). Neonatal birth weight was positively correlated with maternal weight gain and intakes of protein and phosphate during pregnancy; with intakes of calories, vitamin B-1 and B-2 in the first trimester; and with intakes of calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as circulating WBC in the third trimester. However, neonatal birth weight was negatively correlated with serum iron in the third trimester and with serum iron and ferritin at the time of delivery. In conclusion, maternal weight gain in early pregnancy and WBC, mineral intake and iron status in late pregnancy seem to be major factors affecting delivery and neonatal outcomes.

  15. Global report on preterm birth and stillbirth (1 of 7): definitions, description of the burden and opportunities to improve data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction This is the first of seven articles from a preterm birth and stillbirth report. Presented here is an overview of the burden, an assessment of the quality of current estimates, review of trends, and recommendations to improve data. Preterm birth Few countries have reliable national preterm birth prevalence data. Globally, an estimated 13 million babies are born before 37 completed weeks of gestation annually. Rates are generally highest in low- and middle-income countries, and increasing in some middle- and high-income countries, particularly the Americas. Preterm birth is the leading direct cause of neonatal death (27%); more than one million preterm newborns die annually. Preterm birth is also the dominant risk factor for neonatal mortality, particularly for deaths due to infections. Long-term impairment is an increasing issue. Stillbirth Stillbirths are currently not included in Millennium Development Goal tracking and remain invisible in global policies. For international comparisons, stillbirths include late fetal deaths weighing more than 1000g or occurring after 28 weeks gestation. Only about 2% of all stillbirths are counted through vital registration and global estimates are based on household surveys or modelling. Two global estimation exercises reached a similar estimate of around three million annually; 99% occur in low- and middle-income countries. One million stillbirths occur during birth. Global stillbirth cause-of-death estimates are impeded by multiple, complex classification systems. Recommendations to improve data (1) increase the capture and quality of pregnancy outcome data through household surveys, the main data source for countries with 75% of the global burden; (2) increase compliance with standard definitions of gestational age and stillbirth in routine data collection systems; (3) strengthen existing data collection mechanisms—especially vital registration and facility data—by instituting a standard death certificate for

  16. Pre-Eclampsia, Birth Weight, and Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne; Bao, Haikun; Hardin, James; Gregg, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are primarily inherited, but perinatal or other environmental factors may also be important. In an analysis of 87,677 births from 1996 through 2002, insured by the South Carolina Medicaid program, birth weight was significantly inversely associated with the odds of ASD (OR = 0.78, p = 0.001 for each additional…

  17. Placental Growth Measures in Relation to Birth Weight in a Latin American Population.

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Veiga, Angélica; Mazzitelli, Nancy; Cavalli, Ricardo de Carvalho; Cardoso, Viviane

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The placenta, translates how the fetus experiences the maternal environment and is a principal influence on birth weight (BW). Objective To explore the relationship between placental growth measures (PGMs) and BW in a public maternity hospital. Methods Observational retrospective study of 870 singleton live born infants at Hospital Maternidad Sardá, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina, between January 2011 and August 2012 with complete data of PGMs. Details of history, clinical and obstetrical maternal data, labor and delivery and neonatal outcome data, including placental measures derived from the records, were evaluated. The following manual measurements of the placenta according to standard methods were performed: placental weight (PW, g), larger and smaller diameters (cm), eccentricity, width (cm), shape, area (cm(2)), BW/PW ratio (BPR) and PW/BW ratio (PBR), and efficiency. Associations between BW and PGMs were examined using multiple linear regression. Results Birth weight was correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.49, p < 0.001), whereas gestational age was moderately correlated with placental weight (R(2) = 0.64, p < 0.001). By gestational age, there was a positive trend for PW and BPR, but an inverse relationship with PBR (p < 0.001). Placental weight alone accounted for 49% of birth weight variability (p < 0,001), whereas all PGMs accounted for 52% (p < 0,001). Combined, PGMs, maternal characteristics (parity, pre-eclampsia, tobacco use), gestational age and gender explained 77.8% of BW variations (p < 0,001). Among preterm births, 59% of BW variances were accounted for by PGMs, compared with 44% at term. All placental measures except BPR were consistently higher in females than in males, which was also not significant. Indices of placental efficiency showed weakly clinical relevance. Conclusions Reliable measures of placental growth estimate 53.6% of BW variances and project this outcome to a

  18. Grip strength at four years in relation to birth weight

    PubMed Central

    Dodds, R.; Macdonald-Wallis, C.; Kapasi, T.; Sayer, A. A.; Robinson, S.; Godfrey, K.; Cooper, C.; Harvey, N.; Inskip, H.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent positive relationships have been found between birth weight and grip strength in adults but evidence in children is limited. In a prospective general population birth cohort (Southampton Women’s Survey) grip strength and anthropometry (height and weight) were measured in 968 children at age 4 years. Mean (standard deviation (S.D.)) birth weight was 3.48 (0.52) kg. Birth weight, adjusted for sex and gestational age, was positively associated with grip strength (β = 0.22 kg/S.D. increase in adjusted birth weight; 95% CI 0.11, 0.34). The relationship was attenuated after adjustment for current height and weight such that it became non-significant (β = 0.03 kg/S.D. increase in adjusted birth weight; 95% CI −0.08, 0.14), suggesting that body size may be on the causal pathway. Early influences on muscle development appear to impact on grip strength in children as well as adults. PMID:24294479

  19. Prevention of Preterm Birth in Triplets: An Evaluation of 17 Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate

    PubMed Central

    Caritis, Steve N.; Rouse, Dwight J.; Peaceman, Alan M.; Sciscione, Anthony; Momirova, Valerija; Spong, Catherine Y.; Iams, Jay D.; Wapner, Ronald J.; Varner, Michael; Carpenter, Marshall; Lo, Julie; Thorp, John; Mercer, Brian M.; Sorokin, Yoram; Harper, Margaret; Ramin, Susan; Anderson, Garland

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess whether 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate reduces the rate of preterm birth in women carrying triplets. Methods We performed this randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled trial in 14 centers. Healthy women with triplets were randomized to weekly intramuscular injections of either 250 mg of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or matching placebo, starting at 16-20 weeks and ending at delivery or 35 weeks of gestation. The primary study outcome was delivery or fetal loss prior to 35 weeks. Results One hundred thirty-four women were randomized, 71 to 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate and 63 to placebo; none were lost to followup. Baseline demographic data were similar in the two groups. The proportion of women experiencing the primary outcome (a composite of delivery or fetal loss prior to 35 0/7 weeks) was similar in the two treatment groups : 83% of pregnancies in the 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate group and 84% in the placebo group, relative risk (RR) 1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9 to1.1. The lack of benefit of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate was evident regardless of the conception method or whether a gestational age cut off for delivery was set at 32 or 28 weeks. Conclusion Treatment with 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate did not reduce the rate of preterm birth in women with triplet gestation. PMID:19155896

  20. Astrocytes and microglia in acute cerebral injury underlying cerebral palsy associated with preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Mallard, Carina; Davidson, Joanne O; Tan, Sidhartha; Green, Colin R; Bennet, Laura; Robertson, Nicola J; Gunn, Alistair Jan

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is one of the most devastating consequences of brain injury around the time of birth, and nearly a third of cases are now associated with premature birth. Compared with term babies, preterm babies have an increased incidence of complications that may increase the risk of disability, such as intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, sepsis, and necrotizing enterocolitis. The response to injury is highly dependent on brain maturity, and although cellular vulnerability is well documented, there is now evidence that premyelinating axons are also particularly sensitive to ischemic injury. In this review, we will explore recent evidence highlighting a central role for glia in mediating increased risk of disability in premature infants, including excessive activation of microglia and opening of astrocytic gap junction hemichannels in spreading injury after brain ischemia, in part likely involving release of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and overactivation of purinergic receptors, particularly in white matter. We propose the hypothesis that inflammation-induced opening of connexin hemichannels is a key regulating event that initiates a vicious circle of excessive ATP release, which in turn propagates activation of purinergic receptors on microglia and astrocytes. This suggests that developing effective neuroprotective strategies for preterm infants requires a detailed understanding of glial responses.

