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Sample records for bites complementary feeding

  1. [History of complementary feeding].

    PubMed

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    PubMed

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth and complementary feeding in the Americas.

    PubMed

    Lutter, C K

    2012-10-01

    To describe growth patterns of young children in Latin America and the Caribbean, the types of nationally representative data available on complementary feeding practices and complementary feeding practices. Data on growth, timing of introduction of liquids and foods, and complementary feeding practices were abstracted from nationally representative surveys. The high prevalence of stunting relative to the low prevalence of underweight is striking, with the "average" child in the region, with the exception of the Haitian child, short and chubby. The focus of the demographic and health surveys continues to be on undernutrition with only one question, intake of sugary foods, related foods that may have consequences for adult health. The United States has more comprehensive information; Mexico has information on beverage consumption and Brazil on soft drink and biscuit or snack consumption. In 14 of 19 countries, fewer than half of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, indicating an early introduction of liquids and complementary foods. Among the 5 countries with data on the intake of sugary foods, intake in the previous 24 h among children 6-23 months of age ranged from 14% to 79%. The absence of data to characterize complementary feeding diets as they relate to risk of overweight and chronic diseases in the Region of the Americas calls attention to the need to improve data collection frameworks and methods to address this important gap in knowledge. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Natural bites, food consistency and feeding behaviour in man.

    PubMed

    Hiiemae, K; Heath, M R; Heath, G; Kazazoglu, E; Murray, J; Sapper, D; Hamblett, K

    1996-02-01

    Complete feeding sequences (bite to terminal swallow) were recorded in 11 individuals (Class I occlusions) feeding on apple, banana and biscuit (hard cookie) to establish whether jaw movements characteristic of the stage I transport, chewing, stage II transport and swallowing processes found in non-human mammals could be identified in man. All participants took large natural bites (known weight) of each food, but seven were supplied standard 6-g pieces of apple. Jaw movements (three axes) were recorded using a locally calibrated Sirognathograph. Discrete stage I transport movements (bite moved from incisors to postcanines), were found in most records, but least frequently for banana. The number of chewing cycles before the first in-sequence swallow increased in the order: banana, ( = ) apple without peel, apple with peel, biscuit. Chewing cycles showed subtle changes in gape profile but significant variation in mediolateral movement cycle to cycle. Morphologically distinct stage II transport cycles could not be identified. Swallows occurred intermittently during chewing (79% of all sequences, n = 146) with cycle durations in excess of 1 s in contrast to the range for chewing (0.6-0.7 s). Almost all sequences ended with a period, clearance, of highly irregular jaw movements often including swallows. Clearance has not been described in other mammals. Food consistency affected feeding behaviour. The "chew/swallow' ratio (total number of chews/total number of swallows) increased with food hardness. The number of chewing cycles before the first in-sequence swallow also increased. Food type significantly affected sequence duration. The duration of clearance was also affected by bite weight and food hardness. It is concluded that initial food consistency determines the number of chewing cycles before the first swallow and overall sequence duration. The change in the pattern of jaw movement in both the vertical and mediolateral directions cycle to cycle suggests continuous

  5. Feeding biomechanics and theoretical calculations of bite force in bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) during ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Habegger, Maria L; Motta, Philip J; Huber, Daniel R; Dean, Mason N

    2012-12-01

    Evaluations of bite force, either measured directly or calculated theoretically, have been used to investigate the maximum feeding performance of a wide variety of vertebrates. However, bite force studies of fishes have focused primarily on small species due to the intractable nature of large apex predators. More massive muscles can generate higher forces and many of these fishes attain immense sizes; it is unclear how much of their biting performance is driven purely by dramatic ontogenetic increases in body size versus size-specific selection for enhanced feeding performance. In this study, we investigated biting performance and feeding biomechanics of immature and mature individuals from an ontogenetic series of an apex predator, the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas (73-285cm total length). Theoretical bite force ranged from 36 to 2128N at the most anterior bite point, and 170 to 5914N at the most posterior bite point over the ontogenetic series. Scaling patterns differed among the two age groups investigated; immature bull shark bite force scaled with positive allometry, whereas adult bite force scaled isometrically. When the bite force of C. leucas was compared to those of 12 other cartilaginous fishes, bull sharks presented the highest mass-specific bite force, greater than that of the white shark or the great hammerhead shark. A phylogenetic independent contrast analysis of anatomical and dietary variables as determinants of bite force in these 13 species indicated that the evolution of large adult bite forces in cartilaginous fishes is linked predominantly to the evolution of large body size. Multiple regressions based on mass-specific standardized contrasts suggest that the evolution of high bite forces in Chondrichthyes is further correlated with hypertrophication of the jaw adductors, increased leverage for anterior biting, and widening of the head. Lastly, we discuss the ecological significance of positive allometry in bite force as a possible

  6. Adequacy of family foods for complementary feeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The WHO recommends that complementary foods be introduced to all infants at age 6 mo and that breastfeeding be continued until age 18–24 mo. Beginning at age 6 mo, complementary foods should be pureed, mashed, or semisolid, but by age 12 mo the child should be able to eat solid foods that are consum...

  7. Spatial feeding preferences of ornithophilic mosquitoes, blackflies and biting midges.

    PubMed

    Cerný, O; Votýpka, J; Svobodová, M

    2011-03-01

    The section of habitat used by particular bloodsucking insects when seeking bloodmeals may influence the spectrum of hosts to which they have access and consequently the diseases they transmit. The vertical distribution of ornithophilic bloodsucking Diptera (Culicidae, Simuliidae and Ceratopogonidae) was studied using bird-baited traps set at both ground and tree canopy levels. In total, 1240 mosquito females of eight species, 1201 biting midge females of 11 species, and 218 blackfly females of two species were captured during 2003-2005. Culex pipiens (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) was found to prefer ground-level habitats, whereas Anopheles plumbeus (Stephens) (Diptera: Culicidae), biting midges [Culicoides spp. (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)] and Eusimulium angustipes (Edwards) (Diptera: Simuliidae) preferred the canopy. The results of this study with regard to Cx. pipiens behaviour differ from those of most previous studies and may indicate different spatial feeding preferences in geographically separate populations. The occurrence of E. angustipes in the canopy is concordant with its role in the transmission of avian trypanosomes. These findings may be important for surveillance programmes focusing on ornithophilic Diptera which transmit various pathogenic agents.

  8. Predictors of early introduction of complementary feeding: longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    Early introduction of complementary foods prior to 6 months of age may shorten breast-feeding duration and expose the infant to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The aims of this study were to document the ages of complementary food introduction and to identify the determinants associated with early introduction of complementary feeding in Sichuan Province. A prospective study on infant feeding practices was conducted during 2010-2011 in Jiangyou, China. A total of 695 mothers were recruited and interviewed at discharge. The follow-up interviews were carried out by telephone at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. Cox regression analysis was performed to determine factors related to early introduction of complementary feeding. The median age at start of complementary feeding was 4.5 months (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4-4.6 months). Mothers who perceived that most of their friends breast-fed (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.70; 95%CI: 0.58-0.84) and those who returned to work when the infants were at least 6 months old were less likely to initiate complementary feeding early (adjusted HR, 0.73; 95%CI: 0.58-0.91), while infants who had been introduced to infant formula regularly before 6 months of age were at a higher risk of receiving complementary foods prematurely (adjusted HR, 1.81; 95%CI: 1.42-2.31). Introducing complementary feeding before 6 months postpartum was widely practiced in Jiangyou. The appropriate age at which to introduce complementary foods and its benefits need to be emphasized in the future breast-feeding education strategies in Sichuan. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Sofia Irene; Valeggia, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant's energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0-2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value.

  10. The initiation of complementary feeding among Qom indigenous people

    PubMed Central

    Irene Olmedo, Sofía; Valeggia, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    As of six months of life, breastfeeding no longer covers an infant’s energy or micronutrient needs, so appropriate complementary feeding should be provided. The objective of this study was to assess the time and adequacy for introducing complementary feeding in a Qom/Toba population and analyze the sociocultural concepts of families regarding complementary feeding. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected by participant observation and semistructured surveys administered to mothers of 0–2 year old infants. Qom breastfeed their infants long term and on demand. Most infants have an adequate nutritional status and start complementary feeding at around 6 months old as per the local health center and international standards. However, mostly due to socioeconomic factors, foods chosen to complement breastfeeding have a relatively scarce nutritional value. PMID:24862808

  11. Responsive feeding and child interest in food vary when rural Malawian children are fed lipid-based nutrient supplements or local complementary food.

    PubMed

    Flax, Valerie L; Mäkinen, Samppa; Ashorn, Ulla; Cheung, Yin Bun; Maleta, Kenneth; Ashorn, Per; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-07-01

    Caregiver and child behaviours during feeding have been used to measure responsiveness, which has been recognised as important for child growth and development. The aims of this study were to understand how caregiver and child behaviours differ when feeding lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) vs. local complementary food and to detect associations between behaviours and child interest in food. Sixteen moderately underweight 6-17-month-old Malawian children receiving 50 g/day of supplementary LNS for 12 weeks were videotaped during LNS (n = 32) and local complementary feeding (n = 28) episodes. Behaviours were coded at the level of the intended bite (1674 total bites). The analysis used regression models adjusted for within-subject correlation. Caregivers were less likely to allow children to self-feed and more likely to use physical pressure during LNS vs. complementary food bites. Positive caregiver verbalization was infrequent and did not differ by type of food. Higher odds of accepting a bite were associated with the bite containing LNS, odds ratio (OR) 3.05; 90% confidence interval (CI) (1.98, 4.71), the child self-feeding, OR 5.70; 90% CI (2.77, 11.69), and positive caregiver verbalization, OR 2.46; 90% CI (1.26, 4.80), while lower odds of acceptance were associated with negative child verbalization during feeding, OR 0.27; 90% CI (0.17, 0.42). In this sample, caregivers used more responsive feeding practices during bites of local complementary food and were more controlling when feeding LNS. Responsive caregiver behaviours predicted child acceptance of food. These results could be used to design interventions in Malawi to improve responsive feeding practices in general and during LNS use.

  12. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries - Lessons from Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6-23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6-8, 9-11, and 12-23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6-23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. Even when based on an improved recipe, however, unfortified plant-based complementary foods provide insufficient key micronutrients (especially, iron, zinc, and calcium) during the age of 6-23 months. Thus, this review assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods.

  13. Sugar-feeding status alters biting midge photoattraction

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biting midges transmit disease in livestock and wildlife that result in significant loss of value. Therefore understanding biting midge attraction to light is important for monitoring the insect populations and possibly using traps to reduce populations. This study determined that color of light is ...

  14. Influence of feed type and its effect on repressing wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen-Yu; Takeda, Ken-Ichi

    2016-08-01

    Sheep sometimes develop an abnormal behavior termed as wool-biting when kept in an indoor system; however, little is known about this behavior. As the provided feed type may affect the foraging behavior and repress abnormal behavior in animals, we tested the effect of feed type on repressing wool-biting behavior in this study. We used hay prepared in three forms, that is hay bales, rolls and cubes. The wool-biting frequency associated with hay bales was significantly higher than that associated with rolls (P < 0.05) and cubes (P < 0.05); however, there was no significant difference between rolls and cubes. For hay rolls, wool-biting significantly decreased after feeding (P < 0.05), suggesting that rolls may provide sheep with appropriate oral stimulation; thus, decreasing the post-feeding oral abnormal behavior. An individual difference of wool-biting behavior between sheep was also detected, and an unexpected bed-eating behavior was found in the hay cube treatment. We suggest that sheep performing movements that are similar to their natural foraging behavior while grazing would repress wool-biting behavior, which happened in hay roll and hay cube treatments. Considering sanitation and animal welfare, providing sheep with hay rolls may provide an easier method to control wool-biting behavior in housed sheep.

  15. [Recommendations for the complementary feeding of the breastfed child].

    PubMed

    Monte, Cristina M G; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2004-11-01

    To present a review on the evidence that support the current recommendations for breastfed children feeding. An extensive bibliographic review of the topic was carried out. Articles selected in the MEDLINE and Lilacs databases, publications from national and international organizations, theses and dissertations were reviewed. Some key articles were also selected from the citations referred in other papers. New knowledge acquired about child feeding over the last 20 years have led to a significant change in the current feeding recommendations for breastfed children in relation to the prior recommendations. The current recommended nutritional needs are lower than the old recommendations, complementary food is introduced in a more precise age, around 6 months, and new methods are recommended for promoting the child's healthy eating. The new recommendations emphasize the health feeding practices which comprise both the adequate food quantity and quality, including care with food handling and preparation, feeding and storage practices, and the respect and adequacy to the cultural characteristics of each people. The adequate complementary feeding of the breastfed child is critical for the optimal child growth and development. Therefore, it is an essential factor for both the populations food security and the development of nations. The health professionals ought to effectively pass on to mothers/care takers the new recommendations for promoting the healthy complementary feeding of the breastfed child. It is up to the governments to provide the adequate conditions for supporting such a promotion.

  16. Effects of feed on plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations in crib-biting horses.

    PubMed

    Hemmann, Karin E; Koho, Ninna M; Vainio, Outi M; Raekallio, Marja R

    2013-10-01

    The reason why some horses begin an oral stereotypy such as crib-biting is not known. The aim of this study was to measure ghrelin and leptin concentrations in plasma concentrations to determine whether there is a link to crib-biting in horses. Plasma samples (n=3) were collected for plasma leptin and ghrelin assay before and during the morning first feeding in the usual environments of 15 horses with stereotypic crib-biting and 15 matched controls. The crib-biting intensity was scored in three 5-min phases, and a subgroup of verified crib-biters (n=8) was defined as horses that were seen to crib-bite during this study. Plasma leptin concentration (mean and 95% confidence interval [CI]) was lower in horses observed to crib-bite before and after feeding of concentrates (1.2, CI 0.8-1.7 ng/mL and 1.0, CI 0.6-1.7) than in non-crib-biters (2.3, CI 1.6-3.4 and 2.3, CI 1.6-3.4 ng/mL, respectively) and correlated negatively with crib-biting intensity. Crib-biting intensity was significantly higher shortly after feeding than before or 30 min later. Plasma ghrelin concentration was significantly higher before feeding concentrate than before hay feeding or after the concentrate, but did not differ between groups. There was a significant negative correlation between body composition score and plasma ghrelin concentration. These findings suggest that leptin concentrations may be associated with crib-biting behaviour in horses.

  17. Exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, and food choices in UK infants.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Julie; Abraham, Elizheeba Christie; Squair, Mhairi; Brogan, Yvonne; Merewood, Anne

    2014-05-01

    Limited data exist that explore the association between exclusive breastfeeding and dietary behaviors related to key food choices in later infancy. This study aimed to examine the relationship between exclusive breastfeeding at 3 months with age of starting complementary feeding and key complementary feeding data collected at 8 to 10 months. Secondary data analysis was performed on the UK Infant Feeding Survey 2005. After adjusting for maternal characteristics, exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months, compared to mixed or formula feeding, was positively associated with giving homemade infant foods (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.19-1.66), vegetables (AOR = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.25-1.72), fruits (AOR = 1.73; 95% CI, 1.42-2.11), and fresh foods frequently (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI, 1.41-3.56) at 8 to 10 months of age. Conversely, exclusive breastfeeding for 3 months, compared to mixed or formula feeding, was negatively associated with very early complementary feeding (AOR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.30-0.42) and giving the following foods at 8 to 10 months of age: baby food from jar (AOR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.66-0.92), powdered baby food (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94), canned baby food (AOR = 0.48; 95% CI, 0.32-0.71), and ready-made bought meals (AOR = 0.67; 95% CI, 0.57-0.78). Exclusively breastfeeding for 3 months compared to mixed or formula feeding was positively associated with the introduction of complementary feeding after 4 months and giving infants fruits, vegetables, and homemade infant foods frequently at 8 to 10 months.

  18. Biting

    MedlinePlus

    ... timeout has ended. continue Creating a 'Bite-Free' Environment Whether you feel like you've made progress ... before you go. If a larger, more chaotic environment seems overwhelming, you might consider putting your child ...

  19. Biting

    MedlinePlus

    ... timeout has ended. continue Creating a 'Bite-Free' Environment Whether you feel like you've made progress ... before you go. If a larger, more chaotic environment seems overwhelming, you might consider putting your child ...

  20. Timing of complementary feeding and the risk of atopic eczema.

    PubMed

    Niinivirta, Katri; Isolauri, Erika; Nermes, Merja; Laitinen, Kirsi

    2014-02-01

    To find out whether there was an association between when complementary feeding was introduced and the appearance of atopic eczema in children with a family history of allergy. This prospective study followed 256 mother and child pairs until the child was four-years-old. Repeated skin prick testing was performed and a clinical diagnosis of eczema made by a physician. The mothers kept a continuous diary about the introduction of complementary feeding. To control the possible reverse causation of delaying complementary food introduction due to presumed child allergy, parental suspicions of allergic reactions were recorded. The introduction of cereals and fish after seven-months-of-age was associated with an increased risk of atopic eczema. However, when the parents' suspicions that their child might be exhibiting symptoms of allergic disease were taken into account, this effect was no longer significant. We found no evidence that the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding increased the risk of atopic eczema in a high-risk cohort, when parental suspicions were taken into account. Therefore, it seems that families with a history of allergy can safely comply with current feeding recommendations, although confirmation in further studies is warranted. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G; Michaelsen, Kim F; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Colostrum and complementary feeding practices among Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Abuidhail, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    To identify the practice of Jordanian women regarding colostrum and complementary feeding during the postpartum period. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate the practices of colostrum and complementary feeding. A convenience sample of 572 postpartum women was recruited from postpartum units at three governmental hospitals and three private hospitals. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, trained research assistants conducted face-to-face structured interviews with the participants at the hospital. In the second phase, follow-up phone interviews were conducted at the end of the first month after birth. Almost all of the postpartum women breastfeed colostrum to their infants. Further, 79% of postpartum women intended to give their infants fluids other than breast milk and 68% of them actually gave fluids to their infants by the end of the first month. Postpartum Jordanian women value colostrum and breastfeed it to their infants. However, they generally start introducing complementary feeding to their infants during the postpartum period, which would discontinue exclusive breastfeeding practices and alter the nutritional status of the infants later in their life. Therefore, nurses and midwives should emphasize, through their antenatal and postnatal care, the recommended practices of exclusive breastfeeding up to the sixth month and complementary feeding.

  3. Trends in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria, 2003–2013

    PubMed Central

    Ogbo, Felix A; Page, Andrew; Idoko, John; Claudio, Fernanda; Agho, Kingsley E

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to examine secular trends and determinants of changes in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria. Design, setting and participants Data on 79 953 children aged 6–23 months were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the period spanning 2003–2013. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of eligible mothers aged 15–49 years from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Trends in complementary feeding indicators and socioeconomic, health service and individual characteristics including factors associated with complementary feeding indicators were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Results Minimum dietary diversity for children aged 6–23 months worsened from 26% in 2003 to 16% in 2013. Minimum meal frequency improved from 43% in 2003 to 56% in 2013 and minimum acceptable diet worsened from 11% to 9%. Among educated mothers, there was a decreasing prevalence of the introduction of solid, semisolid and soft foods in infants aged 6–8 months (67% in 2003 to 57% in 2013); minimum dietary diversity (33% in 2003 to 24% in 2013) and minimum acceptable diet (13% in 2003 to 8% in 2013). Mothers with a higher education level and mothers who reported more health service contacts were more likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity. Similarly, the odds for minimum acceptable diet were higher among mothers from higher socioeconomic status groups and mothers who reported frequent health services use. Conclusions Complementary feeding practices in Nigeria declined over the study period and are below the expected levels required to ensure adequate growth and development of Nigerian children. National policies and programmes that ensure sustainability of projects post-MDGs and higher health service coverage for mothers, including community-based education initiatives, are proposed to improve complementary feeding practices among Nigerian mothers. PMID:26443657

  4. Trends in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Ogbo, Felix A; Page, Andrew; Idoko, John; Claudio, Fernanda; Agho, Kingsley E

    2015-10-06

    The study aimed to examine secular trends and determinants of changes in complementary feeding indicators in Nigeria. Data on 79 953 children aged 6-23 months were obtained from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Surveys (NDHS) for the period spanning 2003-2013. The surveys used a stratified two-stage cluster sample of eligible mothers aged 15-49 years from the six geopolitical zones of Nigeria. Trends in complementary feeding indicators and socioeconomic, health service and individual characteristics including factors associated with complementary feeding indicators were examined using multilevel logistic regression analyses. Minimum dietary diversity for children aged 6-23 months worsened from 26% in 2003 to 16% in 2013. Minimum meal frequency improved from 43% in 2003 to 56% in 2013 and minimum acceptable diet worsened from 11% to 9%. Among educated mothers, there was a decreasing prevalence of the introduction of solid, semisolid and soft foods in infants aged 6-8 months (67% in 2003 to 57% in 2013); minimum dietary diversity (33% in 2003 to 24% in 2013) and minimum acceptable diet (13% in 2003 to 8% in 2013). Mothers with a higher education level and mothers who reported more health service contacts were more likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity. Similarly, the odds for minimum acceptable diet were higher among mothers from higher socioeconomic status groups and mothers who reported frequent health services use. Complementary feeding practices in Nigeria declined over the study period and are below the expected levels required to ensure adequate growth and development of Nigerian children. National policies and programmes that ensure sustainability of projects post-MDGs and higher health service coverage for mothers, including community-based education initiatives, are proposed to improve complementary feeding practices among Nigerian mothers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted

  5. Dietary Patterns during Complementary Feeding and Later Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Emmett, Pauline M

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for healthy infant feeding provide advice on breastfeeding and complementary feeding. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) derived dietary patterns in comparison to infant feeding guidelines and by using principal components analysis (PCA). The ALSPAC cohort was recruited during pregnancy. Parent-completed questionnaires assessed diet at age 6 and 15 months. Children were weighed and measured at 7 years of age and IQ was assessed at 8 years. A complementary feeding utility index was calculated in relation to 14 feeding recommendations. High scores on the index were due to longer breastfeeding, and feeding more fruit and vegetables and less ready-prepared baby foods. The index scores were positively related to IQ and 'healthy' dietary patterns in childhood. In infancy four dietary patterns were derived from PCA at each age. Three occurred at both ages: 'HM traditional' (home-made meat, vegetables and desserts), 'discretionary' (processed adult foods) and 'RM baby foods' (commercial ready-made baby foods). A 'breastfeeding' pattern was derived at 6 months, with fruit and vegetables included. At 15 months, a 'HM contemporary' pattern included cheese, fish, nuts, legumes, fruit and vegetables. The 'discretionary' and 'RM baby foods' patterns at both ages were negatively associated, while the 'breastfeeding' and 'HM contemporary' patterns were positively associated with IQ. These results suggest that infant diet influences cognitive development in children and may set a trend for later eating patterns.

  6. Complementary feeding: clinically relevant factors affecting timing and composition.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Hambidge, K Michael

    2007-02-01

    Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo of life followed by optimal complementary feeding are critical public health measures for reducing and preventing morbidity and mortality in young children. Clinical factors, such as birth weight, prematurity, and illness, that affect the iron and zinc requirements of younger infants are discussed. Maternal diet and nutritional status do not have a strong effect on the mineral content of human milk, but physiologic changes in milk and the infants' status determine the dependence of the infant on complementary foods in addition to human milk to meet iron and zinc requirements after 6 mo. The nature of zinc absorption, which is suitably characterized by saturation response modeling, dictates that plant-based diets, which are low in zinc, are associated with low absolute daily absorbed zinc, which is inadequate to meet requirements. Foods with a higher zinc content, such as meats, are much more likely to be sufficient to meet dietary requirements. Current plant-based complementary feeding patterns for older fully breastfed infants in both developed and developing countries pose a risk of zinc deficiency. The strong rationale for the potential benefits of providing meat as an early complementary food, and the examples of successful intervention programs, provide potent incentives to pursue broader implementation programs, with concurrent rigorous evaluation of both efficacy and effectiveness.

  7. Complementary feeding in the MENA region: practices and challenges.

    PubMed

    Nasreddine, L; Zeidan, M N; Naja, F; Hwalla, N

    2012-10-01

    Suboptimal feeding patterns during the first two years of life are key determinants of malnutrition in children and constitute an important predictor of health in later years. Early-childhood nutritional factors, stunting, and obesity have been highlighted as prominent core underlying factors of Non-Communicable Disease (NCD) development whereas the improvement of complementary feeding practices has been cited as one of the most effective preventive strategies for reducing malnutrition and adult NCDs. In the MENA region NCD prevalence shows very high rates and the limited available studies show that current practices fall behind global recommendations. Common to all countries of this region are practices of mixed breast and bottle-feeding as early as the first month, as well as the premature introduction of complementary foods. Early introduction of non-milk fluids, such as sweetened water and herbal teas, has been described as a common practice in the region and the premature introduction of complementary foods has been reported in as high as 80% of infants in several of the countries. Thus, enhancing infant/young child health can significantly reduce morbidities and mortalities, as well as adult-onset diseases, ultimately decreasing the region's overall burden of disease.

  8. [Breastfeeding, complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity].

    PubMed

    Sandoval Jurado, Luis; Jiménez Báez, María Valeria; Olivares Juárez, Sibli; de la Cruz Olvera, Tomas

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the pattern of breastfeeding and weaning as a risk of obesity in pre-school children from a Primary Care Unit. Cross-sectional analytical study LOCATION: Cancun, Quintana Roo (Mexico). Children from 2-4 years of age from a Primary Care Unit. Duration of total and exclusive breastfeeding, age and food utilized for complementary feeding reported by the mother or career of the child and nutritional status assessment evaluated by body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95 percentile. Determination of prevalence ratio (PR), odds ratio (OR), chi squared (x2), and binary logistic regression. The study included 116 children (55.2% girls) with a mean age of 3.2 years, with obesity present in 62.1%, Exclusive breastfeeding in 72.4% with mean duration of 2.3 months, and age at introducing solids foods was 5.0 months. There was a difference for breastfeeding and complementary feeding by gender sex (P<.05). A PR=3.9 (95% CI: 1.49-6.34) was calculated for exclusive breastfeeding and risk of obesity. The model showed no association between these variables and obesity in children CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding of less than three months is associated with almost 4 more times in obese children. There was a difference in age of complementary feeding, duration of breastfeeding, and formula milk consumption time for obese and non-obese children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Complementary feeding recommendations based on locally available foods in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte; Kolopaking, Risatianti; Ferguson, Elaine

    2014-12-01

    Affordable, locally contextual complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) that take into account cultural diversity and differences in food availability will be more likely to result in long-term improvements in complementary feeding practices than general recommendations. More objective approaches, such as linear programming (LP), have been recommended to identify optimal but CFRs to meet nutrient requirements given local food availability, food patterns, food portions, and cost. To present results of our previous studies in which we developed CFRs using LP and to provide an example of how these CFRs can be put into practice in a community intervention trial in Indonesia. Dietary data were obtained using single 24-hour dietary recall or 1-day weighed diet record combined with 1-day 24-hour recall and 5-day food intake tally. With the use of the LP approach, nutrient intakes were optimized while ensuring that a realistic diet was selected by using constraints such as the diet's energy content, food patterns, food portions, and cost. The price per 100 g of edible portion was obtained from market surveys in two or three local markets in each study area. LP analysis was performed using Super Solver in MS Excel or Optifood software. Iron, zinc, calcium, and niacin were problem nutrients in all age groups of children (6 to 8, 9 to 11, and 12 to 23 months) in both rural and periurban areas, except among children of higher socioeconomic status in urban areas. Thiamin and folate were also problem nutrients found in some settings. Animal-source foods (meat, fish, poultry, and eggs [MFPE] and fortified foods were the nutrient-dense foods identified by LP to fill the nutrient gaps of these problem nutrients. Iron, calcium, zinc, niacin, and potentially folate and thiamine are typical "problem nutrients" in complementary foods of Indonesian children. However, the extent of dietary inadequacy varies across age groups, area, and socioeconomic level. MFPE and fortified foods

  10. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition.

  11. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  12. No trade-off between biting and suction feeding performance in clariid catfishes.

    PubMed

    Van Wassenbergh, Sam; Herrel, Anthony; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter

    2007-01-01

    It is generally assumed that biting performance trades off with suction performance in fish because both feeding types may place conflicting demands on the cranial musculo-skeletal system. However, the functional consequences of morphological adaptations enhancing biting on the mechanics and performance of suction feeding in fish remain obscure. In this study, suction feeding performance was compared between three clariid catfish species differing considerably in their biting capacity, by measuring the velocity of a standardized prey being sucked into the buccal cavity using high-speed cineradiography. In addition, buccal volume changes during prey capture were quantified by ellipse modelling. As all species were able to accelerate the prey to similar peak velocities, our results demonstrate the possibility for catfishes to increase bite performance considerably without compromising suction performance. The amount of buccal expansion in the ventral direction is approximately equal for all species. Consequently, the system generating expansion through ventral rotation of the lower jaw, hyoid and pectoral girdle is apparently not constrained (mechanically or architectonically) by the hypertrophy of the jaw adductors. As the effect of a reduced magnitude of lateral expansion (suspensorium abduction) on suction performance in Clariidae appears to be negligible (for example in Gymnallabes typus), these data demonstrate the dominant role of ventral expansion for producing suction in these fish.

  13. Feeding mechanics and bite force modelling of the skull of Dunkleosteus terrelli, an ancient apex predator.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Philip S L; Westneat, Mark W

    2007-02-22

    Placoderms are a diverse group of armoured fishes that dominated the aquatic ecosystems of the Devonian Period, 415-360 million years ago. The bladed jaws of predators such as Dunkleosteus suggest that these animals were the first vertebrates to use rapid mouth opening and a powerful bite to capture and fragment evasive prey items prior to ingestion. Here, we develop a biomechanical model of force and motion during feeding in Dunkleosteus terrelli that reveals a highly kinetic skull driven by a unique four-bar linkage mechanism. The linkage system has a high-speed transmission for jaw opening, producing a rapid expansion phase similar to modern fishes that use suction during prey capture. Jaw closing muscles power an extraordinarily strong bite, with an estimated maximal bite force of over 4400 N at the jaw tip and more than 5300 N at the rear dental plates, for a large individual (6 m in total length). This bite force capability is the greatest of all living or fossil fishes and is among the most powerful bites in animals.

  14. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper.

  15. The Effects of Biting and Pulling on the Forces Generated during Feeding in the Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis)

    PubMed Central

    D'Amore, Domenic C.; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R.; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics. PMID:22028837

  16. The effects of biting and pulling on the forces generated during feeding in the Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis).

    PubMed

    D'Amore, Domenic C; Moreno, Karen; McHenry, Colin R; Wroe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    In addition to biting, it has been speculated that the forces resulting from pulling on food items may also contribute to feeding success in carnivorous vertebrates. We present an in vivo analysis of both bite and pulling forces in Varanus komodoensis, the Komodo dragon, to determine how they contribute to feeding behavior. Observations of cranial modeling and behavior suggest that V. komodoensis feeds using bite force supplemented by pulling in the caudal/ventrocaudal direction. We tested these observations using force gauges/transducers to measure biting and pulling forces. Maximum bite force correlates with both body mass and total body length, likely due to increased muscle mass. Individuals showed consistent behaviors when biting, including the typical medial-caudal head rotation. Pull force correlates best with total body length, longer limbs and larger postcranial motions. None of these forces correlated well with head dimensions. When pulling, V. komodoensis use neck and limb movements that are associated with increased caudal and ventral oriented force. Measured bite force in Varanus komodoensis is similar to several previous estimations based on 3D models, but is low for its body mass relative to other vertebrates. Pull force, especially in the ventrocaudal direction, would allow individuals to hunt and deflesh with high success without the need of strong jaw adductors. In future studies, pull forces need to be considered for a complete understanding of vertebrate carnivore feeding dynamics.

  17. Complementary Feeding: Review of Recommendations, Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Homemade Complementary Food Preparations in Developing Countries – Lessons from Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Breastfeeding provides the ideal food during the first 6 months of life. Complementary feeding starts when breast milk is no longer sufficient by itself, where the target age is for 6–23 months. The gap between nutritional requirement and amount obtained from breast milk increases with age. For energy, 200, 300, and 550 kcal per day is expected to be covered by complementary foods at 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. In addition, the complementary foods must provide relatively large proportions of micronutrients such as iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, calcium, and vitamin B6. In several parts of the developing world, complementary feeding continues as a challenge to good nutrition in children. In Ethiopia, only 4.2% of breastfed children of 6–23 months of age have a minimum acceptable diet. The gaps are mostly attributed to either poor dietary quality or poor feeding practices, if not both. Commercial fortified foods are often beyond the reach of the poor. Thus, homemade complementary foods remain commonly used. Even when based on an improved recipe, however, unfortified plant-based complementary foods provide insufficient key micronutrients (especially, iron, zinc, and calcium) during the age of 6–23 months. Thus, this review assessed complementary feeding practice and recommendation and reviewed the level of adequacy of homemade complementary foods. PMID:27800479

  18. The problem of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in West Africa: what is the way forward?

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this paper was to review the policy implications of inadequate complementary feeding among children aged 6-23 months in West Africa. The review was undertaken from the initial results and findings from a series of studies on the comparison of complementary feeding indicators among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone and seven francophone West African countries. It also examined a study of the determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in those countries. Among the four complementary feeding indicators, it was only the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods that was adequate among children in all the West African countries surveyed. The rates of the other complementary feeding indicators were found to be inadequate in all countries surveyed, although relatively better among children in the anglophone countries. Alarmingly, low rates of minimum acceptable diet were reported among children from both the anglophone and the francophone countries. Infants 6-11 months of age, children living in poor households, administrative/geographical regional differences and mothers' access to the media were some of the common risk factors for optimal complementary feeding practices in these countries. Assessing complementary feeding indicators and determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices in these West African countries is crucial to improving infant and young child feeding practices. It is recommended that governments and stakeholders of the West African countries studied make greater efforts to improve these critical practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality in the West Africa sub-region. Intervention studies on complementary feeding should target those socio-demographic factors that pose risks to optimal complementary feeding.

  19. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Kevin B; Ayoob, Keith T; Murray, Robert D; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2016-05-21

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding.

  20. The Role of Avocados in Complementary and Transitional Feeding

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Kevin B.; Ayoob, Keith T.; Murray, Robert D.; Atkinson, Stephanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Infant dietary patterns tend to be insufficient sources of fruits, vegetables, and fiber, as well as excessive in salt, added sugars, and overall energy. Despite the serious long-term health risks associated with suboptimal fruit and vegetable intake, a large percentage of infants and toddlers in the U.S. do not consume any fruits or vegetables on a daily basis. Since not all fruits and vegetables are nutritionally similar, guidance on the optimal selection of fruits and vegetables should emphasize those with the greatest potential for nutrition and health benefits. A challenge is that the most popularly consumed fruits for this age group (i.e., apples, pears, bananas, grapes, strawberries) do not closely fit the current general recommendations since they tend to be overly sweet and/or high in sugar. Unsaturated oil-containing fruits such as avocados are nutritionally unique among fruits in that they are lower in sugar and higher in fiber and monounsaturated fatty acids than most other fruits, and they also have the proper consistency and texture for first foods with a neutral flavor spectrum. Taken together, avocados show promise for helping to meet the dietary needs of infants and toddlers, and should be considered for inclusion in future dietary recommendations for complementary and transitional feeding. PMID:27213450

  1. Recommendations on complementary feeding for healthy, full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Alvisi, Patrizia; Brusa, Sandra; Alboresi, Stefano; Amarri, Sergio; Bottau, Paolo; Cavagni, Giovanni; Corradini, Barbara; Landi, Linda; Loroni, Leonardo; Marani, Miris; Osti, Irene M; Povesi-Dascola, Carlotta; Caffarelli, Carlo; Valeriani, Luca; Agostoni, Carlo

    2015-04-28

    Weaning (or introduction of complementary feeding) is a special and important moment in the growth of a child, both for the family and the infant itself, and it can play a major role in the child's future health. Throughout the years, various weaning modes have come in succession, the latest being baby-led weaning; the timing for introducing foods and the requirements of which sort of nutrient for weaning have also changed over time. Furthermore, the role played by nutrition, especially in the early stages of life, for the onset of later non-communicable disorders, such as diabetes, obesity or coeliac disease has also been increasingly highlighted.Members of Italian Society of Gastroenterology, Hepathology and Pediatric Nutrition (SIGENP) and the Italian Society of Allergology and Pediatric Immunology (SIAIP) Emilia Romagna here propose a practical approach for pediatricians to deal with daily practice. The four main areas for discussion were weaning in relation with the onset of allergic diseases, coeliac disease, diabetes and metabolic syndrome, the nutrition requirements to take into account for assessing the diet of infants under one year of age and about the practice of baby-led weaning focusing on limits and benefits, respectively.

  2. Complementary Feeding: Critical Considerations to Optimize Growth, Nutrition, and Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Young, Bridget E.; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on complementary feeding (CF) in westernized settings where primary health concerns are risk of obesity and micronutrient inadequacy. The current evidence is reviewed for: (1) when CF should be introduced, (2) what foods (nutrients and food types) should be prioritized and avoided, and (3) how the infant should be fed. Special attention is paid to the underlying physiological differences between breast- and formula-fed infants that often result in distinctly different nutritional and health risks. This difference is particularly acute in the case of micronutrient inadequacy, specifically iron and zinc, but is also relevant to optimal energy and macronutrient intakes. Emphasis is placed on the complex interplay among infants’ early dietary exposures; relatively high energy and nutrient requirements; rapid physical, social and emotional development; and the feeding environment—all of which interact to impact health outcomes. This complexity needs to be considered at both individual and population levels and in both clinical and research settings. PMID:25105082

  3. Factors Associated with the Early Introduction of Complementary Feeding in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Alzaheb, Riyadh A

    2016-07-12

    Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. Cross-sectional research was conducted with 632 mothers of infants aged between 4 and 24 months attending five primary health care centers (PHCCs) between July and December 2015 in Saudi Arabia. Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. A regression analysis identified the factors associated with the early introduction of solid foods, defined as before 17 weeks. 62.5% of the study's infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early introduction of solids were: younger age; Saudi nationality; shorter education; employment within 6 months post-birth; caesareans; not breastfeeding fully for six weeks post-birth, and living in low-income households. Complementary feeding prior to 6 months postpartum was common in Saudi Arabia. Public health interventions are needed to reduce early complementary feeding, focusing on mothers at highest risk of giving solids too early.

  4. Promotion and advocacy for improved complementary feeding: can we apply the lessons learned from breastfeeding?

    PubMed

    Piwoz, Ellen G; Huffman, Sandra L; Quinn, Victoria J

    2003-03-01

    Although many successes have been achieved in promoting breastfeeding, this has not been the case for complementary feeding. Some successes in promoting complementary feeding at the community level have been documented, but few of these efforts have expanded to a larger scale and become sustained. To discover the reasons for this difference, the key factors for the successful promotion of breastfeeding on a large scale were examined and compared with the efforts made in complementary feeding. These factors include definition and rationale, policy support, funding, advocacy, private-sector involvement, availability and use of monitoring data, integration of research into action, and the existence of a well-articulated series of steps for successful implementation. The lessons learned from the promotion of breastfeeding should be applied to complementary feeding, and the new Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding provides an excellent first step in this process.

  5. Effect of sequencing of complementary feeding in relation to breast-feeding on total intake in infants.

    PubMed

    Shah, Dheeraj; Singh, Meenakshi; Gupta, Piyush; Faridi, M M A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the order of complementary feeding in relation to breast-feeding affects breast milk, semisolid, or total energy intake in infants. The present study was designed as a randomized crossover trial. The study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital. The study participants were 25 healthy infants between the ages of 7 and 11 months who were exclusively breast-fed for at least 6 months and were now receiving complementary foods for at least 1 month in addition to breast-feeding. Infants were randomized to follow a sequence of either complementary feeding before breast-feeding (sequence A) or complementary feeding after breast-feeding (sequence B) for the first day (24 hours) of the study period using simple randomization. For the next day, the sequence was reversed for each child. All babies received 3 actively fed complementary food meals per day (morning, afternoon, and evening). A semisolid study diet was prepared in the hospital by cooking rice and pulse with oil using a standard method, ensuring the energy density of at least 0.6 kcal/g. The infants were allowed ad libitum breast-feeding during the observation period. Semisolid intake was directly measured and breast milk intake was quantified by test weighing method. Energy intake from complementary foods was calculated from the product of energy density of the diet served on that day and the total amount consumed. The total energy intake and energy intake from breast milk and complementary foods between the 2 sequences were compared. The mean (standard deviation) energy intake from breast milk during 12 hours of daytime by following sequence A (complementary feeding before breast-feeding) was 132.0 (67.4) kcal in comparison with 135.9 (56.2) kcal in sequence B, which was not statistically different (P = 0.83). The mean (standard deviation) energy consumed from semisolids in sequences A and B was also comparable (88.6 [75.5] kcal vs. 85.5 [89.7] kcal; P

  6. How could complementary feeding patterns affect the susceptibility to NCD later in life?

    PubMed

    Adair, L S

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a general framework for thinking about pathways and potential mechanisms through which complementary feeding may influence the risk of developing non-communicable diseases (NCDs). To provide a context for the lack of clear and consistent evidence relating complementary feeding to NCD risk, methodological challenges faced in trying to develop an evidence base are described. Potential pathways through which complementary feeding may influence obesity-related NCD risk are described and illustrated with examples. Numerous aspects of complementary feeding, including diet composition as well as patterns of feeding have the potential to influence the early development of obesity, which in turn predicts later obesity and NCD risk. Specific dietary exposures during the period of complementary feeding also have the potential to program future disease risk through pathways that are independent of adiposity. These factors all require consideration when making recommendations for optimal complementary feeding practices aimed at prevention of future NCDs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Complementary feeding patterns in Europe with a special focus on Italy.

    PubMed

    Caroli, M; Mele, R M; Tomaselli, M A; Cammisa, M; Longo, F; Attolini, E

    2012-10-01

    Early nutrition is considered to be crucial for development of persistent obesity in later life. The aim of this paper is to present an overview of complementary feeding patterns across European countries. Most European infants introduce solid foods earlier than 6 completed months of age as recommended by WHO. The commonest risk factors for early introduction of solid foods have been shown to be smoking mothers of young age, low SES and no breastfeeding. The foods most frequently introduced as first solids are fruit and cereals followed by other foods that vary depending on the country of residence and the infants' type of feeding. Insufficient updated information has been made available in Europe in terms of infants' nutrient intake during complementary feeding, as well as on the potential acute metabolic effects of complementary feeding. Websites, e-forums and blogs on complementary feeding are widely spread in the web. The recipes and daily menus published in food industry websites are often nutritionally incorrect. Baby led-weaning (BLW) is based on the principle that babies, upon being started on complementary foods, should be allowed to eat whatever food they want (regular family foods included) in its normal shape. No nutrient intake and metabolic data are nevertheless available about BLW. The current scenario in terms of our understanding of complementary feeding in Europe opens several new research avenues. Not using and not improving our current knowledge of nutrition to improve children's health represents an infringement of children's rights.

