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Sample records for bisphosphonate-associated femoral fracture

  1. Clinician approach to diagnosis of stress fractures including bisphosphonate-associated fractures.

    PubMed

    McKenna, M J; Heffernan, E; Hurson, C; McKiernan, F E

    2014-02-01

    Stress fractures are repetitive strain injuries that occur in normal bones and in abnormal bones. Stress fractures share many features in common but differences depend on the status of the underlying bone. This review article for clinicians addresses aspects about stress fractures with particular respect to fatigue fractures, Looser zones of osteomalacia, atypical Looser zones, atypical femoral fractures associated with bisphosphonate therapy and stress fractures in Paget's disease of bone.

  2. Bisphosphonates and Nonhealing Femoral Fractures: Analysis of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and International Safety Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Beatrice J.; Bunta, Andrew D.; Lane, Joseph; Odvina, Clarita; Rao, D. Sudhaker; Raisch, Dennis W.; McKoy, June M.; Omar, Imran; Belknap, Steven M.; Garg, Vishvas; Hahr, Allison J.; Samaras, Athena T.; Fisher, Matthew J.; West, Dennis P.; Langman, Craig B.; Stern, Paula H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the United States, hip fracture rates have declined by 30% coincident with bisphosphonate use. However, bisphosphonates are associated with sporadic cases of atypical femoral fracture. Atypical femoral fractures are usually atraumatic, may be bilateral, are occasionally preceded by prodromal thigh pain, and may have delayed fracture-healing. This study assessed the occurrence of bisphosphonate-associated nonhealing femoral fractures through a review of data from the U.S. FDA (Food and Drug Administration) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) (1996 to 2011), published case reports, and international safety efforts. Methods: We analyzed the FAERS database with use of the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) and empiric Bayesian geometric mean (EBGM) techniques to assess whether a safety signal existed. Additionally, we conducted a systematic literature review (1990 to February 2012). Results: The analysis of the FAERS database indicated a PRR of 4.51 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.44 to 5.92) for bisphosphonate use and nonhealing femoral fractures. Most cases (n = 317) were attributed to use of alendronate (PRR = 3.32; 95% CI, 2.71 to 4.17). In 2008, international safety agencies issued warnings and required label changes. In 2010, the FDA issued a safety notification, and the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) issued recommendations about bisphosphonate-associated atypical femoral fractures. Conclusions: Nonhealing femoral fractures are unusual adverse drug reactions associated with bisphosphonate use, as up to 26% of published cases of atypical femoral fractures exhibited delayed healing or nonhealing. PMID:23426763

  3. [Femoral shaft fractures in children].

    PubMed

    Dietz, H-G; Schlickewei, W

    2011-05-01

    Femoral shaft fractures in children represent 1.5% of all fractures in childhood. Up to the age of 4 years, conservative treatment in a hip spica or short-term overhead traction is the therapy of choice. Femoral shaft fractures between the age of 5 and 16 years should be treated surgically. In over 90% of these cases elastic stable intramedullary nailing (ESIN) is the premier treatment option. Additional end caps can be used for unstable fractures and in length discrepancy. The external fixator and the locking plate are reserved for fractures with severe soft tissue injuries, vascular problems and some specific situations mentioned later on. By adhering to these standards good results can be achieved with a low complication rate.

  4. [Fracture arthroplasty of femoral neck fractures].

    PubMed

    Braun, K F; Hanschen, M; Biberthaler, P

    2016-04-01

    A paradigm shift in the treatment of elderly patients has recently taken place leading to an increase in joint replacement surgery. The aim of this article is to highlight new developments and to present a treatment algorithm for femoral neck fractures. The age limit must be individually determined considering the comorbidities and perioperative risk profile. Pertrochanteric femoral fractures are nearly exclusively treated by osteosynthesis regardless of age. The situation for femoral neck fractures is more complex. Patients younger than 65 years should generally be treated by osteosynthesis but patients older than 65 years benefit from hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty. In patients aged between 65 and 75 years with high functional demands and a justifiable perioperative risk, total joint replacement is the treatment of choice. In physically less active patients older than 75 years and poor general condition, preference should be given to hemiarthroplasty.

  5. Unusual presentation of a femoral stress fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ejnisman, Leandro; Wajnsztejn, Andre; Queiroz, Roberto Dantas; Ejnisman, Benno

    2013-01-01

    Stress fractures are common injuries in sports medicine. Among these fractures, femoral neck stress fractures frequently have a benign course, especially when it happens in the medial aspect of the neck. This case report describes a stress fracture of the medial aspect of the femoral neck that developed a complete fracture and underwent surgical fixation. PMID:23283621

  6. Outcomes after trifocal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Michelle; Dick, Alastair G; Umarji, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    Trifocal femur fractures are those of the femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal femur. These high-energy injuries predominantly occur in young people with the potential for long-term complications and disability. We present the cases of two men who were treated with proximal dynamic hip screws and distal periarticular locking plates to effectively manage trifocal femur fractures. Our cases have shown union at 2 years with good functional outcomes without the need for reintervention. We provide evidence for a successful surgical treatment option for these rare and complex injuries.

  7. Outcomes after Trifocal Femoral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Michelle; Dick, Alastair G.; Umarji, Shamim

    2014-01-01

    Trifocal femur fractures are those of the femoral neck, diaphysis, and distal femur. These high-energy injuries predominantly occur in young people with the potential for long-term complications and disability. We present the cases of two men who were treated with proximal dynamic hip screws and distal periarticular locking plates to effectively manage trifocal femur fractures. Our cases have shown union at 2 years with good functional outcomes without the need for reintervention. We provide evidence for a successful surgical treatment option for these rare and complex injuries. PMID:24800097

  8. Femoral Nerve Palsy with Patella Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Hyoung; Lee, Tong Joo; Woo, Min Su

    2013-01-01

    Femoral neuropathy may be associated with various etiologies and can cause severe walking disability. We present the case of a 25-year-old woman who underwent surgical repair for a patella fracture and complained of lower extremity pain, paresthesia, and weakness postoperatively. Electromyography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed partial peripheral neuropathy of the left femoral nerve associated with the patella fracture. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of femoral neuropathy associated with a patella fracture. PMID:24369003

  9. Current Concepts in Paediatric Femoral Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    John, Rakesh; Sharma, Siddhartha; Raj, Gopinathan Nirmal; Singh, Jujhar; C., Varsha; RHH, Arjun; Khurana, Ankit

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric femoral shaft fractures account for less than 2% of all fractures in children. However, these are the most common pediatric fractures necessitating hospitalization and are associated with prolonged hospital stay, prolonged immobilization and impose a significant burden on the healthcare system as well as caregivers. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive review of epidemiology, aetiology, classification and managemement options of pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:28603567

  10. Treatment of neglected femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Anil K; Mukunth, R; Srivastava, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Intra-capsular femoral neck fractures are seen commonly in elderly people following a low energy trauma. Femoral neck fracture has a devastating effect on the blood supply of the femoral head, which is directly proportional to the severity of trauma and displacement of the fracture. Various authors have described a wide array of options for treatment of neglected/nonunion (NU) femoral neck fracture. There is lack of consensus in general, regarding the best option. This Instructional course article is an analysis of available treatment options used for neglected femoral neck fracture in the literature and attempt to suggest treatment guides for neglected femoral neck fracture. We conducted the “Pubmed” search with the keywords “NU femoral neck fracture and/or neglected femoral neck fracture, muscle-pedicle bone graft in femoral neck fracture, fibular graft in femoral neck fracture and valgus osteotomy in femoral neck fracture.” A total of 203 print articles were obtained as the search result. Thirty three articles were included in the analysis and were categorized into four subgroups based on treatment options. (a) treated by muscle-pedicle bone grafting (MPBG), (b) closed/open reduction internal fixation and fibular grafting (c) open reduction and internal fixation with valgus osteotomy, (d) miscellaneous procedures. The data was pooled from all groups for mean neglect, the type of study (prospective or retrospective), classification used, procedure performed, mean followup available, outcome, complications, and reoperation if any. The outcome of neglected femoral neck fracture depends on the duration of neglect, as the changes occurring in the fracture area and fracture fragments decides the need and type of biological stimulus required for fracture union. In stage I and stage II (Sandhu's staging) neglected femoral neck fracture osteosynthesis with open reduction and bone grafting with MPBG or Valgus Osteotomy achieves fracture union in almost 90% cases

  11. Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture during Trochanteric Nailing for the Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Chi Hun; Yi, Ju Won

    2013-01-01

    We report on three cases of subtrochanteric femoral fractures during trochanteric intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures. Trochanteric intramedullary nails, which have a proximal lateral bend, are specifically designed for trochanteric insertion. When combined with the modified insertion technique, trochanteric intramedullary nails reduce iatrogenic fracture comminution and varus malalignment. We herein describe technical aspects of trochanteric intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures to improve its application and prevent implant-derived complications. PMID:24009910

  12. Femoral offset following trochanteric femoral fractures: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Buecking, Benjamin; Boese, Christoph Kolja; Seifert, Vinzenz; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frink, Michael; Lechler, Philipp

    2015-10-01

    Reconstruction of the femoral offset reportedly improves outcome following total hip arthroplasty, but little is known of its influence following hip fractures. We aimed to establish the effect of the femoral offset on the medium-term functional outcome in elderly patients who had sustained trochanteric fractures requiring proximal femoral nailing. We measured the rotation corrected femoral offset (FORC) and relative femoral offset (FORL) on plain anteroposterior radiographs of the hip in 188 patients (58 male, 130 female) with a trochanteric fracture who underwent proximal femoral nailing at our institution. The primary outcome measure was the Harris hip score (HSS) 6 and 12 months postoperatively; the Barthel index was assessed as a secondary outcome. The mean FORC after surgery was 58 mm (±11 mm), while the mean FORL was 1.21 (±0.22). At final follow up, we found significant inverse relationships (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, ρ) between FORC and FORL and the functional outcome assessed by the HSS (FORC: ρ = -0.207, p = 0.036; FORL: ρ = -0.247, p = 0.012), and FORL and the Barthel index (FORC: ρ = -147, p = 0.129; FORL: ρ = -0.192, p = 0.046). A consistent trend was observed after adjustment for confounding variables. Our results underline the biomechanical importance of the femoral offset for medium-term outcomes in elderly patients with trochanteric fractures. In contrast with the published findings on total hip arthroplasty, we found an inverse correlation between functional outcome and the extent of the reconstructed femoral offset. Level I - Prognostic study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prospective evaluation of femoral head viability following femoral neck fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Binkert, B.; Kroop, S.A.; Nepola, I.V.; Grantham, A.S.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    The bone scans of 33 patients (pts) with recent subcapital fractures (fx) of the femur were evaluated prospectively to determine their value in predicting femoral head visability. Each of the 33 pts (ll men, 22 women, age range 30-92) had a pre-operative bone scan within 72 hrs of the fx (23 pts within 24 hrs). Anterior and posterior planar views of both hips and pinhole views (50% of pts) were obtained 2 hrs after administration of Tc-99m HDP. The femoral head was classified as perfused if it showed the same activity as the opposite normal side or if it showed only slightly decreased activity. Femoral heads showing absent activity were classified as nonperfused. Overall, 20 of the 33 pts showed a photopenic femoral head on the side of the fx. Only 2 pts showed increased activity at hte site of the fx. Internal fixation of the fx was performed in 23 pts, 12 of whom had one or more follow-up scans. Five of these 12 pts showed absent femoral head activity on their initial scan, but 2 showed later reperfusion. The other 7 pts showed good perfusion initially, with only 1 later showing decreased femoral head activity. The other 10 pts (7 of whom had absent femoral head activity) had immediate resection of the femoral head and insertion of a Cathcart prosthesis. The results suggest that femoral head activity seen on a bone scan in the immediate post-fx period is not always a reliable indicator of femoral head viability. Decreased femoral head activity may reflect, in part, compromised perfusion secondary to post-traumatic edema, with or without anatomic disruption of the blood supply.

  14. Pathologic femoral neck fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Shrader, M Wade; Schwab, Joseph H; Shaughnessy, William J; Jacofsky, David J

    2009-02-01

    Pathologic fractures in children occur in a variety of malignant and benign pathologic processes. Pediatric pathologic femoral neck fractures are particularly rare. Until now, all reported cases have been isolated cases, small series, or cases reported in series of adult pathologic hip fractures. The present article is the first report of a relatively large series of pathologic femoral neck fractures in a pediatric population. We identified pathologic femoral neck fractures, including 2 basicervical fractures, in 15 children (9 boys, 6 girls) ranging in age from 18 months to 15 years (mean age, 9 years) and treated between 1960 and 2000. The pathologic diagnoses were fibrous dysplasia (5 children), unicameral bone cyst (2), Ewing's sarcoma (2), osteomyelitis (2), leukemia (1), rhabdomyosarcoma (1), osteogenesis imperfecta (1), and osteopetrosis (1). Treatment methods, including time to reduction and fixation, were reviewed in detail. One patient was lost to follow-up. All others were followed until union; mean long-term follow-up was 7 years (range, 1-16 years). All patients ultimately went on to union. Mean time to union was 19 weeks (range, 5-46 weeks). However, 2 patients died before 2 years. There was a 40% complication rate, with limb-length discrepancy being the most common (4 children). No patient developed avascular necrosis. Pathologic femoral neck fractures are rare in children. Pediatric patients who present with a pathologic hip fracture are at significant risk for complications. Physicians and family should be alerted to the prolonged course involved in treating these fractures to union.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDY OF CHILDREN DIAPHYSEAL FEMORAL FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Cassiano Ricardo; Traldi, Eduardo Franceschini; Posser, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the personal, fracture, treatment and complication characteristics among patients with pediatric femoral shaft fractures attended at the pediatric orthopedic service of the Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital. Methods: This was a retrospective cross-sectional study on a population consisting of patients with femoral shaft fractures, aged between birth and 14 years and 11 months, who were divided into four age groups. Information was obtained from medical records and was transferred to a survey questionnaire to present personal, fracture, treatment and complication variables. Results: The study population consisted of 96 patients. Their mean age was 6.8 years. The cases were predominantly among males, comprising closed fractures on the right side, in the middle third with a single line. Regarding fracture etiology, traffic accidents predominated overall in the sample. Most of the patients (74 to 77.1%) presented femoral fractures as their only injury. Conservative treatment predominated in the group younger than six years of age, and surgical treatment in the group aged 6 to 14 years and 11 months. The complications observed until bone union were: discrepancy, infection and movement limitation. The mean time taken for consolidation was 9.6 ± 2.4 weeks, varying with age. Conclusion: The features of these fractures were similar to those described in the literature and the treatment used showed good results. The Joana de Gusmão Children's Hospital has used the treatment proposed in the literature for pediatric femoral shaft fractures. PMID:27042619

  16. Optimizing Stability in Femoral Neck Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ye; Hao, Jiandong; Mauffrey, Cyril; Hammerberg, E Mark; Stahel, Philip F; Hak, David J

    2015-10-01

    Optimizing stability of femoral neck fracture fixation is important in obtaining a successful outcome. The mechanical problems and strategies for achieving optimal stability differ depending on patients' age and degree of osteoporosis. Femoral neck fractures in younger adults usually result from high-energy trauma and have a vertical fracture pattern. Strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include placing additional screws at right angles to the fracture plane and medial buttress plate augmentation. In elderly patients, screw position relative to the intact cortical femoral neck bone is of critical importance. Additional strategies for optimizing fixation stability in this group include the concept of length stable fixation, use of adjunctive calcium phosphate cement, and use of novel fixed angle fixation implants. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck

    SciTech Connect

    Dorne, H.L.; Lander, P.H.

    1985-02-01

    The diagnosis of spontaneous stress fractures of the femoral neck, a form of insufficiency stress fracture, can be missed easily. Patients present with unremitting hip pain without a history of significant trauma or unusual increase in daily activity. The initial radiographic features include osteoporosis, minor alterations of trabecular alignment, minimal extracortical or endosteal reaction, and lucent fracture lines. Initial scintigraphic examinations performed in three of four patients showed focal increased radionuclide uptake in two and no focal abnormality in one. Emphasis is placed on the paucity of early findings. Evaluation of patients with persistent hip pain requires a high degree of clinical suspicion and close follow-up; the sequelae of undetected spontaneous fractures are subcapital fracture with displacement, angular deformity, and a vascular necrosis of the femoral head.

  18. Retrograde femoral interlocking nail in complex fractures.

    PubMed

    Anup, Khare; Mehra, M M

    2002-06-01

    Retrograde interlocking nail was used as the method of fixation in 35 different cases of combination of complex femoral fractures. We performed this procedure in fractures of femoral shaft associated with fracture neck femur, pathological fractures of proximal third of femur with trochanteric pathology, ipsilateral fracture of femur and tibia in polytrauma cases with multiple other injuries, in highly obese patients with fracture shaft femur. This technique was also used in cases of pregnancy with fracture shaft femur and in unstable pelvic fracture or dislocation hip associated with fracture shaft femur. Operative technique involved with retrograde insertion of un-reamed, non-cannulated custom made nail through entrance portal in intercondylar notch was applied for fixation of the shaft femur fracture. The other associated fracture around hip was stabilized separately using suitable implant according to type of fracture. In cases of ipsilateral fracture of femur and tibia, femur was stabilized by retrograde interlocking nail and tibia was stabilized by antigrade interlocking nail through same incision at the same sitting. The case was followed up for three years; the average union time was 12 to 18 weeks. Out of 35 cases, 31 cases regained full knee movement. Out of the remaining 4 cases, 2 cases could regain up to 90 degrees of movement, these were old fractures and non-cooperative patients. In one case, patellofemoral arthritis was developed because of an operative error where a nail was not put inside the articular surface. Mal-union was observed in an early case of the series and implant failure was nil. Retrograde interlocking nail was used as the method of fixation in complex fracture problems. Multiple fractures of long bones can be stabilized in one stage, preventing multiple operations at different stages in polytraumatized patients. This resulted in early recovery, lesser hospital stay, and early rehabilitation of patient with good results and is

  19. Subtrochanteric fractures after retrograde femoral nailing

    PubMed Central

    Mounasamy, Varatharaj; Mallu, Sathya; Khanna, Vishesh; Sambandam, Senthil

    2015-01-01

    Secondary fractures around femoral nails placed for the management of hip fractures are well known. We report, two cases of a fracture of the femur at the interlocking screw site in the subtrochanteric area after retrograde femoral nailing of a femoral shaft fracture. Only a few reports in the existing literature have described these fractures. Two young men after sustaining a fall presented to us with pain, swelling and deformity in the upper thigh region. On enquiring, examining and radiographing them, peri-implant fractures of subtrochanteric nature through the distal interlocking screws were revealed in both patients who also had histories of previous falls for which retrograde intramedullary nailing was performed for their respective femora. Both patients were managed with similar surgical routines including removal of the existing hardware, open reduction and ace cephallomedullary antegrade nailing. The second case did show evidence of delayed healing and was additionally stabilized with cerclage wires. Both patients had uneventful postoperative outcomes and union was evident at the end of 6 mo postoperatively with a good range of motion at the hip and knee. Our report suggests that though seldom reported, peri-implant fractures around the subtrochanteric region can occur and pose a challenge to the treating orthopaedic surgeon. We suggest these be managed, after initial stabilization and resuscitation, by implant removal, open reduction and interlocking intramedullary antegrade nailing. Good results and progression to union can be expected in these patients by adhering to basic principles of osteosynthesis. PMID:26495251

  20. Periprosthetic Femur Fracture Occuring after Contralateral Neglected Femoral Neck Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Cankaya, Deniz; Toprak, Ali; IKilic, Enver; Bingol, Olgun; Tabak, Yalcin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur are uncommon, but at times may lead to complications especially in elderly patients. As treatment of these fractures is difficult, prevention by identifying the risk factors is the best way to overcome these complex problems. Case Report: A periprosthetic right femur fracture associated with a neglected left femoral neck fracture in the contralateral femur in a 78-year-old elder woman patient is reported in the present article. We discuss the prevention of periprosthetic fractures after hip arthroplasty and address the risk factors associated with this complication. Conclusion: The present case emphasizes the importance of investigating and treating the cause of sudden onset of restriction on full weight-bearing in the contralateral limb, to prevent periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty in elderly patients. PMID:27299115

  1. Management and outcome of interprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Schuster, Rupert; Luxl, Monika; Widhalm, Harald Kurt; Eipeldauer, Stefan; Krusche-Mandl, Irena; Ostermann, Roman; Blutsch, Beate; Vécsei, Vilmos

    2011-11-01

    Interprosthetic femoral fractures following ipsilateral hip and knee arthroplasty are a rare but serious complication in clinical practice. In most cases, adequate management of these injuries might constitute a challenging problem. However, the literature provides only few data regarding the treatment and outcome of interprosthetic femoral fractures, and there are only few classifications available, which might assist in finding an appropriate treatment concept. The purpose of this study was to analyse our experience in the management of interprosthetic femoral fractures following ipsilateral hip and knee joint replacement. We reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 23 patients (15 female and eight male, average age: 79.2 years) with an interprosthetic fracture after ipsilateral hip and knee joint replacement between 1992 and 2008. For the classification of interprosthetic femoral fractures, the fractures were divided into three types, depending on the fracture site and the adjacency to the prostheses. All patients underwent operative stabilisation, either by lateral plate fixation (n=19), by revision arthroplasty using a long stem (n=2) or by plate fixation and revision arthroplasty (n=2). Referring to the clinical outcome, 16 patients returned to their pre-injury activity level and were satisfied with their clinical outcome. In six patients, we saw a relevant decrease of hip or knee function and severe limitations in gait and activities of daily living. We had a mean Harris Hip Score (HHS) of 78.4 points, and a mean Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) of 71.8 points. Relating to the radiographic outcome, successful fracture healing was achieved in 19 of 22 patients (86%) within 6 months. Failures of reduction and fixation were noted in four (18%) of 22 patients. We had a satisfactory outcome following individualised treatment of interprosthetic femoral fractures following ipsilateral hip and knee joint replacement. Compared to the rare

  2. Managing periprosthetic femoral stem fractures.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Aaron G

    2006-06-01

    Periprosthetic fractures can be difficult to manage. The classification system developed in Vancouver is simple and useful in determining appropriate treatment. It takes into account the site of the fracture, the stability of the implant, and the surrounding bone stock, which are the important elements of the fracture and hip that determines treatment. Understanding this classification system should allow the practitioner to choose the appropriate treatment. In addition to fracture management skills, understanding how to perform a host of hip revision technique may also be required.

  3. [Distal femoral periprosthetic fractures: classification and therapy].

    PubMed

    Tomás, T; Nachtnebl, L; Otiepka, P

    2010-06-01

    Periprosthetic fracture is one of the most serious complication of total knee arthroplasty. In our retrospective clinical study we designed our classification with rules for treatment of those fractures. During the last thirty years we treated 53 distal femoral periprosthetic fractures in our orthopaedic department. In our clinical study we reviewed our group of distal femoral periprosthetic fractures with on the basis of X-ray findings, the treatment method used and treatment outcomes. According to our findings we divided distal femoral periprosthetic fractures into six groups: Type I Nondisplaced fractures, 5.7%; treatment failure rate, 33%. Type II a Fractures with lateral comminution (the most often type of fractures), 37.7%; treatment failure rate, 20%. Type II b Fractures with medial comminution, 7.5%; treatment failure rate, 60%. Type II c Fractures above TKA (the second most often type), 34%; treatment failure rate, 18%. Type II d Comminuted fractures, 5.7%; treatment failure rate, 18%. Type IIIFractures with loosening of TKA, 9.4%; treatment failure rate, 20%. For the treatment of fractures we used various methods according to the type of fracture: Plate osteosynthesis in 32 cases, with failure in seven. Three failures in IIa group due to incorrect osteosynthesis with condylar plate, treated by reosteosteosynthesis with same implant. One in IIb group treated primarily with cement plomb, after second failure treated with revision total knee arthroplasty. Two failures in IIc group, treated by reosteosynthesis with spongioplasty using the same implant. One failure in III group solved with revision TKA. Intramedullary nail in nine cases , with failure in two. One failure in IIb group treated by reosteosynthesis with condylar plate and cement plombage. One in IIc group due to infection, solved with extraction of material and second stage revision TKA. Conservative treatment in three cases,with failure in two. One in I group treated with condylar plate. One in

  4. When femoral fracture fixation fails: salvage options.

    PubMed

    Petrie, J; Sassoon, A; Haidukewych, G J

    2013-11-01

    Most hip fractures treated with modern internal fixation techniques will heal. However, failures occasionally occur and require revision procedures. Salvage strategies employed during revision are based on whether the fixation failure occurs in the femoral neck, or in the intertrochanteric region. Patient age and remaining bone stock also influence decision making. For fractures in young patients, efforts are generally focused on preserving the native femoral head via osteotomies and repeat internal fixation. For failures in older patients, some kind of hip replacement is usually selected. Disuse osteopenia, deformity, bone loss, and stress-risers from previous internal fixation devices all pose technical challenges to successful reconstruction. Attention to detail is important in order to minimise complications. In the majority of cases, good outcomes have been reported for the various salvage strategies.

  5. Failed internal fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hoelsbrekken, Sigurd Erik; Opsahl, Jan-Henrik; Stiris, Morten; Paulsrud, Øyvind; Strømsøe, Knut

    2012-06-12

    There are two types of surgical treatment for fractures of the femoral neck; internal fixation and arthroplasty. Internal fixation is associated with a higher risk of complications such as secondary displacement, non-union and avascular necrosis. To improve treatment results of internal fixation, we have tried to identify procedure related risk-factors associated with fixation failure. A retrospective study was conducted based on the medical records and X-ray images of 337 patients sustaining intracapsular fractures of the hip during the period 1999-2000. The patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation at Oslo University Hospital, Aker. The reduction of the fracture and the placement of the fixation implants were evaluated and scored (six points representing best achievable result). Fixation failed in 23 (18,3 %) out of 126 patients with displaced fractures awarded six points for the reduction. In contrast, fixation failed in five (50 %) out of ten patients given a score of three points or less (p = 0.017). The risk of non-union increased when patients were treated more than 48 hours after the initial injury. In this group, 5 (25 %) out of 20 patients developed non-union compared to 16 (8 %) out of 200 patients treated within 48 hours (p = 0.014). Our findings emphasize the importance of achieving anatomical reduction of displaced femoral neck fractures, and to perform surgery within 48 hours unless an acute medical condition needs to be stabilized.

  6. Clinical Results of Internal Fixation of Subcapital Femoral Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Kang, Joon Soon; Moon, Kyoung Ho; Shin, Joong Sup; Shin, Eun Ho; Ahn, Chi Hoon; Choi, Geon Hong

    2016-06-01

    Subcapital femoral neck is known to cause many complications, such as avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head or nonunion, compared with other femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to analyze the incidence of AVN and fixation failures in patients treated with internal fixation using cannulated screws for the subcapital femoral neck fractures. This study targeted a total of 84 cases of subcapital femoral neck fractures that underwent internal fixation using cannulated screws. The average follow-up time after surgery was 36.8 months (range, 24 to 148 months). Nine hips (10.7%) showing AVN of the femoral head and 6 hips (7.1%) showing fixation failures were observed. The factors affecting the incidence of AVN of the femoral head after sustaining fractures correlated well with fracture types in the Garden classification (p = 0.030). The factors affecting fixation failure were the degree of reduction (p = 0.001) measured by the Garden alignment index and firm fixation (p = 0.009) assessed using the technique of 3-point fixation through the inferomedial cortical bone of the femoral neck. The complication rates for subcapital femoral neck fractures were lower than those previously reported; hence, internal fixation could be a primary treatment option for these fractures.

  7. Bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture in a renal disease patient.

    PubMed

    Devkota, Pramod; Ahmad, Shiraz

    2013-09-01

    Spontaneous bilateral femoral neck facture in a renal disease patient is not common. We report a case of 47-year-old female patient with chronic renal failure and on regular hemodialysis for the past 5 years who sustained bilateral impacted femoral neck fracture without history of trauma and injury and refused any surgical intervention. The patient was mobilised on wheel chair one year after the fractures. The cause of the fracture and the literature review of the bilateral femoral neck fracture in renal disease are discussed.

  8. Treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures following total hip arthroplasty with femoral component revision.

    PubMed

    Springer, Bryan D; Berry, Daniel J; Lewallen, David G

    2003-11-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty is indicated for most periprosthetic fractures that occur around the stem of the femoral implant. The purpose of the present study was to assess the results and complications of revision total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures. We evaluated 118 hips in 116 patients who underwent revision total hip arthroplasty because of an acute Vancouver type-B periprosthetic femoral fracture. The femoral implant used for the revision was a cemented stem in forty-two hips, a proximally porous-coated uncemented stem in twenty-eight, an extensively porous-coated stem in thirty, and an allograft-prosthesis composite or tumor prosthesis in eighteen. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.4 years. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that the probability of survival was 90% at five years and 79.2% at ten years with revision or removal of the femoral implant for any reason as the end point. Sixteen femoral components were rerevised: ten were rerevised because of loosening; three, because of loosening in association with a fracture nonunion; two, because of recurrent dislocation; and one, because of a new periprosthetic fracture. Additionally, six femoral implants were resected because of deep infection (five) or prosthetic loosening (one). Radiographs of the ninety-six hips with a surviving implant showed that twenty-one had evidence of loosening of the femoral implant, four had a nonunion of the femoral fracture, and two had both a nonunion and loosening of the femoral implant. Revision total hip arthroplasty for the treatment of a periprosthetic fracture around the stem of the femoral implant successfully restored function for most patients. The greatest long-term problems were prosthetic loosening and fracture nonunion. Better results were seen when an uncemented, extensively porous-coated stem was used.

  9. Femoral neck shaft angle in men with fragility fractures.

    PubMed

    Tuck, S P; Rawlings, D J; Scane, A C; Pande, I; Summers, G D; Woolf, A D; Francis, R M

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Femoral neck shaft angle (NSA) has been reported to be an independent predictor of hip fracture risk in men. We aimed to assess the role of NSA in UK men. Methods. The NSA was measured manually from the DXA scan printout in men with hip (62, 31 femoral neck and 31 trochanteric), symptomatic vertebral (91), and distal forearm (67) fractures and 389 age-matched control subjects. Age, height, weight, and BMD (g/cm(2): lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total femur) measurements were performed. Results. There was no significant difference in mean NSA between men with femoral neck and trochanteric hip fractures, so all further analyses of hip fractures utilised the combined data. There was no difference in NSA between those with hip fractures and those without (either using the combined data or analysing trochanteric and femoral neck shaft fractures separately), nor between fracture subjects as a whole and controls. Mean NSA was smaller in those with vertebral fractures (129.2° versus 131°: P = 0.001), but larger in those with distal forearm fractures (129.8° versus 128.5°: P = 0.01). Conclusions. The conflicting results suggest that femoral NSA is not an important determinant of hip fracture risk in UK men.

  10. A biomechanical comparison of proximal femoral nails and locking proximal anatomic femoral plates in femoral fracture fixation

    PubMed Central

    Ozkan, Korhan; Türkmen, İsmail; Sahin, Adem; Yildiz, Yavuz; Erturk, Selim; Soylemez, Mehmet Salih

    2015-01-01

    Background: The incidence of fractures in the trochanteric area has risen with the increasing numbers of elderly people with osteoporosis. Although dynamic hip screw fixation is the gold standard for the treatment of stable intertrochanteric femur fractures, treatment of unstable intertrochanteric femur fractures still remains controversial. Intramedullary devices such as Gamma nail or proximal femoral nail and proximal anatomic femur plates are in use for the treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures. There are still many investigations to find the optimal implant to treat these fractures with minimum complications. For this reason, we aimed to perform a biomechanical comparison of the proximal femoral nail and the locking proximal anatomic femoral plate in the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Twenty synthetic, third generation human femur models, obtained for this purpose, were divided into two groups of 10 bones each. Femurs were provided as a standard representation of AO/Orthopedic Trauma Associationtype 31-A2 unstable fractures. Two types of implantations were inserted: the proximal femoral intramedullary nail in the first group and the locking anatomic femoral plate in the second group. Axial load was applied to the fracture models through the femoral head using a material testing machine, and the biomechanical properties of the implant types were compared. Result: Nail and plate models were locked distally at the same level. Axial steady load with a 5 mm/m velocity was applied through the mechanical axis of femur bone models. Axial loading in the proximal femoral intramedullary nail group was 1.78-fold greater compared to the plate group. All bones that had the plate applied were fractured in the portion containing the distal locking screw. Conclusion: The proximal femoral intramedullary nail provides more stability and allows for earlier weight bearing than the locking plate when used for the treatment of

  11. Proximal Femoral Geometry as Fracture Risk Factor in Female Patients with Osteoporotic Hip Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Proximal femoral geometry may be a risk factor of osteoporotic hip fractures. However, there existed great differences among studies depending on race, sex and age of subjects. The purpose of the present study is to analyze proximal femoral geometry and bone mineral density (BMD) in the osteoporotic hip fracture patients. Furthermore, we investigated proximal femoral geometric parameters affecting fractures, and whether the geometric parameters could be an independent risk factor of fractures regardless of BMD. Methods This study was conducted on 197 women aged 65 years or more who were hospitalized with osteoporotic hip fracture (femur neck fractures ; 84, intertrochanteric fractures; 113). Control group included 551 women who visited to check osteoporosis. Femur BMD and proximal femoral geometry for all subjects were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and compared between the control and fracture groups. Besides, proximal femoral geometric parameters associated with fractures were statistically analyzed. Results There were statistically significant differences in the age and weight, cross-sectional area (CSA)/length/width of the femoral neck and BMD of the proximal femur between fracture group and control group. BMD of the proximal femur in the control group was higher than in the fracture group. For the femoral neck fractures group, the odds ratio (OR) for fractures decrease in the CSA and neck length (NL) of the femur increased by 1.97 times and 1.73 times respectively, regardless of BMD. The OR for fractures increase in the femoral neck width increased by 1.53 times. In the intertrochanteric fracture group, the OR for fractures increase in the femoral neck width increased by 1.45 times regardless of BMD. Conclusions We found that an increase of the femoral neck width could be a proximal femoral geometric parameter which plays important roles as a risk factor for fracture independently of BMD. PMID:27622182

  12. Correlation Between Femoral Neck Shaft Angle and Surgical Management in Trainees With Femoral Neck Stress Fractures.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, Robyn L; Rivera, Jessica C; Tennent, David J; Johnson, Anthony E

    2016-01-01

    The most common overuse injury leading to medical discharge of military recruits is a stress fracture. One of the high-risk stress fractures is of the lateral femoral neck which risks osteonecrosis of the femoral head, the need for arthroplasty and permanent disability. To prevent fracture progression early surgical intervention is recommended. Surgical repairs are performed in about 25% of cases of femoral neck stress fractures at military treatment facilities. Hip geometry is an important intrinsic risk for stress fractures. Loads in the average loading direction will not cause a fracture, but loads of extreme magnitude or extreme orientation may. The purpose of this study was to determine if, in the presence of femoral neck stress fracture, there is a correlation between femoral neck shaft angle, surgical treatment and outcomes. The results of this study suggest there is no correlation between return to full military duty rates, treatment, femoral neck shaft angle or fracture grade on MRI. Patients who underwent surgical fixation had greater fracture grade and pain than those that did not have surgery. Individuals who did not return to duty tended to have higher pain scores at initial evaluation.

  13. Overgrowth of the femoral neck after hip fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Feng-Chih; Kuo, Shu-Jui; Ko, Jih-Yang

    2016-04-26

    Overgrowth after pediatric femoral shaft fractures is well documented; however, overgrowth of the femoral neck after hip fractures has not been especially reported previously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of femoral neck overgrowth after hip fractures in children. From January 1990 to December 2012, there were 30 consecutive patients with pediatric hip fractures. We retrospectively reviewed the medical record of all the patients, including age at injury, gender, injury mechanism, fracture type, methods of treatment, time to bony union, and complications. The functional outcome was evaluated by Ratliff's criteria. The radiography of the pelvis was performed in controlled positions of abduction and external rotation. The length of the femoral neck was measured by two observers. The overgrowth of the femoral neck was defined as lengthening more than 3 mm in comparison with the uninjured hip. At a mean follow-up of 4.9 years (range 2-8 years), 12 patients (40 %) had an overgrowth of the femoral neck. The average overgrowth of the femoral neck was 6.2 mm (range 3.2-8.5 mm). The patients with femoral neck overgrowth were younger (p = 0.0002), have lower rate of avascular necrosis of the femoral head (p = 0.0006), and have better functional outcome (p = 0.0026). Our results provide evidence that overgrowth of the femoral neck following hip fractures may occur in children and the overgrowth phenomenon in the femoral neck was a predictor of good outcomes after treatment.

  14. Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in Child: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Gun-Woo; Yoon, Taek-Rim; Eshnazarovich, Eshnazarov Kamolhuja

    2016-01-01

    A femoral neck stress fracture in child is rare, particularly in bilateral case. It is easy to miss initially or may be misdiagnosed. The authors experienced a case of bilateral femoral neck stress fracture in a 10-year-old boy with bilateral hip. The patient was successfully healed by conservative treatment. We report this rare case with a review of the literature. A femoral neck stress fracture should be included in the differential diagnosis in children who present with sustained hip or groin pain. PMID:27777920

  15. Reverse distal femoral locking compression plate a salvage option in nonunion of proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Dumbre Patil, Sampat S; Karkamkar, Sachin S; Patil, Vaishali S Dumbre; Patil, Shailesh S; Ranaware, Abhijeet S

    2016-01-01

    Background: When primary fixation of proximal femoral fractures with implants fails, revision osteosynthesis may be challenging. Tracts of previous implants and remaining insufficient bone stock in the proximal femur pose unique problems for the treatment. Intramedullary implants like proximal femoral nail (PFN) or surface implants like Dynamic Condylar Screw (DCS) are few of the described implants for revision surgery. There is no evidence in the literature to choose one implant over the other. We used the reverse distal femur locking compression plate (LCP) of the contralateral side in such cases undergoing revision surgery. This implant has multiple options of fixation in proximal femur and its curvature along the length matches the anterior bow of the femur. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this implant in salvage situations. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients of failed primary proximal femoral fractures who underwent revision surgery with reverse distal femoral locking plate from February 2009 to November 2012 were included in this retrospective study. There were 18 subtrochanteric fractures and two ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures, which exhibited delayed union or nonunion. The study included 14 males and six females. The mean patient age was 43.6 years (range 22–65 years) and mean followup period was 52.1 months (range 27–72 months). Delayed union was considered when clinical and radiological signs of union failed to progress at the end of four months from initial surgery. Results: All fractures exhibited union without any complications. Union was assessed clinically and radiologically. One case of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fracture required bone grafting at the second stage for delayed union of the femoral shaft fracture. Conclusions: Reverse distal femoral LCP of the contralateral side can be used as a salvage option for failed fixation of proximal femoral fractures exhibiting nonunion. PMID:27512218

  16. Exactech Opteon Femoral Component Fracture 12 Years after Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shaun P.; Antoci, Valentin; Kadzielski, John J.; Vrahas, Mark S.

    2016-01-01

    Arthroplasty implant fracture is a rare but critical complication that requires difficult revision surgery, often with poor results, patient disability, and significant cost. Several reports show component fracture either at the stem or at the neck interface after a relatively short postoperative course. We report such failure after 12 years, suggesting no safe period after which femoral implant fracture does not occur. PMID:26955493

  17. Arthroscopic Treatment of Medial Femoral Condylar Coronal Fractures and Nonunions

    PubMed Central

    Ercin, Ersin; Bilgili, M. Gokhan; Basaran, S. Hakan; Baca, Emre; Kural, Cemal; Avkan, M. Cevdet

    2013-01-01

    Nonunion of medial femoral condylar coronal fractures are uncommon. In neglected Hoffa fractures despite nonunion, there is a risk of missing accompanying ligamentous and intra-articular injuries. Neither preoperative clinical examination nor magnetic resonance imaging showed these injuries before arthroscopy. Arthroscopy before internal fixation gives additional information and changes the surgical protocol for these fractures and nonunions. PMID:24400191

  18. Treatment strategies for intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Wild, Michael; Gehrmann, Sebastian; Jungbluth, Pascal; Hakimi, Mohssen; Thelen, Simon; Betsch, Marcel; Windolf, Joachim; Wenda, Klaus

    2010-10-11

    Intramedullary nailing has become the gold standard to treat femoral shaft fractures. It is unknown which nailing technique orthopedic surgeons prefer. The goal of this study was to determine current techniques and perioperative complications of intramedullary nailing of diaphyseal femoral fractures. Fifty-one institutions in 26 countries participated in an international survey to assess detailed descriptions of preferred operative strategies and perioperative complications. Altogether, 517 cases of diaphyseal femoral fractures were collected. The Internet-based survey incorporated information about fracture classification, time to operation, Injury Severity Score, type of nail, and operative technique, as well as perioperative complications such as infection, femoral neck fracture, and hardware failure. The preferred position for implantation was supine (91.1%). Most surgeons used a traction table (57.1%) and an antegrade implantation technique (84.5%). Intraoperative fractures of the femoral neck occurred in 1.2% of cases when a traction table was used and in 0.2% if no traction table was used, but without statistical significance (P>.16). In 59.2% of the cases, an isolated femur fracture was present, while the rest sustained multiple injuries. In polytrauma patients and patients with severe thorax injuries, most surgeons chose a delayed treatment with intramedullary femoral nails. Interestingly, 38.0% of the patients with severe thorax injuries were treated on the first day with intramedullary femoral nails. The total rate of complications for intramedullary femoral nailing was low (4.9%), but a high rate of intraoperative femoral neck fractures was observed (1.4%). Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Analysis of risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Sun, Jun-Ying; Zha, Guo-Chun; Jiang, Tao; You, Zhen-Jun; Yuan, De-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Femoral head necrosis is a rare but devastating complication following femoral neck fracture. The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. The aim of this study was to analyze the risk factors for femoral head necrosis after internal fixation in femoral neck fracture. This retrospective study included 166 patients with femoral neck fractures treated with surgical reduction and internal fixation at the authors' institution from January 2004 to December 2008. Eight patients died for reasons unrelated to the surgery, and 12 patients were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 fractures) were followed until union or until conversion to total hip arthroplasty. The patients included 61 males and 85 females with an average age of 47.5 years (range, 18-68 years). The authors analyzed the following factors: age, sex, Garden classification, reduction quality, surgical methods, injury-to-surgery interval, preoperative traction, weight-bearing time, and implant removal. All patients were followed for a mean of 52 months (range, 6-90 months). The incidence of femoral head necrosis was 14.4% (21/146). Garden classification (P=.012), reduction quality (P=.008), implant removal (P=.020), and preoperative traction (P=.003) were significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. Patient age (P=.990), sex (P=.287), injury-to-surgery interval (P=.360), weight-bearing time (P=.868), and surgical methods (P=.987) were not significantly associated with femoral head necrosis. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, implant removal was not a significant risk factor for femoral head necrosis development (P=.498). Garden classification, reduction quality, and preoperative traction had a significant effect on femoral head necrosis development. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Parallel manipulator robot assisted femoral fracture reduction on traction table.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Wang, J Q; Han, W

    2013-01-01

    The principle of femoral shaft fracture reduction is to restore its pre-fractured limb length and mechanical axis. The current documented treatment method with traction table reduction does not conform to the quantitative alignment and reduction. There is also a great amount of X-Ray radiation exposure to both surgeon and patient during the procedure. For this reason, we introduced an innovated Parallel Manipulator Robot (PMR) application: A Femoral Shaft Fracture Reduction with Parallel Manipulator Robot on Traction Table. With this application, the quantitative control on fracture reduction and alignment can be achieved and the radiation exposure to both surgeons and patients can be greatly reduced.

  1. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2013-07-01

    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were collected. Femoral neck shortening, gait parameters, and maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured and differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Variables of patients with little or no shortening, moderate shortening, and severe shortening were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. Median femoral neck shortening was 1.1 cm. Subtle changes in gait pattern, reduced gait velocity, and reduced abductor muscle strength were observed. Age, weight, and Pauwels classification were risk factors for femoral neck shortening. Femoral neck shortening decreased gait velocity and seemed to impair gait symmetry and physical functioning. In conclusion, internal fixation of femoral neck fractures results in permanent physical limitations. The relatively young and healthy patients in our study seem capable of compensating. Attention should be paid to femoral neck shortening and proper correction with a heel lift, as inadequate correction may cause physical complaints and influence outcome. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Vertical shear fractures of the femoral neck. A biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Baitner, A C; Maurer, S G; Hickey, D G; Jazrawi, L M; Kummer, F J; Jamal, J; Goldman, S; Koval, K J

    1999-10-01

    A biomechanical cadaver study was performed to compare the strength and stability of three cannulated cancellous lag screws with a sliding hip screw for fixation of a vertically oriented fracture of the femoral neck (Pauwels Type III). Using eight matched pairs of human cadaveric femurs, vertically oriented femoral neck osteotomies were created, reduced, and randomized to one of the two fixation methods. The constructs were tested with incremental axial loading from 100 N to 1200 N and cyclical loading at 1000 N for 10,000 cycles; fracture displacements and ultimate load to failure were determined. The specimens stabilized using a sliding hip screw showed less inferior femoral head displacement, less shearing displacement at the osteotomy site, and a much greater load to failure than did those stabilized with multiple cancellous lag screws. These results support the use of a sliding hip screw for treatment of vertically oriented fractures of the femoral neck.

  3. Intraoperative Proximal Femoral Fracture in Primary Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Danielle Y; Shahi, Alisina; Park, Andrew G; Purtill, James J

    2015-08-01

    Intraoperative proximal femoral fracture is a complication of primary cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) at rates of 2.95-27.8%. A retrospective review of 2423 consecutive primary cementless THA cases identified 102 hips (96 patients) with fracture. Multivariate analysis compared fracture incidences between implants, Accolade (Stryker Orthopaedics) and Tri-Lock (DePuy Orthopaedics, Inc.), and evaluated potential risk factors using a randomized control group of 1150 cases without fracture. The fracture incidence was 4.4% (102/2423), 3.7% (36/1019) using Accolade and 4.9% using Tri-Lock (66/1404) (P=0.18). Female gender (OR=1.96; 95% CI 1.19-3.23; P=0.008) and smaller stem size (OR=1.64; 95% CI 1.04-2.63; P=0.03) predicted increased odds of fracture. No revisions of the femoral component were required in the fracture cohort.

  4. Periprosthetic femoral fractures after hemiarthroplasty. An analysis of 17 cases.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Huerta, M; Roces-Fernández, A; Mencía-Barrio, R; Alonso-Barrio, J A; Ramos-Pascua, L R

    2015-01-01

    To describe the characteristics of patients with periprosthetic femoral fractures after hemiarthroplasty and analyze their treatment. An observational, longitudinal, retrospective study was conducted on a series of 17 patients with periprosthetic femoral fractures after hip hemiarthroplasty. Fourteen fractures were treated surgically. The characteristics of patients, fractures and treatment outcomes in terms of complications, mortality and functionality were analyzed. The large majority (82%) of patients were women, the mean age was 86 years and with an ASA index of 3 or 4 in 15 patients. Ten fractures were type B. There were 8 general complications, one deep infection, one mobilization of a non-exchanged hemiarthroplasty, and 2 non-unions. There were 85% consolidated fractures, and only 5 patients recovered the same function prior to the injury. At the time of the study 9 patients had died (53%). Periprosthetic femoral fractures after hemiarthroplasty will increase in the coming years and their treatment is difficult. Periprosthetic femoral fractures after hemiarthroplasty are more common in women around 90 years-old, and usually occur in patients with significant morbidity. Although the Vancouver classification is reliable, simple and reproducible, it is only a guide to decide on the best treatment in a patient often fragile. The preoperative planning is essential when deciding a surgical treatment. Copyright © 2014 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Low-energy trauma-induced intercondylar femoral fracture

    PubMed Central

    Aeby, Mathias; Wyss, Tobias; Mentrup, Birgit; Kunstmann, Erdmute; Jakob, Franz; Aeberli, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Summary We present a 44-year-old female patient with recurrent fragility fractures including an intercondylar femoral fracture and with normal planar bone densitometry. Diagnosis of hypophosphatasia was suggested by low volumetric cortical bone mineral density and laboratory findings. DNA sequencing revealed heterozygous mutations in the exons 5, 6 and 9 of the ALPL gene, thus confirming the suspected diagnosis. PMID:27920814

  6. A case report of missed femoral neck stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Onibere, Oruaro Adebayo; Sugathan, Hari Kovilazhikathu

    2015-03-06

    Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) is an uncommon but potentially serious orthopaedic problem. This is a case report on missed femoral neck stress fracture in a 62-year-old female who was initially treated as early-onset coxarthrosis. She later presented to us with a displaced intra-capsular neck of left femur fracture and underwent total hip replacement. This case illustrates that causes other than osteoarthritis should be taken into consideration in patients presenting with anterior hip pain where symptoms are disproportionate to clinical and radiological findings. More advanced investigations such as MRI scan or regular follow up with plain radiographs should be performed. A delay in diagnosis can lead to secondary displacement of the femoral neck stress fracture.

  7. An evaluation of Trapezoidal-28 femoral stem fractures.

    PubMed

    Ritter, M A; Campbell, E D

    1986-11-01

    Fourteen patients sustaining femoral stem fractures of cold rolled wrought stainless steel Trapezoidal-28 prostheses (Zimmir, Warsaw, Indiana) were compared statistically with 259 successful hip replacements of the same type of prosthesis to determine possible factors predisposing to prosthetic fracture. Varus alignment was the highest contributing factor in these femoral stem fractures. Calcar resorption and insufficient distal lateral cement support also were contributory. Medial cement support was less for patients sustaining a fracture, but this was not statistically significant. Patients prone to encounter a fracture were men who were young and/or overweight. There was no significant correlation of fracture to preoperative diagnosis, laterality, trochanteric osteotomy, nonunion of the greater trochanter, or wire breakage.

  8. Proximal femoral replacement for the treatment of periprosthetic fractures.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gregg R; Parvizi, Javad; Rapuri, Venkat; Wolf, Christopher F; Hozack, William J; Sharkey, Peter F; Purtill, James J

    2005-08-01

    A periprosthetic fracture around the femoral component is a rare but potentially problematic complication after total hip arthroplasty. Reconstruction can be challenging, especially when severe bone stock deficiency is encountered. Proximal femoral replacement is one method of treating the severely deficient proximal part of the femur. The present report describes the outcomes of revision total hip arthroplasty with use of a proximal femoral replacement in a cohort of patients who had a Vancouver type-B3 periprosthetic fracture. With use of a computerized institutional database, all patients in whom a Vancouver type-B3 fracture (characterized by severe proximal bone deficiency and a loose femoral stem) had been treated with a proximal femoral replacement were identified. A modular femoral replacement with proximal porous coating had been used in all cases. The twenty-one patients who were identified had had a mean age of 78.3 years (range, fifty-two to ninety years) at the time of the index operation. The clinical and radiographic records of these patients were reviewed. At the time of the latest follow-up (mean, 3.2 years), all but one of the patients were able to walk and had minimal to no pain. Complications included persistent wound drainage that was treated with incision and drainage (two hips), dislocation (two hips), refracture of the femur distal to the stem (one hip), and acetabular cage failure (one hip). Despite a relatively high complication rate, we believe that proximal femoral replacement is a viable option for the treatment of periprosthetic fractures in older patients with severe bone deficiency. If a proximal femoral replacement is used, the stability of the hip must be tested diligently intraoperatively and a constrained acetabular liner should be utilized if instability is encountered. In order to enhance the bone stock, the proximal part of the femur, however poor in quality, should be retained for reapproximation onto the implant.

  9. Femoral stem fracture and in vivo corrosion of retrieved modular femoral hips.

    PubMed

    Huot Carlson, J Caitlin; Van Citters, Douglas W; Currier, John H; Bryant, Amber M; Mayor, Michael B; Collier, John P

    2012-08-01

    A series of 78 retrieved modular hip devices were assessed for fretting and corrosion. Damage was common at both the head-neck junction (54% showing corrosion; 88% showing fretting) and at the stem-sleeve junction (88% corrosion; 65% fretting). Corrosion correlated to in vivo duration, patient activity, and metal (vs ceramic) femoral heads but did not correlate to head carbon content. Femoral stem fatigue fracture was observed in seven retrievals; all had severe corrosion, were under increased stress, and were in vivo longer than the non-fractured cohort. This study emphasizes the potential for stem fracture when small diameter femoral stems with large offsets are used in heavy and active patients. Designs which reduce fretting and corrosion in modular implants is warranted as patients demand longer lasting implants.

  10. Unusual Foreign Bone Fragment in Femoral Open Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sadoni, Hanon; Arti, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Femoral shaft fracture is one of the typical bone fractures due to high energy trauma and may occur as an open fracture. Some foreign materials may enter the fracture site such as sand, cloth particles and so on. Case Presentation: A 28-year-old motorcycle riding military member and his collaborator were received in the hospital because of multiple traumas due to a fall in a hollow during a surveillance mission. His collaborator died because of head trauma and multiple severe open fractures. When fixing the patients femoral fracture, a large femoral butterfly fragment was removed from the patient’s thigh as a foreign segment. The patient’s femur was fixed with a plate and screws. No femoral defect was detected during surgery or post-operative X-rays and CT scan. The removed segment was not a part of the patient’s femur. Conclusions: Surgical and post-surgical findings showed that this segment was not related to the patient’s femur. The foreign segment may have belonged to the other victim of this trauma. PMID:27218050

  11. Distal Femoral Oblique Fracture in a Young Male Soldier

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, David Naji; Al Khateeb, Hesham; Safwat, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Here, we report a case of a distal femoral fracture in a 23-year-old male army cadet who presented to the Accident and Emergency department following a twisting injury while participating in a routine military marching exercise. A pathological fracture was considered but this suspicion was put to rest following thorough investigations, leaving only a diagnosis of a nontraumatic spontaneous femoral fracture. To our knowledge, there have been no reported cases of distal femoral fractures associated with nontraumatic military exercises, with the majority of injuries instead related to stress fractures. A vigilant literature search yielded no cases of similar injury nature, which is the primary reason we believe that those interested in orthopaedics or military doctors would find themselves drawn to this case. The patient presented with severe pain in his left thigh and on examination there was a deformity of his left thigh. In terms of investigations, a bone profile, plain film radiographs, C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and tumor markers were all preformed and proved unremarkable. The definitive treatment was by open reduction and internal fixation. Femoral fractures often require significant amounts of force, particularly in young, healthy individuals. Generally, these injuries in this demographic follow high-energy traumas, with the lion's share occurring following a road traffic accident or other high-speed impact. More often than not, the treatment is surgical. Given the extraordinary manner of this such, one must be attentive and exhaustive in their investigation of such presentations. PMID:27258509

  12. Algorithm for the management of femoral shaft fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Sanzarello, I; Calamoneri, E; D'Andrea, L; Rosa, M A

    2014-06-01

    Pediatric closed femoral shaft fractures are commonly related to a good prognosis. There is no consensus on treatment. We aimed to evaluate the treatment, features, radiological findings and management strategies, creating an algorithm of treatment. Fifty-two simple femoral shaft fractures in children were retrospectively evaluated for age and gender distribution, side of the fracture, etiology of injuries, limb length discrepancy, range of knee and hip motion and parents satisfaction with a mean clinical and radiographic follow-up of 3 years and 6 months. Twenty-eight patients were treated with reduction and early hip spica cast while 24 patients were treated with external fixation (EF). Nearly 58 % of the cases were caused by traffic accidents and were predominantly male (61.5 %). Most of the fractures were of the middle femoral shaft (57.6 %). Muscle strength was normal (MRC scale) in all patients with no pain (NIPS and PRS scale). Knee and Hip range of motion were similar in both types of treatment. Patients treated with EF had shorter limb length discrepancy compared with SC. There were no reports of re-fracture. We found a higher familiar satisfaction in patients treated with EF. An algorithm for the management of femoral shaft fractures in the pediatric population is proposed. Results on the study population gave raise to a satisfactory clinical and radiological results.

  13. Reduction of Femoral Fractures in Long-Term Care Facilities: The Bavarian Fracture Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Clemens; Cameron, Ian D.; Klenk, Jochen; Lindemann, Ulrich; Heinrich, Sven; König, Hans-Helmut; Rapp, Kilian

    2011-01-01

    Background Hip fractures are a major public health burden. In industrialized countries about 20% of all femoral fractures occur in care dependent persons living in nursing care and assisted living facilities. Preventive strategies for these groups are needed as the access to medical services differs from independent home dwelling older persons at risk of osteoporotic fractures. It was the objective of the study to evaluate the effect of a fall and fracture prevention program on the incidence of femoral fracture in nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. Methods In a translational intervention study a fall prevention program was introduced in 256 nursing homes with 13,653 residents. The control group consisted of 893 nursing homes with 31,668 residents. The intervention consisted of staff education on fall and fracture prevention strategies, progressive strength and balance training, and on institutional advice on environmental adaptations. Incident femoral fractures served as outcome measure. Results In the years before the intervention risk of a femoral fracture did not differ between the intervention group (IG) and control group (CG). During the one-year intervention period femoral fracture rates were 33.6 (IG) and 41.0/1000 person years (CG), respectively. The adjusted relative risk of a femoral fracture was 0.82 (95% CI 0.72-0.93) in residents exposed to the fall and fracture prevention program compared to residents from CG. Conclusions The state-wide dissemination of a multi-factorial fall and fracture prevention program was able to reduce femoral fractures in residents of nursing homes. PMID:21918688

  14. Femoral neck fractures in osteogenesis imperfecta treated with bisphosphonates

    PubMed Central

    Papanna, M. C.; Tafazal, S.; Bell, M. J.; Giles, S. N.; Fernandes, J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a condition characterised by bone fragility and multiple fractures, which cause considerable morbidity in the affected patients. Most cases are associated with mutations in one of the type I collagen genes. Recently, bisphosponates have been used widely to reduce pain and the incidence of fragility fractures in OI in children, even though there have been concerns raised regarding the long-term complications of it due to their effect on the bone. The fragility fractures involving the neck of the femur in children with intramedullary rods in the femoral shaft are very difficult to treat. Although these fractures are frequently un-displaced, they require optimal internal fixation to achieve fracture union. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and radiological outcomes of OI patients with intracapsular femoral neck fracture treated with headless compression screws. Method and results At our institute, we identified seven patients (11 hips) with OI who underwent internal fixation with headless compression screws for a neck of femur fracture between June 2010 and Dec 2012. The time to fractures healing was on average 14 weeks (12 to 16). All patients gained their pre-injury ambulatory status. Conclusion It is very challenging and technically demanding for orthopaedic surgeons when treating the fragility fracture of the neck of femur in patients with intramedullary rod in the femoral shaft. The published data regarding the management of these complex conditions are very limited. We describe our experience with the technique of percutaneous headless compression screw fixation for treating the femoral neck fractures in OI patients. PMID:28828062

  15. Regenerate bone fracture rate following femoral lengthening in paediatric patients

    PubMed Central

    Burke, N. G.; Cassar-Gheiti, A. J.; Tan, J.; McHugh, G.; O’Neil, B. J.; Noonan, M.; Moore, D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Femoral lengthening using a circular or mono-lateral frame is a commonly used technique. Fracture at the site of the regenerate bone is a major concern especially following removal of the external fixator. This aim of this study was to assess the rate of fracture of the regenerate bone in this single surgeon series of paediatric patients and determine potential risk factors. Methods Retrospective review of all the femoral lengthening performed by the senior author was performed. The medical and physiotherapy notes were reviewed. The gender, age at time of surgery, disease aetiology, total days in the external fixator and length of the new regenerate bone were recorded. Patients who sustained a regenerate fracture were identified. Results A total of 176 femoral lengthening procedures were performed on 108 patients. Eight regenerate fractures occurred in seven patients (4.5%). The mechanism of injury was a fall in five cases and during physiotherapy in three cases. The regenerate fracture occurred a median number of nine days following removal of frame. There was no significant difference between gender, age at time of surgery, total time in external fixator between those who sustained a regenerate fracture and those patients who did not. A significant difference was noted between the amount of lengthening between the ‘regenerate fracture group’ and the ‘no fracture group’ (50 mm vs 38 mm, respectively; p = 0.029). There was no association between disease aetiology and risk of regenerate fracture. Conclusions Femoral lengthening of more than 50 mm increases the risk of a fracture at the regenerate site regardless of the disease aetiology. We recommend avoidance of aggressive physiotherapy for the initial four weeks following external fixator removal. PMID:28828065

  16. Calculation of pediatric femoral fracture rotation from direct roentgenograms.

    PubMed

    Ozel, M S; Ketenci, I E; Kaya, E; Tuna, S; Saygi, B

    2013-12-01

    Radiologic determination of pediatric femoral fracture rotation has been debated. Measuring the antetorsion angle of the fractured femur by computed tomography and comparing it with the opposite side has been the method of choice for this purpose. However, no simple method for direct measurement of femoral fracture rotation exists in the literature. In this study, our aim was to test a mathematical method of measuring the axial plane malrotation from direct roentgenograms. A pediatric femoral shaft fracture model was produced. The bone was secured to a wooden frame that allowed the distal part of the fracture to rotate around an axis. Radiographs were taken at known intervals of rotation ranging from the neutral position to 60° external rotation and to 60° internal rotation in 5° increments of rotation. Five independent, blinded observers measured the radiographs and calculated the fracture rotation according to a standard formula. Calculated rotation values were compared with known rotation values. Calculated rotation values were close to actual rotation values throughout the arc of rotation. The mean absolute error of five observers for all measurements of external and internal rotation was 3.97° (±0.83). The correlation coefficient between calculated and actual rotation values was 0.9927. The interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient for calculated rotation was 0.997. Absolute error and correlation coefficient values indicate that this method is accurate and reliable in determining the fracture rotation.

  17. Stress fracture of the pelvis and lower limbs including atypical femoral fractures-a review.

    PubMed

    Tins, Bernhard J; Garton, Mark; Cassar-Pullicino, Victor N; Tyrrell, Prudencia N M; Lalam, Radhesh; Singh, Jaspreet

    2015-02-01

    Stress fractures, that is fatigue and insufficiency fractures, of the pelvis and lower limb come in many guises. Most doctors are familiar with typical sacral, tibial or metatarsal stress fractures. However, even common and typical presentations can pose diagnostic difficulties especially early after the onset of clinical symptoms. This article reviews the aetiology and pathophysiology of stress fractures and their reflection in the imaging appearances. The role of varying imaging modalities is laid out and typical findings are demonstrated. Emphasis is given to sometimes less well-appreciated fractures, which might be missed and can have devastating consequences for longer term patient outcomes. In particular, atypical femoral shaft fractures and their relationship to bisphosphonates are discussed. Migrating bone marrow oedema syndrome, transient osteoporosis and spontaneous osteonecrosis are reviewed as manifestations of stress fractures. Radiotherapy-related stress fractures are examined in more detail. An overview of typical sites of stress fractures in the pelvis and lower limbs and their particular clinical relevance concludes this review. Teaching Points • Stress fractures indicate bone fatigue or insufficiency or a combination of these. • Radiographic visibility of stress fractures is delayed by 2 to 3 weeks. • MRI is the most sensitive and specific modality for stress fractures. • Stress fractures are often multiple; the underlying cause should be evaluated. • Infratrochanteric lateral femoral fractures suggest an atypical femoral fracture (AFF); endocrinologist referral is advisable.

  18. Symptomatic atypical femoral fractures are related to underlying hip geometry.

    PubMed

    Taormina, David P; Marcano, Alejandro I; Karia, Raj; Egol, Kenneth A; Tejwani, Nirmal C

    2014-06-01

    The benefits of bisphosphonates are well documented, but prolonged use has been associated with atypical femur fractures. Radiographic markers for fracture predisposition could potentially aid in safer medication use. In this case-control designed study, we compared hip radiographic parameters and the demographic characteristics of chronic bisphosphonate users who sustained an atypical femoral fracture with a group of chronic bisphosphonate users who did not sustain an atypical femur fracture and also a group who sustained an intertrochanteric hip fracture. Radiographic parameters included were neck-shaft angle (NSA), hip-axis length (HAL) and center-edge angle (CE). Multivariate regression was used to evaluate the relationship between radiographic measures and femur fracture. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis determined cut-off points for neck-shaft angle and risk of atypical femur fracture. Ultimately, pre-fracture radiographs of 53 bisphosphonate users who developed atypical fracture were compared with 43 asymptomatic chronic bisphosphonate users and 64 intertrochanteric fracture patients. Duration of bisphosphonate use did not statistically differ between users sustaining atypical fracture and those without fracture (7.9 [±3.5] vs. 7.7 [±3.3] years, p=0.7). Bisphosphonate users who fractured had acute/varus pre-fracture neck-shaft angles (p<0.001), shorter hip-axis length (p<0.01), and narrower center-edge angles (p<0.01). Regression analysis revealed associations between neck-shaft angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.81-0.97; p=0.01), center edge angle (OR=0.89 [95% CI=0.80-0.99]; p=0.03), and BMI (OR=1.15 [95% CI=1.02-1.31; p=0.03) with fracture development. ROC curve analysis (AUC=0.67 [95% CI=0.56-0.79]) determined that a cut-off point for neck-shaft angle <128.3° yielded 69% sensitivity and 63% specificity for development of atypical femoral fracture. Ultimately, an acute/varus angle of the femoral neck, high BMI, and narrow center-edge angle were

  19. Femoral shaft medialisation and neck-shaft angle in unstable pertrochanteric femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Pajarinen, J; Lindahl, J; Savolainen, V; Michelsson, O; Hirvensalo, E

    2004-12-01

    We analysed the time-dependent mean changes in the femoral neck length, neck-shaft angle and hip offset in a randomised study comprising 48 patients who were treated with the dynamic hip screw (DHS) or the proximal femoral nail (PFN) for an unstable intertrochanteric femoral fracture. As a consequence of fracture compression, the mean post-operative neck length was significantly shorter in patients treated with the DHS. During the first 6 weeks after the operation, a mean decrease of 4.6 degrees was observed in the neck-shaft angle, but there was not a significant difference between the treatment groups. The radiographic measures remained virtually unaffected during the interval from 6 weeks to 4 months in both groups. When the operated hip was compared to the opposite hip, patients who had received the DHS showed significantly greater medialisation of the femoral shaft at 4 months than those treated with the PFN. We thus recommend that unstable intertrochanteric fractures should be initially reduced in a slight valgus position in order to achieve an outcome after healing that is as normal as possible. As a result of differences in operative technique and implant stability, the PFN may be superior to the DHS in retaining the anatomical relations in the hip region in unstable intertrochanteric fractures.

  20. Subtrochanteric Femoral Insufficiency Fracture Following Bisphosphonate Therapy for Osseous Metastases.

    PubMed

    Bush, Lisabeth A; Chew, Felix S

    2008-01-01

    We present the case of an insufficiency fracture of the femoral shaft in a 61-year-old man who had received bisphosphonate therapy to reduce the fracture risk from lytic renal cell carcinoma metastases to the spine. Approximately 1.5 years after beginning monthly intravenous infusions of zoledronic acid (Zometa), the patient complained of persistent thigh pain. Radionuclide bone scan showed mildly increased activity in the lateral subtrochanteric cortex of the right femur, where there was focally increased T2 signal on MRI and a small, triangular ridge or cortical beak on radiographs. The lesion was initially thought to represent a metastasis, but after the patient returned with a transverse femoral shaft fracture through the ridge following minimal trauma, MRI and biopsy of the lesion failed to show any evidence of tumor. We suggest that this fracture is similar to the low-energy proximal femoral shaft fractures recently reported in postmenopausal women who have received oral bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. Suppression of bone turnover may play a role in the development of these fractures.

  1. [DHS osteosynthesis for proximal femoral fractures: infectious complications].