  1. Sensitivity and specificity of subgingival bacteria in predicting preterm birth- a pilot cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Khalid S; El Tantawi, Maha M.; Alagl, Adel S; Alnimr, Amani M; Haseeb, Yasmeen A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preterm birth (PTB) increases the risk of adverse outcomes for new born infants. Subgingival bacteria are implicated in causing PTB. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of some subgingival gram positive and gram negative bacteria detected by routine lab procedures in predicting PTB. Methodology Pregnant Saudi women (n= 170) visiting King Fahad hospital, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, were included in a pilot cohort study. Plaque was collected in the 2nd trimester and screened for subgingival anaerobes using Vitek2. Pregnancy outcome (preterm/full term birth) was assessed at delivery. Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios were calculated for the identified bacteria to predict PTB. Results Data about time of delivery was available for 94 subjects and 22 (23.4%) had PTB. Three gram negative and 4 gram positive subgingival bacteria had sensitivity ≥ 95% with two of each having negative likelihood ratios ≤0.10. Three gram positive bacteria had specificity > 95% with only one having positive likelihood ratio >2. Conclusion Subgingival bacteria identified using readily available lab techniques in the plaque of pregnant Saudi women in their 2nd trimester have useful potential to rule out PTB. PMID:27833518

  2. ATG16L1 governs placental infection risk and preterm birth in mice and women

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bin; Macones, Colin; Mysorekar, Indira U.

    2016-01-01

    The placenta is a barrier against maternal-fetal transmission of pathogens. Placental infections can cause several adverse pregnancy outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB). Yet, we have limited knowledge regarding the mechanisms the placenta uses to control infections. Here, we show that autophagy, a cellular recycling pathway important for host defense against pathogens, and the autophagy gene Atg16L1 play a key role in placental defense and are negatively associated with PTB in pregnant women. First, we demonstrate that placentas from women who delivered preterm exhibit reduced autophagy activity and are associated with higher infection indicators. Second, we identify the cellular location of the autophagy activity as being in syncytial trophoblasts. Third, we demonstrate that higher levels of autophagy and ATG16L1 in human trophoblasts were associated with increased resistance to infection. Accordingly, loss of autophagy or ATG16L1 impaired trophoblast antibacterial defenses. Fourth, we show that Atg16l1-deficient mice gave birth prematurely upon an inflammatory stimulus and their placentas were significantly less able to withstand infection. Finally, global induction of autophagy in both mouse placentas and human trophoblasts increased infection resistance. Our study has significant implications for understanding the etiology of placental infections and prematurity and developing strategies to mitigate placental infection–induced PTB. PMID:28018968

  3. Bacterial aetiological agents of intra-amniotic infections and preterm birth in pregnant women

    PubMed Central

    Mendz, George L.; Kaakoush, Nadeem O.; Quinlivan, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Infection-related preterm birth is a leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity; knowledge of bacterial populations invading the amniotic cavity and the routes of invasion is required to make progress in the prevention of preterm birth. Significant advances have been made in understanding bacterial communities in the vagina, but much less studied are intra-uterine bacterial populations during pregnancy. A systematic review of data published on the intra-uterine microbiome was performed; molecular information and summaries of species found in healthy individuals and in women with diagnosed infections served to construct a database and to analyse results to date. Thirteen studies fulfilled the review's inclusion criteria. The data of various investigations were collated, organized, and re-analyzed to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of microbial populations in the intra-amniotic space. The most common intra-amniotic bacterial taxa were species that can colonies the vagina in health and disease; there were others associated with the habitats of the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, and respiratory tract. The results suggest a central role for the ascending route of infections during pregnancy, and point to a possible secondary contribution via haematogenous invasion of the intra-amniotic space. The complete census of the intra-uterine microbiome awaits completion. PMID:24137568

  4. Mother’s Emotional and Posttraumatic Reactions after a Preterm Birth: The Mother-Infant Interaction Is at Stake 12 Months after Birth

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Anne-Cécile; Eutrope, Julien; Thierry, Aurore; Bednarek, Nathalie; Aupetit, Laurence; Saad, Stéphanie; Vulliez, Lauriane; Sibertin-Blanc, Daniel; Nezelof, Sylvie; Rolland, Anne-Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Very preterm infants are known to be at risk of developmental disabilities and behavioural disorders. This condition is supposed to alter mother-infant interactions. Here we hypothesize that the parental coping with the very preterm birth may greatly influence mother-infant interactions. Methods 100 dyads were included in 3 university hospitals in France. Preterm babies at higher risk of neurodevelopmental sequelae (PRI>10) were excluded to target the maternal determinants of mother-infant interaction. We report the follow-up of this cohort during 1 year after very preterm birth, with regular assessment of infant somatic state, mother psychological state and the assessment of mother-infant interaction at 12 months by validated scales (mPPQ, HADS, EPDS, PRI, DDST and PIPE). Results We show that the intensity of post-traumatic reaction of the mother 6 months after birth is negatively correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. Moreover, the anxious and depressive symptoms of the mother 6 and 12 months after birth are also correlated with the quality of mother-infant interaction at 12 months. By contrast, this interaction is not influenced by the initial affective state of the mother in the 2 weeks following birth. In this particular population of infants at low risk of sequelae, we also show that the quality of mother-infant interaction is not correlated with the assessment of the infant in the neonatal period but is correlated with the fine motor skills of the baby 12 months after birth. Conclusions This study suggests that mothers’ psychological condition has to be monitored during the first year of very preterm infants’ follow-up. It also suggests that parental interventions have to be proposed when a post-traumatic, anxious or depressive reaction is suspected. PMID:27022953

  5. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics for pre-eclampsia and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Law, Kai P; Han, Ting-Li; Tong, Chao; Baker, Philip N

    2015-05-14

    Pregnancy-related complications such as pre-eclampsia and preterm birth now represent a notable burden of adverse health. Pre-eclampsia is a hypertensive disorder unique to pregnancy. It is an important cause of maternal death worldwide and a leading cause of fetal growth restriction and iatrogenic prematurity. Fifteen million infants are born preterm each year globally, but more than one million of those do not survive their first month of life. Currently there are no predictive tests available for diagnosis of these pregnancy-related complications and the biological mechanisms of the diseases have not been fully elucidated. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics have all the necessary attributes to provide the needed breakthrough in understanding the pathophysiology of complex human diseases thorough the discovery of biomarkers. The mass spectrometry methodologies employed in the studies for pregnancy-related complications are evaluated in this article. Top-down proteomic and peptidomic profiling by laser mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography or capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry, and bottom-up quantitative proteomics and targeted proteomics by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry have been applied to elucidate protein biomarkers and biological mechanism of pregnancy-related complications. The proteomes of serum, urine, amniotic fluid, cervical-vaginal fluid, placental tissue, and cytotrophoblastic cells have all been investigated. Numerous biomarkers or biomarker candidates that could distinguish complicated pregnancies from healthy controls have been proposed. Nevertheless, questions as to the clinically utility and the capacity to elucidate the pathogenesis of the pre-eclampsia and preterm birth remain to be answered.