  8. Altered complementary feeding strategies of the consumers Hydrobia ulvae and Idotea emarginata via passive selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aberle, N.; Malzahn, A. M.; Grey, J.; Hillebrand, H.; Wiltshire, K. H.

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to identify differences in selectivity, foraging behaviour and complementary feeding of two benthic consumers (the isopod Idotea emarginata and the snail Hydrobia ulvae) using traditional cell counting as an indicator for algal biomass reduction and stable isotope labelling to detect differences in assimilation and digestion. We hypothesized that even when active feeding preferences of food components are not apparent, passive selectivity via mechanisms such as food assimilation and digestion can be of relevance. Algal biomass was reduced to a similar degree by the grazers independently from grazer and prey combinations without any indication for an active choice of food components. However, the isotope labelling approach indicated that passive selectivity can alter complementary feeding strategies, as we detected shifts in feeding preferences in relation to food quantity and competition. Thus, stable isotope labelling of food components opens up new perspectives in community ecology, allowing assessment of such complex mechanisms as passive selectivity, complementary feeding and competition.

  9. Leishmania infections damage the feeding mechanism of the sandfly vector and implement parasite transmission by bite.

    PubMed Central

    Schlein, Y; Jacobson, R L; Messer, G

    1992-01-01

    Leishmania parasites are transmitted by the bites of infected female sandflies by a mechanism that has not been clarified. Leishmania infections in the vector develop only in the gut, and the parasites' exit is through the food channel in the proboscis. The problem is how during the bite, when blood flows in, parasites are emitted through the same channel in the opposite direction. It is well documented that infected sandflies maintained on sugar diets are potent vectors, whereas transmission fails after constant feeding on blood. Hence to study the mechanism of transmission, we fed these diets to Phlebotomus papatasi infected with L. major. Histological examination demonstrated that only in the sugar-fed flies did the cuticle lining of the cardiac valve detach and other valve tissues degenerate gradually. The injury of the main valve of the food pumps hindered gorging of most flies when force-fed from capillaries, and they regurgitated the gut contents with fluids from the capillaries. We suggest that infections are caused by parasites regurgitated from the stomach that are deposited in the host tissue. We found that secretion of chitinolytic enzymes by cultured L. major parasites is inhibited by blood or hemoglobin, and hence these enzymes are apparently absent from the blood-fed infected flies, where the cardiac valve appears undamaged. We therefore presume that lysis of the chitin in the cuticle lining of the valve leads to exposure and degeneration of the underlying tissues. Images PMID:1409724

  10. Bite force and feeding kinematics in the eastern North Pacific Kyphosidae.

    PubMed

    Moran, Clinton Joseph; Ferry, Lara

    2014-04-01

    Some fishes that feed on attached food items possess an intramandibular joint (IMJ), which is thought to increase maximum gape and facilitate contact between the tooth-bearing surface and the substrate. However, the mechanical consequences of using an IMJ to remove attached food items from the substrate are still poorly understood. We examined the most prominent eastern North Pacific kyphosid, the scraper: Girella nigricans and two other kyphosids, Medialuna californiensis and Hermosilla azurea, which occupy similar habitats. Of the three species, G. nigricans had the highest theoretical bite force per unit length. We examined the feeding mechanics of G. nigricans in two different feeding scenarios: a scraping behavior elicited on a block of brine shrimp gelatin and a picking behavior elicited on Ulva sp. We measured cranial elevation, lower jaw rotation, premaxillary protrusion, premaxillary rotation, gape maximum, and intramandibular rotation. Ulva treatments produced significantly greater cranial rotation, when compared to gelatin treatments. Gelatin treatments were associated with greater lower jaw rotation and larger gape. Premaxillary rotation and premaxillary protrusion did not differ between treatments. Intramandibular rotation occurred only when G. nigricans physically contacted the gelatin, suggesting the IMJ is a passive joint with no associated musculature. We also noted that G. nigricans do not appear to use suction to draw food into the mouth. The lack of suction and the presence of the IMJ suggest that the jaws of G. nigricans are specialized for maximizing jaw force when scraping.

  11. Accuracy of mandibular force profiles for bite force estimation and feeding behavior reconstruction in extant and extinct carnivorans.

    PubMed

    Therrien, François; Quinney, Annie; Tanaka, Kohei; Zelenitsky, Darla K

    2016-12-01

    Mandibular force profiles apply the principles of beam theory to identify mandibular biomechanical properties that reflect the bite force and feeding strategies of extant and extinct predators. While this method uses the external dimensions of the mandibular corpus to determine its biomechanical properties, more accurate results could potentially be obtained by quantifying its internal cortical bone distribution. To test this possibility, mandibular force profiles were calculated using both external mandibular dimensions ('solid mandible model') and quantification of internal bone distribution of the mandibular corpus obtained from computed tomography scans ('hollow mandible model') for five carnivorans (Canis lupus, Crocuta crocuta, Panthera leo, Neofelis nebulosa and the extinct Canis dirus). Comparison reveals that the solid model slightly overestimates mandibular biomechanical properties, but the pattern of change in biomechanical properties along the mandible remains the same. As such, feeding behavior reconstructions are consistent between the two models and are not improved by computed tomography. Bite force estimates produced by the two models are similar, except in C. crocuta, where the solid model underestimates bite force by 10-14%. This discrepancy is due to the more solid nature of the C. crocuta mandible relative to other carnivorans. Therefore, computed tomography improves bite force estimation accuracy for taxa with thicker mandibular corpora, but not significantly so otherwise. Bite force estimates derived from mandibular force profiles are far closer to empirically measured bite force than those inferred from jaw musculature dimension. Consequently, bite force estimates derived from this method can be used to calibrate finite-element analysis models. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides employees' perceptions about these subjects. Kruskal-Wallis with multiple comparison and chi-square tests were used to compare variables by professional category. 304 employees participated in the study. The highest percentages of correct answers were noted for questions about exclusive breastfeeding: definition - 97% (n=296) and duration - 65% (n=199). Regarding complementary feeding, 61% (n=187) correctly answered about the appropriate age to introduce it, with a lower percentage for meat (56%; n=170) and sugar (16%; n=50). Concerning employees' perceptions, 9% (n=29) believed that there is weak breast milk, 79% (n=241) and 51% (n=157) reported the negative influence of bottle feeding and pacifier use on breastfeeding. Among the interviewed subjects, 77% (n=234) answered that they had a positive influence on the quality of the food given to the children. There were no differences in the answers according to professional category, except for the negative influence of pacifiers on breastfeeding. Employees of public day care centers knew more about breastfeeding than about complementary feeding. Educational activities about breastfeeding and complementary feeding are necessary for day care centers employees.

  13. Evaluation of employees in public day care centers knowledge about breastfeeding and complementary feeding

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Joelânia Pires de O.; Prudente, Amanda Moura; Silva, Dyene Aparecida; Pereira, Leandro Alves; Rinaldi, Ana Elisa M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge of public day care centers employees about breastfeeding and complementary feeding. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 15 public day care centers randomly selected in the city of Uberlandia, Southeast Brazil. A questionnaire applied to school principals, teachers, educators and general services assistants (GSA) included demographic and socioeconomic variables and questions about knowledge on breastfeeding, complementary feeding besides employees' perceptions about these subjects. Kruskal-Wallis with multiple comparison and chi-square tests were used to compare variables by professional category. RESULTS: 304 employees participated in the study. The highest percentages of correct answers were noted for questions about exclusive breastfeeding: definition - 97% (n=296) and duration - 65% (n=199). Regarding complementary feeding, 61% (n=187) correctly answered about the appropriate age to introduce it, with a lower percentage for meat (56%; n=170) and sugar (16%; n=50). Concerning employees' perceptions, 9% (n=29) believed that there is weak breast milk, 79% (n=241) and 51% (n=157) reported the negative influence of bottle feeding and pacifier use on breastfeeding. Among the interviewed subjects, 77% (n=234) answered that they had a positive influence on the quality of the food given to the children. There were no differences in the answers according to professional category, except for the negative influence of pacifiers on breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: Employees of public day care centers knew more about breastfeeding than about complementary feeding. Educational activities about breastfeeding and complementary feeding are necessary for day care centers employees. PMID:24473953

  14. Sugar-feeding behaviour and longevity of European Culicoides biting midges.

    PubMed

    Kaufmann, C; Mathis, A; Vorburger, C

    2015-03-01

    Most haematophagous insect vectors can also use sugar as an energy source; thus their sugar-feeding behaviour influences their longevity and blood-feeding rate and hence their vectorial capacity. Scant information is available on the sugar-feeding behaviour of Culicoides Latreille biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), which are vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses. The longevity of laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) under fluctuating temperatures (16 and 28 °C) and with access to water or water and blood was on average 6.4 days and 8.9 days, respectively, which was around one third of the lifespan of siblings with access to sugar or sugar and blood (22.2 days and 27.1 days, respectively). Access to honeydew significantly increased the midge's longevity, whereas the provision of extrafloral nectaries had no impact. Females with access to sugar produced a significantly higher number of eggs (65.5 ± 5.2) than their starved sisters (45.4 ± 8.4). More than 80% of field-caught female Culicoides from the two most abundant European groups, Obsoletus (n = 2243) and Pulicaris (n = 805), were fructose-positive. Fructose-positivity was high in all physiological stages and no seasonal variability was noted. The high rate of natural sugar feeding of Culicoides offers opportunities for the development of novel control strategies using toxic sugar baits and for the monitoring of vector-borne diseases using sugar-treated FTA (nucleic acid preservation) cards in the field. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  15. Proposal of indicators to evaluate complementary feeding based on World Health Organization indicators.

    PubMed

    Saldan, Paula Chuproski; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama; Saldiva, Silvia Regina Dias Medici; de Mello, Débora Falleiros

    2016-09-01

    This study compares complementary feeding World Health Organization (WHO) indicators with those built in accordance with Brazilian recommendations (Ten Steps to Healthy Feeding). A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Campaign against Poliomyelitis in Guarapuava-Paraná, Brazil, in 2012. Feeding data from 1,355 children aged 6-23 months were obtained through the 24 h diet recall. Based on five indicators, the proportion of adequacy was evaluated: introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods; minimum dietary diversity; meal frequency; acceptable diet; and consumption of iron-rich foods. Complementary feeding showed adequacy higher than 85% in most WHO indicators, while review by the Ten Steps assessment method showed a less favorable circumstance and a high intake of unhealthy foods. WHO indicators may not reflect the complementary feeding conditions of children in countries with low malnutrition rates and an increased prevalence of overweight/obesity. The use of indicators according to the Ten Steps can be useful to identify problems and redirect actions aimed at promoting complementary feeding.

  16. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding and provision of complementary foods on child growth in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood undernutrition is prevalent in low and middle income countries. It is an important indirect cause of child mortality in these countries. According to an estimate, stunting (height for age Z score < -2) and wasting (weight for height Z score < -2) along with intrauterine growth restriction are responsible for about 2.1 million deaths worldwide in children < 5 years of age. This comprises 21 % of all deaths in this age group worldwide. The incidence of stunting is the highest in the first two years of life especially after six months of life when exclusive breastfeeding alone cannot fulfill the energy needs of a rapidly growing child. Complementary feeding for an infant refers to timely introduction of safe and nutritional foods in addition to breast-feeding (BF) i.e. clean and nutritionally rich additional foods introduced at about six months of infant age. Complementary feeding strategies encompass a wide variety of interventions designed to improve not only the quality and quantity of these foods but also improve the feeding behaviors. In this review, we evaluated the effectiveness of two most commonly applied strategies of complementary feeding i.e. timely provision of appropriate complementary foods (± nutritional counseling) and education to mothers about practices of complementary feeding on growth. Recommendations have been made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Methods We conducted a systematic review of published randomized and quasi-randomized trials on PubMed, Cochrane Library and WHO regional databases. The included studies were abstracted and graded according to study design, limitations, intervention details and outcome effects. The primary outcomes were change in weight and height during the study period among children 6-24 months of age. We hypothesized that provision of complementary food and education of mother

  17. Complementary feeding practices and associated factors among HIV positive mothers in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Haile, Demewoz; Belachew, Tefera; Berhanu, Getenesh; Setegn, Tesfaye; Biadgilign, Sibhatu

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to assess complementary feeding practices and associated factors among HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. An institutional based cross-sectional study with cluster random sampling technique was employed and all HIV exposed infants aged 6-17 months found in randomly selected health institutions in Sidama zone, Southern Ethiopia were included. A 24-hour dietary recall and 7-day quasi-food group frequency was used to assess complementary feeding practices. The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding (6-8 months) was 42% [95% CI: (30-54%)]. Of all the HIV exposed infants aged 6-17 months, 40.7% had practiced bottle-feeding. About 65.6% and 53.3% of HIV exposed infants did not receive the recommended number of food groups and frequency of complementary feeding in the last 24 hours respectively. Pulse (plant protein) was consumed by only 22.5% of the infants while only 9.9% of the infants consumed animal source food in the last 24 hours. Presence of infant food prohibition (β = -0.342, P = 0.001) and age of the infant (β = 0.311, P = 0.001) were found to be an independent predictors of dietary diversity. Presence of infant food prohibition (β = -0.181, P = 0.02) and age of infant (β = 0.388, P < 0.001) were also the predictors of 24 hour meal frequency. Having lower educational status [AOR = (0.21, 95% CI (0.062-0.71)] was an independent negative predictor of bottle-feeding practice. Many of the complementary feeding practices like meal frequency; dietary diversity and bottle-feeding were sub-optimal. Nutrition education should be designed for improving complementary feeding practices of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia. Mothers with higher educational status should be also targeted for nutrition education especially on bottle feeding practice.

  18. Timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Taylor, M A; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-10-01

    The World Health Organisation recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding until 2 years of age or beyond. Appropriate complementary foods should be introduced in a timely fashion, beginning when the infant is 6 months old. In developing countries, early or inappropriate complementary feeding may lead to malnutrition and poor growth, but in countries such as the United Kingdom and United States of America, where obesity is a greater public health concern than malnutrition, the relationship to growth is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the timing of the introduction of complementary feeding and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until 30 September 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 23 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Twenty-one of the studies considered the relationship between the time at which complementary foods were introduced and childhood body mass index (BMI), of which five found that introducing complementary foods at <3 months (two studies), 4 months (2 studies) or 20 weeks (one study) was associated with a higher BMI in childhood. Seven of the studies considered the association between complementary feeding and body composition but only one study reported an increase in the percentage of body fat among children given complementary foods before 15 weeks of age. We conclude that there is no clear association between the timing of the introduction of complementary foods and childhood overweight or obesity, but some evidence suggests that very early introduction (at or before 4 months), rather than at 4-6 months or >6 months, may increase the risk of childhood overweight.

  19. Adherence to complementary feeding recommendations for infants and implications for public health.

    PubMed

    Fegan, Suzanne; Bassett, Emma; Peng, Yingwei; Steel O'Connor, Kathleen

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigates (i) the extent to which breast-feeding and non-breast-feeding mothers follow the Canadian Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants (NHTI) recommendations; (ii) the first complementary foods given and the differences by breast-feeding status; (iii) whether any breast-feeding is associated with earlier introduction to complementary foods relative to non-breast-feeding, after controlling for potentially confounding factors; and (iv) the need for improvements in timing and resources of interventions by examining breast-feeding rates over time and information sources used by mothers. Longitudinal data from the Kingston, Frontenac, and Lennox & Addington (KFL&A) Infant Feeding Survey were used. Mothers completed a survey at the end of their hospital stay and were interviewed by telephone at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months thereafter. The study took place in the KFL&A region of Ontario, Canada. The sample consisted of 325 mothers who gave birth to a live infant of at least 36 weeks' gestation and a birth weight of at least 1500 g at Kingston General Hospital between January and July of 2008. Four in five mothers introduced complementary foods prior to 6 months. Mothers not breast-feeding at 6 months introduced water, juice, infant cereals, fruit and vegetables, and foods not recommended by Canada's Food Guide sooner than breast-feeding mothers. Breast-feeding mothers were more likely to introduce milks appropriately, but had low adherence to giving their infants vitamin D supplements. To support adherence to NHTI recommendations, interventions should be conducted during early infancy and deliver consistent, evidence-based recommendations.

  20. Determinants of inadequate complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Burns, Penelope; Page, Andrew; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-03-01

    To explore complementary feeding practices and identify potential risk factors associated with inadequate complementary feeding practices in Ghana by using the newly developed WHO infant feeding indicators and data from the nationally representative 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The source of data for the analysis was the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Analysis of the factors associated with inadequate complementary feeding, using individual-, household- and community-level determinants, was done by performing multiple logistic regression modelling. Ghana. Children (n 822) aged 6-23 months. The prevalence of the introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 6-8 months was 72.6 % (95 % CI 64.6 %, 79.3 %). The proportion of children aged 6-23 months who met the minimum meal frequency and dietary diversity for breast-fed and non-breast-fed children was 46.0 % (95 % CI 42.3 %, 49.9 %) and 51.4 % (95 % CI 47.4 %, 55.3 %) respectively and the prevalence of minimum acceptable diet for breast-fed children was 29.9 % (95 % CI 26.1 %, 34.1 %). Multivariate analysis revealed that children from the other administrative regions were less likely to meet minimum dietary diversity, meal frequency and acceptable diet than those from the Volta region. Household poverty, children whose mothers perceived their size to be smaller than average and children who were delivered at home were significantly less likely to meet the minimum dietary diversity requirement; and children whose mothers did not have any postnatal check-ups were significantly less likely to meet the requirement for minimum acceptable diet. Complementary feeding was significantly lower in infants from illiterate mothers (adjusted OR=3.55; 95 % CI 1.05, 12.02). The prevalence of complementary feeding among children in Ghana is still below the WHO-recommended standard of 90 % coverage. Non-attendance of postnatal check-up by mothers, cultural beliefs and habits, household

  1. Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of a Complementary Feeding Trial in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square…

  2. Physiological development of the infant and its implications for complementary feeding

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    From the standpoint of nutritional needs, physiological maturation, and immunological safety the provision of foods other than breast milk before about four months of age is unnecessary and may also be harmful. On the other hand, many infants require some complementary feeding by about six months of age. There are a number of known disadvantages and risks involved in too early complementary feeding, including interference with the infant's feeding behaviour, reduced breast-milk production, decreased iron absorption from breast milk, increased risk of infections and allergy in infants, and increased risk of a new pregnancy. With many complementary foods, including undiluted cow's milk, there is also a risk of a water deficit with a resultant hyperosmolarity and hypernatraemia that, in extreme cases, can lead to lethargy, convulsions, and even residual brain damage. Other possible implications include the development of obesity, hypertension, and arteriosclerosis in later life. The decision about when to start complementary feeding depends not only on age but also on the developmental stage of the individual infant, the type of food available, the sanitary conditions in which the food is prepared and given, and family history of atopic disease. PMID:20604470

  3. Theory-Driven Process Evaluation of a Complementary Feeding Trial in Four Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Hambidge, K. Michael; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square…

  4. To bite, or not to bite? A quantitative comparison of foraging strategies among three brackish crustaceans feeding on leaf litters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio

    2012-09-01

    A computerized image analysis technique was implemented to evaluate the damage done to leaf litters by macrophagous crustaceans characterized by different feeding strategies. In addition, a foraging strategy index (FSI) was tested to provide a quantitative estimation of both inter- and intra-specific, density-dependent changes in feeding strategies. Laboratory trials were run with the isopods Idotea baltica and Lekanesphaera hookeri and the amphipod Gammarus aequicauda. The effect of their feeding activities was tested on decaying leaves of Cymodocea nodosa and Phragmites australis. In addition, tests were run using three different abundances of each species to assess the occurrence of density-dependent shifts in feeding strategies. Independently from the leaf litter type, opposite foraging strategies characterized the isopods. Idotea baltica shredded the leaf blade heavily, whereas L. hookeri scraped the leaf surface removing the epidermis. Qualitative observations corresponded to consistent variations in FSI values, with Idotea showing the lowest and Lekanesphaera the highest FSI values. Leaves consumed by G. aequicauda, conversely, were characterized by both shredding and scraping damages, corresponding to intermediate FSI values compared to those measured for the isopods. Furthermore, negligible density-dependent changes in FSI values occurred for both isopods; Gammarus, in contrast, showed a significant shift in trophic strategies, with FSI values close to that observed for Lekanesphaera at high densities and to Idotea at low densities of conspecifics, respectively. The methodology and the FSI index herein presented provided an effective, quantitative assessment of species-specific differences in the feeding strategy of three ubiquitous components of Mediterranean detritivorous epifauna, for which only qualitative, phenomenological descriptions have been to date provided.

  5. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Mothers in Kosova About Complementary Feeding for Infant and Children 6-24 Months

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Merita; Ramadani, Naser; Hoxha, Rina; Gashi, Sanije; Zhjeqi, Valbona; Zajmi, Drita; Begolli, Ilir

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This cross sectional study assessed knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding complementary feeding among mothers with children between 6-24 months at the national level. Methods: The sample of 492 mothers with children between 6-24 months, with a confidence level of 95%, the acceptable margin of 5%, the expected prevalence of 50% knowledge and effect of 1.3, were interviewed from all regions, in all Kosovo. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 and presented using descriptive and inferential statistics such as Chi-square with significance level set at 5%. Results: Overall, 88.4% of respondents had good knowledge of complementary feeding, while only 38.4% of mothers had good practices regarding time for starting complementary feeding. We found association between maternal knowledge and level of education for complementary feeding. Conclusion: There is a need to further explore the factors responsible to improving practices for complementary feeding. PMID:28428672

  6. Breastfeeding and complementary feeding of children up to 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kenneth H

    2007-01-01

    Appropriate breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices are fundamental to children's nutrition, health, and survival during the first 2 years of life. The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age and continued breastfeeding for at least 2 years, along with the timely introduction of adequate amounts of complementary foods of suitable nutritional and microbiological quality. The amounts of energy and micronutrients required from complementary foods have been estimated as the difference between the total physiological requirements of these food components and the amounts transferred to the child in breast milk. Recommendations for the energy density of complementary foods and their frequency of feeding have also been proposed. Intakes of several micronutrients, including iron, zinc, calcium, selected B vitamins and (in some settings) vitamin A, remain problematic because commonly available, low-cost foods contain inadequate amounts of these nutrients to provide the shortfall in breast milk. Alternative strategies to provide these nutrients include adding animal source foods to the diet, providing fortified, processed complementary foods, administering micronutrient supplements, or offering some combination of these approaches. Advantages, disadvantages, and possible risks of these different strategies are discussed.

  7. Frequent blood feeding enables insecticide-treated nets to reduce transmission by mosquitoes that bite predominately outdoors.

    PubMed

    Russell, Tanya L; Beebe, Nigel W; Bugoro, Hugo; Apairamo, Allan; Chow, Weng K; Cooper, Robert D; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F; Burkot, Thomas R

    2016-03-10

    The effectiveness of vector control on malaria transmission by long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) depends on the vectors entering houses to blood feed and rest when people are inside houses. In the Solomon Islands, significant reductions in malaria have been achieved in the past 20 years with insecticide-treated bed nets, IRS, improved diagnosis and treatment with artemisinin combination therapies; despite the preference of the primary vector, Anopheles farauti, to feed outdoors and early in the evening and thereby avoid potential exposure to insecticides. Rational development of tools to complement LLINs and IRS by attacking vectors outdoor requires detailed knowledge of the biology and behaviours of the target species. Malaria transmission in Central Province, Solomon Islands was estimated by measuring the components comprising the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) as well as the vectorial capacity of An. farauti. In addition, the daily and seasonal biting behaviour of An. farauti, was examined and the duration of the feeding cycle was estimated with a mark-release-recapture experiment. Anopheles farauti was highly exophagic with 72% captured by human landing catches (HLC) outside of houses. Three-quarters (76%) of blood feeding on humans was estimated to occur before 21.00 h. When the hourly location of humans was considered, the proportion of exposure to mosquito bites on humans occurring indoors (πi) was only 0.130 ± 0.129. Peak densities of host seeking An. farauti occurred between October and January. The annual EIR was estimated to be 2.5 for 2012 and 33.2 for 2013. The length of the feeding cycle was 2.1 days. The short duration of the feeding cycle by this species offers an explanation for the substantial control of malaria that has been achieved in the Solomon Islands by LLINs and IRS. Anopheles farauti is primarily exophagic and early biting, with 13% of mosquitoes entering houses to feed late at night during

  8. Epidemiological research drives a paradigm shift in complementary feeding - the celiac disease story and lessons learnt.

    PubMed

    Nordyke, Katrina; Olsson, Cecilia; Hernell, Olle; Ivarsson, Anneli

    2010-01-01

    Breast milk is the initial natural food for infants, but already during the second half year complementary feeding is essential. Epidemiological research, first on celiac disease and later on atopic diseases, has driven a paradigm shift with respect to most favorable age to introduce complementary feeding. Simplified, this implies a shift from later to earlier introduction, which is now taken into account in recommendations on infant feeding. Complementary feeding, including all foods, should not be initiated for any infant before 4 months of age, and not later than around 6 months, including infants with elevated disease risk (e.g. for celiac disease or atopic diseases). Motivating reasons could be that ongoing breastfeeding provides an 'immunological umbrella' and/ or a different age interval gives a 'window of opportunity' for developing oral tolerance towards gluten and other food antigens. This will for some infants be in conflict with recent WHO recommendations on exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months. Epidemiology has evolved over time and could, if increasingly used, contribute even more to innovations in pediatric nutrition and other phenomena related to population health.

  9. Nutritional status and complementary feeding among HIV-exposed infants: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kamenju, Pili; Liu, Enju; Hertzmark, Ellen; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2017-07-01

    Complementary feeding is crucial for improving child survival and promoting growth and development, particularly among HIV-exposed children who have higher risk of morbidity and mortality than their un-exposed peers. This prospective study employed an infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to measure complementary feeding and determine its association with nutritional status among 2092 HIV-exposed infants followed from 6 to 24 months of age in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ICFI measured both quality and quantity of complementary feeding, including current breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity scores (DDS), food group frequency score, and meal frequency. The ICFI score ranged from 0 to 9; the median score was 6 (Inter-Quartile Range, IQR= 4-7). After adjusting for potential confounders, high ICFI scores were associated with reduced risk of stunting (high vs. low tertile hazard ratio, HR: 0.72; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.57, 0.91; P< 0.01) and underweight (high vs. low tertile HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.02; P= 0.07). Low DDS were associated with higher risk of stunting (low vs. high tertile HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.07; P< 0.01) and underweight (low vs. high tertile HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.96; P= 0.01). In this setting, high DDS and ICFI scores were protective of stunting and underweight. We recommend for nutrition programs in low-income countries to emphasize educating HIV-exposed children's caregivers on the importance of dietary diversity and optimal complementary feeding to improve nutritional status in this important subpopulation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. In Vivo Measurement of Mesokinesis in Gekko gecko: The Role of Cranial Kinesis during Gape Display, Feeding and Biting

    PubMed Central

    Montuelle, Stéphane J.; Williams, Susan H.

    2015-01-01

    Cranial kinesis refers to movements of skeletal sub-units relative to one another at mobile sutures within the skull. The presence and functional significance of cranial kinesis has been investigated in various vertebrates, with much of our understanding coming from comparative studies and manipulation of ligamentous specimens. Drawing on these studies, cranial kinesis in lizards has been modeled as a four-bar linkage system involving streptostyly (rotation of the quadrate), hypokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the palato-maxillary sub-unit), mesokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the snout at the fronto-parietal suture) and metakinesis (sliding movements between parietal and supraocciptal bones). In vivo studies, although limited, suggest that cranial kinesis serves an important role during routine behaviors such as feeding. Here, we use X-ray Reconstruction Of Moving Morphology to further quantify mesokinesis in vivo in Gekko gecko during three routine behaviors: gape display, biting and post-ingestion feeding. During gape display, the snout rotates dorsally above rest position, with mesokinesis accounting for a 10% increase in maximum gape over that achieved solely by the depression of the lower jaw. During defensive biting, the snout rotates ventrally below rest position to participate in gape closure. Finally, ventroflexion of the snout also occurs during post-ingestion feeding, accounting for 42% of gape closure during intra-oral transport, 86% during puncture-crushing, and 61% during pharyngeal packing. Mesokinesis thus appears to facilitate prey puncturing by allowing the snout to rotate ventrally so that the upper teeth pierce the prey item, thus limiting the need for large movements of the lower jaw. This is suggested to maintain a firm grip on the prey and reduce the possibility of prey escape. More generally, this study demonstrates that mesokinesis is a key component of defensive biting and gape display behaviors, as well as

  11. In Vivo Measurement of Mesokinesis in Gekko gecko: The Role of Cranial Kinesis during Gape Display, Feeding and Biting.

    PubMed

    Montuelle, Stéphane J; Williams, Susan H

    2015-01-01

    Cranial kinesis refers to movements of skeletal sub-units relative to one another at mobile sutures within the skull. The presence and functional significance of cranial kinesis has been investigated in various vertebrates, with much of our understanding coming from comparative studies and manipulation of ligamentous specimens. Drawing on these studies, cranial kinesis in lizards has been modeled as a four-bar linkage system involving streptostyly (rotation of the quadrate), hypokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the palato-maxillary sub-unit), mesokinesis (dorsoventral flexion and extension of the snout at the fronto-parietal suture) and metakinesis (sliding movements between parietal and supraocciptal bones). In vivo studies, although limited, suggest that cranial kinesis serves an important role during routine behaviors such as feeding. Here, we use X-ray Reconstruction Of Moving Morphology to further quantify mesokinesis in vivo in Gekko gecko during three routine behaviors: gape display, biting and post-ingestion feeding. During gape display, the snout rotates dorsally above rest position, with mesokinesis accounting for a 10% increase in maximum gape over that achieved solely by the depression of the lower jaw. During defensive biting, the snout rotates ventrally below rest position to participate in gape closure. Finally, ventroflexion of the snout also occurs during post-ingestion feeding, accounting for 42% of gape closure during intra-oral transport, 86% during puncture-crushing, and 61% during pharyngeal packing. Mesokinesis thus appears to facilitate prey puncturing by allowing the snout to rotate ventrally so that the upper teeth pierce the prey item, thus limiting the need for large movements of the lower jaw. This is suggested to maintain a firm grip on the prey and reduce the possibility of prey escape. More generally, this study demonstrates that mesokinesis is a key component of defensive biting and gape display behaviors, as well as

  12. Complementary Feeding Practices of Mothers and Their Perceived Impacts on Young Children: Findings from KEEA District of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Egyir, Bridget K; Ramsay, Samantha A; Bilderback, Barry; Safaii, SeAnne

    2016-09-01

    Objective Appropriate and timely complementary feeding practices are fundamental to a child's growth, health, and development during the first 2 years of life. This study aimed to understand (1) Ghanaian mother's complementary feeding practices, and (2) their perceived and observed impacts of complementary feeding on their children. Methods Ghanaian mothers with children 4-24 months of age were recruited from four communities in the Komenda Edina Eguafo Abrem district in the Central Region of Ghana (n = 99). A qualitative methodological approach with focus group interview discussions was used. Eleven focus group interviews were conducted, and were audio recorded and transcribed. The audio transcriptions were coded and analyzed into pertinent themes, meta-themes, and theoretical concepts. Results Over 80 % (85) of mothers reported poor knowledge about the effects of complementary feeding on their children and 45 % (45) of the children were undernourished, indicating inappropriate complementary feeding practices. Some mothers held misconceptions about the effect of food on children's health. Four overarching themes were identified: (1) mothers' background knowledge about food, child health and growth outcomes, (2) mothers' motivation in feeding their children, (3) barriers to feeding, (4) foods mothers offered their children. Conclusion for Practice Nutrition education on complementary feeding is needed for Ghanaian mothers. Health facilities and community outreach programs could be a venue to provide education to mothers regarding infant and young child feeding practices in Ghana.

  13. Complementary Feeding Practices of Children Aged 12-23 Months in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Eda; Yalçın, Sıddıka Songül; Pekcan, Gülden; Özbaş, Sema; Tezel, Başak; Köse, Mehmet Rifat

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to determine the breastfeeding and complementary feeding attitudes and practices of women with children aged 12-23 months in three different regions in Turkey. From 12 geographical regions (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics - NUTS 1), 3 regions were selected depending on the Turkish Demographic Health Survey 2003 (TDHS) results of nutritional status of children. Then, a weighted, multistage, stratified cluster sampling was used. In total, 1,486 children aged 12-23 months and mother pairs were enrolled. Mothers were face-to-face interviewed with trained health workers to collect information on breastfeeding practices, amount and types of complementary foods introduced and potentially related factors and demographic data filled in a questionnaire. The percentage of ever breastfeeding was 98.7%, no differences were determined among regions for ever breastfeeding (p>0.05). Duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 5.1±2.4 months. The shortest duration of exclusive breastfeeding was found in the good nutritional status region as 4.8±2.4 months (p<0.05). Yogurt, bread, pasta, fruits and vegetables were the foods introduced to the majority of the children. Red meat, poultry and fish were introduced to children in later ages in the low nutritional status region compared to middle and good nutritional status regions. Complementary feeding is introduced earlier than 6 months of age. Raising awareness on appropriate infant and young child feeding practices should be a priority. Enhancing of mothers knowledge, attitudes and practices on breastfeeding and complementary feeding is needed. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  14. Food Based Complementary Feeding Strategies for Breastfed Infants: What's the Evidence that it Matters?

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F

    2014-01-01

    The period of complementary feeding represents a major portion of the 1000 day critical window and thus impacts a period of substantial and dynamic infant development. This review highlights and synthesizes findings of several recent studies conducted to evaluate food based strategies on outcomes related to micronutrient status, growth and neurocognitive development. Particular emphasis is placed on interventions using meat or fortified products to impact iron and zinc intakes, due to the dependence of breastfed infants on complementary food choices to meet requirements for these two critical micronutrients. Regular consumption of modest amounts of meat or fortified cereals provides adequate absorbed zinc to meet estimated physiologic requirements, whereas homeostatic adaptation to lower zinc intake from unfortified cereal/plant staples is inadequate to meet requirements. Iron fortification of cereals may be somewhat more effective than meat to improve iron status, but neither prevents iron deficiency in breastfed infants, even in westernized settings. Improvements in the quality of complementary foods have had very modest effects on linear growth in settings where stunting is prevalent. Maternal education is strongly associated with both linear growth and with child neurodevelopment. The determinants of early growth faltering are more complex and intractable than 'simple' dietary deficiencies of micronutrients. Solutions to growth faltering in young children most likely need to be multi-factorial, and almost certainly will need to start earlier than the complementary feeding period.

  15. Food Based Complementary Feeding Strategies for Breastfed Infants: What's the Evidence that it Matters?

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy F.

    2015-01-01

    The period of complementary feeding represents a major portion of the 1000 day critical window and thus impacts a period of substantial and dynamic infant development. This review highlights and synthesizes findings of several recent studies conducted to evaluate food based strategies on outcomes related to micronutrient status, growth and neurocognitive development. Particular emphasis is placed on interventions using meat or fortified products to impact iron and zinc intakes, due to the dependence of breastfed infants on complementary food choices to meet requirements for these two critical micronutrients. Regular consumption of modest amounts of meat or fortified cereals provides adequate absorbed zinc to meet estimated physiologic requirements, whereas homeostatic adaptation to lower zinc intake from unfortified cereal/plant staples is inadequate to meet requirements. Iron fortification of cereals may be somewhat more effective than meat to improve iron status, but neither prevents iron deficiency in breastfed infants, even in westernized settings. Improvements in the quality of complementary foods have had very modest effects on linear growth in settings where stunting is prevalent. Maternal education is strongly associated with both linear growth and with child neurodevelopment. The determinants of early growth faltering are more complex and intractable than ‘simple’ dietary deficiencies of micronutrients. Solutions to growth faltering in young children most likely need to be multi-factorial, and almost certainly will need to start earlier than the complementary feeding period. PMID:26549893

  16. Linear programming: a mathematical tool for analyzing and optimizing children's diets during the complementary feeding period.

    PubMed

    Briend, André; Darmon, Nicole; Ferguson, Elaine; Erhardt, Juergen G

    2003-01-01

    During the complementary feeding period, children require a nutrient-dense diet to meet their high nutritional requirements. International interest exists in the promotion of affordable, nutritionally adequate complementary feeding diets based on locally available foods. In this context, two questions are often asked: 1) is it possible to design a diet suitable for the complementary feeding period using locally available food? and 2) if this is possible, what is the lowest-cost, nutritionally adequate diet available? These questions are usually answered using a "trial and error" approach. However, a more efficient and rigorous technique, based on linear programming, is also available. It has become more readily accessible with the advent of powerful personal computers. The purpose of this review, therefore, is to inform pediatricians and public health professionals about this tool. In this review, the basic principles of linear programming are briefly examined and some practical applications for formulating sound food-based nutritional recommendations in different contexts are explained. This review should facilitate the adoption of this technique by international health professionals.

  17. Infant Feeding and Timing of Complementary Foods in the Development of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nucci, Anita M.; Virtanen, Suvi M.; Becker, Dorothy J.

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of the β cells of the pancreas in genetically at-risk individuals. The autoimmune process that precedes the development of T1D is believed to be triggered by environmental factors, including nutrition. Early introduction of complementary foods has been implicated in the etiology of T1D as a possible explanation of the increasing incidence of the disease, particularly in children younger than 5 years of age. Infant feeding recommendations have been designed to promote adequate growth, provide essential nutrients, and reduce the risk of developing chronic illnesses. The World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months of age followed by continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced. A lack of compliance with these recommendations has been observed in the general population as well as in infants at high risk for T1D. Dietary factors such as the provision of breast milk and duration of breastfeeding, the age at introduction of cow's milk and gluten-containing foods, as well as other complementary feeding have been investigated. However, the evidence that early infant feeding patterns are linked with T1D currently remains inconclusive. PMID:26202843

  18. Infant Feeding and Timing of Complementary Foods in the Development of Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Virtanen, Suvi M; Becker, Dorothy J

    2015-09-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that results from the destruction of the β cells of the pancreas in genetically at-risk individuals. The autoimmune process that precedes the development of T1D is believed to be triggered by environmental factors, including nutrition. Early introduction of complementary foods has been implicated in the etiology of T1D as a possible explanation of the increasing incidence of the disease, particularly in children younger than 5 years of age. Infant feeding recommendations have been designed to promote adequate growth, provide essential nutrients, and reduce the risk of developing chronic illnesses. The World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics recommend exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months of age followed by continued breastfeeding as complementary foods are introduced. A lack of compliance with these recommendations has been observed in the general population as well as in infants at high risk for T1D. Dietary factors such as the provision of breast milk and duration of breastfeeding, the age at introduction of cow's milk and gluten-containing foods, as well as other complementary feeding have been investigated. However, the evidence that early infant feeding patterns are linked with T1D currently remains inconclusive.

  19. Australian Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) Use Raptorial Biting and Suction Feeding When Targeting Prey in Different Foraging Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, David P.; Salverson, Marcia; Fitzgerald, Erich M. G.; Evans, Alistair R.

    2014-01-01

    Foraging behaviours used by two female Australian fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) were documented during controlled feeding trials. During these trials the seals were presented with prey either free-floating in open water or concealed within a mobile ball or a static box feeding device. When targeting free-floating prey both subjects primarily used raptorial biting in combination with suction, which was used to draw prey to within range of the teeth. When targeting prey concealed within either the mobile or static feeding device, the seals were able to use suction to draw out prey items that could not be reached by biting. Suction was followed by lateral water expulsion, where water drawn into the mouth along with the prey item was purged via the sides of the mouth. Vibrissae were used to explore the surface of the feeding devices, especially when locating the openings in which the prey items had been hidden. The mobile ball device was also manipulated by pushing it with the muzzle to knock out concealed prey, which was not possible when using the static feeding device. To knock prey out of this static device one seal used targeted bubble blowing, where a focused stream of bubbles was blown out of the nose into the openings in the device. Once captured in the jaws, prey items were manipulated and re-oriented using further mouth movements or chews so that they could be swallowed head first. While most items were swallowed whole underwater, some were instead taken to the surface and held in the teeth, while being vigorously shaken to break them into smaller pieces before swallowing. The behavioural flexibility displayed by Australian fur seals likely assists in capturing and consuming the extremely wide range of prey types that are targeted in the wild, during both benthic and epipelagic foraging. PMID:25390347

  20. Comparison of the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons.

    PubMed

    Bentil, Helena Joycelyn; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Lartey, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have been done on infant feeding practices but few have focused on twins. The aim of this study was to compare the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons. Mother-infant pairs (50 mother-twin pairs and 50 mother-singleton pairs) with children aged 6 to 23 months were recruited from two public health clinics and communities in Tema and Ashaiman. Information was collected on the background characteristics of the mothers. Recumbent length and weight of the children were measured. Dietary information on the infants was collected using 24 hour recall. The differences between two groups were tested using independent t-student test for continuous variables and chi-square test for categorical variables. The minimum dietary diversity (4+ food groups) was met by only 32% of the twins and 40% of the singletons, and 28% of the twins and 38% of the singletons met the requirement for minimum acceptable diet (minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency). Minimum meal frequency was met by 78% of the twins and 76% of the singletons. There were no significant differences between the two groups of infants. Prevalence of undernutrition was not significantly different among the two groups (twins versus singletons: underweight-26% versus 24%, stunting-20% versus 24% and wasting-14% versus 10%. Complementary feeding practices were suboptimal in both groups of mothers requiring interventions to improve infant feeding practices.