    PubMed

    Hrubina, M; Skoták, M; Běhounek St, J

    2013-01-01

    Evaluation of infectious complications in patients with proximal femoral fractures treated by osteosynthesis using dynamic hip screws (DHS). The group included 501 patients with 532 DHS procedures performed in the years 1996-2010. In 31 patients osteosynthesis was carried out bilaterally. Osteosynthesis was indicated for femoral neck fracture in 18 hips and for pertrochanteric fracture in 514 hips. Prophylactic antibiotic therapy was administered within 48 hours of surgery. The occurrence of infectious complications (surface and deep wound infection), presence of infectious agents, risk factors, and the course of treatment and its outcome were investigated. Of 532 fractures treated by DHS osteosynthesis, seven were infected (1.3%) as follows: one fracture of the femoral neck with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and, of six pertrochanteric fractures, four with Staphylococcus aureus, one with Escherichia coli and one with Staphylococcus epidermidis. Surface wound infection was diagnosed in one case (0.2%) and deep infection in six cases (1.1%). Five revision DHS procedures were carried out in five patients. One or more risk factors were found in each patient with infected DHS. The treatment of infection included wound dressing and abscess drainage without reoperation in two cases, implant removal in three, and implant removal with femoral head resection and spacer insertion in two cases. Second-stage total hip arthroplasty (THA) was performed in one case. Of the seven infected fractures, five (71%) healed successfully. DISCUSSION DHS osteosynthesis is a reliable method for treating proximal femoral fractures. The 1.3% infection rate in our group is comparable with other relevant studies. This complication is serious and requires prolonged treatment but is not as devastating as an infected THA. For the treatment of infected DHS osteosynthesis, standard methods from screw removal to second-stage THA were employed. Infectious complications following

  2. Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture Presented with Unilateral Symptoms in a Shipman Laborer: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Santoso, Asep; Joo, Sang-Don; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Seol, Young-Jun; Yoon, Taek-Rim

    2017-01-01

    Femoral neck stress fracture occured commonly in athlete and military recruit populations, some of them are bilateral. Bilateral femoral neck stress fracture that associated with other occupation is very uncommon. We report a bilateral femoral neck stress fracture case that presented with unilateral symptoms in a male shipman laborer. The patient was successfully treated conservatively. Stress fracture sometimes occur associated with an unexpected specific occupation. Consideration of bilateral involvement is highly important in managing stress fracture. PMID:28316966

  3. Femoral diaphysis fractures in cattle: 26 cases (1994-2005).

    PubMed

    Nichols, S; Anderson, D E; Miesner, M D; Newman, K D

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study was conducted to evaluate the outcome for cattle with diaphyseal fractures of the femur, but not including capital physeal injuries. Sources of information were medical records of cattle having a definitive diagnosis of diaphyseal femoral fractures and telephone survey of owners. Medical records for 26 cattle with femoral fracture were found; of the 20 aged less than 2 months, 15 were treated surgically, 4 conservatively (stall rest) and 1 was euthanased without treatment. The surgical treatment varied according to the configuration of the fracture and the surgeon's experience. Surgery for mid-diaphyseal fractures had a significantly better surgical outcome then distal diaphyseal fractures (P < 0.05), as there were significantly fewer postoperative complications. Of the 15 calves treated surgically, 10 were discharged from hospital and 5 were retained in the herd without noticeable lameness. Of the 4 calves treated conservatively, 3 were alive at follow-up, but 2 were still lame. Of the 6 older cattle, 3 were euthanased without treatment and 3 were treated conservatively, 2 of which were alive at follow-up but 1 was still lame. Conservative treatment of femur fracture in cattle is possible but associated with complications during the convalescence. Continued research is needed to optimise distal diaphyseal fracture stabilisation in young cattle.

  4. Proximal femoral bone geometry in osteoporotic hip fractures in Thailand.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    A number of different bone geometries have been reported to be correlated with osteoporosis, bone mineral density and fractures. Those correlations are used for diagnosis, treatment and prediction of fracture risk in osteoporosis cases. However there have been no studies of significant bone parameters predicting osteoporosis and hip fracture in Thailand To evaluate the correlation between geometric parameters of the proximal femur and both the Singh index and bone mineral density as well as to investigate the relationship between those two metrics and osteoporotic hip fracture in the Thai population. Forty-four Thai patients with osteoporotic hip fractures andforty-five healthy Thai people matched for age and gender were included in the present study. Bone mineral density and bone geometry from plain hip radiographs of non-fracture sites in the fracture group and proximal femur radiographs of the same site in the healthy group were measured That data were analyzed to determine levels of correlation. Bone geometries were also analyzed to determine hip fracture predictive capacity. Correlation between the Singh index and bone mineral density was significant (p < 0.01), with a moderate degree of agreement. The radiograph measurement of the width ofthefemoral medial neck cortex was the only parameter which was statistically significantly correlated with both osteoporosis and with osteoporotic hip fracture (p = 0.014 and p = 0.035, respectively). Each 1 mm reduction in the width of the femoral medial neck cortex increased the osteoporotic hip fracture risk by a factor of 2.7 (OR = 0.37, 95% CI = 0.15-0.93). In the Thai population, bone geometry from plain radiographs can help predict the risk of osteoporotic hip fracture. Osteoporosis is correlated with a low Singh index value. The width of the femoral medial neck cortex is a reliable predictor of hip fracture risk.

  5. Hip resurfacing femoral neck fracture influenced by valgus placement.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Carolyn; Masri, Bassam A; Tonetti, Jérôme; Hodgson, Antony J; Greidanus, Nelson V

    2007-12-01

    Femoral neck fracture is the most common short-term concern after hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Currently, there is little basis to decide between neutral and valgus placement. We loaded 10 notched cadaveric femur pairs to failure; one side was implanted at 0 degrees relative to the femoral neck and the other at 10 degrees valgus. All 20 were dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanned. Failure load correlated with bone mineral density. Valgus placement increased the fracture load by an average of 28% over neutral for specimens with normal bone mineral density but had no effect on fracture load in specimens with low bone mineral density. For specimens with normal bone mineral density (typical of patients undergoing resurfacing arthroplasty), neutral-valgus placement had a greater effect than bone mineral density, explaining 54% of the fracture load variance. Component placement greater than 10 degrees valgus is likely undesirable because this can lead to an increase in component size and a greater likelihood of notching. To reduce fracture risk, we recommend placing the femoral component in valgus and selecting patients with higher bone mineral density.

  6. Treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures with modular stems.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Vaquero, Daniel; Fernandez-Lombardia, Jesus; de los Rios, Jimena Llorens; Perez-Coto, Ivan; Iglesias-Fernandez, Susana

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the efficacy of modular femoral stems for the treatment of certain post-operative periprosthetic fractures in patients with hip arthroplasty. Of a total series of 61 modular revision stems, 17 were used to address periprosthetic femoral fractures and 12 of these are the object of this study. The average follow-up was 3.7 years (range 1-14 years). The evaluations were performed at three and six months, and then annually using the HHS score and radiographic studies for the assessment of loosening, subsidence and bone integration of the stem. Seven cases had type B2 fractures and five type B3 ones. All patients walked freely, eight of them using canes. HHS improved to a post-operative mean of 78 (range 72-83). Radiographically, fracture healing was observed at three months in nine cases. In six cases stem subsidence of a mean of 3.9 mm (range 2-12 mm) was observed, which stabilized a year following implantation and did not need revision surgery. In two cases a subsequent dislocation (at three and seven months after surgery) occurred, which were treated with constrained acetabular systems. In nine cases hypotrophy of the cortex in the diaphyseal area was noted, which did not alter the patients' clinical course. Modular femoral stems are an acceptable treatment in type B2 and B3 periprosthetic fractures.

  7. A Case of Femoral Fracture in Klippel Trenaunay Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nahas, Sam; Wong, Fabian; Back, Diane

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of Klippel Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) who presented with severe bilateral knee osteoarthritis (OA). Preoperative planning was commenced for a total knee replacement (TKR). Whilst on the waiting list the patient suffered a fall and sustained a complete femoral diaphysis fracture. Conservative management in the form of skin traction was initially chosen as significant extra- and intramedullary vascular malformations posed an increased risk of perioperative bleeding. This failed to progress to union, and so open reduction and internal fixation was performed. This subsequently resulted in on-going delayed union, which was subsequently managed with low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS, otherwise known as Exogen (Bioventus. exogen. Secondary exogen, 2012)). There are only two previous documented cases of femoral fracture in KTS. This is the first report of a patient with this rare syndrome receiving this treatment. We discuss the management of fracture in this challenging group of patients. PMID:25478269

  8. Risk of atypical femoral fracture during and after bisphosphonate use

    PubMed Central

    Schilcher, Jörg; Koeppen, Veronika; Aspenberg, Per; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Use of bisphosphonates in women is associated with higher risk of atypical femoral fractures. The risk in terms of timing of use and type of bisphosphonate, and in men, remains unclear. Patients and methods We reviewed radiographs of 5,342 Swedish women and men aged 55 years or more who had had a fracture of the femoral shaft in the 3-year period 2008–2010 (97% of those eligible), and found 172 patients with atypical fractures (93% of them women). We obtained data on medication and comorbidity. The risk of atypical fracture associated with bisphosphonate use was estimated in a nationwide cohort analysis. In addition, we performed a case-control analysis with comparison to 952 patients with ordinary shaft fractures. A short report of the findings has recently been presented (Schilcher et al. 2014a). Here we provide full details. Results The age-adjusted relative risk (RR) of atypical fracture associated with bisphosphonate use was 55 (95% CI: 39–79) in women and 54 (CI: 15–192) in men. In bisphosphonate users, women had a 3-fold higher risk than men (RR = 3.1, CI: 1.1–8.4). Alendronate users had higher risk than risedronate users (RR = 1.9, CI: 1.1–3.3). The RR after 4 years or more of use reached 126 (CI: 55–288), with a corresponding absolute risk of 11 (CI: 7–14) fractures per 10,000 person-years of use. The risk decreased by 70% per year since last use. Interpretation Women have a higher risk of atypical femoral fracture than men. The type of bisphosphonate used may affect risk estimates and the risk decreases rapidly after cessation. PMID:25582459

  9. Genetic predisposition for femoral neck stress fractures in military conscripts.

    PubMed

    Korvala, Johanna; Hartikka, Heini; Pihlajamäki, Harri; Solovieva, Svetlana; Ruohola, Juha-Petri; Sahi, Timo; Barral, Sandra; Ott, Jürg; Ala-Kokko, Leena; Männikkö, Minna

    2010-10-21

    Stress fractures are a significant problem among athletes and soldiers and may result in devastating complications or even permanent handicap. Genetic factors may increase the risk, but no major susceptibility genes have been identified. The purpose of this study was to search for possible genetic factors predisposing military conscripts to femoral neck stress fractures. Eight genes involved in bone metabolism or pathology (COL1A1, COL1A2, OPG, ESR1, VDR, CTR, LRP5, IL-6) were examined in 72 military conscripts with a femoral neck stress fracture and 120 controls. The risk of femoral neck stress fracture was significantly higher in subjects with low weight and body mass index (BMI). An interaction between the CTR (rs1801197) minor allele C and the VDR C-A haplotype was observed, and subjects lacking the C allele in CTR and/or the C-A haplotype in VDR had a 3-fold higher risk of stress fracture than subjects carrying both (OR = 3.22, 95% CI 1.38-7.49, p = 0.007). In addition, the LRP5 haplotype A-G-G-C alone and in combination with the VDR haplotype C-A was associated with stress fractures through reduced body weight and BMI. Our findings suggest that genetic factors play a role in the development of stress fractures in individuals subjected to heavy exercise and mechanical loading. The present results can be applied to the design of future studies that will further elucidate the genetics of stress fractures.

  10. Avascular necrosis of the femoral head after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Min, Byung-Woo; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2011-05-18

    The reported incidence of avascular necrosis after femoral neck fracture fixation varies widely, and there is no consensus regarding its risk factors. We evaluated the incidence of avascular necrosis of the femoral head with the use of contemporary techniques for femoral neck fracture fixation. We then sought to determine what potential risk factors influenced the development of avascular necrosis.Between 1990 and 2005, one hundred sixty-three intracapsular femoral neck fractures in 163 patients were treated with internal fixation at our level-I trauma center. All patients were monitored until conversion to total hip arthroplasty or for a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Ten patients (10 hips) died and 7 patients (7 hips) were lost to follow-up. The remaining 146 patients (146 hips) had a mean 5.2 years of follow-up (range, 3 months to 17 years). The incidence of avascular necrosis was 25.3% (37 hips). The average time to diagnosis of avascular necrosis was 18.8 months (range, 3-47 months). Patient sex, age, interval from injury to surgery, and mechanism of injury were statistically not associated with the development of avascular necrosis. The quality of fracture reduction, adequacy of fixation, degree of displacement, and comminution of the posterior cortex were significantly associated. After we controlled for patient and radiographic characteristics, multivariate analyses indicated that the important predictors for avascular necrosis are poor reduction (odds ratio=13.889) and initial displacement of the fracture (odds ratio=4.693). Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Is reconstruction nailing of all femoral shaft fractures cost effective? A decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Faucett, Scott C; Collinge, Cory A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2012-11-01

    Femoral shaft fractures are usually treated with anterograde or retrograde nails that typically do not provide femoral neck fixation. Ipsilateral femoral neck fractures occur with 2.5%-10% of femoral shaft fractures; 19%-55% of associated femoral neck fractures are missed with plain films and 5%-22% with computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to determine if routine reconstruction nailing of all femoral shaft fractures with or without occult femoral neck fractures is cost effective. A decision tree model examined the cost effectiveness of reconstruction nailing over standard intramedullary nailing for all femoral shaft fractures in which an associated femoral neck fracture was not identified on plain radiographs. As a base model, we assumed that 5% of shaft fractures had an ipsilateral femoral neck fracture, and 37% were missed and required further surgery. We assigned a small morbidity and additional cost ($680) for the use of a reconstruction nail and 2 screws. Model inputs including costs, clinical outcome probabilities, and health utilities were derived from the literature, estimated from institutional data, or assumed by the authors. Sensitivity analyses evaluated the effect of the rate of associated femoral neck fracture, the rate of missed femoral neck fracture, the complication rate of reconstruction screws, the cost of the extra reconstruction screws, and the utilities of each outcome on the incremental cost effectiveness (ICER) of both strategies. Current practice in cost-effectiveness analysis uses a threshold of $100,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained as cost effective. A secondary analysis of the use CT scans to reduce missed femoral neck fractures was also performed. The base model showed that the placement of reconstruction nails in all isolated femur fractures was not cost effective. Sensitivity analysis demonstrated that the ICER was most sensitive to the cost of the reconstruction nail, hemiarthroplasty, and a missed femoral

  12. [Surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures--a training intervention?].

    PubMed

    Bliemel, C; Oberkircher, L; Eschbach, D-A; Struewer, J; Ruchholtz, S; Buecking, B

    2013-04-01

    Proximal femoral fractures are common in the elderly. Surgical and postoperative complications are of major importance in this population. Numerous factors affecting the treatment results could be identified so far. The effect of surgeons' experience in terms of educational status is not entirely clarified yet. The aim of the present study was to analyse the effect of surgeons' educational status on the outcome in proximal femoral fractures. Therefore treatment results were compared in terms of individual surgeons' experience. Furthermore, the surgical education concept of our department was evaluated. At a national trauma centre, patients of at least 60 years of age with proximal femoral fractures were prospectively screened. Patient-specific parameters like Barthel index, ASA score, Charlson score, patients' age and type of fracture were collected at the time of hospital admission. During the in-hospital stay type of fracture treatment, surgery time, number of blood transfusions, perioperative complications, duration of in-hospital stay as well as in-hospital mortality were recorded. Results were analysed for osteosynthesis and prosthesis depending on the surgeons' educational status. Four different groups of surgeons were distinguished (inexperienced senior house officer; experienced senior house officer; specialist in orthopaedics and accident surgery; specialist in orthopaedics and accident surgery with an additional qualification for special accident surgery). 402 patients with coxal femoral fractures could be included into the study. 160 patients (40 %) sustained complications of different severity. In-hospital mortality was shown to be 6.2 %. Separate consideration of osteosynthesis and prosthesis revealed no difference between the four groups of surgeons regarding mortality rate, number of blood transfusions and in-hospital stay. In terms of cutting/suture time consultants with a further specialisation in trauma surgery were significantly faster. Apart

  13. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    PubMed

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Ettehad, Hossein; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Nabi, Bahram Naderi; Moghaddam, Roya; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Khanjanian, Gita

    2017-03-01

    Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead to postoperative acute anemia and some other complications. Tranexamic acid (TA) is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements during some elective surgeries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA) on intraoperative blood loss and a subsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting. Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullary nailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. Group I, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA) via intravenous infusion before surgical incision. Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline. Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobin change as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups. Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.570). Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group (5.6%) compared to the placebo group (30%) (P=0.06). No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during the surgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894). Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion during traumatic femoral fracture operation.

  14. Does Tranexamic Acid Reduce Bleeding during Femoral Fracture Operation?

    PubMed Central

    Haghighi, Mohammad; Ettehad, Hossein; Mardani-Kivi, Mohsen; Mirbolook, Ahmadreza; Nabi, Bahram Naderi; Moghaddam, Roya; Sedighinejad, Abbas; Khanjanian, Gita

    2017-01-01

    Background: Proximal Femoral shaft fractures are commonly associated with marked blood loss which can lead to postoperative acute anemia and some other complications. Tranexamic acid (TA) is an antifibrinolytic medication that reduces intra-and postoperative blood loss and transfusion requirements during some elective surgeries. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of intravenous Tranexamic acid (TA) on intraoperative blood loss and a subsequent need for transfusion in patients who were undergoing surgery for femoral shaft fractures in trauma setting. Methods: Thirty-eight ASA grade I-II patients undergoing proximal femoral shaft fracture surgery with intra medullary nailing were included in this double blind randomized controlled clinical trial. They were allocated into two groups. Group I, the intervention group with eighteen patients received 15 mg/kg (TA) via intravenous infusion before surgical incision. Patients in the placebo group received an identical volume of normal saline. Hemoglobin level was measured four hours before and after the surgeries. Postoperative blood loss and hemoglobin change as well as transfusion rates and volumes were compared between the two groups. Results: Mean Percentage fall in hemoglobin after surgery were 1.75±0.84 and 2.04±1.9 in the study and placebo groups, respectively (P=0.570). Hemoglobin loss was higher in the placebo group. Transfusion rates was lower in TA group (5.6%) compared to the placebo group (30%) (P=0.06). No significant difference in The Allowable Blood Loss during the surgery was found between the two groups (P=0.894). Conclusion: Preoperative treatment with TA reduces postoperative blood loss and the need for blood transfusion during traumatic femoral fracture operation. PMID:28497100

  15. [Classification of femoral shaft fractures in hip arthroplasties].

    PubMed

    Baulot, E; Chabernaud, D; Grammont, P M

    1995-12-01

    Fractures of the femoral shaft around cemented hip prosthesis have become increasingly common and are difficult to manage. These fractures are often complex and may occur late after the insertion of a cemented prosthesis. They often occur in relation to cortical defects produced by cement and previous surgery. The main classifications already described can be divided into "anatomic" classifications (founded on the level of the fracture on the shaft: Parrish 1964, Ali Khan 1977, Van Elegem 1979) or into "prosthetic" classifications (founded on the level of the fracture with respect to the tip of the prosthesis: Johansson 1981, Bethea 1982, Cooke 1988). But these classifications give few guideliness to help the choice of the most appropriate form of treatment. The aim of treatment, which remains controversial, is to return to weight-bearing and mobility as promptly as possible so preventing the complications of immobilization which are frequent and serious in the often elderly population.

  16. Treatment of open proximal femoral fractures sustained in combat.

    PubMed

    Mack, Andrew W; Freedman, Brett A; Groth, Adam T; Kirk, Kevin L; Keeling, John J; Andersen, Romney C

    2013-02-06

    Open proximal femoral fractures are rare injuries that often result from wartime high-energy causes. Limited data exist regarding the treatment and complications of these injuries. We retrospectively reviewed the records of combat casualties treated at two institutions between March 2003 and March 2008. The casualty patient databases, medical records, radiographs, and laboratory data were reviewed to determine time to union, complication rates, and patient outcomes. Forty-one patients (thirty-nine men and two women) with a mean age of 25.7 years were identified as receiving treatment for open proximal femoral fractures. The mechanisms of injury for these forty-one patients were blast (twenty-nine patients [71%]), gunshot wound (eight patients [20%]), motor vehicle crash (three patients [7%]), and helicopter crash (one patient [2%]). There were thirty Type-IIIA, six Type-IIIB, and five Type-IIIC open fractures. The predominant method of definitive fixation was a cephalomedullary or reconstruction nail in thirty-four patients (83%). Thirty-nine patients had at least two years of follow-up data available for assessment of complications and radiographic union. The mean time to union was 5.1 months (range, 2.8 to 16.0 months). Complications requiring reoperation occurred in twenty-two (56%) of thirty-nine patients. Wound infection (twelve patients [31%]) and symptomatic heterotopic ossification (ten patients [26%]) were the most common complications. Cephalomedullary nail fixation of open Type-III wartime subtrochanteric and pertrochanteric femoral fractures can be reliably used to effect fracture union in a timely manner. The most frequent complications of treatment are wound infection and symptomatic heterotopic ossification.

  17. Augmentation of proximal femoral nail in unstable trochanteric fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gadegone, Wasudeo M.; Shivashankar, Bhaskaran; Lokhande, Vijayanad; Salphale, Yogesh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Biomechanically proximal femoral nail (PFN) is a better choice of implant, still it is associated with screw breakage, cut out of screw through femoral head, Z effect, reverse Z effect, and lateral migration of screws. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of augmented PFN in terms of prevention of postoperative complications and failure rates in unstable trochanteric fractures. Material and methods: We carried out a prospective study of 82 cases with unstable trochanteric femoral fractures from April 2010 to December 2015. Forty-two females and 40 males in the age group between 58 and 81 years were included in this study. There were 45 cases of AO 31 A2 (2.2, 2.3) and 37 cases of AO 31 A3 (3.1, 3.2, 3.3). Fractures were fixed by PFN with augmentation by an additional screw from trochanter to inferior quadrant of femoral head or cerclage wire to strengthen the lateral trochanteric wall. Results: The bone healing is observed in all the cases in the mean period of 14.2 weeks. Nine patients developed complications, including lateral migration of neck screws (n = 5), Z effect (n = 1), infection (n = 2), and breakage of distal interlocking bolt in one case. Removal of screws was required in five cases. Patients were followed up for a mean of 8.4 months. At the end of follow-up the Salvati and Wilson hip function was 32 (out of 40) in 88% of patients. Conclusion: The stabilization of lateral trochanteric wall with additional screw or cerclage wire increases the stability of construct. PMID:28186871

  18. Stress fractures of the femoral neck in runners: a review.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, Thomas; Brand, Julian; Lidder, Surjit; Krawany, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review, following strict inclusion criteria, identified 32/48 low and 16/48 high-performance runners with stress fractures of the femoral neck. Surgical treatment was performed in 33/48 cases and was significantly higher (p = 0.009) in high-performance runners. Among the 28/48 runners who resumed running, there were significantly more lower-performance runners (23/32) than higher-performing runners (5/16) (p = 0.012) and significantly more non-displaced (22/30) than displaced fractures (6/18) (p = 0.014). Complicated cases showed significantly less favourable follow-up results (p = 0.036). A significantly shorter (p = 0.032) diagnostic time for evaluation occurred with a previous history of a stress fracture or a relevant comorbidity. Stress fractures of the femoral neck represent an incisive incident for runners, and early consideration in the differential diagnosis of hip pain is required to avoid potential long-term sequelae and suboptimal function.

  19. Intraoperative type 1 proximal femoral fractures: influence on the stability of hydroxyapatite-coated femoral components.

    PubMed

    Falez, F; Santori, N; Panegrossi, G

    1998-09-01

    We reviewed a series of 120 uncemented total hip replacements using the Omniflex stem with hydroxyapatite coating. Twenty minor intraoperative proximal fractures occurred. All fractures were treated with cerclage wiring after removal of the stem. Radiographic and clinical results of these 20 patients were compared with the remaining 100 implants in which this complication did not occur. In 20% of the cases of both groups, a migration of less than 2 mm was observed. No differences were detected in Harris Hip Scores, subsidence of the stem, and radiographic behavior. We concluded that a properly stabilized proximal femoral fracture above the lesser trochanter did not influence the clinical and radiographic results at more than 3 years follow-up.

  20. [Reconstruction intramedullary nailing for treatment of ispsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Li, Lian-hua; Liu, Zhi; Zhang, Jian-zheng; Guo, Yong-zhi

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the curative effect and surigical skills of reconstruction intramedullary nailing in the treatment of ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures. From January 2007 to January 2013, 13 patients with ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures were treated by reconstruction intramedullary nailing including 11 males and 2 females with an average age of 38.9 yeas old ranging from 25 to 53 years old. For femoral neck fractures,10 cases were basilar neck fracture, 3 were transcervical fractures and according to Garden classification,10 were type II, 2 were type III and 1 was type IV. For feormal shaft fracture, 5 were type I, 4 were type II, 3 were type III and 1 was type IV according to Winquist classification. The location of all 13 feormal shaft fractures were all in the uper 3/4 of the feormal shaft. Complications and postoperative function were recorded and evaluated. Eleven patients were followed up for 23.45 months (12 to 36 months). Time from injury to operation was 5.9 days in average. Malunion of femoral neck fracture happened in 1 patient, nonunion of femoral shaft fracture happened in 2 patients. NO femoral head osteonecrosis, infection and malunion of femoral shaft fracture happened. According to Friedman-Wyman classification, 8 cases get good result, 2 get faii and 1 get poor. Reconstruction intramedullary nailing is a good choice for the ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures with the advantages of less soft-tissue trauma and complications.

  1. Femoral neck fracture following intramedullary nailing with misplacement of an end cup: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Mańkowski, Bartosz; Kierzynka, Grzegorz

    2008-01-01

    Femoral neck fracture is an unusual complication of intramedullary fixation of a broken femur. We report on two cases of femoral neck fractures attributed to misplacement of an end cup and subsequent invasive maneuvers in an effort to remove it. Iatrogenic fractures of the femoral neck during or after intramedullary nailing are reported in the medical literature. Authors associate it with many possible technical mistakes performed during the procedure, yet no complications after missed end cup placement were noted. We suggest that the fractures described below were a consequence of injury to the vascular supply and bone stock of the initially intact femoral neck. PMID:19384634

  2. Calcar Preservation Arthroplasty for Unstable Intertrochanteric Femoral Fractures in Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Togrul, Emre; Kose, Ozkan

    2015-01-01

    Background The treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fractures in elderly is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to present treatment strategies for unstable intertrochanteric fractures with hemiarthroplasty using standard uncemented collared femoral stems and at the same time preserving the fractured calcar fragment. Methods Fifty-four patients aged 75 years or older with unstable intertrochanteric fractures were included in this prospective cohort study. All patients were treated with calcar preserving hemiarthroplasty using cementless collored femoral stems. Fractured calcar fragment was stabilized either by compaction between the implant and femur or fixed with cable grip system. Follow-up evaluations were performed at least 24 months and later. Palmer and Parker mobility score and visual analogue scale (VAS) pain score were assessed. We also analyzed radiographs of the operated hip at each follow-up visit. Results The patients were 15 males and 39 females with a mean age of 81.3 years (range, 75 to 93 years). The average operative time was 86.6 minutes. The mean transfused blood units were 1.2 units. The average duration of hospital stay was 5.3 days. The preoperative mean mobility score was 6.20. This score was found to be 4.96 on postoperative third day and 5.90 at 24 months postoperatively. The results of the statistical analysis revealed significant increase in the mobility scores at each follow-up after three days. Radiological interpretation revealed no loosening in the cable-grip systems, and no significant subsidence (> 5 mm) of prosthesis was observed. Conclusions Calcar preservation arthroplasty is a good option for elderly patients with severe osteoporosis, frail constitution and the patients who are at higher risk for second operation due to unstable intertrochanteric fractures. PMID:26640625

  3. Oral bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Junquera, L; Gallego, L; Pelaz, A; Olay, S

    2009-06-01

    Adverse effects associated with the use of bisphosphonates are infrequent and consist of pyrexia, renal function impairment, and hypocalcemia. Bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws is an uncommon but potentially serious complication of intravenous bisphosphonate therapy in cancer patients. The degree of risk for osteonecrosis in patients taking oral bisphosphonates, such as alendronate, is uncertain and warrants careful monitoring. Oral bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis can occur in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of mandibular osteonecrosis in a patient who received alendronate for 3.8 years. The pathology improved after bisphosphonate therapy discontinuation and sequestrectomy. To our knowledge there are only three cases published in the literature relating bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. All the cases published, including our case, have reported association between methotrexate, prednisone and alendronate sodium (Fosamax) therapy. Corticosteroid therapy and dental surgery could increase the risk of developing bisphosphonates-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws in these patients.

  4. Correlation Between Residual Displacement and Osteonecrosis of the Femoral Head Following Cannulated Screw Fixation of Femoral Neck Fractures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Xu, Gui-Jun; Han, Zhe; Jiang, Xuan; Zhang, Cheng-Bao; Dong, Qiang; Ma, Jian-Xiong; Ma, Xin-Long

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to introduce a new method for measuring the residual displacement of the femoral head after internal fixation and explore the relationship between residual displacement and osteonecrosis with femoral head, and to evaluate the risk factors associated with osteonecrosis of the femoral head in patients with femoral neck fractures treated by closed reduction and percutaneous cannulated screw fixation.One hundred and fifty patients who sustained intracapsular femoral neck fractures between January 2011 and April 2013 were enrolled in the study. All were treated with closed reduction and percutaneous cannulated screw internal fixation. The residual displacement of the femoral head after surgery was measured by 3-dimensional reconstruction that evaluated the quality of the reduction. Other data that might affect prognosis were also obtained from outpatient follow-up, telephone calls, or case reviews. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to assess the intrinsic relationship between the risk factors and the osteonecrosis of the femoral head.Osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurred in 27 patients (18%). Significant differences were observed regarding the residual displacement of the femoral head and the preoperative Garden classification. Moreover, we found more or less residual displacement of femoral head in all patients with high quality of reduction based on x-ray by the new technique. There was a close relationship between residual displacement and ONFH.There exists limitation to evaluate the quality of reduction by x-ray. Three-dimensional reconstruction and digital measurement, as a new method, is a more accurate method to assess the quality of reduction. Residual displacement of the femoral head and the preoperative Garden classification were risk factors for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. High-quality reduction was necessary to avoid complications.

  5. Home traction of femoral shaft fractures in younger children.

    PubMed

    Boman, A; Gardell, C; Janarv, P M

    1998-01-01

    The study describes a home traction program of femoral shaft fractures in preschool children using the 90-90 traction technique. A special bed stretcher was designed for the program and adapted for use in ordinary ambulances and in all types of homes. Twenty-four patients, 2.2-5.9 years of age, were followed. The average hospital stay was 7.0 days, and the average home traction period was 22.1 days. One patient had a superficial pin tract infection. The treatment was uneventful in all other cases. All fractures healed with a shortening of < or = 1 cm. The angulation was < or = 10 degrees in all cases but one, which healed with a valgus angulation of 15 degrees but without functional disability. Interviews showed that the parents were very satisfied with the treatment program. The cost savings are obvious compared to traction treatment in the hospital.

  6. Outcome after conservatively managed intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Moulton, L S; Green, N L; Sudahar, T; Makwana, N K; Whittaker, J P

    2015-05-01

    In 2012, 2.6% of hip-fracture patients in the UK were treated conservatively. There is little data on outcome for these patients. However, one study demonstrated that though 30-day mortality is higher, mortality over the rest of the year is comparable with that in surgical groups. Therefore, we assessed conservatively managed patients in our unit. Patients with intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck treated by conservative means between 2010 and 2012 inclusive were identified. Data were collected: American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) grade, Nottingham Hip Fracture Score (NHFS), mobility, mortality (30 days and one year) and pain levels. Thirty-two patients formed the study cohort. Mean age was 85.6 years. Median ASA grade was 4. Mortality at 30 days and one year was 31.3% and 56.3%, respectively. There was one case of pneumonia and one of infection. Pressure sores or venous thromboembolism were not documented. Three patients underwent surgery once their health improved. In general, mobility was decreased, but 30.8% of patients could mobilise with two aids or a frame. Only two cases had ongoing problems with pain. Our data are similar to those published previously. Our patients were likely to have higher mortality data due to selection bias. Thirty-day mortality was significantly higher than the national average, but patients surviving 30 days had a prevalence of mortality similar to those managed by surgical means. Despite mobility decreasing from the pre-admission status, a considerable number of patients were free of pain and could mobilise. These data suggest that conservative management of intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck can produce acceptable results.

  7. Does hip osteoarthritis have a protective effect against proximal femoral fractures? A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Calderazzi, Filippo; Groppi, Giulia; Ricotta, Agostino; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The inverse relationship between proximal femoral fracture incidence and hip osteoarthritis remains controversial. However, femoral neck fractures rarely occur in patients with hip osteoarthritis, suggesting a protective effect of osteoarthritis. We sought to determine if the severity of osteoarthritis influenced fracture type. We examined the radiographs of 190 consecutive patients treated at our institution after hip trauma. They were divided into three groups according to the outcome of the trauma: femoral neck fracture; trochanteric fracture; and no fracture. We then analysed the severity of osteoarthritis within these groups. No relationship between the grade of hip osteoarthritis and the presence of a proximal femoral fracture was found. However, the grade of osteoarthritis was related both to the outcome of the trauma (p<0.0001) and to the location of the fracture (p<0.0001). Patients with osteoarthritis of the hip had a three-fold increased likelihood of trochanteric fracture compared to femoral neck fracture. Osteoarthritis does not protect against proximal femoral fractures, but strongly affects the location of the fracture in the proximal femur, increasing the possibility of a trochanteric location.

  8. Femoral head fractures: hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Ullmark, Gösta

    2014-10-02

    Most femoral neck fractures are osteoporotic fractures in the elderly. The one-year mortality after neck fracture in this group is 24%.For hemiarthroplasty (HA) the bipolar heads have a risk reduction for reoperation due to acetabular erosion compared with monoblock heads. Surprisingly, the bipolar head had an increased reoperation risk for dislocation, infection and for periprosthetic fracture.Total hip arthroplasty (THA) after fracture has a four-fold raised risk for dislocation compared with THA after osteoarthritis. A larger head on the same neck (head to neck ratio) results in a theoretically larger range of movement and hence less risk for dislocation. The dual mobility bearing has, theoretically, the largest range of movement and good clinical results.Functional results are better for THA compared with HA. Arthroplasty for fracture has much better results compared with arthroplasty after a failed internal fixation; the risk for reoperation is more than doubled for the latter.A Swedish hip arthroplasty register study found a 20-fold higher risk for periprosthetic fracture when comparing uncemented HA with matt cemented HA. Also a polished cemented stem had 13½-fold higher risks compared with a matt.The mortality during the first day after surgery is higher for cemented compared with uncemented arthroplasties, but lower after one week, one month and one year. Analysing the time points together resulted in no difference.A matt cemented THA with a maximum head size, maybe dual mobility, has the best results, and is also for the low-demanding elderly.

  9. Bilateral spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Flavio Luís; Dalio, Renato Bellini; Sugo, Arthur Tomotaka; Picado, Celso Hermínio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy who was treated by means of osteosynthesis. In this type of patient, there is a need to remain watchful for the possibility of occurrences of spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck, even if the initial radiographic examination is normal.

  10. Bilateral spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Flavio Luís; Dalio, Renato Bellini; Sugo, Arthur Tomotaka; Picado, Celso Hermínio Ferraz

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of bilateral fracturing of the femoral neck in a patient with renal osteodystrophy who was treated by means of osteosynthesis. In this type of patient, there is a need to remain watchful for the possibility of occurrences of spontaneous fracturing of the femoral neck, even if the initial radiographic examination is normal. PMID:26229859

  11. ASA Grade and Elderly Patients With Femoral Neck Fracture.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, C J C; Fazal, M A

    2014-12-01

    This prospective study was designed to evaluate the effect of American Society of Anaesthesiologists (ASA) score on time to surgery, length of hospital stay, and 30-day mortality in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. A total of 249 patients admitted with femoral neck fracture were included in the study. Mean age was 84 years (95% confidence interval 83 to 85). Two patients were ASA I, 110 patients were ASA II, 125 were ASA III, and 12 were ASA IV. The mean time to surgery was 18.9 hours for ASA I patients, 34.4 hours for ASA II patients, 42.8 hours for ASA III patients, and 61 hours for ASA IV patients (P = .005). The mean hospital stay was 11.5 days (6.3-15.2) for ASA I patients, 17.6 days (4.2-98.8) for ASA II patients, 22.9 days (4.1-120.3) for ASA III patients, and 29 days (2.4-86.0) for ASA IV patients (P = .026); 85% of the patients who died within 30 days of admission were of ASA III-IV. Our study shows that patients with higher ASA score have delay in surgery, longer hospital stay, and increase in 30-day mortality. We conclude that ASA grade is a simple and effective tool to predict the above-mentioned outcomes in these patients.

  12. Cemented versus uncemented hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Figved, Wender; Opland, Vidar; Frihagen, Frede; Jervidalo, Tore; Madsen, Jan Erik; Nordsletten, Lars

    2009-09-01

    Hemiarthroplasty is the most commonly used treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. There is limited evidence in the literature of improved functional outcome with cemented implants, although serious cement-related complications have been reported. We performed a randomized, controlled trial in patients 70 years and older comparing a cemented implant (112 hips) with an uncemented, hydroxyapatite-coated implant (108 hips), both with a bipolar head. The mean Harris hip score showed equivalence between the groups, with 70.9 in the cemented group and 72.1 in the uncemented group after 3 months (mean difference, 1.2) and 78.9 and 79.8 after 12 months (mean difference, 0.9). In the uncemented group, the mean duration of surgery was 12.4 minutes shorter and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 89 mL less. The Barthel Index and EQ-5D scores did not show any differences between the groups. The rates of complications and mortality were similar between groups. Both arthroplasties may be used with good results after displaced femoral neck fractures.

  13. Cemented versus Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Opland, Vidar; Frihagen, Frede; Jervidalo, Tore; Madsen, Jan Erik; Nordsletten, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Hemiarthroplasty is the most commonly used treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. There is limited evidence in the literature of improved functional outcome with cemented implants, although serious cement-related complications have been reported. We performed a randomized, controlled trial in patients 70 years and older comparing a cemented implant (112 hips) with an uncemented, hydroxyapatite-coated implant (108 hips), both with a bipolar head. The mean Harris hip score showed equivalence between the groups, with 70.9 in the cemented group and 72.1 in the uncemented group after 3 months (mean difference, 1.2) and 78.9 and 79.8 after 12 months (mean difference, 0.9). In the uncemented group, the mean duration of surgery was 12.4 minutes shorter and the mean intraoperative blood loss was 89 mL less. The Barthel Index and EQ-5D scores did not show any differences between the groups. The rates of complications and mortality were similar between groups. Both arthroplasties may be used with good results after displaced femoral neck fractures. Level of Evidence: Level I, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19130162

  14. Femoral fractures in children, is early interventional treatment beneficial?

    PubMed

    Sturdee, S W; Templeton, P A; Dahabreh, Z; Cullen, E; Giannoudis, P V

    2007-08-01

    A protocol of early intervention (flexible intramedullary nails, early hip spica, and external fixation) was started in 1999 and during a 3-year period there were 25 children who sustained a femoral shaft fracture (early intervention group). These were prospectively reviewed with a minimum follow up of 24 months (Range 24-35 months). A historical control group of 41 children was used. These children were injured between February 1996 and February 1999 and were retrospectively reviewed. They had traditional in patient treatments with either Gallows or Thomas splint traction (traditional treatment group). Over the 6-year period from 1996 to 2002 there were a total of 66 femoral shaft fractures in the study that presented to our hospital. The mean length of hospital stay was 29 nights in the traditional group and 10 nights in the early intervention group. This difference is significant (p<0.001). The malunion rate was slightly higher in the early active group at radiological union but most of these remodelled over the 2 years of follow up. The protocol of early intervention used in our institution, of flexible nails, early hip spica or external fixation depended on the age of the child, and has resulted in a shorter hospital stay for the children. This has benefits for the child, the family and the hospital.

  15. Amputated limb by cerclage wire of femoral diaphyseal fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Won, Yougun; Yang, Kyu-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Kyoun; Weaver, M J; Allen, Elizabeth M

    2016-12-01

    An entrapment of the femoral artery by cerclage wiring is a rare complication after spiral diaphyseal femoral fractures. We report the case of an 82-year-old female treated by an antegrade intramedullary nailing and multiple cable augmentation, which was then complicated by injury to the femoral artery that resulted in ipsilateral leg necrosis and amputation. The entrapment was caused by direct belting by the cable and resulted in a total obstruction of the femoral artery.

  16. Pelvic migration of the helical blade after treatment of transtrochanteric fracture using a proximal femoral nail.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Pedro Luciano Teixeira; Castelo, Luís Sá; Lopes, António Lemos; Maio, Marta; Miranda, Adélia; Dias, António Marques

    2016-01-01

    Proximal femoral nails with a helical blade are a new generation of implants used for treating transtrochanteric fractures. The blade design provides rotational and angular stability for the fracture. Despite greater biomechanical resistance, they sometimes present complications. In the literature, there are some reports of cases of perforation of the femoral head caused by helical blades. Here, a clinical case of medial migration of the helical blade through the femoral head and acetabulum into the pelvic cavity is presented.

  17. Rupture of the Deep Femoral Artery during Proximal Femoral Nailing Following an Intertrochanteric Fracture: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Han Kook; Park, Junyoung; Oyunbat, Choidog; Kim, Taehwan

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we experienced a case where the diagnosis and management of a deep femoral artery rupture was delayed. This vascular complication occurred during the insertion of a distal interlocking screw of a proximal femoral nail for the fixation of an intertrochanteric femur fracture. A 79-year-old male patient was diagnosed with a right intertrochanteric fracture after a fall. We fixed the fracture with a proximal femoral nail (Zimmer® Natural Nail™ System). One day after the procedure, the patient complained of pain and swelling on the anteromedial side of his middle thigh followed by hypotension, anemia and prolonged thigh swelling. Computed tomography angiography was performed 7 days after the procedure. We found a pseudoaneurysm of the perforating artery caused by injury to the deep femoral artery and an intramuscular hematoma in the anterior thigh muscle. We successfully treated the pseudoaneurysm using coil embolization. Throughout the management of intertrochanteric femoral fractures, it is important to be aware and monitor signs and symptoms related to the possibility of blood vessel damage. When a patient presents with swelling and pain on the middle thigh and/or unexplained anemia postoperatively, the possibility that these symptoms are caused by an injury to the femoral artery must be considered. PMID:27536645

  18. Outcomes after fixation for undisplaced femoral neck fracture compared to hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture among the elderly.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jeff Chien-Fu; Liang, Wen-Miin

    2015-08-19

    This study compared the rates of mortality, medical complication, and reoperation after fixation surgery for displaced femoral neck fracture with those after hemiarthroplasty surgery for undisplaced femoral neck fracture using competing risk analysis in inpatients aged 60 years and above from a population database in Taiwan. We identified 13,772 subjects who underwent fixation for undisplaced cervical fracture and 13,772 matched controls who underwent hemiarthroplasty for displaced cervical fracture from 1998 to 2007, and followed them up until the end of 2009. The outcomes of patients who received internal fixation for undisplaced fracture and those of patients who received hemiarthroplasty for displaced fracture were compared. The 3-month, 2-year, and 10-year mortality rates were 4.9%, 22.1%, and 67.1% for fixation, and 5.6%, 23.8%, and 71.0% for hemiarthroplasty, respectively. The 3-month, 2-year, and 10-year cumulative incidence rates of the first reoperation were 7.4%, 18.1%, and 27.7% for fixation and 6.3%, 12.0%, and 22.3% for hemiarthroplasty, respectively. The 3-month cumulative incidence rates of the first medical complication were 14.4% for fixation and 15.4% for hemiarthroplasty, respectively. Hemiarthroplasty had a 1.09 times (95% CI: 1.05-1.12) higher hazard ratio for overall death than fixation. However, fixation had a 1.36 times (95% CI: 1.29-1.43) higher subdistribution hazard ratio for first reoperation than hemiarthroplasty after adjusting for gender, age, and comorbidities. The short-term overall mortality and medical complication rate of fixation for undisplaced fracture were slightly lower than those of hemiarthroplasty for displaced fracture. However, the short-term cumulative incidence of first reoperation after fixation was significantly higher than that for hemiarthroplasty. Further prospective studies or clinical trials based on the competing risk model, and which include important risk factors, are necessary to quantify the adjusted

  19. Efficacies of surgical treatments based on Harris hip score in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chengwei; Yang, Fengjian; Lin, Weilong; Fan, Yongqian

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To compare the efficacies of four surgical treatments, i.e., total hip arthroplasty (THA), internal fixation (IF), hemiarthroplasty (HA), and artificial femoral head replacement (artificial FHR), by performing a network meta-analysis based on Harris hip score (HHS) in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture. Methods: In strict accordance with specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, randomized controlled trails (RCTs) were screened and selected from a larger group of studies that were retrieved through a comprehensive search of scientific literature databases, further complimented by manual search. The resultant high-quality data from final selected studies were analyzed using Stata 12.0 software. Results: A total of 3680 studies were initially retrieved from database search, and 15 RCTs were eventually incorporated into this meta-analysis, containing 1781 elderly patients who had undergone various surgical treatments for femoral neck fracture (THA group = 604; HA group = 604; IF group = 495; artificial FHR group = 78). Our major result revealed a statistically significant difference in HHS of femoral neck fracture when HA and IF groups were compared with THA. No differences were detected in the HHS of femoral neck fracture undergoing artificial FHR and THA. The surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) value of HHS, in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture after surgery, revealed that IF has the highest value. Conclusions: The current network meta-analysis results suggest that IF is the superlative surgical procedure for femoral neck fracture patients, and IF significantly improves the HHS in femoral neck fracture patients. PMID:26221216

  20. Predictors of atypical femoral fractures during long term bisphosphonate therapy: a case series & review of literature.

    PubMed

    Bhadada, Sanjay Kumar; Sridhar, Subbiah; Muthukrishnan, Jeyaram; Mithal, Ambrish; Sharma, Dinesh C; Bhansali, Anil; Dhiman, Vandana

    2014-07-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most widely prescribed medicines for the treatment of osteoporosis because of their efficacy and favourable safety profile. There have been, several reports on an increased incidence of atypical femoral fractures after long term treatment with BPs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical presentation including prodromal symptoms, skeletal radiograph findings, type and duration of BPs received and treatment outcome of patients who developed atypical femoral fractures during bisphosphonate therapy. In this retrospective study, eight patients with atypical femoral fractures were analysed based on clinical features, biochemical and radiological investigations. Of the eight patients, who sustained atypical femoral fractures, six were on alendronate and two were on zoledronate therapy before the fractures. In addition to BPs, two patients were on long term corticosteroid therapy for rheumatoid arthritis and Addison's disease. Three patients had bilateral atypical femoral fractures. Except one, all of them had prodromal symptoms prior to fracture. Skeletal radiograph showed cortical thickening, pointed (beaking of) cortical margin and transverse fracture in meta-diaphyseal location. Serum calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) concentrations were within the reference range in all patients. Long term bisphosphonate therapy may increase the risk of atypical femoral fractures. Presence of prodromal pain, thickened cortex with cortical beaking may be an early clue for predicting the atypical fractures. High risk patients need periodical skeletal survey and a close follow up for early detection of cases.

  1. Bilateral femoral neck stress fractures in military recruits with unilateral hip pain.

    PubMed

    Moo, Ing How; Lee, Y H D; Lim, K K; Mehta, K V

    2016-10-01

    Femoral neck stress fractures are rare and can be easily missed and failure to diagnose these injuries early can lead to avascular necrosis, malunion and osteoarthritis. It is important to have a high index of suspicion for femoral neck stress fractures in military recruits. We present three cases of bilateral femoral neck fractures in military recruits, all presenting with unilateral hip symptoms and signs. All the asymptomatic contralateral hips had femoral neck stress fractures diagnosed by screening MRI. Tension type and displaced femoral neck fractures were treated surgically. All the fractures managed healing without complications. Military recruits with unilateral groin pain should have an early referral for MRI hip to rule out femoral neck stress fractures and those military personnel with ipsilateral femoral neck fracture should have MRI of the contralateral hip. Two of the patients had vitamin D deficiency, of which one had elevated parathyroid hormones and low bone mineral density. Our case series highlights the significance of vitamin D deficiency among military recruits. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Effects of anticoagulants on outcome of femoral neck fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Ginsel, Bastiaan L; Taher, Ahmad; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Bell, Jack J; Pulle, Chrys R; Crawford, Ross W

    2015-04-01

    To review records of 330 patients who underwent surgery for femoral neck fractures with or without preoperative anticoagulation therapy. Medical records of 235 women and 95 men aged 48 to 103 years (mean, 81.6; standard deviation [SD], 13.1) who underwent surgery for femoral neck fractures with or without preoperative anticoagulation therapy were reviewed. 30 patients were on warfarin, 105 on aspirin, 28 on clopidogrel, and 167 were controls. The latter 3 groups were combined as the non-warfarin group and compared with the warfarin group. Hospital mortality, time from admission to surgery, length of hospital stay, return to theatre, and postoperative complications (wound infection, deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism) were assessed. The warfarin and control groups were significantly younger than the clopidogrel and aspirin groups (80.8 vs. 80.0 vs. 84.2 vs. 83.7 years, respectively, p<0.05). 81% of the patients underwent surgery within 48 hours of admission. The overall mean time from admission to surgery was 1.8 days; it was longer in the warfarin than the aspirin, clopidogrel, and control groups (3.3 vs. 1.8 vs. 1.6 vs. 1.6 days, respectively, p<0.001). The mean length of hospital stay was 17.5 (SD, 9.6; range, 3-54) days. The overall hospital mortality was 3.9%; it was 6.7% in the warfarin group, 3.8% in the aspirin group, 3.6% in the clopidogrel group, and 3.6% in the control group (p=0.80). Four patients returned to theatre for surgery: one in the warfarin group for washout of a haematoma, 2 in the aspirin group for repositioning of a mal-fixation and for debridement of wound infection, and one in the control group for debridement of wound infection. The warfarin group did not differ significantly from non-warfarin group in terms of postoperative complication rate (6.7% vs. 2.7%, p=0.228) and the rate of return to theatre (3.3% vs. 1%, p=0.318). It is safe to continue aspirin and clopidogrel prior to surgical treatment for femoral neck fracture. The

  3. Femoral neck stress fracture in Air Force basic trainees.

    PubMed

    Kupferer, Kevin R; Bush, David M; Cornell, John E; Lawrence, Valerie A; Alexander, Jeffrey L; Ramos, Rosemarie G; Curtis, Denice

    2014-01-01

    Stress fractures are a common overuse problem among military trainees resulting in preventable morbidity, prolonged training, and long-term disability following military service. Femoral neck stress fractures (FNSFs) account for 2% of all stress fractures but result in disproportionate burden in terms of cost and convalescence. The purpose of this study was to describe and investigate FNSF in U.S. Air Force basic trainees and to present new data on risks factors for developing FNSF. We examined 47 cases of FNSF occurring in Air Force basic trainees between 2008 and 2011 and 94 controls using a matched case-control model. Analysis with t tests and conditional logistic regression found the risk of FNSF was not associated with body mass index or abdominal circumference. Female gender (p < 0.001) and slower run time significantly increased risk of FNSF (1.49 OR, p < 0.001; 95% CI 1.19-1.86). A greater number of push-up and sit-up repetitions significantly reduced risk of FNSF (0.55 OR, p = 0.03; 95% CI 0.32-0.93; 0.62 OR, p = 0.04; 95% CI 0.4-0.98) for females. In this study body mass index was not correlated with FNSF risk; however, physical fitness level on arrival to training and female gender were significantly associated with risk of FNSF. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  4. Geometry of proximal femur in the prediction of femoral neck fracture in the elderly female Thai population.

    PubMed

    Lektrakul, Nittaya; Ratarasarn, Onravee

    2009-09-01

    A retrospective study of two groups of 157 patients with one-sided hip fracture and 157 aged matched control group was performed in Siriraj hospital. Geometric measurement of femoral neck was performed as hip axis length (HAL), femoral neck length (FNL), femoral neck width (FNW), femoral head diameter (FHD), acetabular bone width (ABW), and femoral neck-shaft angle (NSA). All geographic parameters are higher in length/width or degree in the femoral neck fracture group than in the normal control group. Among these parameters, ABW has the strongest association with femoral neck fracture (p 0.000, odds ratio = 2.85), followed by FNW (p 0.001, odds ratio = 2.51). According to the low sensitivity and specificity, and ROC curve, using this parameter as a screening tool for femoral neck fracture is still questionable. Further prospective study with a standard position, interval changing of femoral geometry, or combined with bone density or femoral architecture is suggested.

  5. Simultaneous Bilateral Fracture of Femoral Neck in Korea: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hwa-Jae; Shin, Hun-Kyu; Kim, Eugene; Ko, Taeg Su; Choi, Young-Min

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral femoral neck factures are common and their incidence is increasing. However, simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are rare. Although cases of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures have been reported, most were caused by strong muscle contractions during electroconvulsive therapy. Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall are an extremely rare injury; therefore, limited literature is available, and no case has been reported in Korea. We report herein a case of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall. An 83-year-old woman visited the emergency department with bilateral hip joint pain and gait disturbance, which developed 1 day after a fall. Tenderness and severe limitation in left hip joint range of motion and mild limitation in right hip joint range of motion were observed on a physical examination. A Garden type IV femoral neck fracture in the left hip joint and a Garden type I femoral neck fracture in the right hip joint were observed on plain radiography. She underwent right screw fixation and left bipolar hemiarthroplasty 2 days after admission. The patient could walk using a walker 4 weeks postoperatively. Bone union in the right femoral neck was observed at the 3 month follow-up. No specific findings were observed at the left hip hemiarthroplasty site. PMID:27536603

  6. Uncemented revision stem for biological osteosynthesis in periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Eingartner, C; Volkmann, R; Pütz, M; Weller, S

    1997-01-01

    Fractures around a femoral prosthesis have been treated with plating and additional cement, but this leads to further reduction of bone stock in the proximal femur. Since February 1992, we have dealt with this problem in 12 patients by revision using a long uncemented stem and distal interlocking combined with homologous bone grafting. Bony ingrowth and remodelling led to restoration of the proximal femur. After bone healing, removal of the distal interlocking screws converts the distal load transfer to the proximal anchoring of the revision stem so that osteointegration can occur in the trochanteric region. The clinical results were good in all the patients after a mean follow up of 23.5 months. This is a method which provides biological osteosynthesis and is especially indicated in younger patients.

  7. HEMIARTHROPLASTY IN THE TREATMENT FRACTURES OF THE FEMORAL NECK

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Nelson Keiske; de Andrade Lima, Guilherme Didier; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Júnior, Walter Ricioli; de Queiroz, Marcelo Cavalheiro

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To epidemiologically and clinically evaluate patients with displaced femoral neck fractures that were surgically treatment with cemented hip hemiarthroplasty. Methods: All patients with displaced femoral neck fractures (Garden III and IV) who underwent cemented hip hemiarthroplasty using a unipolar prosthesis (Thompson), by means of a posterolateral access between June 2005 and September 2008 were retrospectively evaluated. Results: Seventy patients were initially evaluated. Their mean age was 83.1 years. The patients were predominantly female (84.3%). Thirty-six patients were monitored as outpatients for periods ranging from 10 to 48 months (mean of 26.5 months). Fifteen patients were lost to follow-up. Nineteen patients died, and the mortality rate within the first year was 25.4%. Patients classified as ASA III had a mortality rate of 25.7% and ASA II patients, a rate of 12.1%. Two patients had symptomatic deep vein thrombosis; one patient had an operative wound infection; and none of the patients presented hip dislocation. Most of the patients did not experience pain. Twelve patients (33%) showed deterioration of their walking ability. Conclusion: There were no cases of hip dislocation. Patients classified as ASA III had a higher mortality rate than did patients with ASA I or II. There was a worsening of walking ability in 33% of the patients. No revision due to loosening or pain was needed for any patient. Thirty patients did not present any pain (83.3%), four presented moderate pain (11.1%) and two presented intense pain (5.5%). PMID:27022567

  8. FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES GARDEN I AND II: EVALUATION OF THE DEVIATION IN LATERAL VIEW.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Natália Zalc; Melo, Lucas da Ponte; Nordon, David Gonçalves; Silva, Fernando Brandão de Andrade E; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Santos

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the rate of deviation in the lateral radiographic incidence in patients with femoral neck fracture classified as non-diverted in the anteroposterior view (Garden I and II). Nineteen selected patients with femoral neck fractures classified as Garden I and II were retrospectively evaluated, estimating the degree of deviation in the lateral view. Fifteen cases (79%) presented deviations in lateral view, with a mean of 18.6 degrees (±15.5). Most fractures of the femoral neck classified as Garden I and II present some degree of posterior deviation in the X-ray lateral view. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.

  9. Aging is Not a Risk Factor for Femoral and Tibial Fractures in Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ryb, Gabriel; Dischinger, Patricia; Kleinberger, Michael; Burch, Cynthia; Ho, Shiu

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of aging on the occurence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes. Methods The Crash Injury Research and Engineering Network (CIREN), which includes occupants of a vehicle < 8 years old with at least one AIS ≥3 or two AIS ≥2 injuries in different body regions, comprised the study population. The occurrence of femoral and tibial fractures during vehicular crashes was analyzed in relation to age and other confounders [gender, BMI, stature, change in velocity (Δv), restraint use, occupant position (driver vs. passenger) and principal direction of force (PDOF)] using χ2, Mantel-Haenszel χ2 and student t test. Multiple logistic regression (MLR) models were built for the prediction of femoral and tibial fractures with age as the independent variable and possible confounders as co-variates. An α = 0.05 was used for all statistics. Results The incidence of femoral and tibial fractures in the study population (N=1,418) was 23% and 27%, respectively. Univariate analyses revealed a negative association between increasing age and femoral fractures and no association between age and tibial fractures. MLR models revealed no clear effect of increasing age on the occurrence of either femoral or tibial fractures. Obesity, frontal PDOF, and high Delta;v affected the occurrence of femoral fractures. Tibial fractures were influenced by occupant position (driver), frontal PDOF, high Δv and shorter stature. Conclusion Despite the known changes in bone composition and strength with aging, elderly vehicular occupants do not experience higher odds of incurring femoral and tibial fractures during crashes. PMID:19026239

  10. A micro-architectural evaluation of osteoporotic human femoral heads to guide implant placement in proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The micro-architecture of bone has been increasingly recognized as an important determinant of bone strength. Successful operative stabilization of fractures depends on bone strength. We evaluated the osseous micro-architecture and strength of the osteoporotic human femoral head. Material and methods 6 femoral heads, obtained during arthroplasty surgery for femoral neck fracture, underwent micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning at 30 μm, and bone volume ratio (BV/TV), trabecular thickness, structural model index, connection density, and degree of anisotropy for volumes of interest throughout the head were derived. A further 15 femoral heads underwent mechanical testing of compressive failure stress of cubes of trabecular bone from different regions of the head. Results The greatest density and trabecular thickness was found in the central core that extended from the medial calcar to the physeal scar. This region also correlated with the greatest degree of anisotropy and proportion of plate-like trabeculae. In the epiphyseal region, the trabeculae were organized radially from the physeal scar. The weakest area was found at the apex and peripheral areas of the head. The strongest region was at the center of the head. Interpretation The center of the femoral head contained the strongest trabecular bone, with the thickest, most dense trabeculae. The apical region was weaker. From an anatomical and mechanical point of view, implants that achieve fixation in or below this central core may achieve the most stable fixation during fracture healing. PMID:24032522

  11. Factors influencing postoperative movement in displaced femoral neck fractures: evaluation by conventional radiography and stereoradiography.

    PubMed

    Ragnarsson, J I; Kärrholm, J

    1992-01-01

    Postoperative movement in 46 displaced femoral neck fractures was studied using roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). Thirty-four fractures became stable, all within 1 year. Measurements on pre- and postreduction radiographs and scintimetry were performed to evaluate factors of importance in healing, redisplacement, and nonunion. Thirty-three fractures were treated with two hook-pins with (7 cases) or without (26 cases) a plate, and 13 were treated with two cancellous screws. Presence of intermediate fracture fragments and fixation with two screws implied increased movement of the femoral head center during the postoperative period. Remaining ad latus displacement on the anteroposterior or lateral view after reduction of more than 1 mm and low scintimetric uptake implied increased risk of redisplacement or pseudarthrosis. Increased displacement of the femoral head center during the first postoperative month was recorded in fractures that did not heal. The magnitude of the femoral head rotations did not differ between the implants, but smaller screw axis rotations were noted in fractures that subsequently healed. In most hips fixated with screws, the instant center of femoral head rotation went through the femoral head or neck, whereas hook-pin fixation more commonly was associated with screw axis position within or close to the trochanteric region, suggesting a more durable fixation in the femoral head of this device.

  12. Plate failure following plate osteosynthesis in periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Boesmueller, Sandra; Baumbach, Sebastian F; Hofbauer, Marcus; Wozasek, Gerald E

    2015-10-01

    Increasing numbers of total knee and hip arthroplasties result in a growing number of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PPFF). PPFF with a stable stem component are treated commonly with plate osteosynthesis. Therefore plate failure is seen as a major complication. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the patients' outcome after plate failure. The database of a Level 1 trauma center was searched for all patients treated for a PPFF with plate osteosynthesis. Patients with plate failure were investigated specifically. Standard demographic data, details on initial arthroplasty, trauma, and treatment were recorded for all patients. All fractures were classified and their outcome reviewed. Seven (8.8%) out of 80 patients treated with plate osteosynthesis following PPFF met our inclusion criterion being plate failure. All these patients were female, with an average age at primary surgery of 74 ± 13 years and a mean follow-up of 885 days (range, 264-2549). Four patients suffered a PPFF after total hip arthroplasty (THA) (2 Vancouver Type B1 and 2 Type C) and three after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) (Lewis-Rorabeck Type II). Following plate failure, four patients healed uneventfully and three patients experienced complications such as pseudarthrosis, screw loosening, and further plate failure. In patients with poor bone quality, bone graft, bone cement, and bone biologics have to be considered in revision surgery. Furthermore, long-stem revision and tumor prosthesis are an additional solution.

  13. Osteochondral Autograft from the Ipsilateral Femoral Head by Surgical Dislocation for Treatment of Femoral Head Fracture Dislocation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Won, Yougun; Lee, Gi Soo; Kim, Sang Bum; Kim, Sun Joong; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2016-11-01

    As anatomical reduction of the articular surface of femoral head fractures and restoration of damaged cartilage are essential for good long-term results, many treatment options have been suggested, including fixation of the fracture using various surgical exposures and implants, as well as arthroscopic irrigation and debridement, bone marrow stimulating techniques, osteochondral allograft, autograft, and autogenous chondrocyte implantation. We report a case of osteochondral autograft harvested from its own femoral articular surface through surgical hip dislocation. The osteochondral graft was harvested from the inferior non-weight-bearing articular surface and grafted to the osteochondral defect. One year later, the clinical and radiological results were good, without the collapse of the femoral head or arthritic change. This procedure introduced in our case is considered convenient and able to lessen surgical time without morbidity of the donor site associated with the harvest.

  14. Association of low-energy femoral fractures with prolonged bisphosphonate use: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Lenart, B. A.; Neviaser, A. S.; Lyman, S.; Chang, C. C.; Edobor-Osula, F.; Steele, B.; van der Meulen, M. C. H.; Lorich, D. G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence has linked long-term bisphosphonate use with insufficiency fractures of the femur in postmenopausal women. In this case–control study, we have identified a significant association between a unique fracture of the femoral shaft, a transverse fracture in an area of thickened cortices, and long-term bisphosphonate use. Further studies are warranted. Introduction Although clinical trials confirm the anti-fracture efficacy of bisphosphonates over 3–5 years, the long-term effects of bisphosphonate use on bone metabolism are unknown. Femoral insufficiency factures in patients on prolonged treatment have been reported. Methods We performed a retrospective case–control study of postmenopausal women who presented with low-energy femoral fractures from 2000 to 2007. Forty-one subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fracture cases were identified and matched by age, race, and body mass index to one intertrochanteric and femoral neck fracture each. Results Bisphosphonate use was observed in 15 of the 41 subtrochanteric/shaft cases, compared to nine of the 82 intertrochanteric/femoral neck controls (Mantel–Haenszel odds ratio (OR), 4.44 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.77–11.35]; P=0.002). A common X-ray pattern was identified in ten of the 15 subtrochanteric/shaft cases on a bisphosphonate. This X-ray pattern was highly associated with bisphosphonate use (OR, 15.33 [95% CI 3.06–76.90]; P< 0.001). Duration of bisphosphonate use was longer in subtrochanteric/shaft cases compared to both hip fracture controls groups (P=0.001). Conclusions We found a significantly greater proportion of patients with subtrochanteric/shaft fractures to be on long-term bisphosphonates than intertrochanteric/femoral neck fractures. Bisphosphonate use was highly associated with a unique X-ray pattern. Further studies are warranted. PMID:19066707

  15. Special topic: Ipsilateral femoral neck and shaft fractures--does evidence give us the answer?

    PubMed

    Boulton, Christina L; Pollak, Andrew N

    2015-03-01

    Ipsilateral fractures of the femoral neck and shaft are rare, high-energy injuries that typically occur in young polytrauma patients. The associated fracture of the neck is often vertical in nature and is more frequently non-displaced than in isolated femoral neck fractures. Historically the diagnosis of an associated femoral neck fracture was delayed or missed in approximately one third of cases. Studies have shown that detection can be significantly improved with the implementation of a protocolized approach to hip imaging in all patients with femoral shaft fractures. Prompt recognition of an associated femoral neck fracture allows for timely stabilization and may decrease the risks of non-union and avascular necrosis. In contrast, failure to recognize a non-displaced or minimally displaced associated neck fracture prior to fixation of the shaft can lead to displacement, a decrease in neck fixation options, a technically challenging secondary procedure and increased risk of long-term sequelae. A vast array of treatment strategies have been described for this combined injury. Published options range from spica casting to open reduction and internal fixation of both fractures and include almost all conceivable combinations in between. While timely surgical stabilization is now universally recommended for both shaft and neck, no consensus exists as to the most appropriate method of fixation for either fracture. Most authors recommend prompt, but not emergent, surgery with priority given to anatomic reduction and stabilization of the neck fracture by either closed or open methods. Fixation of the shaft fracture follows as patient condition allows. The rare nature of this injury makes it very challenging to study and most published series' are retrospective with very small sample sizes. In short, no scientificallycompelling study is available to definitively support any one implant choice or method of stabilzation over another for the treatment of associated fractures

  16. Management of femoral neck fractures in the young patient: A critical analysis review

    PubMed Central

    Pauyo, Thierry; Drager, Justin; Albers, Anthony; Harvey, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Femoral neck fractures account for nearly half of all hip fractures with the vast majority occurring in elderly patients after simple falls. Currently there may be sufficient evidence to support the routine use of hip replacement surgery for low demand elderly patients in all but non-displaced and valgus impacted femoral neck fractures. However, for the physiologically young patients, preservation of the natural hip anatomy and mechanics is a priority in management because of their high functional demands. The biomechanical challenges of femoral neck fixation and the vulnerability of the femoral head blood supply lead to a high incidence of non-union and osteonecrosis of the femoral head after internal fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures. Anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation are essentials in achieving the goals of treatment in this young patient population. Furthermore, other management variables such as surgical timing, the role of capsulotomy and the choice of implant for fixation remain controversial. This review will focus both on the demographics and injury profile of young patients with femoral neck fractures and the current evidence behind the surgical management of these injuries as well as their major secondary complications. PMID:25035822

  17. Misdiagnosis of pathological femoral fracture in a patient with intramuscular hemangioma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    YU, XIAOLONG; NIE, TAO; ZHANG, BIN; DAI, MIN; LIU, HUCHENG; ZOU, FAN

    2016-01-01

    Hemangioma is a common disease; however, intramuscular hemangioma (IH) presenting with a pathological fracture is extremely rare. The present study reports a case of a 46-year-old male patient that suffered from IH of the right thigh, presenting with a pathological femoral fracture. The patient was initially diagnosed with a traumatic femoral fracture, and routine open reduction and internal fixation were performed at a local hospital. However, 20 days subsequent to surgery, gradual swelling and soreness around the incision were observed. The incision eventually ruptured during squatting for bowel movement, which led to extensive blood loss. Based on computed tomography (CT) and deep femoral artery arteriography, IH presenting with a pathological femoral fracture was diagnosed. The patient underwent artery embolization, from which he recovered well. At the 6-month follow-up, the femoral fracture was revealed to have healed, and a CT scan demonstrated no evidence of recurrence; however, continuous observation using CT is required in order to determine the long-term outcome. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of a misdiagnosed pathological femoral fracture in a patient with IH reported in the English literature. PMID:27347124

  18. Treatment of Femoral Shaft Fracture with an Interlocking Humeral Nail in Older Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Rigid interlocking nailing for femoral shaft fracture is ideal for use in adolescents in terms of stability of the fracture and convenience for the patient. However, numerous authors have reported that rigid interlocking nailing has some limitations in this age group due to the risk of complications. We evaluated the results of intramedullary nailing for femoral shaft fractures with an interlocking humeral nail in older children and adolescents. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed records of patients treated with an interlocking humeral nail. Radiographs were examined for proximal femoral change and evidence of osteonecrosis. Outcomes were assessed by major or minor complications that occurred after operative treatment. Results Twenty-four femoral shaft fractures in 23 patients were enrolled. The mean age at the time of operation was 12 years and 8 months and the mean follow-up period was 21 months. Bony union was achieved in all patients without any complications related to the procedure such as infection, nonunion, malalignment and limb length discrepancy. All fractures were clinically and radiographically united within an average eight weeks. No patients developed avascular necrosis of the femoral head and coxa valga. Conclusion Intramedullary nailing through the greater trochanter using a rigid interlocking humeral nail is effective and safe for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in older children and adolescents. PMID:22318831

  19. Laser etching causing fatigue fracture at the neck-shoulder junction of an uncemented femoral stem: A case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Bob; Kanawati, Andrew; Brazil, Declan; Bruce, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue fracture of a femoral component in total hip arthroplasty is a rare occurrence but well documented in the literature. It is understood that proximal loosing of a femoral stem with a well fixed stem distally will result in cantilever bending and eventual fatigue fracture of the stem. Other factors which may potentiate a fatigue fracture are material design, implant positioning, and patient characteristics. More recently, laser etching on the femoral neck of an implant has resulted in fatigue fracture. We report a case of a fatigue fracture at the neck-shoulder junction in a well fixed, uncemented, femoral component due to laser etching in the region of high tensile stress.