  6. Complement inhibition and statins prevent fetal brain cortical abnormalities in a mouse model of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Pedroni, Silvia M A; Gonzalez, Juan M; Wade, Jean; Jansen, Maurits A; Serio, Andrea; Marshall, Ian; Lennen, Ross J; Girardi, Guillermina

    2014-01-01

    Premature babies are particularly vulnerable to brain injury. In this study we focus on cortical brain damage associated with long-term cognitive, behavioral, attentional or socialization deficits in children born preterm. Using a mouse model of preterm birth (PTB), we demonstrated that complement component C5a contributes to fetal cortical brain injury. Disruption of cortical dendritic and axonal cytoarchitecture was observed in PTB-mice. Fetuses deficient in C5aR (-/-) did not show cortical brain damage. Treatment with antibody anti-C5, that prevents generation of C5a, also prevented cortical fetal brain injury in PTB-mice. C5a also showed a detrimental effect on fetal cortical neuron development and survival in vitro. Increased glutamate release was observed in cortical neurons in culture exposed to C5a. Blockade of C5aR prevented glutamate increase and restored neurons dendritic and axonal growth and survival. Similarly, increased glutamate levels - measured by (1)HMRS - were observed in vivo in PTB-fetuses compared to age-matched controls. The blockade of glutamate receptors prevented C5a-induced abnormal growth and increased cell death in isolated fetal cortical neurons. Simvastatin and pravastatin prevented cortical fetal brain developmental and metabolic abnormalities -in vivo and in vitro. Neuroprotective effects of statins were mediated by Akt/PKB signaling pathways. This study shows that complement activation plays a crucial role in cortical fetal brain injury in PTL and suggests that complement inhibitors and statins might be good therapeutic options to improve neonatal outcomes in preterm birth.

  7. Breast cancer risk in opposite-sexed twins: influence of birth weight and co-twin birth weight.

    PubMed

    Hajiebrahimi, Mohammadhossein; Bahmanyar, Shahram; Öberg, Sara; Iliadou, Anastasia Nyman; Cnattingius, Sven

    2013-12-04

    Most, but not all, studies report a positive association between birth weight, as an indirect marker of prenatal hormone exposure, and offspring breast cancer risk, particularly premenopausal breast cancer. Females from opposite-sexed twin pairs may also be prenatally exposed to androgens from their twin brothers. A Swedish study of opposite-sexed twins with a small sample size found a very strong positive association between female birth weight and breast cancer risk. In this case-control study, nested within a cohort of female opposite-sexed twins, we included 543 breast cancer case subjects diagnosed in the period from 1972 to 2008 and 2715 matched control subjects. Conditional logistic regression estimated the breast cancer risk associated with birth weight and other birth characteristics, including gestational age and co-twin birth weight. All statistical tests were two-sided. There was no association between birth weight (odds ratio = 1.01; 95% confidence interval = 0.70 to 1.46) or twin brother's birth weight and risk of breast cancer, which suggests the previously reported strong positive association may have been a chance finding.

  8. Self-reported Chronic Pain in Young Adults With a Low Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Indredavik, Marit S.; Evensen, Kari A.I.; Romundstad, Pål R.; Rygg, Marite

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate self-reported pain in young adults with a low birth weight. Materials and Methods: This study was a part of a long-term follow-up study of preterm very low birth weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤1500 g), term small for gestational age (SGA; birth weight <10th percentile adjusted for sex and parity), and control young adults born during 1986 to 1988. Of the 300 individuals invited, 216 (62 VLBW, 67 term SGA, and 87 controls) completed a pain questionnaire. Of these, 151 (70%) had answered a pain severity question at 19 years. Chronic pain was defined as pain lasting for >6 months and being moderate, severe, or very severe during the past 4 weeks. Results: The prevalence of chronic pain at 26 years was 16% in the VLBW group, 21% in the term SGA group, and 7% in the control group. The VLBW and the term SGA groups had higher odds ratios for chronic pain (crude OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 0.9-7.6 for the VLBW group and crude OR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.3-9.9 for the term SGA group vs. controls). The main results remained after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Some attenuation was observed when adjusting for anxiety and depressive problems. Moderate to very severe pain increased from 16% to 41% in the term SGA group from 19 to 26 years, whereas less changes were seen in the VLBW and the control groups. Discussion: Results of our study imply that pain should be in focus when conducting long-term follow-up programs of individuals with a low birth weight. PMID:27518485

  9. Determinants of birth weight in Portugal: 1988 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Vicente; Santos, Carlota

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyse temporal birth weight variation, its relationship to the frequency of premature births in Portugal, and the influence of native and immigrant mothers' characteristics as well as to determine the possible existence of a pattern of temporal change in birth weight in the Iberian Peninsula as a whole. Individual mother-child data from the Portuguese National Institute of Statistics regarding live births (N = 2,661,542) permitted an analysis, for the first time, of weight at birth in Portugal from a bio-demographic perspective. The results obtained show that from 1988 to 2011 there was a gradual decline in the average weight at birth in Portugal that may be related to shifts in the duration of gestation. An initial rapid decline in the relative frequency of post-term births took place, followed by small variations from 1995 on. Logistic regressions indicated a pattern unaffected by maternal origin or the sex of the newborn. With regard to weeks of gestation, the odds values obtained were < 1 when the reference category was < 28 weeks. For this factor, no significant differences were found in relation to the mother's origin. Portuguese mothers over 35 years were associated with a higher incidence of low birth weight. Regardless of maternal origin, being a newborn of parity 1, and with the mother not in a couple, resulted in unfavourable outcomes with regard to low birth weight. On the other hand, long gestation periods and having secondary or university education constituted a protective factor.

  10. Birth Weights in Sickle Cell Disease Pregnancies: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Susan E.; Macleod, David

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in women with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) has been linked with an increased incidence of adverse foetal outcomes when compared to women without haemoglobinopathies (HbAA). There’s a paucity of data into foetal outcomes for infants born to women with SCD. Customised growth charts have been demonstrated to be better than population-based growth charts at identifying unhealthy small babies. We analysed the mean birth weight and customised birth weight centiles of infants born to mothers with SCD versus mothers with HbAA genotype, to quantify the risk of having a smaller baby. Birth weight and birth weight centiles were analysed for 88 women with SCD (50 HbSS; 38 HbSC) and 176 controls (HbAA). Statistically significant differences were seen in the mean birth weight (P value = 0.004) and the mean birth weight centiles (P value = 0.016). We conclude that SCD is a risk factor for having a smaller baby. PMID:27776167

  11. Birth Weight, Breast Cancer and the Potential Mediating Hormonal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Bukowski, Radek; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Thune, Inger; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Malone, Fergal D.; D’Alton, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that woman’s risk of breast cancer in later life is associated with her infants birth weights. The objective of this study was to determine if this association is independent of breast cancer risk factors, mother’s own birth weight and to evaluate association between infants birth weight and hormonal environment during pregnancy. Independent association would have implications for understanding the mechanism, but also for prediction and prevention of breast cancer. Methods and Findings Risk of breast cancer in relation to a first infant’s birth weight, mother’s own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors were evaluated in a prospective cohort of 410 women in the Framingham Study. Serum concentrations of estriol (E3), anti-estrogen alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) were measured in 23,824 pregnant women from a separate prospective cohort, the FASTER trial. During follow-up (median, 14 years) 31 women (7.6 %) were diagnosed with breast cancer. Women with large birth weight infants (in the top quintile) had a higher breast cancer risk compared to other women (hazard ratio (HR), 2.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.2–5.2; P = 0.012). The finding was not affected by adjustment for birth weight of the mother and traditional breast cancer risk factors (adjusted HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2–5.6; P = 0.021). An infant’s birth weight had a strong positive relationship with the mother’s serum E3/AFP ratio and PAPP-A concentration during pregnancy. Adjustment for breast cancer risk factors did not have a material effect on these relationships. Conclusions Giving birth to an infant with high birth weight was associated with increased breast cancer risk in later life, independently of mother’s own birth weight and breast cancer risk factors and was also associated with a hormonal environment during pregnancy favoring future breast cancer development and progression. PMID

  12. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    PubMed

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-07

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  13. Birth weight and longitudinal growth in infants born below 32 weeks’ gestation: a UK population study

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Tim J; Statnikov, Yevgeniy; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Pan, Huiqi; Modi, Neena

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe birth weight and postnatal weight gain in a contemporaneous population of babies born <32 weeks’ gestation, using routinely captured electronic clinical data. Design Anonymised longitudinal weight data from 2006 to 2011. Setting National Health Service neonatal units in England. Methods Birth weight centiles were constructed using the LMS method, and longitudinal weight gain was summarised as mean growth curves for each week of gestation until discharge, using SITAR (Superimposition by Translation and Rotation) growth curve analysis. Results Data on 103 194 weights of 5009 babies born from 22–31 weeks’ gestation were received from 40 neonatal units. At birth, girls weighed 6.6% (SE 0.4%) less than boys (p<0.0001). For babies born at 31 weeks’ gestation, weight fell after birth by an average of 258 g, with the nadir on the 8th postnatal day. The rate of weight gain then increased to a maximum of 28.4 g/d or 16.0 g/kg/d after 3 weeks. Conversely for babies of 22 to 28 weeks’ gestation, there was on average no weight loss after birth. At all gestations, babies tended to cross weight centiles downwards for at least 2 weeks. Conclusions In very preterm infants, mean weight crosses centiles downwards by at least two centile channel widths. Postnatal weight loss is generally absent in those born before 29 weeks, but marked in those born later. Assigning an infant's target centile at birth is potentially harmful as it requires rapid weight gain and should only be done once weight gain has stabilised. The use of electronic data reflects contemporary medical management. PMID:23934365

  14. Cervical length and cervicovaginal HCG for prediction of pre-term birth in women with signs and symptoms of pre-term labour.