  1. Complementary feeding and the early origins of obesity risk: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Naleena Devi; Allotey, Pascale A; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. Methods and analysis The target participants are infants born from January to June 2015 in the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) platform. The SEACO is a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) that is established in the District of Segamat in the state of Johor, Malaysia. For the quantitative strand, the sociodemographic data, feeding practices, anthropometry measurement and total nutrient intake will be assessed. The assessment will occur around the time complementary feeding is expected to start (7 Months) and again at 12 months. A 24-hour diet recall and a 2-day food diary will be used to assess the food intake. For the qualitative strand, selected mothers will be interviewed to explore their infant feeding practices and factors that influence their practices and food choices in detail. Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance for this study was sought through the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee (application number CF14/3850-2014002010). Subsequently, the findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. PMID:27852704

  2. Effects of Different Complementary Feeding Regimens on Iron Status and Enteric Microbiota in Breastfed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy F.; Sherlock, Laurie G.; Westcott, Jamie; Culbertson, Diana; Hambidge, K. Michael; Feazel, Leah M.; Robertson, Charles E.; Frank, Daniel N.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare iron status in breastfed infants randomized to complementary feeding regimens that provided iron from fortified infant cereals or meats, and examined the development of the enteric microbiota among groups. Study design Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5 month old infants were randomized to commercially available pureed meats, iron- and zinc-fortified infant cereals, or iron-only fortified infant cereals as the first and primary complementary food through 9–10 months of age. Dietary iron was determined by monthly 3-d diet records. Iron status was assessed at end of the study by hemoglobin (Hb), serum ferritin (SF), and soluble transferrin receptor (STfR) measurements. In a subsample 14 infants, enteric microbiota were profiled in monthly stool samples (5–9 mo) by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results Infants in cereal groups had 2–3 fold greater daily iron intakes vs the meat group (P < 0.0001). 27% of participants had low SF, and 36% were mildly anemic, without significant differences by feeding group; more infants in meat group had high STfR (p=0.03). Sequence analysis identified differences by time and feeding group in the abundances of several bacterial groups, including significantly more abundant butyrate producing Clostridium Group XIVa in the meat group (P=0.01) Conclusions A high percentage of healthy infants who were breastfed-only were iron deficient, and complementary feeding, including iron exposure, influenced the development of the enteric microbiota. If these findings are confirmed, reconsideration of strategies to both meet infants’ iron requirements and optimize the developing microbiome may be warranted. PMID:23452586

  3. The types of food introduced during complementary feeding and risk of childhood obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J; Langley-Evans, S C

    2013-04-01

    The determinants of childhood overweight and obesity are complex, but infant feeding and the early diet are important contributing factors. The complementary feeding period in particular, is a time during which children are nutritionally vulnerable, and a time where life-long eating habits may be established. We conducted a systematic review of the literature that investigated the relationship between the types of food consumed by infants during the complementary feeding period and overweight or obesity during childhood. Electronic databases were searched from inception until June 2012 using specified keywords. Following the application of strict inclusion/exclusion criteria, 10 studies were identified and reviewed by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted and aspects of quality were assessed using an adapted Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Studies were categorised into three groups: macronutrient intake, food type/group and adherence to dietary guidelines. Some association was found between high protein intakes at 2-12 months of age and higher body mass index (BMI) or body fatness in childhood, but was not the case in all studies. Higher energy intake during complementary feeding was associated with higher BMI in childhood. Adherence to dietary guidelines during weaning was associated with a higher lean mass, but consuming specific foods or food groups made no difference to children's BMI. We concluded that high intakes of energy and protein, particularly dairy protein, in infancy could be associated with an increase in BMI and body fatness, but further research is needed to establish the nature of the relationship. Adherence to dietary guidelines during weaning is recommended.

  4. [Diagnosis of complementary feeding practices for creating a matrix model for action in primary health care].

    PubMed

    Mais, Laís Amaral; Domene, Semíramis Martins Álvares; Barbosa, Marina Borelli; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2014-01-01

    Timely and appropriate complementary feeding is essential for the healthy growth and development of children, and Primary Health Care, especially the Family Health Support Nuclei, are the ideal location for developing relevant actions during this period. A cross-sectional study that applied a questionnaire to mothers and anthropometric evaluation for 324 children sought to develop an index of complementary feeding inadequacies and to study its association with social, economic, clinical, epidemiological and nutritional variables. For quantification of feeding inadequacies, an index using the Delphi method was created. High frequencies were observed for all inadequacies, especially for late introduction of solids (80.2%), early introduction of sugar/thickeners (78.1%) and liquids (73.5%). The most significant results of these associations were early weaning of exclusive (p = 0.000) and total (p = 0.005) breastfeeding, absence of partner (p = 0.001) and the mother supporting the family financially (p = 0.025). The use of this index identifies higher-risk situations for developing a nutritional assistance action plan, especially when it comes to promoting matrix model work.

  5. Theory-driven process evaluation of a complementary feeding trial in four countries

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Jamie E.; Garces, Ana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Michael Hambidge, K.; Manasyan, Albert; Tshefu, Antoinette; Lokangaka, Adrien; Sami, Neelofar; Carlo, Waldemar A.; Bose, Carl L.; Pasha, Omrana; Goco, Norman; Chomba, Elwyn; Goldenberg, Robert L.; Wright, Linda L.; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Krebs, Nancy F.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a theory-driven process evaluation of a cluster randomized controlled trial comparing two types of complementary feeding (meat versus fortified cereal) on infant growth in Guatemala, Pakistan, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. We examined process evaluation indicators for the entire study cohort (N = 1236) using chi-square tests to examine differences between treatment groups. We administered exit interviews to 219 caregivers and 45 intervention staff to explore why caregivers may or may not have performed suggested infant feeding behaviors. Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine the relationship between caregiver scores and infant linear growth velocity. As message recall increased, irrespective of treatment group, linear growth velocity increased when controlling for other factors (P < 0.05), emphasizing the importance of study messages. Our detailed process evaluation revealed few differences between treatment groups, giving us confidence that the main trial’s lack of effect to reverse the progression of stunting cannot be explained by differences between groups or inconsistencies in protocol implementation. These findings add to an emerging body of literature suggesting limited impact on stunting of interventions initiated during the period of complementary feeding in impoverished environments. The early onset and steady progression support the provision of earlier and comprehensive interventions. PMID:24399265

  6. Complementary Feeding Strategies to Facilitate Acceptance of Fruits and Vegetables: A Narrative Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding (CF), which should begin after exclusive breastfeeding for six months, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), or after four months and before six months according to the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN), is a period when the infant implicitly learns what, when, how, and how much to eat. At the onset of CF, the brain and the gut are still developing and maturing, and food experiences contribute to shaping brain connections involved in food hedonics and in the control of food intake. These learning processes are likely to have a long-term impact. Children’s consumption of fruit and vegetables (FV) is below recommendations in many countries. Thus, it is crucial to establish preferences for FV early, when infants are learning to eat. The development of food preferences mainly starts when infants discover their first solid foods. This narrative review summarizes the factors that influence FV acceptance at the start of the CF period: previous milk feeding experience; timing of onset of CF; repeated exposures to the food; variety of foods offered as of the start of the CF period; quality and sensory properties of the complementary foods; quality of the meal time context; and parental responsive feeding. PMID:27869776

  7. Complementary Feeding in an Obesogenic Environment: Behavioral and Dietary Quality Outcomes and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Lynne Allison

    2017-01-01

    The WHO infant feeding guidelines, including those for complementary feeding (CF), are very prescriptive, largely based on the outcomes of exclusive breastfeeding, and have a bias towards undernutrition. Consideration of longer-term outcomes related to overnutrition, the predominant nutrition problem in affluent countries, is limited. Compared to the ongoing and often zealous debates regarding the short- and long-term benefits of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 months in affluent countries, exposures (particularly feeding practices) and outcomes related to CF, independent of exclusive breastfeeding, have received little attention. In this context, consideration of a broader range of outcomes (e.g. food preferences, energy intake regulation, dietary quality, and eating behaviors) that potentially mediate the associations between infant feeding and long-term obesity and chronic disease outcomes is required. The aim of this paper is to (i) consider the impact of CF on outcomes relevant to the risk of child obesity and (ii) provide an overview of the NOURISH trial, the first large trial to evaluate an intervention that specifically targeted CF feeding practices ('how'), including reports on long-term outcomes. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Methods Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. Results There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence

  9. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in urban informal settlements, Nairobi Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimani-Murage, Elizabeth W; Madise, Nyovani J; Fotso, Jean-Christophe; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Mutua, Martin K; Gitau, Tabither M; Yatich, Nelly

    2011-05-26

    The World Health Organisation (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life for optimal growth, development and health. Breastfeeding should continue up to two years or more and nutritionally adequate, safe, and appropriately-fed complementary foods should be introduced at the age of six months to meet the evolving needs of the growing infant. Little evidence exists on breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa. Our aim was to assess breastfeeding and infant feeding practices in Nairobi slums with reference to WHO recommendations. Data from a longitudinal study conducted in two Nairobi slums are used. The study used information on the first year of life of 4299 children born between September 2006 and January 2010. All women who gave birth during this period were interviewed on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices at recruitment and this information was updated twice, at four-monthly intervals. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine factors associated with cessation of breastfeeding in infancy and early introduction of complementary foods. There was universal breastfeeding with almost all children (99%) having ever been breastfed. However, more than a third (37%) were not breastfed in the first hour following delivery, and 40% were given something to drink other than the mothers' breast milk within 3 days after delivery. About 85% of infants were still breastfeeding by the end of the 11th month. Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months was rare as only about 2% of infants were exclusively breastfed for six months. Factors associated with sub-optimal infant breastfeeding and feeding practices in these settings include child's sex; perceived size at birth; mother's marital status, ethnicity; education level; family planning (pregnancy desirability); health seeking behaviour (place of delivery) and; neighbourhood (slum of residence). The study indicates poor

  10. Effects of different complementary feeding regimens on iron status and enteric microbiota in breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Sherlock, Laurie G; Westcott, Jamie; Culbertson, Diana; Hambidge, K Michael; Feazel, Leah M; Robertson, Charles E; Frank, Daniel N

    2013-08-01

    To compare iron status in breastfed infants randomized to groups receiving complementary feeding regimens that provided iron from fortified infant cereals or meats, and to examine the development of the enteric microbiota in these groups. Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5-month-old infants were randomized to 1 of 3 feeding groups (FGs)-commercially available pureed meats, iron- and zinc-fortified infant cereals, or iron-only fortified infant cereals-as the first and primary complementary food through 9-10 months of age. Dietary iron was determined by monthly 3-day diet records. Iron status was assessed at the end of the study by measurements of hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and soluble transferrin receptor levels. In a subsample of 14 infants, enteric microbiota were profiled in monthly stool samples (5-9 months) by 16S ribosomal RNA gene pyrosequencing. Infants in the 2 cereal FGs had 2- to 3-fold greater daily iron intakes versus the meat FG (P < .0001). More than one-quarter (27%) of the infants had a low serum ferritin level, and 36% were mildly anemic, with no significant differences by FG; more infants in the meat FG had a high soluble transferrin receptor value (P = .03). Sequence analysis identified differences by time and FG in the abundances of several bacterial groups, including significantly more abundant butyrate-producing Clostridium group XIVa in the meat FG (P = .01) CONCLUSION: A high percentage of healthy infants who were breastfed-only were iron-deficient, and complementary feeding, including iron exposure, influenced the development of the enteric microbiota. If these findings are confirmed, then reconsideration of strategies to both meet infants' iron requirements and optimize the developing microbiome may be warranted. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Home and videotape intervention delays early complementary feeding among adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Black, M M; Siegel, E H; Abel, Y; Bentley, M E

    2001-05-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics, the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and the World Health Organization recommend that infants receive only breast milk or formula for the first 4 to 6 months of life, followed by the introduction of complementary foods. Despite these recommendations, many infants, particularly those with adolescent mothers, receive solid foods (often cereal mixed with formula in a bottle) and liquids other than formula or breast milk in the first few weeks of life. Decisions on early feeding are often guided by grandmothers and influenced by beliefs that infants need complementary food to counteract signals of hunger, reduce crying, and sleep through the night. This investigation evaluated the efficacy of an intervention to delay the early introduction of complementary feeding among first-time, black, adolescent mothers living in multigenerational households. The intervention focused on reducing the cultural barriers to the acceptance of the recommendations of the American Academy of Pediatrics, WIC, and World Health Organization on complementary feeding by highlighting 3 topics: 1) recognition of infants' cues; 2) nonfood strategies for managing infant behavior; and 3) mother-grandmother negotiation strategies. The intervention was delivered through a mentorship model in which a videotape made by an advisory group of black adolescent mothers was incorporated into a home-visiting program and evaluated through a randomized, controlled trial. One hundred eighty-one first-time, low-income, black mothers <18 years old, living in multigenerational households were recruited from 3 urban hospitals. Infants were born at term, with birth weight appropriate for gestational age and no congenital problems. Shortly after delivery, mothers and grandmothers completed a baseline assessment and mothers were randomized into an intervention or control group. Intervention group mothers received home visitation every

  12. Patterns of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity in Ghanaian complementary feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Nikhila; Pelto, Gretel; Tawiah, Charlotte; Zobrist, Stephanie; Milani, Peiman; Manu, Grace; Laar, Amos; Parker, Megan

    2017-04-06

    Designing effective interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding requires knowledge about determinants of current practices, including cultural factors. Current approaches to obtaining and using research on culture tend to assume cultural homogeneity within a population. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of cultural consensus (homogeneity) in communities where interventions to improve IYC feeding practices are needed to address undernutrition during the period of complementary feeding. A second, related objective was to identify the nature of intracultural variation, if such variation was evident. Selected protocols from the Focused Ethnographic Study for Infant and Young Child Feeding Manual were administered to samples of key informants and caregivers in a peri-urban and a rural area in Brong-Ahafo, Ghana. Cultural domain analysis techniques (free listing, caregiver assessment of culturally significant dimensions, and food ratings on these dimensions), as well as open-ended questions with exploratory probing, were used to obtain data on beliefs and related practices. Results reveal generally high cultural consensus on the 5 dimensions that were assessed (healthiness, appeal, child acceptance, convenience, and modernity) for caregiver decisions and on their ratings of individual foods. However, thematic analysis of caregiver narratives indicates that the meanings and content of the constructs connoted by the dimensions differed widely among individual mothers. These findings suggest that research on cultural factors that affect IYC practices, particularly cultural beliefs, should consider the nature and extent of cultural consensus and intracultural diversity, rather than assuming cultural homogeneity. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [The impact of health workers' training on breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices].

    PubMed

    Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura; Rauber, Fernanda; Grechi, Patrícia; Gama, Cíntia Mendes

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact on feeding practices for infants (<1 year of age) resulting from update training for health workers in the Ten Steps to Healthy Feeding of Children Under Two. Health Care Centers (HCC) in Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, were randomized into a control group (n=11) and an intervention group (n=9). Health centers organized according to Brazil's Family Health Program (FHP) were included as an intervention cluster (n=12). Infant feeding practices were evaluated at the health centers at 6 months (n=918) and again at 12 months of age (n=799). The results showed that mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was significantly longer in the two groups that received the intervention (2.56±1.91 months in the FHP intervention and 2.32±1.63 months in the HCC intervention) compared to the HCC control group (1.91±1.60 months). There was a positive impact on the quality of complementary feeding of infants treated at the health centers that participated in the intervention, especially those with the FHP.

  14. Complementary Feeding: A Position Paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition.

    PubMed

    Fewtrell, Mary; Bronsky, Jiri; Campoy, Cristina; Domellöf, Magnus; Embleton, Nicholas; Fidler Mis, Nataša; Hojsak, Iva; Hulst, Jessie M; Indrio, Flavia; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Molgaard, Christian

    2017-01-01

    This position paper considers different aspects of complementary feeding (CF), focussing on healthy term infants in Europe. After reviewing current knowledge and practices, we have formulated these recommendations: Timing: Exclusive or full breast-feeding should be promoted for at least 4 months (17 weeks, beginning of the 5th month of life) and exclusive or predominant breast-feeding for approximately 6 months (26 weeks, beginning of the 7th month) is a desirable goal. Complementary foods (solids and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula) should not be introduced before 4 months but should not be delayed beyond 6 months.

  15. Complementary feeding practices among mothers in selected slums of Dhaka city: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Hoque, Md Asirul; Alam, Md Safiul

    2014-03-01

    Improper complementary feeding (CF) practice is one of the main reasons for malnutrition among Bangladeshi children aged less than two years. In this context, using the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), this study assessed the CF practices among mothers in four selected slums (Tejgoan, Rayerbazar, Beribadh, and Jafrabad) of Dhaka city. This descriptive study, conducted during January-June 2010, included 120 mother-child pairs from the selected slums. Samples were selected conveniently, and the sociodemographic profiles of mothers in the four slums were similar. The mean (standard deviation) age of the children was 14.68 +/- 5.55 months. A questionnaire, developed following the guidelines of WHO for CF practices, was used for collecting data. Twenty-seven (23%) mothers were exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their children. Among non-EBF mothers, 15 (16%) started CF after the recommended time. At 6-8 months of age, 2 (40%) of the EBF and 12 (67%) of the non-EBF mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. In both the groups--9-11 months of age--about 70% mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. The frequency of CF was acceptable (3 times a day) in 13 (81%) of the EBF and 32 (56%) of the non-EBF children at 12-23 months of age. Complementary foods given by 24 (89%) of the EBF and 86 (93%) of the non-EBF mothers to their children were not adequate in energy contents. Two (7%) EBF and 16 (17%) non-EBF mothers did not wash their hands after defaecation. Three (11%) EBF and 24 (26%) non-EBF mothers did not properly clean their hands and utensils before feeding. Nine (33%) EBF mothers did not wash their children's hands. Fifty (54%) non-EBF mothers also did not do this. Feeding with psychosocial care practices was not perfect in either of the groups. The findings showed that, according to the WHO guidelines, the CF practices among mothers of children aged less than two years were very poor in the selected slums of

  16. Complementary feeding and non communicable diseases: current knowledge and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Poskitt, E M E; Breda, J

    2012-10-01

    Early diet and nutrition may set in place growth patterns and/or metabolic pathways that promote risk factors for later NCDs. Most relevant studies so far available have a cross-sectional or retrospective design and are thus of limited validity for evaluating the impact of early feeding on later disease. Standardised protocols for prospective research should be developed. The contribution of protein intake in early life to later NCD development has been the object of several studies; however future research should specifically target the effects of early protein intake on (a) how protein intake influences body composition, (b) how different body composition in infancy contributes to later NCDs, (c) whether there is an age 'window' when high protein intake is particularly associated with later overweight and obesity, (d) what levels of protein intake may protect against later overweight/obesity, (e) what level of cow milk intake in the first years of life minimises risk-inducing growth whilst meeting recommended calcium intakes. The role of the quality of fat and carbohydrate intakes at early ages should be better investigated. There is a dearth of data from many communities about the foods introduced as complementary feeds, the ages at which they are introduced and why mothers use these foods. Definitely more information is needed on how and to what extent mothers' behaviour is influenced by media, advertising and other commercial pressures and why formula fed infants are started on other foods much earlier than breast fed infants. Standardized protocols are needed to develop more data on complementary feeding in different regions, different countries and different socio-economic environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Breastfeeding and Complementary Feeding Practices among HIV-Exposed Infants in Coastal Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Williams, Anne M; Chantry, Caroline; Geubbels, Eveline L; Ramaiya, Astha K; Shemdoe, Aloisia I; Tancredi, Daniel J; Young, Sera L

    2016-02-01

    Appropriate infant feeding is a persistent challenge for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected mothers in sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to describe correlates of infant feeding among HIV-infected mothers in coastal Tanzania. HIV-infected women (n = 400) with infants younger than 18 months were enrolled from June to November 2011 from 3 public health facilities in Pwani, Tanzania: Tumbi Regional Hospital (TRH), Chalinze Health Center (CHC), and Bagamoyo District Hospital (BDH). Participants were surveyed about sociodemographics and infant feeding behavior at enrollment; infant feeding data were collected prospectively and retrospectively in the month of study follow-up. Statistically significant correlates of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) were infant age (months) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.5-0.9), enrollment facility (TRH: reference; CHC: AOR = 5.0, 95% CI, 1.2-20.8; BDH: AOR = 11.6, 95% CI, 2.3-59.9), and HIV disclosure to one's mother (AOR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence among infants younger than 6 months was 77%, but 50% of infants older than 6 months no longer receiving breast milk did not receive animal source foods (ASF) daily. Enrollment facility (TRH: reference; CHC: AOR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-1.0; BDH: AOR = 0.1, 95% CI, 0.01-0.4) and HIV disclosure (to mother-in-law: AOR = 0.2, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8; to brother: AOR = 0.3, 95% CI, 0.1-0.8) were negatively associated with ASF provision. High prevalence of EBF suggests that it is an attainable behavior, whereas low prevalence of daily ASF provision suggests that adequate diets are difficult to achieve after breastfeeding cessation. These findings support current recommendations for HIV-infected mothers in resource-poor regions to continue breastfeeding for at least 1 year and suggest the need for greater support with complementary feeding. Associations between HIV disclosure and infant feeding merit further exploration, and correlations

  18. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in four anglophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices have a detrimental impact on a child's growth, health and development in the first two years of life. They lead to child malnutrition, which contributes to the high prevalence of stunting (38%) and underweight (28%) reported for children <5 years of age in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study analysed complementary feeding practices in four anglophone West African countries (Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria and Sierra Leone) using the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys. The study covered 12 623 children aged 6-23 months from four anglophone West African countries (Ghana: 822 children: Liberia: 1458 children, Nigeria: 8786 children and Sierra Leone: 1557 children). Four complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of individual-, household- and community-level factors, using multiple regression analysis. Multivariate analyses found that lack of post-natal contacts with health workers, maternal illiteracy and geographical region were common determinants of delayed introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods across all four countries. Predictors for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet included children aged 6-11 months, administrative/geographical region, poorer household income and limited access to media. The authors recommend that the four anglophone West African countries studied should prioritise efforts to improve complementary feeding practices in order to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Interventional studies on complementary feeding should target those from poor and illiterate households. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-01-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6–24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate. PMID:24798264

  20. Identifying determinants of effective complementary feeding behaviour change interventions in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Fabrizio, Cecilia S; van Liere, Marti; Pelto, Gretel

    2014-10-01

    As stunting moves to the forefront of the global agenda, there is substantial evidence that behaviour change interventions (BCI) can improve infant feeding practices and growth. However, this evidence has not been translated into improved outcomes on a national level because we do not know enough about what makes these interventions work, for whom, when, why, at what cost and for how long. Our objective was to examine the design and implementation of complementary feeding BCI, from the peer-reviewed literature, to identify generalisable key determinants. We identified 29 studies that evaluated BCI efficacy or effectiveness, were conducted in developing countries, and reported outcomes on infant and young children aged 6-24 months. Two potential determinants emerged: (1) effective studies used formative research to identify cultural barriers and enablers to optimal feeding practices, to shape the intervention strategy, and to formulate appropriate messages and mediums for delivery; (2) effective studies delineated the programme impact pathway to the target behaviour change and assessed intermediary behaviour changes to learn what worked. We found that BCI that used these developmental and implementation processes could be effective despite heterogeneous approaches and design components. Our analysis was constrained, however, by the limited published data on how design and implementation were carried out, perhaps because of publishing space limits. Information on cost-effectiveness, sustainability and scalability was also very limited. We suggest a more comprehensive reporting process and a more strategic research agenda to enable generalisable evidence to accumulate.

  1. Sugar-sensitive neurone responses and sugar feeding preferences influence lifespan and biting behaviours of the Afrotropical malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Sébastien; Vlimant, Michèle; Guerin, Patrick M

    2015-03-01

    Floral nectar is the main source of carbohydrates for many insects including mosquitoes. Nonetheless, the physiological mechanisms underlying feeding on carbohydrates by the Afrotropical malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether sugar sensitivity and sugar feeding preferences correlate with longevity in A. gambiae. We also tested whether feeding females on different sugar diets influences their biting behaviours. Electrophysiological recordings show that sugar neurones on the labella of females are most sensitive to sucrose, mixtures of glucose and fructose, and to melezitose; other sugars tested, including glucose and fructose presented alone, only weakly activate these taste neurones. Mosquitoes survive longest on sucrose, the most preferred sugar. Whereas feeding on a mixture of glucose and fructose is preferred over fructose or glucose alone, fructose supports higher longevity than either glucose or the mixture of the two hexoses. Females that had previously fed on glucose show a stronger biting response than those fed on sucrose, perhaps in an effort to compensate for their lower energetic state. These findings contribute to our understanding of the physiological basis of sugar feeding in A. gambiae and indicate how the sugar diet can affect laboratory-reared A. gambiae biting behaviours.

  2. Association between maternal social capital and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunhee; Kim, Jane; Seo, Eunkyo

    2017-07-17

    Few studies have explored the potential of social capital in improving child nutritional status; however, most components of pathways between social capital and nutritional status have remained unexplained. Complementary feeding practice is a strong mediator of child nutritional status. This study examined the association between complementary feeding practice and maternal social capital in rural Ethiopia, using cross-sectional data of infant aged 6-12 months and their mother pairs (n = 870). The Short Social Capital Assessment Tool was used to assess maternal structural (i.e., community group membership, having emotional/economic support from individuals, and citizenship activities) and cognitive social capital (i.e., trust, social harmony, and sense of belonging) in the past 12 months. Infant's dietary diversity score (DDS, range: 0-7), minimum dietary diversity (MDD), and minimum meal frequency (MMF) were assessed using a 24-hr dietary recall. Multivariable ordinal/binary logistic regression analyses were conducted. Having support from two or more individuals was associated with higher DDS (OR = 1.84) and meeting a minimum level of dietary diversity (MDD: OR = 5.20) but not with MMF, compared to those having no support. Having two or more group memberships was associated with higher DDS (OR = 2.2) but not with MDD or MMF, compared to those without group membership. Citizenship activities showed mixed associations with MMF and no association with DDS or MDD. Cognitive social capital showed no association with DDS or MDD and lower odds of meeting MMF (OR = 0.56). These mixed results call for further studies to examine other potential pathways (e.g., hygiene and caring behaviours) in which social capital could improve child nutritional status. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Breast-, complementary and bottle-feeding practices in Kenya: stagnant trends were experienced from 1998 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Matanda, Dennis J; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Kigaru, Dorcus Mbithe D

    2014-06-01

    The pattern of infant and young child feeding that provides the most benefit includes being put to the breast within an hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, continued breastfeeding along with complementary foods up to 2 years of age or beyond, and avoidance of any bottle-feeding. However, since there are no published data from Kenya regarding trends in these feeding practices, this research undertook time trend estimation of these feeding practices using the 1998, 2003, and 2008-2009 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey and also examined the multivariate relationships between sociodemographic factors and feeding practices with data from 2008 to 2009. Logistic regression was used to test the significance of trends and to analyze sociodemographic characteristics associated with feeding practices. There was a significant decline in early initiation of breastfeeding among children in Central and Western provinces and those residing in urban areas. Trends in exclusive breastfeeding showed significant improvement in most sociodemographic segments, whereas trends in complementary feeding and breastfeeding remained stable. Bottle-feeding significantly decreased among children aged 12 to 23 months, as well as those living in Coast, Eastern, and Rift Valley provinces. In the multivariate analysis, the province was significantly associated with feeding practices, after controlling for child's size, birth order, and parity. The stagnant (and in some cases worsening) trends in early initiation of breastfeeding and complementary feeding with breastfeeding paint a worrisome picture of breastfeeding practices in Kenya; therefore, efforts to promote the most beneficial feeding practices should be intensified. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Late introduction of complementary feeding, rather than duration of breastfeeding, may protect against adult overweight123

    PubMed Central

    Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2010-01-01

    Background: Early nutrition may affect the risk of overweight in later life. Objective: The objective was to explore the effect of the duration of breastfeeding (BF) and age at introduction of complementary feeding (CF) on body mass index (BMI) during childhood through adulthood. Design: The study was based on a subsample of the Copenhagen Perinatal Cohort established in 1959–1961 (n = 5068). Information on BF and available information on CF (age of introduction of “spoon-feeding,” “vegetables,” “egg,” “meat,” and “firm food”) and several covariates were collected in infancy and linked with information on BMI from follow-up examinations in childhood and adulthood at age 42 y. Results: The median (10th, 90th percentiles) durations of any BF and age at introduction of spoon-feeding were 2.50 (0.23, 6.50) and 3.50 (2.00, 6.00) mo, respectively. After 1 y of age and throughout childhood and adolescence, no association between BF and BMI was found in regression models also adjusted for age at introduction of spoon-feeding and covariates. The risk of overweight at age 42 y decreased or tended to decrease with increasing age (in mo) at introduction of spoon-feeding [odds ratio (OR): 0.94; 95% CI: 0.86, 1.02], vegetables (OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.98), meat (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.00), and firm food (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.86, 0.98) but not egg (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that introduction of CF at a later age (within the range of 2 to 6 mo) is protective against overweight in adulthood but do not support a protective effect of a longer duration of BF. PMID:20032492

  5. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  6. Determinants of suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries.

    PubMed

    Issaka, Abukari I; Agho, Kingsley E; Page, Andrew N; Burns, Penelope L; Stevens, Garry J; Dibley, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices play a crucial role in the health and development of children. The objective of this research paper was to identify factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months in seven francophone West African countries, namely, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Guinea, Mali, Niger and Senegal. This study covered 22 376 children aged 6-23 months from the seven countries surveyed (Benin: 3732 children; Burkina Faso: 4205 children; Cote d'Ivoire: 2109 children, Guinea: 1944 children, Mali: 3798 children, Niger: 3451 children and Senegal: 3137 children). The most recent Demographic and Health Survey datasets of the various countries were used as data sources. A set of individual-, household- and community-level factors were used to examine the four complementary feeding indicators. Multivariate analysis revealed that the youngest age bracket (6-11 months) of children, administrative/geographical region, mother's limited or non-access to the mass media, mothers' lack of contact with a health facility, rural residence, poor households and non-working mothers were the main factors associated with suboptimal complementary feeding in the countries surveyed. Our findings highlight the need to consider broader social, cultural and economic factors when designing child nutritional interventions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  8. The effectiveness of the WHO training course on complementary feeding counseling in a primary care setting, Ismailia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Hesham; Martines, Jose; Rakha, Mona; Zekry, Osama; Abdel-Hak, Mona; Abbas, Hanan

    2014-04-01

    The adequacy and timing of complementary feeding of the breastfed child are critical for optimal child growth and development.Considerable efforts have been made to improve complementary feeding in the first 2 years of life. One of them was the WHO complementary feeding counseling course (CFC). To evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO CFC on knowledge and counseling abilities of primary healthcare physicians; on caretaker's knowledge and adherence to physicians' recommendations and their feeding practices; and on children's growth. A single-blinded randomized-controlled study was carried out in 40 primary healthcare centers divided into matched pairs according to their location, either in rural or urban areas, and training of the selected physicians on integrated management of childhood illness. One center from each pair was selected randomly for its physician to receive CFC training in nutrition counseling and the matched center was selected as a control. Forty primary healthcare center physicians and 480 mother-child (6-18 months) pairs were included in the study. The mother-child pairs recruited were visited at home within 2 weeks, 90, and 180 days after the initial consultation with trained health workers. Special questionnaires were used to collect information on healthcare providers' knowledge of nutrition counseling and practice (counseling skills); maternal knowledge of basic nutrition-counseling recommendations, maternal compliance with the recommended feeding practice; child dietary intake; and gains in weight and length. CFC-trained physicians were more likely to engage in nutrition counseling and to deliver more appropriate advice. This was reflected in improvements in maternal recall of complementary feeding messages, which were higher in the intervention group compared with the control group. Six months after the consultation, children in the intervention group had significantly greater weight gains compared with the control group (0.96 vs. 0.78 kg; P

  9. [Evaluation of repellent and anti-feeding effect of garlic oil (Allium sativum) against the bite of phlebotomine sandflies Diptera: Psychodidae].

    PubMed

    Valerio, Laura; Maroli, Michele

    2005-01-01

    The repellent and anti-feeding effect of garlic oil was evaluated in laboratory conditions against the bite of Phlebotomus papatasi females. The effectiveness was evaluated by two different laboratory procedures: (i) topical application of garlic oil on five human volunteers, using the "standard cage test", and (ii) feeding sandflies on artificial membranes treated with the compound. Garlic oil showed a significant protection by topical application on the skin of volunteers, being the protection 97% and 40%, respectively at 1% and 0.005% dilution. Garlic oil showed also an anti-feeding effect when tested on the artificial membrane feeding apparatus; the anti-feeding effect was dose dependent, being 100% at 1%. The results of the present study confirm previous observations on the repellent effect of garlic oil against haematophagous arthropods.

  10. Predicting mothers' decisions to introduce complementary feeding at 6 months. An investigation using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Kyra; Daniels, Lynne; White, Katherine M; Murray, Nicole; Walsh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    In Australia and other developed countries there is poor adherence to guidelines recommending the introduction of complementary feeding to infants at 6 months of age. We aimed to investigate, via adopting a theory of planned behaviour framework and incorporating additional normative and demographic influences, mothers' complementary feeding intentions and behaviour. Participants were 375 primiparas who completed an initial questionnaire (infant age 13±3 weeks) that assessed the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as group norm and additional maternal and infant variables of mothers' age, education level, weight status perception, current maternal feeding practices, and infant birth weight. Approximately, 3 months after completion of the main questionnaire, mothers completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed the age in months at which the infant was first introduced to solids. The theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude and subjective norm, along with group norm, predicted intentions, with intention, mothers' age (older more likely), and weight status perception (overweight less likely) predicting behaviour. Overall, the results highlight the importance of attitudes, normative influences, and individual characteristics in complementary feeding decision-making which should be considered when designing interventions aimed at improving adherence to current maternal feeding guidelines.

  11. 3D Bite Modeling and Feeding Mechanics of the Largest Living Amphibian, the Chinese Giant Salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela)

    PubMed Central

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Heiss, Egon; Sanchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their “conservative” morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints. PMID:25853557

  12. 3D bite modeling and feeding mechanics of the largest living amphibian, the Chinese giant salamander Andrias davidianus (Amphibia:Urodela).

    PubMed

    Fortuny, Josep; Marcé-Nogué, Jordi; Heiss, Egon; Sanchez, Montserrat; Gil, Lluis; Galobart, Àngel

    2015-01-01

    Biting is an integral feature of the feeding mechanism for aquatic and terrestrial salamanders to capture, fix or immobilize elusive or struggling prey. However, little information is available on how it works and the functional implications of this biting system in amphibians although such approaches might be essential to understand feeding systems performed by early tetrapods. Herein, the skull biomechanics of the Chinese giant salamander, Andrias davidianus is investigated using 3D finite element analysis. The results reveal that the prey contact position is crucial for the structural performance of the skull, which is probably related to the lack of a bony bridge between the posterior end of the maxilla and the anterior quadrato-squamosal region. Giant salamanders perform asymmetrical strikes. These strikes are unusual and specialized behavior but might indeed be beneficial in such sit-and-wait or ambush-predators to capture laterally approaching prey. However, once captured by an asymmetrical strike, large, elusive and struggling prey have to be brought to the anterior jaw region to be subdued by a strong bite. Given their basal position within extant salamanders and their "conservative" morphology, cryptobranchids may be useful models to reconstruct the feeding ecology and biomechanics of different members of early tetrapods and amphibians, with similar osteological and myological constraints.

  13. Analysis of the bite force and mechanical design of the feeding mechanism of the durophagous horn shark Heterodontus francisci.

    PubMed

    Huber, Daniel R; Eason, Thomas G; Hueter, Robert E; Motta, Philip J

    2005-09-01

    Three-dimensional static equilibrium analysis of the forces generated by the jaw musculature of the horn shark Heterodontus francisci was used to theoretically estimate the maximum force distributions and loadings on its jaws and suspensorium during biting. Theoretical maximum bite force was then compared with bite forces measured (1) voluntarily in situ, (2) in restrained animals and (3) during electrical stimulation of the jaw adductor musculature of anesthetized sharks. Maximum theoretical bite force ranged from 128 N at the anteriormost cuspidate teeth to 338 N at the posteriormost molariform teeth. The hyomandibula, which connects the posterior margin of the jaws to the base of the chondrocranium, is loaded in tension during biting. Conversely, the ethmoidal articulation between the palatal region of the upper jaw and the chondrocranium is loaded in compression, even during upper jaw protrusion, because H. francisci's upper jaw does not disarticulate from the chondrocranium during prey capture. Maximum in situ bite force averaged 95 N for free-swimming H. francisci, with a maximum of 133 N. Time to maximum force averaged 322 ms and was significantly longer than time away from maximum force (212 ms). Bite force measurements from restrained individuals (187 N) were significantly greater than those from free-swimming individuals (95 N) but were equivalent to those from both theoretical (128 N) and electrically stimulated measurements (132 N). The mean mass-specific bite of H. francisci was greater than that of many other vertebrates and second highest of the cartilaginous fishes that have been studied. Measuring bite force on restrained sharks appears to be the best indicator of maximum bite force. The large bite forces and robust molariform dentition of H. francisci correspond to its consumption of hard prey.

  14. The role of fermented milk in complementary feeding of young children: lessons from transition countries.

    PubMed

    Branca, F; Rossi, L

    2002-12-01

    Probiotic bacteria are used for production of fermented dairy products. The use of probiotic bacteria has the potential to replenish the natural intestinal flora of the body. These bacteria competitively inhibit the growth and colonization of pathogenic bacteria. Breastmilk is the best food for babies, also from a probiotic point of view. Human milk, in fact, contains many substances that stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria in vitro and in the small intestine of infants. Improvement of lactose digestion and avoidance of symptoms of intolerance in lactose malabsorbers are the most profoundly studied health-relevant effects of fermented milk. In fact fermented milks are nutritionally similar to unfermented milk, except that some of lactose is broken down to glucose and galactose. The role of fermented milk in complementary feeding and in particular for the prevention of anaemia is an innovative theme, recently focused. Iron deficiency in infants and young children is widespread and has serious consequences for child health. Prevention of iron deficiency should therefore be given high priority. The too-early introduction of unmodified cow's milk and milk products is an important nutritional risk factors for the development of iron-deficiency anaemia. Fermented milks represent an excellent source of nutrients such as calcium, protein, phosphorus and riboflavin. During the fermentation of milk, lactic acid and other organic acids are produced and these increase the absorption of iron. If fermented milk is consumed at mealtimes, these acids are likely to have a positive effect on the absorption of iron from other foods.

  15. Application of the Health Belief Model to Teach Complementary Feeding Messages in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tariku, Befikadu; Whiting, Susan J; Mulualem, Demmelash; Singh, Pragya

    2015-01-01

    In Ethiopia many women do not practice appropriate complementary feeding (CF). The Health Belief Model (HBM) asserts that change in behavior is determined after consideration of severity, benefit, and barriers to change. This study examined the effectiveness of 3 months of HBM-based education compared to the traditional (didactic) method on CF practices of mothers, with no education as control, using three randomized groups. One hundred sixty-six mother-infant (6-18 months) pairs were recruited. At baseline and after intervention, knowledge, perceptions, and practices about CF and related areas were determined. It was only diet diversity that increased significantly in the HBM group (from 3.05±0.94 food groups to 3.79±0.82, p<.05) while the other two groups had no change. Improvements in food groups were most noticeable as legumes & nuts (from 35.6% use to 83.9% in HBM group). Thus, nutrition education about diet diversity improvement needs to be conducted promotes behavior change.

  16. Determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices in young children in Nepal: secondary data analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2006.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Nira; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J; Senarath, Upul; Tiwari, Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding increases the risk of undernutrition, illness and mortality in infants and children. This study uses a subsample of 1428 children of 6-23 months from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), 2006. The 2006 NDHS was a multistage cluster sample survey. The complementary feeding indicators were estimated according to the 2008 World Health Organization recommendations. The rate of introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods to infants aged 6-8 months was 70%. Minimum meal frequency and minimum dietary diversity rates were 82% and 34%, respectively, and minimum acceptable diet for breastfed infants was 32%. Multivariate analysis indicated that working mothers and mothers with primary or no education were significantly less likely to give complementary foods, to meet dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet. Children living in poor households were significantly less likely to meet minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet. Mothers who had adequate exposure to media, i.e. who watch television and who listen to radio almost every day, were significantly more likely to meet minimum dietary diversity and meal frequency. Infants aged 6-11 months were significantly less likely to meet minimum acceptable diet [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.13, confidence interval (CI)=2.16-4.53] and to meet minimum meal frequency (adjusted OR=4.46, CI=2.67-7.46). In conclusion, complementary feeding rates in Nepal are inadequate except for minimum meal frequency. Planning and promotion activities to improve appropriate complementary feeding practices should focus on illiterate mothers, those living in poor households, and those not exposed to media. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Snake bites

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - snakes ... Snake bites can be deadly if not treated quickly. Because of their smaller body size, children are ... risk for death or serious complications due to snake bites. The right antivenom can save a person's ...

  18. [Effectiveness of the National Strategy for Healthy Complementary Feeding to improve complemantary feeding of infants in a municipality in Southern Brazil].

    PubMed

    Baldissera, Rosane; Issler, Roberto Mário Silveira; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2016-09-19

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the National Strategy for Healthy Complementary Feeding (ENPACS) in improving complementary feeding in the first year of life in a Brazilian municipality (county). This was an impact evaluation study that enrolled 340 infants from 6 to 12 months of age, followed at primary healthcare units. The target outcomes were prevalence rates for the consumption of vegetables, legumes, fruits, and unhealthy foods, and the prevalence of foods with adequate consistency for age. Poisson regression showed that the strategy was associated with reductions of 32% in the consumption of sodas and/or industrialized juices, 35% of industrialized foods, and 5% of unhealthy foods. There was no increase in the consumption of fruits, legumes, vegetables, or foods with adequate consistency for age. In conclusion, the strategy's positive effect was partial, but it has the potential to help improve infant nutrition, based on its effectiveness in reducing the consumption of unhealthy foods.

  19. Eggs in Early Complementary Feeding and Child Growth: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Iannotti, Lora L; Lutter, Chessa K; Stewart, Christine P; Gallegos Riofrío, Carlos Andres; Malo, Carla; Reinhart, Gregory; Palacios, Ana; Karp, Celia; Chapnick, Melissa; Cox, Katherine; Waters, William F

    2017-07-01

    Eggs are a good source of nutrients for growth and development. We hypothesized that introducing eggs early during complementary feeding would improve child nutrition. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in Cotopaxi Province, Ecuador, from March to December 2015. Children ages 6 to 9 months were randomly assigned to treatment (1 egg per day for 6 months [n = 83]) and control (no intervention [n = 80]) groups. Both arms received social marketing messages to encourage participation in the Lulun Project (lulun meaning "egg" in Kichwa). All households were visited once per week to monitor morbidity symptoms, distribute eggs, and monitor egg intakes (for egg group only). Baseline and end point outcome measures included anthropometry, dietary intake frequencies, and morbidity symptoms. Mothers or other caregivers reported no allergic reactions to the eggs. Generalized linear regression modeling showed the egg intervention increased length-for-age z score by 0.63 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.88) and weight-for-age z score by 0.61 (95% CI, 0.45-0.77). Log-binomial models with robust Poisson indicated a reduced prevalence of stunting by 47% (prevalence ratio [PR], 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37-0.77) and underweight by 74% (PR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.10-0.70). Children in the treatment group had higher dietary intakes of eggs (PR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.28-1.92) and reduced intake of sugar-sweetened foods (PR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51-0.97) compared with control. The findings supported our hypothesis that early introduction of eggs significantly improved growth in young children. Generally accessible to vulnerable groups, eggs have the potential to contribute to global targets to reduce stunting. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Complementary feeding of infants in their first year of life: focus on the main pureed baby foods.