  20. [Fracture Type and Injury-to-Surgery Interval as Risk Factors for Avascular Necrosis of the Femoral Head after Internal Fixation of Intracapsular Femoral Neck Fracture].

    PubMed

    Popelka, O; Skála-Rosenbaum, J; Bartoška, R; Waldauf, P; Krbec, M; Džupa, V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head following the osteosynthesis of intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck in relation to the time interval between injury and surgery and the type of fracture. The data of patients with intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck surgically treated in the period from 2001 to 2011 were reviewed. Of 1555 patients treated for this fracture, 125 (7%) underwent osteosynthesis. The evaluated group included 115 patients who came for examination at one-year follow-up. There were 59 (52%) women and 56 (48%) men. Dynamic hip screw (DHS) osteosynthesis with an anti-rotation screw was performed in 103 patients and lag-screw osteosynthesis involving three parallel cannulated cancellous screws was employed in 12 patients. The patients were allocated to groups according to the injury-to-surgery interval and to sub-groups on the basis of the Garden classification of femoral fracture stage. In the group of 58 patients treated within 6 h of injury, AVN developed in 10 (17%). When the type of fracture was considered, 4% of the non-displaced fractures and 30% of the displaced fractures developed AVN. The patients with Garden stage I and II (non-displaced) fractures treated within 6 h of injury had a significantly lower risk of AVN development than those with Garden stage III or IV (displaced) fractures. The group treated between 6 and 24 post-injury hours comprised 21 patients, of whom four (19%) had AVN. In non-displaced and displaced fracture sub-groups, 25% of the patients in the former and 16% in the latter had AVN. The stage of displacement had no effect on AVN development. The two groups together (patients treated by 24 h) had a significantly lower AVN incidence than the patients treated after 24 h (p = 0.0025). In this group of 36 patients, 16 had AVN (44%) and the fracture stage made no significant difference (p = 0.6985; nondisplacement sub-group, 41%; displacement sub

  1. A comparison of locked versus nonlocked Enders rods for length unstable pediatric femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Henry Bone; Ho, Christine A; Podeszwa, David A; Wilson, Philip L

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel flexible Enders rods have been used for intramedullary fixation of pediatric femur fractures with good success. Despite intraoperative anatomic alignment, length unstable femur fractures can present postoperatively with fracture shortening. The purpose of this study was to review all length unstable pediatric femoral shaft fractures in which Enders rods were used and compare those that were locked to those that were not locked. A retrospective clinical and radiographic review of all patients at a single institution undergoing flexible intramedullary fixation for length unstable femoral shaft fractures from 2001 to 2008. A length unstable fracture was defined as either a comminuted fracture or a spiral fracture longer than twice the diameter of the femoral shaft. A total of 107 length unstable femoral shaft fractures fixed with Enders rods were identified, of which 37 cases (35%) had both Enders rods "locked" through the eyelet in the distal femur with a 2.7 mm fully threaded cortical screw. Patient demographics, clinical course, complications, fracture characteristics, and radiographic outcomes were compared for the locked and nonlocked groups. There were no statistical differences between the groups in demographic data, operative variables, fracture pattern, fracture location, time to union, femoral alignment, or major complications. Shortening of the femur and nail migration measured at 1 to 6 weeks postoperatively was significantly greater for the nonlocked cases. The medial and lateral locked Enders rods moved 1.3 and 1.9 mm, respectively, and the unlocked Enders each moved 12.1 mm (P < 0.05). At final follow-up there were significantly more (P < 0.05) clinical complaints in nonlocked group, including limp, clinical shortening, and painful palpable rods. Locking Enders rods for length unstable pediatric fractures is an excellent option to prevent shortening and resulted in no additional complications, added surgical time, or increased blood loss

  2. Femoral fracture repair using a locking plate technique in an adult captive polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Dawn M; Dew, Terry; Douglass, Michael; Perez, Edward

    2010-02-01

    To report successful femoral fracture repair in a polar bear. Case report. Female polar bear (Ursus maritimus) 5 years and approximately 250 kg. A closed, complete, comminuted fracture of the distal midshaft femur was successfully reduced and stabilized using a compression plating technique with 2 specialized human femur plates offering axial, rotational, and bending support, and allowing the bone to share loads with the implant. Postoperative radiographs were obtained at 11.5 weeks, 11 months, and 24 months. Bone healing characterized by marked periosteal reaction was evident at 11 months with extensive remodeling evident at 24 months. No complications were noted. Distal mid shaft femoral fracture was reduced, stabilized, and healed in an adult polar bear with a locking plate technique using 2 plates. Previously, femoral fractures in polar bears were considered irreparable. Use of 2 plates applied with a locking plate technique can result in successful fracture repair despite large body weight and inability to restrict postoperative activity.

  3. Femoral neck fracture as the sentinel sign of child abuse in an infant: a case report.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Andrew J; Gupta, Asheesh; Press, Cyrus M; Gourineni, Prasad

    2012-11-01

    Child abuse is a significant problem encountered by orthopedic surgeons in the USA. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse. In this case report, we present a 5-month-old male infant who initially presented with acute hip pain secondary to a femoral neck fracture as a result of abuse. The patient was taken to the operating room for open reduction and pinning of the femoral neck fracture. Further investigation found evidence of fractures of the bilateral femur and fibula at various stages of healing. To our knowledge, a femoral neck fracture in a nonambulatory infant resulting from abuse has not been reported previously. Physicians treating these injuries should consider child abuse in their differential diagnosis when presented with this clinical scenario. Level IV. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  4. A locked hip screw-intramedullary nail (cephalomedullary nail) for the treatment of fractures of the proximal part of the femur combined with fractures of the femoral shaft.

    PubMed

    Alho, A; Ekeland, A; Grøgaard, B; Dokke, J R

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven patients with complex femoral fractures (combined shaft and proximal femoral fractures) were treated with a modified Grosse-Kempf slotted locking nail (cephalomedullary nail), wherein two screws were inserted in the hip. Four types of complex, multifocal femoral fractures were represented in the series. Eleven of the femoral shaft fractures were secondary to a previous, internally fixed, not yet united hip fracture (type I). Ten comminuted peritrochanteric fractures occurred in normal bone (type II). Three similar fractures were pathologic because of metastasis. Two patients had an ipsilateral fracture of the femoral shaft and the trochanteric area (type III), and one of the shaft and the femoral neck (type IV). Locking was made static in 24 cases. Additional cerclage wiring was used in three type II fractures. Five complications were as follows: one cutting out of a screw in the femoral head, two fractures of the nail, one deep venous thrombosis, and one wound hematoma. Reoperations were two salvage operations using a new nail and one evacuation of hematoma. One patient with multiple injuries and four elderly patients died within 2 months. Eighteen patients with fractures in normal bone were followed for a median of 20 (6 to 37) months. All fractures united. Two nails were removed. The end result was excellent in ten patients, good in seven, and fair in one (2-cm shortening and 20-degree external rotation). We conclude that a locked intramedullary construct with locking screws in femoral neck and distal femur controls a complex fracture situation well.

  5. Laceration of femoral vessels by an avulsion fracture fragment of the lesser trochanter after bipolar hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ha, Yong-Chan; Luminita, Simion; Cho, Se-Hyun; Choi, Jun-Young; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2005-08-01

    Femoral vessel injuries after bipolar hemiarthroplasty have not been reported. The current report describes a case of a dual major vessel (superficial femoral artery and vein) injury associated with an avulsion fracture fragment of the lesser trochanter in a 76-year-old woman who had been treated with bipolar hemiarthroplasty because of a femoral neck fracture. The superficial femoral artery was repaired and the defect of the superficial femoral vein was reconstructed with a Gore-Tex graft (WL Gore and Associates Inc, Flagstaff, Ariz). The clinical result was satisfactory and there was no vascular problem at 1-year follow-up. Early diagnosis of this vascular injury prevents serious complications including gangrene of the injured limb.

  6. Factors affecting fracture location in atypical femoral fractures: A cross-sectional study with 147 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Wan; Kim, Jung Jae; Byun, Young-Soo; Shon, Oog-Jin; Oh, Hyoung Keun; Park, Ki Chul; Kim, Joon-Woo; Oh, Chang-Wug

    2017-07-01

    Many studies have tried to determine the characteristics of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) through age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched comparison with non-AFFs. However, we hypothesized that diaphyseal AFFs would have characteristics different from those of subtrochanteric AFFs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of diaphyseal/subtrochanteric AFFs and determine the factors related to fracture location. One hundred forty-seven patients with AFF were enrolled, 114 patients (78%) had a history of bisphosphonate use. Forty-nine patients (33%) had bilateral lesion, and 35% of patients had thigh pain. Patients were divided into two groups according to fracture location: 52 patients (35.4%) with subtrochanteric AFF and 95 patients (64.6%) with diaphyseal AFF. The patient demographics and fracture characteristics of the two groups were compared. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to adjust for variables related to fracture location. The patients in the diaphyseal AFFs group were older and had lower BMI, lower BMD, and larger lateral and anterior bowing. Multivariate analysis revealed that age greater than 65 years and low BMD were related with diaphyseal location. With greater lateral bowing angle, the AFF location was moved from the subtrochanteric area to the diaphyseal area. This study demonstrated that patients with diaphyseal AFFs had different characteristics compared with those with subtrochanteric AFFs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Total Hip Arthroplasty for Implant Rupture after Surgery for Atypical Subtrochanteric Femoral Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Yu; Ochi, Hironori; Watari, Taiji; Matsumoto, Mikio; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Treatment methods for delayed union and nonunion of atypical femoral fracture are still controversial. Moreover, no treatment method has been established for implant rupture caused by delayed union and nonunion. We encountered a 74-year-old female in whom nonunion-induced implant rupture occurred after treatment of atypical subtrochanteric femoral fracture with internal fixation using a long femoral nail. It was unlikely that sufficient fixation could be obtained by repeating osteosynthesis alone. Moreover, the patient was elderly and early weight-bearing activity was essential for early recovery of ADL. Based on these reasons, we selected one-stage surgery with total hip arthroplasty and osteosynthesis with inverted condylar locking plate as salvage procedures. Bone union was achieved at 6 months after surgery. This case illustrated that osteosynthesis-combined one-staged total hip arthroplasty could be considered as one of the options for nonunion-induced implant rupture of atypical femoral subtrochanteric fracture. PMID:27818818

  8. Predictors of femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Davis, Edward T; Olsen, Michael; Zdero, Rad; Smith, Gemma M; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to establish if radiological parameters, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and quantitative CT (qCT) could predict the risk of sustaining a femoral neck fracture following hip resurfacing. Twenty-one unilateral fresh frozen femurs were used. Each femur had a plain digital anteroposterior radiograph, DEXA scan and qCT scan. Femurs were then prepared for a Birmingham Hip Resurfacing femoral component and loaded to failure. Results demonstrated that gender and qCT measurements showed strong correlation with failure load. QCT could be used as an individual measure to predict risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture. However, when qCT is unavailable; gender, pre-operative DEXA scan and Neck Width measurements can be used together to assess risk of post-operative femoral neck fracture in patients due to undergo hip resurfacing.

  9. Current trends in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Buckley, S L

    1997-05-01

    Healthcare cost containment and a desire for early discharge of the pediatric patient to the home environment have become important factors in the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children. As a result, newer techniques of treatment have become popular. The immediate hip spica cast remains the primary method of treatment for most children 6 years of age and younger. The treatment for children between the ages of 6 and 10 years is the most controversial. Many such patients may be treated successfully with immediate hip spica casts. However, external fixation and flexible intramedullary rod fixation are being used more frequently, particularly in patients with multiple trauma. The initial enthusiasm for rigid intramedullary rod fixation of adolescent femoral fractures has been tempered by recent reports of femoral head avascular necrosis. Avoiding the piriformis fossa during rod insertion may prevent this complication. Most children and adolescents with femoral fractures can be treated successfully with a brief hospital course without compromising care or outcome.

  10. Development of a fixation device for robot assisted fracture reduction of femoral shaft fractures: a biomechanical study.

    PubMed

    Weber-Spickschen, T S; Oszwald, M; Westphal, R; Krettek, C; Wahl, F; Gosling, T

    2010-01-01

    Robot assisted fracture reduction of femoral shaft fractures provides precise alignment while reducing the amount of intraoperative imaging. The connection between the robot and the fracture fragment should allow conventional intramedullary nailing, be minimally invasive and provide interim fracture stability. In our study we tested three different reduction tools: a conventional External Fixator, a Reposition-Plate and a Three-Point-Device with two variations (a 40 degrees and a 90 degrees version). We measured relative movements between the tools and the bone fragments in all translation and rotation planes. The Three-Point-Device 90 degrees showed the smallest average relative displacement and was the only device able to withstand the maximum applied load of 70 Nm without failure of any bone fragment. The Three-Point-Device 90 degrees complies with all the stipulated requirements and is a suitable interface for robot assisted fracture reduction of femoral shaft fractures.

  11. Periprosthetic femoral fractures and trying to avoid them: what is the contribution of femoral component design to the increased risk of periprosthetic femoral fracture?

    PubMed

    Carli, A V; Negus, J J; Haddad, F S

    2017-01-01

    Periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) following total hip arthroplasty (THA) are devastating complications that are associated with functional limitations and increased overall mortality. Although cementless implants have been associated with an increased risk of PFF, the precise contribution of implant geometry and design on the risk of both intra-operative and post-operative PFF remains poorly investigated. A systematic review was performed to aggregate all of the PFF literature with specific attention to the femoral implant used. A systematic search strategy of several journal databases and recent proceedings from the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons was performed. Clinical articles were included for analysis if sufficient implant description was provided. All articles were reviewed by two reviewers. A review of fundamental investigations of implant load-to-failure was performed, with the intent of identifying similar conclusions from the clinical and fundamental literature. In total 596 articles were initially identified, with 34 being eligible for analysis. Aggregate analysis of 1691 PFFs in 342 719 primary THAs revealed a significantly higher number of PFFs with cementless femoral implants (p < 0.001). Single-wedge and double-wedge (fit-and-fill) femoral implants were associated with a threefold increase in PFF rates (p < 0.001) compared with anatomical, fully coated and tapered/rounded stems. Within cemented stems, loaded-taper (Exeter) stems were associated with more PFFs than composite-beam (Charnley) stems (p = 0.004). Review of the fundamental literature revealed very few studies comparing cementless component designs. Very few studies within the PFF literature provide detailed implant information. Cementless implants, specifically those of single-wedge and double-wedge, have the highest PFF rates in the literature, with most investigations recommending against their use in older patients with osteoporotic bone. This review illustrates the need

  12. Atypical subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures and possible association with bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W; Cosman, Felicia

    2010-03-01

    Several case series and multiple individual case reports suggest that some subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures might occur in patients who have been treated with long-term bisphosphonates. Several unique clinical and radiographic features are emerging: prodromal thigh pain prior to the fracture, complete absence of trauma precipitating the fracture, and bilateral fractures in some patients. Radiographic features include presence of stress reaction, transverse or short oblique fractures, and thick femoral cortices. The overall incidence of subtrochanteric and shaft fractures combined is below 30 per 100,000 person-years, so this type of fracture is much less common than proximal femur (hip) fracture. Furthermore, the unique "atypical" fracture type is a subset of all subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures. The putative mechanism is unknown, and more research is needed to identify distinctive characteristics and the pathophysiology of these atypical fractures. There is no rationale to withhold bisphosphonate therapy from patients with osteoporosis, although continued use of bisphosphonate therapy beyond a treatment period of 3 to 5 years should be re-evaluated annually.

  13. A Review of Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures Associated With Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Marsland, Daniel; Mears, Simon C.

    2012-01-01

    Periprosthetic fractures of the femur in association with total hip arthroplasty are increasingly common and often difficult to treat. Patients with periprosthetic fractures are typically elderly and frail and have osteoporosis. No clear consensus exists regarding the optimal management strategy because there is limited high-quality research. The Vancouver classification facilitates treatment decisions. In the presence of a stable prosthesis (type-B1 and -C fractures), most authors recommend surgical stabilization of the fracture with plates, strut grafts, or a combination thereof. In up to 20% of apparent Vancouver type-B1 fractures, the femoral stem is loose, which may explain the high failure rates associated with open reduction and internal fixation. Some authors recommend routine opening and dislocation of the hip to perform an intraoperative stem stability test to rule out a loose component. Advances in plating techniques and technology are improving the outcomes for these fractures. For fractures around a loose femoral prosthesis (types B2 and 3), revision using an extensively porous-coated uncemented long stem, with or without additional fracture fixation, appears to offer the most reliable outcome. Cement-in-cement revision using a long-stem prosthesis is feasible in elderly patients with a well-fixed cement mantle. It is essential to treat the osteoporosis to help fracture healing and to prevent further fractures. We provide an overview of the causes, classification, and management of periprosthetic femoral fractures around a total hip arthroplasty based on the current best available evidence. PMID:23569704

  14. Location of fractures and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures: analyses of 38 Japanese cases.

    PubMed

    Hyodo, Kojiro; Nishino, Tomofumi; Kamada, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Daisuke; Mishima, Hajime; Yamazaki, Masashi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine fracture location and the characteristics of patients with atypical femoral fractures (AFFs). We studied 38 AFFs in 34 patients admitted to our institution between November 2007 and July 2013. The diagnostic criteria for the AFFs were based on 2014 American Society of Bone and Mineral Research guidelines. We classified the fracture location as proximal, middle, or distal to trisect the femoral diaphysis from just distal to the lesser trochanter to just proximal to the supracondylar flare. Bowing was defined as a line through the inside of the tip of the great trochanter and a condylar center that was outside the medullary cavity. We investigated the fracture's location, existence of coronal bowing, and bisphosphonates (BPs), glucocorticoids (GCs), and proton pump inhibitors therapy. We analyzed associations between fracture location and demographic and clinical factors. Twelve fractures were proximal, 25 were middle, and one was distal. Nineteen limbs showed femoral bowing. Thirty-one patients received BP treatment-20 patients received alendronic acid, eight risedronic acid, and three minodronic acid. Fourteen patients received a GC, and 16 received a proton pump inhibitor. There was a significant association between coronal bowing and middle fracture locations, GC therapy and proximal fracture locations, and older age and middle fracture locations. Tall height and heavy weight had an association with proximal fracture location, and short height and light weight had an association with middle fracture location. In conclusion, we provide evidence supporting a causal relationship between BP-related severely suppressed bone turnover and AFFs. We also provide evidence supporting additional influences from altered distribution of mechanical stress with femoral bowing and various factors, such as GC therapy, age, body weight, and height, which might negatively affect bone intensity and quality and result in fracture.

  15. Flexible intramedullary nailing in paediatric femoral fractures. A report of 73 cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Flexible intramedullary nailing has emerged as an accepted procedure for paediatric femoral fractures. Present indications include all patients with femoral shaft fractures and open physis. Despite its excellent reported results, orthopaedic surgeons remain divided in opinion regarding its usefulness and the best material used for nails. We thus undertook a retrospective study of paediatric femoral fractures treated with titanium or stainless steel flexible nails at our institute with a minimum of 5 years follow up. Material and methods We included 73 femoral shaft fractures in 69 patients treated with retrograde flexible intramedullary nailing with a minimum follow up of 5 years. Final limb length discrepancy and any angular or rotational deformities were determined. Results Mean age at final follow up was 15.5 years (10-21 years). Mean follow up was 7.16 years (5.0-8.6 years). Titanium and stainless steel nails were used in 43 and 30 cases respectively. There were 51 midshaft, 17 proximal, and 5 distal fractures. All fractures united at an average of 11 weeks but asymptomatic malalignment and LLD were seen in 19% and 58% fractures respectively. LLD ranged from -3 cm to 1.5 cm. Other complications included superficial infection(2), proximal migration of nail(3), irritation at nail insertion site(5) and penetration of femoral neck with nail tip(1). There were 59 excellent, 10 satisfactory and 4 poor results. Conclusion Flexible intramedullary nailing is reliable and safe for treating paediatric femoral shaft fractures. It is relatively free of serious complications despite asymptomatic malalignment and LLD in significant percentage of fractures. PMID:22192682

  16. Locking plate fixation of distal femoral fractures is a challenging technique: a retrospective review

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Giampiero; Toro, Antonio; de Sire, Alessandro; Iolascon, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Summary Distal femoral fractures have typically a bimodal occurrence: in young people due to a high-energy trauma and in older people related to a low-energy trauma. These fractures are associated to a very high morbidity and mortality in elderly. Distal femoral fractures might be treated with plates, intramedullary nails, external fixations, and prosthesis. However, difficulties in fracture healing and the rate of complications are important clinical issues. The purpose of this retrospective review was to present our experience in treatment of distal femoral fracture in a sample of older people in order to evaluate the technical pitfalls and strategies used to face up the fractures unsuccessfully treated with locking plates. We included people aged more than 65 years, with a diagnosis of distal femoral fracture, treated with locking plates. We considered ‘unsuccessfully treated’ the cases with healing problems or hardware failures. Of the 12 patients (9 females and 3 males; mean aged 68.75 ± 3.31 years) included, we observed 3 ‘unsuccessfully cases’, 2 due to nonunions and 1 due to an early hardware failure, all treated using a condylar blade plate with a bone graft. One patient obtained a complete fracture healing after 1 year and in the other cases there was a nonunion. We observed as most common technical pitfalls: inadequate plate lengthening, fracture bridging, and number of locking screws. The use of locking plates is an emerging technique to treat these fractures but it seems more challenging than expected. In literature there is a lack of evidences about the surgical management of distal femoral fractures that is still an important challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon that has to be able to use all the fixation devices available. PMID:27134634

  17. Coronal plane partial articular fractures of the distal femoral condyle: current concepts in management.

    PubMed

    Arastu, M H; Kokke, M C; Duffy, P J; Korley, R E C; Buckley, R E

    2013-09-01

    Coronal plane fractures of the posterior femoral condyle, also known as Hoffa fractures, are rare. Lateral fractures are three times more common than medial fractures, although the reason for this is not clear. The exact mechanism of injury is likely to be a vertical shear force on the posterior femoral condyle with varying degrees of knee flexion. These fractures are commonly associated with high-energy trauma and are a diagnostic and surgical challenge. Hoffa fractures are often associated with inter- or supracondylar distal femoral fractures and CT scans are useful in delineating the coronal shear component, which can easily be missed. There are few recommendations in the literature regarding the surgical approach and methods of fixation that may be used for this injury. Non-operative treatment has been associated with poor outcomes. The goals of treatment are anatomical reduction of the articular surface with rigid, stable fixation to allow early mobilisation in order to restore function. A surgical approach that allows access to the posterior aspect of the femoral condyle is described and the use of postero-anterior lag screws with or without an additional buttress plate for fixation of these difficult fractures.

  18. Using biomechanics to improve the surgical technique for internal fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chi-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    Despite advances in science and technology, the success rate for the treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in high-energy injuries remains disappointing. The blood supply system in the femoral head of humans does not favor recovery from these fractures. Once these fractures occur, osteonecrosis and nonunion rates may be as high as 30%, even if the newest technique is used. There are some surgical techniques used to supplement internal fixation to reestablish the blood supply in the femoral head, but none have been evidently successful. After analysis of related studies, the author concludes that immediate surgical treatment using improved techniques incorporating the principles of biomechanics can improve the success rate of treatment of these fractures. Using these principles, the fracture site can achieve sufficient stability. Consequently, the blood supply in the femoral head and neck can be reestablished earlier and loss of reduction of fragments during treatment can be minimized. Thus, the chance of full recovery from these complicated fractures can be maximized. In this study, the biomechanical characteristics of these fractures and the principles associated with the surgical techniques used for treating them are reviewed and clarified. Finally, a surgical technique which is ideal from the author's viewpoint is presented. The author believes that the recommended surgical technique may become the best method for treating these complicated fractures.

  19. Early rehabilitation following less invasive surgical stabilisation plate fixation for distal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Smith, T O; Hedges, C; MacNair, R; Schankat, K

    2009-06-01

    The less invasive surgical stabilisation (LISS) plate fixation method is an orthopaedic procedure for the fixation of distal femoral fractures. Early physiotherapy treatments of motion and mobilisation have been advocated following this procedure. This article critically appraises the evidence base assessing the early rehabilitation of patients following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures. A review of EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL and AMED, and a hand search were undertaken. Two independent reviewers identified all eligible articles. Two reviewers extracted the data, which were verified by a third reviewer. All included articles were critically appraised by two independent reviewers using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Seventeen case series assessing 508 patients with 535 fractures were reviewed. No clinical trials comparing physiotherapy programmes were identified. The review identified that following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures, patients begin range-of-motion exercises immediately and are initially required to restrict weight-bearing following surgery. It remains unclear whether casts, braces or immobilisation aids are applied during the initial postoperative period. The efficacy of different physiotherapy protocols following LISS fixation for distal femoral fractures remains unclear. Further well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to compare different postoperative physiotherapy rehabilitation programmes for patients following LISS fixation of distal femoral fractures in order to determine the optimal postoperative management for this complex patient group.

  20. Principles of internal fixation and selection of implants for periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Giannoudis, Peter V; Kanakaris, Nikolaos K; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2007-06-01

    Periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) are increasing as a result of changes in population demographics and the increase in the number of total hip replacements performed. The overall incidence has been reported to range from 0.1% to 6% of all total hip arthroplasties. Management of these fractures is often particularly demanding, complex and expensive. In many cases, the surgeon has to solve the simultaneous problems of implant loosening, bone loss and fracture. A thorough understanding of the unique characteristics of the different fracture types, the principles of PFF treatment and a familiarity with the various fixation devices, grafts and prosthetic implants are all of paramount importance. Internal fixation is used either alone or as an adjunct to stem revision. The stability of the original implant and the configuration of the fracture itself are the basic factors that influence the decision-making process. The current study reviews the existing literature on internal fixation of femoral periprosthetic fractures.

  1. Association between injury to the retinacula of Weitbrecht and femoral neck fractures: anatomical and clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Mei, Jiong; Ni, Ming; Wang, Guoliang; Jia, Guangyao; Liu, Shiwei; Cui, Xueliang; Jiang, Chao; Wang, Hua; Dai, Yahui; Quan, Kun; Chen, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is no objective indicator for surgical procedures in elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. The purpose of this study was to determine the severity of damage to the retinacula of Weitbrecht based on the type of femoral neck fracture, anatomical and clinical observations. Data from 44 patients treated with artificial femoral head replacement were analyzed for the association between Garden type fracture and severity of injury to Weitbrecht’s retinacula. Additionally, 18 cases (Pauwels type III fracture) after Watson-Jones surgical approach and internal fixations were used to investigate the bone healing and femoral head necrosis. Among 44 patients (Garden type was III-IV, 79.6%), significant associations were found between Garden type fracture and lateral (P < 0.001), anterior (P = 0.045), and medial (P = 0.004) retinacular injury. Significant positive Spearman correlation coefficients between Garden type and the severity of injury to Weitbrecht’s retinacula were Ρ = 0.561 with P < 0.001 for lateral, Ρ = 0.338 with P = 0.025 for anterior, and Ρ = 0.469 with P = 0.001 for medial retinacula. Additionally, 4 out of 18 Pauwels type III fracture cases were observed severe damages on Weitbrecht’s retinacula and resulting bone necrosis. In conclusion, this study provided the anatomical and histological correlations between fracture displacement and degree of retinacula injury. PMID:26770357

  2. The fracture sites of atypical femoral fractures are associated with the weight-bearing lower limb alignment.

    PubMed

    Saita, Yoshitomo; Ishijima, Muneaki; Mogami, Atsuhiko; Kubota, Mitsuaki; Baba, Tomonori; Kaketa, Takefumi; Nagao, Masashi; Sakamoto, Yuko; Sakai, Kensuke; Kato, Rui; Nagura, Nana; Miyagawa, Kei; Wada, Tomoki; Liu, Lizu; Obayashi, Osamu; Shitoto, Katsuo; Nozawa, Masahiko; Kajihara, Hajime; Gen, Hogaku; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-09-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) are stress-related fractures that are speculated to associate with long-term treatment with bisphosphonates for osteoporosis. A history of AFF is a high risk factor for the development of a subsequent AFF in the same location of the contralateral femur, suggesting that a patient's individual anatomical factor(s) are related to the fracture site of AFFs. In this study, we investigated the radiographs of fourteen AFFs (four bilateral fractures among ten patients) treated at six hospitals associated with our university between 2005 and 2010. The fracture site and standing femorotibial angle (FTA), which reflects the mechanical axis of the lower limb, were measured on weight-bearing lower limb radiographs. The fracture site and FTA of patients with typical femoral fractures (TFF) were compared to those of patients with AFFs. The correlations were examined using Spearman's rank correlation coefficients. The fracture locations in the femora were almost the same in the patients with bilateral AFFs. There was a positive correlation between the fracture site and the standing FTA in the patients with AFFs (r=0.82, 95% confidence interval; 0.49 to 0.94), indicating that the larger the standing FTA (varus alignment), the more distal the site of the fracture in the femur. The FTA of the patients with atypical diaphyseal femoral fracture were significantly larger compared to that of those with not only atypical subtrochanteric fractures but also TFFs. In conclusion, the fracture sites of AFFs are associated with the standing lower limb alignment, while those of TFFs are not. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Biomechanical comparison of 3 possible fixation strategies to resist femoral neck shortening after fracture.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tim; Neal, John W; Weinhold, Paul S; Dahners, Laurence E

    2010-04-01

    In light of recent reports that patients with femoral neck shortening following fracture fixation are dissatisfied with their outcomes, the objective of this study was to compare the compressive strength, or resistance to shortening, of 3 possible strategies for stabilization of the femoral neck that should resist shortening. The proximal portion of 21 synthetic composite femurs were prepared to isolate the femoral neck for study. A 4-mm segment of the femoral neck was removed to simulate a transcervical comminuted fracture that would be expected to shorten under standard treatment conditions. These simulated fractures were fixed by 1 of 3 methods: a 3-screw configuration using parallel partially threaded screws augmented with an injectable hydroxyapatite bone substitute in the fracture site; a 3-screw configuration using parallel fully threaded screws; or a nonparallel 3-screw configuration using partially threaded screws. The specimens were tested in compression along the axis of the femoral neck, and the mean stiffness and load to failure values were calculated.The hydroxyapatite bone substitute-augmented partially threaded screw fixation construct resulted in the highest stiffness (1928+/-135 N/mm) and load to failure (6529+/-674 N), followed by the fully threaded screw construct (1210+/-166 N/mm and 3987+/-419 N, respectively), and finally the nonparallel construct (518+/-176 N/mm and 592+/-295 N, respectively) (P<.001 for all groups). This study supports further evaluation of hydroxyapatite bone substitute augmentation at the fracture site to prevent femoral neck shortening in femoral neck fractures receiving internal fixation. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Comparative study of the proximal femoral nail antirotation versus the reconstruction nail in the treatment of comminuted proximal femoral fracture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fu-Ting; Lin, Kai-Cheng; Yang, Shan-Wei; Renn, Jenn-Huei

    2012-01-16

    The purpose of our study was to compare the proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA; Synthes, Paoli, Pennsylvania) with a reconstruction nail (Recon; Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana) in the treatment of comminuted proximal femoral fractures. Between 2003 and 2010, twenty-three consecutive patients with AO/Orthopaedic Trauma Association 31-A3 fractures combined with proximal 32 fractures who had a minimum 18-month follow-up were evaluated retrospectively. There were 10 patients (age range, 18-74 years) in the Recon nail group and 13 patients (age range, 22-90 years) in the PFNA nail group. Patients treated with Recon nails experienced a longer operation time (P=.006) and more blood loss (P=.012) than patients treated with the PFNA nail. On postoperative radiographs, the change in the neck-shaft angle was 8.8° in the Recon nail group and 4.7° in the PFNA nail group (P=.048). The fracture union time averaged 31.8 weeks in the Recon nail group and 21.5 weeks in the PFNA nail group (P=.148). More patients in the Recon nail group underwent major or minor reoperation (P=.038) compared with the PFNA nail group. No implant failure occurred in either group. The functional results were similar in the 2 groups. For the treatment of comminuted proximal femoral fractures, use of either the PFNA and Recon nail is clinically effective. However, the PFNA nail provides a shorter operation time, less blood loss, and better realignment ability and reduces the incidence of reoperation. Therefore, the PFNA nail can be considered a better device than the Recon nail. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Surgical repair of femoral fractures in New World camelids: five cases (1996-2003).

    PubMed

    Shoemaker, R W; Wilson, D G

    2007-04-01

    Five New World camelids were admitted to the Western College of Veterinary Medicine between 1996 and 2003 for evaluation of femoral fractures. There were three alpacas and two llamas. Four of the animals were female and three were less than 3 months of age. Fracture configurations consisted of distal physeal fractures (three), a comminuted diaphyseal/metaphyseal fracture, and a transverse diaphyseal fracture. Fractures were diagnosed with a combination of physical examination and radiographs in all cases. All five fractures were repaired with internal fixation and three animals were discharged from the hospital with fractures that healed. One cria underwent successful internal fixation but died from pulmonary oedema during recovery from anaesthesia. Postoperative complications were rare and limited to inadequate fracture stability in one alpaca and prolonged recovery to weight bearing in another. One llama with a comminuted metaphyseal fracture, repaired with a 4.5 mm dynamic compression plate, subsequently had catastrophic failure of the bone 17 days after surgery. Overall the clients were pleased with the outcome of discharged animals. Although femoral fractures are considered rare, they pose a unique opportunity for the large animal veterinarian to successfully achieve fracture union with the aid of internal fixation.

  6. Mobilization of Endogenous Stem Cell Populations Enhances Fracture Healing in a Murine Femoral Fracture Model

    PubMed Central

    Toupadakis, Chrisoula A.; Granick, Jennifer L.; Sagy, Myrrh; Wong, Alice; Ghassemi, Ehssan; Chung, Dai-Jung; Borjesson, Dori L.; Yellowley, Clare E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Delivery of bone marrow derived stem and progenitor cells to the site of injury is an effective strategy to enhance bone healing. An alternate approach is to mobilize endogenous, heterogeneous stem cells that will home to the site of injury. AMD3100 is an antagonist of the chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) that rapidly mobilizes stem cell populations into peripheral blood. Our hypothesis was that increasing circulating numbers of stem and progenitor cells using AMD3100 will improve bone fracture healing. Methods A transverse femoral fracture was induced in C57BL/6 mice, after which they were subcutaneously injected for 3 days with AMD3100 or saline control. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) in the peripheral blood and bone marrow were evaluated via flow cytometry, automated hematology analysis, and cell culture 24 hours after injection and/or fracture. Healing was assessed up to 84 days after fracture by histomorphometry and µCT. Results AMD3100 injection resulted in higher numbers of circulating MSCs, HSCs, and EPCs. µCT data demonstrated that the fracture callus was significantly larger compared to the saline controls at day 21 and significantly smaller (remodeled) at day 84. AMD3100-treated mice have a significantly higher bone mineral density than saline-treated counterparts at day 84. Discussion Our data demonstrate that early cell mobilization had significant positive effects on healing throughout the regenerative process. Rapid mobilization of endogenous stem cells could provide an effective alternative strategy to cell transplantation for enhancing tissue regeneration. PMID:23831362

  7. Femoral shortening after surgical treatment of trochanteric fractures in nongeriatric patients.

    PubMed

    Platzer, Patrick; Thalhammer, Gerhild; Wozasek, Gerald E; Vécsei, Vilmos

    2008-04-01

    Femoral shortening is a well-known clinical finding after surgical treatment of per- and intertrochanteric fractures. Particularly, in geriatric patients with poor bone quality and unstable fracture types, secondary compression of these fractures often leads to length inequality of the lower limbs. In younger patients with good bone quality and mobilization with delayed weight bearing, limb length shortening is expected to be a rare complication. The purpose of this study was to analyze incidence and degree of femoral shortening in patients younger than 60 years of age after fixation of different types of per- and intertrochanteric fractures. In addition, we compared the results of two different implants, which were used for operative treatment. Ninety-five patients, younger than 60 years of age, were evaluated for femoral shortening after surgical treatment of per- and intertrochanteric fractures between 1997 and 2002. Follow-up examinations took place at an average of 3.2 years (2-5 years) after trauma. Fractures were classified by the AO/OTA system and divided into sub-types 31 A1, 31 A2, and 31 A3. Two different implants (dynamic hip screw and cephalomedullary nail) were used for operative treatment, mainly depending on type and stability of the fracture. Femoral shortening was analyzed by standardized lower extremity radiographs measuring the distance from the top of the femoral head to the center of a line drawn between the most distal part of the medial and lateral femoral condyles. Fifty-seven patients were treated by a cephalomedullary nail, 38 by dynamic hip screw. Femoral shortening was seen in 46 patients (48%) with a mean value of 11 mm. Twenty-two patients had a femoral inequality of less than 10 mm, 17 patients an inequality between 10 mm and 20 mm, and 7 patients a shortening of more than 20 mm. Statistical analysis revealed that fracture type and implant had a significant influence on the shortening: In patients with fracture types 31 A2 and A3

  8. Computed tomographic evaluation of the proximal femur: A predictive classification in displaced femoral neck fracture management

    PubMed Central

    Magu, Narender Kumar; Magu, Sarita; Rohilla, Rajesh Kumar; Batra, Amit; Jaipuria, Abhishek; Singh, Amanpreet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoral neck fracture is truly an enigma due to the high incidence of avascular necrosis and nonunion. Different methods have been described to determine the size of the femoral head fragment, as a small head has been said to be associated with poor outcome and nonunion due to inadequate implant purchase in the proximal fragment. These methods were two dimensional and were affected by radiography techniques, therefore did not determine true head size. Computed tomography (CT) is an important option to measure true head size as images can be obtained in three dimensions. Henceforth, we subjected patients to CT scan of hip in cases with displaced fracture neck of femur. The study aims to define the term small head or inadequate size femoral head” objectively for its prognostic significance. Materials and Methods: 70 cases of displaced femoral neck fractures underwent CT scan preoperatively for proximal femoral geometric measurements of both hips. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was done in all cases. Patients were treated with either intertrochanteric osteotomy or lag screw osteosynthesis based on the size of the head fragment on plain radiographs. Results: The average femoral head fragment volume was 57 cu cm (range 28.3-84.91 cu cm; standard deviation 14 cu cm). Proximal fragment volume of >43 cu cm was termed adequate size (type I) and of ≤43 cu cm as small femoral head (type II). Fractures which united (n = 54) had a relatively large average head size (59 cu cm) when compared to fractures that did not (n = 16), which had a small average head size (49 cu cm) and this difference was statistically significant. In type I fractures union rate was comparable in both osteotomy and lag screw groups (P > 0.05). Lag screw fixation failed invariably, while osteotomy showed good results in type II fractures (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Computed tomography scan of the proximal femur is advisable for measuring true size of head fragment. An objective

  9. UNSTABLE FEMORAL FRACTURES TREATED WITH TITANIUM ELASTIC INTRAMEDULLARY NAILS, IN CHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Jamil Faissal; Schelle, Gisele; Valenza, Weverley; Pavelec, Anna Carolina; Souza, Camila Deneka Arantes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the indications, epidemiology, associated lesions, complications and prognosis among children with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who were treated with titanium elastic intramedullary nails. Method: This was a retrospective analysis on 24 patients aged 5-12 years with unstable femoral diaphysis fractures who underwent surgical treatment with elastic titanium intramedullary nails at the Cajuru University Hospital, Curitiba-PR, between April 2002 and March 2008, with a minimum follow-up of 36 months. The epidemiological data, angular deviations, leg shortening and bone consolidation were evaluated. Results: The medical files of 113 cases operated between April 2002 and March 2008 were reassessed. From these, 24 cases of unstable femoral diaphysis fractures treated with elastic titanium intramedullary nails with retrograde insertion were included in the study. There were two bilateral fractures and two exposed fractures. Seven patients were female and 17 were male, and the mean age was 8.3 years. The following were presented at the end of the study: shortening, varus or valgus displacement, final retrocurvatum or antecurvatum of zero, and absence of delayed consolidation or pseudarthrosis. Conclusions: The elastic titanium intramedullary nails were easily placed and removed. We believe that using elastic titanium intramedullary nails is a good option for fixation of unstable femoral fractures in children. PMID:27047868

  10. Midterm Results of Consecutive Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures Vancouver Type A and B

    PubMed Central

    Trieb, Klemens; Fiala, Rainer; Briglauer, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Surgical treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures has a high complication and mortality rate of more than 10%. The aim of this study is to report the outcome of a consecutive single center patient group. Thirty-four consecutive patients (mean age 81.2+/-8.5 years, 14 male, 20 female) with a periprosthetic femoral fracture Vancouver type A (n=5) or type B (n=29) were followed-up after 43.2 months, none of the patients were lost to follow-up. Nineteen of the patients were treated through change of the stem and cerclage fixation, five by plates and ten by cerclage cables. One successfully treated infection was observed. No further complications have been reported peri- or postoperatively, therefore resulting in 2.9% overall complication rate. These results demonstrate that precisely selected revision surgery protocol following periprosthetic femoral fractures within elderly multimorbid patients may lead to beneficial outcomes at a low risk of complications. PMID:27777712

  11. Treatment of femoral subtrochanteric fractures with proximal lateral femur locking plates

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Sun-jun; Zhang, Shi-min; Yu, Guang-rong

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the outcome of subtrochanteric hip fractures treated with proximal lateral femur locking plate. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical results of 48 cases of femoral subtrochanteric fractures treated with proximal lateral femur locking plates from January 2008 to May 2010. The progress of fracture healing, as well as the occurrence of complications, was recorded. The function of the hip joint was evaluated by the Harris social index and the Parker and Palmer mobility score one year after the operation. RESULT: 45 patients were followed up until fracture union or a revision surgery. Among the 45 patients, 43 patients obtained fracture union without further intervention. Thirty-eight fractures healed with no loss of position at 1-year follow-up. There were no cases of hip screw cutting through the femoral head. The mean score of the Harris social index was 86.5±9.8 (73~95). The mean Parker and Palmer mobility score was 7.4±2.1 (3~9). CONCLUSION: The proximal lateral femur locking plate is the kind of stable and effective internal fixation for treating subtrochanteric hip fractures which has the advantage of stable fixation especially for the lateral femoral wall fracture. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series. PMID:24453626

  12. Identification of Differentially Expressed Gene after Femoral Fracture via Microarray Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Donggen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in different stages after femoral fracture based on rat models, providing the basis for the treatment of sport-related fractures. Gene expression data GSE3298 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO), including 16 chips. All femoral fracture samples were classified into earlier fracture stage and later fracture stage. Total 87 DEGs simultaneously occurred in two stages, of which 4 genes showed opposite expression tendency. Out of the 4 genes, Rest and Cst8 were hub nodes in protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. The GO (Gene Ontology) function enrichment analysis verified that nutrition supply related genes were enriched in the earlier stage and neuron growth related genes were enriched in the later stage. Calcium signaling pathway was the most significant pathway in earlier stage; in later stage, DEGs were enriched into 2 neurodevelopment-related pathways. Analysis of Pearson's correlation coefficient showed that a total of 3,300 genes were significantly associated with fracture time, none of which was overlapped with identified DEGs. This study suggested that Rest and Cst8 might act as potential indicators for fracture healing. Calcium signaling pathway and neurodevelopment-related pathways might be deeply involved in bone healing after femoral fracture. PMID:25110652

  13. Large diameter metal on metal total hip replacement for femoral neck fractures with neurological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Jinzhu; Liu, Denghui; Xu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis can have a femoral neck fracture; yet, the optimal methods of treatment for these hips remains controversial. Many constrained or semi-constrained prostheses, using constrained liners (CLs) with a locking mechanism to capture the femoral head, were used to treat femoral neck fractures in patients with neurological disorders. We retrospectively studied a group of patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis who sustained femoral neck fractures and were treated by total hip arthroplasty using an L-MoM prosthesis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 12 hips in 12 patients who underwent large-diameter metal-on-metal (L-MoM) total hip replacement between May 2007 and October 2009. Eight of the 12 patients (8 hips; 66.7%) had Parkinson's disease and 4 patients (4 hips; 33.3%) were affected with poliomyelitis. Results: The followup time was 5.2 years (range 3.6-6.0 years). At the latest followup, all the patients showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic results, with pain relief. No complications, such as dislocation or aseptic loosening occurred. Conclusion: We believe the use of L-MoM can diminish the rate of instability or dislocation, after operation. The L-MoM is an option for patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis with femoral neck fracture. PMID:25404774

  14. Garden type I fractures myth or reality? A prospective study comparing CT scans with X-ray findings in Garden type I femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Zhiyong; Su, Yanling; Hou, Zhiyong; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Yingze

    2012-11-01

    The Garden type I femoral neck fracture is defined as an incomplete fracture of the neck of the femur as seen on the antero-posterior (AP) radiograph of the injured hip. The diagnosis of incomplete femoral neck fractures has decreased in recent years with the development of improved radiographic imaging. We hypothesized that incomplete femoral neck fractures seen on radiographs are in fact complete fractures on computed tomography (CT). The study aims to test this hypothesis by comparing CT scan images to X-ray findings in patients diagnosed with Garden type I femoral neck fractures. From January 2008 to October 2010, our management of femoral neck fractures included a CT scan of the injured hip for all Garden type I fractures. CT findings were reported by a musculoskeletal radiologist. A classification of the fracture was performed by an orthopedic surgeon. Eight hundred and twenty five femoral neck fractures were admitted during the study period. Seventeen of these fractures (2.1%) were considered incomplete based on radiographic evaluation. In 17 cases (100%), the CT scan demonstrated a complete fracture extending through the medial cortex. Subsequently, all 17 fractures were fixed with standard cannulated screw technique on a fracture table. Secondary displacement occurred in one patient prior to fixation. All fractures healed well and no avascular necrosis was noted. In summary, our study shows that incomplete femoral neck fractures identified on X-rays are actually complete fractures based on CT scans. If confirmed by a larger study population, our findings can simplify the Garden classification by eliminating an inaccurate subcategory. The clinical implications are that Garden type I fractures should all likely be fixed with cannulated screws and with an effort to prevent displacement during treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An Analysis of Reported Cases of Fracture of the Universal Exeter Femoral Stem Prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Bolland, Ben J R F; Wilson, Matthew J; Howell, Jonathan R; Hubble, Matthew J W; Timperley, A John; Gie, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Between 1991 and 2008, approximately 80 cases of fracture (neck or stem) have been reported. This study aimed at determining factors predisposing to implant fracture. Clinical, surgical, radiological, and retrieval data were collated. Risk factors associated with fracture were categorized to patient related (weight and activity levels), surgical related (poor medial support, component size, and placement), and anatomic/implant related (head size/offset). Data was available on 60 patients (32 stem and 28 neck fractures). Mean patient age at fracture was similar for both neck and stem fractures (69 years, 67 years, respectively). Also, 77% neck and 52% stem fractures occurred in men. Mean weight was 107 kg in neck and 96.5 kg in stem fractures with 68% neck and 38% stem fractures either obese or morbidly obese. Mean time to fracture was 78 months (range, 36-144 months) for neck and 76 months (range, 2-155 months) for stem fractures. 44#2 and 44#3 were the most common sizes associated with neck fractures. Stem fractures occurred more commonly (84%) in the smaller sizes (35.5 to 44#1). Elongated femoral heads were used in 69% neck and 14% stem fractures. Neck fractures were most commonly associated with patient-related (increased weight and activity) and implant-related (use of an elongated femoral head) factors. Stem fractures were most commonly associated with correctable surgical-related causes, predominantly secondary to stem undersizing or inadequate medial support (84%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Bone scintigraphy depicts bilateral atypical femoral stress fractures with metachronous presentation, long before a complete fracture occurs.

    PubMed

    Spyridonidis, Trifon J; Mousafiris, Kostantinos V; Rapti, Efi K; Apostolopoulos, Dimitris J

    2014-01-01

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFF), although rare, are recognized more often during the last decade. They are located in the subtrochanteric region or the femoral shaft, may be bilateral, can evolve to complete fractures after bone overload or minimal trauma and have specific radiological features. The complete fractures have horizontal or slightly oblique configuration accompanied by a medial spike, are non-comminuted, and extend to both cortices. There is also generalized cortical thickening of femoral shaft. Newer evidence suggests that AFF are stress or insufficiency fractures, possibly associated with long-term use of bisphoshonates (BP). AFF can also occur in oncologic patients referred for bone scintigraphy and, in such a case, they should be differentiated from bone metastases. We present here a case with bilateral AFF with metachronous appearance in a female patient with a history of breast cancer and osteoporosis. The first AFF had been depicted on bone scintigraphy 3 years before a complete fracture occurred at this site, but the finding was overlooked. A second bone scan performed shortly after the fracture in order to exclude underlying bone metastases disclosed an additional unsuspected incomplete AFF in the contralateral femur, which was confirmed by radiography. In conclusion, oncologists should consider other causes of bone pain besides bone metastatic disease, and physicians interpreting whole body bone scans of oncologic patients should be aware of the entity of AFF, in order to avoid false positive results and provide early information about an impending complete AFF.

  17. Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty for Simple Distal Femoral Fractures in Elderly Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Nam-Yong; Sohn, Jong-Min; Cho, Sung-Gil; Kim, Seung-Chan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) can be an alternative method for treating distal femoral fractures in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic results in patients with knee osteoarthritis who underwent TKA with the Medial Pivot prosthesis for distal femoral fractures. Materials and Methods Eight displaced distal femoral fractures in 8 patients were treated with TKA using the Medial Pivot prosthesis and internal fixation. The radiographic and clinical evaluations were performed using simple radiographs and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee scores during a mean follow-up period of 49 months. Results All fractures united and the mean time to radiographic union was 15 weeks. The mean range of motion of the knee joint was 114.3° and the mean HSS knee score was 85.1 at the final follow-up. Conclusions Based on the radiographic and clinical results, TKA with internal fixation can be considered as an option for the treatment of simple distal femoral fractures in elderly patients who have advanced osteoarthritis of the knee with appropriate bone stock. PMID:24032103

  18. Long-Term Follow-Up Results of Delayed Fixation of Femoral Neck Fractures in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Elmi, Asghar; Tabrizi, Ali; Rouhani, Alireza; Mirzatolouei, Fardin

    2013-01-01

    Background Femoral neck fractures are urgent injuries that require precise reduction and stable fixation. In some cases, however, early treatment is not possible. Objectives The present study aimed to evaluate long-term results of delayed fixation of femoral neck fractures using cannulated screws. Patients and Methods This retrospective descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 26 patients with femoral neck fractures. The patients were treated through a closed reduction and fixation method using cannulated screws. Patients were followed up for at least five years and the rate of complications was determined. Results In this study, 26 patients with mean age of 34.3 years were assessed. Average time interval from injury to surgery was 46.4 ± 12.2 hours; 18 patients (69%) were operated on with more than 36 hours of delay. Incidence of AVN and nonunion was reported in 10 (38.4%) and 3 (11.5%) patients, respectively. Conclusions Time plays an important role in treatment results of femoral neck fractures. To treat the fractures, closed reduction and fixation using cannulated screws may still be the best option. PMID:24350142

  19. Logistic regression analysis of risk factors for femoral head osteonecrosis after healed intertrochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Zhengliang; Sheng, Jiagen; Zhang, Changqing; Zhu, Zhenhong

    2016-05-16

    To evaluate the potential risk factors of the development of femoral head osteonecrosis after healed intertrochanteric fractures. We retrospectively reviewed all patients who were operated upon with closed reduction and internal fixation for intertrochanteric fractures by our medical group from December 1993 to December 2012. Patients with healed fractures were identified. Age, gender, comorbidities favouring osteonecrosis, causes of injuries, fracture patterns, the location of the primary fracture line, time from injury to surgery, fixation methods, and the development of femur head osteonecrosis of these patients were summarised. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to evaluate the correlation between potential risk factors and the development of femoral head osteonecrosis. A total of 916 patients with healed intertrochanteric fractures were identified. Femoral head osteonecrosis was found in 8 cases (0.87%). According to the results of univariate logistic regression, a more proximal fracture line, fixation with dynamic hip screws and age were found to be statistically significant factors. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that the statistically significant predictors of femoral head osteonecrosis were younger age (odds ratio [OR] = 17.103; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.988-147.111), a more proximal fracture line (OR = 31.439; 95% CI, 3.700-267.119) and applying dynamic hip screw as the internal fixation (OR = 11.114; 95% CI, 2.064-59.854). Regular follow-up is commended in young patients with a proximal fracture line who underwent closed reduction and internal fixation with dynamic hip screw, even though the bone had healed.

  20. Childhood femoral fracture can lead to premature knee-joint arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose During the past decades, treatment of pediatric femoral fractures in Finland has changed from mostly non-operative to more operative. In this retrospective study, we analyzed the long-term results of treatment. Patients and methods 74 patients (mean age 7 (0–14) years) with a femoral fracture were treated in Aurora City Hospital in Helsinki during the period 1980–89. 52 of 74 patients participated in this clinical study with a mean follow-up of 21 (16–28) years. Fracture location, treatment mode, time of hospitalization, and fracture alignment at union were assessed. Subjective assessment and range of motion of the hip and knee were evaluated. Leg-length discrepancy and alignment of the lower extremities were measured both clinically and radiographically. Results Of the 52 children, 28 had sustained a shaft fracture, 13 a proximal fracture, and 11 a distal fracture. 44 children were treated with traction, 5 by internal fixation, and 3 with cast-immobilization. Length of the hospital treatment averaged 58 (3–156) days and the median traction time was 39 (3–77) days. 21 of the 52 patients had angular malalignment of more than 10 degrees at union. 20 patients experienced back pain. Limping was seen in 10 patients and leg-length discrepancy of more than 15 mm was in 8 of the 52 patients. There was a positive correlation between angular deformity and knee-joint arthritis in radiographs at follow-up in 6 of 15 patients who were over 10 years of age at the time of injury. Interpretation Angular malalignment after treatment of femoral fracture may lead to premature knee-joint arthritis. Tibial traction is not an acceptable treatment method for femoral fractures in children over 10 years of age. PMID:23343379

  1. Good stability but high periprosthetic bone mineral loss and late-occurring periprosthetic fractures with use of uncemented tapered femoral stems in patients with a femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sjöö, Helene; Kelly-Pettersson, Paula; Bodén, Henrik; Eisler, Thomas; Stark, André; Muren, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose We previously evaluated a new uncemented femoral stem designed for elderly patients with a femoral neck fracture and found stable implant fixation and good clinical results up to 2 years postoperatively, despite substantial periprosthetic bone mineral loss. We now present the medium-term follow-up results from this study. Patients and methods In this observational prospective cohort study, we included 50 patients (mean age 81 (70–92) years) with a femoral neck fracture. All patients underwent surgery with a cemented cup and an uncemented stem specifically designed for fracture treatment. Outcome variables were migration of the stem measured with radiostereometry (RSA) and periprosthetic change in bone mineral density (BMD), measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Hip function and health-related quality of life were assessed using the Harris hip score (HHS) and the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D). DXA and RSA data were collected at regular intervals up to 4 years, and data concerning reoperations and hip-related complications were collected during a mean follow-up time of 5 (0.2–7.5) years. Results At 5 years, 19 patients had either passed away or were unavailable for further participation and 31 could be followed up. Of the original 50 patients, 6 patients had suffered a periprosthetic fracture, all of them sustained after the 2-year follow-up. In 19 patients, we obtained complete RSA and DXA data and no component had migrated after the 2-year follow-up. We also found a continuous total periprosthetic bone loss amounting to a median of –19% (–39 to 2). No changes in HHS or EQ-5D were observed during the follow-up period. Interpretation In this medium-term follow-up, the stem remained firmly fixed in bone despite considerable periprosthetic bone mineral loss. However, this bone loss might explain the high number of late-occurring periprosthetic fractures. Based on these results, we would not recommend uncemented femoral stems for the

  2. Evaluation of Thompson's quadricepsplasty results in patients with knee stiffness resulted from femoral fracture.

    PubMed

    Mousavi, Hamid; Mir, Behrouz; Safaei, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Posttraumatic and/or postsurgical knee stiffness is one of the orthopedic complications which is difficult to be treated and can affect individual's life negatively. The aim of this study is to investigate the results of quadricepsplasty in patients with knee stiffness resulted from femoral fracture. This is a cross-sectional study on all patients with femoral fracture which has caused knee flexion limitation referred to Kashani and Al-Zahra Hospitals in Isfahan from January 2010 to March 2013. The type and site of fracture, joint extension, and fracture fixation technique were recorded. Moreover, the range of motion (ROM) before surgery, under general anesthesia, and 3- and 6-month postoperation were measured. Among the patients, 13 had a simple fracture (48%) and 14 had a segmental fracture (51.9%). Considering the fracture site, 11, 10, and 6 patients had femoral (40.74%), supracondylar (37.3%), and femoral supracondylar (22.2%) fractures, respectively. The fracture fixation was performed by the plate, external, and Wagner fixation techniques for 24 (88.9%), 2 (7.4%), and 1 (3.7%) patients, respectively. The mean ROM before operation, under general anesthesia, and 3- and 6-month postoperation were determined to be 33.15° ± 24.73°, 122.60° ± 10.22°, 99.63° ± 16.52°, and 100.74° ± 15.67°, respectively. The mean ROM value at various stages was not similar (P < 0.001). The mean changes in the ROM were 79.2° ± 24.6° and 62.1° ± 19.7° in the cases with simple and segmental fractures, respectively. The mean changes in the knee ROM were significantly higher in simple fractures in comparison with the segmental femoral fracture (P = 0.03). We found Thompson's quadricepsplasty may successfully increase the range of knee flexion in knee fracture and also regardless of quadriceps time.

  3. Location of civilian ballistic femoral fracture indicates likelihood of arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Gitajn, Leah; Perdue, Paul; Hardcastle, John; O'Toole, Robert V

    2014-10-01

    We evaluated whether the location of a ballistic femoral fracture helps predict the presence of arterial injury. We hypothesized that fractures located in the distal third of the femur are associated with a higher rate of arterial injury. We conducted a retrospective review of electronic medical records at our level I trauma centre and found 133 consecutive patients with femoral fractures from civilian gunshots from 2002 to 2007, 14 of whom sustained arterial injury. Fracture extent was measured with computerized viewing software and recorded with a standard technique, calculating proximal, distal, and central locations of the fracture as a function of overall length of the bone. Analyses were conducted with Student's t, Chi-squared, and Fisher's exact tests. The location of any fracture line in the distal third of the femur was associated with increased risk of arterial injury (P<0.05). The odds ratio for the presence of arterial injury when the proximal fracture line was in the distal third of the femur was 5.63 (95% confidence interval, 1.7-18.6; P<0.05) and when the distal fracture line was in the distal third of the femur was 6.72 (95% confidence interval, 1.78-25.44; P<0.05). A fracture line in the distal third of the femur after ballistic injury is six times more likely to be associated with arterial injury and warrants careful evaluation. Our data show that fracture location can help alert clinicians to possible arterial injury after ballistic femoral fracture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Femoral neck fractures secondary to renal osteodystrophy. Literature review and treatment algorithm.

    PubMed

    Mataliotakis, G; Lykissas, M G; Mavrodontidis, A N; Kontogeorgakos, V A; Beris, A E

    2009-01-01

    Pathological fractures after minor trauma in osteopenic patients are not uncommon, but fractures due to hypocalcemic convulsions in patients with renal insufficiency are relatively rare. Though similar cases have been reported in the literature, this type of fracture is still an unusual condition. The complex underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and the poor bone mineral density signify the employment of specific hardware and a different treatment approach, especially in young adults, where the salvage of the femoral head is of utmost importance. The aim of this review is to examine the specific features of the femoral neck fractures in young individuals who suffer from renal osteodystrophy and the treatment algorithm should be followed. The patient's age, the uremic condition, the skeletal maturity and the bone properties in renal osteodystrophy are examined in relation to the priorities in osteosynthesis methods. A conclusive treatment algorithm is proposed where all the relevant parameters are incorporated.

  5. Atypical Femoral Fractures Can Happen Even With Short Duration Bisphosphonate Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Ritesh; Siva, Chokkalingam

    2015-08-01

    Bisphosphonates remain the mainstay of the pharmacological approach to reduce the risk of fractures. Clinical trials have demonstrated their efficacy in reducing the frequency of osteoporosis-related vertebral and nonvertebral fractures. In the last few years, there have been several reports of increased risk of subtrochanteric and femoral shaft fractures also known as "atypical femoral fractures" (AFF) among patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate treatment. Most of these reports have been on alendronate, the most extensively used bisphosphonate. There is paucity of data to link ibandronate to AFF. We report a 66-year-old female presenting with AFF within three years of starting ibandronate and after receiving a total of 27 doses. Prescribers should be aware that AFF can happen even during the early course of bisphosphonate treatment and not necessarily only after prolonged treatment for several years.

  6. Revision surgery occurs frequently after percutaneous fixation of stable femoral neck fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Kain, Michael S; Marcantonio, Andrew J; Iorio, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Femoral neck fractures are a major public health problem. Multiple-screw fixation is the most commonly used surgical technique for the treatment of stable femoral neck fractures. We determined (1) the proportion of hips that had conversion surgery to THA, and (2) the proportion of hips that underwent repeat fracture surgery after percutaneous screw fixation of stable (Garden Stages I and II) femoral neck fractures in patients older than 65 years and the causes of these reoperations. We performed a retrospective study of all patients older than 65 years with stable femoral neck fractures secondary to low-energy trauma treated surgically at our institution between 2005 and 2008. We identified 121 fractures in 120 patients older than 65 years as stable (Garden Stage I or II); all were treated with percutaneous, cannulated screw fixation in an inverted triangle without performing a capsulotomy or aspiration of the fracture hematoma at the time of surgery. The average age of the patients at the time of fracture was 80 years (range, 65-100 years). Radiographs, operative reports, and medical records were reviewed. Fracture union, nonunion, osteonecrosis, intraarticular hardware, loss of fixation, and conversion to arthroplasty were noted. Followup averaged 11 months (range, 0-5 years) because all patients were included, including those who died. The mortality rate was 40% for all patients at the time of review. Twelve patients (10%) underwent conversion surgery to THA at a mean of 9 months after the index fracture repair (range, 2-24 months); the indications for conversion to THA included osteonecrosis, nonunion, and loss of fixation. Two others had periimplant subtrochanteric femur fractures treated by surgical repair with cephalomedullary nails and two patients had removal of hardware. Revision surgery after osteosynthesis for stable femoral neck fractures was more frequent in this series than previously has been reported. The reasons for this higher frequency

  7. Two cases of missed Salter-Harris III coronal plane fracture of the lateral femoral condyle.

    PubMed

    Sabharwal, Sanjeev; Henry, Patrick; Behrens, Fred

    2008-02-01

    Coronal plane fractures of the lateral femoral condyle can be difficult to diagnose, especially in children with open physis. Two adolescents who sustained this uncommon Salter-Harris III fracture of the knee were misdiagnosed after initial clinical examination and standard x-rays. Oblique x-rays, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging were valuable in arriving at the correct diagnosis and in decision making.

  8. Fracture of the femoral component after a lightning strike injury: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lizano-Díez, Xavier; Alentorn-Geli, Eduard; León-García, Alfonso; Marqués-López, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    A fracture of the stem in a total hip arthroplasty (THA) is an uncommon complication. We report a case of femoral stem fracture in a 55-year-old male patient after a lightning strike. A revision was conducted using a Wagner osteotomy and a revision prosthesis. Dall-Milles cerclages were used to close the osteotomy. The postoperative evolution was satisfactory, with an immediate partial weight bearing, consolidation of the osteotomy after three months and return to daily activity without pain.

  9. Locking attachment plate fixation around a well-fixed stem in periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Bom; Cho, Jae-Woo; Lee, Young Ho; Shon, Won-Yong; Park, Jung Wee; Kim, Jinil; Oh, Jong-Keon

    2017-07-08

    Periprosthetic fractures are difficult to manage. Plating technique has been considered a reliable form of management of periprosthetic fractures with a well-fixed stem, but a dependable and stable method of plate fixation to the bone is lacking. This study reports the clinical results using a locking attachment plate (LAP) instead of cable fixation to fix locking plates to a periprosthetic femoral shaft fracture. Nineteen patients with periprosthetic femoral shaft fractures around well-fixed stemmed implants were studied between August 2012 and December 2014. Patients were followed up for at least 1 year postoperatively. Median age was 74 years (range 56-96 years). Fractures were classified according to the Unified Classification System, Vancouver classification, and Su classification. Open reduction was performed under minimal incision and the locking plate was fixed to the lateral cortex of the femoral shaft. The part of the shaft without a stem was fixed to the plate using 5.0-mm locking screws, and the part with an underlying stem was fixed using 3.5-mm locking screws through the LAP instead of cables. Postoperatively, patients were managed using general principles for femoral shaft fractures. Average follow-up was 16 months (range 12-36 months). All cases achieved fracture healing without loss of reduction. There were no cases of implant breakage or stem loosening at final follow-up. The average number of LAPs per fixation construct was 2.1 (range 1-4), and the average number of 3.5-mm locking screws through each LAP was 3.3 (range 2-4). The average value of plate screw density was 0.55 (range 0.37-0.8), and the average working length was four holes (range 2-8). Using the LAP to manage periprosthetic fractures with a well-fixed stem could obviate the need for cable around the stem area and yield acceptable outcomes.