    PubMed

    Bagga, R; Takhtani, M; Suri, V; Adhikari, K; Arora, S; Bhardwaj, S

    2010-01-01

    The study group consisted of 100 women with a singleton pregnancy with pre-term labour between 26-36 weeks' gestation. Cervicovaginal secretions were collected for HCG assay and cervical length was measured by transvaginal sonography (TVS). These parameters were analysed to predict pre-term birth. The pre-term delivery rate was 55%; 24% delivered within 48 h and 11% within 7 days of admission. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of cervical length or=45 mIU/ml was the optimal cut-off, with a sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for predicting delivery within 48 h and 7 days to be 95.8%, 73.7%, 53.5% and 98.2% and 85.7%, 80%, 69.8% and 91.2%, respectively. Combining either qualitative or quantitative HCG assay with cervical length significantly increased the sensitivity and NPV of cervical length alone for prediction of pre-term delivery both within 48 h and 7 days. It was concluded that increased cervicovaginal HCG and reduced cervical length predicted an increased risk of pre-term delivery in women with pre-term labour. Qualitative cervicovaginal HCG assay may be used as a bedside test to predict pre-term delivery within 48 h or within 7 days.

  15. Maternal Dietary Nutrient Intake and Its Association with Preterm Birth: A Case-control Study in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Perkins, Anthony; Wang, Yan; Sun, Jing

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate dietary nutrient intake among Chinese pregnant women by comparison with Chinese Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) and to explore the association between dietary nutrients and preterm birth. A case-control design was conducted in Beijing with 130 preterm delivery mothers in case group and 381 term delivery mothers in control group. Information on mothers’ diet was collected using a food frequency questionnaire, and nutrients and energy intakes were subsequently calculated based on DRIs. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to compare the differences between term and preterm groups in relation to dietary nutrients. Dietary nutrient intakes were imbalanced in both groups compared with Chinese DRIs. Preterm delivery mothers had a lower level of fat and vitamin E intake than term delivery mothers (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed lower vitamin E intake in preterm delivery mothers with a prepregnancy BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (p < 0.05) and higher carbohydrate intake in preterm delivery mothers with prepregnancy BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2 (p < 0.05). An imbalanced diet in both groups and low level of dietary intakes of fat and vitamin E in preterm group suggest health education measures should be taken to improve the dietary quality of pregnant women, especially for those with an abnormal prepregnancy BMI. PMID:28257050

  16. Pathways community care coordination in low birth weight prevention.

    PubMed

    Redding, Sarah; Conrey, Elizabeth; Porter, Kyle; Paulson, John; Hughes, Karen; Redding, Mark

    2015-03-01

    The evidence is limited on the effectiveness of home visiting care coordination in addressing poor birth outcome, including low birth weight (LBW). The Community Health Access Project (CHAP) utilizes community health workers (CHWs) to identify women at risk of having poor birth outcomes, connect them to health and social services, and track each identified health or social issue to a measurable completion. CHWs are trained individuals from the same highest risk communities. The CHAP Pathways Model is used to track each maternal health and social service need to resolution and CHWs are paid based upon outcomes. We evaluated the impact of the CHAP Pathways program on LBW in an urban Ohio community. Women participating in CHAP and having a live birth in 2001 through 2004 constituted the intervention group. Using birth certificate records, each CHAP birth was matched through propensity score to a control birth from the same census tract and year. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of CHAP participation with LBW while controlling for risk factors for LBW. We identified 115 CHAP clients and 115 control births. Among the intervention group there were seven LBW births (6.1 %) compared with 15 (13.0 %) among non-CHAP clients. The adjusted odds ratio for LBW was 0.35 (95 % confidence interval, 0.12-0.96) among CHAP clients. This study provides evidence that structured community care coordination coupled with tracking and payment for outcomes may reduce LBW birth among high-risk women.

  17. Birth weight, postnatal growth, and age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Terry, Mary Beth; Ferris, Jennifer S; Tehranifar, Parisa; Wei, Ying; Flom, Julie D

    2009-07-01

    Larger body size in childhood is correlated with earlier age at menarche; whether birth and infant body size changes are also associated with age at menarche is less clear. The authors contacted female participants enrolled in the New York site of the US National Collaborative Perinatal Project born between 1959 and 1963 (n = 262). This racially and ethnically diverse cohort (38% white, 40% African American, and 22% Puerto Rican) was used to investigate whether maternal (body size, pregnancy weight gain, age at menarche, smoking) and birth (birth weight, birth length, placental weight) variables and early infant body size changes were associated with age at menarche even after considering later childhood body size. Higher percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year was associated with earlier age at menarche even after adjustment for later childhood growth (beta = -0.15, 95% confidence interval: -0.27, -0.02 years per 10-percentile change in weight from ages 4 months to 1 year). The association was in the same direction for all 3 racial/ethnic groups but was largest for the white group. These New York Women's Birth Cohort Adult Follow-up data (2001-2006) suggest that infant weight gain, in addition to childhood weight gain, may be associated with earlier age at menarche.

  18. Use of a simple anthropometric measurement to predict birth weight. WHO Collaborative Study of Birth Weight Surrogates.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Low-birth-weight babies are most at risk of infant mortality. Unfortunately, in many developing countries it is not possible to weigh babies accurately because of the lack of robust scales. This article describes the results of a WHO Collaborative Study to investigate whether birth weight can be predicted accurately using chest circumference and/or arm circumference. The implications of the results for paediatric practice in developing countries are discussed. PMID:8490977

  19. The associations between environmental quality and preterm birth in the United States, 2000-2005: a cross-sectional analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Many environmental factors have been independently associated with preterm birth (PTB). However, exposure is not isolated to a single environmental factor, but rather to many positive and negative factors that co-occur. The environmental quality index (EQI), a measur...

  20. A clinical opinion on how to manage the risk of preterm birth in twins based on literature review.

    PubMed

    Collins, Anna; Shennan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Twin pregnancies are prone to preterm birth and consequent morbidity. There is an increasing evidence base concerning the prediction and prevention of preterm birth in singletons, including the reduction of morbidity with therapies such as magnesium sulphate and antenatal corticosteroids. However, the research in twins is less clear, partly due to fewer numbers being investigated, but also evidence is largely based on twins without a previous history. Prophylactic interventions such as cerclage, progesterone and vaginal pessaries are increasingly showing benefit in singleton pregnancies with a prior history and when the cervix is short. Cerclage in twins has not been adequately researched in women with previous preterm birth, and as with singletons should not be used on the basis of a short cervix alone. Vaginal progesterone does not work in twins, but its value in high-risk twins, with a prior history and short cervix is uncertain. The vaginal pessary may be valuable in the twin with a short cervix. Currently, it is reasonable to extrapolate some of the evidence from singletons to twins, e.g. with antenatal corticosteroids and magnesium sulphate. Cerclage, vaginal pessaries and progesterone should not be routinely used in twin pregnancies without an additional high-risk factor such as prior history of preterm birth or short cervix, until further evidence is obtained.