    PubMed

    Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano de; Caetano, Michelle Cavalcante; Ortiz, Thaís Tobaruela; Silva, Simone Guerra Lopes da; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the complementary feeding practices for infants, focusing on the main pureed baby foods, and verify adherence to the guidelines adopted in Brazil. Through cross-sectional study, aspects of complementary feeding of 404 healthy infants between 4 and 9 months of age (São Paulo, Curitiba and Recife) were evaluated. Socio-demographic data, history and food habits were collected. Mothers described three recipes (preparations) usually used in key baby foods. The findings were compared with those recommended by the Brazilian Society of Pediatrics. The average age was 6.9 ± 1.6 months. Among infants, 241/404 (59.6%) were still breastfeeding. Among those who received another type of milk, 193/368 (52.4%) received whole cow's milk, while 151/368 (41.0%) drank infant or follow-on formulas. Regarding baby food recipes salted reported by mothers, it was seen that 30% and 60% contained meat and vegetables, respectively. The percentages less suitable for feeding in general were observed for use of cow's milk and added sugar, chocolate and cereal in feeding bottles; 79% and 80.5% of the families interviewed would adopted such practices. The early termination of exclusive/predominant breastfeeding and the practice of an inadequate transition diet have shown a picture of quantitatively and qualitatively inadequate feeding, with the risk of causing serious nutritional problems in later ages, such as anemia and vitamin A deficiency, or excess of nutrients, leading to obesity, diabetes and dyslipidemias.

  1. Regional differences in milk and complementary feeding patterns in infants participating in an international nutritional type 1 diabetes prevention trial.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Anita M; Virtanen, Suvi M; Sorkio, Susa; Bärlund, Sonja; Cuthbertson, David; Uusitalo, Ulla; Lawson, Margaret L; Salonen, Marja; Berseth, Carol L; Ormisson, Anne; Lehtonen, Eveliina; Savilahti, Erkki; Becker, Dorothy J; Dupré, John; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Knip, Mikael; Åkerblom, Hans K

    2016-10-07

    Differences in breastfeeding, other milk feeding and complementary feeding patterns were evaluated in infants at increased genetic risk with and without maternal type 1 diabetes (T1D). The Trial to Reduce IDDM in the Genetically at Risk is an international nutritional primary prevention double-blinded randomized trial to test whether weaning to extensively hydrolyzed vs. intact cow's milk protein formula will decrease the development of T1D-associated autoantibodies and T1D. Infant diet was prospectively assessed at two visits and seven telephone interviews between birth and 8 months. Countries were grouped into seven regions: Australia, Canada, Northern Europe, Southern Europe, Central Europe I, Central Europe II and the United States. Newborn infants with a first-degree relative with T1D and increased human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to T1D were recruited. A lower proportion of infants born to mothers with than without T1D were breastfed until 6 months of age in all regions (range, 51% to 60% vs. 70% to 80%). Complementary feeding patterns differed more by region than by maternal T1D. In Northern Europe, a higher proportion of infants consumed vegetables and fruits daily compared with other regions. Consumption of meat was more frequent in all European regions, whereas cereal consumption was most frequent in Southern Europe, Canada and the United States. Maternal T1D status was associated with breastfeeding and other milk feeding patterns similarly across regions but was unrelated to the introduction of complementary foods. Infant feeding patterns differed significantly among regions and were largely inconsistent with current recommended guidelines.

  2. Timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors among children aged 6 to 12 months in Northern Ethiopia: an institution-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life is critical for the wellbeing of the child. In the mean while, timely initiation and starting nutritionally-adequate, safe, age-appropriate complementary feeding at six months is recommended for the better health and development of infants. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia at the 6th month was only 51%. The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors in Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 422 mothers of infants aged from six months to one year selected from six public health facilities. Sample size proportional to the patient flow rate of each institution was allocated and systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participant. An exit interview using structured questionnaire was conducted about their experience on complementary feeding and related experience. The questionnaire was pretested among 21 mothers. Data were entered with EPI info version 3.5.1 and cleaning and analysis was done by using SPSS version 16. Frequencies distribution, binary and multiple logistic regressions were done. OR and 95% confidence interval was computed. Result The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding at sixth month was 62.8% (265/422, 95% C.I: 58.1, 67.31%). Educational level, occupation of mother, parity, having ANC follow up, and birth preparedness were found to be independent predictor of timely initiation of complementary feeding. Conclusions Almost two-third of mothers initiated complementary feeding at six month of child’ age as recommended. This was relatively higher prevalence than most developing countries. However, significant proportion of mothers still did not initiate complementary feeding timely. Mothers who are illiterate

  3. Prevalence of allergic diseases and their association with breastfeeding and initiation of complementary feeding in school-age children of Ciudad Guzmán, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Morales-Romero, C Jaime; Bedolla-Barajas, Martín; López-Vargas, Laura; Romero-Velarde, C Enrique

    2015-08-01

    The effect that breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices have on the prevalence of allergic diseases has shown inconsistent results. To assess the effect of breastfeeding and the initiation of complementary feeding on the prevalence of allergic disease. Analytical, crosssectional population-based study conducted in 6-12 year old children attending primary school and selected through a multistage sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was administered to parents or tutors to identify allergic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinitis, or atopic dermatitis), a history of prolonged breastfeeding and age at initiation of complementary feeding. A logistic regression analysis was used to establish associations among variables. A total of 740 children were included. The frequency of breastfeeding for >6 months was 73.4%, and of complementary feeding at <4 months old was 31.9%. Prolonged breastfeeding showed no effect on the prevalence of allergic diseases. A protective effect was observed on the frequency of atopic dermatitis when complementary feeding was initiated late, adjusted OR= 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1-0.8 (p 0.019). The protective effect of breastfeeding against the prevalence of allergic diseases has not been demonstrated. There is a reduction in the prevalence of atopic dermatitis when complementary feeding is started late.

  4. Caterpillar cereal as a potential complementary feeding product for infants and young children: nutritional content and acceptability.

    PubMed

    Bauserman, Melissa; Lokangaka, Adrien; Kodondi, Kule-Koto; Gado, Justin; Viera, Anthony J; Bentley, Margaret E; Engmann, Cyril; Tshefu, Antoinette; Bose, Carl

    2015-12-01

    Micronutrient deficiency is an important cause of growth stunting. To avoid micronutrient deficiency, the World Health Organization recommends complementary feeding with animal-source foods. However, animal-source foods are not readily available in many parts of the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). In such areas, caterpillars are a staple in adult diets and may be suitable for complementary feeding for infants and young children. We developed a cereal made from dried caterpillars and other locally available ingredients (ground corn, palm oil, sugar and salt), measured its macro- and micronutrient contents and evaluated for microbiologic contamination. Maternal and infant acceptability was evaluated among 20 mothers and their 8-10-month-old infants. Mothers were instructed in the preparation of the cereal and asked to evaluate the cereal in five domains using a Likert scale. Mothers fed their infants a 30-g portion daily for 1 week. Infant acceptability was based on cereal consumption and the occurrence of adverse events. The caterpillar cereal contained 132 kcal, 6.9-g protein, 3.8-mg iron and 3.8-mg zinc per 30 g and was free from microbiologic contamination. Mothers' median ratings for cereal characteristics were (5 = like very much): overall impression = 4, taste = 5, smell = 4, texture = 4, colour = 5, and consistency = 4. All infants consumed more than 75% of the daily portions, with five infants consuming 100%. No serious adverse events were reported. We conclude that a cereal made from locally available caterpillars has appropriate macro- and micronutrient contents for complementary feeding, and is acceptable to mothers and infants in the DRC.

  5. Design of optimal food-based complementary feeding recommendations and identification of key "problem nutrients" using goal programming.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Elaine L; Darmon, Nicole; Fahmida, Umi; Fitriyanti, Suci; Harper, Timothy B; Premachandra, Inguruwatte M

    2006-09-01

    The WHO is urging countries to promote improved complementary feeding practices to ensure optimal health, growth, and development of young children. To help achieve this, a rigorous 4-phase approach for designing optimal population- specific food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) was developed and is illustrated here. In phase I, an optimized diet is selected, using goal programming (Model #1), which aims to provide a desired nutrient content with respect to habitual diet patterns and cost. Based on its food patterns, a set of draft CFRs is designed. In phase II, their success for ensuring a nutritionally adequate diet is assessed via linear programming (Model type #2) by sequentially minimizing and maximizing the level of each nutrient (i.e., worst and best-case scenarios) while respecting the CFRs. For nutrients that are <70% of desired levels, the best food sources are identified via linear programming in phase III (Model #3). Different combinations of these foods are incorporated into the original draft of the CFRs to produce alternative CFRs, which are then compared on the basis of their cost, flexibility, and "worst-case scenario" nutrient levels (Model type #2) to select, in phase IV, a final set of CFRs. A hypothetical example is used to illustrate this approach. Outcomes include a set of optimal, population-specific CFRs and practical information regarding key "problem nutrients" in the local diet. Such information is valuable for nutrition promotion, as well as nutrition program planning and advocacy, to help achieve global initiatives for improving the complementary feeding practices of young children living in disadvantaged environments.

  6. Arthropod bites.

    PubMed

    Juckett, Gregory

    2013-12-15

    The phylum Arthropoda includes arachnids and insects. Although their bites typically cause only local reactions, some species are venomous or transmit disease. The two medically important spiders in the United States are widow spiders (Latrodectus), the bite of which causes intense muscle spasms, and the brown recluse (Loxosceles), which may cause skin necrosis. Widow bites usually respond to narcotics, benzodiazepines, or, when necessary, antivenom. Most recluse bites resolve uneventfully without aggressive therapy and require only wound care and minor debridement. Tick bites can transmit diseases only after prolonged attachment to the host. Treatment of clothing with permethrin and proper tick removal greatly reduce the risk of infection. Ticks of medical importance in the United States include the black-legged tick, the Lone Star tick, and the American dog tick. The prophylactic use of a single dose of doxycycline for Lyme disease may be justified in high-risk areas of the country when an attached, engorged black-legged tick is removed. Bites from fleas, bedbugs, biting flies, and mosquitoes present as nonspecific pruritic pink papules, but the history and location of the bite can assist with diagnosis. Flea bites are usually on ankles, whereas mosquito bites are on exposed skin, and chigger bites tend to be along the sock and belt lines. Antihistamines are usually the only treatment required for insect bites; however, severe mosquito reactions (skeeter syndrome) may require prednisone. Applying insect repellent containing diethyltoluamide (DEET) 10% to 35% or picaridin 20% is the best method for preventing bites.

  7. Mosquito Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... larvae, then pupae, and then they become adult mosquitos. The males live for about a week to ... can live for months. What health problems can mosquito bites cause? Most mosquito bites are harmless, but ...

  8. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... surrounding the bite. Bites from wild animals, especially bats but also skunks, raccoons, coyotes, and foxes, are much more dangerous than those from tame, immunized (against rabies) dogs and cats. The health of the animal ...

  9. Determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices in young children in India: secondary analysis of National Family Health Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Patel, Archana; Pusdekar, Yamini; Badhoniya, Neetu; Borkar, Jitesh; Agho, Kingsley E; Dibley, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    In India, poor feeding practices in early childhood contribute to the burden of malnutrition as well as infant and child mortality. This paper aims to use the newly developed World Health Organization (WHO) infant feeding indicators to determine the prevalence of complementary feeding indicators among children of 6-23 months of age and to identify the determinants of inappropriate complementary feeding practices in India. The study data on 15,028 last-born children aged 6-23 months was obtained from the National Family Health Survey 2005-2006. Inappropriate complementary feeding indicators were examined against a set of child, parental, household, health service and community level characteristics. The prevalence of timely introduction of complementary feeding among infants aged 6-8 months was 55%. Among children aged 6-23 months, minimum dietary diversity rate was 15.2%, minimum meal frequency 41.5% and minimum acceptable diet 9.2%. Children in northern and western geographical regions of India had higher odds for inappropriate complementary feeding indicators than in other geographical regions. Richest households were less likely to delay introduction of complementary foods than other households. Other determinants of not meeting minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet were: no maternal education, lower maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m(2)), lower wealth index, less frequent (<7) antenatal clinic visits, lack of post-natal visits and poor exposure to media. A very low proportion of children aged 6-23 months in India received adequate complementary foods as measured by the WHO indicators. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. A Food Transfer Program without a Formal Education Component Modifies Complementary Feeding Practices in Poor Rural Mexican Communities.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Luzuriaga, María J; Unar-Munguía, Mishel; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Sonia; Rivera, Juan A; González de Cosío, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions. This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6-23 mo. A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6-23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score. Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of minimum dietary diversity by 21.6 PP (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that in order to improve dietary quality in children, food baskets that include fortified complementary foods may be more effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  11. Effect of a Baby-Led Approach to Complementary Feeding on Infant Growth and Overweight: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Rachael W; Williams, Sheila M; Fangupo, Louise J; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Taylor, Barry J; Daniels, Lisa; Fleming, Elizabeth A; McArthur, Jenny; Morison, Brittany; Erickson, Liz Williams; Davies, Rhondda S; Bacchus, Sabina; Cameron, Sonya L; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2017-09-01

    Baby-led approaches to complementary feeding, which promote self-feeding of all nonliquid foods are proposed to improve energy self-regulation and lower obesity risk. However, to date, no randomized clinical trials have studied this proposition. To determine whether a baby-led approach to complementary feeding results in a lower body mass index (BMI) than traditional spoon-feeding. The 2-year Baby-Led Introduction to Solids (BLISS) randomized clinical trial recruited 206 women (168 [81.6%] of European ancestry; 85 [41.3%] primiparous) in late pregnancy from December 19, 2012, through March 17, 2014, as part of a community intervention in Dunedin, New Zealand. Women were randomized to a control condition (n = 101) or the BLISS intervention (n = 105) after stratification for parity and education. All outcomes were collected by staff blinded to group randomization, and no participants withdrew because of an adverse event. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Mothers in the BLISS group received lactation consultant support (≥5 contacts) to extend exclusive breastfeeding and delay introduction of complementary foods until 6 months of age and 3 personalized face-to-face contacts (at 5.5, 7.0, and 9.0 months). The primary outcome was BMI z score (at 12 and 24 months). Secondary outcomes included energy self-regulation and eating behaviors assessed with questionnaires at 6, 12, and 24 months and energy intake assessed with 3-day weighed diet records at 7, 12, and 24 months. Among the 206 participants (mean [SD] age, 31.3 [5.6] years), 166 were available for analysis at 24 months (retention, 80.5%). The mean (SD) BMI z score was not significantly different at 12 months (control group, 0.20 [0.89]; BLISS group, 0.44 [1.13]; adjusted difference, 0.21; 95% CI, -0.07 to 0.48) or at 24 months (control group, 0.24 [1.01]; BLISS group, 0.39 [1.04]; adjusted difference, 0.16; 95% CI, -0.13 to 0.45). At 24 months, 5 of 78 infants (6.4%) were overweight (BMI≥95

  12. Initiation of complementary feeding and duration of total breastfeeding: unlimited access to lactation consultants versus routine care at the well-baby clinics.

    PubMed

    Jonsdottir, Olof H; Fewtrell, Mary S; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Kleinman, Ronald E; Hibberd, Patricia L; Jonsdottir, Jona M; Eiriksdottir, Ingibjorg; Rognvaldsdottir, Alma M; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-05-01

    Breastfeeding has several advantages for both mother and child. Lactation consultants may promote prolonged breastfeeding, but little is known about their impact on the initiation of complementary feeding. Dietary intake during the initial complementary feeding period from 5 to 6 months was collected on mother-infant pairs who had unlimited access to lactation consultants along with those mother-infant pairs who received routine care at the well-baby clinics. The total duration of breastfeeding in each study population was also recorded, and total breastfeeding durations of infants receiving complementary foods from 4 months and those exclusively breastfed for 6 months in each of the two study populations were compared. Higher proportion of infants of mothers with unlimited access to lactation consultants were fed vegetable and vegetable purées (p=0.05) and more than one food type (p=0.05) at 5 months. Furthermore, a lower percentage of them had three meals per day at 6 months (p=0.001) compared with those receiving routine care at the well-baby clinics. Infants exclusively breastfed for 6 months all had similar duration of total breastfeeding. Mother-infant pairs with unlimited access to lactation consultant had slower introduction of complementary foods at the initial complementary feeding period, according to number of infant's meals at 6 months of age. Furthermore, those exclusively breastfed for 6 months had more prolonged breastfeeding compared with mothers who began complementary feeding at 4 months regardless of exposure to lactation consultants.

  13. The Effect of a Pro-Breastfeeding and Healthy Complementary Feeding Intervention Targeting Adolescent Mothers and Grandmothers on Growth and Prevalence of Overweight of Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Renata; Vigo, Álvaro; Dias de Oliveira, Luciana; Justo Giugliani, Elsa Regina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The pattern and duration of breastfeeding (BF) and the age at onset of complementary feeding, as well as its quality, have been associated with the prevalence of overweight in childhood. Objective To assess the effect of a pro-BF and healthy complementary feeding intervention, targeted to adolescent mothers and maternal grandmothers, on growth and prevalence of overweight and obesity in children at preschool age. This intervention had a positive impact on duration of BF and timing of onset of complementary feeding. Methods This randomized clinical trial involved 323 adolescent mothers, their infants, and the infants’ maternal grandmothers, when they cohabited. Mothers and grandmothers in the intervention group received counseling sessions on BF and healthy complementary feeding at the maternity ward and at home (7, 15, 30, 60, and 120 days after delivery). When children were aged 4 to 7 years, they underwent anthropometric assessment and collection of data on dietary habits. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust estimation was used for analysis. Results BMI-for-age and height-for-age were similar in the intervention and control groups, as was the prevalence of overweight (39% vs. 31% respectively; p=0.318). There were no significant between-group differences in dietary habits. Conclusion Although the intervention prolonged the duration of exclusive BF and delayed the onset of complementary feeding, it had no impact on growth or prevalence of overweight at age 4 to 7 years. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00910377 PMID:26161657

  14. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices of Emirati Mothers in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Hadia

    2013-02-25

    Breastfeeding is the preferred method of feeding for the infant. The present study aimed at investigating the different infant feeding practices and the influencing factors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A convenient sample of 593 Emirati mothers who had infants up to 2 years of age was interviewed. The interviews included a detailed questionnaire and conducted in the Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) and Primary Health Centers (PHC) in three cities. Almost all the mothers in the study had initiated breastfeeding (98%). The mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.6 months. The initiation and duration of breastfeeding rates were influenced by mother's age (P<0.034)and education(P<0.01), parity(OR=2.13; P<0.001), rooming in(OR=21.70; P<0.001), nipple problem(P<0.010) and use of contraception(P<0.034). As for the feeding patterns, the results of the multiple logistic analyses revealed that rooming in (OR=4.48; P<0.001), feeding on demand (OR=2.29; P<0.005) and feeding more frequently at night (P<0.001) emerged as significant factors associated with exclusive or predominantly breastfeeding practices. Among the 593 infants in the study, 24.1% had complementary feeding, 25% of the infants were exclusively breastfed, and 49.4% were predominantly breastfed since birth. About 30% of the infants were given nonmilk fluids such as: Anis seed drink (Yansun), grippe water and tea before 3 months of age. The majority of the infants (83.5%) in the three areas received solid food before the age of 6 months. A variety of reasons were reported as perceived by mothers for terminating breastfeeding. The most common reasons were: new pregnancy (32.5%), insufficient milk supply (24.4%) and infant weaned itself (24.4%). In conclusion, infant and young child feeding practices in this study were suboptimal. There is a need for a national community-based breastfeeding intervention programme and for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as part of a primary public health strategy to

  15. Patterns and determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices of Emirati Mothers in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding is the preferred method of feeding for the infant. The present study aimed at investigating the different infant feeding practices and the influencing factors in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods A convenient sample of 593 Emirati mothers who had infants up to 2 years of age was interviewed. The interviews included a detailed questionnaire and conducted in the Maternal and Child Health Centers (MCH) and Primary Health Centers (PHC) in three cities. Results Almost all the mothers in the study had initiated breastfeeding (98%). The mean duration of breastfeeding was 8.6 months. The initiation and duration of breastfeeding rates were influenced by mother’s age (P<0.034)and education(P<0.01), parity(OR=2.13; P<0.001), rooming in(OR=21.70; P<0.001), nipple problem(P<0.010) and use of contraception(P<0.034). As for the feeding patterns, the results of the multiple logistic analyses revealed that rooming in (OR=4.48; P<0.001), feeding on demand (OR=2.29; P<0.005) and feeding more frequently at night (P<0.001) emerged as significant factors associated with exclusive or predominantly breastfeeding practices. Among the 593 infants in the study, 24.1% had complementary feeding, 25% of the infants were exclusively breastfed, and 49.4% were predominantly breastfed since birth. About 30% of the infants were given nonmilk fluids such as: Anis seed drink (Yansun), grippe water and tea before 3 months of age. The majority of the infants (83.5%) in the three areas received solid food before the age of 6 months. A variety of reasons were reported as perceived by mothers for terminating breastfeeding. The most common reasons were: new pregnancy (32.5%), insufficient milk supply (24.4%) and infant weaned itself (24.4%). Conclusions In conclusion, infant and young child feeding practices in this study were suboptimal. There is a need for a national community-based breastfeeding intervention programme and for the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding as

  16. Re-establishment of biting mouthparts in desert-living dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) feeding on plant litter-Old structures reacquired or new ones evolved?

    PubMed

    Holter, Peter; Scholtz, Clarke H

    2011-08-01

    Evolution of mouthparts in adult dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) for eating moist, fresh dung was linked with a loss of the ability to chew. However, the desert-living genus Pachysoma, probably evolved from a wet-dung feeding, Scarabaeus-like ancestor, has switched to a diet of dry fecal pellets (of rodents or small ruminants) and plant litter that requires re-establishment of chewing. Indeed, gut contents of a litter-feeding Pachysoma species indicate efficient food comminution. Based on scanning electron microscopy, cutting and grinding mouthpart structures in six Pachysoma species, of two lineages and with different food preferences, are described and compared with homologous structures in wet-dung feeding Scarabaeus species. In Pachysoma, cutting and breaking of large food items is probably performed by a clypeal scraper, a prominent epipharyngeal tooth and large maxillary galeal hooks. Further comminution is achieved by a large, grinding area evolved on the mandibular molae. Interspecific differences and the probable function and evolution of these structures are discussed. Particularly, the unique tools for cutting/breaking are completely novel structures and not results of some reacquisition of normal biting mouthparts.

  17. Age of introduction of first complementary feeding for infants: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Qasem, Wafaa; Fenton, Tanis; Friel, James

    2015-09-02

    Despite a World Health Organization recommendation for exclusive breastfeeding of all full-term infants to 6 months of age, it is not clear what the health implications may be. Breast milk alone may not meet the nutrition needs for all growing infants, leaving them at risk for deficiencies. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between moderate (4 months) versus late (6 months) introduction of complementary foods to the full-term breastfed infant on iron status and growth. An electronic search of peer-reviewed and gray-literature was conducted for randomized control trials (RCTs) and observational studies related to the timing of introduction of complementary foods. Iron status and growth data from the relevant RCTs were analyzed using RevMan 5.2.11. Three RCTs and one observational study met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed significantly higher hemoglobin levels in infants fed solids at 4 months versus those fed solids at 6 months in developing countries [mean difference [MD]: 5.0 g/L; 95% CI: 1.5, 8.5 g/L; P = 0.005]. Meta-analysis also showed higher serum ferritin levels in the 4-month group in both developed and developing countries [MD: 26.0 μg/L; 95% CI: -0.1, 52.1 μg/L, P = 0.050], [MD: 18.9 μg/L; 95% CI: 0.7, 37.1 μg/L, P = 0.040]. Short follow-up periods and small sample sizes of the included studies were the major limitations. RCT evidence suggests the rate of iron deficiency anemia in breastfed infants could be positively altered by introduction of solids at 4 months.

  18. Comparison of complementary feeding strategies to meet zinc requirements of older breastfed infants.

    PubMed

    Krebs, Nancy F; Westcott, Jamie E; Culbertson, Diana L; Sian, Lei; Miller, Leland V; Hambidge, K Michael

    2012-07-01

    The low zinc intake from human milk at ∼6 mo of age predicts the dependence on complementary foods (CF) to meet the zinc requirements of older breastfed-only infants. The objective of this study was to compare major variables of zinc homeostasis and zinc status in 9-mo-old breastfed infants who were randomly assigned to different complementary food regimens. Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5-mo-old infants were randomly assigned to receive commercially available pureed meats, iron-and-zinc-fortified infant cereal (IZFC), or whole-grain, iron-only-fortified infant cereal (IFC) as the first and primary CF until completion of zinc metabolic studies between 9 and 10 mo of age. A zinc stable-isotope methodology was used to measure the fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) in human milk and CF by dual-isotope ratios in urine. Calculated variables included the dietary intake from duplicate diets and 4-d test weighing, the total absorbed zinc (TAZ) from FAZ × diet zinc, and the exchangeable zinc pool size (EZP) from isotope enrichment in urine. Mean daily zinc intakes were significantly greater for the meat and IZFC groups than for the IFC group (P < 0.001); only intakes in meat and IZFC groups met estimated average requirements. Mean (±SEM) TAZ amounts were 0.80 ± 0.08, 0.71 ± 0.09, and 0.52 ± 0.05 mg/d for the meat, IZFC, and IFC groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Zinc from human milk contributed <25% of TAZ for all groups. The EZP correlated with both zinc intake (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) and TAZ (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). Zinc requirements for older breastfed-only infants are unlikely to be met without the regular consumption of either meats or zinc-fortified foods.

  19. Comparison of complementary feeding strategies to meet zinc requirements of older breastfed infants1234

    PubMed Central

    Krebs, Nancy F; Westcott, Jamie E; Culbertson, Diana L; Sian, Lei; Miller, Leland V; Hambidge, K Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background: The low zinc intake from human milk at ∼6 mo of age predicts the dependence on complementary foods (CF) to meet the zinc requirements of older breastfed-only infants. Objective: The objective of this study was to compare major variables of zinc homeostasis and zinc status in 9-mo-old breastfed infants who were randomly assigned to different complementary food regimens. Design: Forty-five exclusively breastfed 5-mo-old infants were randomly assigned to receive commercially available pureed meats, iron-and-zinc–fortified infant cereal (IZFC), or whole-grain, iron-only–fortified infant cereal (IFC) as the first and primary CF until completion of zinc metabolic studies between 9 and 10 mo of age. A zinc stable-isotope methodology was used to measure the fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) in human milk and CF by dual-isotope ratios in urine. Calculated variables included the dietary intake from duplicate diets and 4-d test weighing, the total absorbed zinc (TAZ) from FAZ × diet zinc, and the exchangeable zinc pool size (EZP) from isotope enrichment in urine. Results: Mean daily zinc intakes were significantly greater for the meat and IZFC groups than for the IFC group (P < 0.001); only intakes in meat and IZFC groups met estimated average requirements. Mean (±SEM) TAZ amounts were 0.80 ± 0.08, 0.71 ± 0.09, and 0.52 ± 0.05 mg/d for the meat, IZFC, and IFC groups, respectively (P = 0.027). Zinc from human milk contributed <25% of TAZ for all groups. The EZP correlated with both zinc intake (r = 0.43, P < 0.01) and TAZ (r = 0.54, P < 0.001). Conclusion: Zinc requirements for older breastfed-only infants are unlikely to be met without the regular consumption of either meats or zinc-fortified foods. PMID:22648720

  20. Complementary feeding practices and child growth outcomes in Haiti: an analysis of data from Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Teta, Ismael Ngnie; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Marhone, Joseline Pierre

    2015-10-01

    The Haitian National Nutrition Policy identifies the promotion of optimal complementary feeding (CF) practices as a priority action to prevent childhood malnutrition. We analysed data from the nationally representative 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic Health Survey using the World Health Organization 2008 infant and young child feeding indicators to describe feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months and thus inform policy and programme planning. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify the determinants of CF practices and to examine their association with child growth outcomes. Overall, 87.3% of 6-8-month-olds received soft, solid or semi-solid foods in the previous 24 h. Minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF) and minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were achieved in 29.2%, 45.3% and 17.1% of children aged 6-23 months, respectively. Non-breastfed children were more likely to achieve MDD than breastfed children of the same age (37.3% vs. 25.8%; P < 0.001). The proportion of children achieving MMF varied significantly by age (P < 0.001). Children with overweight mothers were more likely to achieve MDD, MMF and MAD [odds ratio (OR) 2.08, P = 0.012; OR 1.81, P = 0.02; and OR 2.4, P = 0.01, respectively] than children of normal weight mothers. Odds of achieving MDD and MMF increased with household wealth. Among mothers with secondary or more education, achieving MDD or MAD was significantly associated with lower mean weight-for-age z-score and height-for-age z-score (P-value <0.05 for infants and young child feeding indicator × maternal education interaction). CF practices were mostly inadequate and contributed to growth faltering among Haitian children 6-23 months old.

  1. Sympathetic neural inhibition of conducted vasodilatation along hamster feed arteries: complementary effects of α1- and α2-adrenoreceptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Sara J; Segal, Steven S

    2005-01-01

    Vasodilatation initiated on arterioles of skeletal muscle ascends into the proximal feed arteries through cell-to-cell conduction along the endothelium and into smooth muscle. Whereas perivascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) can inhibit conducted vasodilatation and restrict muscle blood flow, the signalling events mediating this interaction are poorly defined. Therefore, using isolated pressurized (75 mmHg) feed arteries (diameter (μm) at rest = 53 ± 3; maximum = 99 ± 2; n = 86) of the hamster retractor muscle, we tested the hypothesis that distinct yet complementary signalling pathways underlie the ability of SNA to inhibit conduction. Conducted vasodilatation was initiated using ACh microiontophoresis (1 μA; 250, 500 and 1000 ms) and SNA was initiated using local field stimulation (30–50 V; 1 ms at 2, 8 and 16 Hz). With vasodilatations of 5–20 μm, conduction increased with ACh pulse duration and was inhibited progressively as the frequency of SNA increased. During SNA, conduction was partially restored with inhibition of α1- (0.1 μm prazosin) or α2- (0.1 μm RX821002) adrenoreceptors and fully restored with both antagonists present. Activating α1- (50 nm phenylephrine) or α2- (1 μm UK 14,304) adrenoreceptors inhibited conduction partially and their simultaneous activation inhibited conduction cumulatively (P < 0.05). Elevated [K+]o (30 or 40 mm) or phorbol esters (0.5 μm) also inhibited conduction yet similar constriction with l-NNA (50 μm) or Bay K 8644 (10 nm) did not. Thus, the activation of α1- and α2-adrenoreceptors inhibits conducted vasodilatation through complementary signalling events. With robust coupling along the endothelium, our modelling predicts that the inhibition of conduction by SNA can be explained by reduced electrical coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions or greater current leak across smooth muscle cell membranes. PMID:15576454

  2. The challenge of meeting nutrient needs of infants and young children during the period of complementary feeding: an evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Kathryn G

    2013-12-01

    Breast-fed infants and young children need complementary foods with a very high nutrient density (particularly for iron and zinc), especially at ages 6-12 mo. However, in low-income countries, their diet is usually dominated by cereal-based porridges with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Complementary feeding diets typically fall short in iron and zinc and sometimes in other nutrients. These gaps in nutritional adequacy of infant diets have likely been a characteristic of human diets since the agricultural revolution ~10,000 y ago. Estimates of nutrient intakes before then, based on hypothetical diets of preagricultural humans, suggest that infants had much higher intakes of key nutrients than is true today and would have been able to meet their nutrient needs from the combination of breast milk and premasticated foods provided by their mothers. Strategies for achieving adequate nutrition for infants and young children in modern times must address the challenge of meeting nutrient needs from largely cereal-based diets.

  3. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth, and development among rural Indian toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L.; Johnson, Susan L.; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Rao, Sylvia Fernandez; Shroff, Monal R.; Bentley, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding, and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children’s dietary intake, growth, and development compared to home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into 3 groups1 of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The Control Group (CG), received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the Complementary Feeding Group (CFG), received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the Responsive Complementary Feeding & Play Group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the twelve-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (p<0.05) increased median intakes of energy, protein, Vitamin-A, calcium (CFG), iron and zinc, reduced stunting (0.19, CI: 0.0–0.4) in the CFG (but not RCF&PG) and increased (p<0.01) Bayley Mental Development scores(Mean=3.1, CI: 0.8–5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared to CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG), and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under two years in food-secure rural Indian families. PMID:22625182

  4. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth and development among rural Indian toddlers.

    PubMed

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L; Johnson, Susan L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Shroff, Monal R; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and development compared with home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into three groups of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The control group (CG) received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the complementary feeding group (CFG) received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the responsive complementary feeding and play group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices, and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the 12-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (P < 0.05) increased median intakes of energy, protein, Vitamin A, calcium (CFG), iron and zinc, reduced stunting [0.19, confidence interval (CI): 0.0-0.4] in the CFG (but not RCF&PG) and increased (P < 0.01) Bayley Mental Development scores (mean = 3.1, CI: 0.8-5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared with CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG) and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under 2 years in food-secure rural Indian families.

  5. Determinants of complementary feeding practices among mothers of 6–24 months failure to thrive children based on behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model, Tehran

    PubMed Central

    Shams, Nasibeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study intended to clarify the determining factors of complementary feeding practices among Tehran 6–24 months failure to thrive children in order to use the results for planning the interventions to reduce the possible adverse effects. Materials and Methods: In this study, 132 mothers of three medical and health centers were chosen by random sampling among those centers operating under the supervision of south of Tehran District Health Center and study data were collected from them. A valid and reliable questionnaire as a data collection instrument developed based on behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model. Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used to determine the statistical relationship between factors associated with complementary feeding practices among mothers. Results: The mothers’ knowledge was as follows: 0.8%, 20.4%, and 78.8% of them were good, medium, and poor, respectively. Mean scores for the mothers’ performance in terms of supplementary feeding was 66.8. Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the mothers’ performance with enabling and reinforcing factors, but there wasn’t any significant relationship between the mothers’ performance and knowledge about complementary feeding. Conclusions: According to the obtained results, reinforcing factors, and enabling factors are associated with the mothers’ performance in terms of complementary feeding. Hence, attention to these issues is essential for better health interventions planning. PMID:27500177

  6. Determinants of complementary feeding practices among mothers of 6-24 months failure to thrive children based on behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model, Tehran.

    PubMed

    Shams, Nasibeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    This study intended to clarify the determining factors of complementary feeding practices among Tehran 6-24 months failure to thrive children in order to use the results for planning the interventions to reduce the possible adverse effects. In this study, 132 mothers of three medical and health centers were chosen by random sampling among those centers operating under the supervision of south of Tehran District Health Center and study data were collected from them. A valid and reliable questionnaire as a data collection instrument developed based on behavioral analysis phase of PRECEDE model. Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficient test were used to determine the statistical relationship between factors associated with complementary feeding practices among mothers. The mothers' knowledge was as follows: 0.8%, 20.4%, and 78.8% of them were good, medium, and poor, respectively. Mean scores for the mothers' performance in terms of supplementary feeding was 66.8. Pearson correlation indicated a positive and significant correlation between the mothers' performance with enabling and reinforcing factors, but there wasn't any significant relationship between the mothers' performance and knowledge about complementary feeding. According to the obtained results, reinforcing factors, and enabling factors are associated with the mothers' performance in terms of complementary feeding. Hence, attention to these issues is essential for better health interventions planning.

  7. A Preference Based Measure of Complementary Feeding Quality: Application to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Mittinty, Murthy N.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Smithers, Lisa G.; Brazionis, Laima; Lynch, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI), a composite index aimed to measure adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Through an axiomatic characterization this paper shows the advantages in using the CFUI are the following: it avoids the use of arbitrary cut-offs, and by converting observed diet preferences into utilities, summing the score is meaningful. In addition, as the CFUI is designed to be scored continuously, it allows the transition from intake of beneficial foods (in low quantities) and intake of detrimental foods (in high quantities) to be more subtle. The paper first describes the rationale being the development of the CFUI and then elaborates on the methodology used to develop the CFUI, including the process of selecting the components. The methodology is applied to data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show the advantages of the CFUI over traditional diet index approaches. Unlike traditional approaches, the distribution of the CFUI does not peak towards mean value but distributes evenly towards the tails of the distribution. PMID:24155886

  8. Improving complementary feeding in Ghana: reaching the vulnerable through innovative business--the case of KOKO Plus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Shibani; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Aaron, Grant J; Otoo, Gloria; Strutt, Nicholas; Bomfeh, Kennedy; Kitamura, Satoshi; Suri, Devika J; Murakami, Hitoshi; Furuta, Chie; Sarpong, Daniel; Saalia, F; Nakao, Youzou; Amonoo-Kuofi, Harold; Uauy, Ricardo; Toride, Yasuhiko

    2014-12-01

    Reaching vulnerable populations in low-resource settings with effective business solutions is critical, given the global nature of food and nutrition security. Over a third of deaths of children under 5 years of age are directly or indirectly caused by undernutrition. The Lancet series on malnutrition (2013) estimates that over 220,000 lives of children under 5 years of age can be saved through the implementation of an infant and young child feeding and care package. A unique project being undertaken in Ghana aims to bring in two elements of innovation in infant and young child feeding. The first involves a public-private partnership (PPP) to develop and test the efficacy and effectiveness of the delivery of a low-cost complementary food supplement in Ghana called KOKO Plus™. The second involves the testing of the concepts of social entrepreneurship and social business models in the distribution and delivery of the product. This paper shares information on the ongoing activities in the testing of concepts of PPPs, social business, social marketing, and demand creation using different delivery platforms to achieve optimal nutrition in Ghanaian infants and young children in the first 2 years of life. It also focuses on outlining the concept of using PPP and base-of-the-pyramid approaches toward achieving nutrition objectives.

  9. POISONOUS BITES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Prevention of snakebite. Poisonous Arachnida: Painful sensations after the sting of a scorpion ; Clinical phenomena after the bite of a karakurt; Is the bite...of a tarantula dangerous. Hymenoptera: Clinical phenomena after a sting by wasps or bees; Treatment of stings of scorpions , karakurts, wasps and bees.

  10. [Dog bites].

    PubMed

    Horn, Benedikt

    2015-01-01

    In Switzerland 10'000 people are bitten by a dog annualy. Dog bites are notifiable incidents. Defensive and offensive aggression of dogs (why does a dog bite?), history, signs, treatment and prevention are discussed. Finally a short psychogram of dog owner and victim emphasizes the role of avoiding any escalation.

  11. Insect bites and stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... or hornet sting; Lice bites; Mite bite; Scorpion bite; Spider bite; Wasp sting; Yellow jacket sting ... require immediate medical treatment to prevent death. Certain spider bites, such as the black widow or brown recluse, ...

  12. Association of Frontline Worker-Provided Services with Change in Block-Level Complementary Feeding Indicators: An Ecological Analysis from Bihar, India

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aritra; Mahapatra, Sanchita; Sai Mala, Guntur; Chaudhuri, Indrajit; Mahapatra, Tanmay

    2016-01-01

    Background Insufficiencies in complementary feeding put infants and young children at increased risk of undernutrition. Till now, most Indian studies have looked at the individual level determinants of complementary feeding practices. We aimed to evaluate the association of frontline worker (FLW) provided nutritional counselling services, with change in community level indicators of complementary feeding practices among 9–11 month old children over time. Methods The study data was obtained from five rounds of ‘Lot Quality Assurance Sampling’ survey in eight districts of Bihar, an impoverished Indian state. The surveys were conducted as evaluation exercises for the ‘Integrated Family Health Initiative (IFHI)’–a multi-faceted program aimed at improving the maternal and child health outcomes in Bihar. The main outcome indicators were—current breastfeeding, age-appropriate minimum frequency of semi-solid food, age-appropriate minimum quantity of semi-solid food, initiation of complementary feeding at the right age, and dietary diversity. Repeated measures analysis was performed to determine the association of changes in the outcome indicators with coverage of FLW-provided counselling services. Results Visits by FLW, advices on age-appropriate frequency and handwashing were significant predictors of receiving age-appropriate frequency of feeding. The determinants of receiving age-appropriate quantity were—advices on age appropriate frequency and advices on handwashing. Receiving food support from AWC and FLW visits were significantly associated with initiating complementary feeding at the right age. Conclusions The present study identified the critical elements among the different types of FLW-provided services. The study findings, from an economically and socially underdeveloped region of India, would inform the relevant programs about the nutritional counselling services that need to be emphasized upon for reducing the burden of childhood malnutrition

  13. Developmental outcomes among 18-month-old Malawians after a year of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements or corn-soy flour

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The major aim of this trial was to compare the development of 18-month-old infants who received complementary feeding for 1 year with either lipid-based nutrient supplements or micronutrient-fortified corn-soy porridge. Our secondary aim was to determine the socio-economic factors associated with de...

  14. Connecting behaviour and performance: the evolution of biting behaviour and bite performance in bats.

    PubMed

    Santana, S E; Dumont, E R

    2009-11-01

    Variation in behaviour, performance and ecology are traditionally associated with variation in morphology. A neglected part of this ecomorphological paradigm is the interaction between behaviour and performance, the ability to carry out tasks that impact fitness. Here we investigate the relationship between biting behaviour and performance (bite force) among 20 species of ecologically diverse bats. We studied the patterns of evolution of plasticity in biting behaviour and bite force, and reconstructed ancestral states for behaviour and its plasticity. Both behavioural and performance plasticity exhibited accelerating evolution over time, and periods of rapid evolution coincided with major dietary shifts from insect-feeding to plant-feeding. We found a significant, positive correlation between behavioural plasticity and bite force. Bats modulated their performance by changing their biting behaviour to maximize bite force when feeding on hard foods. The ancestor of phyllostomids was likely a generalist characterized by high behavioural plasticity, a condition that also evolved in specialized frugivores and potentially contributed to their diversification.