  10. Adjuvant Teriparatide Therapy for Surgical Treatment of Femoral Fractures; Does It Work?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Taek; Jeong, Hyung Jun; Lee, Soong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Atypical femoral fracture (AFF), periprosthetic femoral fracture (PPFF) and femoral nonunion (FNU) are recalcitrant challenges for orthopedic surgeons. Teriparatide (TPTD) had been demonstrated to have anabolic effects on bone in various studies. We postulated that adjuvant TPTD after operation would enhance biologic stimulation for bone formation. We investigated (1) whether the adjuvant TPTD could achieve satisfactory union rate of surgically challenging cases such as displaced AFF, PPFF and FNU; (2) whether the adjuvant TPTD could promote development of abundant callus after surgical fixation; (3) whether the adjuvant TPTD had medically serious adverse effects. Materials and Methods Thirteen patients who agreed to off label use of TPTD in combination of operation were included in this retrospective case series. Median patients' age was 68.7 years, and there were three male and ten female patients. Their diagnoses were nonunion in six patients and acute fracture in seven. Medical records and radiographic images were reviewed. Results Twelve of thirteen fractures were united both clinically and radiologically within a year after adjuvant TPTD. Union completed radiologically median 5.4 months and clinically 5.7 months after the medication, respectively. Callus appeared abundantly showing median 1.4 of fracture healing response postoperatively. There was no serious adverse reaction of medication other than itching, muscle cramp, or nausea. Conclusion Even appropriate surgical treatment is a mainstay of treatment for AFF, PPFF, and FNU, the current report suggested that adjuvant TPTD combined with stable fixation results in satisfactory outcome for the challenging fractures of femur. PMID:27777917

  11. The pattern of femoral diaphyseal fractures in children admitted in Sarawak General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Rasit, A H; Mohammad, A W; Pan, K L

    2006-02-01

    Trend towards changing the face of management for pediatric femoral fractures tends to advocate operative treatment. This study was undertaken to review our current practice in the wake of recent progress in the management of pediatric femoral fractures. Fifty patients with femoral diaphyseal fracture treated in Sarawak General Hospital were reviewed retrospectively after an average follow-up of 2.6 years. There were 36 boys and 14 girls, with a mean age of 6.2 years (range five months to 14 years). Children under six years of age constituted the majority of the patients. Half of the fractures were caused by road traffic accident. Nine patients had associated injuries. The most common site of fracture was at the middle third (N=31). The treatment regimens were delayed hip spica (DHS) in 16, immediate hip spica (IHS) in 24, plate osteosynthesis (PO) in five, titanium elastic nailing (TEN) in five, and external fixation (EF) in one. The minimum hospital stay was two days, and the maximum 33 days (mean, 9.7 days). Malunion was the commonest complication. Conservative treatment is the preferred option for children under six years of age. It is cost-effective with minimal complication. The other treatment options are reserved for specific indication in older children. Diaphyseal fractures of the femur in children can be adequately managed non-operatively.

  12. Negative magnetic resonance imaging in femoral neck stress fracture with joint effusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Seki, Nobutoshi; Okuyama, Koichiro; Kamo, Keiji; Chiba, Mitsuho; Shimada, Yoichi

    2016-06-01

    Femoral neck stress fracture (FNSF) is well documented in the orthopedic literature and is generally associated with strenuous activities such as long-distance running and military training. The diagnostic yield of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for FNSF was reported to be 100 %, and early MRI is recommended when this fracture is suspected. We encountered a 16-year-old male long-distance runner with FNSF in whom the left femoral neck showed no signal changes on MRI although an effusion was detected in the left hip joint. One month later, roentgenograms revealed periosteal callus and oblique consolidation of the left femoral neck, confirming the diagnosis of compression FNSF. Because FNSF with a normal bone marrow signal on MRI is very rare, this patient is presented here.

  13. Increased morbidity and mortality after bilateral femoral shaft fractures: myth or reality in the era of damage control?

    PubMed

    Kobbe, Philipp; Micansky, Fabian; Lichte, Philipp; Sellei, Richard Martin; Pfeifer, Roman; Dombroski, Derek; Lefering, Rolf; Pape, Hans Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Bilateral femoral shaft fractures have been reported to be an independent risk factor for morbidity and mortality; however, the value of these studies is limited due to small sample sizes and the timing of these studies before the establishment of damage control orthopaedics. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of morbidity and mortality in patients with bilateral vs. unilateral femoral shaft fractures in the era of damage control orthopaedics. Retrospective analysis of the TraumaRegister DGU from 2002 to 2005. Inclusion criteria were uni- or bilateral femoral shaft fractures and complete demographic data documentation. Univariate data analysis and logistic regression analysis were performed with SPSS. Between 2002 and 2005, 776 patients with unilateral and 118 patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures were identified. Patients with bilateral femoral shaft fractures had a significantly higher Injury Severity Score (ISS) (29.5 vs. 25.7 points), a significantly higher incidence of pulmonary (34.7% vs. 20.6%) and multiple organ failure (25.0% vs. 14.6%) as well as a significantly higher mortality rate (16.9% vs. 9.4%). In the overall patient population, early total care (ETC) was significantly more often performed in patients with unilateral femoral shaft fractures (50.9% vs. 33.6%). Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association between bilateral femoral shaft fractures and multiple organ failure or mortality; however, bilateral femoral shaft fractures are an independent risk factor for pulmonary failure. Subgroup analysis revealed that the impact of the bilateral femoral shaft fracture was especially pronounced in patients with an ISS<25 points. Bilateral femoral shaft fractures are an independent risk factor for pulmonary failure but not for multiple organ failure or mortality. The impact of the additional femoral shaft fracture for pulmonary failure appears to be especially pronounced in the less severely injured

  14. Hemi-arthroplasty of the hip followed by ipsilateral fracture of the femoral shaft.

    PubMed

    Barfod, G; Steen Jensen, J; Hansen, D; Larsen, E; Menck, H; Olsen, B; Rosenklint, A

    1986-03-01

    In a series of 74 ipsilateral fractures of the femoral shaft in relation to hemi-arthroplasties, treatment by a cemented long-stem total hip replacement was found to be superior to conservative treatment or internal fixation without removal of the prosthesis. Acceptable clinical results were obtained in 89 per cent of these cases.

  15. Removal of a broken guide wire entrapped in a fractured femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing-hua; Ye, Tian-wen; Guo, Yong-fei; Wang, Chong-li; Chen, Ai-min

    2013-01-01

    Guide wire plays an important role in the fixation of femoral neck fracture with dynamic hip screw (DHS). Breakage of a guide wire during operation is a very rare condition. We met such a dilemma in DHS fixation of a 54-year-old male patient who sustained Garden type IV fracture of the right femoral neck. The distal end of the guide wire broke and was entrapped in the fractured femoral neck. We tried to get the broken part out by a cannulated drill. Reaming was started with the cannulated drill slowly rotating around the guide K-wire until the reamer fully contained the target under fluoroscope. A bone curette was used to get the broken wire out but failed, so we had to use the cannuated drill to dredge this bone tunnel. Finally the broken wire end was taken out, mixed with blood and bone fragments. Through the existing drilling channel, DHS fixation was easily finished. The patient had an uneventful recovery without avascular necrosis of femoral head or non-union of the fracture at one year's follow-up. A few methods can be adopted to deal with the broken guide wire. The way used in our case is less invasive but technically challenging. When the guide wire is properly positioned, this method is very practical and useful.

  16. The biomechanical effect of bone quality and fracture topography on locking plate fixation in periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Leonidou, Andreas; Moazen, Mehran; Lepetsos, Panagiotis; Graham, Simon M; Macheras, George A; Tsiridis, Eleftherios

    2015-02-01

    Optimal management of periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) around a well fixed prosthesis (Vancouver B1) remains controversial as adequate fixation needs to be achieved without compromising the stability of the prosthesis. The aim of this study was to highlight the effect of bone quality i.e. canal thickness ratio (CTR), and fracture topography i.e. fracture angle and its position in relation to the stem, on the biomechanics of a locking plate for a Vancouver B1 fracture. A previously corroborated simplified finite element model of a femur with a cemented total hip replacement stem was used in this study. Canal thickness ratio (CTR) and fracture topography were altered in several models and the effect of these variations on the von Mises stress on the locking plate as well as the fracture displacement was studied. Increasing the CTR led to reduction of the von Mises stress on the locking plate as well as the fracture movement. In respect to the fracture angle with the medial cortex, it was shown that acute angles resulted in lower von Mises stress on the plate as opposed to obtuse angles. Furthermore, acute fracture angles resulted in lower fracture displacement compared to the other fractures considered here. Fractures around the tip of the stem had the same biomechanical effect on the locking plate. However, fractures more distal to the stem led to subsequent increase of stress, strain, and fracture displacement. Results highlight that in good bone quality and acute fracture angles, single locking plate fixation is perhaps an appropriate management method. On the contrary, for poor bone quality and obtuse fracture angles alternative management methods might be required as the fixation might be under higher risk of failure. Clinical studies for the management of PFF are required to further support our findings.

  17. [Hip Fracture--Epidemiology, Management and Liaison Service. Practice of the secondary fracture prevention of the proximal femoral fracture by the Osteoporosis Liaison Service].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Satoshi

    2015-04-01

    The proximal femoral fracture number of patients increases with age, and it is predicted that patients over 90 years old will increase in future. It causes a decline of ADL and the QOL, mortality aggravation, a remarkable rise of medical care, the nursing-care cost when they present with a fracture. Primary prevention is important to prevent osteoporotic fracture, but the secondary prevention for the prior or new fracture patient is particularly important. For the practice of the secondary prevention, cooperation of a doctor and the medical staff who included not only the hospital but also the cooperation with the medical institution in the area is indispensable. This report introduces osteoporosis liaison service working on in our hospital and is happy if it is with consideration of the practice of the secondary prevention of the proximal femoral fracture.

  18. Variation in the PTH gene, hip fracture, and femoral neck geometry in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Tenne, M; McGuigan, F E; Ahlborg, H; Gerdhem, P; Akesson, K

    2010-05-01

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a principal regulator of calcium homeostasis. Previously, we studied single-nucleotide polymorphisms present in the major genes in the PTH pathway (PTH, PTHrP, PTHR1, PTHR2) in relation to bone mineral density (BMD) and fracture incidence. We found that haplotypes of the PTH gene were associated with fracture risk independent of BMD. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between PTH haplotypes and femoral neck bone size. Hip structure analysis and BMD of the femoral neck was assessed by DXA in elderly women from the Malmö Osteoporosis Prospective Risk Assessment study. Data on hip fracture, sustained as a result of low trauma, after the age of 45 years were also analyzed. Haplotypes derived from six polymorphisms in the PTH locus were analyzed in 750 women. Carriers of haplotype 9 had lower values for hip geometry parameters cross-sectional moment of inertia (P = 0.029), femoral neck width (P = 0.049), and section modulous (P = 0.06), suggestive of increased fracture risk at the hip. However, this did not translate into an increased incidence of hip fracture in the studied population. Women who suffered a hip fracture compared to those who had not had longer hip axis length (HAL) (P < 0.001). HAL was not significantly different among haplotypes. Polymorphisms in the PTH gene are associated with differences in aspects of femoral neck geometry in elderly women; however, the major predictor of hip fracture in our population was HAL, to which PTH gene variation does not contribute significantly.

  19. A biomechanical comparison of the antegrade inserted universal femoral nail with the retrograde inserted universal tibial nail for use in femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Frankle, M; Cordey, J; Sanders, R W; Koval, K; Perren, S M

    1999-01-01

    Femoral shaft fractures with and without bony contact were simulated in cadaver specimens fixed with one of two different types of intramedullary locked nail systems; conventional antegrade nail fixation of the femur with the universal AO femoral nail or retrograde insertion in the femur with the universal tibial nail (a smaller diameter slotted nail) were utilized. Mechanical testing simulated one leg stance, and resultant deformation was measured in bending, torsion, and shortening. In stable fractures, fracture stability was similar to both devices, while in unstable fractures, the larger femoral nail was more stable. Furthermore, the simulation of single leg stance led to a coupled deformation of varus bending, axial shortening, and external rotation, which was dependent on bone geometry.

  20. [Osteosynthesis of hip and femoral shaft fractures using the PFN-long].

    PubMed

    Pavelka, T; Houcek, P; Linhart, M; Matejka, J

    2007-04-01

    A group of 79 patients with ipsilateral fractures of the hip and femoral shaft treated with the use of a long proximal femoral nail (PFN-long) was retrospectively evaluated. From January 1998 to February 2005, 79 patients were treated surgically. The group included 42 men and 37 women at an average age of 56.6 years. In 47 patients (37 men and 10 women; average age, 38 years; range, 18-72 years) the fractures were due to a high-energy trauma. In the remaining 32 patients (six men and 25 women; average age, 77.6 years), the cause of fracture was a low-energy trauma, most frequently an ordinary fall. The fractures were categorized according to the Dousa, Bartonícek and Krbec classification. Type IV fractures, i. e., subtrochanteric fractures involving the whole upper half of the femur, were most frequent. The Synthes PFN-long is based on the PFN and partly also UFN implants. The nail is matched to femoral shaft antecurvation, and femoral neck screws have a 10 degrees anteversion. The nail is cannulated, is 10 mm thick and is available in three lengths with a distal dynamic opening. The results are based on the evaluation of 65 patients followed up for at least 12 months. At 12 months bone union was achieved in all patients; in 38 patients (58 %) it occurred by 6 months and in 59 patients (91 %) by 9 months. The outcomes were excellent in 42 (64 %), good in 18 (28 %) and satisfactory in 5 patients (8 %). Thirteen intra-operative complications (27 %) in nine patients were recorded, with the necessity of repeat surgery in four cases. Two problems were involved: incomplete reduction (nine fractures) and incorrect implant insertion (four fractures). Early complications included hematoma in the wound in five cases and one infected wound.A late complication was delayed union in two cases. The management of ipsilateral fractures of the hip and femoral shaft is still associated with a high percentage of complications, mostly due to reduction being difficult. The PFN-long is

  1. Femoral fracture repair and postoperative management in new zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed

    Reuter, Jon D; Ovadia, Shira; Howell, Paula; Jaskwich, David H

    2002-07-01

    Low bone density and large muscle mass predispose rabbits to femoral fractures. However, there are few reports describing treatment and prognosis. Two New Zealand White rabbits presented with unilateral left rear limb abduction and lateral rotation of the distal left rear limb 2 and 17 days after experimental surgery to create a "stair step" in the patellar groove of the left medial femoral chondyle. This procedure was performed after approval by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. Radiography revealed a spiral oblique mid-shaft fracture of the left femur in both rabbits. Open fracture reduction was undertaken. Because of the presence of screws and Kirschner-wires in the medial femoral condyle, a lateral approach to surgical correction was chosen. Intramedullary fixation was used to reduce and stabilize the fractures. A 0.062" Kirschner wire was selected for the intramedullary device, because it was sufficiently flexible to allow easy passage into the femoral canal while being sufficiently stiff to promote reduction of the fracture. In addition, the ends of the fracture were secured with a 0.032" Kirschner cerclage wire to provide additional control of rotation and angulation. Then we assessed the range of motion of the knee joint to determine fracture stability and ensure that the hardware did not impinge on soft-tissue elements. After closure and application of sterile dressing, the hind legs were hobbled proximal to the hock by using elastic veterinary wrap in a figure-eight pattern to maintain limb alignment and prevent formation of pressure ulcers. Intraoperative fluoroscopic evaluation and postoperative radiographs confirmed fracture reduction. Bruising and seroma formation occurred at the surgical site, and transient anorexia developed. Rabbits were treated with fluids, analgesics, antibiotics, and fitted with Elizabethan collars. They were housed in isolation to limit excessive environmental stimulation, which could alarm them and provoke

  2. Femoral Neck Stress Fracture: Can MRI Grade Help Predict Return-to-Running Time?

    PubMed

    Ramey, Lindsay N; McInnis, Kelly C; Palmer, William E

    2016-08-01

    Limited research is available regarding return-to-running (RTR) time after femoral neck stress fractures. While studies have shown the prognostic value of image-based grading scales for stress fractures at other sites, few have included femoral neck stress fractures. To determine if the grade of femoral neck stress fractures based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics correlates with RTR time. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. This study included 24 patients (mean age, 32.9 years; range, 18-51 years) who were diagnosed with 27 femoral neck stress fractures by MRI from 2009 to 2015 at a single sports medicine clinic. All fractures were compression sided and were treated nonoperatively. Charts were reviewed for patient demographics and RTR time. Images were graded from 1 to 4 using the Arendt stress fracture severity scale. Statistical analysis was performed using survival analysis and Cox proportional hazard model to compare the RTR time between grades. Cox regression was repeated, adjusted for age, bone mineral density (BMD), and body mass index (BMI). The mean (±standard error of the mean) RTR time in weeks for patients with fractures graded 1 to 4 was 7.4 ± 2.7 (range, 4-11), 13.8 ± 3.8 (range, 6-21), 14.7 ± 3.5 (range, 8.5-24), and 17.5 ± 3.4 (range, 10-32), respectively. Survival analysis indicated that there was a statistically significant effect of fracture grade on RTR time (P = .0065). The Cox model indicated a statistically significant difference in RTR time between grades 1 and 2 (P = .036), 1 and 3 (P = .014), and 1 and 4 (P = .002). The unadjusted hazard ratio was significant (P = .037). There were no statistically significant differences between the remaining grades (P = .82 for grades 2 and 3, P = .37 for grades 2 and 4, and P = .31 for grades 3 and 4). Age (P = .71) and BMD (P = .81) did not have an effect on RTR time. The hazard ratio remained significant (P = .05) after adjusting for age and BMD. BMI tended to have an effect on

  3. Short-term follow-up of pertrochanteric fractures treated using the proximal femoral locking plate.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin; Stevenson, Jonathan; Chamma, Ramsey; Patel, Amit; Rhee, Shin-Jae; Lever, Caroline; Starks, Ian; Roberts, Phillip J

    2014-05-01

    The proximal femoral locking compression plate is a fixed angled anatomically contoured stainless steel plate used to treat pertrochanteric fractures of the proximal femur. Recent reports quote a high failure rate associated with this implant. We aimed to identify the common methods of failure and determine the elements of surgical techniques that could be altered to potentially improve outcomes should this implant be used for the treatment of unstable pertrochanteric fractures. Retrospective chart analysis. Three separate centers. Twenty-nine patients with 29 fractures. All patients were treated for pertrochanteric fractures using the proximal femoral locking compression plate. The patient demographics, fracture classification, implant details, and complications. Twelve of 29 fractures (41.4%) suffered a complication associated with the implant, and 83% of these occurred in elderly women. Complications included bending, backing-out, fracture, or cut-out of the proximal screws and plate fracture. Common technical errors included the following: (1) leaving the plate proud proximally, (2) malposition of the proximal screws within the femoral neck/head, (3) inappropriate use of the hook plate, (4) creating too ridged a construct when used as a bridging plate. Our experience with the use of this implant suggests an unacceptably high failure rate (41.4%). A knowledge of the common pitfalls encountered when using this device is critical in an effort to reduce failure rates. Based on our data, we would urge caution when considering this device for unstable pertrochanteric fractures, especially in the elderly female. Prognostic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  4. Biomechanical analysis of a novel femoral neck locking plate for treatment of vertical shear Pauwel's type C femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Nowotarski, Peter J; Ervin, Bain; Weatherby, Brian; Pettit, Jonathan; Goulet, Ron; Norris, Brent

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the biomechanical stability of a novel prototype femoral neck locking plate (FNLP) for treatment of Pauwels type C femoral neck fractures compared with other current fixation methods. Forty femur sawbones were divided into groups and a vertical femoral neck fracture was made. Each group was repaired with one of the following: (CS) three parallel cancellous screws; (XCS) two cancellous lag screws into the head and one transverse lag screw into the calcar; and (FNLP) a novel FNLP with two 5.7 mm locking, one lag screw into the calcar and two screws into the shaft; and (AMBI) a two-hole, 135° AMBI plate with a derotation screw. All groups were tested for change in axial stiffness over 20000 cycles, and rotational stiffness was measured before and after cyclic testing. A maximum load to failure test was also conducted. Results were compared with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher protected least significant difference (PLSD). Results for axial stiffness show that AMBI, CS, XCS and FNLP are 2779.0, 2207.2, 3029.9 and 3210.7 N-m mm(-1), respectively. Rotational rigidity results are 4.5, 4.1, 17.1 and 18.7 N-m mm(-1). The average cyclic displacements were 0.75, 0.88, 0.80 and 0.65 mm, respectively. Destructive failure loads for AMBI, CS, XCS and FNLP were 2.3, 1.7, 1.6 and 1.9 kN, respectively. The results of this experiment show statistically significant increases in axial stiffness for the FNLP compared with three traditional fixation methods. The FNLP demonstrates increased mechanical stiffness and combines the desirable features of current fixation methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. More complications with uncemented than cemented femoral stems in total hip replacement for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Chammout, Ghazi; Muren, Olle; Laurencikas, Evaldas; Bodén, Henrik; Kelly-Pettersson, Paula; Sjöö, Helene; Stark, André; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip replacement (THR) is the preferred method for the active and lucid elderly patient with a displaced femoral neck fracture (FNF). Controversy still exists regarding the use of cemented or uncemented stems in these patients. We compared the effectiveness and safety between a modern cemented, and a modern uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated femoral stem in patients 65–79 years of age who were treated with THR for displaced FNF. Patients and methods In a single-center, single-blinded randomized controlled trial, we included 69 patients, mean age 75 (65–79) and with a displaced FNF (Garden III–IV). 35 patients were randomized to a cemented THR and 34 to a reverse-hybrid THR with an uncemented stem. Primary endpoints were: prevalence of all hip-related complications and health-related quality of life, evaluated with EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) index up to 2 years after surgery. Secondary outcomes included: overall mortality, general medical complications, and hip function. The patients were followed up at 3, 12, and 24 months. Results According to the calculation of sample size, 140 patients would be required for the primary endpoints, but the study was stopped when only half of the sample size was included (n = 69). An interim analysis at that time showed that the total number of early hip-related complications was substantially higher in the uncemented group, 9 (among them, 3 dislocations and 4 periprosthetic fractures) as compared to 1 in the cemented group. The mortality and functional outcome scores were similar in the 2 groups. Interpretation We do not recommend uncemented femoral stems for the treatment of elderly patients with displaced FNFs. PMID:27967333

  6. Fate of subchondral fatigue fractures of femoral head in young adults differs from general outcome of fracture healing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang-Min; Oh, Seung-Min; Cho, Chang-Ho; Lim, Seung-Jae; Moon, Young-Wan; Choi, Sang-Hee; Park, Youn-Soo

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the clinical course of fatigue-type subchondral fractures of the femoral head in young healthy adults. We retrospectively reviewed 28 consecutive patients (34 hips) who had a clear history of a sudden increase in physical activity without trauma on the hip and pelvis, and were diagnosed as having a fatigue-type subchondral fracture of the femoral head. The diagnosis was made primarily on the basis of sequential plain radiographs and magnetic resonance images. Of the 34 hips, 19 hips with no bony collapse experienced gradual disappearance of subjective pain a few months after onset, and there were no recurrences. Other 2 hips that showed bony collapse, but preserved the articular margin, also experienced no definite deterioration of collapse or arthritic change and did not need surgical intervention. In the remaining13 hips with bony collapse and destroyed articular margin or arthritic change, hip pain gradually worsened necessitating surgery. The current findings suggest that a subchondral fatigue fracture of the femoral head could show a different severity of subchondral injury over time. In the collapsed subchondral fatigue fractures, especially when combined with head incongruency, the hip pain was aggravated enough to require surgical intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Anaesthesia for proximal femoral fracture in the UK: first report from the NHS Hip Fracture Anaesthesia Network.

    PubMed

    White, S M; Griffiths, R; Holloway, J; Shannon, A

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this audit was to investigate process, personnel and anaesthetic factors in relation to mortality among patients with proximal femoral fractures. A questionnaire was used to record standardised data about 1195 patients with proximal femoral fracture admitted to 22 hospitals contributing to the Hip Fracture Anaesthesia Network over a 2-month winter period. Patients were demographically similar between hospitals (mean age 81 years, 73% female, median ASA grade 3). However, there was wide variation in time from admission to operation (24-108 h) and 30-day postoperative mortality (2-25%). Fifty percent of hospitals had a mean admission to operation time < 48 h. Forty-two percent of operations were delayed: 51% for organisational; 44% for medical; and 4% for 'anaesthetic' reasons. Regional anaesthesia was administered to 49% of patients (by hospital, range = 0-82%), 51% received general anaesthesia and 19% of patients received peripheral nerve blockade. Consultants administered 61% of anaesthetics (17-100%). Wide national variations in current management of patients sustaining proximal femoral fracture reflect a lack of research evidence on which to base best practice guidance. Collaborative audits such as this provide a robust method of collecting such evidence.

  8. The direct anterior approach in hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Kerstin; Audigé, Laurent; Kuehnel, Stefanie-Peggy; Helmy, Naeder

    2012-09-01

    Hip replacement is the most common treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly, and minimally invasive surgery is popular in the field of orthopaedic surgery. This study evaluated the outcome of monopolar hemiarthroplasty by the direct anterior approach over a postoperative period up to 2.5 years. A total of 86 patients with displaced femoral neck fractures were included (mean age of 86.5 years). Surviving patients were reviewed three months (retrospectively) and one to 2.5 years (prospectively) after surgery. One-year mortality was 36 %. For all stems, implant positioning with respect to stem alignment, restoration of leg length and femoral offset was correct. Acetabular protrusion was observed in 55 % of the patients one to 2.5 years postoperatively. Subsidence and intraoperative periprosthetic fractures occurred in three patients (3 %) each. All revision stems for postoperative periprosthetic fractures could be implanted using the initial surgical technique without extension of the previous approach. The mean Harris hip score was 85 points at the one to 2.5-year follow-up; 85 % of the patients were satisfied with their hip and 57 % returned to their preoperative level of mobility. Based on these findings, hemiarthroplasty for hip fractures can be performed safely and effectively via the direct anterior approach with good functional outcome and high patient satisfaction.

  9. Femoral fracture after harvesting of autologous bone graft using a reamer/irrigator/aspirator.

    PubMed

    Giori, Nicholas J; Beaupre, Gary S

    2011-02-01

    A case of postoperative fracture in the donor femur after obtaining autologous bone graft with a reamer/irrigator/aspirator is presented. This procedure was successful in healing a difficult femoral nonunion, but the patient sustained a fracture of the contralateral (bone graft donor) femur 20 days after surgery. A mechanical analysis is conducted of this case and recommendations are made. Unrestricted weightbearing on a limb that has undergone reamer/irrigator/aspirator bone graft harvesting, particularly in a noncompliant patient, is probably inadvisable. If possible, one should obtain bone graft from the same limb as the fracture being treated because this will leave the patient with one unaltered limb for mobilization.

  10. Management of Femoral Shaft Fracture in Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome with External Fixator

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Yogendra; Jha, Ranjib Kumar; Karn, Navin Kumar; Sah, Sanjaya Kumar; Mishra, Bibhuti Nath; Bhattarai, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome (KTS) is a rare complex malformation characterized by the clinical triad of capillary malformations, soft tissue and bone hypertrophy, and venous/lymphatic malformation. Fractures of long bones in such cases are challenging to treat. A 12-year-old female with this syndrome presented with femoral shaft fracture of right thigh. She was initially kept on skeletal traction for two weeks and then she underwent closed reduction and immobilization with external fixator with uneventful intraoperative and postoperative period. Fracture united at four and half months. PMID:26885423

  11. Proximal femoral fracture surgery in a patient with osteopetrosis tarda: complications and treatment strategy

    PubMed Central

    Seyfettinoglu, Fırat; Tuhanioğlu, Ümit; Ogur, Hasan Ulas; Cicek, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Osteopetrosis is a rare, inherited disease characterized by defects in osteoclastic function that results in defective bone resorption. When fractures are encountered, fixation is extremely difficult. Osteopetrosis patients have an increased predisposition to infection. If infection develops after a fracture, treatment is more difficult. In this paper, treatment is presented of a 49-year old female to whom proximal femoral nailing was applied for fixation of an osteopetrotic proximal femur fracture; and when it was unsuccessful, revision was made with a locked anatomic plate, which subsequently led to development of infection. PMID:27843357

  12. Bilateral Femoral Neck Fatigue Fracture due to Osteomalacia Secondary to Celiac Disease: Report of Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Selek, Ozgur; Memisoglu, Kaya; Selek, Alev

    2015-08-01

    Bilateral non traumatic femoral neck fatigue fracture is a rare condition usually occurring secondary to medical conditions such as pregnancy, pelvic irradiation, corticosteroid exposure, chronic renal failure and osteomalacia. In this report, we present three young female patients with bilateral femoral neck fracture secondary to osteomalacia. The underlying cause of osteomalacia was Celiac disease in all patients. The patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated lag screws. They were free of pain and full weight bearing was achieved at three months. There were no complications, avascular necrosis and nonunion during the follow up period. In patients with bone pain, non traumatic fractures and muscle weakness, osteomalacia should be kept in mind and proper diagnostic work-up should be performed to identify the underlying cause of osteomalacia such as celiac disease.

  13. Pathologic Femoral Neck Fracture Due to Fanconi Syndrome Induced by Adefovir Dipivoxil Therapy for Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yoon-Suk; Kim, Byung-Kook; Lee, Ho-Jae

    2016-01-01

    In Fanconi syndrome, hypophosphatemic osteomalacia is caused by proximal renal tubule dysfunction which leads to impaired reabsorption of amino acids, glucose, urate, and phosphate. We present a rare case of a 43-year-old Korean male who was found to have insufficiency stress fracture of the femoral neck secondary to osteomalacia due to Fanconi syndrome. He had been receiving low-dose adefovir dipivoxil (ADV, 10 mg/day) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B virus infection for 7 years and he subsequently developed severe hypophosphatemia and proximal renal tubule dysfunction. The incomplete femoral neck fracture was fixed with multiple cannulated screws to prevent further displacement of the initial fracture. After cessation of ADV and correction of hypophosphatemia with oral phosphorus supplementation, the patient's clinical symptoms, such as bone pain, muscle weakness, and laboratory findings improved. PMID:27247753

  14. Subchondral Impaction Fractures of the Medial Femoral Condyle in Weightlifters: A Report of 5 Cases.

    PubMed

    Grzelak, Piotr; Podgórski, Michał Tomasz; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Krochmalski, Marek; Domżalski, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Although subchondral impaction fractures have already been reported in the non-weight-bearing portion of the lateral femoral condyle, this study reveals the presence of an intra-articular impaction fracture of the postero-superior region of the non-weight-bearing portion of the medial femoral condyle recognized in 5 of a group of 22 representatives of the Polish national Olympic weightlifting team, who underwent 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging examination. Articular cartilage lesions varied with regard to the type of injury and its severity ranging from healed or subchronic injuries to acute trauma. All described individuals had no clinical history of acute knee trauma and only 3 of them had minor pain symptoms. The accumulation of microtraumas occurring during participation in particular activities associated with weightlifting training seems to be responsible for the development of this type of contusion. This is the first description of impaction fracture observed in this location in professional weightlifters.

  15. Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in non-athlete - case report.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ubiratan Stefani de; Labronici, Pedro José; João Neto, André; Nishimi, Alexandre Yukio; Pires, Robinson Esteves Santos; Silva, Luiz Henrique Penteado

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck in healthy young patients is an extremely rare entity, whose diagnostic and treatment represent a major challenge. Patients with history of hip pain, even non-athletes or military recruits, should be analyzed to achieve an early diagnosis and prevent possible complications from the surgical treatment. This report describes a 43-year-old male patient, non-athlete, without previous diseases, who developed bilateral stress fracture of femoral neck without displacement. He had a late diagnosis; bilateral osteosynthesis was made using cannulated screws. Although the diagnosis was delayed in this case, the study highlights the importance of the diagnosis of stress fracture, regardless of the activity level of the patients, for the success of the treatment.

  16. Delayed fixation of displaced bilateral, atraumatic, femoral neck fractures in a patient with pregnancy related osteomalacia.

    PubMed

    Docker, Charles; Starks, Ian; Wade, Roger; Wynn-Jones, Charles

    2011-06-01

    We present the case of a woman diagnosed with simultaneous displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures following the birth of her second child. No traumatic event was identified. Diagnosis was delayed as the cause of her pain was thought to be non-skeletal in origin. Radiological and serological investigations were diagnostic of osteomalacia. Surgical fixation of her fractures was further delayed due to profound hypocalcaemia. Despite the delays, fixation with bilateral dynamic hip screws resulted in union with no evidence of avascular necrosis at 2 years follow-up. We believe this to be the first report of atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fractures and it shows that a good result can be achieved even in the presence of delayed fixation.

  17. Atypical subtrochanteric femoral shaft fractures: role for mechanics and bone quality.

    PubMed

    van der Meulen, Marjolein C H; Boskey, Adele L

    2012-08-29

    Bisphosphonates are highly effective agents for reducing osteoporotic fractures in women and men, decreasing fracture incidence at the hip and spine up to 50%. In a small subset of patients, however, these agents have recently been associated with 'atypical femoral fractures' (AFFs) in the subtrochanteric region or the diaphysis. These fractures have several atypical characteristics, including occurrence with minimal trauma; younger age than typical osteoporotic fractures; occurrence at cortical, rather than cancellous sites; early radiographic appearance similar to that of a stress fracture; transverse fracture pattern rather than the familiar spiral or transverse-oblique morphologies; initiation on the lateral cortex; and high risk of fracture on the contralateral side, at the same location as the initial fracture. Fracture is a mechanical phenomenon that occurs when the loads applied to a structure such as a long bone exceed its load-bearing capacity, either due to a single catastrophic overload (traumatic failure) or as a result of accumulated damage and crack propagation at sub-failure loads (fatigue failure). The association of AFFs with no or minimal trauma suggests a fatigue-based mechanism that depends on cortical cross-sectional geometry and tissue material properties. In the case of AFFs, bisphosphonate treatment may alter cortical tissue properties, as these agents are known to alter bone remodeling. This review discusses the use of bisphosphonates, their effects on bone remodeling, mechanics and tissue composition, their significance as an effective therapy for osteoporosis, and why these agents may increase fracture risk in a small population of patients.

  18. Comparison of effects of different screw materials in the triangle fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Gok, Kadir; Inal, Sermet; Gok, Arif; Gulbandilar, Eyyup

    2017-05-01

    In this study, biomechanical behaviors of three different screw materials (stainless steel, titanium and cobalt-chromium) have analyzed to fix with triangle fixation under axial loading in femoral neck fracture and which material is best has been investigated. Point cloud obtained after scanning the human femoral model with the three dimensional (3D) scanner and this point cloud has been converted to 3D femoral model by Geomagic Studio software. Femoral neck fracture was modeled by SolidWorks software for only triangle configuration and computer-aided numerical analyses of three different materials have been carried out by AnsysWorkbench finite element analysis (FEA) software. The loading, boundary conditions and material properties have prepared for FEA and Von-Misses stress values on upper and lower proximity of the femur and screws have been calculated. At the end of numerical analyses, the best advantageous screw material has calculated as titanium because it creates minimum stress at the upper and lower proximity of the fracture line.

  19. Backout of the helical blade of proximal femoral nail antirotation and accompanying fracture nonunion.

    PubMed

    Niikura, Takahiro; Lee, Sang Yang; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fukui, Tomoaki; Kawakami, Yohei; Akisue, Toshihiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2012-08-01

    This article describes a case of backout of the helical blade, a rare complication of proximal femoral nail antirotation. A 31-year-old man had sustained a trochanteric fracture of his right femur. Fracture fixation using proximal femoral nail antirotation and autologous bone grafting 7 months later were performed at another hospital. However, bony union was not obtained, and the patient's pain and limp persisted. Therefore, he presented to the current authors. A radiograph taken at presentation revealed backout of the helical blade and fracture nonunion. A radiograph taken 1 month later showed a more advanced backout of the helical blade. The authors performed exchange nailing supplemented with transplantation of peripheral blood CD34-positive cells and autologous bone grafting. The proximal femoral nail antirotation was revised to a long gamma 3 nail, and a U-lag screw was used to obtain better stability. The postoperative course was uneventful. The patient regained ambulation without pain or support at 12 weeks postoperatively. Radiographic bony union was completed 9 months postoperatively. At 1-year follow-up, he could run and stand on the previously injured leg and had returned to work. Backout of the helical blade should be considered as a possible complication of proximal femoral nail antirotation. Incomplete fixation of the helical blade is the possible reason for backout. The use of a helical blade in young patients may cause difficulty in insertion and result in incomplete fixation.

  20. Biomechanical rationale for implant choices in femoral neck fracture fixation in the non-elderly.

    PubMed

    Panteli, Michalis; Rodham, Paul; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-03-01

    Femoral neck fractures represent a relatively uncommon injury in the non-elderly population often resulting from high-energy trauma. The cornerstone of their management is anatomic reduction and stable internal fixation of the femoral neck in an attempt to salvage the femoral head. Complications including avascular necrosis of the femoral head, non-union and post-traumatic osteoarthritis are not uncommon. The clinical outcomes of these patients can be improved with good pre-operative planning, optimization of surgical procedures and introduction of new improved implants and techniques. In the herein study, we attempt to describe the biomechanical properties of the hip and compare the performance of the most commonly used devices. Experimental evidence suggests that in Pauwels type III fracture patterns a cephalomedullary nail was significantly stronger in axial loading. Moreover, in unstable basicervical patterns cannulated screws (triangular configuration) demonstrated a lower ultimate load to failure, whereas in subcapital or transervical patterns both the cannulated screws (triangular configuration) and the sliding hip screw demonstrated no compromise in fixation strength. The fracture pattern appears to be the major determinant of the ideal type of implant to be selected. For a successful outcome each patient needs to be considered on an individual basis taking into account all patient and implant related factors.

  1. Fixation of the fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem implanted due to femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Today, dislocated femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a cemented hip arthroplasty. However, cementing of the femoral component may lead to adverse effects and even death. Uncemented stems may lower these risks and hydroxyapatite (HA) coating may enhance integration, but prosthetic stability and clinical outcome in patients with osteoporotic bone have not been fully explored. We therefore studied fixation and clinical outcome in patients who had had a femoral neck fracture and who had received a fully HA-coated stem prosthesis. Patients and methods 50 patients with a dislocated femoral neck fracture were operated with the fully HA-coated Corail total or hemiarthroplasty. 38 patients, mean age 81 (70–96) years, were followed for 24 months with conventional radiographs, RSA, DEXA, and for clinical outcome. Results 31 of the 38 implants moved statistically significantly up to 3 months, mainly distally, mean 2.7 mm (max. 20 mm (SD 4.3)), and rotated into retroversion mean 3.3º (–1.8 to 17) (SD 4.3) and then appeared to stabilize. Distal stem migration was more pronounced if the stem was deemed to be too small. There was no correlation between BMD and stem migration. The migration did not result in any clinically adverse effects. Interpretation The fully hydroxyapatite-coated Corail stem migrates during the first 3 months, but clinical outcome appears to be good, without any adverse events. PMID:22112154

  2. Callus features of regenerate fracture cases in femoral lengthening in achondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Devmurari, Kamlesh N; Song, Hae Ryong; Modi, Hitesh N; Venkatesh, K P; Ju, Kim Seung; Song, Sang Heon

    2010-09-01

    We studied the callus features seen in cases of regenerate fracture in femoral lengthening using a monolateral fixator in achondroplasia to determine whether callus types and shapes can predict the probability of callus fracture. The radiographs of 28 cases of femoral lengthening in 14 patients, 14 cases of callus fracture, and 14 cases without callus fracture were retrospectively analyzed by four observers and classified into different shapes and types in concordance with the Ru Li classification. The average lengthening of 9.4 cm (range 7.5-11.8 cm) was achieved, which was 41% (range 30-55%) of the original length and the average timing of callus fracture was 470 days (range 440-545 days) after surgery in the callus fracture group. While the average lengthening of 9.1 cm (range 8-9.7 cm) was achieved, this was 30% (range 28-32%) of the original length in the group of patients without callus fracture. The callus was atypically shaped, there was a 48% average (range 30-72%) reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, and a lucent pathway was present in all cases of regenerate fracture. A lucent pathway was seen in all fracture cases with concave, lateral, and atypical shapes, and there was more than 30% lengthening and 30% reduction of the callus width compared with the natural width of the femur, which are the warning signs for regenerate fractures. These signs help the surgeon to predict the outcome and guide him in planning for any additional interventions. The Ru Li classification is an effective method for the evaluation of the chance of callus fracture.

  3. Clinical outcomes of locked plating of distal femoral fractures in a retrospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Locked plating (LP) of distal femoral fractures has become very popular. Despite technique suggestions from anecdotal and some early reports, knowledge about risk factors for failure, nonunion (NU), and revision is limited. The purpose of this study was to analyze the complications and clinical outcomes of LP treatment for distal femoral fractures. Materials and methods From two trauma centers, 243 consecutive surgically treated distal femoral fractures (AO/OTA 33) were retrospectively identified. Of these, 111 fractures in 106 patients (53.8% female) underwent locked plate fixation. They had an average age of 54 years (range 18 to 95 years): 34.2% were obese, 18.9% were smokers, and 18.9% were diabetic. Open fractures were present in 40.5% with 79.5% Gustilo type III. Fixation constructs for plate length, working length, and screw concentration were delineated. Nonunion and/or infection, and implant failure were used as outcome complication variables. Outcome was based on surgical method and addressed according to Pritchett for reduction, range of motion, and pain. Results Eighty-three (74.8%) of the fractures healed after the index procedure. Twenty (18.0%) of the patients developed a NU. Four of 20 (20%) resulted in a recalcitrant NU. Length of comminution did not correlate to NU (p = 0.180). Closed injuries had a higher tendency to heal after the index procedure than open injuries (p = 0.057). Closed and minimally open (Gustilo/Anderson types I and II) fractures healed at a significantly higher rate after the index procedure compared to type III open fractures (80.0% versus 61.3%, p = 0.041). Eleven fractures (9.9%) developed hardware failure. Fewer nonunions were found in the submuscular group (10.7%) compared to open reduction (32.0%) (p = 0.023). Fractures above total knee arthroplasties had a significantly greater rate of failed hardware (p = 0.040) and worse clinical outcome according to Pritchett (p = 0.040). Loss of

  4. Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis. A clinician's reference to patient management.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Varinder S; Fayans, Edgar P

    2008-01-01

    Bisphosphonates, as inhibitors of osteoclasts, are widely used in the management of metastatic bone disease and in the prevention of osteomalacia and osteoporosis. Recent cases of bone necrosis of the jaws have been associated with the use of bisphosphonate therapy. A case is presented of a patient with osteonecrosis of the maxilla with a history of long-term bisphosphonate therapy for metastatic breast cancer. The authors treated the patient and suggest appropriate patient management guidelines with reference to current knowledge. Although a definitive treatment for bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis has not yet been established, clinicians must be aware of the pharmacologic properties of several bisphosphonates currently available and their indications, susceptible risk factors in the development of osteonecrosis of the jaws, the clinical signs and symptoms, and recommendations for patient management, including prevention and early recognition.

  5. Successful management of simple fractures of the femoral neck with femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty in two free-living avian species.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Whittington, Julia K; Bennett, R Avery; McFadden, Mike; Mitchell, Mark; O'Brien, Robert

    2011-09-01

    A red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis) and a Canada goose (Branta canadensis) were evaluated for unilateral pelvic limb lameness. Physical examination findings and results of diagnostic imaging revealed femoral neck fractures in both birds. Both birds were treated with a femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty. The affected legs were not immobilized, and the birds were encouraged to use the legs immediately after surgery to encourage formation of a pseudoarthrosis. Within 2 weeks, both birds were using the affected limb well enough to be either successfully released or transferred to a wildlife rehabilitation facility. Femoral head and neck excision arthroplasty without immobilization of the limb is recommended for managing avian femoral neck fractures, especially in free-ranging species in which a rapid and complete or near complete return to function is vital for survival in the wild.

  6. The choice of locking plate in the treatment of peri-implant femoral fracture eight years after trans-trochanteric rotational osteotomy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Utsunomiya, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Motomura, Goro; Karasuyama, Kazuyuki; Sonoda, Kazuhiko; Kubo, Yusuke; Hatanaka, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2016-01-01

    Transtrochanteric anterior rotational osteotomy of the femoral head (TRO) was developed as a joint preserving surgery for osteonecrosis of the femoral head. To the best of our knowledge, peri-implant fractures after femoral osteotomy have rarely been reported. We report a 58-year-old female who suffered a peri-implant femoral shaft fracture following a fall from a stepladder eight years after TRO. Fracture union was achieved six months after a preferred proximal femoral locking plate. The entry point of the ante-grade femoral nail would have been very close to the new position of the nutrient artery of the femoral head occasioned by the TRO and to avoid injury, we chose proximal femoral locking plate. It is important to consider the new position of the nutrient artery of the femoral head in the surgical planning of peri-implant fracture after TRO. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Periprosthetic fractures around the femoral stem: overcoming challenges and avoiding pitfalls

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Antonia F.

    2015-01-01

    Management of periprosthetic fractures around the femoral stem after total hip arthroplasty (THA) represents a significant challenge and optimal treatment remains controversial. The most common treatment paradigm involves treating fractures around a well-fixed stem with osteosynthesis, whereas fractures around a loose stem require revision arthroplasty and those with poor bone require augmentation with bone graft. Paradoxically, the literature reports a higher rate of failure for osteosynthesis around prostheses considered to be well-fixed. Such a high rate of poor outcomes may result not only from difficult fracture fixation and compromised biologic healing, but also from unrecognized peri-implant pathology. Therefore, proper preoperative and intraoperative evaluation is key, and a subset of patients may benefit from alternative management. We review the appropriate methods for evaluation and treatment of Vancouver type B fractures with particular emphasis on avoiding missteps that can lead to failure. PMID:26539451

  8. Periprosthetic fractures around the femoral stem: overcoming challenges and avoiding pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Andrew N; Chen, Antonia F

    2015-09-01

    Management of periprosthetic fractures around the femoral stem after total hip arthroplasty (THA) represents a significant challenge and optimal treatment remains controversial. The most common treatment paradigm involves treating fractures around a well-fixed stem with osteosynthesis, whereas fractures around a loose stem require revision arthroplasty and those with poor bone require augmentation with bone graft. Paradoxically, the literature reports a higher rate of failure for osteosynthesis around prostheses considered to be well-fixed. Such a high rate of poor outcomes may result not only from difficult fracture fixation and compromised biologic healing, but also from unrecognized peri-implant pathology. Therefore, proper preoperative and intraoperative evaluation is key, and a subset of patients may benefit from alternative management. We review the appropriate methods for evaluation and treatment of Vancouver type B fractures with particular emphasis on avoiding missteps that can lead to failure.

  9. Acetabular perforation after medial migration of the helical blade through the femoral head after treatment of an unstable trochanteric fracture with proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA): a case report.

    PubMed

    Takigami, Iori; Ohnishi, Kazuichiro; Ito, Yoshiki; Nagano, Akihito; Sumida, Hisashi; Tanaka, Kaori; Shimizu, Katsuji

    2011-09-01

    The proximal femoral nail antirotation is a new generation of intramedullary device for the treatment of trochanteric femoral fractures, having a helical blade rather than a screw for suggested better purchase in osteoporotic bone. However, it is not free of complications. Few reports are available on postoperative perforation of the helical blade through the femoral head as a unique complication of proximal femoral nail antirotation. We report a 79-year-old woman with acetabular perforation after migration of the helical blade through the femoral head after an unstable trochanteric fracture, which was fixed with a proximal femoral nail antirotation.

  10. Hip spica versus Rush pins for management of femoral diaphyseal fractures in children

    PubMed Central

    Ruhullah, Mohammad; Singh, Hare Ram; Shah, Sanjay; Shrestha, Dipak

    2014-01-01

    Background: Femoral fractures are common in children between 2 and 12 years of age and 75% of the lesions affect the femoral shaft. Traction followed by a plaster cast is universally accepted as conservative treatment. We compared primary hip spica with closed reduction and fixation with retrogradely passed crossed Rush pins for diaphyseal femur fracture in children. The hypothesis was that Rush pin might provide better treatment with good clinical results in comparison with primary hip spica. Materials and Methods: Fifty children with femoral fractures were evaluated; 25 of them underwent conservative treatment using immediate hip spica (group A) and 25 were treated with crossed retrograde Rush pins (group B). The patients ages ranged from 3 to 13 years (mean of 9 years). Results: Mean duration of fracture union was 15 weeks in group A and 12 weeks in group B. Mean duration of weight bearing 14 weeks in group and 7 weeks in group B. Mean hospital stay was 4 days in group A and 8 days in group B. Mean followup period in group A was 16 months and group B was 17 months. Complications such as angulation, shortening, infection were compared. Conclusions: Closed reduction and internal fixation with crossed Rush pins was superior in terms of early weight bearing and restoration of normal anatomy. PMID:25298556

  11. An uncommon Salter-Harris I fracture of the distal femoral physis with marked epiphyseal dislocation.

    PubMed

    Hale, Christopher; Forstater, Alan; O'Malley, Gerald

    2013-02-01

    This is a report of an uncommon Salter-Harris I fracture of the distal femoral physis with complete dislocation of the distal epiphysis. These fractures are most frequently sustained during sports injuries, with motor vehicle accidents as another leading cause. They are at high risk of nonanatomic healing with subsequent varus or valgus deformity or premature growth arrest of the physis with subsequent leg length difference. Although certain fractures of the distal femoral physis may be very rarely encountered in the emergency department, the unavailability of appropriate consult service or risk of vascular compromise may necessitate reduction by the emergency physician. This fracture-dislocation was reduced with intravenous opioid analgesia, gentle traction along the axis of the lower extremity, and firm but gentle manual reduction of the proximal femoral fragment. External casts alone have a high rate of failure in sustaining anatomic alignment, so percutaneous pinning is recommended as the definitive treatment. After reduction, this patient was transferred to a pediatric hospital capable of performing the necessary operative fixation.

  12. Stress fractures of the femoral shaft in athletes: a new treatment algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Ivkovic, A; Bojanic, I; Pecina, M

    2006-01-01

    Background Femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes are not common but pose a great diagnostic challenge to clinicians. Because of few clinical signs, diagnosis and treatment are often delayed. Furthermore, if not treated correctly, these fractures are well known for complications and difficulties. Objective To develop a well structured and reproducible treatment algorithm for athletes with femoral shaft stress fractures. Methods The proposed algorithm is carried out in four phases, each lasting three weeks, and the move to the next phase is based on the result of the tests carried out at the end of the previous phase. Over nine years, we treated seven top level athletes, aged 17–21. In all athletes, diagnosis was based on physical examination, plain radiographs, and bone scan. Results As a result of the treatment method, all the athletes were fully engaged in athletic activity 12–18 weeks after the beginning of treatment. After completion of the treatment, the athletes were followed up for 48–96 months. During the follow up, there was no recurrence of discomfort or pain, and all the athletes eventually returned to competition level. Conclusion These results and data available from the literature suggest that the algorithm is the optimal treatment protocol for femoral shaft stress fractures in athletes, avoiding the common complications and difficulties. PMID:16720887

  13. Cable plates and onlay allografts in periprosthetic femoral fractures after hip replacement: laboratory and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jonathan R; Masri, Bassam A; Garbuz, Donald S; Greidanus, Nelson V; Duncan, Clive P

    2004-01-01

    Fractures of the femur after total hip replacement are an increasingly common and technically challenging problem. The results of nonsurgical treatment are poor. When the general condition of the patient allows, these injuries should be treated surgically. Several surgical treatments can be used to treat these fractures, and classification of the fracture assists the surgeon in the choice of procedure. Over the past decade, cable plate fixation systems and onlay strut allografts have become two of the most commonly used methods of fixation for fractures associated with hip prostheses. The ideal method of fixation is yet to be determined. However, laboratory studies have shown that dual fixation using either a lateral plate and anterior strut graft or two strut grafts produces the strongest construct. Cables rather than smooth wires should be used for fixation, and fixation strength increases with the number of cables used. The use of screws proximally produces a strong fixation but there are theoretical disadvantages to using screws around a femoral implant. Clinical data show high rates of fracture union using cable plate fixation, cortical onlay allograft fixation, and combined fixation methods for fractures that occur around well-fixed implants. Results have been less encouraging when these techniques have been used to fix fractures around prostheses that are either loose or malaligned; such fractures are better managed by revision of the femoral component to a long-stemmed device. Care should also be taken when there has been previous periosteal stripping of the femur because this may predispose to fracture nonunion. Periprosthetic fractures of the femur are a complex surgical problem and require specialized training in a range of surgical techniques.

  14. Free fibular strut graft in neglected femoral neck fractures in adult

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Md Quamar; Iraqi, AA; Sherwani, MKA; Sabir, Amir Bin; Abbas, M; Asif, Naiyer

    2009-01-01

    Background: Neglected femoral neck fracture in adults still poses a formidable challenge. Existing treatment options varies from osteotomy (with or without graft) to osteosynthesis using various implants and grafting techniques (muscle pedicle, vascularized, and nonvascularized fibula). The aim of this study was to assess outcome of nonvascularized fibular strut graft and cancellous screw fixation in neglected femoral neck fractures in the younger age group. Materials and Methods: Medical records of 32 patients of neglected femoral neck fracture, in the age group of 22-45 years (mean 37.8 years), operated between May 1994 to December 2001, were retrospectively reviewed. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 28 patients having three years minimum follow-up (mean 4.6 years) were included. Delay between injury and operation varied from four weeks to 42 weeks (mean 16.4 weeks). Closed reduction was achieved in 17 patients; open reduction through Watson-Jones anterolateral approach was performed in the remaining 15 patients in whom closed reduction failed. The fracture was transfixed with three parallel guide wires. Appropriate sized cannulated lag screw (7 mm) was then inserted in two of the wires. Selection of the third guide wire for fibula depended on the space available in both anteroposterior and lateral view. Results: Satisfactory bony union was obtained in 25 patients, of whom in four cases, the union occurred in 10-20° (mean 15°) of varus. Nonunion occurred in three patients (9.37%), and aseptic necrosis occurred in another six patients (18.75%). Of the 25 patients where union was achieved, five patients showed excellent results; 14 good and six had poor functional result, as evaluated using modified Anglen criteria. Conclusion: Nonvascularized fibular strut graft along with cancellous screws provides a dependable and technically less-demanding alternative procedure for neglected femoral neck fractures in young adults. Fibula being

  15. The risk of cardiorespiratory deaths persists beyond 30 days after proximal femoral fracture surgery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sameer K; Rushton, Stephen P; Shields, David W; Corsar, Kenneth G; Refaie, Ramsay; Gray, Andrew C; Deehan, David J

    2015-02-01

    30-day mortality is routinely used to assess proximal femoral fracture care, though patients might remain at risk for poor outcome for longer. This work has examined the survivorship out to one year of a consecutive series of patients admitted for proximal femoral fracture to a single institution. We wished to quantify the temporal impact of fracture upon mortality, and also the influence of patient age, gender, surgical delay and length of stay on mortality from both cardiorespiratory and non-cardiorespiratory causes. Data were analysed for 561 consecutive patients with 565 fragility type proximal femoral fractures treated surgically at our trauma unit. Dates and causes of death were obtained from death certificates and also linked to data from the Office of National Statistics. Mortality rates and causes were collated for two time periods: day 0-30, and day 31-365. Cumulative incidence analysis showed that mortality due to cardiorespiratory causes (pneumonia, myocardial infarction, cardiac failure) rose steeply to around 100 days after surgery and then flattened reaching approximately 12% by 1 year. Mortality from non-cardiorespiratory causes (kidney failure, stroke, sepsis etc.) was more progressive, but with a rate half of that of cardiorespiratory causes. Progressive modelling of mortality risks revealed that cardiorespiratory deaths were associated with advancing age and male gender (p<0.001 for both), but the effect of age declined after 100 days. Non-cardiorespiratory deaths were not time-dependent. We believe this analysis extends our understanding of the temporal impact of proximal femoral fracture and its surgical management upon outcome beyond the previously accepted standard (30 days) and supports the use of a new, more relevant timescale for this high risk group of patients. It also highlights the need for planning and continuing physiotherapy, respiratory exercises and other chest-protective measures from 31 to 100 days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  16. Assessment of risk of femoral neck fracture with radiographic texture parameters: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Thevenot, Jérôme; Hirvasniemi, Jukka; Pulkkinen, Pasi; Määttä, Mikko; Korpelainen, Raija; Saarakkala, Simo; Jämsä, Timo

    2014-07-01

    To investigate whether femoral neck fracture can be predicted retrospectively on the basis of clinical radiographs by using the combined analysis of bone geometry, textural analysis of trabecular bone, and bone mineral density (BMD). Formal ethics committee approval was obtained for the study, and all participants gave informed written consent. Pelvic radiographs and proximal femur BMD measurements were obtained in 53 women aged 79-82 years in 2006. By 2012, 10 of these patients had experienced a low-impact femoral neck fracture. A Laplacian-based semiautomatic custom algorithm was applied to the radiographs to calculate the texture parameters along the trabecular fibers in the lower neck area for all subjects. Intra- and interobserver reproducibility was calculated by using the root mean square average coefficient of variation to evaluate the robustness of the method. The best predictors of hip fracture were entropy (P = .007; reproducibility coefficient of variation < 1%), the neck-shaft angle (NSA) (P = .017), and the BMD (P = .13). For prediction of fracture, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.753 for entropy, 0.608 for femoral neck BMD, and 0.698 for NSA. The area increased to 0.816 when entropy and NSA were combined and to 0.902 when entropy, NSA, and BMD were combined. Textural analysis of pelvic radiographs enables discrimination of patients at risk for femoral neck fracture, and our results show the potential of this conventional imaging method to yield better prediction than that achieved with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-based BMD. The combination of the entropy parameter with NSA and BMD can further enhance predictive accuracy. © RSNA, 2014.

  17. A transepiphyseal fracture of the femoral neck in a child with 2 widely displaced Salter-Harris III fragments of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dae-Hee; Park, Jong-Woong; Lee, Soon-Hyuck

    2010-02-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first report of a transphyseal fracture of the femoral neck with a fracture of the capital femoral epiphysis involving 2 widely displaced Salter-Harris III fragments in a child. Preoperative surgical lateral radiographs of the hip of a 14-year-old boy clearly showed an anteriorly dislocated femoral head fragment. However, the overlapping ischium, soft tissue, and an anteriorly dislocated femoral head fragment caused a posteriorly dislocated fragment of the split femoral head to be overlooked on the radiographs. The emergent nature of the injury resulted in the performance of an open reduction without further imaging studies. Based on the initial evaluation, an anterior iliofemoral approach was chosen, which made it difficult to locate the posteriorly dislocated main fragment of the split femoral head. This case highlights that plain radiographs do not always provide adequate information for such injuries. Computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging should be employed to enable accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment for fracture-dislocations of the pediatric hip.

  18. Successful open reduction and internal fixation for displaced femoral fracture in a patient with osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jiangfa; Pan, Jianke; Xu, Mingtao; Xu, Shuchai

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Osteopetrosis is a rare disease that predominantly occurs in descendants of inbreeding families. In the case of fractures happen in patients with osteopetrosis, the choice between operative or conservative treatment is still controversial. Open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) is a conventional treatment for fractures, and it possesses more applicability than conservative treatment. During this surgical treatment, ensure that bone union in the right way is pivotal to success and simultaneously prevents refracture and displacement after the operation. Herein, we present a case of femoral fracture of a patient with osteopetrosis via open reduction and internal fixation. To illustrate successful factors during the treatment process, we discuss experience combined with literature review following case report. Patient concerns: A 67-year-old man who has diagnosed with osteopetrosis over 20 years ago suffered from pain in the left hip last for more than 1 month and he was incapable of walking recently. Before this incident, he had sustained 4 femoral fractures that treated insufficiently by open reduction surgery. Diagnosis: Physical, radiological, and biological examinations indicated a femoral subtrochanteric fracture that was overlapping displacement between fracture ends. Interventions and outcomes: Treated with surgery by open reduction with internal fixation and osteotomy, the fracture united in 12 months, and he returned to walk with full weight bearing, during which no complication occurred. Lessons: Open reduction and internal fixation is also suitable for the patient with osteopetrosis, and they have similar union ability to the normal. To guarantee successful treatment, specific strategies of operation and rehabilitation program are necessary. PMID:28816960

  19. Bone mineral density aspects in the femoral neck of hip fracture patients.

    PubMed

    Guerado, Enrique; Cruz, Encarnacion; Cano, Juan Ramon; Crespo, Pascual Vicente; Alaminos, Miguel; Sánchez-Quevedo, Maria del Carmen; Campos, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Elderly people, due to neurological conditions and muscular atrophy, present a greater propensity to falls and thus are very susceptible to hip fractures. Other variables, such as osteoporosis, may also be related to the etiopathogenesis of hip fractures, although osteoporosis is in fact a concurrent disease, and merely a coadjutant cause. Nonetheless, osteoporosis can make fracture patterns more severe and interfere with osteosynthesis. Osteoporosis is the radiological image of osteopenia, a pathological concept meaning a smaller quantity of bone per unit of volume. The radiological expression of osteopenia is therefore that of bone tissue with a lower radiological density than normal. In the context of hip fractures, bone mineral density and bone architecture of the femoral neck together with protein expression profiles and cross-links of this anatomical area are of special interest which is reviewed in the current paper. Spatial variations in bone mineral density in the femoral neck were found in the literature with increased porosity from the periosteal to the endosteal region and also from the distal to the proximal part of the femoral neck. Furthermore, increased crystal size, increased cortical porosity, reduced osteocyte lacunar density and an increased Ca/P ratio associated with higher concentrations of Ca and P were described in hip fracture patients compared to control patients. Osteocalcin/collagen type 1 expression ratio and enzymatic cross-link content in high-density bone was found to be significantly lower in hip fractures compared to controls. In conclusion, further research in bone mineral density and associated parameters are of interest to deepen the understanding of osteoporotic hip fractures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [ANATOMICAL PLATE COMBINED WITH CORTICAL BONE PLATE ALLOGRAFTS FOR TREATMENT OF COMMINUTED FRACTURES OF FEMORAL CONDYLES].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhimin; Gong, Xingxing; Li, Yanwei; Qiu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Meng; Shangguan, Tiancheng; Ao, Qingfang; Liu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    To summarize the effectiveness of anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allografts in the treatment of comminuted fractures of the femoral condyles. Between January 2008 and December 2012, 18 patients with comminuted fractures of the femoral condyles were treated, including 13 males and 5 females with an average age of 45 years (range, 23-65 years). Fractures were caused by traffic accident in 11 cases, by falling from height in 4 cases, and by the other in 3 cases. The locations were the left side in 7 cases and the right side in 11 cases. Of 18 fractures, 12 were open fractures and 6 were closed fractures. The mean time from injury to operation was 6 days (range, 4-15 days). The fixation was performed by anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allografts, and autograft bone or allogeneic bone grafting were used. Superficial local skin necrosis occurred in 1 case, and was cured after skin graft, and other incisions achieved primary healing. All patients were followed up 12-36 months (mean, 23 months). X-ray films showed that bone union was achieved within 3-12 months (5.6 months on average). No related complication occurred, such as fixation loosening, refracture, infection, or immunological rejection. According to Merchan et al. criteria for knee joint function evaluation, the results were excellent in 7 cases, good in 9 cases, fair in 1 case, and poor in 1 case at last follow-up; the excellent and good rate was 88.9%. Anatomical plate combined with cortical bone plate allograft fixation is a good method to treat comminuted fractures of the femoral condyles. This method can effectively achieve complete cortical bone on the inside of the femur as well as provide rigid fixation.

  1. Incidence of stress fractures of the femoral shaft in women treated with bisphosphonate

    PubMed Central

    Schilcher, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent case reports have identified an association between long-term bisphosphonate treatment and stress fractures of the femoral shaft. The risk of such fractures in bisphosphonate users has not been determined. Methods We identified women over 55 years of age with the specific fracture pattern by searching the operation registry of the hospitals in 2 healthcare districts. Prevalence of bisphosphonate treatment was provided by a Swedish national registry covering all drugs delivered to all individuals since 2005. Results The number of women on bisphosphonate treatment was 3,087. Of these, 5 had femoral stress fractures. They had been taking bisphosphonates for 3.5 to 8.5 years. The incidence density for a patient on bisphosphonate was 1/1,000 per year (95% CI: 0.3–2). In the remaining 88,869 women who were not taking bisphosphonates, there were 3 stress fractures. Thus, their risk (without correction for inhomogeneity in age distribution) was 46 times less (95% CI: 11–200). Interpretation These results are rough estimations based on a comparatively small material. Still, a treatment-associated incidence density of 1/1,000 is acceptable, considering that bisphosphonate treatment is likely to reduce the incidence density of any fracture by 15/1,000 according to a large randomized trial (Black et al. 1996). PMID:19568963

  2. Subject specific finite element modeling of periprosthetic femoral fracture using element deactivation to simulate bone failure.

    PubMed

    Miles, Brad; Kolos, Elizabeth; Walter, William L; Appleyard, Richard; Shi, Angela; Li, Qing; Ruys, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Subject-specific finite element (FE) modeling methodology could predict peri-prosthetic femoral fracture (PFF) for cementless hip arthoplasty in the early postoperative period. This study develops methodology for subject-specific finite element modeling by using the element deactivation technique to simulate bone failure and validate with experimental testing, thereby predicting peri-prosthetic femoral fracture in the early postoperative period. Material assignments for biphasic and triphasic models were undertaken. Failure modeling with the element deactivation feature available in ABAQUS 6.9 was used to simulate a crack initiation and propagation in the bony tissue based upon a threshold of fracture strain. The crack mode for the biphasic models was very similar to the experimental testing crack mode, with a similar shape and path of the crack. The fracture load is sensitive to the friction coefficient at the implant-bony interface. The development of a novel technique to simulate bone failure by element deactivation of subject-specific finite element models could aid prediction of fracture load in addition to fracture risk characterization for PFF.

  3. [Pathological fractures of the femoral neck in hemodialyzed patients. Apropos of 26 cases].