  1. The Florida Investigation of Primary Late Preterm and Cesarean Delivery: the accuracy of the birth certificate and hospital discharge records.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Heather B; Sappenfield, William M; Gulitz, Elizabeth; Mahan, Charles S; Petersen, Donna J; Stanley, Kara M; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2013-07-01

    (1) Assess the accuracy of public health data sources used to investigate primary late preterm cesarean delivery (PLPCD) and (2) compare differences in data accuracy by hospital PLPCD rate classification. This analysis uses data from the Florida Investigation of Late Preterm and Cesarean Delivery (FILPCD), an investigation of singleton, PLPCD's that occurred from 2006 to 2007 in hospitals classified with either a low or high PLPCD rate (high rate 39.4-58.3 %, low rate 11.9-25.1 %). Three data sources were validated with maternal medical records: birth certificates, hospital discharge data, and combined birth certificate and hospital discharge data. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and kappa values were calculated. A summary measure of kappa values was compared by hospital PLPCD rate classification using the paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test. Large variations in accuracy of data elements were found by hospital PLPCD rate classification, with low PLPCD rate hospitals demonstrating higher overall data accuracy. The summary measure of agreement was significantly higher for low PLPCD rate hospitals compared to high PLPCD rate hospitals (0.60 vs. 0.50, p < 0.01). Accurate estimates of CD and late preterm birth are vital for public health practitioners and policy makers who seek to address the growing concern over recent increases in CD and late preterm birth. Understanding the potential for systematic differences in reporting accuracy by hospital PLPCD rate is important to data quality improvement efforts.

  2. Maternal Chlamydia trachomatis Infections and Preterm Births in a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Renylena; Muniz, Renan Rosetti; Cola, Elizandra; Stauffert, Dulce; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas; Miranda, Angelica E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Preterm birth (PTB) is a major determinant of neonatal morbimortality with adverse consequences for health. The causes are multifactorial, with intrauterine infection probably explaining most of these outcomes. It is believed that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) is also involved in PTB and premature rupture of membranes. Objetives To evaluate the prevalence of and associated factors for CT among cases of PTB attended at a University Hospital in Vitoria, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study performed among parturient who had preterm birth from June 2012 to August 2013 in Vitoria, Brazil. Participants answered a questionnaire including demographic, behavioral, and clinical data. A sample of urine was collected and screened for CT using polymerase chain reaction. Chi-square tests were used for proportion differences and Student’s-t tests and variance analysis were used for testing differences between mean values. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association with a 95% confidence interval. Results The prevalence of PTB during the period of the study was 26% and the prevalence of CT among them was 13.9%. A total of 31.6% pregnant women were younger than 25 years old and women infected by CT were even younger than women not infected by CT (p = 0.022). Most of them (76.2%) were married or had a living partner, and CT infection was more frequent among the single ones (p = 0.018); 16.7% of women reported their first sexual intercourse under 14 years old. The causes of prematurity were maternal-fetal in 40.9%; rupture of the membranes in 29.7% and premature labor in 29.4%. In multivariate analysis, being married was a protective factor for infection [OR = 0.48 (95%CI:0.24–0.97)]. None of the other characteristics were associated with CT infection. Conclusions This study shows a high prevalence of CT infection among parturient who have preterm birth. This high prevalence highlight the need for defining screening strategies focused on young

  3. Birth weight and childhood obesity: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Y; Ma, J; Wang, Y; Li, W; Katzmarzyk, P T; Chaput, J-P; Fogelholm, M; Johnson, W D; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Tudor-Locke, C; Church, T S; Zhao, P; Hu, G

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Few studies have investigated the association between the full range of birth weight and the risk of childhood obesity in high-, middle- and low-income countries. The aim of the present study is to assess the association between different levels of birth weight and the risk of obesity among children aged 9–11 years in 12 countries. METHODS: A multinational, cross-sectional study of 5141 children aged 9–11 years was conducted in 12 countries. Height and weight were obtained using standardized methods. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), sedentary and sleeping were objectively measured using 24-h, waist-worn accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X+) monitored for 7 days. Birth weight and other factors (regions, parental education, maternal history of gestational diabetes, children age, gender, breast feeding, gestational age, unhealthy diet scores and healthy diet scores) were collected by parental and children's questionnaires. Multilevel modeling was used to account for the nested nature of the data. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of obesity (BMI z-score>+2 s.d.) was 15.4% for boys and 10.0% for girls. There was a positive association between birth weight and BMI z-scores. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of childhood obesity were significantly higher among children whose birth weights were 3500–3999 g (OR 1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10–1.92), and >4000 g (OR 2.08; 95% CI: 1.47–2.93), compared with the reference group (2500–2999 g). The positive association between birth weight and the odds of childhood obesity was seen in girls, whereas a U-shaped association appeared in boys. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of birth weight, defined as birth weight ⩾3500 g, were associated with increased odds of obesity among 9–11-year-old children in 12 countries. However, sex differences in the association between birth weight and the risk of obesity need to be considered when planning interventions to reduce

  4. Maternal Serum Serpin B7 Is Associated With Early Spontaneous Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Samuel; Zhang, Heping; Biggio, Joseph; Bukowski, Radek; Varner, Michael; Xu, Yaji; Andrews, William W.; Saade, George R.; Esplin, M. Sean; Leite, Rita; Ilekis, John; Reddy, Uma M.; Sadovsky, Yoel; Blair, Ian A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify serum biomarkers of early spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) using semi-quantitative proteomic analyses. Study Design Nested case-control study of pregnant women with previous SPTB. Maternal serum was collected at 19 to 24 and 28 to 32 weeks gestation, and analyzed by liquid chromatography-multiple-reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry. Targeted and shotgun proteomics identified 31 candidate proteins that were differentially expressed in pooled serum samples from spontaneous preterm (<34 weeks - cases) and term deliveries (controls). Candidate protein expression was compared in individual serum samples between cases and controls matched by age and race groups, and clinical site. Protein expression was verified by Western blot in the placenta and fetal membranes from cases and controls. Results Serum samples were available for 35 cases and 35 controls at 19 to 24 weeks, and 16 cases and 16 controls at 28 to 32 weeks. One protein, serpin B7, yielded serum concentrations that differed between cases and controls. The mean concentration of serpin B7 at 28 to 32 weeks was 1.5-fold higher in women with subsequent preterm deliveries compared to controls; there was no difference at 19 to 24 weeks. Higher levels of serpin B7 at both gestational age windows were associated with a shorter interval to delivery, and higher levels of serpin B7 in samples from 28 to 32 weeks were associated with a lower gestational age at delivery. Western blotting identified serpin B7 protein in placenta, amnion, and chorion from cases and controls. Conclusion Targeted and shotgun serum proteomics analyses associated one protein, serpin B7, with early SPTB. Our results require validation in other cohorts and analysis of the possible mechanistic role of serpin B7 in parturition. PMID:24954659

  5. Cervical length versus vaginal PH in the second trimester as preterm birth predictor

    PubMed Central

    Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Tabasi, Zohreh; Mesdaghinia, Elaheh; Sehat, Mojtaba; Mehrdad, Mahdian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate diagnostic value of vaginal pH and cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy as a preterm labor (PTL) predictor. Methods: During a prospective cohort study 438 uncomplicated singleton pregnant women between 18 and 24 weeks of gestation were assessed regarding vaginal PH and cervical length. Vaginal pH was measured using Ph-indicator strips and cervical length was determined using transvaginal ultrasound. The cut-off values for vaginal PH and cervical length were defined as 5 and <30 mm respectively. Results: Vaginal pH of 5 and above was found in 162/438 women (37%) while cervical length <30mm was found in 38/438 (8.7%). The incidence of PTL < 37 weeks was 87/438 (19.9%) while the incidence of early (PTL <34 weeks) was 51/438 (11.6%). Predictive value of higher vaginal PH was significantly more (31%) than vaginal PH<5 (13%) in predicting PTL. As a result, alkaline vaginal PH significantly increases the odds of preterm labor (OR=3.06). Shortened cervical length is better predictor of PTL than higher vaginal PH with positive predictive value of 71% and negative predictive value of 85%. Cervical length less than 30 mm nearly 14-fold increases odds of preterm birth (OR=13.9). Conclusion: Compared to alkaline vaginal PH, shortened cervical length has better value to predict PTL overall. However, regarding early or late PTL, vaginal PH is more accurate to predict late PTL, while cervical length measurement is more appropriate to predict early PTL (<34 weeks). PMID:26101494