  15. The Reference Transcriptome of the Adult Female Biting Midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and Differential Gene Expression Profiling during Teneral, Blood, and Sucrose Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B.; Saski, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of

  16. Initiation of Complementary Feeding and Duration of Total Breastfeeding: Unlimited Access to Lactation Consultants Versus Routine Care at the Well-Baby Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Fewtrell, Mary S.; Gunnlaugsson, Geir; Kleinman, Ronald E.; Hibberd, Patricia L.; Jonsdottir, Jona M.; Eiriksdottir, Ingibjorg; Rognvaldsdottir, Alma M.; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Breastfeeding has several advantages for both mother and child. Lactation consultants may promote prolonged breastfeeding, but little is known about their impact on the initiation of complementary feeding. Subjects and Methods: Dietary intake during the initial complementary feeding period from 5 to 6 months was collected on mother–infant pairs who had unlimited access to lactation consultants along with those mother–infant pairs who received routine care at the well-baby clinics. The total duration of breastfeeding in each study population was also recorded, and total breastfeeding durations of infants receiving complementary foods from 4 months and those exclusively breastfed for 6 months in each of the two study populations were compared. Results: Higher proportion of infants of mothers with unlimited access to lactation consultants were fed vegetable and vegetable purées (p=0.05) and more than one food type (p=0.05) at 5 months. Furthermore, a lower percentage of them had three meals per day at 6 months (p=0.001) compared with those receiving routine care at the well-baby clinics. Infants exclusively breastfed for 6 months all had similar duration of total breastfeeding. Conclusions: Mother–infant pairs with unlimited access to lactation consultant had slower introduction of complementary foods at the initial complementary feeding period, according to number of infant's meals at 6 months of age. Furthermore, those exclusively breastfed for 6 months had more prolonged breastfeeding compared with mothers who began complementary feeding at 4 months regardless of exposure to lactation consultants. PMID:24621390

  17. Stork bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... newborns. A stork bite is due to a stretching (dilation) of certain blood vessels. It may become ... all birthmarks during a routine well-baby exam . Prevention There is no known prevention. Alternative Names Salmon ...

  18. Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    Wild animals usually avoid people. They might attack, however, if they feel threatened, are sick, or are protecting their ... or territory. Attacks by pets are more common. Animal bites rarely are life-threatening, but if they ...

  19. Tick Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... that go outdoors, you need to beware of ticks. Ticks are small bloodsucking parasites. Many species transmit diseases ... of the diseases you can get from a tick bite are Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis, Rocky Mountain spotted ...

  20. A soft origin for a forceful bite: motor patterns of the feeding musculature in Atlantic hagfish, Myxine glutinosa.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew J; Maravilla, Erick J; Summers, Adam P

    2010-10-01

    Despite lacking jaws and substantial rigid support for feeding muscles, hagfishes can forcefully grasp and ingest chunks of flesh from their prey. When feeding, bilaterally folding dental plates protrude from the mouth, then forcefully retract. This cyclic protraction and retraction occurs in the anterior region of the hagfish feeding apparatus (HFA) and involves both a cartilaginous skeleton and a complex array of muscles that act as a hydrostat. We recorded motor patterns from the largest muscles in the HFA in six specimens of Myxine glutinosa: the deep protractor muscle (DPM), clavatus muscle (CM), perpendicularis muscle (PM), and tubulatus muscle (TM). Individuals normally used four gape cycles to ingest food and four gape cycles to intraorally transport food. We measured burst duration from each muscle and the onsets of kinematic events and the onsets of CM, PM, and TM bursts relative to the onset of the DPM. The DPM fired during protraction, while the CM, PM and TM fired during retraction. Our study corroborates our anatomical predictions about DPM and CM function. Activation of the circumferentially and vertically oriented fibers of the TM and PM stiffens the origin of the CM, allowing it to forcefully retract the dental plates. The progressive decrease in retractor muscle activity during gape cycles following ingestion suggests a reliance on passive properties of the musculoskeletal system for retraction. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Infiltrate at the Feeding Site of Infected Sand Flies in Mice Protected from Vector-Transmitted Leishmania major by Exposure to Uninfected Bites

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Clarissa; Gomes, Regis; Oliveira, Fabiano; Meneses, Claudio; Gilmore, Dana C.; Elnaiem, Dia-Eldin A.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Kamhawi, Shaden

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice exposed to sand fly saliva are protected against vector-transmitted Leishmania major. Although protection has been related to IFN- γ producing T cells, the early inflammatory response orchestrating this outcome has not been defined. Methodology/Principal findings Mice exposed to uninfected P. duboscqi bites and naïve mice were challenged with L. major-infected flies to characterize their early immune response at the bite site. Mostly, chemokine and cytokine transcript expression post-infected bites was amplified in exposed compared to naïve mice. In exposed mice, induced chemokines were mostly involved in leukocyte recruitment and T cell and NK cell activation; IL-4 was expressed at 6 h followed by IFN-γ and iNOS2 as well as IL-5 and IL-10 expression. In naïve animals, the transcript expression following Leishmania-infected sand fly bites was suppressed. Expression profiles translated to an earlier and significantly larger recruitment of leukocytes including neutrophils, macrophages, Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4+ T cells to the bite site of exposed compared to naïve mice post-infected bites. Additionally, up to 48 hours post-infected bites the number of IFN-γ-producing CD4+T cells and NK cells arriving at the bite site was significantly higher in exposed compared to naïve mice. Thereafter, NK cells become cytolytic and persist at the bite site up to a week post-bite. Conclusion/Significance The quiet environment induced by a Leishmania-infected sand fly bite in naïve mice was significantly altered in animals previously exposed to saliva of uninfected flies. We propose that the enhanced recruitment of Gr+ monocytes, NK cells and CD4 Th1 cells observed at the bite site of exposed mice creates an inhospitable environment that counters the establishment of L. major infection. PMID:24762408

  2. Parent-led or baby-led? Associations between complementary feeding practices and health-related behaviours in a survey of New Zealand families.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Sonya L; Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2013-12-09

    To determine feeding practices and selected health-related behaviours in New Zealand families following a 'baby-led' or more traditional 'parent-led' method for introducing complementary foods. 199 mothers completed an online survey about introducing complementary foods to their infant. Participants were classified into one of four groups: 'adherent baby-led weaning (BLW)', the infant mostly or entirely fed themselves at 6-7 months; 'self-identified BLW', mothers reported following BLW at 6-7 months but were using spoon-feeding at least half the time; 'parent-led feeding', the mother reported not having tried BLW; and 'unclassified method', the mother reported they were not following BLW at 6-7 months but reported the infant mostly or entirely fed themselves at 6-7 months. 8% were following 'adherent BLW', 21% 'self-identified BLW' and 0% were following the 'unclassified method'. Compared with 'self-identified BLW' and 'parent-led feeding', a higher proportion of the 'adherent BLW' met the WHO recommendations to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and to introduce complementary foods at 6 months. The 'adherent BLW' group was more likely to have family foods (p=0.018), and less likely (p=0.002) to have commercially prepared baby food. Both BLW groups were more likely to share meals with the family compared with 'parent-led feeding'. In contrast to 'self-identified BLW' and 'parent-led feeding', the 'adherent BLW' group did not offer iron-fortified cereal as a first food. This study suggests that although many parents consider they follow BLW, a very few are following it strictly. The extent to which BLW was followed was associated with potential benefits (eg, sharing family meals) and risks (eg, low iron first foods) highlighting the importance for health professionals and researchers of accurately determining the extent of adherence to BLW.

  3. Chilean complementary feeding program reduces anemia and improves iron status in children aged 11 to 18 months.

    PubMed

    Brito, Alex; Olivares, Manuel; Pizarro, Tito; Rodríguez, Lorena; Hertrampf, Eva

    2013-12-01

    Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutritional deficiency in the world, primarily affecting infants, young children, and women of childbearing age. To evaluate the impact of the National Complementary Feeding Program (NCFP) on anemia and iron status in Chilean children aged 11 to 18 months. Two studies were performed. The first study was performed at one public outpatient health center in Santiago, using data collected in 1999 (n = 128) and 2000 (n = 125), before and after the national introduction of iron-fortified milk. Subsequently, a study of a representative sample (n = 320) from the two most populated areas of the country was performed in 2009. One year after fortification, the prevalence of anemia was 9%; significantly lower (p < .001) than the 27% prevalence observed 1 year before. Ten years after fortification, 14% of children were anemic and 77% of children with anemia (12% of all children) suffered from iron-deficiency anemia. In 2009, 11% of children consuming iron-fortified milk delivered by the NCFP (73%) were anemic, significantly lower (p = .028) than the 21% prevalence of anemia observed in children without consumption. Consumption of iron-fortified milk was positively associated with hemoglobin concentration (r = 0.28, p = .022) and was associated with a lower prevalence of anemia after adjusting for confounding factors (odds ratio, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.96). In Chile, the NCFP has had an impact on the reduction of anemia and improved the iron status of children aged 11 to 18 months. Increasing the consumption of this iron-fortified milk could enhance the impact of the NCFP.

  4. Maternal weight status, diet, and supplement use as determinants of breastfeeding and complementary feeding: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Audry H; Voortman, Trudy; Baena, Cristina P; Chowdhurry, Rajiv; Muka, Taulant; Jaspers, Loes; Warnakula, Samantha; Tielemans, Myrte J; Troup, Jenna; Bramer, Wichor M; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2016-08-01

    Infant feeding practices are influenced by maternal factors. The aim of this review is to examine the associations between maternal weight status or dietary characteristics and breastfeeding or complementary feeding. A systematic literature search of the Embase, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Web of Science databases was performed. Interventional and cohort studies in healthy mothers and infants that reported on maternal weight status, diet, or supplement use were selected. Outcomes assessed included delayed onset of lactogenesis; initiation, exclusivity, duration, and cessation of breastfeeding; and timing of complementary feeding. Eighty-one studies were included. Maternal underweight, diet, and supplement use were not associated with infant feeding practices. Obese women had a relative risk of failure to initiate breastfeeding (risk ratio [RR] = 1.23; 95%CI, 1.03-1.47) and a delayed onset of lactogenesis (RR  =  2.06; 95%CI, 1.18-3.61). The RR for breastfeeding cessation was 1.11 (95%CI, 1.07-1.15) per increase in category of body mass index. Prevention of obesity in women of reproductive age, as well as counseling of obese women after delivery, could be targeted to improve infant feeding practices. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Evidence for the Effects of Complementary Feeding Interventions on the Growth of Infants and Young Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Heidkamp, Rebecca A

    2017-01-01

    As momentum for investment in early childhood nutrition grows, so does the evidence base for the effectiveness of interventions to improve complementary feeding in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), where the risk of early growth faltering is high. The aim of this chapter is to review the current state of the evidence for the impact of two categories of interventions (nutrition education alone and provision of food or nutrient supplements with or without education) on linear and ponderal growth of children aged 6-23 months in LMIC. Pooled-effect sizes from three recent systematic reviews consistently suggest a modest but significant effect of both types of complementary feeding interventions on weight and length gain. However, interpretation of these pooled estimates is limited by the variability in intervention design and inconsistency in reporting of growth outcomes across the relatively small number of rigorous controlled trials currently available in the literature.

  6. Breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices in the first 6 months of life among Norwegian-Somali and Norwegian-Iraqi infants: the InnBaKost survey.

    PubMed

    Grewal, Navnit Kaur; Andersen, Lene Frost; Sellen, Daniel; Mosdøl, Annhild; Torheim, Liv Elin

    2016-03-01

    To examine breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices during the first 6 months of life among Norwegian infants of Somali and Iraqi family origin. A cross-sectional survey was performed during March 2013-February 2014. Data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ adapted from the second Norwegian national dietary survey among infants in 2006-2007. Somali-born and Iraqi-born mothers living in eastern Norway were invited to participate. One hundred and seven mothers/infants of Somali origin and eighty mothers/infants of Iraqi origin participated. Breast-feeding was almost universally initiated after birth. Only 7 % of Norwegian-Somali and 10 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants were exclusively breast-fed at 4 months of age. By 1 month of age, water had been introduced to 30 % of Norwegian-Somali and 26 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants, and infant formula to 44 % and 34 %, respectively. Fifty-four per cent of Norwegian-Somali and 68 % of Norwegian-Iraqi infants had been introduced to solid or semi-solid foods at 4 months of age. Breast-feeding at 6 months of age was more common among Norwegian-Somali infants (79 %) compared with Norwegian-Iraqi infants (58 %; P=0·001). Multivariate analyses indicated no significant factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding at 3·5 months of age. Factors positively associated with breast-feeding at 6 months were country of origin (Somalia) and parity (>2). Breast-feeding initiation was common among Iraqi-born and Somali-born mothers, but the exclusive breast-feeding period was shorter than recommended in both groups. The study suggests that there is a need for new culture-specific approaches to support exclusive breast-feeding and complementary feeding practices among foreign-born mothers living in Norway.

  7. Use of Pulse Crops in Complementary Feeding of 6-23-Month-Old Infants and Young Children in Taba Kebele, Damot Gale District, Southern Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Addisalem; Henry, Carol; Girma, Meron; Whiting, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Poor complementary feeding practices contribute to infants and young children (IYC) malnutrition, with lack of protein-containing food and micronutrients as major concerns. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the dietary diversity, nutrient contents and use of pulse crops in complementary feeding at Taba kebele, Southern Ethiopia. A questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and dietary diversity data from a random sample of 128 mother-child pairs. A one day weighed food record assessed IYC median nutrient intake. Focus group discussion explored mothers’ perceptions and use of pulse crops in complementary food preparation. Dietary diversity assessment found that 43.7% consumed pulses, and only 18.7% consumed meat and 26.6% eggs. Focus group discussion showed that mothers had little interest in incorporating pulses into complementary foods. Raising awareness of mothers/caregivers on food diversification and promoting the inclusion of pulses in food preparation for infants and young children are vital to nutritional status of IYC. PMID:28299132

  8. How well do WHO complementary feeding indicators relate to nutritional status of children aged 6-23 months in rural Northern Ghana?

    PubMed

    Saaka, Mahama; Wemakor, Anthony; Abizari, Abdul-Razak; Aryee, Paul

    2015-11-23

    Though the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators have been in use, little is known about their association with child nutritional status. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between IYCF indicators (timing of complementary feeding, minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet) and child growth indicators. A community-based cross-sectional survey was carried out in November 2013. The study population comprised mothers/primary caregivers and their children selected using a two-stage cluster sampling procedure. Of the 1984 children aged 6-23 months; 58.2 % met the minimum meal frequency, 34.8 % received minimum dietary diversity (≥4 food groups), 27.8 % had received minimum acceptable diet and only 15.7 % received appropriate complementary feeding. With respect to nutritional status, 20.5 %, 11.5 % and 21.1 % of the study population were stunted, wasted and underweight respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that compared to children who were introduced to complementary feeding either late or early, children who started complementary feeding at six months of age were 25 % protected from chronic malnutrition (AOR = 0.75, CI = 0.50 - 0.95, P = 0.02). It was found that children whose mothers attended antenatal care (ANC) at least 4 times were 34 % protected [AOR 0.66; 95 % CI (0.50 - 0.88)] against stunted growth compared to children born to mothers who attended ANC less than 4 times. Children from households with high household wealth index were 51 % protected [AOR 0.49; 95 % CI (0.26 - 0.94)] against chronic malnutrition compared to children from households with low household wealth index. After adjusting for potential confounders, there was a significant positive association between appropriate complementary feeding index and mean WLZ (β = 0.10, p = 0.005) but was not associated with mean LAZ. The WHO IYCF

  9. Reliable quantification of bite-force performance requires use of appropriate biting substrate and standardization of bite out-lever.

    PubMed

    Lappin, A Kristopher; Jones, Marc E H

    2014-12-15

    Bite-force performance is an ecologically important measure of whole-organism performance that shapes dietary breadth and feeding strategies and, in some taxa, determines reproductive success. It also is a metric that is crucial to testing and evaluating biomechanical models. We reviewed nearly 100 published studies of a range of taxa that incorporate direct in vivo measurements of bite force. Problematically, methods of data collection and processing vary considerably among studies. In particular, there is little consensus on the appropriate substrate to use on the biting surface of force transducers. In addition, the bite out-lever, defined as the distance from the fulcrum (i.e. jaw joint) to the position along the jawline at which the jaws engage the transducer, is rarely taken into account. We examined the effect of bite substrate and bite out-lever on bite-force estimates in a diverse sample of lizards. Results indicate that both variables have a significant impact on the accuracy of measurements. Maximum bite force is significantly greater using leather as the biting substrate compared with a metal substrate. Less-forceful bites on metal are likely due to inhibitory feedback from mechanoreceptors that prevent damage to the feeding apparatus. Standardization of bite out-lever affected which trial produced maximum performance for a given individual. Indeed, maximum bite force is usually underestimated without standardization because it is expected to be greatest at the minimum out-lever (i.e. back of the jaws), which in studies is rarely targeted with success. We assert that future studies should use a pliable substrate, such as leather, and use appropriate standardization for bite out-lever. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Spider bite.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Fan, Hui Wen

    2011-12-10

    Spiders are a source of intrigue and fear, and several myths exist about their medical effects. Many people believe that bites from various spider species cause necrotic ulceration, despite evidence that most suspected cases of necrotic arachnidism are caused by something other than a spider bite. Latrodectism and loxoscelism are the most important clinical syndromes resulting from spider bite. Latrodectism results from bites by widow spiders (Latrodectus spp) and causes local, regional, or generalised pain associated with non-specific symptoms and autonomic effects. Loxoscelism is caused by Loxosceles spp, and the cutaneous form manifests as pain and erythema that can develop into a necrotic ulcer. Systemic loxoscelism is characterised by intravascular haemolysis and renal failure on occasion. Other important spiders include the Australian funnel-web spider (Atrax spp and Hadronyche spp) and the armed spider (Phoneutria spp) from Brazil. Antivenoms are an important treatment for spider envenomation but have been less successful than have those for snake envenomation, with concerns about their effectiveness for both latrodectism and loxoscelism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Levels and determinants of complementary feeding based on meal frequency among children of 6 to 23 months in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Mohammad Rocky Khan; Rahman, Md Shafiur; Khan, Md Mobarak Hossain

    2016-09-07

    Information concerning complementary feeding (CF) practice during infancy and early childhood is still scarce in Bangladesh. Therefore, this study aimed to estimate the level of CF among children of 6-23 months and identify individual, household and community level determinants in Bangladesh. Secondary data from the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 was used. A total of 2,373 children aged 6-23 months were selected. A simplified index called "dimension index" was used to estimate the level of CF. The score of this index was used either as continuous or categorical dependent variables. The highest score based on dimension index is associated to an adequate CF. Statistical analyses and tests were guided by types of variables. Finally, multivariable logistic regression (binary and multinomial) analyses were performed to identify the significant determinants of CF. The overall level of CF among children of 6-23 months was low. More than 90 % of children experienced either no (2.9 %) or inadequate CF (92.7 %). According to bivariable analyses, mean levels of CF as well as percentages of no/inadequate CF were significantly lower among children of the youngest age group, uneducated parents, unemployed/laborer fathers, socio-economically poor families, food insecure families and rural areas. No weekly exposure to mass media (namely watching TV and reading newspapers/magazines) also revealed significant associations with CF. However, only few variables remained significant for adequate CF in the multivariable logistic regression analysis. For example, the likelihood of experiencing adequate CF was significantly lower among children of 6-11 months (OR: 0.22, 95 % CI: 0.10-0.47), children of illiterate fathers (OR: 0.32, 95 % CI: 0.11-0.95) and socio-economically middle-class families (OR: 0.28, 95 % CI: 0.09-0.86) as compared to their reference categories. A high level of inadequate CF leading to malnutrition may cause serious health problems among

  12. Toward development of neem-based repellents against the Scottish Highland biting midge Culicoides impunctatus.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, A; Evans, K A; Strang, R H C; Cole, M

    2004-12-01

    Oil of neem, from the tree Azadirachta indica A. Juss (Meliaceae), was evaluated for repellent and antifeedant activity against Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), by three complementary methods with serial dilutions. Electroantennograms revealed the sensitivity of Culicoides nubeculosus (Meigen) females to neem > or = 0.10%. Culicoides impunctatus Goetghebuer females were repelled by > or = 1% in a Y-tube olfactometer, Using a membrane feeder for wild-caught parous females of C. impunctatus, the proportion blood-feeding was significantly reduced by topical applications of neem oil > or = 0.10% concentrations, with blood-feeding completely prevented by > or =1%. On the basis of these response data, we developed 2% neem-based formulations for personal protection against biting midges.

  13. The role of bite force in the formation of orthodentine microwear in tree sloths (Mammalia: Xenarthra: Folivora): Implications for feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    McAfee, Robert K; Green, Jeremy L

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to explore the role and interplay that bite force has on the formation of microwear features upon the dentition of two- and three-fingered tree sloths (Choloepus and Bradypus, respectively), with the hypothesis that increasing relative bite force would correlate with an increase in frequency of microwear features. Microwear patterns were assessed by counting features (e.g. scratches, pits) seen within a standardized field of view on the mesio-labial facets casts of upper molariform series from sloth specimens using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Relative bite force was estimated using a geometric model to quantify the muscular inputs of the temporalis and masseter muscles with respect to the mandible at the centre of each lower tooth. Although relative bite force increases posteriorly along the toothrow, there is not a significant increase in frequency of scratches or pits in either sloth. Scratch width increases significantly as bite force increases in Choloepus. We reject the hypothesis that higher magnitude of bite force is correlated with an increased number of microwear features in tree sloths. Results here suggest that other endogenous variables (such as chewing direction, manipulation of food during mastication, amount of food ingested) play a more significant role in the formation of microwear in sloths than orthal closure force. This further supports the formation of microwear on teeth as an intricate process that has multiple influences beyond the texture of food particles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A fatal mongoose bite.

    PubMed

    Tumram, Nilesh Keshav; Bardale, Rajesh Vaijnathrao; Dixit, Pradeep Gangadhar; Deshmukh, Ashutosh Yashwant

    2012-11-19

    Animal bite is a bite wound from a pet, farm or wild animal. Dog bites make up 80-85% of all reported incidents. Cats amount for about 10% of reported bites and other animals such as rodents, rabbits, horses, raccoons, bats and monkeys amount to 5-10%. Bites by mongoose are uncommon. Here, we present a case of fatal mongoose bite to an elderly woman who died as a complication of streptococcal infection at the bite site.

  15. Breastfeeding in Mexico was stable, on average, but deteriorated among the poor, whereas complementary feeding improved: results from the 1999 to 2006 National Health and Nutrition Surveys.

    PubMed

    González de Cossío, Teresita; Escobar-Zaragoza, Leticia; González-Castell, Dinorah; Reyes-Vázquez, Horacio; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A

    2013-05-01

    We present: 1) indicators of infant and young child feeding practices (IYCFP) and median age of introduction of foods analyzed by geographic and socioeconomic variables for the 2006 national probabilistic Health Nutrition Survey (ENSANUT-2006); and 2) changes in IYCFP indicators between the 1999 national probabilistic Nutrition Survey and ENSANUT-2006, analyzed by the same variables. Participants were women 12-49 y and their <2-y-old children (2953 in 2006 and 3191 in 1999). Indicators were estimated with the status quo method. The median age of introduction of foods was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method using recall data. The national median duration of breastfeeding was similar in both surveys, 9.7 mo in 1999 and 10.4 mo in 2006, but decreased in the vulnerable population. In 1999 indigenous women breastfed 20.8 mo but did so for only 13.0 mo in 2006. The national percentage of those exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo also remained stable: 20% in 1999 and 22.3% in 2006. Nevertheless, exclusively breastfeeding <6 mo changed within the indigenous population, from 46% in 1999 to 34.5% in 2006. Between surveys, most breastfeeding indicators had lower values in vulnerable populations than in those better-off. Complementary feeding, however, improved overall. Complementary feeding was inadequately timed: median age of introduction of plain water was 3 mo, formula and non-human milk was 5 mo, and cereals, legumes, and animal foods was 5 mo. Late introduction of animal foods occurred among vulnerable indigenous population when 50% consumed these products at 8 mo. Mexican IYCFP indicate that public policy must protect breastfeeding while promoting the timely introduction of complementary feeding.

  16. Impact of education and provision of complementary feeding on growth and morbidity in children less than 2 years of age in developing countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lassi, Zohra S; Das, Jai K; Zahid, Guleshehwar; Imdad, Aamer; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2013-01-01

    About one third of deaths in children less than 5 years of age are due to underlying undernutrition. According to an estimate, 19.4% of children <5 years of age in developing countries were underweight (weight-for-age Z score <-2) and about 29.9% were stunted in the year 2011 (height-for-age Z score <-2). It is well recognized that the period of 6-24 months of age is one of the most critical time for the growth of the infant. We included randomized, non-randomized trials and programs on the effect of complementary feeding (CF) (fortified or unfortified, but not micronutrients alone) and education on CF on children less than 2 years of age in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Studies that delivered intervention for at least 6 months were included; however, studies in which intervention was given for supplementary and therapeutic purposes were excluded. Recommendations are made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). We included 16 studies in this review. Amongst these, 9 studies provided education on complementary feeding, 6 provided complementary feeding (with our without education) and 1 provided both as separate arms. Overall, education on CF alone significantly improved HAZ (SMD: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), WAZ (SMD 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27), and significantly reduced the rates of stunting (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91). While no significant impact were observed for height and weight gain. Based on the subgroup analysis; ten studies from food secure populations indicated education on CF had a significant impact on height gain, HAZ scores, and weight gain, however, stunting reduced non-significantly. In food insecure population, CF education alone significantly improved HAZ scores, WAZ scores and significantly reduced the rates of stunting, while CF provision with or without education improved HAZ and WAZ scores significantly. Complementary feeding

  17. Impact of education and provision of complementary feeding on growth and morbidity in children less than 2 years of age in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background About one third of deaths in children less than 5 years of age are due to underlying undernutrition. According to an estimate, 19.4% of children <5 years of age in developing countries were underweight (weight-for-age Z score <-2) and about 29.9% were stunted in the year 2011 (height-for-age Z score <-2). It is well recognized that the period of 6-24 months of age is one of the most critical time for the growth of the infant. Methods We included randomized, non-randomized trials and programs on the effect of complementary feeding (CF) (fortified or unfortified, but not micronutrients alone) and education on CF on children less than 2 years of age in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Studies that delivered intervention for at least 6 months were included; however, studies in which intervention was given for supplementary and therapeutic purposes were excluded. Recommendations are made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Results We included 16 studies in this review. Amongst these, 9 studies provided education on complementary feeding, 6 provided complementary feeding (with our without education) and 1 provided both as separate arms. Overall, education on CF alone significantly improved HAZ (SMD: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), WAZ (SMD 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27), and significantly reduced the rates of stunting (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91). While no significant impact were observed for height and weight gain. Based on the subgroup analysis; ten studies from food secure populations indicated education on CF had a significant impact on height gain, HAZ scores, and weight gain, however, stunting reduced non-significantly. In food insecure population, CF education alone significantly improved HAZ scores, WAZ scores and significantly reduced the rates of stunting, while CF provision with or without education improved HAZ and WAZ scores significantly

  18. Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study: a randomised controlled trial of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Lisa; Heath, Anne-Louise M; Williams, Sheila M; Cameron, Sonya L; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Taylor, Barry J; Wheeler, Ben J; Gibson, Rosalind S; Taylor, Rachael W

    2015-11-12

    In 2002, the World Health Organization recommended that the age for starting complementary feeding should be changed from 4 to 6 months of age to 6 months. Although this change in age has generated substantial debate, surprisingly little attention has been paid to whether advice on how to introduce complementary foods should also be changed. It has been proposed that by 6 months of age most infants will have developed sufficient motor skills to be able to feed themselves rather than needing to be spoon-fed by an adult. This has the potential to predispose infants to better growth by fostering better energy self-regulation, however no randomised controlled trials have been conducted to determine the benefits and risks of such a "baby-led" approach to complementary feeding. This is of particular interest given the widespread use of "Baby-Led Weaning" by parents internationally. The Baby-Led Introduction to SolidS (BLISS) study aims to assess the efficacy and acceptability of a modified version of Baby-Led Weaning that has been altered to address potential concerns with iron status, choking and growth faltering. The BLISS study will recruit 200 families from Dunedin, New Zealand, who book into the region's only maternity hospital. Parents will be randomised into an intervention (BLISS) or control group for a 12-month intervention with further follow-up at 24 months of age. Both groups will receive the standard Well Child care provided to all parents in New Zealand. The intervention group will receive additional parent contacts (n = 8) for support and education on BLISS from before birth to 12 months of age. Outcomes of interest include body mass index at 12 months of age (primary outcome), energy self-regulation, iron and zinc intake and status, diet quality, choking, growth faltering and acceptability to parents. This study is expected to provide insight into the feasibility of a baby-led approach to complementary feeding and the extent to which this method of

  19. Bites by Russell's vipers (Daboia russelii siamensis) in Myanmar: effect of the snake's length and recent feeding on venom antigenaemia and severity of envenoming.

    PubMed

    Tun-Pe; Ba-Aye; Aye-Aye-Myint; Tin-Nu-Swe; Warrell, D A

    1991-01-01

    An improved enzyme immunoassay technique (EIA) was used in the diagnosis of 311 suspected Russell's viper bite cases in Myanmar [Burma], 181 of whom (58%) had systemic envenoming. Russell's viper venom was detected in the sera of 175 (56.3%), cobra or green pit viper venoms in 4 (1.3%), and no venom in the remaining 132 (42.4). Among 175 of these patients who failed to bring the dead snake, EIA achieved a specific diagnosis of Russell's viper envenoming in 101 (58%). The serum venom antigen concentration was higher in patients with systemic envenoming than in those with local or no envenoming and it increased with the development of coagulopathy. Stomach contents were examined in 101 Russell's vipers responsible for bites. The presence of prey, usually a rodent, in the snake's stomach, indicating that it had eaten recently, did not influence the severity of envenoming, the initial venom level, or the percentage circumference increase and the extent of local swelling in the bitten limb. One hundred and fifty-five Russell's vipers responsible for bites showed a bimodal distribution of total lengths. The smaller snakes had probably been born that year. Longer snakes were responsible for more severe envenoming, a shorter interval between the bite and the detection of incoagulable blood, and more extensive local swelling with a greater percentage circumference increase of the bitten limb; but their bites were not associated with higher initial venom antigenaemia or a greater risk of developing acute renal failure.

  20. Introduction of complementary feeding before 4months of age increases the risk of childhood overweight or obesity: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wu, Yuanjue; Xiong, Guoping; Chao, Tingting; Jin, Qiu; Liu, Rui; Hao, Liping; Wei, Sheng; Yang, Nianhong; Yang, Xuefeng

    2016-08-01

    The association between the age at introduction of complementary feeding and the risk of overweight or obesity during childhood has been hotly debated, but the result remains uncertain. This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies attempted to evaluate this association, as well as provide evidence for infant feeding recommendations. The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched for relevant original articles published prior to March 1, 2015 that met predefined inclusion criteria. The pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using fix-effect or random-effect models, which were chosen based on heterogeneity among studies. Ten articles consisting of 13 studies, where 8 measured being overweight as an outcome and 5 measured being obese, were included in this meta-analysis. There were a total of 63,605 participants and 11,900 incident cases in the overweight studies, and 56,136 individuals and 3246 incident cases in the obese studies. The pooled results revealed that introducing complementary foods before 4months of age compared to at 4 to 6months was associated with an increased risk of being overweight (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.06-1.31) or obese (RR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.07-1.64) during childhood. No significant relationship was observed between delaying introduction of complementary foods after 6months of age, and being overweight (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.90-1.13) or obese (RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.91-1.14) during childhood. The results of this study suggest that the introduction of complementary foods to infants before 4months of age should be avoided to protect against childhood obesity.

  1. A randomized placebo-controlled trial of iron supplementation in breastfed young infants initiated on complementary feeding: effect on haematological status.

    PubMed

    Nagpal, Jitender; Sachdev, H P S; Singh, Tejinder; Mallika, V

    2004-06-01

    To combat iron deficiency manifesting around six months of age, iron-fortified complementary feeding has been recommended. In developing countries, in view of the poor bioavailability of iron from predominantly cereal-based diets and the high cost of fortification, medicinal iron supplementation is an alternative intervention. This double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial was conducted from April 1999 to March 2000 in the Out-patient Department of a tertiary hospital in New Delhi, India, to evaluate the haematological effects of medicinal iron supplementation to breastfed young infants initiated on complementary feeding. One hundred healthy non-low birth-weight, predominantly breastfed infants aged 4-6 months were randomized into two groups to receive either iron (2 mg/kg/day) (IS group; n=49) or placebo drops (P group; n=51) beginning with the initiation of home-based non-fortified complementary feeding. Haematological parameters and anthropometry of mothers and infants were measured at baseline and repeated for infants after four and eight weeks of recruitment. Seventy-one subjects (35 in the IS group and the 36 in P group) came for the first follow-up, and of these, 43 (19 in the IS group and 24 in the P group) reported for the second visit. The adjusted (for maternal and baseline infant ferritin) serum ferritin levels were significantly higher in the IS group at both the follow-ups (p=0.006). The adjusted (for maternal ferritin and baseline infant ferritin) change in haemoglobin was significantly higher only at the second follow-up (0.7 g/dL; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.3-1.0 g/dL). The adjusted rise in haemoglobin was higher in initially anaemic infants (at second follow-up by 1 g/dL; 95% CI 0.5-1.6 g/dL). Medicinal iron supplementation, at the time of initiating complementary feeding, to breastfed young infants resulted in an elevation of serum ferritin and haemoglobin. The response was higher in initially anaemic infants. From a programmatic

  2. Dog Bite Emergencies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Care Animal Welfare Veterinary Careers Public Health Dog bite emergencies What do I do if I’ ... vaccination records. What do I do if my dog bites someone? Dog bites are scary for everyone ...

  3. Spider Bites (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Spider Bites KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Spider Bites ... rare. Signs and Symptoms Of a brown recluse spider bite: red blister in the center with surrounding ...

  4. Infant sleep and night feeding patterns during later infancy: association with breastfeeding frequency, daytime complementary food intake, and infant weight.

    PubMed

    Brown, Amy; Harries, Victoria

    2015-06-01

    Infant sleep is a common concern for new parents. Although many expect a newborn infant to wake frequently, encouraging a baby to sleep through the night by a few months of age is seen as both a developmental aim and a parenting success. Many new mothers believe that their infants' diet is related to their sleep; formula milk or increased levels of solid food are often given in an attempt to promote sleep. However, the impact of these in later infancy is not understood. In the current study 715 mothers with an infant 6-12 months of age reported their infants' typical night wakings and night feeds alongside any breastfeeding and frequency of solid meals. Of infants in this age range, 78.6% still regularly woke at least once a night, with 61.4% receiving one or more milk feeds. Both night wakings and night feeds decreased with age. No difference in night wakings or night feeds was found between mothers who were currently breastfeeding or formula feeding. However, infants who received more milk or solid feeds during the day were less likely to feed at night but not less likely to wake. The findings have important implications for health professionals who support new mothers with infant sleep and diet in the first year. Increasing infant calories during the day may therefore reduce the likelihood of night feeding but will not reduce the need for parents to attend to the infant in the night. Breastfeeding has no impact on infant sleep in the second 6 months postpartum.

  5. Repeated exposure of infants at complementary feeding to a vegetable puree increases acceptance as effectively as flavor-flavor learning and more effectively than flavor-nutrient learning.

    PubMed

    Remy, Eloïse; Issanchou, Sylvie; Chabanet, Claire; Nicklaus, Sophie

    2013-07-01

    Children's vegetable consumption is below the public health recommendations. This study aimed to compare learning mechanisms to increase vegetable acceptance in infants at complementary feeding, namely repeated exposure (RE), flavor-flavor learning (FFL), and flavor-nutrient learning (FNL); measure the stability of the learning effect; and examine the impact of infants' feeding history on vegetable acceptance. The study was composed of a preexposure test, an exposure period, a postexposure test, and tests at 2-wk, 3-mo, and 6-mo follow-ups. At pre- and postexposure, a basic artichoke purée and carrot purée were presented to 95 French infants (6.4 ± 0.8 mo). During the exposure period, infants were randomly split into 3 groups and were exposed 10 times to the basic (RE group; 2 kJ/g; n = 32), a sweet (FFL group; 2 kJ/g; n = 32), or an energy-dense (FNL group; 6 kJ/g; n = 31) artichoke purée 2 or 3 times/wk. To evaluate acceptance, intake (g) and liking were recorded at home by parents. Between pre- and postexposure, intake of the basic artichoke purée significantly increased in the RE (+63%) and FFL (+39%) groups but not in the FNL group; liking increased only in the RE group (+21%). After exposure, artichoke was as much consumed and as much liked as carrot only in the RE group. Learning of artichoke acceptance was stable up to 3 mo postexposure. Initial artichoke intake was significantly related to the number of vegetables offered before the study started. RE is as effective as and simpler to implement than FFL and more effective than FNL for increasing vegetable acceptance at complementary feeding.

  6. Assessing Program Coverage of Two Approaches to Distributing a Complementary Feeding Supplement to Infants and Young Children in Ghana

    PubMed Central

    Aaron, Grant J.; Strutt, Nicholas; Boateng, Nathaniel Amoh; Guevarra, Ernest; Siling, Katja; Norris, Alison; Ghosh, Shibani; Nyamikeh, Mercy; Attiogbe, Antoine; Burns, Richard; Foriwa, Esi; Toride, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Sarpong, Daniel; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house). Delivery Model 2 was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and used a market-based approach, with the product being sold through micro-retail routes (i.e., small shops and roadside stalls) in three districts supported by behavior change communications and demand creation activities led by a local social marketing company. Both delivery models were implemented sub-nationally as 1-year pilot programs, with the aim of informing the design of a scaled-up program. A series of cross-sectional coverage surveys was implemented in each program area. Results from these surveys show that Delivery Model 1 was successful in achieving and sustaining high (i.e., 86%) effective coverage (i.e., the child had been given the product at least once in the previous 7 days) during implementation. Effective coverage fell to 62% within 3 months of the behavior change communications and demand creation activities stopping. Delivery Model 2 was successful in raising awareness of the product (i.e., 90% message coverage), but effective coverage was low (i.e., 9.4%). Future programming efforts should use the health extension / microfinance / petty trader approach in rural settings and consider adapting this approach for use in urban and peri-urban settings. Ongoing behavior change communications and demand creation activities is likely to be essential to the continued success of such

  7. Assessing Program Coverage of Two Approaches to Distributing a Complementary Feeding Supplement to Infants and Young Children in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Aaron, Grant J; Strutt, Nicholas; Boateng, Nathaniel Amoh; Guevarra, Ernest; Siling, Katja; Norris, Alison; Ghosh, Shibani; Nyamikeh, Mercy; Attiogbe, Antoine; Burns, Richard; Foriwa, Esi; Toride, Yasuhiko; Kitamura, Satoshi; Tano-Debrah, Kwaku; Sarpong, Daniel; Myatt, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The work reported here assesses the coverage achieved by two sales-based approaches to distributing a complementary food supplement (KOKO Plus™) to infants and young children in Ghana. Delivery Model 1 was conducted in the Northern Region of Ghana and used a mixture of health extension workers (delivering behavior change communications and demand creation activities at primary healthcare centers and in the community) and petty traders recruited from among beneficiaries of a local microfinance initiative (responsible for the sale of the complementary food supplement at market stalls and house to house). Delivery Model 2 was conducted in the Eastern Region of Ghana and used a market-based approach, with the product being sold through micro-retail routes (i.e., small shops and roadside stalls) in three districts supported by behavior change communications and demand creation activities led by a local social marketing company. Both delivery models were implemented sub-nationally as 1-year pilot programs, with the aim of informing the design of a scaled-up program. A series of cross-sectional coverage surveys was implemented in each program area. Results from these surveys show that Delivery Model 1 was successful in achieving and sustaining high (i.e., 86%) effective coverage (i.e., the child had been given the product at least once in the previous 7 days) during implementation. Effective coverage fell to 62% within 3 months of the behavior change communications and demand creation activities stopping. Delivery Model 2 was successful in raising awareness of the product (i.e., 90% message coverage), but effective coverage was low (i.e., 9.4%). Future programming efforts should use the health extension / microfinance / petty trader approach in rural settings and consider adapting this approach for use in urban and peri-urban settings. Ongoing behavior change communications and demand creation activities is likely to be essential to the continued success of such

  8. Minimum Acceptable Diet at 9 Months but Not Exclusive Breastfeeding at 3 Months or Timely Complementary Feeding Initiation Is Predictive of Infant Growth in Rural Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Owais, Aatekah; Schwartz, Benjamin; Kleinbaum, David G.; Suchdev, Parminder S.; Faruque, A. S. G.; Das, Sumon K.; Stein, Aryeh D.

    2016-01-01

    The association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering is well-established. However, most of this evidence comes from cross-sectional studies. To prospectively assess the association between suboptimal infant feeding practices and growth faltering, we interviewed pregnant women at 28–32 weeks’ gestation and followed-up their offspring at postnatal months 3, 9, 16 and 24 months in rural Bangladesh. Using maternal recall over the past 24 hours, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) status at 3 months, age at complementary feeding (CF) initiation, and receipt of minimum acceptable diet (MAD; as defined by WHO) at 9 months were assessed. Infant length and weight measurements were used to produce length-for-age (LAZ) and weight-for-length (WLZ) z-scores at each follow-up. Generalized estimating equations were used to estimate associations of LAZ and WLZ with infant feeding practices. All models were adjusted for baseline SES, infant sex, maternal height, age, literacy and parity. Follow-up was completed by 2189, 2074, 1969 and 1885 mother-child dyads at 3, 9, 16 and 24 months, respectively. Stunting prevalence increased from 28% to 57% between infant age 3 and 24 months. EBF at 3 months and age at CF initiation were not associated with linear infant growth, but receipt of MAD at 9 months was. By age 24 months, infants receiving MAD had attained a higher LAZ compared to infants who did not receive MAD (adjusted β = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.13–0.37). Although prevalence of stunting was already high at age 3 months, ensuring infants receive a diverse, high quality diet from 6 months onwards may reduce rates of stunting in the second year of life. PMID:27776161

  9. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6-8 months.

    PubMed

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-05-06

    To compare the food, nutrient and 'family meal' intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6-8 months of age. Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1-3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in 'family meals'. BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    PubMed Central

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  11. [Complementary feeding and nutritional status of 6-24-month-old children in Acrelândia, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Garcia, Mariana Tarricone; Granado, Fernanda Serra; Cardoso, Marly Augusto

    2011-02-01

    Our objective was to investigate nutritional status and complementary feeding practices in children from 6 to 24 months of age living in the Western Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional study was conducted within an urban area of Acrelândia, Acre State. A total of 164 children were studied. Prevalence rates for stunting and anemia were 12% and 40%, respectively, and overall prevalence of iron deficiency was 85%. Vitamin A and B12 serum levels were below normal thresholds in 15% and 12% of children, respectively. Low intake was observed for the following nutrients (% of children): folic acid (33%), vitamin C (40%), vitamin A (42%), zinc (46%), and iron (71%). Iron bioavailability in the diet was approximately 8%. Very low dietary intakes of fruits, vegetables, and meats were observed, in contrast with excessive consumption of cow's milk and porridge.