    PubMed

    Hardy, P; Benoit, J; Donneaud, B; Jehanno, P; Lortat-Jacob, A

    1994-01-01

    This study is based on a retrospective analysis of 26 pathological fractures of the femoral neck in 19 chronic haemodialysis patients. The purpose of this study is to analyze the epidemiological and etiological factors of these fractures in relation to osteo-arthropathy of the dialyzed patient, as well as the results of various treatments, both curative and preventive. 26 pathological fractures of the femoral neck appeared in 19 chronic haemodialysis patients, 11 men and 8 women, 6 patients presented bilateral fractures. The patient's average age at the time of the fracture was 61 years (27 to 82). The average duration of dialysis was 11 years with a minimum of 2 years and a maximum of 21 years. Hyper parathyroidism was found in 14 patients, aluminic intoxication in 6 and amyloidosis at the level of the coxo-femoral joint 18 times. Surgical treatment consisted of 6 osteosynthesis, 2 cephalic arthroplasties, 13 modular arthroplasties and 5 total hip arthroplasties. For each case, we studied the presence of necrosis of the femoral neck due to aluminic intoxication, osteoporosis due to hyperparathyroidism and also the presence of amyloidosis without aluminic intoxication. Cortisonic necrosis and porosis was found 4 times out of 26 cases, hyperparathyroidism once, aluminic osteomalacy 3 times and beta-2-microglobulin amyloid 18 times. Amyloidosis remains the most frequent etiological factor. All patients had been operated for median nerve compression in the carpal tunnel, usually 2.5 years before appearance of the pathological fracture. Non surgical treatment was used 5 times in undisplaced fractures without any sign of amyloidosis and was successful 3 times and unsuccessful twice necessitating a new operation by osteosynthesis. Out of 6 osteosynthesis performed for fractures either with little or no displacement we observed 4 failures, all of them in the cases with intra-osseous amyloidosis. Best results were obtained by arthroplasties. Modular arthroplasty has given

  4. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND RADIOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES: STUDY OF 200 CASES

    PubMed Central

    de Moraes, Frederico Barra; da Silva, Luciano Lucindo; Ferreira, Fábio Vieira; Ferro, Ademar Martins; da Rocha, Valney Luís; Teixeira, Kim-Ir-Sen Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to evaluate epidemiological and radiological characteristics of the femoral shaft fractures, surgically treated from 1990 to 2005 at Hospital de Acidentados – Clínica Santa Isabel – in Goiânia, Goiás, aiming to contribute to better preventive and therapeutic measures planning to adopt on those fractures. Methods: 200 patients' files and x-rays with femoral shaft fractures have been retrospectively evaluated. Patients below the age of 10 years were not included because the treatment for this group was conservative. 25 files have been discarded for not supplying all the necessary data to the study. The patients were assessed for sex, age, side of the fracture, bone exposure, mechanisms of trauma, classification of the fractures, associated trauma, time for bone healing and types of surgical devices. Statistic analyses were made by chi-squared, Fisher and Student's-t tests, adopting as a significance level p<0.05. Results: significant results (p < 0.05) were found in: 70% of men, 80% closed fractures and 65% of women above the age of 60. Fractures resulting from simple falls were more frequent in women, above 60 years old, with simpler traces, and the ones caused by projectiles of firearm in men, from 20 to 60 years, with unstable traces. Trampling accidents were prevalent among youngsters between 10 and 19 years old. Car accidents showed all the types of fractures, mostly associated to other traumas, reaching its peak incidence in the age group of 20-30 years. The treatment with Küntscher Nail resulted in a longer mean consolidation time, as well as fractures with unstable traces (B3,C1,C2,C3). Conclusion: we found a bi-modal characteristic the femoral shaft fractures, consistently to literature data, where the high energy mechanisms (traffic accidents, high falls and wounds from firearms), have been more frequent in young adults, men, generating unstable traces of fractures, with more serious associated trauma, while the other group with low

  5. Screw-blade fixation systems in Pauwels three femoral neck fractures: a biomechanical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Knobe, Matthias; Altgassen, Simon; Maier, Klaus-Jürgen; Gradl-Dietsch, Gertraud; Kaczmarek, Chris; Nebelung, Sven; Klos, Kajetan; Kim, Bong-Sung; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Horst, Klemens; Buecking, Benjamin

    2017-08-06

    To reduce mechanical complications after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures, improved fixation techniques have been developed including blade or screw-anchor devices. This biomechanical study compares different fixation systems used for treatment of unstable femoral neck fractures with evaluation of failure mode, load to failure, stiffness, femoral head rotation, femoral neck shortening and femoral head migration. Standardized Pauwels type 3 fractures (AO/OTA 31-B2) with comminution were created in 18 biomechanical sawbones using a custom-made sawguide. Fractures were stabilized using either SHS-Screw, SHS-Blade or Rotationally Stable Screw-Anchor (RoSA). Femurs were positioned in 25 degrees adduction and ten degrees posterior flexion and were cyclically loaded with an axial sinusoidal loading pattern of 0.5 Hz, starting with 300 N, with an increase by 300 N every 2000 cycles until bone-implant failure occurred. Mean failure load for the Screw-Anchor fixation (RoSA) was 5100 N (IQR 750 N), 3900 N (IQR 75 N) for SHS-Blade and 3000 N (IQR 675 N; p = 0.002) for SHS-Screw. For SHS-Screw and SHS-Blade we observed fracture displacement with consecutive fracture collapse as the main reason for failure, whereas RoSA mainly showed a cut-out under high loadings. Mean stiffness at 1800 N was 826 (IQR 431) N/mm for SHS-Screw, 1328 (IQR 441) N/mm for SHS-Blade and 1953 (IQR 617) N/mm for RoSA (p = 0.003). With a load of 1800 N (SHS-Screw 12° vs. SHS-Blade 7° vs. RoSA 2°; p = 0.003) and with 2700 N (24° vs. 15° vs. 3°; p = 0.002) the RoSA implants demonstrated a higher rotational stability and had the lowest femoral neck shortening (p = 0.002), compared with the SHS groups. At the 2700 N load point, RoSA systems showed a lower axial (p = 0.019) and cranial (p = 0.031) femoral head migration compared to the SHS-Screw. In our study, the new Screw-Anchor fixation (RoSA) was superior to the comparable SHS implants regarding rotational

  6. Bilateral non-traumatic acetabular and femoral neck fractures due to pregnancy-associated osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Aynaci, Osman; Kerimoglu, Servet; Ozturk, Cagatay; Saracoglu, Metehan

    2008-03-01

    Pregnancy-associated osteoporosis is a rare disorder and its pathophysiology remains unknown. We report a case of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis in a 27-year-old primiparous patient who revealed bilateral hip pain during early postnatal period. The plain radiographs and computerized tomography showed bilateral femoral neck and acetabular fractures. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was established by bone mineral density. Diagnostic work-up excluded a secondary osteoporosis. The case was treated successfully by bilateral cementless total hip arthroplasty. Bone mineral density increased after 2 years of treatment with calcium-vitamin D, calcitriol and alendronate. Diagnosis of pregnancy-associated osteoporosis should be suspected when hip pain occurs during pregnancy or in the post-partum period as it can lead to acetabular and femoral neck fractures.

  7. Alendronate-Related Femoral Fracture in a premenopausal glucocorticoid treated patient

    PubMed Central

    Mobini, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alendronate is a bisphosphonate that is approved to reduce bone loss in glucocorticoid treated patients. In this paper, we present a case of femoral fracture following the use of Alendronate. Case presentation: A- 46 year old woman who was a known case of hemolytic anemia has been treated by prednisolone (with different doses from 7.5 to 75 mg/day), calcium-D 500 mg/day and alendronate 70 mg/week for 3 years. Despite improvement of bone density, she experienced a low truama femoral shaft fracture. Conclusion: This case shows a rare complication of treatment by alendronate. It may be needed to evaluate patients with long term usage of bisphosphonates for cortical thickness. PMID:24490015

  8. Alendronate-Related Femoral Fracture in a premenopausal glucocorticoid treated patient.

    PubMed

    Mobini, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Alendronate is a bisphosphonate that is approved to reduce bone loss in glucocorticoid treated patients. In this paper, we present a case of femoral fracture following the use of Alendronate. A- 46 year old woman who was a known case of hemolytic anemia has been treated by prednisolone (with different doses from 7.5 to 75 mg/day), calcium-D 500 mg/day and alendronate 70 mg/week for 3 years. Despite improvement of bone density, she experienced a low truama femoral shaft fracture. This case shows a rare complication of treatment by alendronate. It may be needed to evaluate patients with long term usage of bisphosphonates for cortical thickness.

  9. Radiographic prevalence of CAM-type femoroacetabular impingement after open reduction and internal fixation of femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Mathew, G; Kowalczuk, M; Hetaimish, B; Bedi, A; Philippon, M J; Bhandari, M; Simunovic, N; Crouch, S; Ayeni, O R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the radiographic prevalence of CAM-type femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in elderly patients (≥ 50 years) who have undergone internal fixation for femoral neck fracture. A total of 187 frog-leg lateral radiographs of elderly patients who underwent internal fixation for a femoral neck fracture were reviewed by two independent reviewers. The alpha angle, beta angle, and femoral head-neck offset ratio were calculated. The presence of two abnormal radiographic parameters was deemed to be diagnostic of radiographic CAM-type impingement. Radiographic CAM-type FAI was identified in 157 out of 187 (84 %) patients who underwent internal fixation for fractures of the femoral neck. Moderate-to-good inter-observer reliability was achieved in the measurement of radiographic parameters. With reference to fracture subtypes and prevalence of radiographic features of CAM-type morphology, 97 (72 %) out of 134 patients were positive for CAM in Garden subtypes I and II, whereas 49 (85.9 %) out of 57 patients had radiographic CAM in Garden III and IV subtypes. There was a high prevalence of CAM-type FAI in patients that underwent surgical fixation of femoral neck fractures. This is significantly higher than the reported prevalence in non-fracture patient populations. The high prevalence of CAM morphology could be related to several factors, including age, fracture morphology, quality of reduction, type of fixation, and fracture healing.

  10. Implant Removal After Internal Fixation of a Femoral Neck Fracture: Effects on Physical Functioning.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2015-09-01

    The effect of implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture on physical functioning was analyzed. Characteristics of patients who had their implant removed were studied, as it is currently unknown from which type of patients implants are removed and what effect removal has on function. Secondary cohort study alongside a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter study in 14 hospitals. Patients who had their implant removed after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture are compared with patients who did not. Patient characteristics and quality of life (Short Form 12, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index) were compared. Matched pairs were selected based on patient/fracture characteristics and prefracture physical functioning. Of 162 patients, 37 (23%) had their implant removed. These patients were younger (median age: 67 vs. 72 years, P = 0.024) and more often independently ambulatory prefracture (100% vs. 84%, P = 0.008) than patients who did not. They more often had evident implant back-out on x-rays (54% vs. 34%, P = 0.035), possibly related to a higher rate of Pauwels 3 fractures (41% vs. 22%, P = 0.032). In time, quality of life improved more in implant removal patients [+2 vs. -4 points, Short Form 12 (physical component), P = 0.024; +9 vs. 0 points, Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index, P = 0.019]. Implant removal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture positively influenced quality of life. Implant removal patients were younger and more often independently ambulatory prefracture, more often had a Pauwels 3 fracture, and an evident implant back-out. Implant removal should be considered liberally for these patients if pain persists or functional recovery is unsatisfactory. Therapeutic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Elderly Has a Low Conversion Rate.

    PubMed

    Grosso, Matthew J; Danoff, Jonathan R; Murtaugh, Taylor S; Trofa, David P; Sawires, Andrew N; Macaulay, William B

    2017-01-01

    Hemiarthroplasty (HA) has been a mainstay treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures for many years. The purpose of this study was to report the conversion rate of HA to total hip arthroplasty (THA) for displaced femoral neck fractures and compare outcomes between implant constructs (bipolar vs unipolar), fixation options (cemented vs cementless stems), and age groups (<75 years vs ≥75 years). We retrospectively reviewed the results of a consecutive cohort of 686 patients who underwent HA for the treatment of femoral neck fractures at our institution between 1999 and 2013 with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. The overall component revision rate, including conversion to THA, revision HA, revision with open reduction internal fixation, and Girdlestone procedure, was 5.6% (39/686). Seventeen patients (2.5%) were converted from HA to THA at an average of 1.9 years after index procedure. A significantly lower conversion rate of 1.4% (7/499 patients) was found in the older patient cohort (≥75 years old) compared to 5.3% (11/187) in the younger cohort. The most common causes for conversion surgery to THA were acetabular wear (5 patients), aseptic loosening (4 patients), and periprosthetic fracture (3 patients). There was a significantly lower rate of periprosthetic fracture (0.4% vs 2.5%, P value .025) in the cemented implant group compared to the cementless group. We observed a higher rate of dislocations in the bipolar vs unipolar group (3.8% vs 1%, P value .02) and no other significant differences between these groups. We observed a low reoperation rate for this cohort of patients, relatively higher conversion rates for the younger population, fewer periprosthetic fractures with the use of cemented stems, and no advantage of bipolar over unipolar prostheses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. [Epithelioid hemangioendothelioma of bone complicated by femoral fracture].

    PubMed

    Charfi, L; Mrad, K; Karray, S; Sassi, S; Driss, M; Abbes, I; Ben Romdhane, K

    2005-12-01

    A 54-year-old man was seen with a fracture of the left femur. Plain radiographs revealed a 40-mm lytic centromedullary lesion. Magnetic resonance T1- and T2-weighted sequences showed high and low signals. After stabilization of the fracture, the tumor was removed followed by reconstruction with a vascularized fibula. The pathological examination demonstrated proliferation of non atypical CD34 and CD31 positive epithelioid cells with few lumens, accompanied by abundant fibrous stroma, sometimes masking tumor cells. Satisfactory motion was achieved with no recurrence at 20 months follow-up. Bone hemangioendothelioma can simulate metastasis and must be distinguished by immunohistochemistry. Prognosis is a subject of debate as the tumor is considered to exhibit intermediate malignancy by some authors while other consider it to be a malignant tumor.

  13. Bilateral fatigue fracture of the femoral components in a cruciate-retaining cementless total knee prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shu; Tokuhashi, Yasuaki; Ishii, Takao; Mori, Sei; Hosaka, Kunihiro; Ryu, Keinosuke; Suzuki, Gen

    2011-10-05

    This article reports a case of bilateral fatigue fracture of the femoral components in a cruciate-retaining uncemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA). A 75-year-old woman (height, 158 cm; weight, 72 kg; body mass index, 29.2) had undergone one-stage bilateral TKA for osteoarthritis 11 years previously at the author's institution. Surgery was performed using an uncemented Flexible Nichidai Knee. Equal tension of the collateral ligaments and normal mechanical axis were achieved during the primary procedure. The patient was an ardent lover of the game of badminton and had higher activity levels with daily playing. At 8 years postoperatively, she started complaining of mild pain in both knees. The pain gradually increased, and at 11 years postoperatively, she had difficulty walking. Anteroposterior radiographs showed narrowing of the medial joint space, indicating wear of the polyethylene insert. Lateral radiographs showed signs of broken implants in both knees. There were no signs of gross implant loosening or osteolysis. One-stage revision surgery was performed, and the knees were converted to cemented posterior-stabilized TKAs. At revision, the bilateral femoral components were found to be fractured at the junction between the trochlear flange and the medial condyle, anteriorly to the medial peg. The polyethylene insert showed mild wear at the medial middle portion. In the majority of case reports, stress fractures of the femoral component have predominantly affected the medial condyle, following uncemented implantation of fixed-bearing knees. In this case, failure of bone ingrowth in uncemented components, higher body mass index, and a higher athletic activity led to fatigue fracture of the femoral components.

  14. Computer-assisted total knee arthroplasty after prior femoral fracture without hardware removal.

    PubMed

    Manzotti, Alfonso; Chemello, Cesare; Pullen, Chris; Cerveri, Pietro; Confalonieri, Norberto

    2012-10-01

    This study presents a consecutive series of patients who underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) after prior distal femoral fracture without hardware removal. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of computer-assisted TKA in patients with posttraumatic arthritis, specifically those with retained hardware after prior distal femoral fracture. The study group included a consecutive series of 16 patients who had developed posttraumatic knee arthritis after a distal femoral fracture with retention of hardware (group A). Patients in the study group were matched with patients who had undergone a computer-assisted TKA using the same implant and software (group B). The indication for TKA in all group B patients was atraumatic arthritis, and surgery was performed during the same period as that in the study group. Patients were matched for age, sex, preoperative range of motion, preoperative severity of arthritis, type and grade of deformity, and implant features. No statistically significant differences existed between the 2 study groups in terms of operative time, duration of hospital stay, or intra- and postoperative complications. At last follow-up, no statistically significant differences existed in Knee Society Scores and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index scores. Implant alignment and radiological parameters were similar in both groups. This study demonstrated that posttraumatic knee arthritis after prior distal femoral fracture can be safely managed using a computer-assisted TKA without hardware removal. Comparison between the study group and a matched group with atraumatic arthritis showed similar postoperative results and complication rates. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Malignant pleural mesothelioma with osseous metastases and pathologic fracture of femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Lester, Todd; Xu, Haodong

    2008-10-01

    Malignant mesotheliomas occur in the pleura, peritoneum, pericardium, and tunica vaginalis. The majority of tumors are pleural in origin. The typical pattern of spread is usually contiguous or via implantation. Hematogenous or lymphatic metastasis is not uncommon; however, metastasis to bone has rarely been well documented. This is a case report of malignant pleural mesothelioma metastatic to the femur with a pathologic fracture of femoral neck.

  16. Intrapelvic Protrusion of a Broken Guide Wire Fragment during Fixation of a Femoral Neck Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Ahmadreza

    2017-01-01

    During fixation of a femoral neck fracture in a 23-year-old male patient with cannulated screws, a broken guide wire fragment inadvertently advanced through the hip joint and protruded into the pelvis. A second surgical approach was needed to remove the broken fragment from the pelvis. Awareness of such a potentially devastating complication will make surgeons more cautious during implementation of orthopedic instruments and increases patient’s safety during surgery.

  17. Tips and tricks for ORIF of displaced femoral neck fractures in the young adult patient.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Stephen C; Renninger, Christopher H; Hak, David; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the young adult are a less common, but potentially functionally significant injury commonly occurring after high-energy trauma. The management goals of these injuries are the maintenance of a native hip joint absent avascular necrosis and nonunion. The primary determinant to this end is an anatomic reduction in displaced fractures with stable fixation. In this paper, the authors provide a set of technical tips and tricks to aid orthopedic surgeons in the surgical management of these injuries while reviewing the most recent literature available to inform clinical decision making. The paper includes the recommendations of the authors from the Denver Health Orthopaedic Trauma Service.

  18. Intra-operative femoral neck fracture during attempted dislocation of a reduced hemi-arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ling, Samuel Ka Kin; Ma, Chun Man; Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-05-01

    Fragility hip fractures are increasingly common and hemiarthroplasty is one of the standard treatments. Although a common surgery, it should be performed with great caution because of the poor premorbid and bone quality in this demographic. Intra-operative fractures can occur while attempting press fit of the femoral implant. However; vigilance often steps down once the implant is secured and the hip reduced. This case report reminds surgeons that a large amount of torque can be transmitted during intra-operative positioning, such as during an attempt of hip dislocation. This torque, in addition to the risk factor of osteoporotic bone, can result in iatrogenic fractures. Published literature regarding management of an intra-operative fracture while the prosthetic hip is still reduced is lacking. The authors propose that temporary prophylactic cerclage wiring is a prudent and safe procedure prior to hip dislocation.

  19. Concepts and Potential Future Developments for Treatment of Periprosthetic Proximal Femoral Fractures.

    PubMed

    Brand, Stephan; Ettinger, Max; Omar, Mohamed; Hawi, Nael; Krettek, Christian; Petri, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures are a major challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon, with a continuously increasing incidence due to aging populations and concordantly increasing numbers of total hip replacements. Surgical decision-making mainly depends on the stability of the arthroplasty, and the quality of bone stock. As patients final outcomes mainly depend on early mobilization, a high primary stability of the construct is of particular relevance. Osteosynthetic procedures are usually applied for fractures with a stable arthroplasty, while fractures with a loosened endoprosthesis commonly require revision arthroplasty. Osteoporotic bone with insufficient anchoring substance for screws poses one major concern for cases with well-fixed arthroplasties. Complication rates and perioperative mortality have remained unacceptably high, emphasizing the need for new innovations in the treatment of periprosthetic fractures. Transprosthetic drilling of screws through the hip stem as the most solid and reliable part in the patient might represent a promising future approach, with auspicious results in recent biomechanical studies.

  20. Concepts and Potential Future Developments for Treatment of Periprosthetic Proximal Femoral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Stephan; Ettinger, Max; Omar, Mohamed; Hawi, Nael; Krettek, Christian; Petri, Maximilian

    2015-01-01

    Periprosthetic proximal femoral fractures are a major challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon, with a continuously increasing incidence due to aging populations and concordantly increasing numbers of total hip replacements. Surgical decision-making mainly depends on the stability of the arthroplasty, and the quality of bone stock. As patients final outcomes mainly depend on early mobilization, a high primary stability of the construct is of particular relevance. Osteosynthetic procedures are usually applied for fractures with a stable arthroplasty, while fractures with a loosened endoprosthesis commonly require revision arthroplasty. Osteoporotic bone with insufficient anchoring substance for screws poses one major concern for cases with well-fixed arthroplasties. Complication rates and perioperative mortality have remained unacceptably high, emphasizing the need for new innovations in the treatment of periprosthetic fractures. Transprosthetic drilling of screws through the hip stem as the most solid and reliable part in the patient might represent a promising future approach, with auspicious results in recent biomechanical studies. PMID:26401164

  1. Bone mineral density in young Indian adults with traumatic proximal femoral fractures. A case control study.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Divesh; Kumar, Sudhir; Arora, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya Nath; Bhargava, S K

    2010-06-01

    There is scarcity of data on osteoporosis in India for the age group of 20-40 years when peak bone mass is achieved. This study aimed to assess bone mineral density (BMD) in patients in this age group with traumatic proximal femoral fractures, and to compare it with age matched controls. Thirty patients aged 20 to 40 years with traumatic proximal femoral fractures and 30 healthy volunteers within the same age group were included in the study. Radiographs of the pelvis were taken to determine the Singh index, and DEXA scan of the unaffected hip was done to assess BMD. Fracture cases were compared with controls for significant difference in BMD. The male to female ratio of the study was 2:1. Based on Singh's index, 60% of fracture cases and 20% of controls were osteoporotic. T scores by DEXA revealed that 24 patients with fracture and 22 controls had osteopenia or osteoporosis. There was a significant difference in the Singh index between the two groups and no significant difference in BMD assessed by DEXA scan. No agreement was found between BMD determined by DEXA and Singh's index. The study points that our population fails to attain an adequate peak bone mass. It also questions the applicability of Western data to Indian population. The findings also indicate that Singh's Index cannot substitute DEXA for diagnosis of osteoporosis.

  2. Imaging appearance of entrapped periosteum within a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Johnathan; Abel, Mark F; Fox, Michael G

    2015-10-01

    Salter Harris II fractures of the distal femur are associated with a high incidence of complications, especially premature physeal closure. Many risk factors for this high rate of premature physeal closure have been proposed. More recently, entrapment of periosteum within the physis has been suggested as an additional predisposing factor for premature physeal closure. The radiographic diagnosis of entrapped soft tissues, including periosteum, can be suggested in the setting of a Salter-Harris II fracture when the fracture does not reduce and physeal widening >3 mm remains. We report a patient who sustained a distal femoral Salter-Harris II fracture following a valgus injury. The patient had persistent distal medial physeal widening >5 mm following attempted reduction. A subsequent MRI revealed a torn periosteum entrapped within the distal femoral physis. Following removal of the periosteum, the patient developed a leg length discrepancy which required physiodesis of the contralateral distal femur. We present this case to raise awareness of the importance of having a high index of suspicion of periosteal entrapment in the setting of Salter-Harris II fractures since most consider entrapped periosteum an indication for surgery.

  3. Effects of enviromental temperature and femoral fracture on wound healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Crowley, L V; Seifter, E; Kriss, P; Rettura, G; Nakao, K; Levenson, S M

    1977-06-01

    Femoral fracture, unilateral and bilateral, impaired the healing of dorsal skin incisions and formation of reparative granulation tissue in subcutaneously implanted polyvinyl alcohol sponges judged histologically and by breaking strengths and hydroxyproline contents, respectively, 1 week after injury in pair-fed rats kept at 22 degrees C. When rats were transferred to a room at 30 degrees C immediately after skin incision and sponge implants, with or without unilateral fracture, no differences in healing were observed between the two groups. Rats with skin incision, sponge implants, and either femoral fracture or sham-fracture excreted more urinary nitrogen than preoperatively when kept at 22 degrees. Counterpart groups transferred to a 30 degrees room right after operation excreted less urinary nitrogen than preoperatively, but because of lower food intakes postoperatively, the ratio of urinary nitrogen to food intake nitrogen was increased. With equivalent food intakes, pair-fed rats with fracture kept at 22 degrees postoperatively lost more weight and excreted more nitrogen than corresponding rats transfered to a 30 degrees room.

  4. [Renovation stem revision femoral head arthroplasty for unstable intertrochanteric fracture in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Chen, Jing-yong; Li, Zhong; Bi, Meng-na; Zhang, Shang-shang; Zhu, Jiang-wei; Lu, Li-sha

    2013-12-01

    To observe clinical efficacy of renovation stem revision femoral head arthroplasty for the treatment of unstable intertrochanteric fracture in the elderly. Totally 32 elderly patients with unstable intertrochanteric fracture were treated with renovation stem revision femoral head arthroplasty from September 2007 to January 2011. There were 11 males and 21 females with an average age of 83.8 (ranged, 80 to 98) years old,the time from injury to hospital ranged from 4 h to 14 days. According to Evans-Jensen classification, 6 cases were type II a, 20 cases were type II b, and 6 cases were type III. Postoperative mortality, complication rates and Harris hip function score were compared and analyzed to evaluate curative effect. All patients were followed up and no dislocation occurred. Six patients were died during 15 months and 4.5 years; 24 cases recoved to independent wakling at 6 months after operation, and 8 cases walked with stick and walker. The average Harris hip joint function score were (91.56 +/- 2.96), 28 cases got excellent results and 4 cases good. Nine cases occurred complications and healed after treatment. Renovation stem revision femoral head arthroplasty is a active and reliable method in treating unstable intertrochanteric fracture in the elderly.

  5. Proximal third femoral shaft fractures in children: prevention of angular deformities using bilateral Thomas splints.

    PubMed

    Kamal, M H; Razak, M; Ibrahim, S; Lim, A

    2000-09-01

    This is a prospective study to look at the outcome of unilateral proximal third femoral shaft fractures in children treated with a bilateral Thomas splint in the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia between the period of January 1996 and June 1998. Eighteen children aged between 2 years and 12 years old with unilateral proximal third fractures of the femoral shaft were treated using a bilateral Thomas splint. Angular deformities were measured using a goniometer metric scale before and after Thomas splints. The percentage of varus tilt corrected ranged from 17% to 72% with an average correction of 29% from the initial deformity and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The percentage of posterior tilt corrected ranged from 19% to 60% with the average correction of 20% from the initial deformity. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.05). From this study, we conclude that bilateral Thomas splints can give a better correction of angular deformity for proximal third femoral shaft fractures in children below twelve years of age.

  6. Nonvascularized fibular grafting in nonunion of femoral neck fracture: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Goyal, Tarun

    2016-01-01

    Nonunion of femoral neck fractures following primary fixation and neglected femoral neck fracture in young adults is a challenging task. Every effort should be directed toward hip joint salvage in these patients. Among different available options of hip salvage, nonvascularized fibular graft (NVFG) osteosynthesis is simple, easy to perform, and a successful technique. In this review, the available literature on NVFG in neglected and nonunion femoral neck fractures has been analyzed. After review of 15 articles on NVFG, the average nonunion rate was estimated to be 7.86% (range 0–31%). Six articles that evaluated the preoperative and postoperative osteonecrosis reported improvement in 50% patients. The clinical and/or functional outcome was good to excellent in 56–96% patients following fibular osteosynthesis. Few complications such as coxa vara deformity, limb shortening, and intraarticular penetration of the graft or hardware have been reported. However, there are minimal donor site morbidities such as mild ankle pain, transient loss of toe flexors and extensors and transient lateral popliteal nerve palsy. PMID:27512214

  7. Biomechanical design of less invasive stabilization system femoral plates: computational evaluation of the fracture environment.

    PubMed

    Reina-Romo, Esther; Giráldez-Sánchez, Ma; Mora-Macías, J; Cano-Luis, P; Domínguez, Jaime

    2014-10-01

    Less Invasive Stabilization System femoral plates are currently accepted as a suitable fixation technique for supra-intercondylar femoral fractures. However, general agreement does not exist regarding the optimum design of this fixator type. Therefore, the aim of this article is to reduce the intrinsic Less Invasive Stabilization System complications by clarifying, from a biomechanical point of view, how the number of screws, the screw connection type (unicortical or bicortical), or the structured position of the screws can influence the outcome of the fracture site. These studies include a specific finite element analysis that determines how several biomechanical variables, such as the movement at the fracture site, are influenced by the preconditions of bone healing. The results of this study show that the screw type affects the mechanical stabilization of the femur to a greater extent than the material type of the Less Invasive Stabilization System femoral plates. The most significant differences among all the analyzed configurations are observed in the shear interfragmentary strain between screw types. Values are approximately 50% higher with unicortical screws than with bicortical ones.

  8. Fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures in young adults: Fixed-angle devices or Pauwel screws?

    PubMed

    Hoshino, C M; Christian, M W; O'Toole, R V; Manson, T T

    2016-08-01

    We sought to compare the incidence of complications after fixation of displaced femoral neck fractures in young adults treated with fixed-angle devices versus multiple cancellous screws and a trochanteric lag screw (Pauwel screw). We conducted a retrospective cohort study at a level I trauma centre. Sixty-two skeletally mature patients (age range, 16-60 years) with displaced femoral neck fractures were included in the study. Forty-seven were treated with a fixed-angle device (sliding hip plate with screw or helical blade) and 15 with multiple cancellous screws placed in a Pauwel configuration. The main outcome measure was postoperative complication of osteonecrosis or nonunion treated with a surgical procedure. Significantly fewer failures occurred in the fixed-angle group (21%) than in the screws group (60%) (p=0.008). Osteonecrosis was rare in the fixed-angle group, occurring in 2% of cases versus 33% of cases in the screws group (p=0.002). Consistent with previous studies, good to excellent reductions were associated with a failure rate of 25% and fair to poor reductions were associated with a failure rate of 55% (p=0.07). The best-case scenario of a good to excellent reduction stabilised with a fixed-angle device yielded a success rate of 85%. In young patients with displaced high-energy femoral neck fractures, fixed-angle devices resulted in fewer treatment failures than did Pauwel screws. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. KIRSCHNER WIRE VERSUS TITANIUM ELASTIC NAILS IN PEDIATRIC FEMORAL SHAFT FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Isik, Cengiz; Kurtulmus, Tuhan; Saglam, Necdet; Saka, Gursel; Akpinar, Fuat; Sarman, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of intramedullary fixation using the Kirschner-wire (K-wire) compared to the titanium elastic nail (TEN) in pediatric femoral shaft fractures. Methods: A sample of 42 pediatric patients with a mean age of 6.55±2.42 years (range 4-11 years) presenting femoral shaft fractures underwent intramedullary fixation using the K-wire or TEN. Results: There was no significant difference found between groups, of which 16 (38.1%) patients were treated with K-wire and 26 (61.9%) patients were treated with TEN in terms of union duration. Moreover, none of the patients showed nonunion or a delayed union. Conclusions: The use of adjusted K-wire instead of TEN in the intramedullary fixation of femoral shaft fractures in selected children may be an advantageous surgical option due to the lower cost, easy accessibility and no need for a second surgery for implant removal. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Study. PMID:26981033

  10. A new uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated femoral component for the treatment of femoral neck fractures: two-year radiostereometric and bone densitometric evaluation in 50 hips.

    PubMed

    Sköldenberg, O G; Salemyr, M O; Bodén, H S; Lundberg, A; Ahl, T E; Adolphson, P Y

    2011-05-01

    Our aim in this pilot study was to evaluate the fixation of, the bone remodelling around, and the clinical outcome after surgery of a new, uncemented, fully hydroxyapatite-coated, collared and tapered femoral component, designed specifically for elderly patients with a fracture of the femoral neck. We enrolled 50 patients, of at least 70 years of age, with an acute displaced fracture of the femoral neck in this prospective single-series study. They received a total hip replacement using the new component and were followed up regularly for two years. Fixation was evaluated by radiostereometric analysis and bone remodelling by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Hip function and the health-related quality of life were assessed using the Harris hip score and the EuroQol-5D. Up to six weeks post-operatively there was a mean subsidence of 0.2 mm (-2.1 to +0.5) and a retroversion of a mean of 1.2° (-8.2° to +1.5°). No component migrated after three months. The patients had a continuous loss of peri-prosthetic bone which amounted to a mean of 16% (-49% to +10%) at two years. The mean Harris hip score was 82 (51 to 100) after two years. The two-year results from this pilot study indicate that this new, uncemented femoral component can be used for elderly patients with osteoporotic fractures of the femoral neck.

  11. Delayed fixation of displaced type II and III pediatric femoral neck fractures

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Md Quamar; Iraqi, AA; Sherwani, MKA; Abbas, M; Alam, Afzal; Sabir, Amir Bin; Asif, Naiyer

    2009-01-01

    Background: Time from injury to fixation of femoral neck fractures has been postulated as a vital determinant for rate of complications; however, no prospective study is available in the English literature. Delay, unfortunately, is inevitable in developing countries. The aim of the present study is to retrospectively review the outcome after delayed fixation of displaced type II and III femoral neck fractures in children. Materials and Methods: Using a standard assessment chart, we retrospectively reviewed medical records of all pediatric patients having femoral neck fractures presenting to our institution from June 1999 to May 2006. Inclusion criteria were children between 5 and 15 years of age sustaining displaced Delbet type II and III femoral neck fractures having a complete follow-up of at least 2 years. Patients with known metabolic disease, poliomyelitis or cerebral palsy, were excluded from the study. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 22 patients having 22 fractures (13 type II and 9 type III) were studied. Surgery could be performed after a mean delay of 11.22 days (ranging from 2 to 21 days). Closed reduction was achieved in 14 cases and 8 cases required open reduction through anterolateral approach. Result: Osteonecrosis was noted in eight patients (36.37%) who included two of nine patients (22.22%) operated in the first week, three of eight patients (37.51%) operated in the second week, and three of five patients (60%) operated in the third week of injury. Nonunion was seen in four (18.18%) cases, and two of them were associated with failure of implants. One was treated by valgus osteotomy and the other by Meyer's procedure. Fractures united in both children but the latter developed avascular necrosis. Functional results, as assessed using Ratliff's criteria, were good in 14 (63.63%), fair in 2 (9%), and poor in 6 (27.27%) patients. Conclusion: Delay in fixation, type of fracture, and ability to achieve and maintain reduction are

  12. Does Health Reform Change Femoral Neck Fracture Care? A Natural Experiment in the State of Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Andrew J; Weaver, Michael J; Power, Robyn K; Harris, Mitchel B

    2015-11-01

    To determine whether hospital processes and hospital quality associated with the care of femoral neck fractures were significantly altered by the implementation of healthcare reform in Massachusetts. Pre-post retrospective study. Massachusetts Statewide Inpatient Dataset (SID). Patients treated for femoral neck fracture (n = 23,485) in the periods prehealth (2003-06) and posthealth reform (2008-10). Differences in hospital processes for fracture care and quality measures were assessed for the periods before and after health reform. Differences in hospital processes for fracture care (type of surgical intervention, length of stay, and discharge disposition) and quality metrics [mortality, complications, re-operation, and failure to rescue (FTR)] in the periods before and after health reform were assessed using regression techniques to adjust for differences in case mix and the type of surgical intervention. There were no significant differences in the type of surgical intervention performed prereform and postreform (P = 0.27). After adjustment for case mix and surgical intervention, length of stay was significantly reduced {regression coefficient -0.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), -0.09 to -0.06]} as were the odds of FTR [odds ratio 0.73 (95% CI, 0.59-0.92)]. Discharges to skilled nursing facilities significantly increased in the postreform period [relative risk ratio 1.15 (95% CI, 1.03-1.30)]. Findings associated with FTR were driven by changes in the detection of surveillance sensitive complications. Health reform in Massachusetts led to no clinically meaningful differences in hospital processes for femoral neck fracture care. Although some differences in quality measures were noted, these cannot necessarily be attributed to health care reform.

  13. Reversed Contralateral LISS Plate for Vancouver B1 Periprosthetic Femoral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Russo, Matthew; Malekzadeh, A Stephen; Hampton, Chadwick; Hymes, Robert; Schwartzbach, Cary; Schulman, Jeffrey

    2015-06-01

    The authors reviewed all patients treated for periprosthetic femur fractures between March 1, 2007, and January 31, 2010 at the senior author's institution. Demographic features, mechanism of injury, radiographs, and computed tomography scans were reviewed to determine the type and stability of the femoral implant at the time of injury. All Vancouver B1 fractures were treated with a novel technique that used a contoured distal femoral locking plate intended for the contralateral femur and reversed to accommodate the ipsilateral femoral bow and contour of the proximal femur. Fixation was achieved around the implant with percutaneously placed unicortical and/or bicortical screws. Radiographs were reviewed for fracture healing, malunion, implant failure, and prosthetic loosening. Fifteen patients were identified and underwent the procedure as described. One patient died soon after surgery of complications from a ruptured preexisting esophageal ulcer. Of the remaining 14 patients, the average duration of follow-up was 25 months (range, 6-31 months). Two patients did not achieve union; however, repeat interpretation of the presenting radiographs showed likely misdiagnosed Vancouver B2 fractures. The first patient had late aseptic loosening and underwent revision surgery 22 weeks postoperatively. The other had early loss of fixation that required revision with a long stem prosthesis. Other complications included 1 deep venous thrombosis and 2 superficial wound infections. The infections were successfully treated with a single formal irrigation and debridement, primary closure, and a short course of oral antibiotics. Ultimately, in 86% of patients (12/14), fracture healing occurred with this biologically friendly technique. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. [Treatment of type C3 distal femoral fractures with double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-Min; Liu, Jian; Huang, Chun-Xia; Zhao, Zhan-Fu; Wang, Gang; Qin, Cong-Cong

    2012-12-01

    To investigate clinical efficacy and feasibility of double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach in treating type C3 distal femoral fractures. From August 2008 to August 2011, 12 cases with type C3 distal femoral fractures were treated, including 5 open fractures and 7 closed fractures. Among them, there were 8 males, 4 females with an average of 40 years (ranged, 25 to 55 years). There were 7 in left side, 5 in right side. Nine cases were caused by car accident, 3 cases by falling down. The duration from injury to hospital was form 20 minutes to 5 days (mean 135 min). After tibia bone traction for 5 to 8 days, the operation were performed by double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach, and autograft of iliac bone or allograft bone grafting were given to bone defect. Knee joint function was evaluated according to Merchanetal criteria. The operation time was from 110 to 160 min, with an average of 135 min, the blood loss was from 300 ml to 500 ml,with an average of 400 ml. Post-operative wound were stage I healing. All patients were followed up from 16 to 36 months (mean 24 months). No infection, reduction loss, nonunion, deep vein thrombosis occurred. Bone healing time was for 18 to 24 weeks with an average of 21 weeks. According to the Merchanetal criteria, 4 cases got excellent results, 6 good, 1 fair and 1 poor. Double-plating fixation via anteriormiddle approach for type C3 distal femoral fractures is an effective way, which has advantages of obvious exposure, simple manipulation, anatomical reduction, stable fixation. However,operation indications and operating instructions should be strictly followed.

  15. Femoral neck's fracture in Fahr's Syndrome: case report.

    PubMed

    Sallì, Marcello; D'Arienzo, Antonio; Bonanno, Mariella; Morello, Salvatore; Sanfilippo, Antonino; Mauro, Giulia Letizia; D'Arienzo, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Fahr's syndrome, also known as "Bilateral Striopallidodentate Calcinosis" (BSPDC) primitive, is a rare neurological disease characterized by the presence of idiopathic, bilateral, symmetrical and abnormal deposition of calcium in areas of the brain that control movements including the basal ganglia, dentate nuclei of the cerebellum, nuclei of thalamus and semi-oval center. We describe a case of a 76-year-old male patient underwent reduction and fixation of a subtrochanteric fracture with intramedullary nail. During post-operative rehabilitation therapists's patient management was difficult due to obvious extrapyramidal symptoms characterized by dysarthria, rigidity, bradykinesia, postural instability. A CT scan, performed for the onset of stiffness and confusion before the operation, showed: IV ventricle eumorphic and in axis; expansion in atrophic sense of supratentorial ventricular system; bilateral, diffuse and coarse calcifications of the basal ganglia in the cerebellar and occipital cortex, elements compatible with Fahr's syndrome. The patient presented repeated postural instability episodes in the upright position, with loss balance tendency and recurrent falls. Fahr's syndrome patient is a "weak" patient, which requires a multi-disciplinary approach in order to prevent the mobility reduction, to improve the condition of postural instability, thus reducing the risk of fractures using preventive measures in domestic environment.

  16. Relationship between change in femoral neck bone mineral density and hip fracture incidence during treatment with strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    Bruyère, O; Roux, C; Badurski, J; Isaia, G; de Vernejoul, M C; Cannata, J; Ortolani, S; Slosman, D; Detilleux, J; Reginster, J-Y

    2007-12-01

    Strontium ranelate (SR) increases bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal osteoporotic women and reduces vertebral and non-vertebral fracture incidence. Hip fracture reduction has also been observed during 3-year treatment with SR in osteoporotic women at high risk of hip fracture. The objective of this study is to analyse the association between BMD changes and hip fracture incidence during treatment with SR. In this post-hoc analysis, 465 women aged over 74 years with low BMD at the femoral neck (T-score < or = -2.4 according to NHANES normative values) were selected from the population of a recently published study (the Treatment of Peripheral Osteoporosis Study - TROPOS). BMD was assessed at the femoral neck at baseline and after a follow-up of 3 years. Hip fractures were reported by study investigators. After adjusting for age, body mass index, femoral neck BMD at baseline and number of prevalent vertebral fractures, we found that for each 1% increase in femoral neck BMD observed after 3 years, the risk to experience a hip fracture after 3 years decreased by 7% (95% CI: 1-14%) (p = 0.04). In patients experiencing a hip fracture over 3 years of treatment with SR, femoral neck BMD increased by (mean [SE]) 3.41 (1.02)% compared to 7.23 (0.81)% in patients without hip fracture (p = 0.02). In this post-hoc analysis of women undergoing 3 years of SR treatment, an increase in femoral neck BMD is associated with a decrease in hip fracture incidence.

  17. Influence of time to surgery on the incidence of complications in femoral neck fracture treated with cannulated screws.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Thiego Pedro Freitas; Guimaraes, Tales Mollica; Andrade-Silva, Fernando Brandao; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Dos Santos

    2014-11-01

    Osteosynthesis of femoral neck fractures is particularly indicated in patients aged under 60 years. A prolonged interval between the fracture and surgical fixation has been associated with avascular necrosis (AVN) of the femoral head. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the association between the time to surgery and the development of complications in patients with femoral neck fractures. Patients with displaced fractures of the femoral neck (Garden III or IV) who underwent fixation with three cannulated screws in the inverted triangle configuration from January 2009 to December 2010 were evaluated retrospectively for the development of orthopaedic complications. Patients were divided into two groups according to the time to surgery (within 7 days or more than 7 days). Complication rates were compared between the two groups. Regression analyses were performed to assess the risk factors for complications. Thirty-one patients were included in the study; the duration of follow-up ranged from 24 to 50 months. The time from fracture to surgery ranged from 3 to 18 days. Fifteen patients underwent surgery within 7 days, and 16 patients underwent surgery after 7 days. There were four cases of femoral head necrosis. One patient had an associated infection; one patient experienced non-union, and another demonstrated osteosynthesis failure. There were no statistically significant differences in the overall rate of complications between the groups (p = 0.999). None of the preoperative parameters or fracture characteristics were predictive factors for complications. The only factor associated with the development of complications was inadequate fracture reduction in the anteroposterior (AP) view (odds ratio [OR] = 35.50, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.56 to 548.36, p = 0.008). The interval between the occurrence of the injury and surgical fixation is not associated with the development of complications in fractures of the femoral neck. Inadequate fracture

  18. Muscle function and functional outcome following standard antegrade reamed intramedullary nailing of isolated femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Helmy, Nader; Jando, Victor T; Lu, Thomas; Chan, Holman; O'Brien, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the functional outcomes and long-term effects on muscle strength of femoral shaft fractures treated with intramedullary (IM) antegrade nailing using a standard piriformis start point. Retrospective Outcome Study. Tertiary Level Teaching Hospital and Referral Centre for the Province of British Columbia. Twenty-one patients (7 female, 14 male; mean age 34.5 years, range 16-56 years) with isolated femoral shaft fractures who were treated with standard antegrade reamed interlocking IM nailing and who had a minimum 1-year follow-up were identified through the Orthopaedic Trauma Database. All patients had isokinetic muscle testing of their hip abductors, hip extensors, and knee extensors using the KinCom muscle testing machine. Of the patients, 10 underwent formal gait lab analysis. All of the patients answered a questionnaire and completed the Short Form (SF)-36 and Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment outcome measures. Antegrade reamed interlocking IM nailing of femoral shaft fractures using a standard trochanteric fossa (also referred to as piriformis fossa) starting point. Examination of muscle strength, using 2 different objective measures (KinCom and gait analysis). The KinCom muscle testing machine was used for isokinetic muscle testing of hip abductors, hip extensors, and knee extensors. Outcome questionnaires were used to evaluate function (Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment) and general health (SF-36). Isokinetic muscle testing showed a statistically significant lower peak torque generation by the hip abductors (P=0.003) and hip extensors (P=0.046) from the uninjured contralateral side. The gait lab analysis did not show important changes in gait pattern. Scores for the SF-36 were 51.77+/-7.55 and 53.73+/-8.70. Scores for the Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (S-MFA) were 7.74 and 8.66. Both scores did not indicate any significant disability. Antegrade reamed interlocking IM nailing of femoral shaft fractures using a standard

  19. Critical factors in cut-out complication after gamma nail treatment of proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The most common mechanical failure in the internal fixation of trochanteric hip fractures is the cut-out of the sliding screw through the femoral head. Several factors that influence this complication have been suggested, but there is no consensus as to the relative importance of each factor. The purpose of this study was to analyse the cut-out complication with respect to the following variables: patients’ age, fracture type, fracture reduction, implant positioning and implant design. Methods 3066 consecutive patients were treated for trochanteric fractures with Gamma Nails between 1990 and 2002 at the Centre de Traumatologie et de l`Orthopedie (CTO), Strasbourg, France. Cut-out complications were identified by reviewing all available case notes and radiographs. Subsequently, the data were analysed by a single reviewer (AJB) with focus on the studied factors. Results Seventy-one cut-out complications were found (2.3%) of the 3066 trochanteric fractures. Cut-out failure associated with avascular head necrosis, pathologic fracture, deep infection or secondary to prior failure of other implants were excluded from the study (14 cases). The remaining 57 cases (1.85 %, median age 82.6, 79% females) were believed to have a biomechanical explanation for the cut-out failure. 41 patients had a basicervical or complex fracture type. A majority of cut-outs (43 hips, 75%) had a combination of the critical factors studied; non-anatomical reduction, non-optimal lag screw position and the characteristic fracture pattern found. Conclusions The primary cut-out rate of 1.85% was low compared with the literature. A typical cut-out complication in our study is represented by an unstable fracture involving the trochanteric and cervical regions or the combination of both, non-anatomical reduction and non-optimal screw position. Surgeons confronted with proximal femoral fractures should carefully scrutinize preoperative radiographs to assess the primary fracture geometry and

  20. An Effective Approach for Optimization of a Composite Intramedullary Nail for Treating Femoral Shaft Fractures.

    PubMed

    Samiezadeh, Saeid; Tavakkoli Avval, Pouria; Fawaz, Zouheir; Bougherara, Habiba

    2015-12-01

    The high stiffness of conventional intramedullary (IM) nails may result in stress shielding and subsequent bone loss following healing in long bone fractures. It can also delay union by reducing compressive loads at the fracture site, thereby inhibiting secondary bone healing. This paper introduces a new approach for the optimization of a fiber-reinforced composite nail made of carbon fiber (CF)/epoxy based on a combination of the classical laminate theory, beam theory, finite-element (FE) method, and bone remodeling model using irreversible thermodynamics. The optimization began by altering the composite stacking sequence and thickness to minimize axial stiffness, while maximizing torsional stiffness for a given range of bending stiffnesses. The selected candidates for the seven intervals of bending stiffness were then examined in an experimentally validated FE model to evaluate their mechanical performance in transverse and oblique femoral shaft fractures. It was found that the composite nail having an axial stiffness of 3.70 MN and bending and torsional stiffnesses of 70.3 and 70.9 N⋅m², respectively, showed an overall superiority compared to the other configurations. It increased compression at the fracture site by 344.9 N (31%) on average, while maintaining fracture stability through an average increase of only 0.6 mm (49%) in fracture shear movement in transverse and oblique fractures when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. The long-term results obtained from the bone remodeling model suggest that the proposed composite IM nail reduces bone loss in the femoral shaft from 7.9% to 3.5% when compared to a conventional titanium-alloy nail. This study proposes a number of practical guidelines for the design of composite IM nails.

  1. Trochanteric fragility fractures : Treatment using the cement-augmented proximal femoral nail antirotation.

    PubMed

    Neuerburg, C; Mehaffey, S; Gosch, M; Böcker, W; Blauth, M; Kammerlander, C

    2016-06-01

    Use of standardized cement augmentation of the proximal femur nail antirotation (PFNA) for the treatment of trochanteric fragility fractures, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality, to achieve safer conditions for immediate full weight-bearing and mobilization, thus, improving preservation of function and independency of orthogeriatric patients. Trochanteric fragility fractures (type 31-A1-3). Ipsilateral arthritis of the hip, leakage of contrast agent into the hip joint, femoral neck fractures. Reduction of the fracture on a fracture table if possible, or minimally invasive open reduction of the proximal femur, i. e., using collinear forceps if necessary. Positioning of guidewires for adjustment of the PFNA and the spiral blade, respectively. Exclusion of leakage of contrast agent and subsequent injection of TRAUMACEM™ V(+) into the femoral head-neck fragment via a trauma needle kit introduced into the spiral blade. Dynamic or static locking of the PFNA at the diaphyseal level. Immediate mobilization of the patients with full weight-bearing and secondary prevention, such as osteoporosis management is necessary to avoid further fractures in the treatment of these patients. A total of 110 patients older than 65 years underwent the procedure. Of the 72 patients available for follow-up (average age 85.3 years), all fractures healed after an average of 15.3 months. No complications related with cement augmentation were observed. Approximately 60 % of patients achieved the mobility level prior to trauma.

  2. Fracture of the cobalt-chromium modular femoral neck component in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mencière, M-L; Amouyel, T; Taviaux, J; Bayle, M; Laterza, C; Mertl, P

    2014-09-01

    Total hip prostheses using cervico-metaphyseal modularity were designed to better replicate the geometry of the native extra-medullary femur. However, they are associated with numerous complications including corrosion, disassembly, pseudotumours and, most notably, fractures of the modular neck. All reported cases of modular neck fractures occurred with titanium components (Ti-6Al-4V). To prevent this weakness, manufacturers developed modular necks made of cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr). We report a fracture of a long, 8° varus, Co-Cr modular neck connected to a 36-mm short (-3.5mm) femoral head. The fracture occurred 22 months post-implantation in a woman who had a low level of physical activity and a body mass index of 28.7 kg/m(2). To our knowledge, this case is the first reported instance of Co-Cr modular neck fracture. It may challenge the wisdom of further developing this modularity design, as our patient had none of the known risk factors for modular neck fracture. In addition, cases of pseudotumour have been reported with Co-Cr modular necks subjected to fretting corrosion, which contributed to the fracture in our patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Bilateral femoral insuffiency fractures treated with inflatable intramedullary nails: a case report.

    PubMed

    Demiralp, Bahtiyar; Ilgan, Seyfettin; Ozgur Karacalioglu, A; Cicek, Engin Ilker; Yildrim, Duzgun; Erler, Kaan

    2007-09-01

    Stress fractures could be classified as fatigue fractures and insufficiency fractures (IF). Fatigue fractures occur when abnormal mechanical stress is applied to a normal bone, on the other hand insufficiency fractures occur when normal to moderate pressure is applied to a bone that has decreased resistance (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). IF have been observed mainly in patients with postmenopausal osteoporosis, and are becoming more common with the increase of elderly population (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992). Other systemic and metabolic conditions that can result in osteopenia and IF include osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, rheumatoid arthritis, fluoride treatment, diabetes mellitus, fibrous dysplasia, Paget's disease, irradiation and mechanical factors (Daffner and Pavlov in Am J Radiol 159:242-245, 1992; Soubrier et al. in Joint Bone Spine 70:209-218, 2003; Epps et al. in Am J Orthop 33:457-460, 2004; Austin and Chrissos in Orthopedics 28:795-797, 2005). In this case report, the authors present an osteoporotic woman who developed bilateral insufficiency fracture of the femoral shaft after longstanding steroid, thyroxine replacement and alendronate therapy due to partial empty sella syndrome and osteoporosis, resulting in the treatment of the fracture by inflatable intramedullary nailing.

  4. Augmentation by cerclage wire improves fixation of vertical shear femoral neck fractures-A biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Fa-Chuan; Yeh, Ming-Long; Hong, Chih-Kai; Chiang, Florence L; Jou, I-Ming; Wang, Ping-Hui; Su, Wei-Ren

    2016-10-01

    Femoral neck fractures in young individuals are typically vertical shear fractures. These injuries are difficult to stabilize due to a significant varus displacement force across the hip with weight bearing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical stability offered by the addition of an augmented wire to conventional inverted triangle triple screw fixation for stabilizing vertical shear femoral neck fracture. Sixteen medium 4th-generation synthetic composite femurs (Sawbones Pacific Research Laboratories, Vashon, WA) were divided into two groups. Vertical osteotomy was performed to mimic Pauwels III femoral neck fracture. Group A (n=8) was fixed with three parallel 6.5-mm cannulated screws (Stryker) with washer in inverted triangle configuration. In group B (n=8), all the screws were set using methods identical to group A, with the addition of the cerclage wire. Both groups were tested with nondestructive axial compression test at 7 and 25° of valgus stress, respectively. Then axial cyclic loading test with 1000N was applied for 1000 cycles, and interfragmentary displacement was measured with Fastrak magnetic tracking system (Polhemus, Colchester, VT, USA). Finally, destructive axial compression test was conducted at 7°of valgus stress. Axial stiffness showed that group B had a 66% increase (879N/mm vs. 1461N/mm, P<0.01) at 7° valgus and a 46% increase (1611N/mm vs. 2349N/mm, P<0.01) at 25° valgus in comparison with group A. Interfragmentary fracture displacement after cyclic loading was significantly less for group B compared with group A (0.34 vs 0.13mm, P=0.0016). For axial failure load, there was 42% increase in group B compared with group A (2602N/mm vs. 3686N/mm, P=0.0023). Our study demonstrates that the addition of a cerclage wire to inverted triangle triple screws provides substantial improvement in mechanical performance regarding fixation of vertically oriented femoral neck fractures when compared with the conventional construct

  5. Reamed versus unreamed intramedullary nailing for the treatment of femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Li, A-Bing; Zhang, Wei-Jiang; Guo, Wei-Jun; Wang, Xin-Hua; Jin, Hai-Ming; Zhao, You-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and objective: Intramedullary nailing is commonly used for treating femoral shaft fractures, one of the most common long bone fractures in adults. The reamed intramedullary nail is considered the standard implant for femoral fractures. This meta-analysis was performed to verify the superiority of reamed intramedullary nailing over unreamed intramedullary nailing in fractures of the femoral shaft in adults. Subgroup analysis of implant failure and secondary procedure was also performed. Methods: Electronic literature databases were used to identify relevant publications and included MEDLINE (Ovid interface), EMBASE (Ovid interface), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Wiley Online Library). The versions available on January 30, 2016, were utilized. Only human studies, which were designed as randomized controlled clinical trials, were included. Two authors independently evaluated the quality of original research publications and extracted data from the studies that met the criteria. Results: Around 8 randomized controlled trials involving 1078 patients were included. Reamed intramedullary nailing was associated with shorter time to consolidation of the fracture (SMD = –0.62, 95% CI = –0.89 to –0.35, P < 0.00001), lower secondary procedure rate (OR = 0.25, 95% CI 0.10–0.62, P = 0.003), lower nonunion rate (OR = 0.14, 95% CI = 0.05–0.40, P < 0.01), and lower delayed-union rate (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.07–0.49, P < 0.01) compared to unreamed intramedullary nailing. The 2 groups showed no significant differences in risk of implant failure (OR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.14–1.74, P = 0.27), mortality risk (OR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.19–4.68, P = 0.94), risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; OR = 1.55, 95% CI 0.36–6.57, P = 0.55), or blood loss (SMD = 0.57, 95% CI = –0.22 to 1.36, P = 0.15). Conclusion: Reamed intramedullary nailing

  6. Twenty-Year Experience with Rigid Intramedullary Nailing of Femoral Shaft Fractures in Skeletally Immature Patients.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Samuel N; Kim, Elliott J; Koehler, Daniel M; Rohmiller, Michael T; Mencio, Gregory A; Green, Neil E; Lovejoy, Steven A; Schoenecker, Jonathan G; Martus, Jeffrey E

    2014-07-02

    Debate exists over the safety of rigid intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures in skeletally immature patients. The goal of this study was to describe functional outcomes and complication rates of rigid intramedullary nailing in pediatric patients. A retrospective review was performed of femoral shaft fractures in skeletally immature patients treated with trochanteric rigid intramedullary nailing from 1987 to 2009. Radiographs made at initial injury, immediately postoperatively, and at the latest follow-up were reviewed. Patients were administered the Nonarthritic Hip Score and a survey. The study population of 241 patients with 246 fractures was primarily male (75%) with a mean age of 12.9 years (range, eight to seventeen years). The majority of fractures were closed (92%) and associated injuries were common (45%). The mean operative time was 119 minutes, and the mean estimated blood loss was 202 mL. The mean clinical follow-up time was 16.2 months (range, three to seventy-nine months), and there were ninety-three patients with a minimum two-year clinical and radiographic follow-up. An increase of articulotrochanteric distance of >5 mm was noted in 15.1% (fourteen of ninety-three patients) at a minimum two-year follow-up; however, clinically relevant growth disturbance was only observed in two patients (2.2%) with the development of asymptomatic coxa valga. There was no femoral head osteonecrosis. Among the 246 fractures, twenty-four complications (9.8%) occurred. At the time of the latest follow-up, 1.7% (four of 241 patients) reported pain. The average Nonarthritic Hip Score was 92.4 points (range, 51 to 100 points), and 100% of patients reported satisfaction with their treatment. Rigid intramedullary nailing is an effective technique for treatment of femoral shaft fractures in pediatric patients with an acceptable rate of complications. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. Copyright

  7. Location of atypical femoral fracture can be determined by tensile stress distribution influenced by femoral bowing and neck-shaft angle: a CT-based nonlinear finite element analysis model for the assessment of femoral shaft loading stress.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yoto; Fujita, Koji; Wakabayashi, Yoshiaki; Kurosa, Yoshiro; Okawa, Atsushi

    2017-09-27

    Loading stress due to individual variations in femoral morphology is thought to be strongly associated with the pathogenesis of atypical femoral fracture (AFF). In Japan, studies on AFF regarding pathogenesis in the mid-shaft are well-documented and a key factor in the injury is thought to be femoral shaft bowing deformity. Thus, we developed a CT-based finite element analysis (CT/FEA) model to assess distribution of loading stress in the femoral shaft. A multicenter prospective study was performed at 12 hospitals in Japan from August 2015 to February 2017. We assembled three study groups-the mid-shaft AFF group (n=12), the subtrochanteric AFF group (n=10), and the control group (n=11)-and analyzed femoral morphology and loading stress in the femoral shaft by nonlinear CT/FEA. Femoral bowing in the mid-shaft AFF group was significantly greater (lateral bowing, p<0.0001; anterior bowing, p<0.01). Femoral neck-shaft angle in the subtrochanteric AFF group was significantly smaller (p<0.001). On CT/FEA, both the mid-shaft and subtrochanteric AFF group showed maximum tensile stress located adjacent to the fracture site. Quantitatively, there was a correlation between femoral bowing and the ratio of tensile stress, which was calculated between the mid-shaft and subtrochanteric region (lateral bowing, r=0.6373, p<0.0001; anterior bowing, r=-0.5825, p<0.001). CT/FEA demonstrated that tensile stress by loading stress can cause AFF. The location of AFF injury could be determined by individual stress distribution influenced by femoral bowing and neck-shaft angle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Bilateral avascular necrosis of the femoral head following asynchronous postictal femoral neck fractures: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Venkatadass, K; Avinash, M; Rajasekaran, S

    2017-03-31

    Bilateral avascular necrosis (AVN) following postictal bilateral fracture neck of the femur is a rare occurrence. Here, we report a case of bilateral AVN of the femoral head following an asynchronous bilateral postictal fracture neck of the femur. A 16-year-old autistic boy presented with left hip pain following an episode of seizures and radiographs showed Delbet type II fracture neck of the left femur. This was treated by closed reduction and cancellous screw fixation and skeletal traction for 6 weeks. At 3 months, follow-up radiograph showed union of the fracture, but he had developed segmental AVN with collapse of the head. At 8 months, the patient presented with pain in the right hip following another episode of seizures and radiograph of the pelvis showed a fresh Delbet type II fracture neck of the right femur with established AVN of the left femoral head. He underwent closed reduction and cancellous screw fixation of the right hip and implant exit of the left hip. At the 6-month follow-up after this surgery, his radiograph of the pelvis showed AVN with collapse and extrusion of the femoral head on the right side as well. Literature review shows an increased risk of fracture neck of the femur among epileptics. The incidence of AVN is maximum in Delbet type I, followed by Delbet type II and type III in that order. Although there are no clear guidelines on the management of post-traumatic AVN of the femoral head, the majority have reported that most of them will eventually develop arthritis and will require total hip replacement at a later date. Upon extensive literature search, no case report of bilateral fracture neck of the femur with bilateral AVN was found and hence this case was reported.

  9. [Treatment of periprosthetic femoral fractures after total hip arthroplasty with specially constructed retrograde hollow nails].

    PubMed

    Szalay, G; Meyer, C; Mika, J; Schnettler, R; Thormann, U

    2014-12-01

    Treatment of periprosthetic fractures by implantation of a specially constructed, retrograde hollow nail which fits over the tip of the prosthesis and becomes locked on it. Periprosthetic femoral fractures with firmly anchored prosthesis shaft after total hip arthroplasty of types B1 and C according to the Vancouver classification. Loosened prosthesis (type B2/B3) and trochanteric fractures (type A). Broken or damaged prosthesis, florid inflammation and soft tissue injuries in the operation field, contracted knee joint, advanced deformation in the knee joint and distal femur, enclosed prosthesis and general contraindications. In a supine position the periprosthetic fracture is exposed via a lateral access. For cemented prostheses the cement is removed around the tip of the prosthesis (at least 2-3 cm) and medullary cavity. Arthrotomy with flexion of the knee joint and marking of the nail entry point. Drill the medullary cavity, retrograde introduction of the nail, visually fit the nail over the tip of the prosthesis and lock the nail with the prosthesis. If necessary use additional spongiosaplasty or also placement of additional cerclages depending on fracture type and size of the defect zone. Lock the nail distally. Use intraoperative radiological imaging to control correct positioning and length of the nail. Close the wound layer by layer with placement of suction drainage devices and dressing. Partial loading for 6 weeks with a subsequent pain-adapted loading gradient until full loading is possible. If selective partial loading is not possible, a decision must be made in individual cases as to whether the intraoperative findings allow immediate full loading. From 2004 to 2011 a total of 25 periprosthetic femoral fractures in 25 patients were treated in 2 locations using specially constructed slotted hollow nails. Within the framework of a retrospective study 20 of these patients (16 female and 4 male; average age 77.2 [72-84] years) were clinically and

  10. The Intramedullary Nailing of Adult Femoral Shaft Fracture by the Way of Open Reduction is a Disadvantage or Not?

    PubMed

    Burç, Halil; Atay, Tolga; Demirci, Demir; Baykal, Y Barbaros; Kirdemir, Vecihi; Yorgancigil, Hüseyin

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is that to evaluate superiority and results of open technique in the treatment of femoral shaft fracture with interlocking intramedullary nailing. The retrospective study is designed to evaluate results of our technique. In this study, the patients that were admitted to the Orthopedics and Traumatology Department of University Hospital that is third level of trauma center. We claim that open technique is not a disadvantage during union process over closed technique in treatment of femoral shaft fracture with interlocking nailing. In this study, 44 patients that were consulted for adult femoral shaft fracture between January 2008 to July 2010 were included. Patients with open fractures, gunshot wounds, neurovascular injuries, and patients that did not have isolated femoral diaphysis fractures were excluded from the study. Clinical and radiological results of the patients were checked periodically. The open interlocking intramedullary nailing was used in treatment. Complete union rate was 90.9 % in 40 patients who were treated with open interlocking intramedullary nailing for adult femoral shaft fracture, and nonunion rate was 9.1 % in four patients. Mean union time was 18.3 weeks (12-36 weeks). Evaluation of 44 patients according to Thoresen criteria was excellent in 22 patients, good in 6 patients, and bad in 4 patients. We think that open technique is an acceptable technique because all results of our study were similar to results of closed intramedullary nailing technique in literature and some advantages of open technique over closed technique.

  11. Progression of a Fracture Site Impaction as a Prognostic Indicator of Impacted Femoral Neck Fracture Treated with Multiple Pinning

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup

    2012-01-01

    Background We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. Methods There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. Results There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p < 0.001). There was also a significant mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p < 0.001). Conclusions Primary stabilization with Knowles pins for impacted femoral neck fractures had a reasonable clinical outcome with low morbidity. Despite a significant difference of a mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant. PMID:22379557

  12. Progression of a fracture site impaction as a prognostic indicator of impacted femoral neck fracture treated with multiple pinning.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Shin, Young Ho; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2012-03-01

    We evaluated the clinical and radiologic results of impacted femoral neck fractures treated with multiple pinning and determined the influence of the progression of impaction at the fracture site on clinical outcome. There were 34 patients with a mean age of 65.5 years. The mean follow-up period was 3.4 years. Progression of fracture site impaction was measured using an articulo-trochanteric distance index and the percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between follow-up intervals. The failure of treatment was clarified as non-union and avascular necrosis. Other characteristics of the patients, including mean waiting time for surgery, preoperative Singh index score, and body mass index, were also measured to evaluate the influence on the clinical outcome of surgery. There were 6 fractures which were not treated successfully (3 non-union, 8.8% and 3 avascular necrosis, 8.8%). The mean percentage decrease of the articulo-trochanteric distance index within the first 6 weeks after surgery was 4.5% in the successful group and 25.1% in the failure group (p < 0.001). There was also a significant mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between 6 weeks and 3 months (p < 0.001). Primary stabilization with Knowles pins for impacted femoral neck fractures had a reasonable clinical outcome with low morbidity. Despite a significant difference of a mean percentage decrease in the articulo-trochanteric distance index between the successful group and the failure group, we could not verify it as a risk factor for failure of treatment because the odds ratio was not statistically significant.

  13. Ketorolac Administered in the Recovery Room for Acute Pain Management Does Not Affect Healing Rates of Femoral and Tibial Fractures.

    PubMed

    Donohue, David; Sanders, Drew; Serrano-Riera, Rafa; Jordan, Charles; Gaskins, Roger; Sanders, Roy; Sagi, H Claude

    2016-09-01

    To determine whether ketorolac administered in the immediate perioperative period affects the rate of nonunion in femoral and tibial shaft fractures. Retrospective comparative study. Single Institution, Academic Level 1 Trauma Center. Three hundred and thirteen skeletally mature patients with 137 femoral shaft (OTA 32) and 191 tibial shaft (OTA 42) fractures treated with intramedullary rod fixation. Eighty patients with 33 femoral shaft and 52 tibial shaft fractures were administered ketorolac within the first 24 hours after surgery (group 1-study group). Two-hundred thirty-three patients with 104 femoral shaft and 139 tibial shaft fractures were not (group 2-control group). Rate of reoperation for repair of a nonunion and time to union. Average time to union of the femur was 147 days for group 1 and 159 days for group 2 (P = 0.57). Average time to union of the tibia was 175 days for group 1 and 175 days for group 2 (P = 0.57). There were 3 femoral nonunions (9%) in group 1 and eleven femoral nonunions (11.6%) in group 2 (P = 1.00). There were 3 tibial nonunions (5.8%) in group 1 and 17 tibial nonunions (12.2%) in group 2 (P = 0.29). The average dose of ketorolac for patients who healed their fracture was 85 mg, whereas it was 50 mg for those who did not (P = 0.27). All patients with a nonunion in the study group were current smokers. Ketorolac administered in the first 24 hours after fracture repair for acute pain management does not seem to have a negative impact on time to healing or incidence of nonunion for femoral or tibial shaft fractures. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  14. Exchange nailing for femoral diaphyseal fracture non-unions: Risk factors for failure.

    PubMed

    Tsang, S T J; Mills, L A; Baren, J; Frantzias, J; Keating, J F; Simpson, A H R W

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for failure of exchange nailing for femoral diaphyseal fracture non-unions. The study cohort comprised 40 patients with femoral diaphyseal non-unions treated by exchange nailing, of which six were open injuries. The median time to exchange nailing from primary fixation was 8.4 months. The main outcome measures were union, number of secondary fixation procedures required to achieve union and time to union. Multiple causes for non-union were found in 16 (40%) cases, with infection present in 12 (30.0%) patients. Further surgical procedures were required in nine (22.5%) cases, one of whom (2.5%) required the use of another fixation modality to achieve union. Union was ultimately achieved with exchange nailing in 34/37 (91.9%) patients. The median time to union after the exchange nailing was 9.4 months. Cigarette smoking and infection were risk factors for failure of exchange nailing. Multivariate analysis found infection to be the strongest predictor of exchange failure (p<0.05). Exchange nailing is an effective treatment for aseptic femoral diaphyseal fracture non-union. However, 50% of patients undergoing exchange nailing in the presence of infection required at least one further procedure. It is important to counsel patients of this so that they can plan for it and do not consider that the first exchange operation has failed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of percutaneous pin fixation in the treatment of distal femoral physeal fractures.