  6. Preterm birth during an extreme weather event in Québec, Canada: a "natural experiment".

    PubMed

    Auger, Nathalie; Kuehne, Erica; Goneau, Marc; Daniel, Mark

    2011-10-01

    To clarify the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and extreme weather events, we evaluated PTB during a January 1998 ice storm that had led to a provincial emergency in the middle of winter in the province of Québec, Canada. Singleton live births for three periods (1993-1997, 1998, 1999-2003) were obtained (N = 855,320). PTB was defined as gestational age <37 completed weeks. Births in the Triangle of Darkness, the area most strongly affect by the storm, were geocoded. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the likelihood of PTB for the Triangle relative to metropolitan Montréal, adjusting for maternal age, education, civil status, maternal birthplace, and previous deliveries. Associations for 1998 relative to other periods were evaluated. Short-term (January-February) and long-term (March-October) exposure periods were examined. The proportion PTB for 1998 January-February births in the Triangle (8.7%) was high compared with 1998 March-October births (6.0%) and with the corresponding proportions for 1993-1997 (6.2%) and 1999-2003 (6.9%). Covariate-adjusted odds of PTB for January-February 1998 were 27% higher for the Triangle relative to metropolitan Montréal, though precision was low. Furthermore, adjusted odds were 28% higher for 1998 relative to 1999-2003, despite increasing rates of PTB over time. Odds were not elevated over a long-term exposure period. This study suggests a weak association between PTB and exposure to extreme weather for the two months following an ice storm, but not for later periods after the storm.

  7. No improvement in socioeconomic inequalities in birthweight and preterm birth over four decades: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birthweight and gestational age are associated with socioeconomic deprivation, but the evidence in relation to temporal changes in these associations is sparse. We investigated changes in the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and birthweight and gestational age in Newcastle upon Tyne, North of England, during 1961–2000. Methods We used population-based data from hospital neonatal records on all singleton births to mothers resident in Newcastle (births with complete covariate information n = 113,182). We used linear regression to analyse the associations between neighbourhood SES and birthweight over the entire 40-year period and by decade, and logistic regression for associations with low birthweight (LBW) and preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. Results There was a significant interaction between SES and decade of birth for birthweight (p = 0.028) and preterm birth (p < 0.001). Socioeconomic gradients were similar in each decade for birthweight outcomes, but for preterm birth, socioeconomic disparities were more evident in the later decades [for 1961–70, odds ratio (OR) was 1.1, 95% CI 0.9, 1.3, for the most deprived versus the least deprived quartile, while for 1991–2000, the corresponding OR was 1.5, 95% CI 1.3, 1.7]. In each decade, there was a significant decrease in birthweight adjusted for gestational age for the most deprived compared to the least deprived SES group [1961–1970: –113.4 g (95% CI–133.0, –93.8); 1991–2000: –97.5 g (95% CI–113.0, –82.0)], while there was a significant increase in birthweight in each SES group over time. Conclusions Socioeconomic inequalities did not narrow over the four decades for birthweight and widened for preterm birth. Mean birthweight adjusted for gestational age increased in all socioeconomic groups, suggesting an overall increase in fetal growth. PMID:23587186

  8. The Role of Socioeconomic Factors in Black–White Disparities in Preterm Birth

    PubMed Central

    Heck, Katherine; Egerter, Susan; Marchi, Kristen S.; Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Cubbin, Catherine; Fingar, Kathryn; Pearson, Jay A.; Curtis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the role of socioeconomic factors in Black–White disparities in preterm birth (PTB). Methods. We used the population-based California Maternal and Infant Health Assessment survey and birth certificate data on 10 400 US-born Black and White California residents who gave birth during 2003 to 2010 to examine rates and relative likelihoods of PTB among Black versus White women, with adjustment for multiple socioeconomic factors and covariables. Results. Greater socioeconomic advantage was generally associated with lower PTB rates among White but not Black women. There were no significant Black–White disparities within the most socioeconomically disadvantaged subgroups; Black–White disparities were seen only within more advantaged subgroups. Conclusions. Socioeconomic factors play an important but complex role in PTB disparities. The absence of Black–White disparities in PTB within certain socioeconomic subgroups, alongside substantial disparities within others, suggests that social factors moderate the disparity. Further research should explore social factors suggested by the literature—including life course socioeconomic experiences and racism-related stress, and the biological pathways through which they operate—as potential contributors to PTB among Black and White women with different levels of social advantage. PMID:25211759

  9. Increasing Knowledge and Health Literacy about Preterm Births in Underserved Communities: An Approach to Decrease Health Disparities, a Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Vanderbilt, Allison A.; Wright, Marcie S.; Brewer, Alisa E.; Murithi, Lydia K.; Coney, PonJola

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Health disparities can negatively impact subsets of the population who have systematically experienced greater socioeconomic obstacles to health. For example, health disparities between ethnic and racial groups continue to grow due to the widening gap in large declines in infant and fetal mortality among Caucasians compared to Black non-Hispanic or African Americans. According to the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, preterm birth remains a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study is to determine if the computer-based educational modules related to preterm birth health literacy and health disparity with a pre-test and post-test can effectively increase health knowledge of our participants in targeted underserved communities within the Richmond-metro area. Methods: This was a pilot study in the Richmond-Metro area. Participants were required to be over the age of 18, and had to electronically give consent. Descriptive statistics, means and standard deviations, and Paired t-tests were conducted in SPSS 22.0. Results: There were 140 participants in the pilot study. P <.05 was set as significant and all four modules had a P <.000. The males were not significant with modules: Let’s Talk Patient & Provider Communication P <.132 and It Takes a Village P <.066. Preterm birth status yes all of the findings were statistically significant P<.000. Preterm birth status no Let’s Talk Patients & Provider Communication was not significant P <.106. Conclusion: Overall, researchers found that with a strong research methodology and strong content relevant to the community, the participants demonstrated an increase in their knowledge in health literacy and preterm birth. PMID:26234992

  10. Birth weight and postnatal growth of pure-bred kittens.

    PubMed

    Moik, Katja; Kienzle, Ellen

    2011-10-01

    Data on body weight of pure-bred kittens (Maine Coon, Norwegian Forest Cat, Birman, Persian, Siamese/Oriental Shorthair Cat) from birth (n 245) to 12 weeks of age (n 135) were obtained from breeders. Absolute birth weight (in g) was higher in larger breeds than in smaller breeds, whereas relative birth weight (in % of mature female weight) tended to be higher in smaller breeds (Maine Coon 115 g, 2.3 %; Norwegian Forest Cat 106 g, 2.7 %; Birman 97 g, 2.8 %; Siamese 92 g, 2.8 %; Persian 82 g, 3.2 %). Relative birth weight was lower than that described in the literature for colony cats. Relative litter weight was highest in Norwegian Forest Cats (14.6 (SD 1.8) %; n 10) and lowest in Birmans (8.8 (SD 3.1) %, n 7; P < 0.05); the other breeds were in-between (11.9 (SD 2.0) %; n 19). Absolute growth was faster in larger breeds than in smaller breeds. In relation to expected mature weight, there was good agreement with data from colony cats but no clear-cut effect of breed size. There appeared to be a trend to an earlier onset of sexual dimorphism in larger breeds.