  12. Determinants of complementary feeding practices among Nepalese children aged 6-23 months: findings from Demographic and Health Survey 2011.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Vishnu; Sauer, Kay; Zhao, Yun

    2013-08-28

    The adoption of inappropriate feeding practices is one of the reasons for under nutrition in Nepal and elsewhere. The objective of this study was to describe the rate of and identify the factors associated with providing the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended infant feeding practices of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in Nepal amongst young children between 6-23 months in 2011. Data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011 was used. Prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet was obtained by using descriptive statistics. A Chi-square test (χ2) followed by multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the adjusted effect of potential factors on the outcome variables. Of the 698 children aged 6-23 months; while 535 (76.6%) received the minimum meal frequency, only 212 (30.4%) children received the minimum dietary diversity, and 185 (26.5%) received an acceptable diet. Children of older mothers (>35 years); educated mothers and fathers; and mothers from all the development regions except the Mid-western region were more likely to have been provided with the recommended dietary diversity. Children of mothers who had attended ≥4 antenatal visits and who lived in the Eastern region were more likely to provide their child with the recommended meal frequency. Children of mothers, who attended ≥ 4 antenatal visits, were educated and whose fathers had at least a secondary education were more likely to meet the recommended acceptable diet standards. Young children aged less than two years in Nepal are at risk for not meeting the WHO recommended infant feeding standards given that only about one in three children were provided with the recommended dietary diversity and acceptable diet. This finding suggests that the majority of children are at risk of under nutrition. An appropriate mix of health education and food supplements could be a

  13. Determinants of complementary feeding practices among Nepalese children aged 6–23 months: findings from demographic and health survey 2011

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The adoption of inappropriate feeding practices is one of the reasons for under nutrition in Nepal and elsewhere. The objective of this study was to describe the rate of and identify the factors associated with providing the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended infant feeding practices of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet in Nepal amongst young children between 6–23 months in 2011. Methods Data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2011 was used. Prevalence of minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet was obtained by using descriptive statistics. A Chi-square test (χ2) followed by multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine the adjusted effect of potential factors on the outcome variables. Results Of the 698 children aged 6–23 months; while 535 (76.6%) received the minimum meal frequency, only 212 (30.4%) children received the minimum dietary diversity, and 185 (26.5%) received an acceptable diet. Children of older mothers (>35 years); educated mothers and fathers; and mothers from all the development regions except the Mid-western region were more likely to have been provided with the recommended dietary diversity. Children of mothers who had attended ≥4 antenatal visits and who lived in the Eastern region were more likely to provide their child with the recommended meal frequency. Children of mothers, who attended ≥ 4 antenatal visits, were educated and whose fathers had at least a secondary education were more likely to meet the recommended acceptable diet standards. Conclusion Young children aged less than two years in Nepal are at risk for not meeting the WHO recommended infant feeding standards given that only about one in three children were provided with the recommended dietary diversity and acceptable diet. This finding suggests that the majority of children are at risk of under nutrition. An appropriate mix of health

  14. The effectiveness of nutrition education: Applying the Health Belief Model in child-feeding practices to use pulses for complementary feeding in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mulualem, Demmelash; Henry, Carol J; Berhanu, Getenesh; Whiting, Susan J

    2016-01-01

    Complementary foods (CFs) in Ethiopia are cereal based and adding locally grown pulses (legumes) to CF would provide needed nutrients. To assess the effects of nutrition education (NEd) using Health Belief Model (HBM) in promoting pulses for CF, a 6-month quasi-experimental study was conducted in 160 mother-child pairs. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) questions were given to mothers at baseline, midline, and endline, along with anthropometric measurements of children. NEd involving discussions and recipe demonstrations was given twice monthly for 6 months to the intervention group (n = 80) while control mothers received usual education. At baseline, mothers' KAP scores were low at both sites; at 3 and 6 months of NEd, mean KAP scores of mothers increased (p < 0.05) compared to the control site. Significant improvements in children's mean weight, weight for height, and weight for age occurred in the intervention site only. Nutritional status of children improved after providing mothers with pulse-based NEd.

  15. Parent-led or baby-led? Associations between complementary feeding practices and health-related behaviours in a survey of New Zealand families

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sonya L; Taylor, Rachael W; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine feeding practices and selected health-related behaviours in New Zealand families following a ‘baby-led’ or more traditional ‘parent-led’ method for introducing complementary foods. Design, setting and participants 199 mothers completed an online survey about introducing complementary foods to their infant. Participants were classified into one of four groups: ‘adherent baby-led weaning (BLW)’, the infant mostly or entirely fed themselves at 6–7 months; ‘self-identified BLW’, mothers reported following BLW at 6–7 months but were using spoon-feeding at least half the time; ‘parent-led feeding’, the mother reported not having tried BLW; and ‘unclassified method’, the mother reported they were not following BLW at 6–7 months but reported the infant mostly or entirely fed themselves at 6–7 months. Results 8% were following ‘adherent BLW’, 21% ‘self-identified BLW’ and 0% were following the ‘unclassified method’. Compared with ‘self-identified BLW’ and ‘parent-led feeding’, a higher proportion of the ‘adherent BLW’ met the WHO recommendations to exclusively breastfeed for 6 months and to introduce complementary foods at 6 months. The ‘adherent BLW’ group was more likely to have family foods (p=0.018), and less likely (p=0.002) to have commercially prepared baby food. Both BLW groups were more likely to share meals with the family compared with ‘parent-led feeding’. In contrast to ‘self-identified BLW’ and ‘parent-led feeding’, the ‘adherent BLW’ group did not offer iron-fortified cereal as a first food. Conclusions This study suggests that although many parents consider they follow BLW, a very few are following it strictly. The extent to which BLW was followed was associated with potential benefits (eg, sharing family meals) and risks (eg, low iron first foods) highlighting the importance for health professionals and researchers of accurately determining the

  16. Estimating maximum bite performance in Tyrannosaurus rex using multi-body dynamics.

    PubMed

    Bates, K T; Falkingham, P L

    2012-08-23

    Bite mechanics and feeding behaviour in Tyrannosaurus rex are controversial. Some contend that a modest bite mechanically limited T. rex to scavenging, while others argue that high bite forces facilitated a predatory mode of life. We use dynamic musculoskeletal models to simulate maximal biting in T. rex. Models predict that adult T. rex generated sustained bite forces of 35 000-57 000 N at a single posterior tooth, by far the highest bite forces estimated for any terrestrial animal. Scaling analyses suggest that adult T. rex had a strong bite for its body size, and that bite performance increased allometrically during ontogeny. Positive allometry in bite performance during growth may have facilitated an ontogenetic change in feeding behaviour in T. rex, associated with an expansion of prey range in adults to include the largest contemporaneous animals.

  17. Animal Bites of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... the key to prevent problems from a bite. Animal Bites Millions of animal bites occur in the ...

  18. Mega-Bites: Extreme jaw forces of living and extinct piranhas (Serrasalmidae)

    PubMed Central

    Grubich, Justin R.; Huskey, Steve; Crofts, Stephanie; Orti, Guillermo; Porto, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Here, we document in-vivo bite forces recorded from wild piranhas. Integrating this empirical data with allometry, bite simulations, and FEA, we have reconstructed the bite capabilities and potential feeding ecology of the extinct giant Miocene piranha, Megapiranha paranensis. An anterior bite force of 320 N from the black piranha, Serrasalmus rhombeus, is the strongest bite force recorded for any bony fish to date. Results indicate M. paranensis' bite force conservatively ranged from 1240–4749 N and reveal its novel dentition was capable of resisting high bite stresses and crushing vertebrate bone. Comparisons of body size-scaled bite forces to other apex predators reveal S. rhombeus and M. paranensis have among the most powerful bites estimated in carnivorous vertebrates. Our results functionally demonstrate the extraordinary bite of serrasalmid piranhas and provide a mechanistic rationale for their predatory dominance among past and present Amazonian ichthyofaunas. PMID:23259047

  19. Implementation of a programme to market a complementary food supplement (Ying Yang Bao) and impacts on anaemia and feeding practices in Shanxi, China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Dai, Yaohua; Zhang, Shuaiming; Huang, Jian; Yang, Zhenyu; Huo, Junsheng; Chen, Chunming

    2011-10-01

    In China, a full fat soy powder mixed with multiple micronutrient powders (Ying Yang Bao (YYB)) was developed, and the efficacy of YYB was shown in controlling anaemia and improving child growth and development. However, prior to 2008, there was no sustainable way to provide YYB to vulnerable populations, except through free distribution by the government. This study was to test the concept of public-private partnership (PPP) to deliver YYB and to evaluate the effectiveness of marketing YYB through PPP. Programme activities included development of a complementary food supplement (CFS) national standard, product concept test, product development and marketing, behavior change communication, monitoring and evaluation. Baseline and end-line surveys were used to evaluate product awareness, purchasing and the impacts of the project on anaemia and feeding practices. A Chinese CFS standard was approved. Caregivers and their 6- to-24-month-old children participated in the baseline (n=226) and the end-line survey (n=221). A concept test at the baseline survey showed that 78% of caregivers were willing to buy YYB at 0.1 USD. After developing the product and implementing the intervention for 8 months, 59.6% of surveyed caregivers purchased YYB. While not significant, the prevalence of anaemia was marginally lower at the end line (28.8%) than at the baseline (36.2%). For those purchasing YYB, the risk of anaemia was significantly reduced by 87% of odds (P<0.009). The end-line survey found that feeding practices had improved significantly following the intervention. An enabling policy and regulatory environment in which CFSs are defined and parameters for appropriate marketing are identified as a prerequisite for marketing YYB or other nutritious CFS. Public and private advocacy and marketing could successfully increase awareness of YYB and access and use through market channels. The YYB project may be effective for reducing anaemia and improving feeding practices.

  20. Human bites (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Human bites present a high risk of infection. Besides the bacteria which can cause infection, there is ... the wound extends below the skin. Anytime a human bite has broken the skin, seek medical attention.

  1. Animal Bites: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection. You have questions about your risk of rabies or about rabies prevention. If the bite was caused by a ... or a dog, try to confirm that its rabies vaccination is up to date. If the bite ...

  2. Fighting and Biting

    MedlinePlus

    ... Biting No. 81; April 2016 All people have aggressive feelings. As adults, we learn how to control these feelings. Children, however, are often physically aggressive: they hit, bite and scratch others. These behaviors ...

  3. Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... they sometimes cause discomfort. Bee, wasp, and hornet stings and fire ant bites usually hurt. Mosquito and ... have severe allergic reactions to insect bites and stings (such as anaphylaxis), carry an emergency epinephrine kit

  4. [Status of, and factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Zhou, X; Fang, J Q; Luo, J Y; Wang, H; Du, Q Y; Huang, G W; Feng, B B

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To describe the status of, and to identify the factors associated with, complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months in poor rural areas of Hunan Province, China. Methods: A total of 8 735 infants and young children aged 6- 23 months from 30 poor rural counties in the Wuling and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by township-level probability-proportional-to-size sampling in August 2015. Questionnaires were used to collect information on the feeding status of the infants in the previous 24 hours, along with personal/family information. The qualified rate of minimum dietary diversity (MDD), the minimum meal frequency (MMF) and the minimum acceptable diet (MAD) were calculated according to the WHO indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Multi non-conditional logistic regression models were used to analyze factors associated with complementary feeding among infants and young children aged 6- 23 months. Results: The findings indicated that 73.9% (6 452/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6-23 months received the minimum dietary diversity, 81.6% (7 124/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received the minimum meal frequency and 49.0% (4 276/8 735) of infants and young children aged 6- 23 months received an acceptable diet. Compared with the boys, the OR for the MMF and MAD for the girls were 1.15 and 1.11, respectively. Compared with the 6-11 month group, the OR for the MDD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.41 and 0.38, respectively; the OR for the MMF for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 1.53 and 2.46, respectively; and the OR for the MAD for the 12-17 month and 18-23 month groups were 0.60 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the Han ethnic group, the OR for the MDD, MMF and MAD for the Miao ethnic group were 1.43, 1.72 and 1.56, respectively; for the Tujia ethnic group were 2.21, 2.02 and 2.11, respectively; and for the Dong ethnic

  5. Bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Charles, Janice; Fahridin, Salma; Britt, Helena

    2009-11-01

    Of the 426 bite or sting problems managed, 312 (73%) were caused by insects. There were 114 other types of bites recorded, the most common being dog and spider bites. There were five cases of toxicity from aquatic animal stings or adverse reactions to bee stings (Table 1).

  6. Assessment of Caregiver’s Knowledge, Complementary Feeding Practices, and Adequacy of Nutrient Intake from Homemade Foods for Children of 6–23 Months in Food Insecure Woredas of Wolayita Zone, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Abeshu, Motuma Adimasu; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D.; Lelisa, Azeb; Geleta, Bekesho

    2016-01-01

    Complementary feeding should fill the gap in energy and nutrients between estimated daily needs and amount obtained from breastfeeding from 6-month onward. However, homemade complementary foods are often reported for inadequacy in key nutrients despite reports of adequacy for energy and proteins. The aim of this study was to assess caregiver’s complementary feeding knowledge, feeding practices, and to evaluate adequacy daily intakes from homemade complementary foods for children of 6–23 months in food insecure woredas of Wolayita zone, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study assessing mothers/caregiver’s knowledge and complementary feeding practice, adequacy of daily energy, and selected micronutrient intakes using weighed food record method. Multi-stage cluster sampling method was also used to select 68 households. Caregivers had good complementary feeding knowledge. Sixty (88.2%) children started complementary feeding at 6 months and 48 (70.6%) were fed three or more times per day. Daily energy intake, however, was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than estimated daily needs, with only 151.25, 253.77, and 364.76 (kcal/day) for 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Similarly, Ca and Zn intakes (milligrams per day) were below the daily requirements (p = 0.000), with value of 37.76, 0.96; 18.83, 1.21; 30.13, 1.96; for the 6–8, 9–11, and 12–23 months, respectively. Significant shortfall in daily intake of Fe (p = 0.000) was observed among the 6–8 and 9–11 months (3.25 and 4.17 mg/day, respectively), even accounting for high bioavailability. The complementary foods were energy dense. Daily energy, Ca, Zn, and Fe (except 12–23 months) intake, however, was lower than estimated daily requirements. PMID:27574604

  7. Poor complementary feeding practices and high anaemia prevalence among infants and young children in rural central and western China.

    PubMed

    Hipgrave, D B; Fu, X; Zhou, H; Jin, Y; Wang, X; Chang, S; Scherpbier, R W; Wang, Y; Guo, S

    2014-08-01

    Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) has not been documented in central and western China, where anaemia is prevalent. To support policy advocacy, we assessed IYCF and anaemia there using standardized methods. A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 2244 children aged 6-23 months in 26 counties of 12 provinces. Analysis of associations between haemoglobin concentration (HC), IYCF indicators and other variables using crude and multivariate techniques. Only 41.6% of those surveyed consumed a minimum acceptable diet. Fewer still-breastfeeding than non-breastfeeding children consumed the recommended minimum dietary diversity (51.7 versus 71.9%; P<0.001), meal frequency (57.7% v. 81.5%; P<0.001) or iron-rich food (63.3% v. 78.9%; P<0.001). Anaemia (51.3% overall) fell with age but was significantly associated with male sex, extreme poverty, minority ethnicity, breastfeeding and higher altitude. Dietary diversity, iron intake, growth monitoring and being left behind by out-migrating parents were protective against anaemia. A structural equation model demonstrated associations between IYCF, HC and other variables. Meal frequency, iron intake and altitude were directly and positively associated with HC; dietary diversity was indirectly associated. Health service uptake was not associated. Continued breastfeeding was directly associated with poor IYCF and indirectly with reduced HC, as were having a sibling and poor maternal education. Infant and young child anaemia is highly prevalent and IYCF is poor in rural central and western China. Continued breastfeeding and certain other variables indicate risk of poor IYCF and anaemia. Major policy commitment to reducing iron deficiency and improving IYCF is needed for China's rural poor.

  8. Effectiveness in improving knowledge, practices, and intakes of "key problem nutrients" of a complementary feeding intervention developed by using linear programming: experience in Lombok, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Kolopaking, Risatianti; Santika, Otte; Sriani, Sriani; Umar, Jahja; Htet, Min Kyaw; Ferguson, Elaine

    2015-03-01

    Complementary feeding recommendations (CFRs) with the use of locally available foods can be developed by using linear programming (LP). Although its potential has been shown for planning phases of food-based interventions, the effectiveness in the community setting has not been tested to our knowledge. We aimed to assess effectiveness of promoting optimized CFRs for improving maternal knowledge, feeding practices, and child intakes of key problem nutrients (calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc). A community-intervention trial with a quasi-experimental design was conducted in East Lombok, West Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia, on children aged 9-16 mo at baseline. A CFR group (n = 240) was compared with a non-CFR group (n = 215). The CFRs, which were developed using LP, were promoted in an intervention that included monthly cooking sessions and weekly home visits. The mother's nutrition knowledge and her child's feeding practices and the child's nutrient intakes were measured before and after the 6-mo intervention by using a structured interview, 24-h recall, and 1-wk food-frequency questionnaire. The CFR intervention improved mothers' knowledge and children's feeding practices and improved children's intakes of calcium, iron, and zinc. At the end line, median (IQR) nutrient densities were significantly higher in the CFR group than in the non-CFR group for iron [i.e., 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.5 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.7 mg/100 kcal)] and niacin [i.e., 0.8 mg/100 kcal (0.5-1.0 mg/100 kcal) compared with 0.6 mg/100 kcal (0.4-0.8 mg/100 kcal)]. However, median nutrient densities for calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc in the CFR group (23, 0.6, 0.7, and 0.5 mg/100 kcal, respectively) were still below desired densities (63, 1.0, 0.9, and 0.6 mg/100 kcal, respectively). The CFRs significantly increased intakes of calcium, iron, niacin, and zinc, but nutrient densities were still below desired nutrient densities. When the adoption of optimized CFRs is

  9. Spider Bite in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    Some of the world's most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation.

  10. Development of food-based complementary feeding recommendations for 9- to 11-month-old peri-urban Indonesian infants using linear programming.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Fahmida, Umi; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2009-01-01

    Effective population-specific, food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are required to combat micronutrient deficiencies. To facilitate their formulation, a modeling approach was recently developed. However, it has not yet been used in practice. This study therefore aimed to use this approach to develop CFR for 9- to 11-mo-old Indonesian infants and to identify nutrients that will likely remain low in their diets. The CFR were developed using a 4-phase approach based on linear and goal programming. Model parameters were defined using dietary data collected in a cross-sectional survey of 9- to 11-mo-old infants (n = 100) living in the Bogor District, West-Java, Indonesia and a market survey of 3 local markets. Results showed theoretical iron requirements could not be achieved using local food sources (highest level achievable, 63% of recommendations) and adequate levels of iron, niacin, zinc, and calcium were difficult to achieve. Fortified foods, meatballs, chicken liver, eggs, tempe-tofu, banana, and spinach were the best local food sources to improve dietary quality. The final CFR were: breast-feed on demand, provide 3 meals/d, of which 1 is a fortified infant cereal; > or = 5 servings/wk of tempe/tofu; > or = 3 servings/wk of animal-source foods, of which 2 servings/wk are chicken liver; vegetables, daily; snacks, 2 times/d, including > or = 2 servings/wk of banana; and > or = 4 servings/wk of fortified-biscuits. Results showed that the approach can be used to objectively formulate population-specific CFR and identify key problem nutrients to strengthen nutrition program planning and policy decisions. Before recommending these CFR, their long-term acceptability, affordability, and effectiveness should be assessed.

  11. Social Franchising and a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Increased the Prevalence of Adequate Complementary Feeding in Vietnam: A Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rawat, Rahul; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Lan Mai; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Huan Van; Baker, Jean; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Menon, Purnima

    2017-02-08

    Background: Rigorous evaluations of health system-based interventions in large-scale programs to improve complementary feeding (CF) practices are limited. Alive & Thrive applied principles of social franchising within the government health system in Vietnam to improve the quality of interpersonal counseling (IPC) for infant and young child feeding combined with a national mass media (MM) campaign and community mobilization (CM). Objective: We evaluated the impact of enhanced IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard IPC + less-intensive MM and CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric indicators.Methods: A cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation design with cross-sectional surveys (n = ∼500 children aged 6-23.9 mo and ∼1000 children aged 24-59.9 mo/group) implemented at baseline (2010) and endline (2014) was used. Difference-in-difference estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated for intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses and modified per-protocol analyses (MPAs; mothers who attended the social franchising at least once: 62%).Results: Groups were similar at baseline. In ITT analyses, there were no significant differences between groups in changes in CF practices over time. In the MPAs, greater improvements in the intensive than in the nonintensive group were seen for minimum dietary diversity [DDE: 6.4 percentage points (pps); P < 0.05] and minimum acceptable diet (8.0 pps; P < 0.05). Significant stunting declines occurred in both intensive (7.1 pps) and nonintensive (5.4 pps) groups among children aged 24-59.9 mo, with no differential decline.Conclusions: When combined with MM and CM, an at-scale social franchising approach to improve IPC, delivered through the existing health care system, significantly improved CF practices, but not child growth, among mothers who used counseling services at least once. A greater impact may be achieved with strategies designed to increase service utilization. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  12. Biting deterrent activity of a deet analog, two DEPA analogs, and SS220 applied topically to human volunteers compared with deet against three species of blood-feeding flies.

    PubMed

    Klun, Jerome A; Khrimian, Ashot; Rowton, Edgar; Kramer, Matthew; Debboun, Mustapha

    2006-11-01

    An earlier in vitro screening of N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide (Deet) and N,N-diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) analogs showed that two DEPA analogs, N,N-diethyl(3-bromophenyl) acetamide and N,N-diethyl[(alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-m-tolyl)]acetamide, and one Deet analog, N,N,diethyl[3-(trifluoromethyl)]benzamide, had biting-deterrent activities that were superior to Deet against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles stephensi Liston. In the current study, the three analogs and (1S,2'S)-methylpiperidinyl-3-cyclohexene-1-carboxamide (SS220) were applied topically to the skin of human volunteers at 24 nmol compound/cm2 skin and compared with the activity of Deet at the same dose against biting by Ae. aegypti, An. stephensi, and Phlebotomus papatasi Scopoli females. SS220 proved to be as effective as Deet against Ae. aegypti and P. papatasi but more effective than Deet against An. stephensi. Contrary to the earlier in vitro tests, results with humans (in vivo testing) showed that neither of the DEPA analogs nor the Deet analog performed more effectively than Deet against the insects. The in vivo results showed that the analogs were not sufficiently effective to warrant further development. Notably, in vivo and in vitro methods used in discovery of personal protection chemicals for human use against blood-feeding flies can both be effective discriminating tools, but results obtained with the respective methods may not always agree. Ultimately, we surmise that in vivo testing methods with humans must be used to discriminate among compounds that superficially seem effective when screened using an in vitro method.

  13. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  14. Animal bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Bites - animals - self-care ... Most animal bites come from pets. Dog bites are common and most often happen to children. Cat bites are ... which can cause deeper puncture wounds. Most other animal bites are caused by stray or wild animals, ...

  15. Complementary Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... in mind, learn more about some complementary medicines: Antioxidants Vitamin C and E, the Mediterranean Diet Calcium ... Motor Symptoms Surgical Treatment Options Exercise Complementary Treatment Antioxidants: Vitamin C and E, Mediterranean Diet Calcium and ...

  16. Complementary medicine.

    PubMed

    Ernst, E

    2003-03-01

    Complementary medicine has become an important subject for rheumatologists, not least because many patients try complementary treatments. Recent clinical trials yield promising results. In particular, evidence suggests that several herbal medicines and dietary supplements can alleviate the pain of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Clearly, rigorous testing of complementary treatments is possible, and considering their popularity, should be encouraged.

  17. Several 'problem nutrients' are identified in complementary feeding of Guatemalan infants with continued breastfeeding using the concept of 'critical nutrient density'.

    PubMed

    Vossenaar, M; Hernández, L; Campos, R; Solomons, N W

    2013-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends nutritionally adequate complementary feeding (CF) through the introduction of indigenous foodstuffs and local foods while breastfeeding for at least 2 years. To determine the adequacy of the contribution of CF to the diets of Guatemalan infants at the 7th-12th month of life receiving high-intensity continued breastfeeding. Critical nutrient densities for CF were modelled using age- and sex-specific energy and protein requirements assuming children to be at the 50th weight percentile of local peers and 15th weight percentiles of the 2006 WHO standards. Nutrient requirements for the total diet were determined using the recommended nutrient intakes. Breast milk was assumed to provide 75% of total energy at the 7th-9th month and 50% at the 10th-12th month. Gaps between computed critical nutrient densities and the CF consumption of 128 Guatemalan infants based on data collected by means of three nonconsecutive 24-h quantitative intake recalls were examined. Locally consumed foods with nutrient densities above the modelled critical densities were identified. Observed non-breast milk complementation would result in total diets providing inadequate nutrient density for vitamin A, niacin and vitamin C in some age groups. Major gaps for calcium, iron and zinc were ubiquitous across all groups. Few foods commonly consumed among Guatemalan infants had adequate densities of 'problem nutrients'. The critical nutrient density concept is useful to evaluate the nutrient adequacy of the infant's diet. Fortified foods are essential sources of the main 'problem nutrients', namely calcium, iron and zinc, given that natural sources are scarce.

  18. A step-by-step introduction to vegetables at the beginning of complementary feeding. The effects of early and repeated exposure.

    PubMed

    Hetherington, Marion M; Schwartz, C; Madrelle, J; Croden, F; Nekitsing, C; Vereijken, C M J L; Weenen, H

    2015-01-01

    Breastfeeding (BF) is associated with willingness to accept vegetables. This may be due to the variety of flavours delivered via breast milk. Some mothers add vegetables to milk during complementary feeding (CF) to enhance acceptance. The present study tested a step-by-step exposure to vegetables in milk then rice during CF, on intake and liking of vegetables. Just before CF, enrolled mothers were randomised to an intervention (IG, n = 18; 6 BF) or control group (CG, n = 18; 6 BF). IG infants received 12 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to milk (days 1-12), then 12 × 2 daily exposures to vegetable puree added to rice at home (days 13-24). Plain milk and rice were given to CG. Then both received 11 daily exposures to vegetable puree. Intake was weighed and liking rated on days 25-26 and 33-35 after the start of CF in the laboratory, supplemented by the same data recorded at home. Vegetables were rotated daily (carrots, green beans, spinach, broccoli). Intake, liking and pace of eating were greater for IG than CG infants. Intake and liking of carrots were greater than green beans. However, at 6m then 18m follow up, vegetable (carrot > green beans) but not group differences were observed. Mothers reported appreciation of the structure and guidance of this systematic approach. Early exposure to vegetables in a step-by-step method could be included in CF guidelines and longer term benefits assessed by extending the exposure period. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Non-biting Muscidae and control methods.

    PubMed

    Thomas, G; Jespersen, J B

    1994-12-01

    Many non-biting muscids (filth flies) are characterised by the habit of visiting manure or rotting organic material to feed and/or oviposit. As these flies also often have close associations with human beings, as well as human habitations and domestic animals, they are potentially both a nuisance and a contributory factor in the transmission of diseases. The authors examine the biology, economic importance and control of four of the most important non-biting muscids: housefly, Musca domestica; face fly, Musca autumnalis; Australian bush fly, Musca vetustissima; sheep head fly, Hydrotaea irritans.

  20. Dog and cat bites.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Robert; Ellis, Carrie

    2014-08-15

    Animal bites account for 1% of all emergency department visits in the United States and more than $50 million in health care costs per year. Most animal bites are from a dog, usually one known to the victim. Most dog bite victims are children. Bite wounds should be cleaned, copiously irrigated with normal saline using a 20-mL or larger syringe or a 20-gauge catheter attached to the syringe. The wound should be explored for tendon or bone involvement and possible foreign bodies. Wounds may be closed if cosmetically favorable, such as wounds on the face or gaping wounds. Antibiotic prophylaxis should be considered, especially if there is a high risk of infection, such as with cat bites, with puncture wounds, with wounds to the hand, and in persons who are immunosuppressed. Amoxicillin/clavulanate is the first-line prophylactic antibiotic. The need for rabies prophylaxis should be addressed with any animal bite because even domestic animals are often unvaccinated. Postexposure rabies prophylaxis consists of immune globulin at presentation and vaccination on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Counseling patients and families about animal safety may help decrease animal bites. In most states, physicians are required by law to report animal bites.

  1. Insect bites and stings.

    PubMed

    Stawiski, M A

    1985-11-01

    This article summarizes the clinical presentation and treatment of common bites and infestations in the United States. A survey of this complex and interesting area of medicine should help the emergency physician to diagnose and treat many patients who present with "nonspecific" bites and rashes.

  2. Strengthening health services to deliver nutrition education to promote complementary feeding and healthy growth of infants and young children: formative research for a successful intervention in peri-urban Trujillo, Peru.

    PubMed

    Robert, Rebecca C; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary M; Villasante, Ruben; Narro, M Rocio; Penny, Mary E

    2017-04-01

    Formative research is critical for developing effective nutrition-specific interventions to improve infant and young child (IYC) feeding practices and promote healthy growth. Health workers interact with caregivers during health facility visits, yet there is limited research about how to optimize delivery of such interventions during these visits. The extensive reach of IYC health services globally calls for research to address this gap. In Trujillo, Peru, formative research was conducted to explore complementary feeding practices with caregivers as well as health worker routines and interactions with caregivers related to feeding and healthy growth; results informed the development and delivery of an educational intervention. Multiple qualitative methods were used to collect data on a purposive sample of health workers and caregivers from three health facilities and communities: household trials followed. Complementary feeding messages with doable behaviours were developed, and three were selected as key to promote based on their nutritional impact and cultural acceptability. In the health facilities, medical consultation, well-child visits and nutrition consultation all dealt with aspects of IYC nutrition/growth during their interactions with caregivers but were independent and inconsistent in approach. A nutrition education strategy was developed based on consistency, quality and coverage in the IYC health services. We conclude that formative research undertaken in the community and IYC health services was critical to developing a successful and culturally relevant intervention to promote optimal complementary feeding practices and healthy growth during interactions between health workers and caregivers at routine health facility visits. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. [Mammal bite management].

    PubMed

    Contreras-Marín, Misael; Sandoval-Rodríguez, Jorge Issac; García-Ramírez, Raúl; Morales-Yépez, Héctor Adolfo

    Animal bites are a major public health problem, it is estimated that 2% of the population is bitten each year. Most bites are by dogs and the risk factors include young children, men, certain breeds of dogs and untrained dogs. The risk of infection after bites differs between animal species and depends on the animal teeth and oral flora. Animal bites are still a major cause of morbidity in patients of all ages and have caused several preventable childhood deaths. These wounds often become infected. If the wound requires it, early surgical evaluation must be performed. The use of antibiotics is only recommended for high risk bite wounds. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Efficacy and safety of new complementary feeding guidelines with an emphasis on red meat consumption: a randomized trial in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Olaya, Gilma A; Lawson, Margaret; Fewtrell, Mary S

    2013-10-01

    Iron deficiency and poor linear growth are common in infants from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and may be associated with inadequate complementary feeding (CF) practices. We tested the hypothesis that new CF guidelines emphasizing meat as a source of iron and zinc would improve linear growth, iron, and zinc status in infants living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in Bogota, Colombia. A total of 85 term infants who were exclusively breastfed for ≥4 mo were randomly assigned at 6 mo of age to a control group [CG (n = 43); current advice] or intervention group (new guidelines group [NGG (n = 42); with counseling to 1) continue breastfeeding, 2) offer red meat ≥3 d/wk, and 3) offer fruit and vegetables daily]). Main outcomes were 1) linear growth from 6 to 12 mo of age; 2) hemoglobin, hematocrit, iron [serum ferritin (SF)], and zinc status at 12 mo of age; and 3) meat intake at 12 mo of age (by using a food-frequency questionnaire). A total of 38 infants/group provided data at 12 mo of age. NGG infants had significantly higher red meat intake [mean ± SD: 5.4 ± 1.8 compared with 3.5 ± 1.7 d/wk at 12 mo of age; P < 0.001), higher hemoglobin and hematocrit at 12 mo of age, and a significantly greater increase in hemoglobin (mean ± SD change: 0.41 ± 0.8 compared with -0.13 ± 1.0; P = 0.01) and hematocrit (1.04 ± 2.2 compared with -0.15 ± 2.4; P = 0.03) from 6 to 12 mo of age than those in CG infants. There were no significant differences in linear growth from 6 to 12 mo of age or in SF or zinc. The new guidelines showed efficacy with higher red meat intake and positive effects on hemoglobin and hematocrit. The intervention was acceptable and affordable for most mothers. These preliminary results suggest that the intervention merits investigation in a larger cohort with longer-term follow-up. This trial was registered at http://isrctn.org as ISRCTN57733004.

  5. COMPLEMENTARY FEEDING WITH FORTIFIED SPREAD IS LIKELY TO REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF SEVERE STUNTING AMONG 6–18 MONTH OLD RURAL MALAWIAN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Phuka, John C.; Maleta, Kenneth; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Cheung, Yin Bun; Briend, André; Manary, Mark J.; Ashorn, Per

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare growth and incidence of malnutrition among infants receiving long-term dietary complementation with ready-to-use fortified spread (FS) or micronutrient fortified maize-soy flour (LP). Design Randomized, controlled, single-blind trial Setting Rural Malawian population with high incidence of malnutrition Participants 182 six-month-old infants. Intervention Participants were randomized to receive 1-year-long daily supplementation with either 71g of LP (282 kcal energy / day), 50g FS50 (256 kcal), or 25g FS25 (127 kcal). Main outcome measures Weight and length gain, incidence of severe stunting, underweight, and wasting. Results The mean weight and length gains in LP, FS50 and FS25 groups were 2.37, 2.47, and 2.37 kg (p= 0.658) and 12.7, 13.5, and 13.2 cm (p=0.234), respectively. In the same groups, cumulative 12-month incidence of severe stunting was 14.0%, 0.0% and 4.0% (p=0.011), severe underweight 15.0%, 22.5% and 16.9% (p=0.706), and severe wasting 1.8%, 1.9% and 1.8% (p=0.999). Compared to LP-supplemented infants, those given FS50 gained on average (95%CI;p) 100 g (−143 to 343; p=0.419) more weight and 0.8 cm (−0.1 to 1.7; p=0.091) more length. There was a significant interaction between baseline length and intervention (p=0.042); among children with below-median length at enrolment, those given FS50 gained on average 1.9 cm (0.3 to 3.5; p=0.020) more than individuals receiving LP. Conclusions One-year-long complementary feeding with FS does not have significantly larger effect than maize-soy flour on the average weight gain of all infants, but it seems to boost linear growth in the disadvantaged individuals and hence decrease the incidence of severe stunting. PMID:18606932

  6. Spider Bite in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sanaei-Zadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Some of the world’s most dangerous spiders have been certified in some areas of Iran. Spider bites are common in some geographical areas, and are sporadic in some regions. Spider bites can be classified as latrodectism or loxoscelism. If the patient had not seen the spider, the clinical manifestations of latrodectism could be easily mistaken for other types of bite or sting; or an infectious disease, and withdrawal symptoms, and also loxoscelism could be mistaken for cellulitis, various types of skin infection, or even a sting from a Gadim scorpion (Hemiscorpius lepturus). Given the nonspecific presentation of spider bites, one must keep the diagnosis in mind, and question patients, regarding possible exposure to spiders. Physicians recommend becoming familiar with the geographical distribution of Iranian dangerous spiders, clinical manifestations, and management of their bites. The most useful treatment for spider bite is anti-venom administration. Producing spider bite anti-venom in the Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is under investigation. PMID:28894524

  7. Development of complementary feeding recommendations for 12-23-month-old children from low and middle socio-economic status in West Java, Indonesia: contribution of fortified foods towards meeting the nutrient requirement.

    PubMed

    Fahmida, Umi; Santika, Otte

    2016-07-01

    Inadequate nutrient intake as part of a complementary feeding diet is attributable to poor feeding practices and poor access to nutritious foods. Household socio-economic situation (SES) has an influence on food expenditure and access to locally available, nutrient-dense foods and fortified foods. This study aimed to develop and compare complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) for 12-23-month-old children in different SES and evaluate the contribution of fortified foods in meeting nutrient requirements. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in low and medium SES households (n 114/group) in urban Bandung district, West Java province, Indonesia. Food pattern, portion size and affordability were assessed, and CFR were developed for the low SES (LSES) and middle SES (MSES) using a linear programming (LP) approach; two models - with and without fortified foods - were run using LP, and the contribution of fortified foods in the final CFR was identified. Milk products, fortified biscuits and manufactured infant cereals were the most locally available and consumed fortified foods in the market. With the inclusion of fortified foods, problem nutrients were thiamin in LSES and folate and thiamin in MSES groups. Without fortified foods, more problem nutrients were identified in LSES, that is, Ca, Fe, Zn, niacin and thiamin. As MSES consumed more fortified foods, removing fortified foods was not possible, because most of the micronutrient-dense foods were removed from their food basket. There were comparable nutrient adequacy and problem nutrients between LSES and MSES when fortified foods were included. Exclusion of fortified foods in LSES was associated with more problem nutrients in the complementary feeding diet.

  8. Complementary Treatment.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-10-01

    As the debate over complementary and alternative medicine's place in medicine continues, Texas Medical Association policy recommends physicians stay on top of evidence-based studies of complementary and alternative therapies and routinely ask patients about their use of such therapies.

  9. Bug Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... event of a bug bite or sting. Handling Bee and Wasp Stings A bee will usually leave behind a stinger attached to ... child has had an allergic reaction to a bee or wasp sting in the past, see your ...

  10. Spider Bites: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    ... stiffness Severe abdominal pain or cramping Excessive sweating Brown recluse spider The brown recluse spider has a violin-shaped marking on ... and southern states. Signs and symptoms of a brown recluse spider bite vary but may include: At ...

  11. First Aid: Animal Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... a life-threatening disease. Bats, raccoons, skunks, and foxes transmit most cases of rabies . What to Do ... near a joint a bite or scratch becomes red, hot, swollen, or increasingly painful your child is ...

  12. Animal Bites - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Animal Bites URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/animalbites.html Other topics A-Z Expand Section ...

  13. Rat-bite fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... the mouth, eye, or nose of an infected animal. This most commonly occurs through a bite or ... is usually the source of the infection. Other animals that may cause this infection include: Gerbils Squirrels ...

  14. Snake bite in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Habib, A G; Gebi, U I; Onyemelukwe, G C

    2001-09-01

    Four families of venomous snakes are found in Nigeria--Viperidae, Elapidae, Colubridae and Actraspididae but three species carpet viper (Echis ocellatus), black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) and puff adder (Bitis arietans), belonging to the first two families, are the most important snakes associated with envenoming in Nigeria. The incidence of bites has been reported as 497 per 100,000 population per year with a 12 percent natural mortality, with Echis ocellatus accounting for at least 66 percent in certain foci. Bites occur more often while victims were farming, herding or walking although the spitting cobra may bite victims who roll upon it in their sleep. Carpet viper venom contains a prothrombin activating procoagulant, haemorrhagin and cytolytic fractions which cause haemorrhage, incoagulable blood, shock and local reactions/ necrosis. The spitting cobra bite manifests with local tissue reaction and occassionally with bleeding from the site of bite, but no classic neurotoxic feature has been observed except following Egyptian cobra (N. haje) bites. Cardiotoxicity and renal failure may occassionally occur following bites by the carpet viper and the puff adder. In the laboratory, haematological and other features are noted and immunodiagnosis has a role in species identification. Immobilisation of the bitten limb is probably the single most important first aid measure. Antivenom should be used cautiously when indicated. As only 8.5 percent of snake bite victims attend hospitals in Nigeria, health education should be the main preventive measure, mean-while, the study of immunisation of occupationally predisposed individuals in endemic areas should be intensified. A new Fab fragment antivenom specific to Nigerian Echis ocellatus was investigated clinically, just as the local herbs-Aristolochia spp, Guiera spp and Schummaniophyton spp are investigated experimentally.

  15. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  16. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  17. Brown recluse spider bites.

    PubMed

    Forks, T P

    2000-01-01

    Brown recluse spider bites are a serious medical problem in the southeastern United States. Although most bites are asymptomatic, envenomation can result in a constellation of systemic symptoms referred to as loxoscelism. Patients can also develop necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). These ulcers are often difficult to heal and can require skin grafting or amputation of the bitten appendage. A search of the literature was performed using the search words "spider envenomation," "brown recluse spider bites," and "arachnid envenomation." Most brown recluse spider bites are asymptomatic. All bites should be thoroughly cleansed and tetanus status updated as needed. Patients who develop systemic symptoms require hospitalization. Surgical excision of skin lesions is indicated only for lesions that have stabilized and are no longer enlarging. Steroids are indicated in bites that are associated with severe skin lesions, loxoscelism, and in small children. Dapsone should be used only in adult patients who experience necrotic arachnidism and who have been screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Topical nitroglycerin can be of value in decreasing the enlargement of necrotic skin ulcers.

  18. Complementary Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, H.

    2009-02-19

    In this lecture, it is emphasized that sufficient resolution of scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor can be given by complementary studies. Key scientific issues for a fusion energy reactor and ITER addressed by a complementary study in the Large Helical Device (LHD) are discussed. It should be noted that ITER is definitely a necessary condition but not a sufficient condition. Helical systems including stellarators and heliotrons are defined as alternative concepts. These approaches also aim at a fusion energy reactor based on their own concept and simultaneously benefit progress in tokamaks, more specifically ITER itself. The exact science to manage a 3-D geometry has been being developed in helical systems. A physical model with much accuracy and breadth will demonstrate its applicability to ITER. Topics to validate ''complementary'' approaches such as 3-D equilibrium, interchange MHD mode, control of radial electric field and structure formation, dynamics of a magnetic island, density limit and edge plasmas are discussed. Complementary is not Supplementary. ITER is complementary to development of a helical fusion energy reactor as well. Complementary approaches transcend existing disciplinary horizons and enable big challenges.