    PubMed

    Garrett, B R; Hoffman, E B; Carrara, H

    2011-05-01

    Distal femoral physeal fractures in children have a high incidence of physeal arrest, occurring in a mean of 40% of cases. The underlying nature of the distal femoral physis may be the primary cause, but other factors have been postulated to contribute to the formation of a physeal bar. The purpose of this study was to assess the significance of contributing factors to physeal bar formation, in particular the use of percutaneous pins across the physis. We reviewed 55 patients with a median age of ten years (3 to 13), who had sustained displaced distal femoral physeal fractures. Most (40 of 55) were treated with percutaneous pinning after reduction, four were treated with screws and 11 with plaster. A total of 40 patients were assessed clinically and radiologically after skeletal maturity or at the time of formation of a bar. The remaining 15 were followed up for a minimum of two years. Formation of a physeal bar occurred in 12 (21.8%) patients, with the rate rising to 30.6% in patients with high-energy injuries compared with 5.3% in those with low-energy injuries. There was a significant trend for physeal arrest according to increasing severity using the Salter-Harris classification. Percutaneous smooth pins across the physis were not statistically associated with growth arrest.

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE SEGMENTAL IMPACTION OF FEMORAL HEAD FOLLOWING AN ACETABULAR FRACTURE SURGICALLY MANAGED

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Rodrigo Pereira; Kaleka, Camila Cohen; Cohen, Carina; Daniachi, Daniel; Keiske Ono, Nelson; Honda, Emerson Kiyoshi; Polesello, Giancarlo Cavalli; Riccioli, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Correlate the postoperative radiographic evaluation with variables accompanying acetabular fractures in order to determine the predictive factors for segmental impaction of femoral head. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medial files of patients submitted to open reduction surgery with internal acetabular fixation. Within approximately 35 years, 596 patients were treated for acetabular fractures; 267 were followed up for at least two years. The others were excluded either because their follow up was shorter than the minimum time, or as a result of the lack of sufficient data reported on files, or because they had been submitted to non-surgical treatment. The patients were followed up by one of three surgeons of the group using the Merle d'Aubigné and Postel clinical scales as well as radiological studies. Results: Only tow studied variables-age and amount of postoperative reductionshowed statistically significant correlation with femoral head impaction. Conclusions: The quality of reduction-anatomical or with up to 2mm residual deviation-presents a good radiographic evolution, reducing the potential for segmental impaction of the femoral head, a statistically significant finding. PMID:27004191

  17. [Preliminary analysis of total cost and life quality for elder patients with femoral neck fracture].

    PubMed

    Liu, Haonan; He, Liang; Zhang, Guilin; Gong, Xiaofeng; Li, Ning

    2015-09-01

    To analyze the total cost and life quality of the femoral neck fracture patients who received different surgery and supplement comprehensive data of osteoporotic fracture. One hundred and five patients above 60-year old who were diagnosed femoral neck fracture and received operation in Department of Orthopedics & Traumatology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital were admitted into our study from August 2013 to December. According to the type of surgery there were 52 and 53 cases in internal fixation (IF) group and hemiarthroplasty (HA) group respectively. At first we collected the medical expense of the patients before and during hospitalization. And then the 1-year medical and non-medical expenses were collected by the cost diary ever 3 months after discharge. At the last follow-up we evaluated the life quality by the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) and calculated the total cost. Outcome All the patients completed the operation successfully. No nonunion or delayed union cases in IF group, and no cases received revision surgery in both groups. The total average cost was 59 584.9 yuan including 79.1% medical cost and 20.9% non-medical cost. The primary treatment cost accounts for 84.1% of the medical cost. The cost for home care accounts for 90.7% of the non-medical care. The total and medical cost of IF group just account for 40.3% and 38.5% of the HA group and the non-medical showed no significant difference between the 2 groups (P>0.05). In addition the data of life quality and walking capability also showed no significant difference. The main cost for the femoral neck fracture is medical expense in 1-year follow-up. Both surgeries can provide satisfactory outcome, however IF may be more cost-effective compared to the HA because of the less total cost.

  18. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F.E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Design Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Setting Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and non-academic hospitals Patients Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Intervention None (observatory study) Main outcome measurements Patient characteristics, SF-12, and WOMAC scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Results Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower WOMAC score (median 73 versus 90, P=0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio −8.9 versus 0.4, P=0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median −25.4 versus −20.4 N, P=0.025). Conclusion Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. PMID:24835623

  19. Functional outcome after successful internal fixation versus salvage arthroplasty of patients with a femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Stephanie M; Keijsers, Noël L; Praet, Stephan F E; Heetveld, Martin J; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; Van Lieshout, Esther M M

    2014-12-01

    To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial. Multicenter trial in the Netherlands, including 14 academic and nonacademic hospitals. Patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture were studied. A comparison was made with patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. None (observatory study). Patient characteristics, SF-12, and Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index scores were collected. Gait parameters were measured using plantar pressure measurement. Maximum isometric forces of the hip muscles were measured using a handheld dynamometer. Differences between the fractured and contralateral leg were calculated. Groups were compared using univariate analysis. Of 248 internal fixation patients (median age, 72 years), salvage arthroplasty was performed in 68 patients (27%). Salvage arthroplasty patients had a significantly lower Western Ontario McMaster osteoarthritis index score (median, 73 vs. 90; P = 0.016) than patients who healed uneventfully after internal fixation. Health-related QOL (SF-12) and patient independency did not differ significantly between the groups. Gait analysis showed a significantly impaired progression of the center of pressure in the salvage surgery patients (median ratio, -8.9 vs. 0.4, P = 0.013) and a significant greater loss of abduction strength (median, -25.4 vs. -20.4 N, P = 0.025). Despite a similar level of dependency and QOL, salvage arthroplasty patients have inferior functional outcome than patients who heal after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Therapeutic level III.

  20. [Evaluation of visual functions in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture].

    PubMed

    Oner, Mithat; Oner, Ayşe; Güney, Ahmet; Halici, Mehmet; Arda, Hatice; Bilal, Okkeş

    2009-01-01

    We aimed at assessing the visual functions in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture and to compare the results with age-matched controls in this three-year prospective study. Seventy-one patients with a history of fall related hip fracture (39 females, 32 males; mean age 76.3+/-9.7 years; range 64 to 90 years) and who were diagnosed with femoral neck fracture after direct graphy were treated by means of bipolar partial prosthesis and they were contacted postoperatively or prior to discharge to participate in the study. Visual acuity, depth perception, the presence of cataract in the red reflex were evaluated. A dilated fundus and slit-lamp examination were performed if possible. On completion of the examination, the ophthalmologist documented the causes of any visual impairment found. Control group was comprised of age-matched 40 subjects (22 females, 18 males; mean age 73.2+/-7.6 years; range 62 to 90 years) who applied to ophtalmology clinic for routine examination. The visual acuity was significantly decreased in the patient group as was stereopsis (p<0.05). We found no difference between the study group and the controls when we evaluate the distribution of self reported eye disease and eye disease found on ocular examination. The rate of cases who reported not usually wearing glasses was 35% while it was 5% in the control group. When we evaluate the time since last examination, 38% of cases had not had an eye examination for over four years, as compared with 22.5% of controls. This study shows that elderly people should have their eyes tested at least once every two years, refractive errors should be corrected and eye diseases should be treated to decrease the risk of fall-related femoral neck fractures.

  1. Cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for the treatment of femoral neck fractures?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose Cemented hemiarthroplasty is preferred in treating displaced fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly. The cementing process may cause a fat embolism, leading to serious complications or death. In this study, we wanted to determine whether use of uncemented hemiarthroplasty (HA) would lead to reduced mortality and whether there are differences in the complications associated with these different types of arthroplasty. Patients and methods From the PERFECT database, which combines information from various treatment registries, we identified 25,174 patients who were treated with hemiarthroplasty for a femoral neck fracture in the years 1999–2009. The primary outcome was mortality. Secondary outcomes were reoperations, complications, re-admissions, and treatment times. Results Mortality was lower in the first postoperative days when uncemented HA was used. At 1 week, there was no significant difference in mortality (3.9% for cemented HA and 3.4% for uncemented HA; p = 0.09). This was also true after one year (26% for cemented HA and 27% for uncemented HA; p = 0.1). In patients treated with uncemented HA, there were significantly more mechanical complications (3.7% vs. 2.8%; p < 0.001), hip re-arthroplasties (1.7% vs. 0.95; p < 0.001), and femoral fracture operations (1.2% vs. 0.52%; p < 0.001) during the first 90 days after hip fracture surgery. Interpretation From registry data, mortality appears to be similar for cemented and uncemented HA. However, uncemented HA is associated with more frequent mechanical complications and reoperations. PMID:24397746

  2. Fracture risk in the femoral hip region: A finite element analysis supported experimental approach.

    PubMed

    Tsouknidas, Alexander; Anagnostidis, Kleovoulos; Maliaris, Georgios; Michailidis, Nikolaos

    2012-07-26

    The decrease of bone mineral density (BMD) is a multifactorial bone pathology, commonly referred to as osteoporosis. The subsequent decline of the bone's micro-structural characteristics renders the human skeletal system, and especially the hip, susceptible to fragility fractures. This study represents a systematic attempt to correlate BMD spectrums to the mechanical strength characteristics of the femoral neck and determine a fracture risk indicator based on non-invasive imaging techniques. The BMD of 30 patients' femurs was measured in vivo by Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). As these patients were subjected to total hip replacement, the mechanical strength properties of their femurs' were determined ex-vivo using uniaxial compression experiments. FEA simulations facilitated the correlation of the DXA measurements to the apparent fracture risk, indicating critical strain values during complex loading scenarios. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Femoral neck shaft angle width is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but not independently of femoral neck bone density.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, C; Lisi, L; Avella, M

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the specificity of the neck shaft angle (NSA) to predict hip fracture in males. We consecutively studied 228 males without fracture and 38 with hip fracture. A further 49 males with spine fracture were studied to evaluate the specificity of NSA for hip-fracture prediction. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (FN-BMD), NSA, hip axis length and FN diameter (FND) were measured in each subject by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Between-mean differences in the studied variables were tested by the unpaired t-test. The ability of NSA to predict hip fracture was tested by logistic regression. Compared with controls, FN-BMD (p < 0.01) was significantly lower in both groups of males with fractures, whereas FND (p < 0.01) and NSA (p = 0.05) were higher only in the hip-fracture group. A significant inverse correlation (p < 0.01) was found between NSA and FN-BMD. By age-, height- and weight-corrected logistic regression, none of the tested geometric parameters, separately considered from FN-BMD, entered the best model to predict spine fracture, whereas NSA (p < 0.03) predicted hip fracture together with age (p < 0.001). When forced into the regression, FN-BMD (p < 0.001) became the only fracture predictor to enter the best model to predict both fracture types. NSA is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but is not independent of FN-BMD. The lack of ability of NSA to predict hip fracture in males independent of FN-BMD should depend on its inverse correlation with FN-BMD by capturing, as the strongest fracture predictor, some of the effects of NSA on the hip fracture. Conversely, NSA in females does not correlate with FN-BMD but independently predicts hip fractures.

  4. Periprosthetic fracture around a stable femoral stem treated with locking plate osteosynthesis: distal femoral locking plate alone versus with cerclage cable.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom

    2017-07-01

    To promote rapid bone healing, an adequate stable fixation implant with a percutaneous reduction instrument should be used for Vancouver type B1 or C fractures. The objective of this study was to describe radiographic and clinical outcomes of patients with periprosthetic fracture (PPF) around a stable femoral stem, treated with a distal femoral locking plate alone or with a cerclage cable. A total of 21 patients with PPF amenable to either a reverse distal femoral locking plate (LCP DF(®)) alone or with a cerclage cable, with a mean age of 75.7 years, were included. In these patients, ten fractures were treated with a reverse LCP DF(®) alone and were classified as group I, and 11 additionally received a cerclage cable and were classified as group II. Group II had a significantly longer operation time (P = 0.019) than group I and included one patient with nonunion at the final 24-month follow-up visit after the initial fracture reduction. However, this difference in nonunion rate for the two groups is more likely to inappropriate indications than surgical techniques. When comparing the stability of the fractures in both groups, there was no statistically significant difference, which might be attributed to the stable fixed-angle implant.

  5. Clinical and Functional Outcomes of Treatment for Type A1 Intertrochanteric Femoral Fracture in Elderly Patients: Comparison of Dynamic Hip Screw and Proximal Femoral Nail Antirotation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyujung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate and compare the clinical and functional outcomes of dynamic hip screw (DHS) and proximal femoral nail antirotation (PFNA) treatment of AO type 1 intertrochanteric fractures in elderly patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed 194 consecutive patients with type A1 intertrochanteric femoral fractures who were treated with DHS (n=113) or PFNA (n=81). We evaluated operation time, intraoperative blood loss, and functional outcomes, walking ability, and the Barthel activities index. Fracture union, sliding of hip screw, proximal femur shortening, and presence of complications were assessed radiologically at relevant follow-up intervals. Results The mean operation time and blood loss were significantly lower for the PFNA group, but walking ability and Barthel index decreased to a similar extent for both groups. However, patients in the DHS group complained of significantly more pain (P=0.049). Although there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to the time until fracture union was achieved, patients in the DHS group exhibited a higher extent of proximal femoral shortening and sliding of the hip screw. Differences about hip screw sliding and proximal femur shortening within each subgroup were not significant. Conclusion Compared to DHS treatment, PFNA treatment of type A1 intertrochanteric fractures is associated with reduced blood loss, shorter operation time, and less severe pain after surgery. Additionally, sliding of the hip screw and proximal femur shortening are expected to occur more frequently after DHS. PMID:28097113

  6. A modified technique to extract fractured femoral stem in revision total hip arthroplasty: A report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Akrawi, Hawar; Magra, Merzesh; Shetty, Ajit; Ng, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The removal of well-fixed broken femoral component and cement mantle can be extremely demanding, time consuming and potentially damaging to the host bone. Different methods have been described to extract broken femoral stem yet this remains one of the most challenging prospect to the revision hip surgeon. PRESENTATION OF CASE The authors present two cases underwent a modified sliding cortical window technique utilising a tungsten carbide drill, Charnley pin retractor and an orthopaedic mallet to aid extraction of a fractured cemented femoral stem in revision total hip arthroplasty. DISCUSSION The modified technique offers a simple and controlled method in extracting a well fixed fractured cemented femoral stem. It has the advantage of retaining the cement mantle with subsequent good seal of the femoral cortical window secured with cable ready system. Furthermore, tungsten carbide drill bit and Charnley pin retractor are relatively readily available to aid the extraction of the broken stem. Finally, it yields the option of implanting a standard femoral stem and obviates the need for bypassing the cortical window with long revision femoral component. CONCLUSION Fractured femoral stem is a rare yet a complex and very demanding prospect to both patients and hip surgeons. The sliding cortical window technique utilising tungsten carbide drill and Charnley pin retractor is technically easy and most importantly; preserves host bone stock with cement-in-cement revision hip arthroplasty. We believe this technique can be added to the armamentarium of revision hip surgeon when faced with the challenge of extracting a fractured cemented femoral stem. PMID:24858980

  7. Prognostic value of dynamic MRI positive enhancement integral color mapping in osteosynthesis of undisplaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Yoshinori; Kubo, Takahiro; Sugiura, Kosuke; Tamaki, Yasuaki; Toki, Shunichi; Suganuma, Katsuyoshi; Inoue, Kazumasa; Adachi, Keisuke; Chikawa, Takashi; Sairyo, Koichi; Nagamachi, Akihiro

    2017-07-01

    The common treatment for an undisplaced femoral neck fracture is osteosynthesis. Two major complications of osteosynthesis are non-union and late collapse of the femoral head. We speculated that femoral head perfusion is one of the most important factors that affect the outcome of osteosynthesis after femoral neck fracture. We have preoperatively estimated femoral head perfusion by dynamic MRI positive enhancement integral color mapping (PEICM). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of undisplaced femoral neck fractures based on PEICM. Sixty-eight patients participated in this prospective study. All patients underwent PEICM in a 1.5-Tesla MRI machine using coronal fast spoiled gradient echo imaging sequences with gadopentetate dimeglumine as the contrast agent. Femoral head perfusion was displayed via color mapping using PEICM. Three types were distinguished. For type A, the color was identical to unaffected side indicated normal perfusion. For type B, the color was darker than unaffected side indicated decreased perfusion. For type C, the color was black indicated complete absence of perfusion. All patients underwent osteosynthesis with three cannulated screws. The rates of non-union and late collapse for each type were calculated. Sixteen patients were classified as Type A, 43 as Type B, and 6 as Type C. The non-union rates were 0% for Type A, 6.7% for Type B, and 50.0% for Type C. The late collapse rates were 0% for Type A, 4.4% for Type B, and 0% for Type C. PEICM precisely detected femoral head perfusion. Primary prosthetic replacement should be considered for older patients with Type C to minimize the chances of revision surgery, even in undisplaced femoral neck fractures. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures after Total Hip Replacement: Our Results and Treatment Complications].

    PubMed

    Pavelka, T; Salášek, M; Weisová, D

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The study consists of a retroactive evaluation of results of surgical treatment in patients with periprosthetic femoral fracture after total hip replacement and a comparison with results reported in the literature. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2003 to 2013, a total of 83 patients with periprosthetic femoral fracture after total hip replacement were treated at our clinic, namely 69 women and 14 men. The mean age in the cohort was 74 years (range 47-87). The Vancouver classification was used to grade the fractures. The cohort included 31 patients with type B1 fracture, 25 patients with type B2 fracture, 8 patients with type B3 fracture, and 19 patients with type C fracture. Altogether 80 patients underwent a surgery, 3 patients with non-displaced type B1 fracture were treated conservatively. The mechanism of injury was a simple fall in 75 % of primary endoprostheses and in 56% of revision endoprostheses. The average time to fracture was 7.6 years in primary implant and 3.6 years in revision endoprosthesis. In fractures with a well-fixed stem (type B1 and C) plate osteosynthesis was used. In case of a comminution zone, osteosynthesis was followed by spongioplasty. In patients with a loose stem (type B2 and B3), the fracture was treated with a revision uncemented stem. In two cases a combination of a revision stem and a massive corticocancellous bone graft was used. The evaluation was performed using the Harris Hip Score and the minimum follow-up from the surgery was 3 years. RESULTS In the group of patients with type B1 fracture, 28 patients were treated surgically. An excellent result was achieved in 22 patients (84%), in 4 patients (16%) the result was very good. The remaining 2 patients failed to meet the requirement of the minimum follow-up of 3 years. In the group of patients with type B2 fractures, composed of 25 patients, the femoral component was replaced with a revision uncemented stem with cerclage wires or titanium tapes or

  9. Early mortality and morbidity after total hip arthroplasty in patients with femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Hailer, Nils P; Garland, Anne; Rogmark, Cecilia; Garellick, Göran; Kärrholm, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose — Early postoperative mortality is relatively high after total hip arthroplasty (THA) that has been performed due to femoral neck fracture. However, this has rarely been investigated after adjustment for medical comorbidity and comparison with the mortality in an age-matched population. We therefore assessed early mortality in hip fracture patients treated with a THA, in the setting of a nationwide matched cohort study. Patients and methods — 24,699 patients who underwent THA due to a femoral neck fracture between 1992 and 2012 were matched with 118,518 controls. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was used to calculate cumulative unadjusted survival, and Cox regression models were fitted to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), with adjustment for age, sex, comorbidity, and socioeconomic background. Results — 90-day survival was 96.3% (95% CI: 96.0–96.5) for THA cases and 98.7% (95% CI: 98.6–98.8) for control individuals, giving an adjusted HR of 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0–2.4) for THA cases compared to control individuals. Comorbidity burden increased in THA cases over time, but the adjusted risk of death within 90 days did not differ statistically significantly between the time periods investigated (1992–1998, 1999–2005, and 2006–2012). A Charlson comorbidity index of 3 or more, an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) grade of 3 and above, male sex, an age of 80 years and above, an income below the first quartile, and a lower level of education were all associated with an increased risk of 90-day mortality. Interpretation — The adjusted early mortality in femoral neck fracture patients who underwent THA was about double that in a matched control population. Patients with femoral neck fracture but with no substantial comorbidity and an age of less than 80 years appear to have a low risk of early death. Patients older than 80 years and those with a Charlson comorbidity index of more than 2 have a high

  10. Comparison study between reamed and unreamed nailing of closed femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, K; Saw, K Y; Fathima, M

    2001-12-01

    Intramedullary nailing is an accepted procedures for femoral fractures gives uniformly good results. Various methods of intramedullary fixation have been practiced in the past. Recently intramedullary fixation without reaming has come into vogue. Preservation of the endosteal blood supply, less blood loss and quicker union have been the alleged benefits of not reaming the medullary canal. This study is a prospective randomised study conducted to compare intramedullary nail fixation of closed femoral fractures with and without a reaming procedure to assess the validity of the above assumptions. One hundred and two consecutive cases of skeletally mature patients with closed fracture of femoral shaft were randomised into two groups, i.e. Reamed (52) and Unreamed (50). The average follow-up was 36 weeks (range 28-86 weeks). Average time taken for various stages of the operation and total operating time were longer in the reamed group (109.9 min vs 78.6 min) and the blood loss was also increased (320 mls vs. 190 mls). Bridging and callus formation were seen to occur earlier in the reamed group compared to the unreamed enabling the patients in the reamed group to return to normal functions earlier. Limb length discrepancy and rotational alignment measured clinically and with CT scan did not however show any significant difference between the two methods. Nails used in this study group were notably of a smaller diameter and of shorter length when compared to those used in the western population highlighting the difference in the femur in the Asian population. Complications were notably more in the unreamed group where these were screw breakage (3/50) delayed unions (9/50) and non-unions (4/50). In the reamed group however there were only delayed union (2/50) and all fractures eventually united without any implant failure. We conclude that closed, reamed, antegrade insertion of an intramedullary nail is the treatment of choice in femoral shaft fractures, especially those

  11. Could Patient Undergwent Surgical Treatment for Periprosthetic Femoral Fracture after Hip Arthroplasty Return to Their Status before Trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Long; Lee, Woo-Yong; Kang, Chan; Noh, Chang-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare preoperative clinical outcomes before occurrence of periprosthetic femoral fracture (status before trauma) with postoperative clinical outcomes (status after operation) in patients with periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty. Materials and Methods A retrospective review was performed of all periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty treated surgically at our institution from January 2010 to January 2014. Among 29 patients who underwent surgical treatment for periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty, 3 patients excluded because of non-union of the fracture site. The clinical outcomes were determined by using visual analogue scale for pain (VAS), Harris hip score (HHS), and ambulatory ability using Koval classification. VAS, HHS and ambulatory ability was assessed for all the included patients at the last follow-up of status before trauma and after operation. Results The mean VAS, HHS and ambulatory ability at the last follow-up of status before trauma was 2.2 (range, 0-4), 78.9 (range, 48-92) and 1.9 (range, 1-5), respectively. The mean VAS, HHS and ambulatory ability at the last follow-up of status after operation was 3.1 (range, 1-5), 68.4 (range, 46-81) and 2.9 (range, 2-6), respectively. The clinical outcome of VAS, HHS and ambulatory ability were significantly worsened after surgical treatment for periprosthetic femoral fracture (P=0.010, P=0.001, and P=0.002, respectively). Conclusion Patients with periprosthetic femoral fracture after hip arthroplasty could not return to their status before trauma, although patients underwent appropriate surgical treatment and the fracture union achieved. PMID:27536650

  12. Wintertime surgery increases the risk of conversion to hip arthroplasty after internal fixation of femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Sebestyén, A; Mester, S; Vokó, Z; Gajdácsi, J; Cserháti, P; Speer, G; Patczai, B; Warta, V; Bódis, J; Horváth, C; Boncz, I

    2015-03-01

    The study demonstrates that wintertime surgeries are associated with impaired fracture healing and increases the risk of conversion to hip arthroplasty after osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture. Furthermore, the results raise the possibility of association between seasonal changes in vitamin D levels and impaired fracture healing of femoral neck fracture. Although the changes of vitamin D level and calcitropic hormones influencing bone metabolism are seasonal, the effect of seasons on hip fracture healing is unknown. We assessed the effects of seasonal periodicity on conversion to hip arthroplasty after primary osteosynthesis of femoral neck fracture. This nationwide retrospective observational cohort study involved 2779 patients aged ≥ 60 years who underwent internal screw fixation for primary femoral neck fracture and were discharged in 2000. Cases requiring conversion to arthroplasty during the 8-year follow-up derived from the Hungarian health insurance database were registered. Risk factors assessed included sex, age, fracture type, season of primary surgery and surgical delay. Competing-risks regression analysis was used for data analyses. During the observation period, 190 conversions to hip arthroplasty (6.8%) were identified, yielding an overall incidence of 19.5 per 1000 person-years. The crude incidence rates of conversions after osteosynthesis in winter, spring, summer and fall were 28.6, 17.8, 16.9 and 14.7 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Besides younger age, female sex and intracapsular fracture displacement, wintertime primary osteosynthesis significantly increased the risk of conversion (fall vs. winter, hazard ratio (HR): 0.50, 95% confidence interval [95% CI 0.33-0.76]; spring vs. winter, HR: 0.63, [95% CI 0.44-0.92]; summer vs. winter, HR: 0.62, [95% CI 0.42-0.91]). Our study demonstrate that wintertime primary osteosynthesis increases the risk of conversion surgeries. The results may help improving the outcome of primary fixation of

  13. Cement-in-cement revision for selected Vancouver Type B1 femoral periprosthetic fractures: a biomechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Brew, Christopher J; Wilson, Lance J; Whitehouse, Sarah L; Hubble, Matthew J W; Crawford, Ross W

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a biomechanical analysis of the cement-in-cement (c-in-c) technique for fixation of selected Vancouver Type B1 femoral periprosthetic fractures and to assess the degree of cement interposition at the fracture site. Six embalmed cadaveric femora were implanted with a cemented femoral stem. Vancouver Type B1 fractures were created by applying a combined axial and rotational load to failure. The femora were repaired using the c-in-c technique and reloaded to failure. The mean primary fracture torque was 117 Nm (SD 16.6, range 89-133). The mean revision fracture torque was 50 Nm (SD 16.6, range 29-74), which is above the torque previously observed for activities of daily living. Cement interposition at the fracture site was found to be minimal.

  14. Gunshot induced indirect femoral fracture: mechanism of injury and fracture morphology.

    PubMed

    Kieser, David C; Carr, D J; Leclair, S C J; Horsfall, I; Theis, J C; Swain, M V; Kieser, J A

    2013-12-01

    Indirect ballistic fractures occur when a projectile passes close to, but not contacting, the bone. The mechanism of how these fractures occur is not yet proven, but recently the acoustic shockwave has been excluded as a cause. The objective of this study is to determine whether the expanding temporary cavity, the collapse of this cavity or its oscillation causes these fractures. In addition, we describe the fracture morphology and biomechanical causes of this injury. 40 fresh deer femora were strain gauged and embedded in ballistic gelatin before being shot with four different projectiles with varying distances off the bone. Pressure recordings, chronographs and radar allowed assessment of local pressures and energy transfer. High-speed video allowed the temporal relationship between the temporary cavity and fracture formation to be analysed, while sample dissection allowed the fracture morphology to be described. The fractures produced were consistently wedge-shaped and caused by the expansion of the temporary cavity, flexing the bone beyond its yield point, causing tension failure on the cortex opposite the expanding temporary cavity and a compression wedge on the side of the cavity. Local pressure was not predictive of fracture formation but the energy transfer to the gelatin block was predictive. Indirect fractures are caused by the expansion of the temporary cavity and relate to the proximity of this cavity to the bone. Fractures occur from flexion of the bone and classically display wedge-shaped fracture patterns with the apex of the wedge pointing away from the expanding cavity.

  15. Biomechanics of distal femoral fracture fixed with an angular stable LISS plate.

    PubMed

    Pakuła, Grzegorz; Słowiński, Jakub; Scigała, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Fractures of the distal end of the femur are infrequent and constitute less than 1% of all fractures. Only 3% to 6% of femoral fractures occur at the distal end. The two groups most at risk of the said fractures are young men and older women. The aim of treatment of fractures of the distal femur is to restore normal function of the knee joint. The authors asked themselves whether, following fixation of a 33-C2 fracture (according to the AO classification) with a LISS plate, a rehabilitation program can be undertaken immediately after surgery with the implementation of active movements in the knee joint of the operated limb. In order to answer this question, we created a digital model of a fractured femur fixed with the LISS method. The model was subjected to loads corresponding to the loads generated during active lifting of a limb extended in the knee joint and during flexing of a limb in the knee joint to the 90° angle. Interfragmentary movement (IFM) is one of the key parameters taken into account in the treatment of bone fractures. It allows classification of the treatment in terms of its quality both from the mechanical and histological points of view. We analyzed interfragmentary movement in all fracture gaps. The largest recorded displacement reached in our model was 243 μm, which, in the light of the literature data, should not interfere with bone consolidation, and thus implementation of active movement in the operated knee joint (keeping in mind the simplifications of the experimental method used) is possible in the early postoperative period.

  16. Management of pathological femoral fracture secondary to breast cancer in pregnancy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    CIAVATTINI, ANDREA; MANCIOLI, FRANCESCA; PACI, ENRICO; POLITANO, ROCCO

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis resulting from breast cancer in pregnancy is rare. In the literature there are few reports regarding osteolytic lesions in pregnancy and no data on the treatment of such femoral fractures. The present study reports a case of a 29-week primigravida presenting with severe lumbosciatica in the left side, refractory to medical therapy. During neurosurgical examination a spontaneous pathological fracture of the left femur occurred. Damage control orthopedic principals were applied and a biopsy specimen from the femoral lesion was obtained, providing a diagnosis of metastases from breast adenocarcinoma. Cesarean section was performed at 32 gestational weeks. Following delivery, an internal fixator was placed in the left femur for definitive treatment of the fracture and staging of cancer was conducted. Subsequently, adjuvant treatment comprising left mastectomy and percutaneous radiofrequency thermoablation of the sacroiliac lesion were performed. A follow-up one-year following percutaneous radiofrequency thermoablation of the sacroiliac lesion detected no metastatic bone pain, and identified a stable sacroiliac lesion. PMID:26870230

  17. Management of pathological femoral fracture secondary to breast cancer in pregnancy: A case report.

    PubMed

    Ciavattini, Andrea; Mancioli, Francesca; Paci, Enrico; Politano, Rocco

    2016-01-01

    Bone metastasis resulting from breast cancer in pregnancy is rare. In the literature there are few reports regarding osteolytic lesions in pregnancy and no data on the treatment of such femoral fractures. The present study reports a case of a 29-week primigravida presenting with severe lumbosciatica in the left side, refractory to medical therapy. During neurosurgical examination a spontaneous pathological fracture of the left femur occurred. Damage control orthopedic principals were applied and a biopsy specimen from the femoral lesion was obtained, providing a diagnosis of metastases from breast adenocarcinoma. Cesarean section was performed at 32 gestational weeks. Following delivery, an internal fixator was placed in the left femur for definitive treatment of the fracture and staging of cancer was conducted. Subsequently, adjuvant treatment comprising left mastectomy and percutaneous radiofrequency thermoablation of the sacroiliac lesion were performed. A follow-up one-year following percutaneous radiofrequency thermoablation of the sacroiliac lesion detected no metastatic bone pain, and identified a stable sacroiliac lesion.

  18. Influence of age on delayed surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Lisiane Pinto; do Nascimento, Leandra Delfim; Campos, Tulio Vinicius de Oliveira; Paiva, Edson Barreto; de Andrade, Marco Antonio Percope; Guimarães, Henrique Cerqueira

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE : To investigate the influence of patients' age on the delay between diagnosis and surgical treatment of proximal femoral fractures METHODS : This is a retrospective study, con-ducted at a tertiary university hospital, including all patients admitted with proximal femoral fractures between March 2013 and March 2014. The participants were categorized into four groups according to age levels. The groups were compared according to demographics, comorbidities, fracture type, trau-ma circumstances, and time between diagnosis and surgical procedure RESULTS : One hundred and sixty one patients were included, 37 adults and 124 elderly. Among adults, the mean delay between diagnosis and surgical procedure was 6.4±5.3 days; among elderly the delay was 9.5±7.6 days. There was a progressive increase in the delay from the young-adults group through the elderly individuals (Kruskal-Wallis: 13.7; p=0.003) CONCLUSION : In spite of being the patients most susceptible to complications due to surgical delay, the elderly individuals pre-sented the longest delays from admission to surgical treatment. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Study. PMID:27057145

  19. The Biological Metallic versus Metallic Solution in Treating Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures: Outcome Assessment.

    PubMed

    Carta, Serafino; Fortina, Mattia; Riva, Alberto; Meccariello, Luigi; Manzi, Enrico; Di Giovanni, Antonio; Ferrata, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The periprosthetic fracture of the femur is, in order of frequency, the fourth leading cause (5.9%) of surgical revision. Our study aims to demonstrate how the grafting of bone splint betters the outcomes. Materials. We treated 15 periprosthetic femoral fractures divided into two groups: PS composed of 8 patients treated with plates and splints and PSS involving 7 patients treated only with plates. The evaluation criteria for the two groups during the clinical and radiological follow-up were the quality of life measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), Harris Hip Score (HHS), Modified Cincinnati Rating System Questionnaire (MCRSQ), bone healing measured by the Radiographic Union Score (RUS), postoperative complications, and mortality. The evaluation endpoint was set at 24 months for both groups (p < 0.05). Results. The surgery lasted an average of 124.5 minutes for the PS group and 112.6 minutes for the PSS. At 24 months all clinical and radiographic scores were p < 0.05 for the PS group. During follow-up 4 patients (2 in each group) died of causes not related to surgery. Conclusions. The use of the metal plate as opposed to cortical allogenic splint should be taken into consideration as a noteworthy point for periprosthetic femoral fractures.

  20. The Biological Metallic versus Metallic Solution in Treating Periprosthetic Femoral Fractures: Outcome Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Serafino; Fortina, Mattia; Riva, Alberto; Manzi, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The periprosthetic fracture of the femur is, in order of frequency, the fourth leading cause (5.9%) of surgical revision. Our study aims to demonstrate how the grafting of bone splint betters the outcomes. Materials. We treated 15 periprosthetic femoral fractures divided into two groups: PS composed of 8 patients treated with plates and splints and PSS involving 7 patients treated only with plates. The evaluation criteria for the two groups during the clinical and radiological follow-up were the quality of life measured by the Short Form (36) Health Survey (SF-36), Harris Hip Score (HHS), Modified Cincinnati Rating System Questionnaire (MCRSQ), bone healing measured by the Radiographic Union Score (RUS), postoperative complications, and mortality. The evaluation endpoint was set at 24 months for both groups (p < 0.05). Results. The surgery lasted an average of 124.5 minutes for the PS group and 112.6 minutes for the PSS. At 24 months all clinical and radiographic scores were p < 0.05 for the PS group. During follow-up 4 patients (2 in each group) died of causes not related to surgery. Conclusions. The use of the metal plate as opposed to cortical allogenic splint should be taken into consideration as a noteworthy point for periprosthetic femoral fractures. PMID:27990462

  1. Treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children using the "Tobruk" method.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Turlough M P; Murphy, Diarmuid P; Mullett, Hannan; Moore, David P; Fogarty, Esmond E; Dowling, Frank E

    2006-08-01

    The "Tobruk" technique of plaster augmentation of a Thomas' splint can be used for the treatment of femoral shaft fractures in children. The radiological and clinical data of 118 patients treated using this method were reviewed over a consecutive 3-year period. The mean age of the patients was 4.25 years. Mean hospital stay was 14.11 days. Mean time spent in the "Tobruk" splint was 44.77 days. Loss of reduction during splintage occurred in 9.32% of patients. Skin complications occurred in 5 patients (4.2%), and cast repairs were necessary in 3 patients. "Tobruk" splinting is a relatively safe and effective way of treating femoral shaft fractures in children. Although its use is not widespread, especially in the United States, until better results are achieved with spica casting and elastic stable intramedullary nails, it does provide a valid option in the treatment of these fractures. A controlled randomized prospective trial with long-term follow-up is needed to fully elucidate its value.

  2. [Degree of independence of patients after surgical treatment femoral neck fractures].

    PubMed

    Baczyk, Grazyna; Adamek, Madgalena

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of the research was to define the degree of independence among patients after operative treatment femoral neck fractures in the first day after the operation and on day previous to the release from hospital. Attempt was made to determine the degree of independence in the ten activities of life, functional status and emotional state of patients. Efforts have also tried to assess the impact of functional status and emotional autonomy to the degree subjects. The study was conducted in Hospital in Poznan and Hospital in Chodziez, in the period from August 2006 March 2007. The research concerned 30 patients after operative treatment femoral neck fractures. To assess functional status, 100-point scale Barthel, to assess the emotional state HADS scale was used. Degree of independence was assessed Scale of Deficit Self-Care. The lack of independence was bigger among older patients in life activities like: moving, feed, drinking, expelling, personal sanitation and dressing. These patients required increasingly bigger medical care. Functional condition introduces considerably worst in older patients equal in research I and research II. Emotional status does not affect the degree of independence of patients, but in the first day after surgery, patients showing symptoms of depression had demanded a bigger range of assistance from medical personnel. Hip fracture have a negative impact on many areas of life activity of the patient, therefore, these patients require particularly caring therapeutic and rehabilitation activities.

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CAUSES OF PROXIMAL FEMORAL FRACTURES AMONG THE ELDERLY

    PubMed Central

    Neto, José Soares Hungria; Dias, Caio Roncon; de Almeida, José Daniel Bula

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The social and economic cost of proximal femoral fractures is high, due the morbidity and mortality relating to the fracture itself, among other factors. Despite the importance of this issue, studies on this topic are still scarce in Brazil. This was a retrospective, observational and cross-sectional (ecological) study with the aims of outlining an epidemiological profile for proximal femoral fractures among the elderly and analyzing the causes of these fractures and the physical characteristics of patients admitted to a single university hospital in São Paulo. Methods: This was a study on medical records over a one-year period, with group comparisons using the chi-square test; p > 0.05 was considered significant. Results: Ninety-four individuals were evaluated: predominantly female (2:1); 81-85 years of age; body mass index within normal limits; white and Asian patients (p > 0.05). The vast majority of the fractures occurred through low-energy trauma and inside the patients’ homes (p > 0.05). After excluding the trauma resulting from high-energy events, over 39% occurred as the patients were moving from sitting to standing up or were using stairs, and approximately 40% occurred while they were standing still or walking. A greater number of cases corresponded to the cold seasons of the year (p > 0.05); Conclusion: Most injuries occurred inside the patients’ own homes and had low-energy causes. Thus, some accidents might be avoided through simple low-cost measures that guide the elderly regarding situations of risk, which would bring major quality-of-life benefits and significant decreases in morbidity, mortality and the socioeconomic costs of this increasingly frequent problem. PMID:27027070

  4. Insufficient bilateral femoral subtrochanteric fractures in a patient receiving imatinib mesylate.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyu-Hyun; Park, Si-Young; Park, Sang-Won; Lee, Soon-Hyuck; Han, Seung-Beom; Jung, Woong-Kyo; Kim, Suk-Jin

    2010-11-01

    We present a case of insufficient bilateral femoral subtrochanteric fractures in a patient who was treated with imatinib mesylate, an anticancer drug, for 1 year after a diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). A 60-year-old woman presented with bilateral thigh pain for 6 months. A plain radiograph revealed bilateral progressive insufficient fractures on the subtrochanteric areas of the femurs. MRI of the femurs revealed incomplete stress fractures and no evidence of bone metastasis on either femur. Bone densitometry showed normal T-scores around the hip joint and spine. The patient had normal serum levels of calcium, vitamin D derivatives, and thyroid hormones. Serum phosphate levels were decreased, and parathyroid hormone levels were increased. Serum osteocalcin and urinary N-telopeptide of collagen cross-links (NTx) were both decreased. A bone biopsy demonstrated normocellular marrow without leukemic cells. A histomorphometric evaluation of her bones revealed reduced bone turnover despite secondary hyperparathyroidism. The serum markers for bone metabolism and histomorphometric evaluations in this patient suggest that the drug may have an effect on bone metabolism. These effects could be seen for both bone formation and resorption: this could result in impaired bone mineralization, a severely suppressed bone turnover rate, insufficient fractures, and bone necrosis, which are sometimes seen with long-term use of bisphosphonates. To our knowledge, this is the first case of an insufficient bilateral femoral shaft fracture that is potentially related to the use of imatinib mesylate in a patient with CML. Careful examination of bone metabolism should be performed in patients with CML because imatinib mesylate treatment is a lifelong process.

  5. Long-term pattern of opioid prescriptions after femoral shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Al Dabbagh, Z; Jansson, K Å; Stiller, C O; Montgomery, S; Weiss, R J

    2016-05-01

    The use of opioids in non-cancer-related pain following skeletal trauma is controversial due to the presumed risk of dose escalation and dependence. We therefore examined the pattern of opioid prescriptions, that is, those actually dispensed, in patients with femoral shaft fractures. We analysed data from the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register and the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register between 2005 and 2008. We identified 1471 patients with isolated femoral shaft fractures. The median age was 75 (16-102) years and 56% were female. In this cohort, 891 patients (61%) received dispensed opioid prescriptions during a median follow-up of 20 months (interquartile range 11-32). In the age- and sex-matched comparison cohort (7339 individuals) without fracture, 25% had opioid prescriptions dispensed during the same period. The proportions of patients receiving opioid analgesics at 6 and 12 months after the fracture were 45% (95% CI 42-49) and 36% (32-39), respectively. The median daily morphine equivalent dose (MED) was between 15 and 17 mg 1-12 months post-fracture. After 3 months, less than 5% used prescription doses higher than 20 mg MED per day. Older age (≥ 70 compared with < 70 years) was a significant predictor of earlier discontinuation of opioid use (Hazard ratio [HR] 1.9). A notable proportion of patients continued to receive dispensed prescriptions for opioids for over 6 months (45%) and more than a third of them (36%) continued treatment for at least 12 months. However, the risk of dose escalation seems to be small in opioid-naïve patients. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cemented versus Uncemented Hemiarthroplasty for Femoral Neck Fractures in Elderly Patients: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xisheng; Zhou, Lei; Bian, Yanyan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Controversy still exists regarding using cemented or uncemented hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures in elderly patients. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness and safety of the two surgical techniques in femoral neck fracture patients over 70 years old. Methods We searched PUBMED, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, CNKI and VIP Database from inception to December 2012 for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Outcomes of interest include postoperative hip function, residue pain, complication rates, mortality, reoperation rate, operation time and intraoperative blood loss. Odds ratios (OR) and weighted mean differences (WMD) from each trial were pooled using random-effects model or fixed-effects model given on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Results 7 RCTs involving 1,125 patients (1,125 hips) were eligible for meta-analysis. Our results demonstrate that cemented hemiarthroplasty is associated with better postoperative hip function (OR = 0.48, 95% CI, 0.31–0.76; P = 0.002), lower residual pain (OR = 0.43, 95%CI, 0.29–0.64; P<0.0001), less implant-related complications (OR = 0.15, 95%CI, 0.09–0.26; P<0.00001) and longer operation time (WMD = 7.43 min, 95% CI, 5.37–9.49 min; P<0.00001). No significant difference was observed between the two groups in mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, local complications, general complications, reoperation rate and intraoperative blood loss. Conclusions Compared with uncemented hemiarthroplasty, the existing evidence indicates that cemented hemiarthroplasty can achieve better hip function, lower residual pain and less implant-related complications with no increased risk of mortality, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, general complications, local complications and reoperation rate in treating elderly patients with femoral neck fractures. PMID:23935902

  7. Preoperative Use of Clopidogrel Does Not Affect Outcomes for Femoral Neck Fractures Treated With Hemiarthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Elie S; Richard, Raveesh D; Wingert, Nathaniel C H; Gotoff, James R; Graham, Jove H; Bowen, Thomas R

    2017-07-01

    The antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel on blood loss and perioperative complications after surgical intervention remains ambiguous. The purpose of this study was to determine if patients on clopidogrel before hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture are predisposed to greater surgical bleeding and perioperative complications compared with those not taking clopidogrel before surgery. We conducted a review of our electronic medical record from 2006-2013 and identified 602 patients who underwent 623 hemiarthroplasty procedures for displaced femoral neck fracture, of which 54 cases (9%) were taking clopidogrel before hospital admission. Patient demographics and comorbidities, operative and surgical variables, and perioperative complications at 90 days were compared between the clopidogrel and nonclopidogrel user groups. The 2 groups of patients had similar baseline characteristics, but patients taking clopidogrel preoperatively were sicker with higher American Society of Anesthesiologists scores (P = .049) and age-adjusted Charlson index (P = .001). They also had a greater incidence of cerebrovascular disease (P = .01), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P = .03), diabetes (0.03), and malignancy (P < .001). There was no significant difference between the 2 patient groups with respect to 90-day postoperative medical readmissions (P = .85), surgical readmissions (P = .26), infection (P = .99), and mortality (P = .89). Patients taking clopidogrel who present with a displaced femoral neck fracture can safely undergo a hemiarthroplasty while actively on clopidogrel without an increase in medical or surgical complications and mortality. We do not recommend delaying surgical intervention until the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel subside. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. New approach to probability estimate of femoral neck fracture by fall (Slovak regression model).

    PubMed

    Wendlova, J

    2009-01-01

    3,216 Slovak women with primary or secondary osteoporosis or osteopenia, aged 20-89 years, were examined with the bone densitometer DXA (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, GE, Prodigy - Primo), x = 58.9, 95% C.I. (58.42; 59.38). The values of the following variables for each patient were measured: FSI (femur strength index), T-score total hip left, alpha angle - left, theta angle - left, HAL (hip axis length) left, BMI (body mass index) was calculated from the height and weight of the patients. Regression model determined the following order of independent variables according to the intensity of their influence upon the occurrence of values of dependent FSI variable: 1. BMI, 2. theta angle, 3. T-score total hip, 4. alpha angle, 5. HAL. The regression model equation, calculated from the variables monitored in the study, enables a doctor in praxis to determine the probability magnitude (absolute risk) for the occurrence of pathological value of FSI (FSI < 1) in the femoral neck area, i. e., allows for probability estimate of a femoral neck fracture by fall for Slovak women. 1. The Slovak regression model differs from regression models, published until now, in chosen independent variables and a dependent variable, belonging to biomechanical variables, characterising the bone quality. 2. The Slovak regression model excludes the inaccuracies of other models, which are not able to define precisely the current and past clinical condition of tested patients (e.g., to define the length and dose of exposure to risk factors). 3. The Slovak regression model opens the way to a new method of estimating the probability (absolute risk) or the odds for a femoral neck fracture by fall, based upon the bone quality determination. 4. It is assumed that the development will proceed by improving the methods enabling to measure the bone quality, determining the probability of fracture by fall (Tab. 6, Fig. 3, Ref. 22). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  9. Titanium elastic nailing in diaphyseal femoral fractures of children below six years of age

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Fabrizio; Mazzitelli, Giuseppe; Lillo, Marco; Menghi, Amerigo; Conti, Carla; Valassina, Antonio; Marzetti, Emanuele; Maccauro, Giulio

    2017-01-01

    AIM To report the clinical and radiographic results of titanium elastic nail (TEN) in diaphyseal femoral fractures of children below age of six years. METHODS A retrospective analysis of 27 diaphyseal femoral fractures in children younger than six years treated with TEN between 2005 and 2015 was conducted. Patients were immobilized in a cast for 5 wk and the nails were removed from 6 to 12 wk after surgery. Twenty-four cases were clinically and radiographically re-evaluated using the Flynn’s scoring criteria, focusing on: Limb length discrepancy, rotational deformity, angulation, hip and knee range of motion (ROM), functional status, complications, and parent’s satisfaction. RESULTS Sixteen males and eight females with a mean age of 3.2 years at the time of treatment were re-evaluated at an average follow-up of 58.9 mo. No cases of delayed union were observed. The mean limb lengthening was 0.3 cm. Four cases experienced limb lengthening greater than 1 cm and always minor than 2 cm. Twelve point five percent of the cases showed an angulation < 10°. Complete functional recovery (hip and knee ROM, ability to run and jump on the operated limb) occurred in 95.7% of cases. Complications included two cases of superficial infection of the TEN entry point, one case of refracture following a new trauma, and one TEN mobilization. According to the Flynn’s scoring criteria, excellent results were obtained in 79.2% of patients and satisfactory results in the remaining 20.8%, with an average parent’s satisfaction level of 9.1/10. CONCLUSION TEN is as a safe, mini-invasive and surgeon-friendly technique and, considering specific inclusion criteria, it represents a useful and efficacy option for the treatment of diaphyseal femoral fractures even in patients younger than six years of age. PMID:28251066

  10. Revision hip arthroplasty as a treatment of Vancouver B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures without bone grafting

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jia-Qi; Gao, You-Shui; Mei, Jiong; Rao, Zhi-Tao; Wang, Shu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is conventionally considered that bone grafting is mandatory for Vancouver B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures (PFF) although few clinical studies have challenged the concept previously. The aim of the current study was to investigate the radiographic and functional results of Vancouver B3 PFF treated by revision total hip or hemiarthroplasty (HA) in combination with appropriate internal fixation without bone grafting. Materials and Methods: 12 patients with Vancouver B3 PFF were treated by revision THA/HA without bone grafting between March 2004 and May 2008. There were nine females and three males, with an average age of 76 years. PFFs were following primary THA/HA in nine patients and following revision THA/HA in three. Postoperative followup was 5.5 years on average (range, 3.5-6.5 years). At the final followup, radiographic results were evaluated with Beals and Tower's criteria and functional outcomes were evaluated using the Merle d’Aubigné scoring system. Results: All fractures healed within an average of 20 weeks (range, 12-28 weeks). There was no significant deformity and shortening of the affected limb and the implant was stable. The average Merle d’Aubigné score was 15.8. Walking ability was regained in 10 patients without additional assistance, while 2 patients had to use crutches. There were 2 patients with numbness of lateral thigh, possibly due to injury to the lateral femoral cutaneous nerve. There were no implant failures, dislocation and refractures. Conclusions: Revision THA/HA in combination with appropriate internal fixation without bone grafting is a good option for treatment of Vancouver B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures in the elderly. PMID:24133303

  11. Minimally invasive treatment of displaced femoral shaft fractures with a teleoperated robot-assisted surgical system.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qing; Liang, Bin; Wang, Xingsong; Sun, Xiaogang; Wang, Liming

    2017-10-01

    Minimally invasive surgical operation of intramedullary (IM) nailing is a standard technique for treating diaphyseal fractures. However, in addition to its advantages, there are some drawbacks such as the frequent occurrence of malalignment, physical fatigue and high radiation exposure to medical staff. The use of robotic and navigation techniques is promising treatments for femoral fractures. This paper presents a novel robot-assisted manipulator for femoral shaft fracture reduction with indirect contact with the femur. An alternative clinical testing model was proposed for orthopedic surgeons to practice femoral fracture reduction. This model imitates the human musculoskeletal system in shape and functional performance. The rubber tube simulate muscles providing contraction forces, and the silicone simulates passive elasticity of muscles. Two-group experiments were performed for studying feasibility of the teleoperated manipulator. The average operative time was about 7min. In the first group experiments, the femur axial, antero-posterior (AP) and lateral views mean errors were 2.2mm, 0.7mm and 1.1mm, respectively, and their maximums were 3.0mm, 0.9mm and 1.5mm; the mean errors of rotation were 0.8° around x-axis, 1.6° around y-axis, 2.0° around z-axis, and their maximums were 1.1°, 2.2°, 2.9°, respectively. For the second group experiments, the femur axial, AP and lateral views mean errors were 1.8mm, 0.4mm and 0.8mm, respectively, and their maximums were 2.2mm, 0.7mm and 1.1mm; the mean errors of rotation were 1.2° around x-axis, 1.6° around y-axis, 1.9° around z-axis, and their maximums were 2.4°, 1.8°, 2.7°, respectively. Reduction for AP view displacement is easier than lateral (p<0.05) because of the tube-shaped anatomy and the muscle contraction forces. Errors around x-axis are smaller than those around y-, and z- axes (p<0.05), i.e., electro-mechanical actuator is easier to control than pneumatic. An experimental model for simulating human

  12. Bilateral subcapital femoral neck fractures secondary to transient osteoporosis during pregnancy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Emami, Mohammad Jafar; Abdollahpour, Hamid Reza; Kazemi, Ali Reza; Vosoughi, Amir Reza

    2012-08-01

    Transient osteoporosis during pregnancy is a rare, self-limiting disease. We report on a 36-year-old woman who had bilateral subcapital femoral neck fractures during the 6th month of pregnancy. The diagnosis was made 4 days after delivery, because radiography was declined by the patient for fear of radiation. Fixation was not feasible owing to bone resorption, and 2-stage bipolar hemiarthroplasty was therefore performed. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best non-invasive investigative tool for pregnant women with hip pain. Early detection can prevent complications and resorting to major surgeries.

  13. Concept, diagnosis and classification of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. A review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bagan, Jose V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bisphosphonates (BPs) and other antiresorptive agents such as denosumab are widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis and are also used in patients with multiple myeloma and metastatic breast or prostate cancer for avoiding bone reabsorption and fractures that result in increased morbidity-mortality among such individuals. Material and Methods We made a bibliographic search to analyze the concept, diagnosis and the different classifications for bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Results Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is an important complication of exposure to BPs or other antiresorptive agents, and although its prevalence is low, it can pose management problems. The definition, diagnosis and classification of osteonecrosis have evolved since Marx reported the first cases in 2003. Conclusions The present study offers a literature review and update on the existing diagnostic methods and classification of the disorder, with a view to facilitating earlier and more effective treatment. Key words:Osteonecrosis, jaws, bisphosphonates. PMID:26827066

  14. Concept, diagnosis and classification of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. A review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gavaldá, C; Bagán, J-V

    2016-05-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) and other antiresorptive agents such as denosumab are widely prescribed for the treatment of osteoporosis and are also used in patients with multiple myeloma and metastatic breast or prostate cancer for avoiding bone reabsorption and fractures that result in increased morbidity-mortality among such individuals. We made a bibliographic search to analyze the concept, diagnosis and the different classifications for bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaws. Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is an important complication of exposure to BPs or other antiresorptive agents, and although its prevalence is low, it can pose management problems. The definition, diagnosis and classification of osteonecrosis have evolved since Marx reported the first cases in 2003. The present study offers a literature review and update on the existing diagnostic methods and classification of the disorder, with a view to facilitating earlier and more effective treatment.

  15. Femoral fracture reduction with a parallel manipulator robot on a traction table.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junqiang; Han, Wei; Lin, Hong

    2013-12-01

    A parallel manipulator robot (PMR) on a traction table was developed to achieve better alignment of a fractured femur and reduce radiation exposure to both patients and physicians. A PMR was built with a disk platform and a two-thirds circular ring. Fracture reductions were performed on eight artificially broken sawbone models and a cadaveric model. Fracture reduction was achieved using six degrees of freedom (6-DOF) movements of the two-thirds circular ring, while the PMR disk platform and the proximal femur remained stationary. Axial discrepancy, lateral translation and angulation had mean errors of 1.31 ± 0.45, 2.43 ± 0.49 and 2.26 ± 0.23 mm, respectively, when coarse adjustment was used. For the fine adjustment step, the mean errors were 0.63 ± 0.19 mm for axial discrepancy and 0.75 ± 0.26 mm for lateral translation. Femoral shaft fracture reduction with PMR on a traction table is a feasible and accurate approach to fracture reduction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Surgical reduction and stabilization for repair of femoral capital physeal fractures in cats: 13 cases (1998-2002).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Howard R; Norton, Jeffrey; Kobluk, Calvin N; Reed, Ann L; Rooks, Robert L; Borostyankoi, Frank

    2004-05-01

    To evaluate anatomic reduction and surgical stabilization of femoral capital physeal fractures in cats. Retrospective study. 13 cats. Medical records of cats with unilateral or bilateral femoral capital physeal fractures evaluated from 1998 to 2002 were reviewed. Age and weight of cats at the time of surgery; breed; sex; concurrent injuries; severity of lameness before and 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after surgery; the amount of fracture reduction achieved and number of Kirschner wires (K-wires) used; degree of degenerative joint disease of the hip joint and lysis of the femoral neck and head observed after surgery; whether K-wires were removed after surgery; and complications after surgery were evaluated. Thirteen cats with 16 capital physeal fractures were identified. There was significant improvement in the severity of clinical lameness in all cats from weeks 1 through 4 after surgery. There was no correlation between the scores of the individuals who evaluated radiographs for fracture reduction and placement of K-wires. Results suggested that surgical stabilization and repair of femoral capital physeal fractures facilitate a short recovery period and a good prognosis for return to normal function in cats.

  17. Management of humeral and femoral fractures in dogs and cats with linear- circular hybrid external skeletal fixators.

    PubMed

    Kirkby, Kristin A; Lewis, Daniel D; Lafuente, M Pilar; Radasch, Robert M; Fitzpatrick, Noel; Farese, James P; Wheeler, Jason L; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2008-01-01

    Linear-circular hybrid fixators were used to stabilize humeral and femoral fractures in 21 dogs and five cats. Twenty-two of 24 fractures with sufficient follow-up radiographic evaluation obtained union. Time to radiographic union ranged from 25 to 280 days (mean +/- standard deviation [SD] 110+/-69 days; median 98 days). Eleven animals developed minor and two dogs developed major pin and/or wire tract inflammation. Functional outcome was rated as excellent (n=16), good (n=5), and fair (n=3) at the time of final long-term assessment (range 4.5 to 60.0 months; mean +/- SD 28.4+/-15.4 months; median 28.5 months). Follow-up information was unavailable for two animals. Hybrid fixators were useful constructs for stabilization of humeral and femoral fractures, particularly fractures with short, juxta-articular fracture segments.

  18. Octogenarian with an untreated femoral neck fracture: upright position during the postoperative course after aortic valve replacement.

    PubMed

    Polastri, M; Di Marco, L; Cantagalli, S; Di Eusanio, M

    2015-06-30

    We describe a patient with a femoral neck fracture undergoing an aortic valve replacement. The study design was a case report. An 82-year-old female with an untreated right femoral neck fracture, and a severe aortic valve stenosis was admitted to a cardiac surgery department for surgical treatment of the valve disease. She underwent aortic valve replacement with a sutureless biological valve prosthesis through a partial sternotomy. At an early stage, the patient was instructed to make postural changes in the standing position. As a result, she was able to perform body movements associated with either a sitting or standing position. This case shows that appropriate early mobilization of a patient with a femoral neck fracture is feasible after aortic valve replacement, even though this does not necessarily mean that the patient needs to walk.

  19. The effect of osteoarthritis on functional outcome following hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Boese, Christoph Kolja; Buecking, Benjamin; Bliemel, Christopher; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Frink, Michael; Lechler, Philipp

    2015-10-16

    The influence of pre-existing radiographic osteoarthritis on the functional outcome of elderly patientents with displaced intracapsular fractures of the femoral neck treated by hemiarthroplasty is unclear. We prospectively examined the impact of pre-existing osteoarthritis on the functional outcome of 126 elderly patients with displaced intracapsular fracture of the femoral neck treated by hemiarthroplasty. The mean age of the cohort was 82.7 years. At 12 months, we observed no statistically significant differences in the Harris hip score (p = 0.545), the timed up and go test (p = 0.298), the Tinetti test (p = 0.381) or the Barthel Index (p = 0.094) between patients with Kellgren and Lawrence grades 3 or 4 osteoarthritis, and patients with grades 0 to 2 changes. Furthermore, there were no differences in complication or revision rates. Our findings challenge the hypothesis that pre-existing osteoarthritis is a contraindication to hemiarthroplasty in elderly patients with femoral neck fracture.

  20. Site-Dependent Reference Point Microindentation Complements Clinical Measures for Improved Fracture Risk Assessment at the Human Femoral Neck.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Thomas; Coutts, Louise V; D'Angelo, Stefania; Dunlop, Douglas G; Oreffo, Richard O C; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C; Thurner, Phillipp J

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to traditional approaches to fracture risk assessment using clinical risk factors and bone mineral density (BMD), a new technique, reference point microindentation (RPI), permits direct assessment of bone quality; in vivo tibial RPI measurements appear to discriminate patients with a fragility fracture from controls. However, it is unclear how this relates to the site of the most clinically devastating fracture, the femoral neck, and whether RPI provides information complementary to that from existing assessments. Femoral neck samples were collected at surgery after low-trauma hip fracture (n = 46; 17 male; aged 83 [interquartile range 77-87] years) and compared, using RPI (Biodent Hfc), with 16 cadaveric control samples, free from bone disease (7 male; aged 65 [IQR 61-74] years). A subset of fracture patients returned for dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) assessment (Hologic Discovery) and, for the controls, a micro-computed tomography setup (HMX, Nikon) was used to replicate DXA scans. The indentation depth was greater in femoral neck samples from osteoporotic fracture patients than controls (p < 0.001), which persisted with adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and height (p < 0.001) but was site-dependent, being less pronounced in the inferomedial region. RPI demonstrated good discrimination between fracture and controls using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) analyses (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.79 to 0.89), and a model combining RPI to clinical risk factors or BMD performed better than the individual components (AUC = 0.88 to 0.99). In conclusion, RPI at the femoral neck discriminated fracture cases from controls independent of BMD and traditional risk factors but dependent on location. The clinical RPI device may, therefore, supplement risk assessment and requires testing in prospective cohorts and comparison between the clinically accessible tibia and the femoral neck. © 2015 American Society for Bone and Mineral

  1. New quantitative ultrasound techniques for bone analysis at the distal radius in hip fracture cases: differences between femoral neck and trochanteric fractures.

    PubMed

    Horii, Motoyuki; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sakai, Ryo; Sawada, Koshiro; Mikami, Yasuo; Toyama, Syogo; Ozaki, Etsuko; Kuriyama, Nagato; Kurokawa, Masao; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Ample evidence on etiological and pathological differences between femoral neck and trochanteric fracture cases suggests the possibility of individualized treatment. There are many issues related to areal bone mineral density and other quantitative computed tomography parameters of the proximal femur. Although osteoporosis is a systemic problem, little has been reported regarding differences in bone structural parameters, including bone mineral density, between them in regions other than the proximal femur. Participants were consecutive female patients >50 years of age admitted to the Saiseikai Suita Hospital (Osaka prefecture, Japan) for their first hip fracture between January 2012 and September 2014. Cortical thickness (CoTh, mm), volumetric trabecular bone mineral density (TBD, mg/cm(3)), and elastic modulus of trabecular bone (EMTb, GPa) were obtained as the new QUS parameters using the LD-100 system (Oyo Electric, Kyoto, Japan). The mean values of these parameters were compared between femoral neck and trochanteric fracture cases. In addition, correlations between age and each QUS parameter were investigated for each fracture type. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to examine the degree of effect each parameter on the fracture types. The area under the curve (AUC) for each parameter was compared to the AUC for age. There were 63 cases of femoral neck fracture (mean age, 78.2 years) and 37 cases of trochanteric fracture (mean age, 85.9 years). Mean TBD and EMTb were significantly higher for femoral neck fractures. There were significant negative correlations between QUS parameters and age for femoral neck fractures (P < 0.005). The regression lines for femoral neck fractures were above those for trochanteric fractures for TBD and EMTb. AUCs were 0.72 for age, and 0.61, 0.65, and 0.65 for CoTh, TBD, and EMTb, respectively. The new QUS parameters indicated that TR fracture cases were more osteoporotic than were FN fracture

  2. Pseudoaneurysm and intramuscular haematoma after dynamic hip screw fixation for intertrochanteric femoral fracture: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chan, Winnie Sze-wun; Kong, Siu-wah; Sun, Kin-wai; Tsang, Pui-ki; Chow, Hung-lit

    2010-08-01

    We report the case of an 83-year-old woman who developed a pseudoaneurysm of the profunda femoris artery after dynamic hip screw fixation for an intertrochanteric femoral fracture. 23 days after the fixation, radiological investigations including colour Doppler ultrasonography and computed tomographic angiography identified a pseudoaneurysm surrounded by a large intramuscular haematoma close to the profunda femoris. The patient underwent emergency evacuation and was under intensive care for 3 days and was discharged 6 weeks later, with no complications. At one-year follow-up, the wound and fracture had healed, but the patient was confined to a wheelchair. A high index of clinical suspicion and radiological imaging are necessary for making the diagnosis.

  3. Atypical Complete Femoral Fractures Associated with Bisphosphonate Use or Not Associated with Bisphosphonate Use: Is There a Difference?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Min; Park, Youn-Soo; Moon, Young-Wan; Kang, Seung-Hoon; Yeo, Ingwon; Oh, Seung-Min

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare clinical characteristics and surgical outcome of atypical complete femoral fractures associated with bisphosphonates (BPs) use and those of fractures not associated with BPs use. Seventy-six consecutive patients (81 fractures) who had been operatively treated for a complete atypical femoral fracture were recruited. Of the 81 fractures, 73 occurred after BPs medication of at least 3 years (BP group) while 8 occurred without a history of BP medication (non-BP group). There were no differences in demographic data and fracture- and surgery-associated factors between the two groups. Of 76 patients (81 fractures), 54 (66.7%) fractures showed bony union within 6 months after the index surgery and 23 (28.4%) showed delayed union at a mean of 11.2 months (range, 8–18 months). The remaining 4 fractures were not healed, even 18 months after the index surgery. There was no difference in healing rate between the BP group and the non-BP group. There were strong correlations between the fracture height and the degree of bowing regardless of BPs medication. All fractures except 1 occurred at the diaphyseal region of the femur when not associated with BP medication. PMID:27990429

  4. The Results of Proximal Femoral Nail for Intertrochanteric Fracture in Hemodialysis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyung Sub; Lee, Su Keon; Lee, Seung Hwan; Yang, Bong Seok; Park, Byeong Mun; Yang, Ick Hwan; Lee, Beom Seok; Yeom, Ji Ung

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Hip fractures in hemodialysis patients are accompanied by high rates of complications and morbidities. Previous studies have mainly reported on nonunion and avascular necrosis of femoral neck fractures in this patient group. In this study the complication and clinical results of hemodialysis patients with intertrochanteric fractures treated with proximal femoral intramedullary nailing have been investigated through comparison with patients with normal kidney function. Materials and Methods Forty-seven patients were included; the hemodialysis group (n=17) and the control group with normal kidney function (n=30). The medical history and clinical findings including preoperative and postoperative blood examinations, radiological examinations and ambulatory status (measured using the Koval score). The rate of complications and morbidities were also investigated and compared. Results Preoperative hemoglobin/hematocrit was lower but a significant increase in partial thromboplastin time was observed in the hemodialysis group. The amount of bleeding/transfusions were higher and operative time was longer in the hemodialysis group. Upon radiologic examination, there was no significant difference in rate of unstable fracture and nonunion between the two groups. However the postoperative Koval score was significantly worse and the odds ratio of inability to walk after surgery was 13.5 times higher in the hemodialysis group. Conclusion There was no significant difference in radiological results, but the risk of inability to walk after surgery was 13.5 times higher in the hemodialysis group. Hemodialysis patients have more morbidities and are hemodynamically unstable therefore require special attention. Accurate reduction and firm fixation is required and attentive postoperative rehabilitation is needed. PMID:28316963

  5. Femoral cortical index: an indicator of poor bone quality in patient with hip fracture.

    PubMed

    Feola, M; Rao, C; Tempesta, V; Gasbarra, E; Tarantino, U

    2015-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a common disease in elderly, characterized by poor bone quality as a result of alterations affecting trabecular bone. However, recent studies have described also an important role of alterations of cortical bone in the physiopathology of osteoporosis. Although dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a valid method to assess bone mineral density, in the presence of comorbidities real bone fragility is unable to be evaluated. The number of hip fractures is rising, especially in people over 85 years old. The aim is to evaluate an alternative method so that it can indicate fracture risk, independent of bone mineral density (BMD). Femoral cortical index (FCI) assesses cortical bone stock using femur X-ray. A retrospective study has been conducted on 152 patients with hip fragility fractures. FCI has been calculated on fractured femur and on the opposite side. The presence of comorbidities, osteoporosis risk factors, vitamin D levels, and BMD have been analyzed for each patient. Average values of FCI have been 0.42 for fractured femurs and 0.48 at the opposite side with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.002). Patients with severe hypovitaminosis D had a minor FCI compared to those with moderate deficiency (0.41 vs. 0.46, p < 0.011). 42 patients (27.6%) with osteopenic or normal BMD have presented low values of FCI. A significant correlation among low values of FCI, comorbidities, severe hypovitaminosis D. and BMD in patients with hip fractures has been found. FCI could be a useful tool to evaluate bone fragility and to predict fracture risk even in the normal and osteopenic BMD patients.