  11. Psychobiobehavioral Model for Preterm Birth in Pregnant Women in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Premji, Shahirose S.; Yim, Ilona S.; Dosani (Mawji), Aliyah; Kanji, Zeenatkhanu; Sulaiman, Salima; Musana, Joseph W.; Samia, Pauline; Shaikh, Kiran; Letourneau, Nicole; MiGHT Group

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) is a final common outcome resulting from many interrelated etiological pathways; of particular interest is antenatal psychosocial distress (i.e., stress, anxiety, and depression). In LMI countries, both exposure to severe life stressors and rate of PTB are on average greater when compared with high-income countries. In LMI countries women are exposed to some of the most extreme psychosocial stress worldwide (e.g., absolute poverty, limited social resources). High prevalence of antenatal stress and depression have been observed in some studies from LMI countries. We propose a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral model for investigating the complex multisystem interactions in stress responses leading to PTB and explain the basis of this approach. We discuss ethical considerations for a psychosocial, biological, and behavioral screening tool to predict PTB from a LMI country perspective. PMID:26413524

  12. Is There a Role for Probiotics in the Prevention of Preterm Birth?

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Siwen; Reid, Gregor; Challis, John R. G.; Kim, Sung O.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Bocking, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) continues to be a global health challenge. An over-production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as an altered maternal vaginal microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation/infection-associated PTB. Lactobacillus represents the dominant species in the vagina of most healthy pregnant women. The depletion of Lactobacillus in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with an increased risk of PTB. It remains unknown at what point an aberrant vaginal microbiome composition specifically induces the cascade leading to PTB. The ability of oral or vaginal lactobacilli probiotics to reduce BV occurrence and/or dampen inflammation is being considered as a means to prevent PTB. Certain anti-inflammatory properties of lactobacilli suggest potential mechanisms. To date, clinical studies have not been powered with sufficiently high rates of PTB, but overall, there is merit in examining this promising area of clinical science. PMID:25741339

  13. Fetal programming and environmental exposures: implications for prenatal care and preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Schug, Thaddeus T; Erlebacher, Adrian; Leibowitz, Sarah; Ma, Liang; Muglia, Louis J; Rando, Oliver J; Rogers, John M; Romero, Roberto; vom Saal, Frederick S; Wise, David L

    2012-12-01

    Sponsored by the New York Academy of Sciences and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, with support from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS), the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), and Life Technologies, "Fetal Programming and Environmental Exposures: Implications for Prenatal Care and Preterm Birth" was held on June 11-12, 2012 at the New York Academy of Sciences in New York City. The meeting, comprising individual talks and panel discussions, highlighted basic, clinical, and translational research approaches, and highlighted the need for specialized testing of drugs, consumer products, and industrial chemicals, with a view to the unique impacts these can have during gestation. Speakers went on to discuss many other factors that affect prenatal development, from genetics to parental diet, revealing the extraordinary sensitivity of the developing fetus.

  14. Incense Burning during Pregnancy and Birth Weight and Head Circumference among Term Births: The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Le-Yu; Ho, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Incense burning for rituals or religious purposes is an important tradition in many countries. However, incense smoke contains particulate matter and gas products such as carbon monoxide, sulfur, and nitrogen dioxide, which are potentially harmful to health. Objectives: We analyzed the relationship between prenatal incense burning and birth weight and head circumference at birth using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study. We also analyzed whether the associations varied by sex and along the distribution of birth outcomes. Methods: We performed ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions analysis on a sample of 15,773 term births (> 37 gestational weeks; 8,216 boys and 7,557 girls) in Taiwan in 2005. The associations were estimated separately for boys and girls as well as for the population as a whole. We controlled extensively for factors that may be correlated with incense burning and birth weight and head circumference, such as parental religion, demographics, and health characteristics, as well as pregnancy-related variables. Results: Findings from fully adjusted OLS regressions indicated that exposure to incense was associated with lower birth weight in boys (–18 g; 95% CI: –36, –0.94) but not girls (1 g; 95% CI: –17, 19; interaction p-value = 0.31). Associations with head circumference were negative for boys (–0.95 mm; 95% CI: –1.8, –0.16) and girls (–0.71 mm; 95% CI: –1.5, 0.11; interaction p-values = 0.73). Quantile regression results suggested that the negative associations were larger among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Conclusions: OLS regressions showed that prenatal incense burning was associated with lower birth weight for boys and smaller head circumference for boys and girls. The associations were more pronounced among the lower quantiles of birth outcomes. Further research is necessary to confirm whether incense burning has differential effects by sex. Citation: Chen LY, Ho C. 2016. Incense burning during

  15. Mother-Toddler Play Interaction in Extremely, Very Low Birth Weight, and Full-Term Children: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Salvatori, Paola; Neri, Erica; Chirico, Ilaria; Andrei, Federica; Agostini, Francesca; Trombini, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Although preterm birth represents a risk factor for early mother-infant interactions, few studies have focused on toddlerhood, an important time for the development of symbolic play, autonomous skills, and child's socialization competences. Moreover, no study has looked at the effect of birth weight on mother-child interactions during this period. Expanding on the available literature on prematurity, the main objective of this study was to explore the quality of mother-toddler interactions during play, using a longitudinal research design, as well as taking into account the effect of birth weight. Method: 16 Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), 24 Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW), 25 full-term children, and their mothers were recruited for the present study. Mother-child dyads were evaluated at 18, 24, and 30 months of child age. Ten minutes of mother-child play interaction were recorded and later coded according to the Emotional Availability Scales (EAS). Furthermore, the child's level of development was assessed through the Griffiths Scale, and its contribution controlled for. Results: ELBW dyads showed an overall lower level of emotional availability, compared to VLBW and full-term dyads, but no main effect of birth weight was found on specific EA dimensions. Moreover, a significant effect of child age emerged. Overall scores, and Child Responsiveness and Involvement scores improved over time, independently of birth weight. Lastly, a significant effect of the interaction between birth weight and child age was found. Between 18 and 30 months, the overall quality of the interaction significantly increased in ELBW and VLBW dyads. Additionally, between 18 and 30 months, VLBW children significantly improved their responsiveness, while their mothers' sensitivity, structuring, and non-intrusive behaviors improved. In contrast, no change emerged in full-term dyads, although scores were consistently higher than those of the other groups. Discussion: Birth weight

  16. A framework for strategic investments in research to reduce the global burden of preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Gravett, Michael G; Rubens, Craig E

    2012-11-01

    Preterm birth and stillbirth are among the greatest health burdens associated with pregnancy and childbirth. Fifteen million babies are born preterm each year, causing about 1 million deaths annually and lifelong problems for many survivors; 3 million stillbirths also occur annually. Worldwide, the number of women and children who die during pregnancy and childbirth exceeds the total number of births in the United States. New approaches could provide a greater understanding of prematurity, stillbirth, and maternal complications of pregnancy and childbirth. Integrated multidisciplinary investigations of the mother, fetus, and newborn in different contexts and populations could elucidate the biological pathways that result in adverse outcomes and how to prevent them. Descriptive research can determine the burden of disease, while more mechanistic discovery research could explore the physiology and pathophysiology of pregnancy and childbirth. Together, this research can lead to the development and delivery of new and much more effective interventions, even in low-resource settings. Recent surveys of researchers and funders reveal a striking lack of consensus regarding priority areas for research and the development of interventions. While researchers enumerate unanswered questions about pregnancy and childbirth, they lack consensus on priorities. Funders are equally uncertain about research and development projects that need to be undertaken, and many are hard-pressed to support research on the complex problems of pregnancy and childbirth given competing priorities. This lack of consensus provides an opportunity to engage with funders and researchers to recognize the importance of understanding healthy pregnancies and the consequences of adverse pregnancy outcomes. A strategic alliance of funders, researchers, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and others could organize a set of grand challenges centered on pregnancy and childbirth that could yield a

  17. Is Midtrimester Vitamin D Status Associated with Spontaneous Preterm Birth and Preeclampsia?

    PubMed Central

    Wetta, Luisa A; Biggio, Joseph R; Cliver, Suzanne; Abramovici, Adi; Barnes, Stephen; Tita, Alan TN