  19. Adder bites in Britain.

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H A

    1976-01-01

    Ninety-five cases of adder bite that have occurred in Britain over the past 100 years are reviewed. Most bites occurred in men who foolishly picked up the adder. Three-quarters of the victims reached hospital within two hours of the bite. When venom is injected the early symptoms include local swelling and discoloration, vomiting, diarrhoea, and early collapse, which often resolves spontaneously. In severe poisoning persistent or recurrent shock is the main feature. Children recover quickly but adults may take weeks or months to recover, during which there may be considerable disability in the bitten limb. Deaths are rare: only 14 deaths from poisoning were recorded in the past 100 years. In England and Wales only one death from adder bite was recorded in 1950-72, but there were 61 deaths from bee or wasp stings. In most cases simple symptomatic treatment is enough, but all patients should be carefully monitored. With persistent or recurrent shock Zagreb antivenom is indicated; and it should also be considered in adults seen within two hours of the bite to minimise morbidity from local effects. Images p153-a PMID:1276841

  20. Treating mammalian bite wounds.

    PubMed

    Smith, P F; Meadowcroft, A M; May, D B

    2000-04-01

    The incidence of dog, cat and human bites has been increasing steadily and represents an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Approximately half of all Americans will suffer a bite wound during their lifetime, and the annual medical costs of managing these injuries has been estimated to be over $100 million. Possible complications may include disfigurement, dismemberment and infection. Effective management requires rapid medical evaluation and may necessitate surgical intervention and prophylactic antibiotic therapy. As bite wounds are microbiologically diverse and most often polymicrobial in nature, selection of an appropriate antibiotic regimen requires knowledge of common pathogens. Close clinical follow-up is recommended to minimize the risk of late complications.

  1. Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mosquito Control Contact Us Share Tips to Prevent Mosquito Bites Información relacionada disponible en español Using the ... Also see Tips to Prevent Tick Bites. Remove Mosquito Habitats Eliminate standing water in rain gutters, old ...

  2. Animal bite - first aid - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100214.htm Animal bite - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To ... D.A.M., Inc. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Animal Bites A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  3. Strike Back Against Snake Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_166748.html Strike Back Against Snake Bites Expert advice on what to do if ... News) -- With summer comes a higher risk of snake bites, but emergency doctors have some advice on ...

  4. Bites and Scratches (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... to tease or provoke any animals, even known pets. Animals should not be disturbed while they are eating ... Infections That Pets Carry Rabies Tetanus Selecting Safe Pets First Aid: Animal Bites Cat Scratch Disease Preventing Dog Bites Rabies ...

  5. Complementary feeding and "donner les bases du goût" (providing the foundation of taste). A qualitative approach to understand weaning practices, attitudes and experiences by French mothers.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, C; Madrelle, J; Vereijken, C M J L; Weenen, H; Nicklaus, S; Hetherington, M M

    2013-12-01

    Complementary feeding (CF) practices vary within and across cultures but have been investigated only to a very limited extent. It is however important to understand CF practices and how they differ, as CF sets the foundation for children's later food choices. The present study was set out to examine practices, attitudes and experiences of CF including the introduction of vegetables amongst French mothers (n=18, 25-39 years). Thematic analysis of transcribed focus groups and interviews revealed the perceived importance of the weaning period, as a critical milestone for infants' development but with a sense of "now or never" for introducing new tastes including vegetables. Flavour exposure and taste discovery during weaning were identified as the beginning of a "taste journey", in which educating the palate with a variety of different foods was considered important for children's later eating habits. Weaning was described as emotional and complex, a transition period in which the baby makes progress away from milk towards the family diet and which goes beyond mere nutrition. Advice was sought from official sources, but adapted to the needs of infants. In agreement with earlier observations of French adults, pleasure and taste development were considered of primary importance. In particular, French mothers believed complementary feeding lay the foundations of taste early in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Insect bite reactions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Mann, Baldeep Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods. Insect bite reactions are commonly seen in clinical practice. The present review touches upon the medically important insects and their places in the classification, the sparse literature on the epidemiology of insect bites in India, and different variables influencing the susceptibility of an individual to insect bites. Clinical features of mosquito bites, hypersensitivity to mosquito bites Epstein-Barr virus NK (HMB-EBV-NK) disease, eruptive pseudoangiomatosis, Skeeter syndrome, papular pruritic eruption of HIV/AIDS, and clinical features produced by bed bugs, Mexican chicken bugs, assassin bugs, kissing bugs, fleas, black flies, Blandford flies, louse flies, tsetse flies, midges, and thrips are discussed. Brief account is presented of the immunogenic components of mosquito and bed bug saliva. Papular urticaria is discussed including its epidemiology, the 5 stages of skin reaction, the SCRATCH principle as an aid in diagnosis, and the recent evidence supporting participation of types I, III, and IV hypersensitivity reactions in its causation is summarized. Recent developments in the treatment of pediculosis capitis including spinosad 0.9% suspension, benzyl alcohol 5% lotion, dimethicone 4% lotion, isopropyl myristate 50% rinse, and other suffocants are discussed within the context of evidence derived from randomized controlled trials and key findings of a recent systematic review. We also touch upon a non-chemical treatment of head lice and the ineffectiveness of egg-loosening products. Knockdown resistance (kdr) as the genetic mechanism making the lice nerves insensitive to permethrin is discussed along with the surprising contrary clinical evidence from Europe about efficacy of permethrin in children with head lice carrying kdr-like gene. The review also presents a brief account of insects as vectors of diseases and ends with discussion of prevention of insect bites and some serious adverse effects

  7. King cobra bite.

    PubMed

    Karnchanachetanee, C

    1994-12-01

    King cobra (Ophiophagus hannah) bite is rare. The milestones of management should have specific antivenom, adequate assisting respirator and appropriate antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris infection. Tourniquet may play some role in delaying venom absorption and allow a greater chance of venom detoxification by the human body.

  8. [Fatal rat bites].

    PubMed

    Yanai, O; Goldin, L; Hiss, J

    1999-04-15

    We present a rare case of infant death due to blood loss resulting from multiple rat bites. Domestic dogs and cats cause most animal bites. Bites of a house rat usually cause bacterial infection, successfully treated with antibiotics. There is little information about death due to house rat bites. Since the wounds they cause tend to occur post-mortem, they are usually wedged, clean and without subcutaneous bleeding. An 11-week-old, malnourished infant girl was bitten to death while sleeping in her mother's bed in a rat-infested home. The infant's clothing was covered with blood, parts of her face were missing and marks of gnawing were present on her neck and extremities. There was subcutaneous bleeding around the wounds indicating that they were inflicted while the child was alive. Autopsy findings revealed profound blood loss. We conclude that a combination of low socio-economic status, severe failure to thrive, and poor hygiene in a rat-infested environment contributed to the fatal outcome in this attack.

  9. Wolf spider bites.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D S; Rees, R S; King, L E

    1987-02-01

    Because of their dark color and hunting habits, wolf spiders (Lycosidae) are often confused with the much more dangerous brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa). Unlike the brown recluse spider, wolf spider envenomation seldom causes cutaneous necrosis or systemic symptoms. In this report, two documented cases of wolf spider bites are described and the pertinent literature reviewed.

  10. Venomous Snake Bites in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yasunaga, Hideo; Horiguchi, Hiromasa; Kuwabara, Kazuaki; Hashimoto, Hideki; Matsuda, Shinya

    2011-01-01

    Few reliable data are available on the incidence of snake bites in developing and developed nations. Insufficient epidemiologic data have hindered the recognition of snake bite as an important public health issue. We verified statistics of snake bites (mamushi and habu bites) in Japan by using a currently available, nationally representative, hospital-based database. We identified 1,670 inpatients with snake bites from 404 hospitals during July 1–December 31 in 2007 and 2008. More than 60% were males, the average age was 60.1 years, and the in-hospital mortality rate was 0.2%. The incidence of mamushi bite, distributed between latitudes 30°N and 46°N, was estimated to be 1.67 bites/100,000/6 months. It is important to continue collecting all available data to monitor the trends of this life-threatening disease. PMID:21212215

  11. Training in complementary feeding counselling of healthcare workers and its influence on maternal behaviours and child growth: a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Shakila; Ashraf, Rifat N; Martines, José

    2008-06-01

    Malnutrition is common among children aged 6-24 months in developing countries. It increases the risk of mortality. Interventions to improve infant-feeding hold the promise of reducing malnutrition among these children. A study in Brazil has shown the success of training in communication and counselling skills among health workers in improving the nutritional status of young children. Questions were raised whether the method used in the study in Brazil would also be effective when applied in other countries. The aim of the present study was to reduce growth faltering in young children through proper nutrition-promotion techniques. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of training health workers in nutrition counselling in enhancing their communication skills and performance, improving feeding practices, and reducing growth faltering in children aged 6-24 months. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was carried out. The method used in this study was a replica of the method in a similar study in Pelotas, Brazil. Forty health centres were paired, and one centre of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention group, and the other to the control group. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) module-'Counsel the mother'-was used for training health workers in the health centres in the intervention group. Data from 36 paired health centres and 375 mothers and their children aged 6-24 months recruited from these health centres following consultation with health workers were included in analysis. Independent observers, masked to the intervention status, examined the performance of health workers within the first month after training. Mother-child pairs were visited at home within two weeks, 45 days, and 180 days after recruitment. Information was recorded on the feeding practices, recall of the recommendations of health workers, and sociodemographic variables at these home-visits. Weight and length of the child were measured at each

  12. Training in Complementary Feeding Counselling of Healthcare Workers and Its Influence on Maternal Behaviours and Child Growth: A Cluster-randomized Controlled Trial in Lahore, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Shakila; Ashraf, Rifat N.; Martines, José

    2008-01-01

    Malnutrition is common among children aged 6–24 months in developing countries. It increases the risk of mortality. Interventions to improve infant-feeding hold the promise of reducing malnutrition among these children. A study in Brazil has shown the success of training in communication and counselling skills among health workers in improving the nutritional status of young children. Questions were raised whether the method used in the study in Brazil would also be effective when applied in other countries. The aim of the present study was to reduce growth faltering in young children through proper nutrition-promotion techniques. The objective of the study was to determine the efficacy of training health workers in nutrition counselling in enhancing their communication skills and performance, improving feeding practices, and reducing growth faltering in children aged 6–24 months. A cluster-randomized controlled trial was carried out. The method used in this study was a replica of the method in a similar study in Pelotas, Brazil. Forty health centres were paired, and one centre of each pair was randomly allocated to the intervention group, and the other to the control group. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) module—‘Counsel the mother'—was used for training health workers in the health centres in the intervention group. Data from 36 paired health centres and 375 mothers and their children aged 6–24 months recruited from these health centres following consultation with health workers were included in analysis. Independent observers, masked to the intervention status, examined the performance of health workers within the first month after training. Mother-child pairs were visited at home within two weeks, 45 days, and 180 days after recruitment. Information was recorded on the feeding practices, recall of the recommendations of health workers, and sociodemographic variables at these home-visits. Weight and length of the child were

  13. Bite force measurements with hard and soft bite surfaces.

    PubMed

    Serra, C M; Manns, A E

    2013-08-01

    Bite force has been measured by different methods and over a wide variety of designs. In several instruments, the fact that bite surface has been manufactured with stiff materials might interfere in obtaining reliable data, by a more prompt activation of inhibitory reflex mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to compare the maximum voluntary bite force measured by a digital occlusal force gauge (GM10 Nagano Keiki, Japan) between different opponent teeth, employing semi-hard or soft bite surfaces. A sample of 34 young adults with complete natural dentition was studied. The original semi-hard bite surface was exchanged by a soft one, made of leather and rubber. Maximum voluntary bite force recordings were made for each tooth group and for both bite surfaces. Statistical analyses (Student's t-test) revealed significant differences, with higher scores while using the soft surface across sexes and tooth groups (P < 0·05). Differential activation of periodontal mechanoreceptors of a specific tooth group is mainly conditioned by the hardness of the bite surface; a soft surface induces greater activation of elevator musculature, while a hard one induces inhibition more promptly. Thus, soft bite surfaces are recommended for higher reliability in maximum voluntary bite force recordings.

  14. Papular dermatitis induced in guinea pigs by the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and ...

  15. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance.

  16. Causes and effective management of insect bites in the UK.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Marion

    Insects play an important role in maintaining the world's ecosystem (Zhu and Stiller, 2002) but many of them feed on other animals. Humans are relatively hairless and provide an easy target, especially when partly clothed (Cohn, 2003). Biting insects common to the UK include midges, gnats, mosquitoes, flies, fleas, lice, mites, ticks, and bedbugs (Fig 1).

  17. Water vapour and heat combine to elicit biting and biting persistence in tsetse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tsetse flies are obligatory blood feeders, accessing capillaries by piercing the skin of their hosts with the haustellum to suck blood. However, this behaviour presents a considerable risk as landing flies are exposed to predators as well as the host’s own defense reactions such as tail flicking. Achieving a successful blood meal within the shortest time span is therefore at a premium in tsetse, so feeding until replete normally lasts less than a minute. Biting in blood sucking insects is a multi-sensory response involving a range of physical and chemical stimuli. Here we investigated the role of heat and humidity emitted from host skin on the biting responses of Glossina pallidipes, which to our knowledge has not been fully studied in tsetse before. Methods The onset and duration of the biting response of G. pallidipes was recorded by filming movements of its haustellum in response to rapid increases in temperature and/or relative humidity (RH) following exposure of the fly to two airflows. The electrophysiological responses of hygroreceptor cells in wall-pore sensilla on the palps of G. pallidipes to drops in RH were recorded using tungsten electrodes and the ultra-structure of these sensory cells was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results Both latency and proportion of tsetse biting are closely correlated to RH when accompanied by an increase of 13.1°C above ambient temperature but not for an increase of just 0.2°C. Biting persistence, as measured by the number of bites and the time spent biting, also increases with increasing RH accompanied by a 13.1°C increase in air temperature. Neurones in wall-pore sensilla on the palps respond to shifts in RH. Conclusions Our results show that temperature acts synergistically with humidity to increase the rapidity and frequency of the biting response in tsetse above the levels induced by increasing temperature or humidity separately. Palp sensilla housing hygroreceptor cells

  18. Ontogenetic scaling of bite force in lizards and turtles.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; O'reilly, James C

    2006-01-01

    Because selection on juvenile life-history stages is likely strong, disproportionately high levels of performance (e.g., sprint speed, endurance, etc.) might be expected. Whereas this phenomenon has been demonstrated with respect to locomotor performance, data for feeding are scarce. Here, we investigate the relationships among body dimensions, head dimensions, and bite force during growth in lizards and turtles. We also investigate whether ontogenetic changes in bite performance are related to changes in diet. Our analyses show that, for turtles, head dimensions generally increase with negative allometry. For lizards, heads scale as expected for geometrically growing systems. Bite force generally increased isometrically with carapace length in turtles but showed significant positive allometry relative to body dimensions in lizards. However, both lizards and turtles display positive allometric scaling of bite force relative to some measures of head size throughout ontogeny, suggesting (1) strong selection for increased relative bite performance with increasing head size and (2) intrinsic changes in the geometry and/or mass of the jaw adductors during growth. Whereas our data generally do not provide strong evidence of compensation for lower absolute levels of performance, they do show strong links among morphology, bite force, and diet during growth.

  19. Myocarditis following katipo spider bite.

    PubMed

    Crook, Ruth; Harrison, Nigel; Gibbons, Derek

    2010-05-14

    We report the case of a 22-year-old man who developed severe myocarditis following a presumed katipo spider bite. Katipo spiders are thought to be one of the most poisonous native creatures in New Zealand. No deaths from katipo spider bites have been reported since the 19th Century. A literature search reveals no previously reported cases of myocarditis following a bite from a katipo spider. The clinical presentation of latrodectism is discussed.

  20. Bites and stings in travellers

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. Alistair

    1975-01-01

    As a rule, bites and stings in travellers are merely a nuisance. But it is sensible to be informed about the more serious possibilities which can result. Systemic diseases can be transmitted, the skin lesions from insects can be troublesome and finally, some bites and stings can cause envenoming. Thus, the bather may be harmed by venomous fish stings, sea urchins, jellyfish and in Asian-Pacific waters by sea-snakes. Land hazards include bites or stings by scorpions, spiders, ticks, centipedes, bees, wasps, caterpillars and snakes. The main clinical features of such bites and stings, including treatment and prevention, are outlined. PMID:1239754

  1. [Arthropod bite reactions and pyodermias].

    PubMed

    Hengge, U R

    2008-08-01

    Tourists in the tropics often develop reactions to bites or stings of mosquitoes, fleas, mites, ants, bedbugs, beetles, larva, millipedes, spiders and scorpions. In addition, they may have fresh or salt water exposure to sponges, corals, jellyfish and sea urchins with resultant injury and inflammation. Bacterial skin infections (pyodermias) can follow bites or stings as well as mechanical trauma. The most common bacteria involved in skin infections are staphylococci and streptococci. For tourists, bacterial infections are often complicating a pruritic bite reaction and scratching. It is important to know the cause of the bite reaction and pyoderma in order to take appropriate therapeutic measures.

  2. Snake bite: coral snakes.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Michael E

    2006-11-01

    North American coral snakes are distinctively colored beginning with a black snout and an alternating pattern of black, yellow, and red. They have fixed front fangs and a poorly developed system for venom delivery, requiring a chewing action to inject the venom. The severity of a coral snake bite is related to the volume of venom injected and the size of the victim. The length of the snake correlates positively with the snakes venom yield. Coral snake venom is primarily neurotoxic with little local tissue reaction or pain at the bite site. The net effect of the neurotoxins is a curare like syndrome. In canine victims there have been reports of marked hemolysis with severe anemia and hemoglobinuria. The onset of clinical signs may be delayed for as much as 10 to 18 hours. The victim begins to have alterations in mental status and develops generalized weakness and muscle fasciculations. Progression to paralysis of the limbs and respiratory muscles then follows. The best flied response to coral snake envenomation is rapid transport to a veterinary medical facility capable of 24 hour critical care and assisted ventilation. First aid treatment advocated in Australia for Elapid bites is the immediate use of a compression bandage. The victim should be hospitalized for a minimum of 48 hours for continuous monitoring. The only definitive treatment for coral snake envenomation is the administration of antivenin (M. fulvius). Once clinical signs of coral snake envenomation become manifest they progress with alarming rapidity and are difficult to reverse. If antivenin is not available or if its administration is delayed, supportive care includes respiratory support. Assisted mechanical ventilation can be used but may have to be employed for up to 48 to 72 hours.

  3. [Eyelid tick bite].

    PubMed

    Santos-Bueso, E; Calvo-González, C; Díaz-Valle, D; Benítez-del-Castillo, J M; García-Sánchez, J

    2006-03-01

    We describe a patient who was bitten on his right upper eyelid by a common canine tick. The tick was impregnated with gasoline prior to being removed. Tick bites are uncommon in ophthalmologic practice. They occur more frequently in rural areas, especially in spring and summer. Correct identification of the problem and treatment is essential. The tick needs to be completely removed in order to avoid the embedding of different parts of the insect. Zoonoses, such as rickettsiosis, arbovirus and paralysis due to ticks must be ruled out.

  4. Fatal chilli bite.

    PubMed

    Behera, Chittaranjan; Prasad, Hari; Mridha, Asit Ranjan; Swain, Rajanikanta

    2016-09-01

    A healthy 2-year-old girl bit a green chilli accidentally following which she had many bouts of vomiting. She became unconscious and was immediately admitted to hospital. In spite of all medical intervention, she died after one day. The autopsy confirmed that the death was caused by respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome following aspiration of gastric contents into tracheobronchial tree. Aspiration of gastric contents resulting in acute respiratory distress syndrome and death is not uncommon; however, death following the accidental bite of a chilli is rarely reported in medical-legal literature.

  5. Spider bites - Assessment and management.

    PubMed

    Braitberg, George; Segal, Leslie

    2009-11-01

    Spider bite is common, but most species cause minimal or no effects. Patients may be misinformed regarding the nature and consequences of a bite. Understanding the current literature can assist the physician in the management of spider bite patients. This article reviews the current literature on spider bites and describes the clinical assessment and management of the medically important spider bites. Most spider bite is minor and causes nothing more than local irritation. Some spiders can cause significant morbidity and rarely, mortality. Lay identification of the spider has not been shown to be reliable. Latrodectism (red back spider envenomation) is characterised by pain (local, radiating, and regional); systemic symptoms occur less commonly. Funnel web spider bite is a medical emergency; a pressure immobilisation bandage should be applied and the patient transferred to a hospital with available antivenom and resuscitation facilities. Clinicians must consider spider bite in the differential diagnosis of unexplained autonomic and neurological dysfunction, particularly in children. In Australia, skin ulceration is more likely to be an infective, inflammatory or traumatic cause than a case of necrotising arachnidism.

  6. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D; Cernicchiaro, N; Allan, S A; Cohnstaedt, L W

    2016-06-01

    The mixing of an insecticide with sugar solution creates an oral toxin or insecticidal sugar bait (ISB) useful for reducing adult insect populations. The ability of ISBs to kill the biting midge Culicoides sonorensis Wirth and Jones (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), a vector of bluetongue virus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease and vesicular stomatitis viruses, was tested. The commercial insecticide formulations (percentage active ingredient) tested included bifenthrin, cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and spinosad. Mortality rates were determined for various concentrations of commercial formulations (0.01, 0.05, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3%) and observed at 1, 4, 10 and 24 h post-exposure to the ISB. In the first set of assays, laboratory-reared midges were fed sugar ad libitum and then exposed to insecticide-treated sugar solutions to measure mortality. The second assay assessed competitive feeding: midges were provided with a control sugar solution (10% sucrose) in one vial, and a sugar and insecticide solution in another. Pyrethroid treatments resulted in the greatest mortality in the first hour at the lowest concentrations and spinosad consumption resulted in the least mortality. Biting midges were not deterred from feeding on the 1% ISB solutions despite the presence of an insecticide-free alternative source of sugar. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Local food-based complementary feeding recommendations developed by the linear programming approach to improve the intake of problem nutrients among 12-23-month-old Myanmar children.

    PubMed

    Hlaing, Lwin Mar; Fahmida, Umi; Htet, Min Kyaw; Utomo, Budi; Firmansyah, Agus; Ferguson, Elaine L

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices result in inadequate nutrient intakes in young children in developing countries. To improve practices, local food-based complementary feeding recommendations (CFR) are needed. This cross-sectional survey aimed to describe current food consumption patterns of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children (n 106) from Ayeyarwady region in order to identify nutrient requirements that are difficult to achieve using local foods and to formulate affordable and realistic CFR to improve dietary adequacy. Weekly food consumption patterns were assessed using a 12-h weighed dietary record, single 24-h recall and a 5-d food record. Food costs were estimated by market surveys. CFR were formulated by linear programming analysis using WHO Optifood software and evaluated among mothers (n 20) using trial of improved practices (TIP). Findings showed that Ca, Zn, niacin, folate and Fe were 'problem nutrients': nutrients that did not achieve 100 % recommended nutrient intake even when the diet was optimised. Chicken liver, anchovy and roselle leaves were locally available nutrient-dense foods that would fill these nutrient gaps. The final set of six CFR would ensure dietary adequacy for five of twelve nutrients at a minimal cost of 271 kyats/d (based on the exchange rate of 900 kyats/USD at the time of data collection: 3rd quarter of 2012), but inadequacies remained for niacin, folate, thiamin, Fe, Zn, Ca and vitamin B6. TIP showed that mothers believed liver and vegetables would cause worms and diarrhoea, but these beliefs could be overcome to successfully promote liver consumption. Therefore, an acceptable set of CFR were developed to improve the dietary practices of 12-23-month-old Myanmar children using locally available foods. Alternative interventions such as fortification, however, are still needed to ensure dietary adequacy of all nutrients.

  8. Breast feeding, bottle feeding, and non-nutritive sucking; effects on occlusion in deciduous dentition

    PubMed Central

    Viggiano, D; Fasano, D; Monaco, G; Strohmenger, L

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effect of the type of feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity on occlusion in deciduous dentition. Methods: Retrospective study of 1130 preschool children (3–5 years of age) who had detailed infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking activity history collected by a structured questionnaire. They all had an oral examination by a dentist, blinded to different variables evaluated. Results: Non-nutritive sucking activity has a substantial effect on altered occlusion, while the effect of bottle feeding is less marked. The type of feeding did not have an effect on open bite, which was associated (89% of children with open bite) with non-nutritive sucking. Posterior cross-bite was more frequent in bottle fed children and in those with non-nutritive sucking activity. The percentage of cross-bite was lower in breast fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (5%) than in bottle fed children with non-nutritive sucking activity (13%). Conclusions: Data show that non-nutritive sucking activity rather than the type of feeding in the first months of life is the main risk factor for development of altered occlusion and open bite in deciduous dentition. Children with non-nutritive sucking activity and being bottle fed had more than double the risk of posterior cross-bite. Breast feeding seems to have a protective effect on development of posterior cross-bite in deciduous dentition. PMID:15557045

  9. Snake bite envenomation in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Fabricio; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the burden of snake bite in Ecuador and to identify the difficulties of snake bite management in Ecuadorian health facilities. A survey based on national health statistics was carried out in Ecuador to estimate the overall incidence and mortality due to snake bites. During the period 1998-2007, the average annual incidence and mortality was respectively 11 and 0.5 per 100 000 inhabitants. The at-risk population was represented mainly by males aged 10-54 years. Snake bite incidence increased during the rainy season and El Niño. According to one data source, the majority of snake bites occurred in the coastal region (56%) compared with the Amazonian rainforest (11%) and the highlands (33%). This geographical variation in snake bite incidence may reflect the distribution of venomous snakes and human population densities and activities. This preliminary national survey on the incidence of the envenomings due to snake bite in Ecuador showed a stable incidence over the time period studied but was heterogeneous in the three geographical regions of Ecuador. The incidence and mortality were higher in the lowland humid regions where Bothrops species are abundant.

  10. [Protection against tick bites].

    PubMed

    Boulanger, N; Lipsker, Dan

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous tick-borne infections, which include viral (TBE), parasitic (babesiosis) and bacterial diseases. Lyme disease (Lyme borreliosis) is the most common tick-borne disease in France. In temperate climates such as in France, ticks bite humans between March and October. Prevention relies on adequate clothing and on repellents. The latter are reviewed in this work. Repellents may be natural, made from eucalyptus, tomato and coconut, or synthetic, among which the most widely used is DEET (N,N,-Diethyl-m-toluamide). Newer, synthetic repellents exist such as IR3535 which, as well as being less toxic, also exhibits greater efficacy against ticks. Some repellents are used on the skin, while others, like permethrin, which is actually an insecticide, may be applied to clothing.

  11. Using negative reinforcement to increase self-feeding in a child with food selectivity.

    PubMed

    Vaz, Petula C M; Volkert, Valerie M; Piazza, Cathleen C

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of the intervention and implications for future research are discussed.

  12. Using Negative Reinforcement to Increase Self-Feeding in a Child with Food Selectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz, Petula C. M.; Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of a negative reinforcement-based treatment on the self-feeding of 1 child with food selectivity by type and texture. Self-feeding increased when the child could choose to either self-feed 1 bite of a target food or be fed 1 bite of the target food and 5 bites of another food. Possible mechanisms that underlie the…

  13. Impact of Maternal Education about Complementary Feeding on Their Infants' Nutritional Outcomes in Low- and Middle-income Households: A Community-based Randomized Interventional Study in Karachi, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Ali Faisal; Mahmud, Sadia; Baig-Ansari, Naila

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This cluster-randomized interventional trial at peri-urban settings of Karachi was conducted to evaluate the impact of maternal educational messages regarding appropriate complementary feeding (CF) on the nutritional status of their infants after 30 weeks of educational interventions delivered by trained community health workers. Mothers in the intervention group received three education modules about breastfeeding (BF) and appropriate CF at a baseline visit and two subsequent visits 10 weeks apart. The control group received advice about BF according to national guidelines. Infants' growth [weight, length, and mid-upper arm-circumference (MUAC), stunting, wasting, and underweight] were measured at four time points. At the end of the study, infants in the intervention group had a higher mean weight of 350 g (p=0.001); length of 0.66 cm (p=0.001), and MUAC of 0.46 cm (p=0.002) compared to the controls; proportionate reduction of stunting and underweight were 10% (84% vs 74%; ORadj 8.36 (5.6-12.42) and 5% (25% vs 20%; ORadj 0.75 (0.4-1.79) in the intervention compared to the control group. For relatively food-secure populations, educational interventions about appropriate CF to mothers had a direct positive impact on linear growth of their infants. PMID:25895196

  14. Impact of maternal education about complementary feeding on their infants' nutritional outcomes in low- and middle-income households: a community-based randomized interventional study in Karachi, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Ali Faisal; Mahmud, Sadia; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2014-12-01

    This cluster-randomized interventional trial at periurban settings of Karachi was conducted to evaluate the impact of maternal educational messages regarding appropriate complementary feeding (CF) on the nutritional status of their infants after 30 weeks of educational interventions delivered by trained community health workers. Mothers in the intervention group received three education modules about breastfeeding (BF) and appropriate CF at a baseline visit and two subsequent visits 10 weeks apart. The control group received advice about BF according to national guidelines. Infants' growth [weight, length, and mid-upper arm-circumference (MUAC), stunting, wasting, and underweight] were measured at four time points. At the end of the study, infants in the intervention group had a higher mean weight of 350 g (p=0.001); length of 0.66 cm (p=0.001), and MUAC of 0.46 cm (p=0.002) compared to the controls; proportionate reduction of stunting and underweight were 10% (84% vs. 74%; OR(adj) 8.36 (5.6-12.42) and 5% (25% vs. 20%; OR(adj) 0.75 (0.4-1.79) in the intervention compared to the control group. For relatively food-secure populations, educational interventions about appropriate CF to mothers had a direct positive impact on linear growth of their infants.

  15. Anterior open bite correction using bite block: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Barros, Roger Teixeira Gazinelli; Câmara, Paulo Pelucio; Aloise, Antônio Carlos; Siqueira, Danilo Furquim; Paranhos, Luiz Renato; Torres, Fernando César

    2012-01-01

    Several etiological factors that result in dental and/or skeletal alterations make the open bite a type of malocclusion with several treatment alternatives. Corrective fixed orthodontics in conjunction with mechanical or functional orthopedics is a routine approach in correcting this problem. However, orthosurgical treatment must never be discarded for cases with skeletal involvement. This article describes a clinical case which, despite involving skeletal aspects, was treated satisfactorily using a passive bite-block appliance in conjunction with corrective fixed orthodontics.

  16. Psychosocial Determinants of the Early Introduction of Complementary Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding guidelines recommend exclusive breast-feeding to the age of 6 months; complementary foods should not be introduced before this age. This study examined parent and infant psychosocial determinants of the early introduction of complementary foods. Analyses were conducted on a representative sample of children born in Quebec (Canada)…

  17. Psychosocial Determinants of the Early Introduction of Complementary Foods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatone-Tokuda, Fabiola; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding guidelines recommend exclusive breast-feeding to the age of 6 months; complementary foods should not be introduced before this age. This study examined parent and infant psychosocial determinants of the early introduction of complementary foods. Analyses were conducted on a representative sample of children born in Quebec (Canada)…

  18. Human bites - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    ... the wound. Use mild soap and warm, running water. Rinse the bite for 3 to 5 minutes. Apply an ... Services / Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Buffalo, NY. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  19. Identifying Insect Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... likely to be problematic in homes with pets. Bedbugs Bedbugs are usually found in cracks in walls or floors, crevices of furniture and bedding. Bedbug bites are characterized by itchy red bumps (which ...

  20. Traveler's Health: Avoid Bug Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safety Blood Clots Bug Bites Business Travel Cold Climates Counterfeit Drugs Cruise Ship Travel Families with Children ... Abroad Getting Sick After Travel High Altitudes Hot Climates Humanitarian Aid Workers Humanitarian Aid Workers in Ecuador ...

  1. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite.

    PubMed

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-04-08

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring.

  2. Tips to Prevent Tick Bites

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Using the right insect repellent and other preventive actions can discourage ticks, mosquitoes, and other biting insects from landing on you. Tips include avoiding tick habitats and minimizing exposed skin.

  3. Insect Repellents: Reducing Insect Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... What is an insect repellent? Disease risk from mosquito and tick bites Ingredients in skin-applied repellents ... and Blogs Using Repellent Products to Protect against Mosquito-Borne Illnesses Federal Trade Commission Action on Deceptive ...

  4. Reversible myocarditis after spider bite

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Hasan; Ak, Ahmet; Bayir, Aysegul; Avci, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    Black widow spiders (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus) are poisonous spiders endemic in Turkey. Latrodectus bites may cause myocarditis with increased cardiac enzymes. We treated two men (aged 20 and 33 years) who had myocarditis after black spider bites with leucocytosis and elevated levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction. Both patients had normal results on an ECG, and one patient had abnormal echocardiography with minimal left ventricular wall movement disorder. Both patients were hospitalised in the intensive care unit and treated with intravenous fluids, analgesics, spasmolytic drugs, tetanus prophylaxis and cardiac monitoring. The levels of troponin I, creatine kinase and creatine kinase-MB fraction improved, and the patients were discharged home on the third and fifth hospital day without complications. Myocarditis after a Latrodectus bite is rare, but may be associated with serious complications. Therefore, in regions endemic with Latrodectus spiders, prudent treatment of spider bites may include cardiac evaluation and monitoring. PMID:23572268

  5. Biting. ERIC/EECE Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cesarone, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    This column summarizes recent ERIC documents and journal articles, and highlights some World Wide Web resources, that discuss issues related to the problem of children biting in preschool. (Contains 13 annotated summaries.) (SD)

  6. Funnel-web spider bite

    MedlinePlus

    ... may last for several days to weeks. Images Arthropods, basic features Arachnids, basic features References Boyer LV, ... Mosby; 2011:chap 52. Nogar JN, Clark RF. Arthropod bites and stings. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency ...

  7. Early biting of the Anopheles gambiae s.s. and its challenges to vector control using insecticide treated nets in western Kenya highlands.

    PubMed

    Wamae, P M; Githeko, A K; Otieno, G O; Kabiru, E W; Duombia, S O

    2015-10-01

    Long term use of insecticides in malaria vector control has been shown to alter the behavior of vectors. Such behavioral shifts have the potential of undermining the effectiveness of insecticide-based control interventions. The effects of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) use on the composition, biting/feeding and sporozoite rates of Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes in Musilongo village, Vihiga County of western Kenya highlands were investigated. Adult mosquitoes were collected in selected sleeping spaces inside six randomly selected houses using miniature Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps. Mosquito sampling in each house was conducted twice every week for 16 consecutive months (May 2010-August 2012). At each sampling a single trap was set in the selected space inside each house such that it collected mosquitoes alternatively from 18:00 to 21:00h and 21:00 to 06:00h every week. All collected mosquitoes were morphologically identified. Female Anopheles mosquitoes were classified according to their physiological status as unfed, fed, partially gravid and gravid, sorted and counted. Members of the A. gambiae complex were identified using a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to determine blood meal sources and Plasmodium infection rates in A. gambiae s.l. mosquitoes. Blood meal tests were conducted on DNA extracted from gut contents of blood fed A. gambiae s.l. The head and thorax section of dried samples of A. gambiae s.l. were used in testing for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites. Overall, 735 adult female Anopheles comprising 708 [96.3%] A. gambiae s.l. and 27 [3.7%] Anopheles funestus mosquitoes were collected. A. gambiae s.l. population collected comprised, 615 [86.9%] unfed and 38 [5.4%] fed adult mosquitoes. The rest were either partially or fully gravid. The proportion of A. gambiae s.l. biting indoors within 18:00-21:00h was 15.8% (103/653) at a rate of 3

  8. Ontogenetic Scaling of Theoretical Bite Force in Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris nereis).

    PubMed

    Law, Chris J; Young, Colleen; Mehta, Rita S

    2016-01-01

    Sexual dimorphism attributed to niche divergence is often linked to differentiation between the sexes in both dietary resources and characters related to feeding and resource procurement. Although recent studies have indicated that southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) exhibit differences in dietary preferences as well as sexual dimorphism in skull size and shape, whether these intersexual differences translate to differentiation in feeding performances between the sexes remains to be investigated. To test the hypothesis that scaling patterns of bite force, a metric of feeding performance, differ between the sexes, we calculated theoretical bite forces for 55 naturally deceased male and female southern sea otters spanning the size ranges encountered over ontogeny. We then used standardized major axis regressions to simultaneously determine the scaling patterns of theoretical bite forces and skull components across ontogeny and assess whether these scaling patterns differed between the sexes. We found that positive allometric increases in theoretical bite force resulted from positive allometric increases in physiological cross-sectional area for the major jaw adductor muscle and mechanical advantage. Closer examination revealed that allometric increases in temporalis muscle mass and relative allometric decreases in out-lever lengths are driving these patterns. In our analysis of sexual dimorphism, we found that scaling patterns of theoretical bite force and morphological traits do not differ between the sexes. However, adult sea otters differed in their absolute bite forces, revealing that adult males exhibited greater bite forces as a result of their larger sizes. We found intersexual differences in biting ability that provide some support for the niche divergence hypothesis. Continued work in this field may link intersexual differences in feeding functional morphology with foraging ecology to show how niche divergence has the potential to reinforce sexual

  9. Another one bites the dust: bite force and ecology in three caviomorph rodents (Rodentia, Hystricognathi).

    PubMed

    Becerra, Federico; Echeverría, Alejandra Isabel; Casinos, Adrià; Vassallo, Aldo Iván

    2014-04-01

    Mammals have developed sophisticated strategies adapting to particular locomotor modes, feeding habits, and social interactions. Many rodent species have acquired a fossorial, semi-fossorial, or even subterranean life-style, converging on morphological, anatomical, and ecological features but diverging in the final arrangement. These ecological variations partially depend on the functional morphology of their digging tools. Muscular and mechanical features (e.g., lever arms relationship) of the bite force were analyzed in three caviomorph rodents with similar body size but different habits and ecological demands of the jaws. In vivo forces were measured at incisors' tip using a strain gauge load cell force transducer whereas theoretical maximal performance values, mechanical advantages, and particular contribution of each adductor muscle were estimated from dissections in specimens of Ctenomys australis (subterranean, solitary), Octodon degus (semi-fossorial, social), and Chinchilla laniger (ground-dweller, colonial). Our results showed that C. australis bites stronger than expected given its small size and C. laniger exhibited the opposite outcome, while O. degus is close to the expected value based on mammalian bite force versus body mass regressions; what might be associated to the chisel-tooth digging behavior and social interactions. Our key finding was that no matter how diverse these rodents' skulls were, no difference was found in the mechanical advantage of the main adductor muscles. Therefore, interspecific differences in the bite force might be primarily due to differences in the muscular development and force, as shown for the subterranean, solitary and territorial C. australis versus the more gracile, ground-dweller, and colonial C. laniger.

  10. Facial bite wounds: management update.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulos, P K; Tarantzopoulou, A D

    2005-07-01

    Bite wounds are frequently located on the face; injuries inflicted by dogs are most common, especially in children. Bacteriology of infected dog and cat bite wounds includes Pasteurella multocida, Staphylococcus aureus, viridans streptococci, Capnocytophaga canimorsus, and oral anaerobes. Infected human bites yield a similar spectrum of bacteria except for Pasteurellae and C. canimorsus; instead human bites are frequently complicated by Eikenella corrodens. Antibiotic therapy against these bacteria is indicated both for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection. Amoxicillin-clavulanate (and other combinations of extended-spectrum penicillins with beta-lactamase inhibitors) and moxifloxacin offer the best in vitro coverage of the pathogenic flora. Initial wound management consisting in irrigation and debridement is at least equally important with antibiotics for prevention of infection. The need for prophylaxis against systemic infectious complications, particularly tetanus, should also be evaluated. Primary surgical repair is the treatment of choice for most clinically uninfected facial bite wounds, whereas delayed closure should be reserved for certain high risk or already infected wounds. Avulsive injuries with significant tissue loss represent the most difficult cases for definitive management and are also those most likely to require hospitalization.

  11. Suction, Ram, and Biting: Deviations and Limitations to the Capture of Aquatic Prey.

    PubMed

    Ferry, Lara A; Paig-Tran, E Misty; Gibb, Alice C

    2015-07-01

    When feeding, most aquatic organisms generate suction that draws prey into the mouth. The papers in this volume are a demonstration of this fact. However, under what circumstances is suction ineffective as a feeding mechanism? Here we consider the interplay between suction, ram, and biting, and analyze the contribution of each to the capture of prey by a wide variety of species of fish. We find, not surprisingly, that ram is the dominant contributor to feeding because suction, and biting, are only effective when very close to the prey. As species utilize more strongly ram-dominated modes of feeding, they may be released from the morphological and behavioral constraints associated with the need to direct a current of water into the head. Morphological and behavioral changes that facilitate larger gapes and stronger jaws are explored here, including predators that lack a protrusile upper jaw, predators with elongate jaws, predators that rely on suspension feeding, and predators that bite. Interestingly, while the mobility of the jaws and the shape of the opening of the mouth are modified in species that have departed from a primary reliance on suction feeding, the anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion persists. This wave may be greatly slowed in ram and biting species, but its retention suggests a fundamental importance to aquatic feeding.

  12. [Snake bite injuries].

    PubMed

    Turchányi, B; Szalontay, T; Zacher, G

    2000-05-14

    Authors treated five patients who suffered venomous snake-bite injury. Although these snakes are not native in Hungary, this kind of injury is estimated to be more frequent, because of the increasing number of the private collections and illegal import of these reptiles. The local and general symptoms, the therapeutic steps are summarised in this study considering the literature as well. Two patients did not show any systemic or local symptoms at the level of injury, they needed only short observation, and woundcare. The other three patients had serious transient systematic symptoms (vasolability, hypotension/shock, coagulopathy, confusion). Two of them were given specific antivenom. As the third patient did not agree with the serum therapy, plasmapheresis was the choice to treat him, and it seemed to be effective. Few hours later the patients needed surgery because of serious compartment syndrome of their affected upper extremity. Surgical decompression of all the compartments and different possibilities of the secondary skin closure technique are demonstrated. Two patient healed completely, but the right thumb of the third was lost. Authors summarise the effects of the poisons, the symptoms, and the basic therapeutic steps during the first aid and in the primary hospital phase, respectively. They point out the indications of the serum therapy and the correct surgical decompression of the injured extremity.

  13. Bite through the tent.

    PubMed

    Naue, Jana; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Pietsch, Klaus; Sänger, Timo; Schlauderer, Nicola; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2012-05-01

    The authors report on a young boy who was bitten into his face by an unknown animal while being asleep in a tent. Given the bite marks and the location of the scene, members of the mustelidae and canidae families were the first "suspects." Deoxyribunucleic acid (DNA) recovered from the tent's wall was analyzed with regard to parts of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal ribunucleic acid (12S rRNA) and cytochrome b (cytb) genes as well as nuclear short tandem repeats (STRs). Since Sanger sequencing revealed a mixed sequence with a strong human component overlying the nonhuman contributor, an animal screening using a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with an intercalating dye and melt curve analysis was employed. The results were later confirmed by cloning. The applied commercial canine STR kit verified the animal family (canidae) but did not help in discriminating the species due to cross-species amplification. In the presented case, the real-time PCR assay offered the cheapest and fastest method for animal family determination, which then allowed for an appropriate and sample-saving strategy to characterize the causative animal species.