  6. Distal Femur Locking Plate: The Answer to All Distal Femoral Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sudhir Kumar; Gupta, Parmanand; Jangira, Vivek; Singh, Jagdeep; Rana, Sudhir

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Good results have been published by researchers with distal femur nail, dynamic condylar screw and even addition of a medial plate to a distal femur locking plate for treating distal femur fractures. By this study, we explore the capability of a distal femur locking plate to counter distal femur fractures of extra- articular, partial or intra- articular nature. Positive results have been published by various groups from all over the world. Aim To study the functional and radiological outcome of distal femoral fractures in skeletally mature patients treated by open reduction and internal fixation with distal femur locking plate. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study conducted from January 2012 to March 2014 at the Government Medical College and Hospital (GMCH) with a 2 year follow-up. Twenty five skeletally mature patients with post-traumatic distal femur fractures were included. Patients with open grade 3B and 3C distal femur fractures, according to the Gustilo- Anderson classification and pathological distal femur fractures were excluded from the study. Patients with any fracture other than the distal femur in the ipsilateral limb were excluded from the study. Follow-up at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year and 2 years was carried out and evaluation was done according to the Neer scoring system. The statistical data analysis was carried out using SPSS version 20 (IBM, Chicago, USA). The p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results Following all principles of fracture reduction, union was achieved in all patients with mean time to radiological union being 19 weeks. The mean Range of Motion (ROM) was 109 degrees with 20 patients having a Neer score graded as excellent to satisfactory. Our study had nine cases which required additional surgeries. Out of these, all nine cases required bone grafting, three also required antibiotic cement bead insertion initially. Three patients developed complications in the form of infection (two cases) and mal

  7. The use of uncemented extensively porous-coated femoral components in the management of Vancouver B2 and B3 periprosthetic femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, K; Quinlan, J F; Kutty, S; Mulcahy, D; Brady, O H

    2005-12-01

    We assessed the outcome of patients with Vancouver type B2 and B3 periprosthetic fractures treated with femoral revision using an uncemented extensively porous-coated implant. A retrospective clinical and radiographic assessment of 22 patients with a mean follow-up of 33.7 months was performed. The mean time from the index procedure to fracture was 10.8 years. There were 17 patients with a satisfactory result. Complications in four patients included subsidence in two, deep sepsis in one, and delayed union in one. Concomitant acetabular revision was required in 19 patients. Uncemented extensively porous-coated femoral stems incorporate distally allowing stable fixation. We found good early survival rates and a low incidence of nonunion using this implant.

  8. Application of rapid computer modeling in the analysis of the stabilization method in intraoperative femoral bone shaft fracture during revision hip arthroplasty - a case report.

    PubMed

    Lorkowski, Jacek; Mrzygłód, Mirosław M; Kotela, Andrzej; Kotela, Ireneusz

    2014-08-15

    Fractures of the femoral bone shaft during and after hip arthroplasty are a serious clinical problem. The paper presents the use of rapid computer modeling FEM 2D to optimize the stabilization of femoral shaft fracture in case of hip revision arthroplasty. Using the FEM modeling may be helpful for planning and assessment of orthopaedic treatment in similar cases.

  9. [Electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail technology for treatment of femoral shaft fractures].

    PubMed

    Zuo, Kangkang; Qin, Wei; Guo, Qing; Palati-Ababaikeli; Qiao, Peiliu; Shen, Mingquan; Yin, Lele; Pan, Qilin; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2014-10-01

    To explore the value of electromagnetic navigation interlocking intramedullary nail in the treatment of femoral shaft fracture. Between July 2012 and October 2013, 53 cases of femoral shaft fracture were treated. There were 40 males and 13 females, aged 16-52 years (mean, 38.3 years). The causes of injury were traffic accident in 28 cases, falling from height in 11 cases, falling in 7 cases, crush injury in 4 cases, and other in 3 cases. Of 53 cases, there were 3 cases of open fracture (Gustilo I degree) and 50 cases of closed fracture. Fracture was located in the proximal femur in 17 cases, middle femur in 29 cases, and distal femur in 7 cases. According to Winquist classification, 7 cases were rated as type I, 8 cases as type II, 22 cases as type III, and 16 cases as type IV; according to AO classification, 18 cases were rated as type 32-A, 28 cases as type 32-B, and 7 cases as type 32-C. The time from injury to operation was 3-11 days (mean, 5 days). Distal interlocking intramedullary nail was implanted using electromagnetic navigation. The distal locking nail operation with interlocking intramedullary nail was successfully completed under electromagnetic navigation; the one-time success rate of distal locking nail operation reached 100%; and the locking nail time was 5.0-9.5 minutes (mean, 7.0 minutes). Healing of incision by first intention was obtained after operation, and no complication of skin necrosis, infection, and sinus tract occurred. Fifty-three cases were all followed up 5-12 months (mean, 9 months). One case had hip pain and weaken middle gluteal muscle strength, and the symptoms disappeared after removing the nail. During the follow-up period, no broken nails, nail exit, infection, or re-fracture occurred. All fractures achieved clinical healing, and the healing time was 8-22 weeks (mean, 14.5 weeks). In 49 patients followed up 8 months, the Lysholm score was excellent in 44 cases, good in 4 cases, and acceptable in 1 case, with an excellent and

  10. Outcome after hemi-arthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture related to mental state.

    PubMed

    van Dortmont, L M; Douw, C M; van Breukelen, A M; Laurens, D R; Mulder, P G; Wereldsma, J C; van Vugt, A B

    2000-06-01

    This study was performed to assess mortality and functional outcome after hemi-arthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures in relation to mental state. Between 1991 and 1995, 202 consecutive patients over 70 years of age were followed for at least two years or until death. Thirty-nine patients were known with senile dementia at the time of admission. The four-month mortality rate was 11.7% for the mentally normal patients and 33.3% for the mentally impaired patients. After one year the mortality rate was 19. 6% for the mentally normal patients and 43.6% for the mentally impaired patients. This difference is statistically significant (p<0. 001). Of the 141 surviving mentally normal patients, who had been mobile before operation, 16 (11.3%) were not mobile four months after operation. Of the 24 surviving mentally impaired patients, who had been mobile before operation, 18 (75.0%) were not mobile four months after operation. This difference is statistically significant (p<0.001). The conclusion of our study is that mental state has a statistically significant effect on mortality and functional outcome after hemi-arthroplasty for displaced intracapsular femoral neck fractures. For demented patients, hemi-arthrplasty is a too major operation and less invasive methods of internal fixation should be considered.

  11. Optimising fast track care for proximal femoral fracture patients using modified early warning score

    PubMed Central

    Ollivere, B

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The care for patients with a proximal femoral fracture has been dramatically overhauled with the introduction of ‘fast track’ protocols and the British Orthopaedic Association guidance in 2007. Fast track pathways focus on streamlining patient flow through the emergency department where the guidance addresses standards of care. We prospectively examined the impact these protocols have on patient care and propose an alternative ‘streamed care’ pathway to provide improved medical care within existing resource constraints. METHODS Data surrounding the treatment of 156 consecutive patients managed at 4 centres were collated prospectively. Management of patients with a traditional fast track protocol allowed 17% of patients to leave the emergency department with undiagnosed serious medical pathology and 32% with suboptimal fluid resuscitation. A streamed care pathway based on the modified early warning score was developed and employed for 48 further patients as an alternative to the traditional fast track system. RESULTS The streamed care pathway improved initial care significantly by treating patients according to their physiological parameters on admission. Targeted medical reviews on admission instead of the following day reduced the rates of undiagnosed medical pathology to 2% (p=0.0068) and inadequate fluid resuscitation to 11% (p<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS Implementation of a streamed care pathway can allow protocol driven improvement to initial care for patients with a proximal femoral fracture and results in improved access to initial specialist medical care. PMID:22613306

  12. Optimising fast track care for proximal femoral fracture patients using modified early warning score.

    PubMed

    Ollivere, B; Rollins, K; Brankin, R; Wood, M; Brammar, T J; Wimhurst, J

    2012-05-01

    The care for patients with a proximal femoral fracture has been dramatically overhauled with the introduction of 'fast track' protocols and the British Orthopaedic Association guidance in 2007. Fast track pathways focus on streamlining patient flow through the emergency department where the guidance addresses standards of care. We prospectively examined the impact these protocols have on patient care and propose an alternative 'streamed care' pathway to provide improved medical care within existing resource constraints. Data surrounding the treatment of 156 consecutive patients managed at 4 centres were collated prospectively. Management of patients with a traditional fast track protocol allowed 17% of patients to leave the emergency department with undiagnosed serious medical pathology and 32% with suboptimal fluid resuscitation. A streamed care pathway based on the modified early warning score was developed and employed for 48 further patients as an alternative to the traditional fast track system. The streamed care pathway improved initial care significantly by treating patients according to their physiological parameters on admission. Targeted medical reviews on admission instead of the following day reduced the rates of undiagnosed medical pathology to 2% (p = 0.0068) and inadequate fluid resuscitation to 11% (p < 0.0001). Implementation of a streamed care pathway can allow protocol driven improvement to initial care for patients with a proximal femoral fracture and results in improved access to initial specialist medical care.

  13. Larger femoral periprosthetic bone mineral density decrease following total hip arthroplasty for femoral neck fracture than for osteoarthritis: a prospective, observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mann, Tobias; Eisler, Thomas; Bodén, Henrik; Muren, Olle; Stark, André; Salemyr, Mats; Sköldenberg, Olof

    2015-04-01

    Studies on patients with degenerative joint disease of the hip show that femoral periprosthetic bone mineral decreases following total hip arthroplasty. Scarcely any osteodensitometric data exist on femoral neck fracture (FNF) patients and periprosthetic bone remodelling. In two parallel cohorts we enrolled 87 patients (mean age, 72 ± 12 years; male:female ratio, 30:57) undergoing total hip arthroplasty for either primary osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip (n = 37) or for an acute FNF (n = 50) and followed them for a mean of 5.4 years. Outcomes were bone mineral density (BMD) changes in the periprosthetic Gruen zones 1-7, the incidence of periprosthetic fractures and clinical outcome. The bone mineral loss in the fracture group was more than twice that of the osteoarthritis group, -16.9% versus -6.8% (p = 0.004). The incidence of periprosthetic fractures was 12% (6/50) in the fracture cohort compared with none (0%) in the OA cohort (p = 0.03). Periprosthetic bone mineral loss following total hip arthroplasty is significantly greater in patients who are treated for acute FNF than in OA patients. This decrease of BMD follows a different pattern with the FNF patients losing larger proportions of bone in Gruen zones 1, 2, 6, and 7 while the OA patients tend to have larger losses only in zones 1 and 7. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Atypical femoral fracture after long-term alendronate treatment: report of a case evidenced with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chih-Ming; Huang, Peng-Ju; Chen, Chung-Hwan; Chen, Shu-Jung; Cheng, Yuh-Min

    2012-10-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is commonly treated with alendronate, one of the bisphosphonates used for the prevention and treatment of osteoporotic fractures. However, the correlation between atypical femoral fractures and long-term bisphosphonate therapy has not been clearly identified. We report here the case of a 69-year-old woman with postmenopausal osteoporosis who presented with an atypical femoral subtrochanteric fracture on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmation after having received alendronate therapy for about 3 years. The fracture united after refixation and after administration of alendronate was stopped. Several published reports were reviewed, and some clinical characteristics of this atraumatic fracture were revealed, including the clinical symptoms of thigh pain, stress reaction or stress fracture, and transverse fracture with unicortical beak in an area of cortical hypertrophy. In addition to a regular radiographic survey, MRI, which may provide early information, and bone biopsy for pathologic analysis may be used as tools for early detection and final diagnosis. Once an insufficiency fracture is suspected or proved to be related to bisphosphonate, the withholding of bisphosphonate should be highly recommended to enhance fracture healing. Prophylactic fixation should be considered if fracture healing is not good or if the patient cannot tolerate protection of weight-bearing. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Bone Fragility Beyond Strength and Mineral Density: Raman Spectroscopy Predicts Femoral Fracture Toughness in a Murine Model of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Inzana, Jason A.; Maher, Jason R.; Takahata, Masahiko; Schwarz, Edward M.; Berger, Andrew J.; Awad, Hani A.

    2012-01-01

    Clinical prediction of bone fracture risk primarily relies on measures of bone mineral density (BMD). BMD is strongly correlated with bone strength, but strength is independent of fracture toughness, which refers to the bone’s resistance to crack initiation and propagation. In that sense, fracture toughness is more relevant to assessing fragility-related fracture risk, independent of trauma. We hypothesized that bone biochemistry, determined by Raman spectroscopy, predicts bone fracture toughness better than BMD. This hypothesis was tested in tumor necrosis factor-transgenic mice (TNF-tg), which develop inflammatory-erosive arthritis and osteoporosis. The left femurs of TNF-tg and wild type (WT) littermates were measured with Raman spectroscopy and micro-computed tomography. Fracture toughness was assessed by cutting a sharp notch into the anterior surface of the femoral mid-diaphysis and propagating the crack under 3 point bending. Femoral fracture toughness of TNF-tg mice was significantly reduced compared to WT controls (p=0.04). A Raman spectrum-based prediction model of fracture toughness was generated by partial least squares regression (PLSR). Raman spectrum PLSR analysis produced strong predictions of fracture toughness, while BMD was not significantly correlated and produced very weak predictions. Raman spectral components associated with mineralization quality and bone collagen were strongly leveraged in predicting fracture toughness, reiterating the limitations of mineralization density alone. PMID:23261243

  16. Periosteal entrapment in distal femoral physeal fractures: harbinger for premature physeal arrest ?

    PubMed

    Segal, Lee S; Shrader, M Wade

    2011-10-01

    We report on two patients who sustained Salter-Harris II fractures of the distal femur with physeal widening after being tackled in football games. Preoperative MRI indicated entrapped periosteum at the physeal fracture site for both patients. Both patients underwent open reduction of the physeal fracture with removal of the entrapped periosteum and achieving an anatomic reduction. Follow-up MRI's revealed premature physeal arrest. Subsequent procedures were performed to address sequelae of premature physeal arrest. The presence of physeal widening and entrapped periosteum may reflect high-energy trauma to the physis. This can result in injury to both the epiphyseal blood supply and to the physeal cartilage (germinal zone) resulting in physeal arrest despite anatomic reduction after removal of the entrapped periosteum. Upon literature review, pre-operative MRI demonstrating entrapped periosteum has not been previously reported. We hypothesize that the presence of entrapped periosteum following distal femoral physeal fractures may be associated with an increased risk for premature physeal arrest.

  17. Delayed internal fixation of femoral shaft fracture reduces mortality among patients with multisystem trauma.

    PubMed

    Morshed, Saam; Miclau, Theodore; Bembom, Oliver; Cohen, Mitchell; Knudson, M Margaret; Colford, John M

    2009-01-01

    Fractures of the femoral shaft are common and have potentially serious consequences in patients with multiple injuries. The appropriate timing of fracture repair is controversial. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of timing of internal fixation on mortality in patients with multisystem trauma. We performed a retrospective cohort study with use of data from public and private trauma centers throughout the United States that were reported to the National Trauma Data Bank (version 5.0 for 2000 through 2004). The study included 3069 patients with multisystem trauma (Injury Severity Score, > or =15) who underwent internal fixation of a femoral shaft fracture. The time to treatment was defined in categories as the time from admission to internal fixation: t(0) (twelve hours or less), t(1) (more than twelve hours to twenty-four hours), t(2) (more than twenty-four hours to forty-eight hours), t(3) (more than forty-eight hours to 120 hours), and t(4) (more than 120 hours). The relative risk of in-hospital mortality when the four later periods were compared with the earliest one was estimated with inverse probability of treatment-weighted analysis. Subgroups with serious head or neck, chest, abdominal, and additional extremity injury were investigated. When compared with that during the first twelve hours after admission, the estimated mortality risk was significantly lower in three time categories: t(1) (relative risk, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.98; p = 0.03), t(3) (relative risk, 0.58; 95% confidence interval, 0.28 to 0.93; p = 0.03), and t(4) (relative risk, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.10 to 0.94; p = 0.03). Patients with serious abdominal trauma (Abbreviated Injury Score, > or =3) experienced the greatest benefit from a delay of internal fixation beyond twelve hours (relative risk, 0.82 [95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 1.35] for patients with an Abbreviated Injury Score of <3, compared with 0.36 [95% confidence interval, 0

  18. The correlation between preoperative levels of albumin and tlc and mortality in patients with femoral neck fracture.

    PubMed

    Niccolai, F; Parchi, P D; Vigorito, A; Pasqualetti, G; Monzani, F; Lisanti, M

    2016-01-01

    A femoral neck fracture in an elderly patient often represents a major challenge for the orthopaedic surgeon who has to face not only the fracture, but also all the multiple issues related to age. Among others, malnutrition has been recognised as an important factor associated with severe aggravation in these patients. One-hundred-and-forty-seven patients were enrolled to investigate the use of two markers of patient nutritional status, i.e. serum albumin level and total leukocyte count (TLC), as predictors of mortality in the elderly patient suffering from proximal femur fracture. We found that low preoperative values of serum albumin and TLC proved to be directly related to worse outcomes. Therefore, these exams can be useful to identify patients with a femoral neck fracture that have higher risk of malnutrition and consequent higher mortality and that can benefit from some measures, such as albumin or protein nutritional supplement.

  19. Internal fixation versus arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures: what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Heetveld, Martin J; Rogmark, Cecilia; Frihagen, Frede; Keating, John

    2009-07-01

    A review of the current evidence for internal fixation versus hemiarthroplasty versus primary total hip arthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures was undertaken. At the meta-analysis level no difference in postoperative pain, function, or quality of life can yet be demonstrated. A significant difference in mortality has also not been found, but a trend towards higher mortality after primary arthroplasty is possible. Internal fixation (IF) has less morbidity, but a higher risk of revision and less cost-effectiveness. Independent adjudication for IF technique is rare in studies and bias towards higher revision rates due to technical failure is an issue. Randomized trials comparing IF with arthroplasty remain underpowered in specific subgroups of patients, in which IF revision rates could be acceptable. In hemiarthroplasty the data suggest minimal differences in outcome between the prosthesis types. The cementless Austin-Moore prosthesis is out-dated. Currently a cemented unipolar or bipolar, depending on costs, hemi-arthroplasty is the treatment of choice for an elderly patient with functional limitations before the fracture. The role of modern, uncemented hemiarthroplasty designs are uncertain until more data are published. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) should be considered in any active older patient with a displaced femoral neck fracture. Patients with concomitant osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or renal failure do poorly with other treatment options and should be treated with THA. Randomized trials have shown THA to be a cost-effective treatment with lower revision rates than IF. THA may also appear to be superior to hemiarthroplasty in specific subgroups, but larger trials are needed to confirm this observation.

  20. Lacking evidence for performance of implants used for proximal femoral fractures - A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, Anne Marie; Palm, Henrik; Malchau, Henrik; Troelsen, Anders; Gromov, Kirill

    2016-03-01

    Evaluation of the long-term performance of implants used in trauma surgery relies on post-marked clinical studies since no registry based implant assessment exists. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the evidence of performance of implants currently used for treating proximal femoral fractures (PFF) in Denmark. PubMed was searched for clinical studies on primary PFF with follow-up ≥12 months, reporting implant-related failure and evaluating one of following: DHS, CHS, HipLoc, Gamma3, IMHS, InterTan, PFN, PFNA or PTN. English language and publication date after 1st of January 1990. All studies were evidence level II or III. 30 publications for SHS were found: 13 of CHS, 15 of DHS and 2 of HipLoc. In total CHS was evaluated in 1110 patients (900 prospectively), DHS in 2486 (567 prospectively) and HipLoc in 251 (all prospectively). Fifty-four publications for nails were found: 13 of Gamma3, 7 of IMHS, 5 of InterTan, 10 of PFN, 24 of PFNA and 0 of PTN. In total Gamma3 was evaluated in 1088 patients (829 prospectively), IMHS in 1543 (210 prospectively), InterTan in 595 (585 prospectively), PFN in 716 (557 prospectively), PFNA in 1762 (1018 prospectively) and PTN in 0. The clinical evidence behind the current implants used for proximal femoral fractures is weak considering the number of implants used worldwide. Sporadic evaluation is not sufficient to identify long term problems. A systematic post market surveillance of implants used for fracture treatment, preferable by a national register, is necessary in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Femoral neck stress fracture in a female athlete: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Avrahami, Daniel; Pajaczkowski, Jason A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this case report is to describe chiropractic rehabilitation of a master's-level athlete with proximal femoral stress fracture and provide a brief discussion of stress fracture pathology. Clinical Features A 41-year-old female master's-level endurance athlete presented with chronic groin pain later diagnosed and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging as a stress fracture of the femoral neck. After diagnosis, the patient was referred to a doctor of chiropractic at week 1 of the non–weight-bearing physical rehabilitation process. At that time, the patient presented with sharp and constant groin pain rated 6/10 on a numeric rating scale. Intervention and Outcome This patient avoided weight-bearing activity for 8 weeks while cross-training and was able to return to her sport after this period. The patient was progressed through a series of non–weight-bearing strengthening exercises for the lower extremity. Myofascial release therapy was performed on the gluteal, hip flexor, and groin muscle groups to improve range of motion. Motion palpation testing the lumbar and sacroiliac joints was performed during each session, and manipulative therapy was performed when necessary. The patient was seen once a week for 8 weeks. Reevaluation was performed at week 8; at that time, the patient reported no groin pain (0/10). The patient was discharged from care and referred back to the supervising physician for clearance to return to sporting activities. One month after discharge, she reported that she was pain free and had fully returned to sport activities. Conclusion This case report demonstrates the importance of a through clinical history, physical examination, and magnetic resonance imaging in the accurate diagnosis of a patient with chronic groin pain and that chiropractic care can contribute to rehabilitation programs for these injuries. PMID:23843760

  2. Delirium in older people after proximal femoral fracture repair: role of a preoperative screening cognitive test.

    PubMed

    Mézière, A; Paillaud, E; Belmin, J; Pariel, S; Herbaud, S; Canouï-Poitrine, F; Le Thuaut, A; Marty, J; Plaud, B

    2013-09-01

    Preoperative cognitive impairment has been identified as a major risk factor for postoperative delirium in older people. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether a validated and rapid screening cognitive test - COgnitive Disorder EXamination (CODEX) - performed preoperatively before proximal femoral fracture repair, was associated with a risk of postoperative delirium. We performed an observational prospective cohort study in orthopedic surgery department of a French hospital. We included patients aged 70years or older undergoing proximal femoral fracture repair and who were free of known dementia and delirium at the preoperative phase. Before surgery, the anesthesiologist realized the CODEX based on three-word recall test, simplified clock drawing and if one of these tasks was abnormal, spatial orientation was assessed. Delirium was routinely sought on postoperative day 3 (D3) using the Confusion Assessment Method by the geriatrician. Among the 52 included patients, seven (13.5%) had delirium on D3. All seven patients were among the 25 patients with abnormal CODEX results. None of the 27 patients with normal CODEX results had postoperative delirium. Abnormal CODEX was significantly associated with the risk of postoperative delirium in univariate analysis and after adjustment for age (odds ratio [OR]: 13.33; 95% confidence interval, [95%CI]: 1.85±∞; P<0.003). Abnormal preoperative rapid screening test CODEX is independently associated with postoperative delirium in older people undergoing hip fracture surgery and free of known dementia. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Risk factors of avascular necrosis of the femoral head and fixation failure in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures over the age of 50 years.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyung Keun; Choi, Ho June; Yang, Kyu Hyun

    2016-12-01

    The aim of our study was to identify the risk factors for avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVN) and fixation failure (FF) after screw osteosynthesis in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures. We conducted a retrospective study of 308 patients (mean age, 72.5 years, range, 50-97 years), with a mean follow-up of 21.4 months (range, 12-64 months). The risk for failure in treatment (FIT) associated with patient- and fracture-related factors was evaluated by logistic regression analyses. FIT was identified in 32 cases (10.3%): 22 cases (7.1%) of AVN and 10 cases (3.2%) of FF. Initial valgus tilt>15° (p=0.023), posterior tilt>15° (p=0.012), and screw sliding distance (p=0.037) were significantly associated with FIT. FIT occurred in 7 patients (5.2%) with B1.2.1 fractures and 17 patients (48.6%) with B1.1.2 fractures (p<0.001). The odds of FIT were 17-fold higher in patients with initial valgus and posterior tilts>15° (B1.1.2) compared to patients with <15° of tilt in both planes (B1.2.1). The severity of initial deformity predicts AVN and FF in patients with valgus angulated femoral neck fractures. Patients with an initial valgus and posterior tilt>15° are reasonable candidates for primary arthroplasty due to high risk of FIT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Revision rates and cumulative financial burden in patients treated with hemiarthroplasty compared to cannulated screws after femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Shields, Edward; Kates, Stephen L

    2014-12-01

    This study compares re-operation rates and financial burden following the treatment of femoral neck fractures treated with hemiarthroplasty compared to non-displaced femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated screws. Data was retrospectively analyzed from a prospective database at a university hospital setting on patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty after femoral neck fractures and those with non-displaced femoral neck fractures treated with cannulated screws over a 7-year period. Re-operation rates were determined and financial data was analyzed. Charges refer to amounts billed by the hospital to insurance carriers, while costs refer to financial burden carried by the hospital during treatment. There were 491 femoral neck fractures (475 patients) that underwent hemiarthroplasty (HA) and 120 non-displaced fractures (119 patients) treated with cannulated screw (CannS) fixation. Both groups had similar age, sex, Charlson co-morbidity scores, pre-operative Parker mobility scores, and 12-month mortality. There were 29 (5.9 %) reoperations in the HA group and 16 (13.3 %) in the CannS group (P = 0.007). The majority of re-operations occurred within 12 months for both groups [21/29 (72 %) HA group; 15/16 (94 %) CannS group; P = 0.13]. Average hospital charges per patient for the index procedure were higher in the HA group ($17,880 ± 745) compared to the CannS group ($14,104 ± 5,047; P < 0.001). After accounting for additional procedures related to their initial surgical fixation, average hospital charges and costs remained higher in the HA group. Patients treated with hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fractures have lower re-operation rates than patients treated with cannulated screws for non-displaced femoral neck fractures, with 80 % of re-operations occurring in the first 12 months. Hospital charges and costs to the hospital for treating patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty were higher than patients treated with cannulated screws for the index procedure alone

  5. Distal locking stem for revision femoral loosening and peri-prosthetic fractures.

    PubMed

    Mertl, Patrice; Philippot, Remy; Rosset, Philippe; Migaud, Henri; Tabutin, Jacques; Van de Velde, Denis

    2011-02-01

    Revision total hip arthroplasty in the setting of a large proximal femoral deficiency or a peri-prosthetic fracture remains a challenging problem. We describe the development, surgical technique and the use of cementless revision stems with distal inter-locking screws to provide immediate stability of the femoral implant. Results were assessed in a large multicentre French study conducted with the french hip and knee surgery society (SFHG). We retrospectively reviewed 725 revisions using interlocking stems from 14 French orthopaedic departments. Seven different stems were used in this series. In-patient records were retrieved, and in addition to demographic data the indication for revision, the preoperative and postoperative PMA and Harris hip scores were documented. The bone deficiency was classified on the basis of the French National Orthopaedic Meeting (SOFCOT) classification. Intraoperative complications and problems if any were retrieved from operative notes. Clinical status and radiographs at the final follow-up were evaluated, paying special attention to the metaphyseal filling index. Average follow-up was 4.5 years. As for the clinical results, the mean Harris hip score at last follow-up was 81. Therefore, it increased by an average of 31 points. Bone reconstruction was assessed on the cortico-medullary index in the metaphyseal area and at mid-shaft increasing from 36 to 45 and 54 to 63, respectively. Radiologically, 637 implants were stable, and 40 demonstrated subsidence. Forty-eight implants have been revised. We found a significant relation between the metaphyseal filling index, the stability of the stem and the quality of bone reconstruction. Results were analysed with respect to three groups of stems: group 1 was a straight, partially HA-coated implant; group 2 was a curved, fully HA-coated implant; and group 3 was a curved, partially-coated implant. Group 1 showed a significantly higher rate of failure when compared with the others types of implants

  6. Primary total hip arthroplasty versus internal fixation in displaced fracture of femoral neck in sexa- and septuagenarians.

    PubMed

    Wani, Iftikhar H; Sharma, Sidhartha; Latoo, Irfan; Salaria, A Q; Farooq, Munir; Jan, Masrat

    2014-09-01

    The optimal treatment of femoral neck fracture in the elderly patient is still under debate. In patients aged 60-80 years, the decision between internal fixation and arthroplasty remains controversial. The primary aim of the present study is to evaluate the functional outcome of patients aged 60-80 years with femoral neck fracture treated with total hip arthroplasty or closed reduction and internal fixation. The secondary aim is to evaluate the incidence of nonunion and avascular necrosis in femoral neck fracture in different age groups. We studied 100 patients affected by displaced fracture of the femoral neck from May 2007 through June 2010. There were 60 men and 40 women with mean age of 66 years. Fifty patients were treated with closed reduction and internal fixation with cannulated screws (group A), and the other 50 patients with total hip arthroplasty (group B). Mean surgical time, blood loss, duration of hospital stay, Harris hip score, complications, and need for reoperation were recorded. Harris hip score was significantly higher in group B at 3-, 6-, 12-, and 18-month follow-up evaluation. The overall complication rate was 28 % in group A and 32 % in group B, which was not statistically significant. A statistically significant difference was found regarding patients who required reoperation in group A (20 %) compared with group B (no one). The average Harris hip score in the internal fixation group was 90.6 and in the total hip arthroplasty group was 93.7, which was statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our study showed an increased risk for intracapsular hip fracture developing nonunion with older age. Primary total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation appears to be a reasonably safe method of treating displaced fracture of femoral neck in elderly patients. We also concluded that outcome regarding hip function is generally better after total hip arthroplasty compared with internal fixation. Level II-Prospective cohort study.

  7. Femoral neck shaft angle width is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but not independently of femoral neck bone density

    PubMed Central

    Lisi, L; Avella, M

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the specificity of the neck shaft angle (NSA) to predict hip fracture in males. Methods: We consecutively studied 228 males without fracture and 38 with hip fracture. A further 49 males with spine fracture were studied to evaluate the specificity of NSA for hip-fracture prediction. Femoral neck (FN) bone mineral density (FN-BMD), NSA, hip axis length and FN diameter (FND) were measured in each subject by dual X-ray absorptiometry. Between-mean differences in the studied variables were tested by the unpaired t-test. The ability of NSA to predict hip fracture was tested by logistic regression. Results: Compared with controls, FN-BMD (p < 0.01) was significantly lower in both groups of males with fractures, whereas FND (p < 0.01) and NSA (p = 0.05) were higher only in the hip-fracture group. A significant inverse correlation (p < 0.01) was found between NSA and FN-BMD. By age-, height- and weight-corrected logistic regression, none of the tested geometric parameters, separately considered from FN-BMD, entered the best model to predict spine fracture, whereas NSA (p < 0.03) predicted hip fracture together with age (p < 0.001). When forced into the regression, FN-BMD (p < 0.001) became the only fracture predictor to enter the best model to predict both fracture types. Conclusion: NSA is associated with hip-fracture risk in males but is not independent of FN-BMD. Advances in knowledge: The lack of ability of NSA to predict hip fracture in males independent of FN-BMD should depend on its inverse correlation with FN-BMD by capturing, as the strongest fracture predictor, some of the effects of NSA on the hip fracture. Conversely, NSA in females does not correlate with FN-BMD but independently predicts hip fractures. PMID:24678889

  8. Fracture of Uncemented Revision Femoral Stems in three Arthroplasty Patients: A Case Series with three different brands

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, Rajiv; Kelly, Ian; Quinlan, John

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fracture of stems in primary total hip arthroplasty is a known complication and has been attributed to varus positioning, excessive weight of the patient, resorption of the femoral calcar and failure of the cement mantle. Fractures in uncemented revision femoral stems are rare and are attributed to reduction in proximal support either in the form of bone loss or an extended trochanteric osteotomy [ETO] against a distally well- fixed stem. Also, undersized stems and high BMI to increase the risk of stem fracture. Case Report: We report 3 cases of uncemented revision stem fractures. Case 1 is a 77 year old male, Case 2 is a 71- year-old female, case 3 an 82-year-old male. All three patients had significant proximal femoral osteolysis. All three had an extended trochanteric osteotomy for the revision surgery. The hips had remained in-situ for 4, 2 and 5 years respectively prior to fracture. Conclusion: When planning complex revision cases involving long uncemented stems, attention should be given to the above-mentioned variables. ETO non-union and proximal bone loss play an important role in stem fractures. Stem failure can occur irrespective of the make, and factors such as adequate stem size and good diaphyseal fit are non negotiable. PMID:27298992

  9. Unreamed intramedullary nailing of femoral shaft fractures: operative technique and early clinical experience with the standard locking option.

    PubMed

    Krettek, C; Rudolf, J; Schandelmaier, P; Guy, P; Könemann, B; Tscherne, H

    1996-05-01

    Nailing techniques have changed in recent years in ways which are not just limited to omitting the reaming process. These changes concern positioning patients, techniques of reduction and selecting implants. Techniques of approach and exposure have been modified to new, less-invasive procedures to fulfill technical, functional and cosmetic requirements. In addition, techniques have been developed to avoid fragment diastasis, rotational and sagittal malalignment, and leg-length discrepancy. Finally, simple algorithms have been elaborated for the management of specific fracture patterns (bilateral shaft fractures, ipsilateral tibial fractures or associated femoral neck fractures) and to determine the number and location of locking bolts. We developed these algorithms, techniques and procedures in a series of 133 femoral shafts, which were stabilized with the AO unreamed femoral nail (URFN) in a prospective study between 1991 and 1994. Of these, the first 57 cases with a mean follow-up of 17.9 months (range, 5-44) after injury were reviewed. Fractures were classified according to Müller's 1990 system: 12 type A, 29 type B and 16 type C. Closed soft-tissue injuries were classified by our classification of 1982: 17 type C 0/I, 42 type C II. Of 15 open fractures, six were OI, six OII, two OIIIA and one was OIIIB by Gustilo's classification of 1984. The major complications were two broken locking bolts, one nail breaking after 9 weeks, one case of osteitis and one of intra-operative lung embolism.

  10. [Bone cement dry prosthetic with internal fixation treat senile osteoporotic femoral fractures].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y; Rong, X X; Chen, P; Xu, Y J; Zhu, G X

    2017-03-01

    Objective: To explore the treatment of senile osteoporotic femoral fractures after using internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic. Methods: Twelve patients aged from 74 to 94 years with mean age of (84.0±2.5) years with internal fixation of bone cement dry prosthetic surgery who were treated at Department of Orthopaedics in Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Wuxi Second Hospital between May 2013 and May 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 male and 4 female, 10 cases of tumble and 2 cases of traffic injury. The fracture types with AO type included 1 case of A1 type, 5 cases of A2 type, 3 cases of A3 type, 1 case of B1 type, 2 cases of B2 type. The steel plate internal fixation with bone cement dry prosthetic method was chosen to treat senile severe femoral fracture. Postoperative observation of postoperative pain assessment, hip joint activity and walking ability were evaluated. Paired simple t test and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to compare the differences of pain score and the ability to walk. Results: Twelve cases received an average of (16.0±3.6) months follow-up. The average hospitalization days are (9.0±1.4) days and average of intraoperative time was (68.0±10.6) minutes. Intraoperative blood loss compared to normal was (106.0±24.2) ml. Patients began walking load and activities in two weeks. The gait and joint activities gradually restored and there were no obvious deformity and no loose internal fixation. All of the patients didn't have fracture shift with breaking plates or screws deformation and have no bone cement reaction. The walking ability was (4.1±0.9) points, the hip joint activities were 98.5°±7.7° and pain scores were 1.22±0.58 by Holden grading standards. The differences of walking ability (Z=-3.126, P<0.05) and pain scores (t=23.047, P<0.001) between pre- and post-operative were statistically significant. One patient had contralateral hip pain, 2 patients had lateral thigh pain, 10 patients returned to

  11. Does a trochanteric lag screw improve fixation of vertically oriented femoral neck fractures? A biomechanical analysis in cadaveric bone.

    PubMed

    Hawks, Michael A; Kim, Hyunchul; Strauss, Joseph E; Oliphant, Bryant W; Golden, Robert D; Hsieh, Adam H; Nascone, Jason W; O'Toole, Robert V

    2013-10-01

    We assessed the biomechanical performances of a trochanteric lag screw construct and a traditional inverted triangle construct in the treatment of simulated Pauwels type 3 femoral neck fractures. An inverted triangle construct (three 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed in inverted triangle orientation) and a trochanteric lag screw construct (two 7.3-mm cannulated screws placed across the superior portion of the femoral neck and one 4.5-mm lag screw placed perpendicular to the fracture in superolateral to inferomedial orientation) were tested in nine matched pairs of non-osteoporotic human cadaveric femora. We used a previously described vertically oriented femoral neck fracture model and testing protocol that incrementally loaded the constructs along the mechanical axis of the femur to 1400 N. Specimens that survived incremental loading underwent cyclic loading. Apparent construct stiffness, force at 3mm of displacement, and survival of incremental loading were recorded. The trochanteric lag screw group had a 70% increase in stiffness (261 N/mm [29 standard deviation] versus 153 N/mm [16 standard deviation]; P=0.026) and a 43% increase in force required for displacement (620 N versus 435 N; P=0.018) compared with the inverted triangle group. One trochanteric lag screw and no inverted triangle specimen survived incremental loading. A trochanteric lag screw construct applied to vertically oriented femoral neck fractures provides marked improvement in mechanical performance compared with the inverted triangle construct. © 2013.

  12. [Dynamic Hip Screw Osteosynthesis for Proximal Femoral Fractures in Patients with Coxarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Hrubina, M; Skoták, M; Letocha, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of a group of patients with coxarthrosis who sustained fractures of the proximal femur and were treated by dynamic hip screw (DHS) osteosynthesis. The group comprised 23 DHS osteosyntheses in 22 patients treated between the years 1997 and 2012. The indication to osteosynthesis in all 23 cases was a stable pertrochanteric fracture of the femur; all patients had grade III or grade IV coxarthrosis (assessed on the Kellgren & Lawrence scale) and their physical health was classified as ASA 3 or 4. Preventive antibiotic therapy was administered within 48 hours of surgery. The evaluated factors included operative time, blood loss, specific complications such as infection, osteosynthetic material fractiure or osteosynthesis failure, requirement of revision surgery, post-operative mobility and patient survival. The follow-up was 2 years. The operative time was 35 min to 85 min (average, 49 min); blood losses ranged from 50 ml to 450 ml (average, 189 ml). Of the 23 hips, infectious complication was found in one (4.3%) and osteosynthetic material fractiure also in one (4.3%). There was no necessity of revision surgery due to osteosynthesis failure, nor any conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Postoperative mobility (with use of walking aids or forearm crutches) was achieved in 17 (77.3%) patients. The average survival of the patients was 6.3 months, the range from 7 days to 3 years. DHS osteosynthesis is a reliable method for the treatment of proximal femoral fractures due to osteoporosis. These fractures in patients with coxarthosis are primarily indicated to total hip arthroplasty. However, this is questionable in polymorbid elderly patients in whom hip replacement carries high risk. In such patients DHS osteosynthesis is preferred as a less risky procedure. DHS osteosynthesis is indicated for stable pertrochanteric fractures of the femur in a limited number of patients with advanced coxarthrosis in whom total hip replacement would be associated with an undue

  13. Tissue level microstructure and mechanical properties of the femoral head in the proximal femur of fracture patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Linwei; Meng, Guangwei; Gong, He; Zhu, Dong; Gao, Jiazi; Fan, Yubo

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the regional variations of trabecular morphological parameters and mechanical parameters of the femoral head, as well as to determine the relationship between trabecular morphological and mechanical parameters. Seven femoral heads from patients with fractured proximal femur were scanned using a micro-CT system. Each femoral head was divided into 12 sub-regions according to the trabecular orientation. One trabecular cubic model was reconstructed from each sub-region. A total of 81 trabecular models were reconstructed, except three destroyed sub-regions from two femoral heads during the surgery. Trabecular morphological parameters, i.e. trabecular separation (Tb.Sp), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th), specific bone surface (BS/BV), bone volume fraction (BV/TV), structural model index (SMI), and degree of anisotropy (DA) were measured. Micro-finite element analyses were performed for each cube to obtain the apparent Young's modulus and tissue level von Mises stress distribution under 1 % compressive strain along three orthogonal directions, respectively. Results revealed significant regional variations in the morphological parameters (). Young's moduli along the trabecular orientation were significantly higher than those along the other two directions. In general, trabecular mechanical properties in the medial region were lower than those in the lateral region. Trabecular mechanical parameters along the trabecular orientation were significantly correlated with BS/BV, BV/TV, Tb.Th, and DA. In this study, regional variations of microstructural features and mechanical properties in the femoral head of patients with proximal femur fracture were thoroughly investigated at the tissue level. The results of this study will help to elucidate the mechanism of femoral head fracture for reducing fracture risk and developing treatment strategies for the elderly.

  14. [Epidemiological analysis of hospitalized patients with femoral neck fracture in a first-class hospital of Beijing].

    PubMed

    Li, N; Liu, H N; Gong, X F; Zhu, S W; Wu, X B; He, L

    2016-04-18

    To analyze the clinical parameters of the patients with femoral neck fracture such as general condition, therapy method, hospitalized expense so as to provide more effective management plan for the clinical work. The patients with femoral neck fracture above 50 years who received in-patient treatment from 2008 January to 2012 December were admitted into this study. We collected and analyzed the information, such as age, chronic medical disease, therapy method, hospitalized duration and expense and so on. There were 1 794 femoral neck fracture patients above 50 years (male/female=1/2.06) in our hospital in recent 5 years and the annual average rate of increase was 7.3%. The average age of the patients was (69.9±10.7) years and the annual average rate of increase was 0.6%. The chronic medical disease diagnosis ratio was 55.0%. The average waiting time for operation was (6.8±4.2) days and the average hospitalized duration was (12.9±4.9) days which showed downward trend in recent years. The most popular operations were cannulated screw internal fixation (41.8%) and artificial femoral head replacement (34.1%). In the study, 146 cases (7.9%) received nonsurgical treatment which showed downward trend. The average hospitalized expense was (35 075.7±11 343.2) yuan which showed no obvious change in recent years. The cost for the females was more than that for the males. The expense for hemiarthroplasty and total hip arthroplasty increased while that for cannulated screw internal fixation decreased gradually. The cannulated screw internal fixation and artificial femoral head replacement were the most important operations for the patients with femoral neck fracture. The number and the average age of the patients were on the rise while the expense showed no obvious change in recent years.

  15. Atypical femoral fracture in a 51-year-old woman: Revealing a hypophosphatasia.

    PubMed

    Maman, Esther; Briot, Karine; Roux, Christian

    2016-05-01

    We report a 51-year old woman who suffered 2 atypical subtrochanteric femoral fractures (AFFs). She had a history of several metatarsal fractures. She had a normal bone densitometry. An adult form of hypophosphatasia (HPP) was diagnosed from low serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and tissue nonspecific isoenzyme of ALP (TNSALP) mutation analysis revealing 2 heterozygous mutations: c.299C>T (p. T100M) and c.571G>A (p. E191K). Low ALP is the hallmark of the diagnosis of HPP; which is associated in adults with premature loss of deciduous teeth, recurrent metatarsal stress fractures, and joints and tendons disorders. The incidence of AFFs in the population is 5.9 per 100,000 person-years. Physicians and patients with bone fragility must pay attention to prodromal pain, which require urgent radiographic evaluation of both femurs. Rheumatoid arthritis, use of glucocorticoids, and proton pump inhibitors have been associated with an excess risk of AFFs. Healthy subjects carrying a TNSALP mutation with low ALP value may be exposed to develop AFF spontaneously or while receiving potent anti-resorptive drugs. Low ALP must be checked as a cause of bone fragility.

  16. An analytical approach to study the intraoperative fractures of femoral shaft during total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Malekmotiei, Leila; Farahmand, Farzam; Shodja, Hossein M; Samadi-Dooki, Aref

    2013-04-01

    An analytical approach which is popular in micromechanical studies has been extended to the solution for the interference fit problem of the femoral stem in cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA). The multiple inhomogeneity problem of THA in transverse plane, including an elliptical stem, a cortical wall, and a cancellous layer interface, was formulated using the equivalent inclusion method (EIM) to obtain the induced interference elastic fields. Results indicated a maximum interference fit of about 210 μm before bone fracture, predicted based on the Drucker-Prager criterion for a partially reamed section. The cancellous layer had a significant effect on reducing the hoop stresses in the cortical wall; the maximum press fit increased to as high as 480 μm for a 2 mm thick cancellous. The increase of the thickness and the mechanical quality, i.e., stiffness and strength, of the cortical wall also increased the maximum interference fit before fracture significantly. No considerable effect was found for the implant material on the maximum allowable interference fit. It was concluded that while larger interference fits could be adapted for younger patients, care must be taken when dealing with the elderly and those suffering from osteoporosis. A conservative reaming procedure is beneficial for such patients; however, in order to ensure sufficient primary stability without risking bone fracture, a preoperative analysis might be necessary.

  17. Simultaneous Bilateral Femoral Neck Stress Fracture in a Young Stone Mason

    PubMed Central

    Khadabadi, Nikhil A.; Patil, Kiran S.

    2015-01-01

    Unilateral stress fractures of the femoral neck are very uncommon and bilateral involvement is even rarer. They commonly occur in athletes, military recruits, older persons, or individuals with underlying metabolic disorders and very seldom in normal individuals. We present a rare case of simultaneous bilateral fracture neck of femur in a 25-year-old man who came with complaints of pain in bilateral groin for 1 month. There was no history of trauma or history suggestive of excessive activity prior to the onset of pain, but there was history of lifting heavy weights daily. On evaluation with MRI scan bilateral fracture of the femur neck was diagnosed and patient was operated on bilaterally with internal fixation done using dynamic hip screw. Patient then regained his routine activity over a period of 6 months and on follow-up at 1 year no avascular necrosis changes were seen in the femur head. We presented this case because of its unusual presentation and the diagnostic challenge it poses. PMID:26101680

  18. Incidence of and Factors Influencing Femoral Neck Shortening in Elderly Patients After Fracture Fixation with Multiple Cancellous Screws

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaobin; Zhang, Jianzheng; Wang, Xinling; Ren, Jixin; Liu, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Background To study the incidence of and factors influencing “neck shortening” in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fractures using multiple cancellous screws. Material/Methods Of the 197 femoral neck fracture cases treated via closed reduction and cancellous screws fixation from January 2006 to February 2010, 110 were followed up. Patient age, gender, operative time, implantation method, reduction quality, fracture type, bone mineral density, loading time, length of hospital stay, and Harris hip score 12 months after operation were recorded. The patients were divided into two groups (shortening and non-shortening) based on their X-ray performance during follow-up. The healing rates and Harris hip scores of the two groups were compared, and the influencing factors of femoral neck shortening were analyzed. Results Of the 110 cases followed up, 94.5% (104/110) were healed and neck shortening occurred in 41.8% (46/110) within 12.5 months (mean) after treatment. The Harris hip score of the shortening group was lower than that of the non-shortening group (78±17 vs. 86±23, p=0.048). The fracture healing rates of the two groups were not significantly different (p=0.068). The factors influencing neck shortening were significantly correlated with bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture. Conclusions The incidence of neck shortening in elderly patients treated for femoral neck fracture using cancellous screws was high. Bone mineral density, patient age, gender, and type of fracture were the influencing factors of neck shortening. PMID:28343233

  19. COMPARISON OF VOLUMES OCCUPIED BY DIFFERENT INTERNAL FIXATION DEVICES FOR FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES

    PubMed Central

    Lauxen, Daniel; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto; Silva, Marcelo Faria; Spinelli, Leandro de Freitas; Strohaecker, Telmo Roberto; Souza, Ralf Wellis de; Zimmer, Cinthia Gabriely; Boschin, Leonardo Carbonera; Gonçalves, Ramiro Zilles; Yépez, Anthony Kerbes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this paper is to measure the volume occupied by the most widely used internal fixation devices for treating femoral neck fractures, using the first 30, 40 and 50 mm of insertion of each screw as an approximation. The study aimed to observe which of these implants caused least bone aggression. Methods: Five types of cannulated screws and four types of dynamic hip screws (DHS) available on the Brazilian market were evaluated in terms of volume differences through water displacement. Results: Fixation with two cannulated screws presented significantly less volume than shown by DHS, for insertions of 30, 40 and 50 mm (p=0.01, 0.012 and 0.013, respectively), fixation with three screws did not show any statistically significant difference (p= 0.123, 0.08 and 0.381, respectively) and fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes than shown by DHS (p=0.072, 0.161 and 0.033). Conclusions: Fixation of the femoral neck with two cannulated screws occupied less volume than DHS, with a statistically significant difference. The majority of screw combinations did not reach statistical significance, although fixation with four cannulated screws presented larger volumes on average than those occupied by DHS. PMID:27047886

  20. Modified dynamic hip screw loaded with autologous bone graft for treating Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Luo, Deqing; Zou, Weitao; He, Yijiao; Xian, Hang; Wang, Lei; Shen, Jiazuo; Lian, Kejian; Lin, Dasheng

    2017-07-01

    Management of Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures has been a challenging clinical problem as they experience high shear forces and thus a greater risk of treatment failure. There is no apparent consensus on the optimal implant type for these injuries. We developed a modified dynamic hip screw (DHS), which was designed to a cage in the lag screw, loaded with autologous bone graft for the treatment of Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures. Between February 2010 and January 2012, 17 consecutive patients with Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures were treated with the modified DHS loaded with autologous bone graft. All patients were followed up for a minimum of 24 months (range, 24-36 months). Surgical details, operative and postoperative complications, the rates of nonunion and osteonecrosis and the Harris hip score were evaluated. There were thirteen men and four women with a mean age of 37.2 years (range, 27-52 years). There were no intraoperative complications related to this technology. All fractures healed within 14.1 weeks (range, 12 to 20 weeks). One patient required total hip replacement because of avascular necrosis of the femoral head at 27 months after surgery. According to the Harris hip score, eleven patients (64.7%) had excellent results, four (23.5%) had good results, one (5.9%) had moderate and one (5.9%) had poor result. The modified DHS loaded with autologous bone graft appears to be a reliable implant for the treatment of Pauwels type-3 vertical femoral neck fractures with fewer complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Humeral cortical thickness in female Bantu - its relationship to the incidence of femoral neck fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Bloom, R.A.; Pogrund, H.

    1982-03-01

    Measurements of the humeral cortical thickness demonstrate that generalised osteoporosis in female Bantu commences in the fifth decade and gradually increases until, in the ninth decade, all subjects are osteoporotic. The combined cortical thickness (CCT) of the humerus in young adults is very similar to that found previously in a white London population and the loss of cortex with age is very similar. It is concluded that the known low incidence of femoral neck fracture in Bantu is not due to a lower incidence of generalised osteoporosis but to environmental factors. The chief environmental factor postulated is the greater amount of physical work performed by the Bantu. A more careful mode of walking is suggested as a subsidiary cause.

  2. Implantless Fixation of a Large Osteocartilaginous Fracture of the Lateral Femoral Condyle in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Jitendra; Mhaskar, Vikram; Mhaskar, Parul Maheshwari

    2017-01-01

    We describe for the first time a case of lateral femoral condyle fracture following a fall in a 13-year-old child that was reduced arthroscopically using a probe. It was definitively fixed with 0 vicryl sutures in a cruciate pattern after being initially stabilised with 1.5-mm Kirschner wires. Four beath pins carrying sutures were drilled at four opposing quadrants through the reduced fragment into the femur. The sutures were then tied on the lateral cortex of the femur. After fixation, the child was kept non-weight bearing for 6 weeks, partial weight bearing from 6 weeks to 12 weeks and then full weight bearing thereafter. Range of motion (ROM) exercises were commenced on the first postoperative day. At one-year follow-up, the ROM was from −5° to 130°, all symptoms disappeared, and complete resumption of all sports activities was allowed. PMID:28231653

  3. Implantless Fixation of a Large Osteocartilaginous Fracture of the Lateral Femoral Condyle in a Child.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, Jitendra; Mhaskar, Vikram; Mhaskar, Parul Maheshwari

    2017-03-01

    We describe for the first time a case of lateral femoral condyle fracture following a fall in a 13-year-old child that was reduced arthroscopically using a probe. It was definitively fixed with 0 vicryl sutures in a cruciate pattern after being initially stabilised with 1.5-mm Kirschner wires. Four beath pins carrying sutures were drilled at four opposing quadrants through the reduced fragment into the femur. The sutures were then tied on the lateral cortex of the femur. After fixation, the child was kept non-weight bearing for 6 weeks, partial weight bearing from 6 weeks to 12 weeks and then full weight bearing thereafter. Range of motion (ROM) exercises were commenced on the first postoperative day. At one-year follow-up, the ROM was from -5° to 130°, all symptoms disappeared, and complete resumption of all sports activities was allowed.

  4. Fixation of displaced subcapital femoral fractures. Compression screw fixation versus double divergent pins.

    PubMed

    Christie, J; Howie, C R; Armour, P C

    1988-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-seven consecutive patients with displaced subcapital fractures of the femoral neck (Garden Grade III or IV) all under 80 years of age and independently mobile, were randomly allocated to fixation with either double divergent pins or a single sliding screw-plate device. The incidence of non-union and infection in the sliding screw-plate group was significantly higher, and we believe that when internal fixation is considered appropriate multiple pinning should be used. Mobility after treatment was disappointing in about half of the patients, and we feel that internal fixation can only be justified in patients who are physiologically well preserved and who maintain a high level of activity.

  5. Primary versus secondary distal femoral arthroplasty for treatment of total knee arthroplasty periprosthetic femur fractures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Antonia F; Choi, Lisa E; Colman, Matthew W; Goodman, Mark A; Crossett, Lawrence S; Tarkin, Ivan S; McGough, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Current methods of fixing periprosthetic fractures after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) are variable, and include open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) via plating, retrograde nailing, or revision using standard revision TKA components or a distal femoral arthroplasty (DFA). The purpose of this study is to compare patients who failed plating techniques requiring subsequent revision to DFA to patients who underwent primary DFA. Of the 13 patients (9.2%) who failed primary ORIF, causes included nonunion (53.8%), infection (30.8%), loosening (7.7%), and refracture (7.7%). There were significantly more surgical procedures for ORIF revision to DFA compared to primary DFA. Complications for patients who underwent primary reconstruction with DFAs included extensor mechanism disruption (8.3%), infection (5.6%), and dislocation (2.8%). Primary reconstruction via ORIF is beneficial for preserving bone stock, but primary DFA may be preferred in osteopenic patients, or those at high risk for nonunion.

  6. Subchondral Insufficiency Fracture of the Femoral Head treated with Core Decompression and Bone Void Filler Support

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Hiren; Kamath, Atul F.

    2016-01-01

    Subchondral insufficiency fracture of the femoral head (SIFFH) is characterized by acute onset hip pain without overt trauma. It appears as a low intensity band with bone marrow edema on T1-weighted MRI. The most common course of treatment is protected weight bearing for a period of several weeks. Total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been commonly used if the patient does not respond to the initial protected weight bearing treatment. We present a case of a 48-year-old male with SIFFH who was treated with core hip decompression and bone void filler as a hip-preserving alternative to THA. The patient has an excellent clinical and radiographic result at final follow up. Core hip decompression with bone void filler is a less invasive alternative to THA, and may be a preferred initial treatment strategy for SIFFH in the young and active patient who has failed conservative measures. PMID:27517074

  7. Finite element analysis modelling of proximal femoral fractures, including post-fixation periprosthetic fractures.

    PubMed

    Noor, Saqib; Pridham, Cerianne; Fawcett, Tim; Barclay, Mark; Feng, Y T; Hassan, Oubay; Pallister, Ian

    2013-06-01

    Biomechanical testing has been a cornerstone for the development of surgical implants used in fracture stabilisation. In a multi-disciplinary collaboration complex at the University of Wales, Swansea, novel computerised clinically relevant models were developed using advanced computational engineering. In-house software (developed initially for commercial aerospace engineering), allowed accurate finite element analysis (FEA) models of the whole femur to be created, including the internal architecture of the bone, by means of linear interpolation of greyscale images from multiaxial CT scans. This allowed for modelling the changing trabecular structure and bone mineral density as seen in progressive osteoporosis. Falls from standing were modelled in a variety of directions (with and without muscle action) using analysis programmes which resulted in fractures consistent with those seen in clinical practice. By meshing implants into these models and repeating the mechanism of injury in simulation, periprosthetic fractures were also recreated. Further development with simulated physiological activities (e.g. walking and rising from sitting) along with attrition in the bone (in the boundary zones where stress concentration occurs) will allow further known modes of failure in implants to be reproduced. Robust simulation of macro and micro-scale events will allow the testing of novel new designs in simulations far more complex than conventional biomechanical testing will allow.

  8. CORRELATION BETWEEN AVASCULAR NECROSIS AND EARLY STABILIZATION OF PROXIMAL FEMORAL FRACTURES IN CHILDHOOD

    PubMed Central

    Astur, Diego da Costa; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Nascimento, Carolina Lins e Silva; Blumetti, Francesco Camara; Fonseca, Marcio José Alher; Dobashi, Eiffel Tsuyoshi; Pinto, José Antonio; Ishida, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We developed this study with the aim of evaluating the results from treating patients with proximal femoral fractures, in a series of cases. We sought to observe the influence of the most prevalent complications on the final results after a minimum follow-up of two years. We especially considered the relationship between establishment of avascular necrosis and the time between the accident and the therapeutic intervention. Method: We retrospectively studied proximal extremity fractures of the femur in 29 patients under 14 years of age between 1988 and 2007. We analyzed the following variables: sex, age, mechanism of injury, fracture classification (Delbet), treatment administered, complications (pseudarthrosis, varus deformity, leg length discrepancy and avascular necrosis), duration of surgery and results (Ratliff). We carried out individual descriptive analysis on each variable. The tests were used in accordance with the premise that normality applied. For the evaluation, we used Fisher's exact test. Results: Five patients (17.2%) had avascular necrosis, and three of them (60.0%) were over 10 years of age. 73.3% of the patients treated within the first 24 hours showed good results. The most common cause of fractures was traffic accidents (44.8%). The best results were observed among patients who were treated surgically. 41.4% developed some type of complication. Conclusions: Among the 29 patients treated, 58.6% had good, 27.6% had regular and 13.8% had poor results, according to the Ratliff criteria. When conservative treatment was applied, only 17.0% had good results, while 69.3% had good results from surgical intervention. Likewise, 73.3% of the results were good results when surgery was performed within the first 24 hours and only 42.8% of the results were good among patients who underwent surgery after this period. Patients operated within the first 24 hours developed necrosis of the femoral head in 13.3% of cases, while 21.4% of those operated

  9. The societal costs of femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, S M; Bouwmans, C A M; Heetveld, M J; Bhandari, M; Patka, P; Van Lieshout, E M M

    2014-03-01

    The study rationale was to provide a detailed overview of the costs for femoral neck fracture treatment with internal fixation in the Netherlands. Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. Costs were higher for older, less healthy patients. Results are comparable to internationally published costs. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed overview of the cost and healthcare consumption of patients treated for a hip fracture with internal fixation. A secondary aim was to compare costs of patients who underwent a revision surgery with patients who did not. The study was performed alongside the Dutch sample of an international randomized controlled trial, concerning femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation. Patient characteristics and healthcare consumption were collected. Total follow-up was 2 years. A societal perspective was adopted. Costs included hospital costs during primary stay and follow-up, and costs related to rehabilitation and changes in living situation. Costs were compared between non-revision surgery patients, implant removal patients, and revision arthroplasty patients. A total of 248 patients were included (mean age 71 years). Mean total costs per patient at 2-years follow-up were 19,425. In the non-revision surgery patients total costs were 17,405 (N = 137), in the implant removal patients 10,066 (N = 38), and in the revision arthroplasty patients 26,733 (N = 67). The main contributing costs were related to the primary surgery, admission days, physical therapy, and revision surgeries. The main determinant was the costs of admission to a rehabilitation center/nursing home. Costs were specifically high in elderly with comorbidity, who were less independent pre-fracture, and have a longer admission to the hospital and/or a nursing home. Costs were also higher in revision surgery patients. The 2-years follow-up costs in our study were comparable to published costs

  10. Outcome Analysis of Hemiarthroplasty vs. Total Hip Replacement in Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Awasthi, Bhanu; Kumar, Krishna; Kohli, Navneet; Katoch, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Management of displaced fracture neck femur in the elderly population is frequently done by Hemiarthroplasty or Total Hip Replacement (THR). It avoids high rates of nonunion and avascular necrosis which usually occur after internal fixation of neck femur fractures in this age group. Aim The present study aimed to evaluate patient function and complications following hemiarthroplasty and total hip replacement in elderly population with displaced femoral neck fractures. Materials and Methods Patients above 60 years of age with displaced fracture neck femur were studied over the period of four years. All the clinical parameters and co-morbid conditions were noted at the time of presentation. The patients associated with co-morbid conditions and underlying pathology were excluded from study. Garden’s classification was used for classification of neck femur fractures. After due informed consent patients of displaced fracture neck femur were randomized by simple randomization and allocated for hemiarthroplasty or THR. Antibiotics were given preoperatively at the time of induction and postoperatively for 5-7 days. Surgery was carried out by Modified Gibson approach. Any complications during pre and postoperative period were noted. Follow-up of patients was done 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year interval with the help of Harris hip score. Results Total 80 patients were enrolled in the study group, with 40 patients in each group. The mean age of patients was 73 years in hemiarthroplasty group and 78 years in THR group. Female to male ratio was 55:45. Mean operative time was 35 minutes in hemiarthroplasty group and 45 minutes in THR. Average intraoperative blood loss was 200cc and 300cc in hemiarthroplasty and THR respectively. The mean hospital stay was 14 days in both the groups. Superficial wound infection was noted in hemiarthroplasty group while in THR group deep wound infection (n=1) and prolonged ICU stay (n=1) were noted. The mean Harris hip score

  11. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Ali; Topal, Murat; Tuncer, Kutsi; Şenocak, Eyüp

    2012-01-01

    Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature. PMID:22666265

  12. Salter-Harris Type III and Type IV Combined Fracture of the Distal Femoral Epiphysis: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Ali; Topal, Murat; Tuncer, Kutsi; Senocak, Eyüp

    2012-01-01

    Distal femoral physeal fractures are not common but have a high rate of complications. They generally follow one of the patterns described in the Salter-Harris classification. We present a case of combination of Salter-Harris type III and type IV injury. Our case was a 15-year-old boy who had a motor vehicle accident. There was swelling, ecchymosis, severe pain, and valgus deformity, because of medial proximal fracture fragment, on the left knee. We deemed that Salter-Harris type III and type IV combination fracture in our case has not been previously reported. We prepared this paper in consideration of its contribution to the literature.

  13. Three-point fixation walking spica cast: an alternative to early or immediate casting of femoral shaft fractures in children.

    PubMed

    Guttmann, G G; Simon, R

    1988-01-01

    A retrospective review of 28 children treated for middle and proximal femoral shaft fractures was undertaken. Following preliminary traction, a modified pantaloon walking spica, utilizing the principle of total contact and three-point fixation molding, was applied, followed by immediate ambulation. The mean anterior bow was 5 degrees varus/valgus, 6.5 degrees angulation, and 1.2 cm shortening. There were no significant differences in the results when age groups or proximal to mid-shaft fractures were compared. No further shortening or angulation occurred with ambulation. The advantages of early ambulation and better control of proximal shaft fractures are discussed.

  14. Versatility of Taylor Spatial Frame in Gustilo-Anderson III C femoral fractures: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Sala, Francesco; Albisetti, Walter; Capitani, Dario

    2010-11-01

    Taylor Spatial Frame (TSF) combines a multiplanar external fixator and software accuracy for reduction of acute long-bone fractures. The frame gives stability, soft-tissue preservation, adjustability and functionality allowing bone to realize its full osteogenic potential. Three patients with multiple injuries and femoral Gustilo-Anderson type III C have been treated in our center. Initial surgery was performed within 6 h of injury with help of vascular surgeon. We used TSF as definitive fixation method. The results were assessed using the functional and radiological scoring system described by Paley and Maar. Fracture union occurred in all limbs and average fixation time was 151.6 days. All three patients had excellent outcome in terms of bony and functional ASAMI criteria. The TSF is a valuable tool. It is a definitive method of femoral Gustilo-Anderson type III C fracture care using external fixation with several advantages over previously used devices.

  15. Imaging Evaluation of the Safe Region for Distal Locking Screw of Proximal Femoral Nail Anti-Rotation in Patients with Proximal Femoral Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jinpeng; Liu, Pengcheng; Cai, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Proximal femoral nail anti-rotation (PFNA) is a standard femoral intertrochanteric fracture operation. Iatrogenic vascular injury, although uncommon, is a reported complication of PFNA surgery as well as a complication of hip fracture surgery. This study aimed to compare the safety and best use of the distal locking screw in 170 mm PFNA and 240 mm PFNA devices, and to determine the safe region for placement of the distal locking screw in PFNA surgery. Material/Methods A retrospective analysis of 100 patients with 170 mm PFNA and 80 patients with 240 mm PFNA were retrospectively analyzed. Two levels of PFNA distal locking screws were equally divided into three planes: I, II, III, for 170 mm PFNA devices and i, ii, iii for the 240 mm PRNA devices. The medial half of the femur was equally divided into eight regions: A to H. The distance between the outer femur and the superficial, the deep and the perforating femoral arteries (SFAs, DFAs, and PFAs), and angles between the reference line and the connection line between the femur center to each artery were measured. Results SFAs and DFAs but not PFAs were found in risky or hazardous regions, and DFAs were obviously closer to the femur than SFAs and PFAs at the same level. In the region within 10 mm of the femur, no SFAs were found. The short nails (170 mm PFNA-II devices) were the closest to the DFAs region, indicating that the 170 mm PFNA-II nails are most likely to cause special vessel injury. The short nails were relatively more distant from the SFAs, which were located posteriorly to the long nails (240 mm PFNA-II). Conclusions The distal locking screw of the 170 mm PFNA device was more prone to damage the femoral deep artery when the two types of PFNA devices are compared in patients who were candidates for both types of devices. PMID:28178228

  16. A predictive method for subsequent avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) by observation of bleeding from the cannulated screw used for fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Cho, Myung-Rae; Lee, Sang-Wook; Shin, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Shin-Kun; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Ko, Sang-Bong; Kwun, Koing-Woo

    2007-03-01

    To examine the validity of bleeding from the drill holes used for cannulated screw placement as a method for predicting any subsequent avascular necrosis of the femoral head (AVNFH) after the fixation of intracapsular femoral neck fractures. Retrospective study. University hospital. Forty-four patients (mean age, 51 years; range, 18-76 years) whose femoral neck fractures had been fixed with cannulated screws from March 1999 to January 2001 were enrolled in this study. The fractures were classified according to Garden and included 11 type I, 5 type II, 17 type III, and 11 type IV. The average delay between injury and surgery was 52 hours (< or =24 hours, 26; > or =24 hours, 18; range 7 to 504 hours). The follow-up period was more than 25 months (range, 25-57 months). 7.0 mm cannulated screws were used for fracture fixation. Three and 4 screws were used for fixation in 35 and 9 cases, respectively. The presence or absence of blood drainage from the holes of the proximal cannulated screws was determined by an independent observer and defined as bleeding or no bleeding throughout a 5 minute observation period. According to those findings, patients were classified into 2 groups: the bleeding group (38 cases), and the nonbleeding group (6 cases). The validity of the relationship between the 2 groups and the development of AVNFH was evaluated according to the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. A chi test was used for univariate analysis of the relationship between the related factors with the development of AVNFH. The mean follow-up was 39 months (range, 25-57 months). AVNFH developed in 7 cases (16%). One patient of 38 in the bleeding group (2.6%) and all 6 patients in the nonbleeding group (100%) developed AVNFH. The sensitivity was 86%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 97%. Age (P < 0.734), sex (P < 0.587), the type of the fracture (P < 0.356), procedure interval (P < 0

  17. Flexible intramedullary nails with traction versus plaster cast for treating femoral shaft fractures in children: comparative retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Fabiano Prata do; Santili, Cláudio; Akkari, Miguel; Waisberg, Gilberto; Braga, Susana dos Reis; Fucs, Patrícia Maria Moraes de Barros

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Femoral fractures are common in children between 2 and 12 years of age, and 75% of the lesions affect the femoral shaft. Traction followed by a plaster cast is universally accepted as conservative treatment. However, in some situations, a surgical approach is recommended. The objective here was to compare treatments for femoral shaft fractures using intramedullary nails (titanium elastic nails, TEN) versus traction and plaster casts in children. The hypothesis was that TEN might provide better treatment, with good clinical results in comparison with plaster casts. DESIGN AND SETTING This retrospective comparative study was conducted in a public university hospital. METHODS Sixty children with femoral fractures were evaluated; 30 of them underwent surgical treatment with TEN and 30 were treated conservatively using plaster casts. The patients' ages ranged from 5 to 13 years (mean of 9 years). RESULTS The mean duration of hospitalization was nine days for the surgical group and 20 days for the conservative group. The incidence of overgrowth in the patients treated with TEN was 60.0% and, for those treated conservatively, 13.3%. Partial weight-bearing was allowed after 3.5 weeks in the surgical group and after 9.6 weeks in the conservative group. New hospitalization was required for 90.0% in the surgical group and 16.7% in the conservative group. Patients treated with plaster casts presented higher incidence of complications, such as loss of reduction. CONCLUSIONS The surgical method presented better results for children.