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether midtrimester maternal vitamin D is associated with preeclampsia <37 weeks or spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB) <35 weeks. Study Design Nested case-control comprising 2 case-subsets: a) 100 women with preeclampsia <37 weeks and b) 100 women with SPB <35 weeks. Controls consisted of 200 women delivered between 39–40 weeks. Stored maternal serum obtained between 15–21 weeks was tested for total 25-hydroxy vitamin D levels (25-OH D) using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mean 25-OH D levels and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency (25-OH D < 30 ng/mL) and deficiency (25-OH D <15 ng/mL) were compared. Results 89 preeclampsia, 90 spontaneous preterm birth cases, and 177 controls had valid measurements. Mean midtrimester vitamin D was not significantly different between women with preeclampsia (27.4 ng/mL±14.4) and controls (28.6±12.6) (p=0.46), or SPTB (28.8±13.2) and controls (p=0.92). After adjusting for potential cofounders, neither vitamin D insufficiency (aOR 1.1; 95% CI 0.6–2.0) nor deficiency (aOR 1.4; 95% CI 0.7–3.0) was significantly associated with preeclampsia. Likewise, SPTB was not significantly associated with either vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (aOR 0.8; 95% CI 0.4–1.4, aOR 1.3; 95% CI0.6–3.0, respectively). Conclusion Midtrimester maternal vitamin D was not significantly associated with preeclampsia <37 weeks or SPTB <35 weeks. PMID:24022379

  18. Activation of decidual invariant natural killer T cells promotes lipopolysaccharide-induced preterm birth.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Yao; Tu, Jiaoqin; Schust, Danny J

    2015-04-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are crucial for host defense against a variety of microbial pathogens, but the underlying mechanisms of iNKT cells activation by microbes are not fully explained. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of iNKT cell activation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated preterm birth using an adoptive transfer system and diverse neutralizing antibodies (Abs) and inhibitors. We found that adoptive transfer of decidual iNKT cells to LPS-stimulated iNKT cell deficient Jα18(-/-) mice that lack invariant Vα14Jα281T cell receptor (TCR) expression significantly decreased the time to delivery and increased the percentage of decidual iNKT cells. Neutralizing Abs against Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4), CD1d, interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18, and inhibitors blocking the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) significantly reduced in vivo percentages of decidual iNKT cells, their intracellular interferon (IFN)-γ production and surface CD69 expression. In vitro, in the presence of the same Abs and inhibitors used as in vivo, decidual iNKT cells co-cultured with LPS-pulsed dendritic cells (DCs) showed significantly decreased extracellular and intracellular IFN-γ secretion and surface CD69 expression. Our data demonstrate that the activation of decidual iNKT cells plays an important role in inflammation-induced preterm birth. Activation of decidual iNKT cells also requires TLR4-mediated NF-κB, MAPK p38 and ERK pathways, the proinflammatory cytokines IL-12 and IL-18, and endogenous glycolipid antigens presented by CD1d.

  19. Maternal and cord blood LC-HRMS metabolomics reveal alterations in energy and polyamine metabolism, and oxidative stress in very-low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Alexandre-Gouabau, Marie-Cécile; Courant, Frédérique; Moyon, Thomas; Küster, Alice; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle; Tea, Illa; Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Darmaun, Dominique

    2013-06-07

    To assess the global effect of preterm birth on fetal metabolism and maternal-fetal nutrient transfer, we used a mass spectrometric-based chemical phenotyping approach on cord blood obtained at the time of birth. We sampled umbilical venous, umbilical arterial, and maternal blood from mothers delivering very-low birth weight (VLBW, with a median gestational age and weight of 29 weeks, and 1210 g, respectively) premature or full-term (FT) neonates. In VLBW group, we observed a significant elevation in the levels and maternal-fetal gradients of butyryl-, isovaleryl-, hexanoyl- and octanoyl-carnitines, suggesting enhanced short- and medium chain fatty acid β-oxidation in human preterm feto-placental unit. The significant decrease in glutamine-glutamate in preterm arterial cord blood beside lower levels of amino acid precursors of Krebs cycle suggest increased glutamine utilization in the fast growing tissues of preterm fetus with a deregulation in placental glutamate-glutamine shuttling. Enhanced glutathione utilization is likely to account for the decrease in precursor amino acids (serine, betaine, glutamate and methionine) in arterial cord blood. An increase in both the circulating levels and maternal-fetal gradients of several polyamines in their acetylated form (diacetylspermine and acetylputrescine) suggests an enhanced polyamine metabolic cycling in extreme prematurity. Our metabolomics study allowed the identification of alterations in fetal energy, antioxidant defense, and polyamines and purines flux as a signature of premature birth.

  20. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  1. Hematological reference ranges in black very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Stancheva, V P; Sherman, G G; Avent, M; Cory, B J; Ballot, D E; Cooper, P A

    2002-03-01

    This study compared hematological reference ranges in black very low birth weight infants to previously published values established predominantly on white subjects. Ninety-four healthy, black, premature babies with a birth weight of 800 to 1500 g at 2-7 days of age were enrolled as part of a study comparing blood transfusions and high- versus low-dose recombinant erythropoietin in anaemia of prematurity. Peripheral venous blood was collected for a full blood count and differential, fetal hemoglobin and erythropoietin levels. The hematological parameters observed in black very low birth weight neonates are similar to previously published reference ranges, except that lower limits of normal were observed for hemoglobin and the red cell indices.

  2. Vaginal progesterone in risk reduction of preterm birth in women with short cervix in the midtrimester of pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Khandelwal, Meena

    2012-01-01

    Preterm birth is a major health problem for the neonate, family, country, and society in general. Despite many risk factors being identified for women destined to deliver preterm, short cervical length detected on transvaginal ultrasound is the most plausible, practical and sensitive risk factor for prediction of spontaneous preterm birth. The definition of short cervix has varied in various studies, but most commonly accepted is ≤2.5 cm in the midtrimester of pregnancy, though risk of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) increases as the cervical length decreases. Vaginal progesterone, a naturally occurring steroid hormone, is the most bioavailable form of progesterone for uterine and cervical effects with the fewest side effects. Multiple prospective studies have consistently shown its benefits in decreasing sPTB rate in women with asymptomatic midtrimester short cervix. The safety for mother and fetus, and tolerability of vaginal progesterone, particularly the gel form, is also well established. Vaginal progesterone is a minimally invasive intervention that is not painful and is very safe, with reasonable cost where the benefits (even if argued to be small) clearly outweigh the risks. Thus there should be little hesitation for implementation of universal transvaginal cervical length screening and preventive vaginal progesterone treatment for women with short cervix. PMID:23071418

  3. A proposed bio-panel to predict risk for spontaneous preterm birth among African American women.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Christian, Lisa M; Neal, Jeremy L

    2015-11-01

    Preterm birth (PTB), or birth prior to 37 weeks gestation, impacts 11.5% of U.S. deliveries. PTB results in significant morbidity and mortality among affected children and imposes a large societal financial burden. Racial disparities in PTB are alarming. African American women are at more than 1.5 times the risk for PTB than white women. Unfortunately, the medical community's ability to predict who is at risk for PTB is extremely limited. History of a prior PTB remains the strongest predictor during a singleton gestation. Cervical length and fetal fibronectin measurement are helpful tools. However, usefulness is limited, particularly among the 95% of U.S. women currently pregnant and lacking a history of PTB. Therefore, preventive therapies do not reach a great number of women who may benefit from them. This manuscript, in response to the pressing need for predictors of PTB risk and elimination of racial disparities in PTB, presents a proposed bio-panel for use in predicting risk for spontaneous PTB among African American women. This bio-panel, measured each trimester, includes stimulated production of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1 receptor antagonist (Ra), soluble(s) TNF receptor(R) 1, and sTNFR2, and cortisol responsiveness. We hypothesize that greater IL-1β and TNF-α production, decreased IL-1Ra, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 production, and decreased cortisol responsiveness at each time point as well as a more expedient alignment with this unfavorable profile over time will be associated with PTB. The choice to focus on inflammatory parameters is supported by data highlighting a crucial role for inflammation in labor. Specific inflammatory mediators have been chosen due to their potential importance in preterm labor among African American women. The bio-panel also focuses on inflammatory regulation (i.e., cytokine production upon ex vivo stimulation), which is hypothesized to provide insight into potential in vivo leukocyte responses and

  4. Human milk and neurodevelopment i