  18. Femoral head ostectomy for the treatment of acetabular fracture and coxofemoral joint luxation in a Potbelly pig.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joe S; Chigerwe, Munashe; Kanipe, Carly; Gray, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    To report the successful surgical treatment of a comminuted left acetabular fracture, a dorsally luxated left femoral head, and avulsion of the ligament of the femoral head by femoral head ostectomy (FHO) and physical therapy in a companion Potbelly pig. Case report. A 1-year-old, 13 kg, castrated male, companion Potbelly pig. The pig presented with a nonweight bearing left pelvic limb lameness of 3 weeks' duration that was noticed shortly after the pig got caught under a fence. Under general anesthesia a lateral approach was made to the fractured limb. A FHO was performed as described for dogs. Following surgery, a period of physical therapy was initiated based on protocols described for dogs. The canine surgical procedure with the approach modified for pigs was successfully performed in our pig. Following surgery, the pig was comfortable and weight bearing. A physical therapy regimen of supervised activity, stairs, and water therapy was used to rehabilitate the leg, as well as a weight management protocol to maintain ideal body condition. The owner was highly satisfied with the outcome. Telephone follow-up with the owner at 12 months after surgery revealed no impairment to movement, and the pig was maintaining normal ambulation without lameness. No complications were observed with this case. FHO, as described for dogs, provided a favorable outcome for hip luxation caused by acetabular fracture, luxation, and avulsion of the femoral head ligament in this small size Potbelly pig. © 2016 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  19. Low bone mineral density is not related to failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Viberg, Bjarke; Ryg, Jesper; Overgaard, Søren; Lauritsen, Jens; Ovesen, Ole

    2014-02-01

    Internal fixation (IF) in femoral neck fractures has high reoperation rates and some predictors of failure are known, such as age, quality of reduction, and implant positioning. Finding new predictors of failure is an ongoing process, and in this study we evaluated the importance of low bone mineral density (BMD). 140 consecutive patients (105 females, median age 80) treated with IF had a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan of the hip performed median 80 days after treatment. The patients' radiographs were evaluated for fracture displacement, implant positioning, and quality of reduction. From a questionnaire completed during admission, 2 variables for comorbidity and walking disability were chosen. Primary outcome was low hip BMD (amount of mineral matter per square centimeter of hip bone) compared to hip failure (resection, arthroplasty, or new hip fracture). A stratified Cox regression model on fracture displacement was applied and adjusted for age, sex, quality of reduction, implant positioning, comorbidity, and walking disability. 49 patients had a T-score below -2.5 (standard deviation from the young normal reference mean) and 70 patients had a failure. The failure rate after 2 years was 22% (95% CI: 12-39) for the undisplaced fractures and 66% (CI: 56-76) for the displaced fractures. Cox regression showed no association between low hip BMD and failure. For the covariates, only implant positioning showed an association with failure. We found no statistically significant association between low hip BMD and fixation failure in femoral neck fracture patients treated with IF.

  20. Surgical treatment of bilateral femoral stress fractures related with long-term alendronate therapy.

    PubMed

    Kanatlı, Ulunay; Ataoğlu, M Baybars; Özer, Mustafa; Topçu, H Nevzat; Çetinkaya, Mehmet

    2017-04-01

    A 67-year-old female patient admitted to our outpatient clinic suffering from pain in both thighs for one year without any history of trauma. Patient was receiving alendronate therapy for five years. Physical examination revealed pain increasing with weight-bearing in both thighs with full range of hip and knee movements. Radiographs showed an area of thickened cortex of middle femoral diaphysis in both femurs, but no fracture. Bone scan showed a single area of increased uptake of radioisotope. These images were compatible with stress fractures of both femurs. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry revealed a T-score of -3.2 for the lumbar spine and -3.5 for the hip. Alendronate treatment was ceased. Calcium and vitamin D treatment were started. Patient was performed prophylactic surgical stabilization by titanium elastic nails in May 2009. On first day after the surgery, unsupported mobilization and weight-bearing activities were started. Upon persistence of pain on left thigh, plate fixation was performed for the nonunion in June 2012. Patient is now pain-free and able to walk with full weight-bearing without any complications.

  1. [Treatment of Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures with dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin-Wei; Wang, Pan-Feng; Fu, Qing-Ge; Zhang, Chun-Cai; Xu, Shuo-Gui; Su, Jia-Can; Pan, Si-Hua

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the clinical effect of Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures with dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw. Twelve patients with Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures were retrospectively analyzed. There were 8 males and 4 females with an average age of 53 years (range 31 to 65 years). Seven cases were caused by traffic accident, 4 cases by falling from hight, 1 case by heavy object. According to the Seinsheimer classification, all the cases were type V fractures. All the cases accepted the surgical treatment with dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw fixation. The mean period of follow-up was 28 months (range 20 to 38 months). All the cases obtained bone union in average 3.3 months (from 3 to 4.5 months). There were no complications such as deep infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and bone nonunion. The results of clinical evaluation according to Merle d'Aubigne scores were 16.75 +/- 1.14 and excellent in 4 cases, good in 8 cases. Application of dynamic hip screw and shape memory alloy bow-teeth screw as a superior option can get satisfactory reduction with reliable fixation and will be one of a better choice for fixation of Seinsheimer type V subtrochanteric femoral fractures.

  2. Effect of Once-Yearly Zoledronic Acid Five Milligrams on Fracture Risk and Change in Femoral Neck Bone Mineral Density

    PubMed Central

    Eastell, Richard; Black, Dennis M.; Boonen, Steven; Adami, Silvano; Felsenberg, Dieter; Lippuner, Kurt; Cummings, Steven R.; Delmas, Pierre D.; Palermo, Lisa; Mesenbrink, Peter; Cauley, Jane A.

    2016-01-01

    Context In the Health Outcomes and Reduced Incidence with Zoledronic Acid Once Yearly – Pivotal Fracture Trial (HORIZON-PFT), zoledronic acid (ZOL) 5 mg significantly reduced fracture risk. Objective The aim of the study was to identify factors associated with greater efficacy during ZOL 5 mg treatment. Design, Setting, and Patients We conducted a subgroup analysis (preplanned and post hoc) of a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 36-month trial in 7765 women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Intervention A single infusion of ZOL 5 mg or placebo was administered at baseline, 12, and 24 months. Main Outcome Measures Primary endpoints were new vertebral fracture and hip fracture. Secondary endpoints were nonvertebral fracture and change in femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD). Baseline risk factor subgroups were age, BMD T-score and vertebral fracture status, total hip BMD, race, weight, geographical region, smoking, height loss, history of falls, physical activity, prior bisphosphonates, creatinine clearance, body mass index, and concomitant osteoporosis medications. Results Greater ZOL induced effects on vertebral fracture risk were seen with younger age (treatment-by-subgroup interaction, P =0.05), normal creatinine clearance (P =0.04), and body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 (P = 0.02). There were no significant treatment–factor interactions for hip or nonvertebral fracture or for change in BMD. Conclusions ZOL appeared more effective in preventing vertebral fracture in younger women, overweight/obese women, and women with normal renal function. ZOL had similar effects irrespective of fracture risk factors or femoral neck BMD. PMID:19567517

  3. Internal screw fixation compared with bipolar hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Gjertsen, J-E; Vinje, T; Engesaeter, L B; Lie, S A; Havelin, L I; Furnes, O; Fevang, J M

    2010-03-01

    Internal fixation and arthroplasty are the two main options for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly. The optimal treatment remains controversial. Using data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we compared the results of hemiarthroplasty and internal screw fixation in displaced femoral neck fractures. Data from 4335 patients over seventy years of age who had internal fixation (1823 patients) or hemiarthroplasty (2512 patients) to treat a displaced femoral neck fracture were compared at a minimum follow-up interval of twelve months. One-year mortality, the number of reoperations, and patient self-assessment of pain, satisfaction, and quality of life at four and twelve months were analyzed. Subanalyses of patients with cognitive impairment and reduced walking ability were done. In the arthroplasty group, only contemporary bipolar prostheses were used and uncemented prostheses with modern stems and hydroxyapatite coating accounted for 20.8% (522) of the implants. There were no differences in one-year mortality (27% in the osteosynthesis group and 25% in the arthroplasty group; p = 0.76). There were 412 reoperations (22.6%) performed in the osteosynthesis group and seventy-two (2.9%) in the hemiarthroplasty group during the follow-up period. After twelve months, the osteosynthesis group reported more pain (mean score, 29.9 compared with 19.2), higher dissatisfaction with the operation result (mean score, 38.9 compared with 25.7), and a lower quality of life (mean score, 0.51 compared with 0.60) than the arthroplasty group. All differences were significant (p < 0.001). For patients with cognitive impairment, hemiarthroplasty provided a better functional outcome (less pain, higher satisfaction with the result of the operation, and higher quality of life as measured on the EuroQol visual analog scale) at twelve months (p < 0.05). Displaced femoral neck fractures in the elderly should be treated with hemiarthroplasty.

  4. Bryant traction in paediatric femoral shaft fractures, home traction versus hospitalisation.

    PubMed

    Scheerder, F J M; Schnater, J M; Sleeboom, Chr; Aronson, D C

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate Bryant traction at home in terms of feasibility, morbidity, effect on length of hospital stay, outcome and costs. Retrospective analysis of 54 children treated for femoral shaft fracture (1991-2004). Results of 'home traction' (A, n=38) and 'hospital traction' (B, n=16) were compared. Data were collected regarding demographics, length of hospital stay, traction period, various aspects of the fractures, co-morbidity, morbidity, and follow-up. The parents' experience was evaluated by telephone questionnaire. Two early treatment failures occurred. One patient stopped home traction at 8 days due to skin problems and had a spica cast applied at another hospital, with subsequent development of a compartment syndrome. The other patient was placed in a hip spica after 2 weeks of hospital traction because of difficulty in getting satisfactory X-rays. At follow-up, one unacceptable shortening of 3 cm had occurred in the home traction group. There was only a significant difference in hospital stay (A 7.0 days versus B 22.5 days), total traction period (A 28.0 days versus B 22.5 days) and costs (group B 3x versus group A). The parents were overall pleased with traction at home. Complications occurred as much in the home traction group as in the control group and fracture position at union was equal in both groups. Treatment with home traction is feasible, simple and effective; it reduces hospital stay to 1 week, and costs to one-third. Good patient selection and instructions of the parents are mandatory.

  5. Cement augmentation of implants--no general cure in osteoporotic fracture treatment. A biomechanical study on non-displaced femoral neck fractures.

    PubMed

    Hofmann-Fliri, Ladina; Nicolino, Tomas I; Barla, Jorge; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Femoral neck fractures in the elderly are a common problem in orthopedics. Augmentation of screw fixation with bone cement can provide better stability of implants and lower the risk of secondary displacement. This study aimed to investigate whether cement augmentation of three cannulated screws in non-displaced femoral neck fractures could increase implant fixation. A femoral neck fracture was simulated in six paired human cadaveric femora and stabilized with three 7.3 mm cannulated screws. Pairs were divided into two groups: conventional instrumentation versus additional cement augmentation of screw tips with 2 ml TraumacemV+ each. Biomechanical testing was performed by applying cyclic axial load until failure. Failure cycles, axial head displacement, screw angle changes, telescoping and screw cut-out were evaluated. Failure (15 mm actuator displacement) occurred in the augmented group at 12,500 cycles (± 2,480) compared to 15,625 cycles (± 4,215) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.041). When comparing 3 mm vertical displacement of the head no significant difference (p = 0.72) was detected between the survival curves of the two groups. At 8,500 load-cycles (early onset failure) the augmented group demonstrated a change in screw angle of 2.85° (± 0.84) compared to 1.15° (± 0.93) in the non-augmented group (p = 0.013). The results showed no biomechanical advantage with respect to secondary displacement following augmentation of three cannulated screws in a non-displaced femoral neck fracture. Consequently, the indication for cement augmentation to enhance implant anchorage in osteoporotic bone has to be considered carefully taking into account fracture type, implant selection and biomechanical surrounding. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Effectiveness of operative interventions for hemi or total hip arthroplasty patients who sustain a Vancouver B2 peri-prosthetic femoral fracture: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Ianunzio, Jamie Raffaele; Munn, Zachary; Mandziak, Daniel; Stephenson, Matthew; Cain, Megan Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this review is to identify the effectiveness of operative interventions for individuals who have undergone a hemi or total hip arthroplasty who sustain a Vancouver type B2 peri-prosthetic femoral fracture or equivalent. Specifically, this review will investigate open reduction and internal fixation and femoral revision arthroplasty with or without internal fixation.

  7. Combined with Bone Marrow-Derived Cells and rhBMP-2 for Osteonecrosis after Femoral Neck Fractures in Children and Adolescents: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Fuqiang; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Wang, Bailiang; Cheng, Liming; Li, Zirong

    2016-01-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ONFH) following femoral neck fractures is a rare, yet severe, disorder in children and adolescents. This study evaluated the effectiveness of core decompression (CD) combined with implantation of bone marrow–derived cells (BMDC) and rhBMP-2 for osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH) after femoral neck fractures in children and adolescents. This study included 51 patients, aged 11.4–18.1 years, with ARCO stages I–III ONFH after femoral neck fractures between 2004 and 2010. The hips were divided into two groups based on whether the lateral pillar of the femoral head (LPFH) was preserved: LPFH and non-LPFH groups. All patients were followed up clinically and radiographically for a minimum of 5 years. 44 patients (86.3%) had improved clinical outcome. Radiologically, 9 of the 51 hips (17.6%) exhibited collapse onset or progression of the femoral head or narrowing of the hip joint space, and one patient in the non-LPFH group required hip arthroplasty due to the worsened syndrome. The technique provided an effective therapeutic option for children and adolescents with ONFH following femoral neck fractures. It relieves hip pain and prevents the progression of osteonecrosis in young patients lasting more than 5 years after surgery. PMID:27477836

  8. Treatment of pediatric femoral shaft fractures by stainless steel and titanium elastic nail system: A randomized comparative trial.

    PubMed

    Gyaneshwar, Tank; Nitesh, Rustagi; Sagar, Tomar; Pranav, Kothiyal; Rustagi, Nitesh

    2016-08-01

    Literature suggests that the lower modulus of elasticity of titanium makes it ideal for use in children compared with stainless steel. Better fracture stability was observed in association with titanium nails on torsional and axial compression testing. However, stainless steel nails are stiffer than titanium counterparts, which may provide a rigid construct when fixing paediatric femoral shaft fractures. Complications have been observed more frequently by various researchers when titanium nails are used for fracture fixation in patients with increasing age or weight. The concept of this study was to compare the functional outcome after internal fixation with titanium elastic nail system and stainless steel elastic nail system in paediatric femoral shaft fractures. The study was conducted on 34 patients admitted in the department of orthopaedics, LLRM Medical College & SVBP Hospital, Meerut, India from January 2013 to August 2014. We included patients aged 5-12 years with fracture of the femoral shaft, excluding compound fractures, pathological fractures and other lower limb fractures. Patients were treated by titanium (n=17) or stainless steel (n=17) elastic nail system and followed up for one year. The clinical parameters like range of motion at hip and knee joints, time to full weight bearing on the operated limb and radiological parameters like time to union were compared between two groups. A special note was made of intra- and post-operative complications. Functional outcomes were analysed according to Flynn criteria. Based on the Flynn criteria, 59% of patients had excellent results, 41% had satisfactory results, and no one showed poor results. There was no clinically significant difference between the two groups with respect to time to union and full weight bearing. But the incidence of puncture of the opposite cortex while inserting the nail and trying to advance it through the diaphysis during operation is greatly different. Only one such case was observed

  9. Prediction of incident hip fracture with the estimated femoral strength by finite element analysis of DXA Scans in the study of osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lang; Palermo, Lisa; Black, Dennis M; Eastell, Richard

    2014-12-01

    A bone fractures only when loaded beyond its strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, with incident hip fracture in comparison to hip bone mineral density (BMD), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and hip structure analysis (HSA) variables. This prospective case-cohort study included a random sample of 1941 women and 668 incident hip fracture cases (295 in the random sample) during a mean ± SD follow-up of 12.8 ± 5.7 years from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (n = 7860 community-dwelling women ≥67 years of age). We analyzed the baseline DXA scans (Hologic 1000) of the hip using a validated plane-stress, linear-elastic finite element (FE) model of the proximal femur and estimated the femoral strength during a simulated sideways fall. Cox regression accounting for the case-cohort design assessed the association of estimated femoral strength with hip fracture. The age-body mass index (BMI)-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per SD decrease for estimated strength (2.21; 95% CI, 1.95-2.50) was greater than that for total hip (TH) BMD (1.86; 95% CI, 1.67-2.08; p < 0.05), FN BMD (2.04; 95% CI, 1.79-2.32; p > 0.05), FRAX scores (range, 1.32-1.68; p < 0.0005), and many HSA variables (range, 1.13-2.43; p < 0.005), and the association was still significant (p < 0.05) after further adjustment for hip BMD or FRAX scores. The association of estimated strength with incident hip fracture was strong (Harrell's C index 0.770), significantly better than TH BMD (0.759; p < 0.05) and FRAX scores (0.711-0.743; p < 0.0001), but not FN BMD (0.762; p > 0.05). Similar findings were obtained for intracapsular and extracapsular fractures. In conclusion, the estimated femoral strength from FE analysis of DXA scans is an independent predictor and performs at least as well as FN BMD in predicting incident

  10. A cost-effectiveness analysis of the arthroplasty options for displaced femoral neck fractures in the active, healthy, elderly population.

    PubMed

    Slover, James; Hoffman, Michael V; Malchau, Henrik; Tosteson, Anna N A; Koval, Kenneth J

    2009-09-01

    This study was performed to explore the cost-effectiveness of total hip arthroplasty (THA) compared with hemiarthroplasty (HEMI) in the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures in active otherwise healthy older patients in whom the optimum treatment is believed to be an arthroplasty procedure. A Markov decision model was used to determine whether THA or HEMI was most cost-effective for the management of a displaced femoral neck fracture in this patient population. Total hip arthroplasty was associated with an average cost $3000 more than HEMI, and the average quality-adjusted life year gain was 1.53. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio associated with the THA treatment strategy is $1960 per quality-adjusted life year. Currently available data support the use of THA as the more cost-effective treatment strategy in this specific population. The increased upfront cost appears to be offset by the improved functional results when compared with HEMI in this select patient group.

  11. Traumatic posterior hip dislocation and ipsilateral distal femoral fracture in a 22-month-old child: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ciftdemir, Mert; Aydin, Deniz; Ozcan, Mert; Copuroglu, Cem

    2014-11-01

    Minor trauma may cause hip dislocation in young children because of physiologic hip joint laxity and the soft cartilaginous structure of the acetabulum. In this work, we report on a 22-month-old boy with right-sided traumatic posterior hip dislocation and ipsilateral distal femoral fracture because of an outdoor motor vehicle accident. The patient was treated with emergency closed reduction and one and a half hip spica under general anaesthesia. The femoral fracture and hip dislocation were healed smoothly without any complication. Traumatic hip dislocation is rare in children, which may occur after trivial trauma. Prognosis is better in younger patients with low-energy trauma and in cases treated early.

  12. Risk factors for the effect of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Akaoka, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kodaira, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To examine the effect of oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures and to identify the risk factors associated with perioperative blood loss. Retrospective cross-sectional study. In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we treated 334 consecutive patients with proximal femoral fractures (100 who received anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs and 234 who did not) and an overall mean age of 85.5 years (standard deviation 8.2 years). We performed retrospective multivariate analysis to determine the independent factors related to perioperative decreases in the hemoglobin (Hb) level, a proxy for blood loss. Multivariate analysis confirmed that anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs significantly affected decreases in the Hb level (regression coefficient [RC], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14–1.08; P = 0.01). In addition to anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs, multivariate analysis confirmed that the fracture type (Orthopedic Trauma Association classification A2: RC, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.71–1.67; P < 0.01; A3: RC, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.41–3.53; P < 0.01), platelet count (RC, −0.08; 95% CI, −0.12 to −0.04; P < 0.01), and operative time (RC, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.004–0.03; P = 0.01) affected the decreases in Hb level. The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is an independent risk factor for perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures. Fracture type, platelet count, and operative time also affect perioperative blood loss. The fracture type was the greatest contributing factor to perioperative blood loss. Level of evidence grade: Prognostic level III. PMID:27399119

  13. Risk factors for the effect of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures.

    PubMed

    Akaoka, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kodaira, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    To examine the effect of oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures and to identify the risk factors associated with perioperative blood loss.Retrospective cross-sectional study.In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we treated 334 consecutive patients with proximal femoral fractures (100 who received anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs and 234 who did not) and an overall mean age of 85.5 years (standard deviation 8.2 years). We performed retrospective multivariate analysis to determine the independent factors related to perioperative decreases in the hemoglobin (Hb) level, a proxy for blood loss.Multivariate analysis confirmed that anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs significantly affected decreases in the Hb level (regression coefficient [RC], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.08; P = 0.01). In addition to anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs, multivariate analysis confirmed that the fracture type (Orthopedic Trauma Association classification A2: RC, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.71-1.67; P < 0.01; A3: RC, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.41-3.53; P < 0.01), platelet count (RC, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.12 to -0.04; P < 0.01), and operative time (RC, 0.02; 95% CI, 0.004-0.03; P = 0.01) affected the decreases in Hb level.The use of anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is an independent risk factor for perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures. Fracture type, platelet count, and operative time also affect perioperative blood loss. The fracture type was the greatest contributing factor to perioperative blood loss.Level of evidence grade: Prognostic level III.

  14. A Prospective Cohort Study of the Therapeutic Patterns, Challenges and Outcomes of Paediatric Femoral Fractures in a Cameroonian Tertiary Center

    PubMed Central

    Tochie, Joel Noutakdie; Guifo, Marc Leroy; Yamben, Marie-Ange Ngo; Moulion, Roger; Farikou, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of the therapeutic patterns, challenges and outcomes of treatment of paediatric femoral fractures (PFF) helps to better choose the ideal therapeutic modality which is still controversial. However, this data is scarce in the sub-Saharan African literature. Objective: To determine the therapeutic patterns, treatment challenges and outcomes of treatment of PFF in a tertiary care centre in Cameroon. Method: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consenting consecutive cases of femoral fractures in patients younger than 16 years managed between 2011 and 2015 at the surgical unit of Yaoundé University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon. We analysed demographic data, injury characteristics, fracture patterns, treatment details, therapeutic challenges and outcomes of treatment at 12 months using Flynn’s criteria. Results: We enrolled 30 femoral fractures from 29 children with mean age was 4.2 ± 3.3 years. The male gender, diaphyseal locations and spiral fracture lines were predominant. Main mechanisms of injury were accidental falls, road traffic accidents and game injuries. Fracture management entailed 12 tractions followed by casting, 10 casting alone, four closed reductions followed by casting, two cannulated screw fixations, one pin fixation and one external fixation. The mean duration of consolidation was 10.3 ± 3.9 weeks. The outcome was rated excellent in 28 cases. Limited resources precluded fluoroscopy use, proper anaesthetic management, early rehabilitation and patient-parent satisfaction. Conclusion: Conservative management of PFF yields a good outcome in our setting. However, an improvement in surgical, radiology and anaesthetic infrastructure is needed for optimal PFF care. PMID:28400870

  15. Lower reoperation rate for cemented hemiarthroplasty than for uncemented hemiarthroplasty and internal fixation following femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose Elderly patients with displaced femoral neck fractures are commonly treated with a hemiarthroplasty (HA), but little is known about the long-term failure of this treatment. We compared reoperation rates for patients aged at least 75 years with displaced femoral neck fractures treated with either internal fixation (IF), cemented HA, or uncemented HA (with or without hydroxyapatite coating), after 12–19 years of follow-up. Methods 4 hospitals with clearly defined guidelines for the treatment of 75+ year-old patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture were included. Cohort 1 (1991–1993) with 180 patients had undergone IF; cohort 2 (1991–1995) with 203 patients had received an uncemented bipolar Ultima HA stem (Austin-Moore); cohort 3 (1991–1995) with 209 patients had received a cemented Charnley-Hastings HA; and cohort 4 (1991–1998) with 158 patients had received an uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated Furlong HA. Data were retrieved from patient files, from the region-based patient administrative system, and from the National Registry of Patients at the end of 2010. We performed survival analysis with adjustment for comorbidity, age, and sex. Results Cemented HA had a reoperation rate (RR) of 5% and was used as reference in the Cox regression analysis, which showed significantly higher hazard ratios (HRs) for IF (HR = 3.8, 95% CI: 1.9–7.5; RR = 18%), uncemented HA (HR = 2.2, CI: 1.1–4.5; RR = 11%) and uncemented hydroxyapatite-coated HA (HR = 3.6, CI: 1.8–7.4; RR = 16%). Interpretation Cemented HA has a superior long-term hip survival rate compared to IF and uncemented HA (with and without hydroxyapatite coating) in patients aged 75 years or more with displaced femoral neck fractures. PMID:23594248

  16. A comparison of a conventional versus a short, anatomical metaphyseal-fitting cementless femoral stem in the treatment of patients with a fracture of the femoral neck.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y-H; Oh, J-H

    2012-06-01

    We compared the clinical and radiological outcomes of two cementless femoral stems in the treatment of patients with a Garden III or IV fracture of the femoral neck. A total of 70 patients (70 hips) in each group were enrolled into a prospective randomised study. One group received a short anatomical cementless stem and the other received a conventional cementless stem. Their mean age was 74.9 years (50 to 94) and 76.0 years (55 to 96), respectively (p = 0.328). The mean follow-up was 4.1 years (2 to 5) and 4.8 years (2 to 6), respectively. Perfusion lung scans and high resolution chest CTs were performed to detect pulmonary microemboli. At final follow-up there were no statistically significant differences between the short anatomical and the conventional stems with regard to the mean Harris hip score (85.7 (66 to 100) versus 86.5 (55 to 100); p = 0.791), the mean Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (17 (6 to 34) versus 16 (5 to 35); p = 0.13) or the mean University of California, Los Angeles activity score (5 (3 to 6) versus 4 (3 to 6); p = 0.032). No patient with a short stem had thigh pain, but 11 patients (16%) with a conventional stem had thigh pain. No patients with a short stem had symptomatic pulmonary microemboli, but 11 patients with a conventional stem had pulmonary microemboli (symptomatic in three patients and asymptomatic in eight patients). One hip (1.4%) in the short stem group and eight (11.4%) in the conventional group had an intra-operative undisplaced fracture of the calcar. No component was revised for aseptic loosening in either group. One acetabular component in the short stem group and two acetabular components in the conventional stem group were revised for recurrent dislocation. Our study demonstrated that despite the poor bone quality in these elderly patients with a fracture of the femoral neck, osseo-integration was obtained in all hips in both groups. However, the incidence of thigh pain, pulmonary

  17. Salter-Harris type II fracture of the femoral bone in a 14-year-old boy - case report.

    PubMed

    Kuleta-Bosak, Elżbieta; Bożek, Paweł; Kluczewska, Ewa; Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Machnik-Broncel, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Distal femoral physis fractures with displacement are rare injuries seen in adolescents related with high incidence of complication. They may lead to premature physeal closure consequently, to growth arrest and bone deformity. The case of a 14-year-old boy with Salter-Harris type II displaced fracture underwent surgery with open reduction has been described. CT examination with multiplanar reconstruction was used in pre-operative assessment of distal femur growth plate fracture. Knowledge of classification, prognosis and methods of treatment is necessary in accurate pre- and postoperative assessment of physial fractures in adolescents. CT and multiplanar reconstruction improve the understanding of patterns of injury, relative prevalence and accuracy of pre-operative planning.

  18. Sport related proximal femoral fractures: a retrospective review of 31 cases treated in an eight year period

    PubMed Central

    Habernek, H.; Schmid, L.; Frauenschuh, E.

    2000-01-01

    In an eight year period, 31 patients with proximal femoral fractures resulting from sports accidents were treated by implantation of either a Gamma nail or a dynamic hip screw. Return to work or sports and the time to bone healing did not differ very much between the treatments. Gamma nailing was clearly the best with regard to stability and time to full mobilisation (4.5 days), but required 39 minutes to perform compared with insertion of a dynamic hip screw (27 minutes). The incidence of complications and malalignments did not differ very much between the two, although, when Gamma nailing was first used in the authors' clinic, more intraoperative complications occurred than with the dynamic hip screw. Stable pertrochanteric fractures may be treated with a dynamic hip screw. Unstable pertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures are treated with a Gamma nail at the authors' institution. Key Words: femur; fracture; Gamma nail; dynamic hip screw; skiing; mountain biking PMID:10690452

  19. Salter-Harris type II fracture of the femoral bone in a 14-year-old boy – case report

    PubMed Central

    Kuleta-Bosak, Elżbieta; Bożek, Paweł; Kluczewska, Ewa; Tomaszewski, Ryszard; Machnik-Broncel, Joanna

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background: Distal femoral physis fractures with displacement are rare injuries seen in adolescents related with high incidence of complication. They may lead to premature physeal closure consequently, to growth arrest and bone deformity. Case Report: The case of a 14-year-old boy with Salter-Harris type II displaced fracture underwent surgery with open reduction has been described. CT examination with multiplanar reconstruction was used in pre-operative assessment of distal femur growth plate fracture. Conclusions: Knowledge of classification, prognosis and methods of treatment is necessary in accurate pre- and postoperative assessment of physial fractures in adolescents. CT and multiplanar reconstruction improve the understanding of patterns of injury, relative prevalence and accuracy of pre-operative planning. PMID:22802768

  20. Posterior approach compared to direct lateral approach resulted in better patient-reported outcome after hemiarthroplasty for femoral neck fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, Torbjørn B; Vinje, Tarjei; Havelin, Leif I; Engesæter, Lars B; Gjertsen, Jan-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — Hemiarthroplasty (HA) is the most common treatment for displaced femoral neck fractures in many countries. In Norway, there has been a tradition of using the direct lateral surgical approach, but worldwide a posterior approach is more often used. Based on data from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register, we compared the results of HA operated through the posterior and direct lateral approaches regarding patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and reoperation rate. Patients and methods — HAs due to femoral neck fracture in patients aged 60 years and older were included from the Norwegian Hip Fracture Register (2005–2014). 18,918 procedures were reported with direct lateral approach and 1,990 with posterior approach. PROM data (satisfaction, pain, quality of life (EQ-5D), and walking ability) were reported 4, 12, and 36 months postoperatively. The Cox regression model was used to calculate relative risk (RR) of reoperation. Results — There were statistically significant differences in PROM data with less pain, better satisfaction, and better quality of life after surgery using the posterior approach than using the direct lateral approach. The risk of reoperation was similar between the approaches. Interpretation — Hemiarthroplasty for hip fracture performed through a posterior approach rather than a direct lateral approach results in less pain, with better patient satisfaction and better quality of life. The risk of reoperation was similar with both approaches. PMID:27805460

  1. Proximal femoral replacement and allograft prosthesis composite in the treatment of periprosthetic fractures with significant proximal bone loss.

    PubMed

    Rasouli, Mohammad R; Porat, Manny D; Hozack, William J; Parvizi, Javad

    2012-11-01

    Femoral bone loss due to periprosthetic fracture, a challenging problem in total hip arthroplasty (THA), is increasingly encountered due to a rise in the number of revision THAs performed. Allograft prosthesis composite (APC) and proximal femoral replacement (PFR) are two available options for management of patients with difficult type-B3 Vancouver periprosthetic fractures. The treatment algorithm for patients with these fractures has been extensively studied and is influenced by the age and activity level of the patient. APC is often preferred in young and active patients in an attempt to preserve bone stock while older and less active patients are considered candidates for PFR. In spite of the high rate of overall complications with these two procedures, reported survivorship is acceptable. Treating patients with these complicated fractures is fraught with complications and, even with successful treatment, the outcomes are not as promising as those associated with primary hip replacement. In this paper, we aimed to review available published reports about PFR and APC for treatment of periprosthetic fractures around THAs.

  2. Comparison of cutout resistance of dynamic condylar screw and proximal femoral nail in reverse oblique trochanteric fractures: A biomechanical study

    PubMed Central

    Cheema, Gursimrat Singh; Rastogi, Amit; Singh, Vakil; Goel, Satish Chandra; Mishra, Diwakar; Arora, Sumit

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reverse oblique trochanteric fracture of femur is a distinct fracture pattern. 95° Dynamic condylar screw (DCS) and proximal femoral nail (PFN) are currently the most commonly used implants for its fixation. This study aims to biomechanically compare the cutout resistance as well as modes of failure of DCS and PFN in reverse oblique trochanteric fractures. Materials and Methods: Sixteen freshly harvested cadaveric proximal femoral specimens were randomly assigned to three mean bone mineral density matched groups, eight of which were implanted with 95° DCS and the other eight with PFN. The constructs were made unstable to resemble a reverse oblique trochanteric fracture by removing a standard size posteromedial wedge. These constructs were subjected to computer controlled cyclic compressive loading with 200 kg at a frequency of 1 cycle/second (1 Hz) and end points of both the groups were analyzed. Results: The bending moment of the PFN group was approximately 50% less than that of the DCS group (P<0.0001). The PFN group resisted more number of cycles than the DCS group (P=0.03) and showed lesser number of component failures as compared with the DCS group (P=0.003). Conclusions: The PFN is biomechanically superior to DCS for the fixation of reverse oblique trochanteric fractures of femur. PMID:22719110

  3. Adverse reaction to metal bearing leading to femoral stem fractures: a literature review and report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Al-Azzani, Waheeb A.K.; Iqbal, Hafiz J.; John, Alun

    2016-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing in total hip replacement (THR) has a high failure rate due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). There is a spectrum of soft tissue and bony changes in ARMD including muscle necrosis and osteolysis. In our institution, more than 1500 MoM THRs were implanted since 2003. Recently, we have revised significant numbers of these. We report our experience and management of a mode of failure of MoM THR that has been infrequently reported—the distal femoral stem fracture. We report on two patients who presented with worsening pain attributable to fracture of the femoral stem. Severe femoral osteolysis led to loss of proximal stem support and eventual fatigue fracture of the component. Both patients were revised employing a posterior approach. Bone trephine was used to extract a well-fixed distal stem fragment without any windows. Both patients had successful outcome after revision with excellent pain relief and no complications. PMID:26846269

  4. Hip fracture in a patient affected by transient osteoporosis of the femoral head during the last trimester of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Spinarelli, Antonio; Patella, Vittorio; Speciale, Domenico; Petrera, Massimo; Vittore, Donato; Pesce, Vito; Patella, Silvio

    2009-05-01

    Few cases of hip fracture in pregnant women affected by transient osteoporosis of the femoral head have been reported in the literature, but its real incidence seems to be underestimated. During pregnancy, osteoporosis manifests itself with an insidious onset of hip pain and limp without any trauma or infective episode in clinical history. Its clinical course is characterized by spontaneous recovery a few weeks to several months after delivery. This article describes the case of a 35-year-old woman with a sudden onset of bilateral hip pain during the last trimester of her first pregnancy; she had neither history of steroid therapy nor alcohol abuse; her body temperature and serological parameters were normal. Bilateral transient osteoporosis of the femoral heads was suspected and confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Fifteen days postpartum, she was admitted to our clinic with a displaced femoral neck fracture. A cementless total hip arthroplasty was performed to quickly begin a rehabilitative program. She underwent antiresorptive therapy with alendronic acid 70 mg/week and vitamin D for 3 months. Three months after the fracture, a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan showed osteopenia (T-score, -1.5). Risedronic acid 35 mg/week and vitamin D were then prescribed. The last physical examination at 3 months postoperatively revealed a gradual recovery of the autonomy in activities of daily life.

  5. Complex proximal femoral fractures in the elderly managed by reconstruction nailing – complications & outcomes: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rethnam, Ulfin; Cordell-Smith, James; Kumar, Thirumoolanathan M; Sinha, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Background Unstable proximal femoral fractures and pathological lesions involving the trochanteric region in the elderly comprise an increasing workload for the trauma surgeon as the ageing population increases. This study aims to evaluate use of the Russell-Taylor reconstruction nail (RTRN) in this group with regard to mortality risk, complication rates and final outcome. Methods Retrospective evaluation of 42 patients aged over 60 years who were treated by reconstruction nailing for proximal femoral fractures over a 4 year period. Results Over two-thirds of patients were high anaesthetic risk (ASA > 3) with ischemic heart disease the most common co-morbidity. 4 patients died within 30 days of surgery and 4 patients required further surgery for implant related failure. Majority of patients failed to regain their pre-injury mobility status and fewer than half the patients returned to their original domestic residence. Conclusion Favourable fixation of unstable complex femoral fractures in the elderly population can be achieved with the Russell-Taylor reconstruction nail. However, use of this device in this frail population was associated with a high implant complication and mortality rate that undoubtedly reflected the severity of the injury sustained, co-morbidity within the group and the stress of a major surgical procedure. PMID:18271998

  6. Biomechanical effect of different femoral neck blade position on the fixation of intertrochanteric fracture: a finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pei-Yuan; Lin, Kun-Jhih; Wei, Hung-Wen; Hu, Jin-Jia; Chen, Wen-Chuan; Tsai, Cheng-Lun; Lin, Kang-Ping

    2016-06-01

    Medial migration or cutout of the neck helical blade has commonly occurred in the treatment of trochanteric fracture of the femur. The position of the helical blade within the femoral head is one of the influencing factors that cause the blade to perforate the intact joint surface; however, the ideal placement of the helical blade is not currently known. A finite element model of a femur/nail construct was utilized to analyze five possible blade positions in the femoral head. Normal strain at the fracture surface, the minimum principal strain in the cancellous bone, and the von Mises stress in the implant itself were calculated and compared between different blade positions. The results showed that a large area of normal compressive strain at the fracture surface was observed in the inferior and posterior blade positions. The volume of cancellous bone strained to yielding in the femoral head and neck was lower for the inferior and posterior positions, whereas it was the highest for the superior position. The inferior and posterior positions had lower von Mises stress in the implant itself. The inferior and posterior positions may be the ideal position for the intramedullary nail with a helical neck blade.

  7. Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis: a long-term complication of bisphosphonate treatment.

    PubMed

    Migliorati, Cesar A; Siegel, Michael A; Elting, Linda S

    2006-06-01

    We present current knowledge of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis, a new oral complication in oncology. It was first described in 2003, and hundreds of cases have been reported worldwide. The disorder affects patients with cancer on bisphosphonate treatment for multiple myeloma or bone metastasis from breast, prostate, or lung cancer. Bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis is characterised by the unexpected appearance of necrotic bone in the oral cavity. Osteonecrosis can develop spontaneously or after an invasive surgical procedure such as dental extraction. Patients might have severe pain or be asymptomatic. Symptoms can mimic routine dental problems such as decay or periodontal disease. Intravenous use of pamidronate and zoledronic acid is associated with most cases. Other risk factors include duration of bisphosphonate treatment (ie, 36 months and longer), old age in patients with multiple myeloma, and a history of recent dental extraction. We also discuss pathobiology, clinical features, management, and future directions for the disorder.

  8. Prediction of Incident Hip Fracture with the estimated Femoral Strength by Finite Element Analysis of DXA Scans in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lang; Palermo, Lisa; Black, Dennis M; Eastell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    A bone fractures only when loaded beyond its strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of DXA scans, with incident hip fracture in comparison to hip BMD, FRAX® and hip structure analysis (HSA) variables. This prospective case-cohort study included a random sample of 1941 women and 668 incident hip fracture cases (295 in the random sample) during a mean±SD follow-up of 12.8±5.7 yrs from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (n=7860 community-dwelling women ≥67 yr of age). We analyzed the baseline DXA scans (Holgoic 1000) of the hip using a validated plane-stress, linear-elastic finite element (FE) model of the proximal femur and estimated the femoral strength during a simulated sideways fall. Cox regression accounting for the case-cohort design assessed the association of estimated femoral strength with hip fracture. The age-BMI-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per SD decrease for estimated strength (2.21, 95% CI 1.95–2.50) was greater than that for TH BMD (1.86, 95% CI 1.67–2.08; p<0.05), FN BMD (2.04, 95% CI 1.79–2.32; p>0.05), FRAX® scores (range 1.32–1.68; p<0.0005) and many HSA variables (range 1.13–2.43; p<0.005), and the association was still significant (p<0.05) after further adjustment for hip BMD or FRAX® scores. The association of estimated strength with incident hip fracture was strong (Harrell's C index 0.770), significantly better than TH BMD (0.759, p<0.05) and FRAX® scores (0.711–0.743, p<0.0001) but not FN BMD (0.762, p>0.05) Similar findings were obtained for intra- and extra-capsular fractures. In conclusion, the estimated femoral strength from FE analysis of DXA scans is an independent predictor and performs at least as well as FN BMD in predicting incident hip fracture in postmenopausal women. PMID:24898426

  9. Computerized fluoroscopy with zero-dose image updates for minimally invasive femoral diaphyseal fracture reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guoyan; Dong, Xiao

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, a computerized fluoroscopy with zero-dose image updates for femoral diaphyseal fracture reduction is proposed. It is achieved with a two-step procedure. Starting from a few (normally 2) calibrated fluoroscopic image, the first step, data preparation, automatically estimates the size and the pose of the diaphyseal fragments through three-dimensional morphable object fitting using a parametric cylinder model. The projection boundary of each estimated cylinder, a quadrilateral, is then fed to a region information based active contour model to extract the fragment contours from the input fluoroscopic images. After that, each point on the contour is interpolated relative to the four vertices of the corresponding quadrilateral, which resulted in four interpolation coefficients per point. The second step, image updates, repositions the fragment projection on each acquired image during bony manipulation using a computerized method. It starts with interpolation of the new position of each point on the fragment contour using the interpolation coefficients calculated in the first step and the new position of the corresponding quadrilateral. The position of the quadrilateral is updated in real time according to the positional changes of the associated bone fragments, as determined by the navigation system during fracture reduction. The newly calculated image coordinates of the fragment contour are then fed to a OpenGL® based texture warping pipeline to achieve a real-time image updates. The presented method provides a realistic augmented reality for the surgeon. Its application may result in great reduction of the X-ray radiation to the patient and to the surgical team.

  10. Hypovitaminosis D and Other Risk Factors of Femoral Neck Fracture in South Indian Postmenopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Selvan, Sivan Arul; Asha, Hesarghatta Shyamasunder; Thomas, Nihal; Venkatesh,, Krishnan; Oommen, Anil Thomas; Mathai, Thomas; Seshadri, MandalamSubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-communicable diseases like hip fractures are a significant problem in a developing country like India. The risk factors for hip fractures vary according to local practices and the availability of preventive health care delivery systems. There is paucity of data on risk factors for hip fracture in the south Indian population. Aim This study was undertaken to assess risk factors associated with femoral neck (FN) fracture in South Indian postmenopausal women along with subsequent one year mortality. Materials and Methods One hundred four postmenopausal women with FN fracture and 104 age and BMI matched controls were included. Sedative use, visual impairment and other relevant risk factors were assessed. Bone biochemistry and Bone Mineral Density (BMD) were evaluated. A telephonic interview was done at the end of one year to ascertain the well-being. Results Sedative use, visual impairment, low FN BMD and vitamin-D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) were seen more in fracture subjects compared to controls (p≤0.05). At the end of one year, 20% of the fracture subjects and 5% of the controls had died (p=0.001). Conclusion Risk factors identified in our study are potentially correctable, and needs special attention in an Indian context to prevent hip fractures. PMID:26266149

  11. Salter-Harris type III fracture of the lateral femoral condyle with a ruptured posterior cruciate ligament: an uncommon injury pattern.

    PubMed

    Rafee, Asan; Kumar, A; Shah, S V

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of an obscure injury to the distal femoral epiphysis with an uncommon pattern in a 12-year-old boy following a road traffic accident. Initial plain radiographs of the knee were inconclusive. Further investigation with magnetic resonance imaging revealed Salter-Harris type III fracture of the lateral femoral condyle with a gap at the fracture site associated with avulsion of the posterior cruciate ligament. This potentially serious injury can be underestimated on plain radiographs and therefore any suspected injury to the distal femoral epiphysis should be thoroughly assessed and investigated to institute appropriate treatment and minimise the risk of long-term complications.

  12. Impending Atypical Femoral Fracture in Patients With Medullary Thyroid Cancer With Skeletal Metastasis Treated With Long-term Bisphosphonate and Denosumab.

    PubMed

    Koizumi, Mitsuru; Gokita, Tabu; Toda, Kazuhisa

    2017-02-24

    Atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) occur in osteoporosis patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate. Atypical femoral fractures also occur in cancer patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, but the prevalence is low. We describe a 53-year-old woman with a history of medullary thyroid cancer and skull metastasis who was prescribed bisphosphonate for 6 years and denosumab for 1.5 years, consecutively. Bone scintigraphy performed because of spontaneous groin pain showed uptake in the lateral aspect of the left femur, which was confirmed as impending AFF. In oncological patients receiving long-term bisphosphonate or denosumab, AFF should be included as a differential diagnosis with focal femoral findings.

  13. Medial fractures of the femoral neck in the elderly treated by SEM bipolar prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Goretti, C; Cirilli, M; Soldati, D; Rizquallah, J; Marri, C; Musacchi, G; Guerra, A

    1996-01-01

    The authors present 335 cases of medical fracture of the femoral neck in the elderly patient (mean age 80.5 years) treated by SEM type bipolar prosthesis. A total of 93 patients (28.3%) were followed-up for a total of 98 hips submitted to surgery (5 bilateral) after a mean period of 42 months, minimum 12 months, maximum 96. Clinical follow-up included these parameters: pain, movement, walking, according to Merle D'Aubigné. Radiographic follow-up consisted in standard views and maximum adduction and abduction. Pain was present in 49% of cases, although it did not significantly invalidate movement (quotients 6 and 5 in 96% of cases); in 60% of the cases there were problems with walking mostly due to the general conditions of the patient. Wear phenomena in the acetabulum were present in 32 hips (32.6%) with no correlation with clinical data. Dynamic x-rays showed that only 31% of the implants maintained intraprosthetic movement. What emerges from the study is the importance of adequate measurement of the prosthetic cupola to improve acetabular fit.

  14. Fatigue fracture of a forged cobalt-chromium-molybdenum femoral component inserted with cement. A report of ten cases.

    PubMed

    Woolson, S T; Milbauer, J P; Bobyn, J D; Yue, S; Maloney, W J

    1997-12-01

    Ten patients who had had a total hip replacement with a forged cobalt-chromium-molybdenum femoral prosthesis (Precoat or Precoat Plus) inserted with cement were seen with a fatigue fracture of the stem an average of fifty months (range, nineteen to seventy-four months) postoperatively. The average age of the patients was sixty-one years (range, forty-three to seventy-three years), and the average weight was ninety-six kilograms (range, seventy to 130 kilograms). Eight patients had had a primary total hip replacement, and two had had a revision; all of the acetabular components had been inserted without cement. Radiographs that had been made before the fracture were available for four of the eight hips that had had a primary replacement; all four had radiographic evidence of debonding of the cement mantle from the proximal end of the stem. This probably caused exaggerated cantilever bending stresses on the proximal aspect of the stem as the distal end of the stem was well fixed. The radiographs of both hips that had had a revision demonstrated a non-union of the greater trochanter, which had resulted in separation at the cement-bone interface at the proximal portion of the femur before the fracture. Scanning electron micrographs of five of the ten fractured prostheses demonstrated a fatigue fracture that began near the anterolateral corner of the prosthesis, through characters that had been etched on the implant with a laser. Metallurgical analysis indicated subsurface voids or inclusions, or both, immediately under the region that had been etched. This finding is consistent with thermal changes to the microstructure of the alloy that probably caused a focal reduction in the material strength. A high proportion (seven) of the ten stems had a poor cement mantle. Also, of the seven small stems that were used, six had been implanted in patients who weighed more than eighty kilograms, so there was relative undersizing of the prostheses. Early debonding of the proximal

  15. Factors Associated With Psycho-Cognitive Functions in Patients With Persistent Pain After Surgery for Femoral Neck Fracture.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Atsushi; Hida, Mitsumasa; Takami, Hidenobu; Hirata, Naoki; Deguchi, Yuko; Miyaguchi, Kazuya; Nakazono, Masako; Nakagawa, Rie; Fukumoto, Noriyuki; Hamaoka, Katsumi

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to address issues arising from fracture of the femoral neck in elderly individuals, the prevalence of which continues to increase in Japan. The prevalence is increasing in Japan and there have been many reports on physical functions such as prevention of a fall. However, there have been a few studies that focus on psycho-cognitive functions. We must examine factors in patients with fractured femur necks to develop methods to assist affected patients. The current study aimed to examine factors associated with psycho-cognitive functions after surgery for fractured femoral neck in the Japanese elderly. In this study, we examined the relationships among sex, age, fracture site, operative procedure, body mass index, lifestyle, psycho-cognitive functions, and types of pain in 142 patients, performed multiple regression analysis using the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) scores as dependent variables, and created MMSE and MADRS models. Analysis of MMSE and MADRS models identified night pain and the number of family members as factors that affected mental function in a population with persistent pain for 1 week after surgery for fractured femoral neck. In addition, the number of family members was identified in multiple regression analysis models as a factor associated with psycho-cognitive functions. Pain, and night pain in particular, affect psycho-cognitive functions. We speculated that emotional changes were associated with number of family members. Patients living with family members maintained psycho-cognitive functions better than did those living alone, even when they experienced pain in their daily lives.

  16. The Application of Closed Reduction Internal Fixation and Iliac Bone Block Grafting in the Treatment of Acute Displaced Femoral Neck Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Su, Yanling; Zhang, Qi; Hou, Zhiyong; Pan, Jinshe; Zhang, Yingze

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the preliminary clinical and radiographic outcomes of acute displaced femoral neck fracture treated by closed reduction and internal fixation (CRIF) with free iliac bone block grafting with comparison to a routine protocol of CRIF without bone grafting. Methods From December 2008 to February 2010, 220 adult patients with acute displaced femoral neck fractures were enrolled in this study. In study group, there were 124 patients (57 males, 67 females) with a mean age of 44.8 years (range, 20-64 years). There were 70 transcervical fractures and 54 subcapital fractures. The patients were treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting. The control group consisted of 96 adult patients (46 males, 50 females) with a mean age of 46.3 years (range, 23-64 years). There were 61 transcervical fractures and 35 subcapital fractures. The patients in control group were treated by CRIF without bone grafting. Results In study group, 112 patients were followed up for an average of 27.4 months (range, 24-34 months). All fractures healed within 5 months. However, 10 patients presented AVN of the femoral heads. The mean Harris score was 88.6 (range, 41-100). In control group, 68 patients were followed up for an average of 31.2 months (range, 24-42 months). The rates of AVN of the femoral head and fracture nonunion in control group were 26.5% (18/68) and 16.2% (11/68), respectively, significantly higher than those in study group (both P<0.05). The mean Harris score in control group was 83.8 (41–100), significantly lower than that in study group (P<0.05). Conclusion Acute displaced femoral neck fractures can be treated by CRIF and free iliac bone block grafting in a minimally invasive manner. This technique can guarantee uneventful fracture healing and significantly reduce the rate of femoral head osteonecrosis. PMID:24040414

  17. Internal Fixation Versus Hemiarthroplasty for Displaced Intra-Capsular Femoral Neck Fractures in ASA 3-5 Geriatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Rezaie, W.; Wei, W.; Cleffken, B.I.; van der Vlies, C.H.; Cleffken, B.I.; Roukema, G.R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The treatment of choice for elderly with a displaced intra-capsular femoral neck fractures is prosthetic replacement. This is however a major surgical procedure for geriatric patients with multiple co-morbidities which can threaten hemodynamic stability and lead to death. In this study we compared the outcome of internal fixation (IF) versus hemiarthroplasty (HA) for the management of intra-capsular femoral neck fractures in the elderly with severe co-morbidities. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all the patients who were admitted to our Level-II trauma centre with a femoral neck fracture between January 2009 and June 2011. Inclusion criteria were: 70 years or older, ASA 3 or higher, a displaced femoral neck fracture and treatment with either internal fixation or a cemented hemiprosthesis. The primary outcome was 6-month mortality rate. Secondary outcomes were 30-day mortality, post-operative complications, re-operation rate and length of hospital stay. Results: 80 patients met our inclusion criteria. The mean age of the IF group was 81.6 years and in the HA group it was 84.5 years (P=0.07). The medical records were retrieved 34-64 months after surgery. Two intra-operative deaths due to cement implantation syndrome were found in the HA group and none in the IF group. Twelve patients (21.8%) in the HA group died within 30 days after surgery and 2 (8.0%) in the IF group (P=0.21). The mean operating time was 83 min. for the HA group and 51 min. for the IF group (P=0.000). There were more implant-related complications in the IF than in the HA group (36% vs 9.1% respectively, P=0.008). The 6-month mortality rates didn’t differ between the IF and the HA groups (respectively 28.0% vs 34.5%, P=0.62). Conclusion: The post-operative mortality rates did not differ between the IF and the HA groups in elderly patients with a displaced femoral neck fracture and ASA 3 to 5. However, the HA associated with less implant-related complications than

  18. Case of femoral diaphyseal stress fracture after long-term risedronate administration diagnosed by iliac bone biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ishikawa, Koji; Saito, Emi; Kuroda, Takuma; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonate excessively inhibits bone resorption and results in pathological fracture of the femur or ilium. The subject of this study was administered risedronate for 7 years; we suspected an easy fracture of the femoral diaphysis. In this study, we report the results of this patient’s bone biopsy and bone morphometric analysis. A 76-year-old female patient presented with right femoral pain. Bone mineral density of the anteroposterior surface of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae (L2–L4) was decreased and levels of bone turnover markers were high. Therefore, we initiated treatment with risedronate. As she continued the medication, urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase (bone-type isozyme) were found to be within the normal ranges. After 7 years of administration, the patient experienced pain when she put weight on the right femur and right femoral pain while walking. Plain radiographic examination revealed polypoid stress fracture-like lesions on the right femoral diaphysis and on the slightly distal-lateral cortical bone. Similar lesions were observed on magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy. We suspected severely suppressed bone turnover. Bone biopsy was obtained after labeling with tetracycline, and bone morphometric analysis was performed. On microscopic examination, slight double tetracycline labeling was observed. The trabeculae were narrow, and the numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were decreased. Further, rates of bone calcification and bone formation were slow. Hence, we diagnosed fracture as a result of low turnover osteopathy. Risedronate was withdrawn, and Vitamin D3 was administered to improve the bone turnover. At 6 months, abnormal signals on magnetic resonance imaging had decreased and her pain while walking or undergoing the stress test disappeared as well. Thus, long-term administration of bisphosphonates may lead to easy fracture, although bone turnover markers were

  19. Case of femoral diaphyseal stress fracture after long-term risedronate administration diagnosed by iliac bone biopsy.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Takashi; Sakamoto, Keizo; Ishikawa, Koji; Saito, Emi; Kuroda, Takuma; Inagaki, Katsunori

    2013-01-01

    Bisphosphonate excessively inhibits bone resorption and results in pathological fracture of the femur or ilium. The subject of this study was administered risedronate for 7 years; we suspected an easy fracture of the femoral diaphysis. In this study, we report the results of this patient's bone biopsy and bone morphometric analysis. A 76-year-old female patient presented with right femoral pain. Bone mineral density of the anteroposterior surface of the 2nd to 4th lumbar vertebrae (L2-L4) was decreased and levels of bone turnover markers were high. Therefore, we initiated treatment with risedronate. As she continued the medication, urinary levels of cross-linked N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and alkaline phosphatase (bone-type isozyme) were found to be within the normal ranges. After 7 years of administration, the patient experienced pain when she put weight on the right femur and right femoral pain while walking. Plain radiographic examination revealed polypoid stress fracture-like lesions on the right femoral diaphysis and on the slightly distal-lateral cortical bone. Similar lesions were observed on magnetic resonance imaging and bone scintigraphy. We suspected severely suppressed bone turnover. Bone biopsy was obtained after labeling with tetracycline, and bone morphometric analysis was performed. On microscopic examination, slight double tetracycline labeling was observed. The trabeculae were narrow, and the numbers of osteoblasts and osteoclasts were decreased. Further, rates of bone calcification and bone formation were slow. Hence, we diagnosed fracture as a result of low turnover osteopathy. Risedronate was withdrawn, and Vitamin D3 was administered to improve the bone turnover. At 6 months, abnormal signals on magnetic resonance imaging had decreased and her pain while walking or undergoing the stress test disappeared as well. Thus, long-term administration of bisphosphonates may lead to easy fracture, although bone turnover markers were

  20. Proximal femoral fractures in centenarians. A retrospective analysis of 39 patients.

    PubMed

    Morice, A; Reina, N; Gracia, G; Bonnevialle, P; Laffosse, J-M; Wytrykowski, K; Cavaignac, E; Bonnevialle, N

    2017-02-01

    A corollary of the current population ageing in France is an increase in proximal femoral fractures (PFFs), particularly among centenarians. The outcomes of PFFs in centenarians in France are unknown. We therefore conducted a retrospective study of centenarians with PFFs both to assess: (1) assess clinical outcomes according to geriatric and trauma scores, (2) and to determine whether routine surgery is warranted. Morbidity and mortality in a single-centre cohort of centenarians with surgically treated PFFs are consistent with previous reports. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 33 women and 6 men aged 100 years or over who were treated surgically for PFFs at a single-centre between 2008 and 2014. Of the 39 patients, 15 were living at home and 24 in an institution at the time of the injury. Mean (range) values were 3.30 (0-7) for the Parker Mobility Score, 5.84 (0-12) for the Katz index, and 7.46 (2-12) for the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Mean time from injury to surgery was 1.7 days (0-12). The 26 extra-capsular fractures were managed by internal fixation and the 13 intra-capsular fractures by hip arthroplasty (n=12) or screw fixation (n=1). After a mean follow-up of 23±14 months (6-60 months), 29 patients had died, including 3 within 48h, 10 within 3 months, and 15 within 1 year. Sequential mortality rates were 33.3% within the first 3 months, 26.9% from months 4 to 9, and 42.2% within the first year. Early dislocation occurred in 3 patients and surgical-site infection in 2 patients. Other complications were heart failure (n=1), confusional state (n=2), pneumonia (n=2), and pyelonephritis (n=2). A PubMed search identified five studies of PFFs in more than 10 centenarians, of which only 2 provided detailed information on postoperative general and local morbidity related to the surgical treatment. Our hypothesis was confirmed for 3-month and 1-year mortality rates, which were at the lower ends of previously reported ranges. Local complications related

  1. Proximal femoral fractures and vascular injuries in adults: Incidence, aetiology and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Barquet, Antonio; Gelink, Andrés; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2015-12-01

    Vascular injuries (VI) presenting during internal fixation (IF) of proximal femoral fractures (PFF) are potentially limb- and life-threatening. The purpose of this systematic review of the literature is to report on their incidence, associated complications and to give special emphasis in their prevention. A comprehensive review of the literature was undertaken using the PRISMA guidelines with no language restriction. Case reports of VIPFF-IF and series of PFF-IF with cases of VI published between inception of journals to March 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Relevant information was divided in two parts. Part I included the analysis of cases of VIPFF-IF, with the objective of establishing the frequency of injury of each vessel, the types and mechanisms of injury, the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, and the outcomes. Part II analysed series of PFF-IF, which included case(s) of VI for assessing the incidence of VIPFF-IF. Overall 160 articles with 182 cases of VIPFF-IF met the inclusion criteria. The injuries to extrapelvic vessels prevailed over those of intrapelvic vessels. There was a higher frequency of injury to the deep femoral artery and its branches in extrapelvic vessels and of external iliac artery and vein in intrapelvic vessels. The types of injury were: compression, intimal flap tear, disruption of the intimal layer with thrombosis, laceration with haemorrhage, and puncture or progressive erosion leading to a pseudoaneurysm (PSA) or arteriovenous fistula (AVF), with high prevalence for PSA, followed by lacerations. PSAs were more frequent in extrapelvic lesions and lacerations in the intrapelvic vessels. There were 7 non-iatrogenic injuries, produced by a displaced lesser trochanter fragment or other bone fragments, and 175 iatrogenic injuries (96.15%). The intrapelvic intraoperative protrusion of instruments or implants, or the post-operative migration of implants produced the injuries of intrapelvic vessels. For iatrogenic injuries of

  2. Dose-Effect Relationships for Femoral Fractures After Multimodality Limb-Sparing Therapy of Soft-Tissue Sarcomas of the Proximal Lower Extremity

    SciTech Connect

    Pak, Daniel; Vineberg, Karen A.; Griffith, Kent A.; Sabolch, Aaron; Chugh, Rashmi; Biermann, Janet Sybil; Feng, Mary

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: We investigated the clinical and dosimetric predictors for radiation-associated femoral fractures in patients with proximal lower extremity soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Methods and Materials: We examined 131 patients with proximal lower extremity STS who received limb-sparing surgery and external-beam radiation therapy between 1985 and 2006. Five (4%) patients sustained pathologic femoral fractures. Dosimetric analysis was limited to 4 fracture patients with full three-dimensional dose information, who were compared with 59 nonfracture patients. The mean doses and volumes of bone (V{sub d}) receiving specified doses ({>=}30 Gy, 45 Gy, 60 Gy) at the femoral body, femoral neck, intertrochanteric region, and subtrochanteric region were compared. Clinical predictive factors were also evaluated. Results: Of 4 fracture patients in our dosimetric series, there were three femoral neck fractures with a mean dose of 57.6 {+-} 8.9 Gy, V30 of 14.5 {+-} 2.3 cc, V45 of 11.8 {+-} 1.1 cc, and V60 of 7.2 {+-} 2.2 cc at the femoral neck compared with 22.9 {+-} 20.8 Gy, 4.8 {+-} 5.6 cc, 2.5 {+-} 3.9 cc, and 0.8 {+-} 2.7 cc, respectively, for nonfracture patients (p < 0.03 for all). The femoral neck fracture rate was higher than at the subtrochanteric region despite lower mean doses at these subregions. All fracture sites received mean doses greater than 40 Gy. Also, with our policy of prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing for high-risk patients, there was no significant difference in fracture rates between patients with and without periosteal excision. There were no significant differences in age, sex, tumor size, timing of radiation therapy, and use of chemotherapy between fracture and nonfracture patients. Conclusions: These dose-volume toxicity relationships provide RT optimization goals to guide future efforts for reducing pathologic fracture rates. Prophylactic femoral intramedullary nailing may also reduce fracture risk for susceptible patients.

  3. Atypical femoral fractures in Italy: a retrospective analysis in a large urban emergency department during a 7-year period (2007-2013).

    PubMed

    Pedrazzoni, Mario; Giusti, Andrea; Girasole, Giuseppe; Abbate, Barbara; Verzicco, Ignazio; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2016-11-09

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of atypical femoral fractures (AFFs) seen in a large emergency department in Italy. It was a retrospective study of all men and women aged 40 years or older admitted to the Emergency Department of Parma University Hospital for a femoral fracture. Cases were identified in the hospital database with use of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) code 820 or 821 or text strings. All the radiographic images of fractures not clearly identified as proximal or condylar were retrieved and evaluated by three independent reviewers. Fractures were considered as atypical if all three reviewers agreed on at least four of five major features defined by the 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research criteria. In the 7-year period (2007-2013), with a total follow-up of 1,383,154 patient-years, we found 22 AFFs in 21 patients, accounting for 7.1% of low-trauma subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures and 0.6% of all femoral fractures. The incidence was very low (1.6 in 100,000 patient-years in both sexes combined). In contrast, the incidence of classic fractures of the proximal end of the femur was at least two orders of magnitude higher (typical/atypical rate ratio 152). Bisphosphonate use was reported in 13 patients (62%; mean treatment duration 9 years; range 5-14 years). Among 286 patients with typical subtrochanteric/femoral shaft fractures, 20 were being treated with bisphosphonate (7%; odds ratio 22; 95% confidence interval 8-58; p < 0.001). This study confirms the very low incidence of AFFs in the largest Italian cohort of patients to date. Even though the risk is higher in patients treated with bisphosphonates, AFFs are very rare, and typical femoral fractures are at least 100-fold more frequent.

  4. Effect of bisphosphonate initiation at week 2 versus week 12 on short-term functional recovery after femoral neck fracture: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Unnanuntana, Aasis; Laohaprasitiporn, Panai; Jarusriwanna, Atthakorn

    2017-12-01

    The appropriate time to initiate bisphosphonate treatment after a fragility fracture has not yet been established. In this study, we found no significant differences in short-term functional recovery between femoral neck fracture patients who received bisphosphonate treatment at 2 versus 12 weeks after hemiarthroplasty.

  5. Peri-prosthetic femoral fractures of hip or knee arthroplasty. Analysis of 34 cases and a review of Spanish series in the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Ochoa, M; Miranda, I; Orenga, S; Hurtado-Oliver, V; Sendra, F; Roselló-Añón, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate peri-prosthetic femoral fractures by analysing type of patient, treatment and outcomes, and to compare them with Spanish series published in the last 20 years. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients with peri-prosthetic femoral fractures treated in our hospital from 2010 to 2014, and telephone survey on the current status. A total of 34 peri-prosthetic femoral fractures were analysed, 20 in hip arthroplasty and 14 in knee arthroplasty. The mean age of the patients was 79.9 years, and 91% had previous comorbidity, with up to 36% having at least 3 prior systemic diseases. Mean hospital stay was 8.7 days, and was higher in surgically-treated than in conservative-treated patients. The majority (60.6%) of patients had complications, and mortality was 18%. Functional status was not regained in 61.5% of patients, and pain was higher in hip than in knee arthroplasty. Peri-prosthetic femoral fractures are increasing in frequency. This is due to the increasing number of arthroplasties performed and also to the increasing age of these patients. Treatment of these fractures is complex because of the presence of an arthroplasty component, low bone quality, and comorbidity of the patients. Peri-prosthetic femoral fractures impair quality of life. They need individualised treatment, and have frequent complications and mortality. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparative evaluation of femoral nerve block and intravenous fentanyl for positioning during spinal anaesthesia in surgery of femur fracture

    PubMed Central

    Jadon, Ashok; Kedia, Sunil Kumar; Dixit, Shreya; Chakraborty, Swastika

    2014-01-01</