  14. An epidemiologic study of the human bite.

    PubMed Central

    Marr, J S; Beck, A M; Lugo, J A

    1979-01-01

    The 892 human bites reported to the New York City Department of Health in 1977 were analyzed by time, place, and the victim's characteristics. The bites appeared to have a seasonality, increasing in March and exceeding the mean monthly average through August. The bite rate for the entire city, 10.7 per 100,000 population, was exceeded in 5 of the 10 Brooklyn health districts; one of these districts reported a rate of 60.9 human bites per 100,000 population. Most of the bites with identifiable locations occurred indoors (63.2 percent). In 72.8 percent of the bite episodes in which the activities surrounding them were known, these activities were aggressive in nature. Males exceeded females as bite victims in all age groups except those 10-20 and 55-60 years. Bites of the upper extremity accounted for 61.2 percent of the total bites. Left-sided bites exceeded right-sided, except for the hand. In frequency of reported occurrence, the human bite ranks third, after the dog bite and the cat bite. Human bites may be a useful indicator of antisocial behavior. PMID:515337

  15. Combining Intensive Counseling by Frontline Workers with a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Has Large Differential Impacts on Complementary Feeding Practices but Not on Child Growth: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Khaled, Adiba; Sanghvi, Tina; Baker, Jean; Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Raisul; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2016-10-01

    Complementary feeding (CF) contributes to child growth and development, but few CF programs are delivered at scale. Alive & Thrive addressed this in Bangladesh through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM). The objective was to evaluate the impact of providing IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard nutrition counseling + less intensive MM + CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric measurements. We used a cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation with cross-sectional surveys [n = ∼600 and 1090 children 6-23.9 mo and 24-47.9 mo/group, respectively, at baseline (2010) and n = ∼500 and 1100 children of the same age, respectively, at endline (2014)]. We derived difference-in-difference impact estimates (DDEs), adjusting for geographic clustering, infant age, sex, differences in baseline characteristics, and differential change in characteristics over time. Groups were similar at baseline. CF improvements were significantly greater in the intensive than in the nonintensive group [DDEs: 16.3, 14.7, 22.0, and 24.6 percentage points (pp) for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet, and consumption of iron-rich foods, respectively]. In the intensive group, CF practices were high: 50.4% for minimum acceptable diet, 63.8% for minimum diet diversity, 75.1% for minimum meal frequency, and 78.5% for consumption of iron-rich foods. Timely introduction of foods improved. Significant, nondifferential stunting declines occurred in intensive (6.2 pp) and nonintensive (5.2 pp) groups in children 24-47.9 mo. The intensive program substantially improved CF practices compared with the nonintensive program. Large-scale program delivery was feasible and, with the use of multiple platforms, reached 1.7 million households. Nondifferential impacts on stunting were likely due to rapid positive secular trends in Bangladesh. Accelerating linear growth further could require

  16. Combining Intensive Counseling by Frontline Workers with a Nationwide Mass Media Campaign Has Large Differential Impacts on Complementary Feeding Practices but Not on Child Growth: Results of a Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluation in Bangladesh123

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Khaled, Adiba; Sanghvi, Tina; Baker, Jean; Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Raisul; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complementary feeding (CF) contributes to child growth and development, but few CF programs are delivered at scale. Alive & Thrive addressed this in Bangladesh through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM). Objective: The objective was to evaluate the impact of providing IPC + MM + CM (intensive) compared with standard nutrition counseling + less intensive MM + CM (nonintensive) on CF practices and anthropometric measurements. Methods: We used a cluster-randomized, nonblinded evaluation with cross-sectional surveys [n = ∼600 and 1090 children 6–23.9 mo and 24–47.9 mo/group, respectively, at baseline (2010) and n = ∼500 and 1100 children of the same age, respectively, at endline (2014)]. We derived difference-in-difference impact estimates (DDEs), adjusting for geographic clustering, infant age, sex, differences in baseline characteristics, and differential change in characteristics over time. Results: Groups were similar at baseline. CF improvements were significantly greater in the intensive than in the nonintensive group [DDEs: 16.3, 14.7, 22.0, and 24.6 percentage points (pp) for minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency, minimum acceptable diet, and consumption of iron-rich foods, respectively]. In the intensive group, CF practices were high: 50.4% for minimum acceptable diet, 63.8% for minimum diet diversity, 75.1% for minimum meal frequency, and 78.5% for consumption of iron-rich foods. Timely introduction of foods improved. Significant, nondifferential stunting declines occurred in intensive (6.2 pp) and nonintensive (5.2 pp) groups in children 24–47.9 mo. Conclusions: The intensive program substantially improved CF practices compared with the nonintensive program. Large-scale program delivery was feasible and, with the use of multiple platforms, reached 1.7 million households. Nondifferential impacts on stunting were likely due to rapid positive secular trends in Bangladesh

  17. Bites and stings: epidemiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Krau, Stephen D

    2013-06-01

    Rapid and effective treatment of bites is a major variable in the overall outcome of a patient who is a victim of a bite. There are a wide range of animals that bite and sting, and the reactions vary depending on the individual and the animal involved. Although most bites are treated on an outpatient basis, patients who have severe complications related to bites become patients in critical care settings. An overview of potential bite and sting sources, with some general guidelines for what to expect and how to treat the patient, is presented. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [A new bite block for laryngeal mask].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Y; Ota, M; Tachibana, C; Aoyama, Y

    2001-05-01

    We devised a new bite block made of a used connector of anesthesia machine (ACOMA medical industry CO., LTD.) for laryngeal mask. Fitness for laryngeal mask and strength against patient's biting are the key for its use. Cutting lengthwise the connector (the outside diameter 22 mm, inside diameter 15-19 mm, 55 mm in length) we made a bite block for laryngeal mask. We studied the strength of a new bite block experimentally and recognized its ability to bear the human biting. We conclude a new bite block for laryngeal mask is clinically useful and can be used during anesthesia for its fitness and safety.

  19. A verified spider bite and a review of the literature confirm Indian ornamental tree spiders (Poecilotheria species) as underestimated theraphosids of medical importance.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Joan; von Dechend, Margot; Mordasini, Raffaella; Ceschi, Alessandro; Nentwig, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Literature on bird spider or tarantula bites (Theraphosidae) is rare. This is astonishing as they are coveted pets and interaction with their keepers (feeding, cleaning the terrarium or taking them out to hold) might increase the possibility for bites. Yet, this seems to be a rare event and might be why most theraphosids are considered to be harmless, even though the urticating hairs of many American species can cause disagreeable allergic reactions. We are describing a case of a verified bite by an Indian ornamental tree spider (Poecilotheria regalis), where the patient developed severe, long lasting muscle cramps several hours after the bite. We present a comprehensive review of the literature on bites of these beautiful spiders and conclude that a delayed onset of severe muscle cramps, lasting for days, is characteristic for Poecilotheria bites. We discuss Poecilotheria species as an exception from the general assumption that theraphosid bites are harmless to humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biting behaviour of African malaria vectors: 1. where do the main vector species bite on the human body?

    PubMed

    Braack, Leo; Hunt, Richard; Koekemoer, Lizette L; Gericke, Anton; Munhenga, Givemore; Haddow, Andrew D; Becker, Piet; Okia, Michael; Kimera, Isaac; Coetzee, Maureen

    2015-02-04

    Malaria control in Africa relies heavily on indoor vector management, primarily indoor residual spraying and insecticide treated bed nets. Little is known about outdoor biting behaviour or even the dynamics of indoor biting and infection risk of sleeping household occupants. In this paper we explore the preferred biting sites on the human body and some of the ramifications regarding infection risk and exposure management. We undertook whole-night human landing catches of Anopheles arabiensis in South Africa and Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles funestus in Uganda, for seated persons wearing short sleeve shirts, short pants, and bare legs, ankles and feet. Catches were kept separate for different body regions and capture sessions. All An. gambiae s.l. and An. funestus group individuals were identified to species level by PCR. Three of the main vectors of malaria in Africa (An. arabiensis, An. gambiae s.s. and An. funestus) all have a preference for feeding close to ground level, which is manifested as a strong propensity (77.3% - 100%) for biting on lower leg, ankles and feet of people seated either indoors or outdoors, but somewhat randomly along the lower edge of the body in contact with the surface when lying down. If the lower extremities of the legs (below mid-calf level) of seated people are protected and therefore exclude access to this body region, vector mosquitoes do not move higher up the body to feed at alternate body sites, instead resulting in a high (58.5% - 68.8%) reduction in biting intensity by these three species. Protecting the lower limbs of people outdoors at night can achieve a major reduction in biting intensity by malaria vector mosquitoes. Persons sleeping at floor level bear a disproportionate risk of being bitten at night because this is the preferred height for feeding by the primary vector species. Therefore it is critical to protect children sleeping at floor level (bednets; repellent-impregnated blankets or sheets, etc

  1. Distributed network organization underlying feeding behavior in the mollusk Lymnaea.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Paul R

    2012-04-17

    The aim of the work reviewed here is to relate the properties of individual neurons to network organization and behavior using the feeding system of the gastropod mollusk, Lymnaea. Food ingestion in this animal involves sequences of rhythmic biting movements that are initiated by the application of a chemical food stimulus to the lips and esophagus. We investigated how individual neurons contribute to various network functions that are required for the generation of feeding behavior such as rhythm generation, initiation ('decision making'), modulation and hunger and satiety. The data support the view that feeding behavior is generated by a distributed type of network organization with individual neurons often contributing to more than one network function, sharing roles with other neurons. Multitasking in a distributed type of network would be 'economically' sensible in the Lymnaea feeding system where only about 100 neurons are available to carry out a variety of complex tasks performed by millions of neurons in the vertebrate nervous system. Having complementary and potentially alternative mechanisms for network functions would also add robustness to what is a 'noisy' network where variable firing rates and synaptic strengths are commonly encountered in electrophysiological recording experiments.

  2. Medical aspects of spider bites.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Richard S; Isbister, Geoffrey K

    2008-01-01

    Spiders have been incriminated as causes of human suffering for centuries, but few species worldwide cause medically significant envenomation. Widow spiders (Latrodectus spp.) occur worldwide and cause latrodectism, which is characterized by pain (local and generalized) associated with nonspecific systemic effects, diaphoresis, and less commonly other autonomic and neurological effects. Recluse spiders (Loxosceles spp.) are distributed mostly through the tropical and subtropical Western Hemisphere and can cause severe skin lesions and rarely systemic effects; most bites are unremarkable. Highly dangerous spiders in South America (armed spiders) and Australia (funnel-web spiders) cause rare but severe envenomation requiring medical intervention and sometimes antivenom. Most other spiders involved in verified bites cause minor, transient effects. Many spiders blamed for causing medical mischief have been elevated to medical significance via circumstantial evidence, poor reporting, and repetitive citation in the literature; several species have been shown to be harmless with more stringent scientific evidence involving verified bites in humans.

  3. Venomous bites, stings, and poisoning.

    PubMed

    Warrell, David A

    2012-06-01

    This article discusses the epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, first aid and medical treatment of venomous bites by snakes, lizards, and spiders; stings by fish, jellyfish, echinoderms, and insects; and poisoning by fish and molluscs, in all parts of the world. Of these envenoming and poisonings, snake bite causes the greatest burden of human suffering, killing 46,000 people each year in India alone and more than 100,000 worldwide and resulting in physical handicap in many survivors. Specific antidotes (antivenoms/antivenins) are available to treat envenoming by many of these taxa but supply and distribution is inadequate in many tropical developing countries. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. [Compartment syndrome following adder bites].

    PubMed

    Roed, Casper; Bayer, Lasse; Lebech, Anne-Mette Kjaer; Poulsen, Jesper Brøndum; Katzenstein, Terese

    2009-01-26

    Bites from the adder, Vipera Berus, can have serious clinical consequences due to systemic effects. Meanwhile, the local swelling calls for attention as well. Two cases of seven- and eleven-year-old boys are reported. The first patient was bitten in the 5th toe, the second in the thumb. Both developed fasciotomy-requiring compartment syndrome of the lower and upper limb, respectively. Recognition of this most seldom complication of an adder bite is vital to save the limb. We recommend that the classical signs and symptoms of compartment syndrome serve as indication for surgery. However, compartment pressure measurement can be helpful in the assessment of children.

  5. Teeth grinding, oral motor performance and maximal bite force in cerebral palsy children.

    PubMed

    Botti Rodrigues Santos, Maria Teresa; Duarte Ferreira, Maria Cristina; de Oliveira Guaré, Renata; Guimarães, Antonio Sergio; Lira Ortega, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Identify whether the degree of oral motor performance is related to the presence of teeth grinding and maximal bite force values in children with spastic cerebral palsy. Ninety-five spastic cerebral palsy children with and without teeth grinding, according to caregivers' reports, were submitted to a comprehensive oral motor performance evaluation during the feeding process using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Maximal bite force was measured using an electronic gnathodynamometer. The teeth grinding group (n = 42) was younger, used anticonvulsant drugs, and was more frequently classified within the subfunctional oral motor performance category. Teeth grinding subfunctional spastic cerebral palsy children presented lower values of maximal bite force. The functional groups showing the presence or absence of teeth grinding presented higher values of maximal bite force compared with the subfunctional groups. In spastic cerebral palsy children, teeth grinding is associated with the worse oral motor performance. © 2015 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Complementary and Integrative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical treatments that are not part of mainstream medicine. When you are using these types of care, it may be called complementary, integrative, or alternative medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with mainstream medical ...

  7. Jaw bite force measurement device.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis; Ilies, Horea; O'Brien, Brendan; McManus, Anne; Larrow, Beau

    2012-08-01

    We describe a cost-effective device that uses an off-the-shelf force transducer to measure patient bite force as a diagnostic aid in determining dental implant size, number of implants, and prosthetic design for restoring partial edentulism. The main advantages of the device are its accuracy, simplicity, modularity, ease of manufacturing, and low cost.

  8. Understanding and Preventing Tick Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... be effectively treated if it is diagnosed early. Tick bite prevention Tick-borne diseases occur worldwide, including in your own ... your personal tolerance level. Rash Lyme disease, southern tick-associated rash ... Spring 2017 Issue: Volume 12 Number 1 Page ...

  9. The management of snake bite*

    PubMed Central

    Reid, H. A.; Theakston, R. D. G.

    1983-01-01

    The present article reviews current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of snake bite, with particular reference to the situation in developing countries. There is little reliable information on the incidence of snake bite in many parts of the world, and epidemiological studies are needed, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to identify and quantify serum levels of venom antigen and antibody. The pathophysiology and clinical features of envenoming by medically important snakes are discussed. Antivenom, if used correctly, can reverse systemic poisoning even if given days after the bite. It is therefore wise to wait for the appearance of signs of systemic poisoning before administering antivenom, rather than using it routinely. WHO has designated the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine as a Collaborating Centre for the Control of Antivenoms, and this Centre now holds a collection of reference venoms from several important snake species. Characterization of these and of standard antivenoms should significantly improve the management of snake bite throughout the world. PMID:6609008

  10. Insect bites and what is eating you?

    PubMed

    Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-08-01

    Most insect bites cause local inflammatory reactions that subside within a few hours. However, more severe local symptoms, transmission of a disease-causing pathogen, and systemic allergic reactions are also possible. Mosquito bites can cause varying degrees of local swelling, papular urticaria in children, and rare systemic allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. Papular urticaria is a hypersensitivity reaction most often seen in children following mosquito and flea bites, although a variety of other bites have been implicated in smaller numbers of reports. Systemic allergic reactions can occur in response to the bites of mosquitoes, several types ofblood-sucking flies, fleas, kissing bugs, lice, and ticks.

  11. Bite force is limited by the force–length relationship of skeletal muscle in black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus

    PubMed Central

    Gidmark, Nicholas J.; Konow, Nicolai; LoPresti, Eric; Brainerd, Elizabeth L.

    2013-01-01

    Bite force is critical to feeding success, especially in animals that crush strong, brittle foods. Maximum bite force is typically measured as one value per individual, but the force–length relationship of skeletal muscle suggests that each individual should possess a range of gape height-specific, and, therefore, prey size-specific, bite forces. We characterized the influence of prey size on pharyngeal jaw bite force in the snail-eating black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus, family Cyprinidae), using feeding trials on artificial prey that varied independently in size and strength. We then measured jaw-closing muscle lengths in vivo for each prey size, and then determined the force–length relationship of the same muscle in situ using tetanic stimulations. Maximum bite force was surprisingly high: the largest individual produced nearly 700 N at optimal muscle length. Bite force decreased on large and small prey, which elicited long and short muscle lengths, respectively, demonstrating that the force–length relationship of skeletal muscle results in prey size-specific bite force. PMID:23407500

  12. Rat leucocyte response to the bites of rat fleas (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, J A; Jerse, A E; Azad, A F

    1989-09-01

    The host response to bites of the oriental rat flea, Xenopyslla cheopis Rothschild, was investigated by examining rat blood leucocyte kinetics, histopathology, and the effect that the host response had upon subsequent flea feeding and longevity. Test rats were subjected to controlled exposures of fleas, and leucocyte data from test rats were compared to those of unexposed controls. Of the five leucocyte types examined, only the basophil appeared to play a role in the host blood response to flea bites. Significant increases in blood basophil levels occurred 2-3 d after exposure but subsided to control levels within a week. However, flea feeding did not produce histopathology at the flea feeding sites nor did the basophilic blood response of rats affect subsequent feeding or longevity of the fleas.

  13. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura B.; Ross, Callum F.; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; O'Reilly, James C.; Evans, Susan E.; Fagan, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    In vivo bone strain data are the most direct evidence of deformation and strain regimes in the vertebrate cranium during feeding and can provide important insights into skull morphology. Strain data have been collected during feeding across a wide range of mammals; in contrast, in vivo cranial bone strain data have been collected from few sauropsid taxa. Here we present bone strain data recorded from the jugal of the herbivorous agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri along with simultaneously recorded bite force. Principal and shear strain magnitudes in Uromastyx geyri were lower than cranial bone strains recorded in Alligator mississippiensis, but higher than those reported from herbivorous mammals. Our results suggest that variations in principal strain orientations in the facial skeleton are largely due to differences in feeding behavior and bite location, whereas food type has little impact on strain orientations. Furthermore, mean principal strain orientations differ between male and female Uromastyx during feeding, potentially because of sexual dimorphism in skull morphology. PMID:24577443

  14. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  15. Comparison of bite-presentation methods in the treatment of food refusal.

    PubMed

    Sharp, William G; Harker, Shelly; Jaquess, David L

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the rate of expulsions and mouth cleans across 3 presentation methods (upright spoon, flipped spoon, Nuk brush) for a 3-year-old girl with a feeding disorder. The participant expelled all bites presented on an upright spoon. Results showed reduced rates of expulsions and increased mouth cleans during the flipped spoon and Nuk brush presentation methods.

  16. Papular Dermatitis Induced in Guinea Pig by Biting Midge Culicoides Sonorensis (Diptera: Ceratopogonidaie)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Histological, ultrastructural, and virological examinations were performed on abdominal skin from guinea pigs after a blood meal by colony-bred biting midges, Culicoides sonorensis. Small, superficial, cutaneous, crateriform ulcers with necrosis of superficial dermis developed at feeding sites and h...

  17. Comparison of Bite-Presentation Methods in the Treatment of Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William G.; Harker, Shelly; Jaquess, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the rate of expulsions and mouth cleans across 3 presentation methods (upright spoon, flipped spoon, Nuk brush) for a 3-year-old girl with a feeding disorder. The participant expelled all bites presented on an upright spoon. Results showed reduced rates of expulsions and increased mouth cleans during the flipped spoon…

  18. Using Descriptive Assessment in the Treatment of Bite Acceptance and Food Refusal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Perrin, Christopher J.; Lesser, Aaron D.; Perrin, Stefanie H.; Casey, Cheryl L.; Reed, Gregory K.

    2009-01-01

    The feeding behaviors of two children who maintained failure to thrive diagnoses and displayed food refusal are assessed in their homes. Descriptive assessments are used to identify schedules of consequence provided by each child's care providers for bite acceptance and food refusal behaviors. Assessments reveal rich schedules of praise and access…

  19. Evaluating and treating mammalian bites.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Donna; Landon, Alexandra; Powell, Jennifer; Brown, Gina R

    2017-03-01

    Mammalian bites, typically from dogs, cats, or humans, are a common presentation in EDs and family practice settings, and patients present with varying degrees of complexity. Injuries can range from local to systemic, including aggressive bacterial infections and permanent limb impairment. Using a systematic approach to initial wound assessment, followed by appropriate diagnostic testing and treatment, is critical to improved long-term patient outcomes.

  20. Combined finite element and multibody dynamics analysis of biting in a Uromastyx hardwickii lizard skull

    PubMed Central

    Moazen, M; Curtis, N; Evans, S E; O'Higgins, P; Fagan, M J

    2008-01-01

    Lizard skulls vary greatly in shape and construction, and radical changes in skull form during evolution have made this an intriguing subject of research. The mechanics of feeding have surely been affected by this change in skull form, but whether this is the driving force behind the change is the underlying question that we are aiming to address in a programme of research. Here we have implemented a combined finite element analysis (FEA) and multibody dynamics analysis (MDA) to assess skull biomechanics during biting. A skull of Uromastyx hardwickii was assessed in the present study, where loading data (such as muscle force, bite force and joint reaction) for a biting cycle were obtained from an MDA and applied to load a finite element model. Fifty load steps corresponding to bilateral biting towards the front, middle and back of the dentition were implemented. Our results show the importance of performing MDA as a preliminary step to FEA, and provide an insight into the variation of stress during biting. Our findings show that higher stress occurs in regions where cranial sutures are located in functioning skulls, and as such support the hypothesis that sutures may play a pivotal role in relieving stress and producing a more uniform pattern of stress distribution across the skull. Additionally, we demonstrate how varying bite point affects stress distributions and relate stress distributions to the evolution of metakinesis in the amniote skull. PMID:19014357

  1. Monkey Bites among US Military Members, Afghanistan, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Katheryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September–December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment. PMID:23017939

  2. Human Bites in the Classroom: Incidence, Treatment, and Complications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Helen Acree

    2007-01-01

    It has been estimated that at least one half of the population will experience some type of bite in their lifetime. Human bites are the third leading cause of all bites seen in hospital emergency departments after dog and cat bites. Human bites can be the source of exposure to body fluids, transmission of communicable diseases, infections ranging…

  3. Human Bites in the Classroom: Incidence, Treatment, and Complications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlon, Helen Acree

    2007-01-01

    It has been estimated that at least one half of the population will experience some type of bite in their lifetime. Human bites are the third leading cause of all bites seen in hospital emergency departments after dog and cat bites. Human bites can be the source of exposure to body fluids, transmission of communicable diseases, infections ranging…

  4. Monkey bites among US military members, Afghanistan, 2011.

    PubMed

    Mease, Luke E; Baker, Katheryn A

    2012-10-01

    Bites from Macaca mulatta monkeys, native to Afghanistan, can cause serious infections. To determine risk for US military members in Afghanistan, we reviewed records for September-December 2011. Among 126 animal bites and exposures, 10 were monkey bites. Command emphasis is vital for preventing monkey bites; provider training and bite reporting promote postexposure treatment.

  5. Prevention and treatment of dog bites.

    PubMed

    Presutti, R J

    2001-04-15

    Almost one half of all dog bites involve an animal owned by the victim's family or neighbors. A large percentage of dog bite victims are children. Although some breeds of dogs have been identified as being more aggressive than other breeds, any dog may attack when threatened. All dog bites carry a risk of infection, but immediate copious irrigation can significantly decrease that risk. Assessment for the risk of tetanus and rabies virus infection, and subsequent selection of prophylactic antibiotics, are essential in the management of dog bites. The dog bite injury should be documented with photographs and diagrams when appropriate. Family physicians should educate parents and children on ways to prevent dog bites.

  6. Swiss prospective study on spider bites.

    PubMed

    Gnädinger, Markus; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Joan; Ceschi, Alessandro

    2013-09-04

    Knowledge of spider bites in Central Europe derives mainly from anecdotal case presentations; therefore we aimed to collect cases systematically. From June 2011 to November 2012 we prospectively collected 17 cases of alleged spider bites, and together with two spontaneous notifications later on, our database totaled 19 cases. Among them, eight cases could be verified. The causative species were: Cheiracanthium punctorium (3), Zoropsis spinimana (2), Amaurobius ferox, Tegenaria atrica and Malthonica ferruginea (1 each). Clinical presentation was generally mild, with the exception of Cheiracanthium punctorium, and patients recovered fully without sequelae. In Switzerland, spider bites generally have a benign clinical course, which is characterised by minor effects, with rapid and complete recovery. Since only verified spider bites can be regarded as spider bites, in the case of clinically important arachnidism, the spider should be sent to an expert for identification. Our study may help to diminish spider fear and reassure people who have experienced a bite.

  7. Lizard Bite Masquerading as Scorpion Sting Envenomation

    PubMed Central

    Neelannavar, Ramesh; Patil, Shankargouda; Lakhkar, Bhavana; Shegji, Vijaykumar

    2016-01-01

    Lizard bite is very infrequent in children. Lizards tend to avoid confrontation. Bites are only inflicted when they are manipulated or when they are cornered and feel threatened. Lizard bites may be frightening but most do not cause serious health problems. The wall lizard or gecko, found in most homes, is not poisonous at all. It only checks insect population. A two-year-old boy was brought with history of lizard bite over right hand when he was trying to capture it. The child had experienced excessive sweating and irritability within two hours of bite. He was treated with supportive care. Prazosin hydrochloride was administered in the dose of 30μ/kg as his symptoms mimicked the autonomic storm which is typically seen with scorpion sting envenomation. To the best of our knowledge autonomic storm following lizard bite has not been reported in the Indian literature so far. PMID:28050465

  8. Phermonal Control of Biting Midges (Culicoides SPP).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-28

    AD-A113 915 FLORIDA MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY LAB VERO BEACH F/G 6/3 PHERMONAL CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP ).(U) APR 82 J R LINLEY» D A...BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) By Dr. 0. R. Linley, co-principal investigator, Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Institute of Food and...CONTROL OF BITING MIDGES ( CULICOIDES SPP .) Annual ’ 35/01/81-04/30/82 7. AUTHORS J. R. Unley 0. A. Carlson » PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME

  9. The anterior open bite problem (infraclusion).

    PubMed

    Champagne, M

    1995-06-01

    Anterior open bite is a major orthodontic problem that is very difficult to treat (Fig. 1). It may not be the most frequent problem but it is a major functional problem. Quite often it is very difficult to correct an anterior open bite problem and even more difficult to treat in an adult after growth. Most of the time anterior open bite is a myofunctional problem related to a bad habit like thumb or finger sucking and/or is related to a breathing and swallowing problem. How can we understand the functional open bite problem? What are the available treatment options? This article will try to answer some of these questions.

  10. Standards and practices for bite mark photography.

    PubMed

    Golden, G S

    2011-12-01

    In most crimes where bite marks are discovered, photographic accuracy is crucial to the investigative process since in many instances the bite mark(s) may be the only evidence linking a particular suspect to the crime. Therefore, the rationale for employing superior photographic principles is mandatory for the investigation team. This paper will discuss current standards, best practice, and armamentaria for digital photography of bite mark injuries on skin. Full spectrum protocols will be described including Alternate Light Imaging, Reflective Ultra-violet, and Infrared techniques for photo-documentation of images of bite marks and other bruise patterns that have been inflicted on human skin.

  11. Complementary and Integrative Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... relieve side effects of treatment or the breast cancer itself. Complementary therapies are used along with (not instead of) standard ... Some can be harmful for people going through cancer treatment. Is complementary therapy right for you? 1 Talk with your doctor. ...

  12. Can we get AIDS from mosquito bites?

    PubMed

    Iqbal, M M

    1999-08-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, is a human retrovirus that infects lymphocytes and other cells bearing the CD4 surface marker. The virus is transmitted primarily by sexual and parental routes. There are two ways blood feeding arthropods can spread disease, mechanically, by simple transfer of virus between hosts by contaminated mouth parts, or, biologically, which would require virus replication in arthropod tissues (especially salivary glands). There are some important factors which have proven that AIDS is not transmitted by mosquito bite. These factors are: (1) AIDS virus can not replicate inside the mosquito, bed bug, flea, or other blood sucking insect and the lack of replication of HIV in arthropod cells due to lack of T4 antigen on cell surface, and (2) it is unlikely that HIV is transmitted by insects, given the low infectivity of HIV and the short survival of the virus in the mosquito. HIV appears to be much less easily transmitted probably due to lower titers of virus in body fluids. So, on the basis of experimental evidence and probability estimates, it has been concluded that the likelihood of mechanical or biological transmission of HIV by insects is virtually nonexistent.

  13. Insights into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Gregory M.; Gignac, Paul M.; Steppan, Scott J.; Lappin, A. Kristopher; Vliet, Kent A.; Brueggen, John D.; Inouye, Brian D.; Kledzik, David; Webb, Grahame J. W.

    2012-01-01

    Background Crocodilians have dominated predatory niches at the water-land interface for over 85 million years. Like their ancestors, living species show substantial variation in their jaw proportions, dental form and body size. These differences are often assumed to reflect anatomical specialization related to feeding and niche occupation, but quantified data are scant. How these factors relate to biomechanical performance during feeding and their relevance to crocodilian evolutionary success are not known. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured adult bite forces and tooth pressures in all 23 extant crocodilian species and analyzed the results in ecological and phylogenetic contexts. We demonstrate that these reptiles generate the highest bite forces and tooth pressures known for any living animals. Bite forces strongly correlate with body size, and size changes are a major mechanism of feeding evolution in this group. Jaw shape demonstrates surprisingly little correlation to bite force and pressures. Bite forces can now be predicted in fossil crocodilians using the regression equations generated in this research. Conclusions/Significance Critical to crocodilian long-term success was the evolution of a high bite-force generating musculo-skeletal architecture. Once achieved, the relative force capacities of this system went essentially unmodified throughout subsequent diversification. Rampant changes in body size and concurrent changes in bite force served as a mechanism to allow access to differing prey types and sizes. Further access to the diversity of near-shore prey was gained primarily through changes in tooth pressure via the evolution of dental form and distributions of the teeth within the jaws. Rostral proportions changed substantially throughout crocodilian evolution, but not in correspondence with bite forces. The biomechanical and ecological ramifications of such changes need further examination. PMID:22431965

  14. Chigger bite - close-up of blisters (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... larvae of the chigger. The bite produces blisters (vesicles) and bleeding into the skin (purpura). These bites ... the chigger larvae have access. This photograph demonstrates vesicle formation following the bites.

  15. Increased Transmissibility of Leishmania donovani From the Mammalian Host to Vector Sand Flies After Multiple Exposures to Sand Fly Bites.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Joanna G; Paun, Andrea; Inbar, Ehud; Romano, Audrey; Lewis, Michael; Ghosh, Kashinath; Sacks, David

    2017-04-15

    Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. The role of the blood or skin as a source of infection to sand flies remains unclear, and the possible effect of multiple exposures to fly bites on transmissibility has not been addressed. L. donovani-infected hamsters underwent xenodiagnoses with Lutzomyia longipalpis on the same or different sites on the abdomen on 2 consecutive days or by artificial feeding on the skin or blood. The transmission of L. donovani from sick hamsters to flies was surprisingly low (mean, 24% of fed flies). New flies fed on the same site acquired significantly more infections (mean, 61%; P < .0001). By artificial feeding, flies could acquire infection from blood and skin. However, only artificial feeding on blood produced infections that correlated with the natural feeding (R = 0.792; P < .0001). Infections acquired from blood increased dramatically for blood obtained after exposure to bites, as did the parasitemia level and the number of monocytes in the circulation. The bites of uninfected sand flies favor the transmissibility of L. donovani by infected hosts, owing to a systemic effect that exposure to bites has on the parasitemia. Patients with active visceral leishmaniasis are important reservoirs in the anthroponotic transmission cycle of Leishmania donovani. Using the hamster model of visceral disease, we demonstrate that prior exposure to bites of uninfected sand flies potentiates their ability to transmit infection to the vector.

  16. Seasonal and interannual variations in feeding station behavior of cattle: effects of sward and meteorological conditions.

    PubMed

    Hirata, M; Matsumoto, Y; Izumi, S; Soga, Y; Hirota, F; Tobisa, M

    2015-04-01

    A feeding station is the area of forage a grazing animal can reach without moving its forefeet. Grazing behavior can be divided into residence within feeding stations (with bites as benefits) and movement between feeding stations (with steps as costs). However, relatively little information has been reported on how grazing animals modify their feeding station behavior seasonally and interannually in response to varying environmental conditions. The feeding station behavior of beef cows (Japanese Black) stocked on a tropical grass pasture (bahiagrass dominant) was monitored for 4 years (2010 to 2013) in order to investigate the association of feeding station behavior with meteorological and sward conditions across the seasons and years. Mean air temperature during stocking often exceeded 30°C during summer months. A severe summer drought in 2013 decreased herbage mass and sward height of the pasture and increased nitrogen concentration of herbage from summer to autumn. A markedly high feeding station number per unit foraging time, low bite numbers per feeding station and a low bite rate were observed in summer 2013 compared with the other seasons and years. Bite number per feeding station was explained by a multiple regression equation, where sward height and dry matter digestibility of herbage had a positive effect, whereas air temperature during stocking had a negative effect (R 2=0.658, P<0.01). Feeding station number per minute was negatively correlated with bite number per feeding station (r=-0.838, P<0.001). It was interpreted that cows modified bite number per feeding station in response to the sward and meteorological conditions, and this largely determined the number of feeding stations the animals visited per minute. The results indicate potential value of bite number per feeding station as an indicator of daily intake in grazing animals, and an opportunity for livestock and pasture managers to control feeding station behavior of animals through

  17. Rattlesnake Bites in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Butner, Alfred N.

    1983-01-01

    In a series of 59 cases of rattlesnake bites at two major northern California hospitals, no deaths occurred, no amputations or fasciotomies were required and only one patient had tissue necrosis requiring a graft. Because patients are being seen in major medical facilities earlier, envenomation is encountered in earlier stages. Less specific national standards of treatment, therefore, should receive less emphasis than treatment based on the virulence of the snakes in the particular geographic region. Initial doses of antivenin given intravenously should be based on the degree of envenomation, with additional titration done for worsening symptoms. PMID:6636730

  18. [Tularemia transmitted by arthropod bites].

    PubMed

    Misić-Majerus, L; Bujić, N; Madarić, V

    1996-01-01

    The authors present four patients affected with tularaemia in Koprivnica-Krizevci region. The disease occurred in the period from April to September 1994, in 3 males and 1 female patient, aged 9-49 years. In all affected persons the infections were transmitted after bites of arthropods, ticks or other insects. The disease was clinically manifested as ulceroglandular form, without complications and relapses. The diagnosis was established by anamnestic and epidemiological data, clinical picture, the course of the disease, laboratory findings, tularin test and specific agglutination test (two samples). All patients were successfully treated with doxycyclin.

  19. Feeding biomechanics of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, over ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Motta, Philip J; Grubbs, R Dean

    2015-01-01

    Growth affects the performance of structure, so the pattern of growth must influence the role of a structure and an organism. Because animal performance is linked to morphological specialization, ontogenetic change in size may influence an organism's biological role. High bite force generation is presumably selected for in durophagous taxa. Therefore, these animals provide an excellent study system for investigating biomechanical consequences of growth on performance. An ontogenetic series of 27 cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) were dissected in order to develop a biomechanical model of the feeding mechanism, which was then compared with bite forces measured from live rays. Mechanical advantage of the feeding apparatus was generally conserved throughout ontogeny, while an increase in the mass and cross-sectional area of the jaw adductors resulted in allometric gains in bite force generation. Of primary importance to forceful biting in this taxon is the use of a fibrocartilaginous tendon associated with the insertion of the primary jaw adductor division. This tendon may serve to redirect muscle forces anteriorly, transmitting them within the plane of biting. Measured bite forces obtained through electrostimulation of the jaw adductors in live rays were higher than predicted, possibly due to differences in specific tension of actual batoid muscle and that used in the model. Mass-specific bite forces in these rays are the highest recorded for elasmobranchs. Cownose rays exemplify a species that, through allometric growth of bite performance and morphological novelties, have expanded their ecological performance over ontogeny. PMID:26183820

  20. Feeding biomechanics of the cownose ray, Rhinoptera bonasus, over ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Kolmann, Matthew A; Huber, Daniel R; Motta, Philip J; Grubbs, R Dean

    2015-09-01

    Growth affects the performance of structure, so the pattern of growth must influence the role of a structure and an organism. Because animal performance is linked to morphological specialization, ontogenetic change in size may influence an organism's biological role. High bite force generation is presumably selected for in durophagous taxa. Therefore, these animals provide an excellent study system for investigating biomechanical consequences of growth on performance. An ontogenetic series of 27 cownose rays (Rhinoptera bonasus) were dissected in order to develop a biomechanical model of the feeding mechanism, which was then compared with bite forces measured from live rays. Mechanical advantage of the feeding apparatus was generally conserved throughout ontogeny, while an increase in the mass and cross-sectional area of the jaw adductors resulted in allometric gains in bite force generation. Of primary importance to forceful biting in this taxon is the use of a fibrocartilaginous tendon associated with the insertion of the primary jaw adductor division. This tendon may serve to redirect muscle forces anteriorly, transmitting them within the plane of biting. Measured bite forces obtained through electrostimulation of the jaw adductors in live rays were higher than predicted, possibly due to differences in specific tension of actual batoid muscle and that used in the model. Mass-specific bite forces in these rays are the highest recorded for elasmobranchs. Cownose rays exemplify a species that, through allometric growth of bite performance and morphological novelties, have expanded their ecological performance over ontogeny.

  1. Influence of bite force on jaw muscle activity ratios in subject-controlled unilateral isometric biting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Pröschel, Peter Alfred; Morneburg, Thomas Riccardo

    2010-10-01

    Ratios of muscle activities in unilateral isometric biting are assumed to provide information on strategies of muscle activation independently from bite force. If valid, this assumption would facilitate experiments as it would justify subject-control instead of transducer-based force control in biting studies. As force independence of ratios is controversial, we tested whether activity ratios are associated with bite force and whether this could affect findings based on subject-controlled force. In 52 subjects, bite force and bilateral masseter and temporalis electromyograms were recorded during unilateral biting on a transducer with varying force levels and with uniform subject-controlled force. Working/balancing and temporalis/masseter ratios of activity peaks were related to bite force peaks. Activity ratios were significantly but weakly correlated with the bite force. The subject-controlled force varied within +/-25% around the prescribed force in 95% of all bites. This scatter could cause a variation of group mean activity ratios of at most +/-6% because of the weak correlation between bite force and ratios. As this small variation is negligible in most cases, subject-control of bite force can be considered an appropriate method to obtain group means of relative muscle activation in particular when force control with transducers is not feasible.

  2. Dog bites: how big a problem?

    PubMed Central

    Sacks, J. J.; Kresnow, M.; Houston, B.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the magnitude of the dog bite problem in the US. METHODS: Data on dog bites were gathered as part of a 1994 national telephone survey of 5,238 randomly dialed households. Data were weighted to provide national estimates. RESULTS: The weighted total number of dog bites was 4,494,083 (estimated incidence = 18/1,000 population); of these, 756,701 persons sustained bites necessitating medical attention (incidence rate = 3/1,000). Children had 3.2 times higher medically attended bite rates than adults (6.4/1,000 children v 2/1,000 adults). CONCLUSIONS: More attention and research needs to be devoted to the prevention of dog bites. Potential prevention strategies include: educational programs on canine behavior, especially directed at children; laws for regulating dangerous or vicious dogs; enhanced animal control programs; and educational programs regarding responsible dog ownership and training. Unfortunately, the relative or absolute effectiveness of any of these strategies has not been assessed. Continuing surveillance for dog bites will be needed if we are to better understand how to reduce the incidence of dog bites and evaluate prevention efforts. Images PMID:9346056

  3. Biting Midges: Current Status and Trends

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biting midges are a significant pest of livestock and humans. They often emerge in huge numbers that can be a major annoyance as well as lead to serious livestock issues. This group of biting flies is known to vector numerous important livestock diseases including bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic d...

  4. Bite Injuries at a Day Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomons, Hope C.; Elardo, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the incidence of bites among reported accidents to children in a university day care center over a 42-month period in an effort to examine the ways in which bites varied by age, sex, body part injured, cause of injury, season, and time of day. (BB)

  5. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  6. Severe Japanese Mamushi (Gloydius blomhoffii) bite.

    PubMed

    Toh Yoon, Ezekiel Wong; Otani, Yuichiro; Kabuto, Syu

    2017-09-01

    Venomous snake bites can be life threatening, occasionally requiring intensive care. For Mamushi bites, conservative treatment may be possible in mild cases but for severe cases or in cases where symptoms do not improve, a horse-derived antivenom is indicated.

  7. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Nail Biting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufrene, Brad A.; Watson, T. Steuart; Kazmerski, Jennifer S.

    2008-01-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a…

  8. Iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2010-09-01

    Although thousands of iguanas are kept as pets in the United States, information on their bites is limited. The intent of this investigation was to describe the pattern of iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers. Iguana bites reported during 1998-2008 were identified. The distribution of cases by various factors was determined. Of 59 total bites, 71% were managed on-site, 17% of the patients were at or en route to a health care facility when the poison center was contacted, and 10% were referred to a health care facility. The medical outcome was no effect in 9% of the cases, minor effect in 24%, moderate effect in 2%, not followed but minimal effects possible in 64%, and unable to follow but potentially toxic in 2%. Most iguana bites reported to Texas poison centers did not result in serious effects and were managed on-site.

  9. Dental follicle infection following a dog bite.

    PubMed

    Wright, G; Muir, M L; Bryan, R; Smith, A J; Hosey, M T

    2006-03-01

    Animal bite wounds and their subsequent infection are relatively common. Incidence rates for dog bites are significantly higher among children aged 0-9 years, especially among boys. Although bite wounds may initially look innocuous, they frequently lead to serious infection with a potential for life-threatening complications. The microbiology of dog bite wounds is usually polymicrobial, typically including anaerobes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella species. A case is described of a 22-month-old boy who, subsequent to a dog bite over the left maxilla, suffered infection of the dental follicle of the primary maxillary canine with Pasteurella multocida. The infection proved difficult to treat, requiring several attempts at incision and drainage of the abscess together with systemic antibiotics, and resulted in the eventual loss of the tooth.

  10. Tick Bite Alopecia: A Report and Review.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Michael C; Milchak, Marissa A; Parnes, Herbert; Ioffreda, Michael D

    2016-11-01

    Tick bites can cause a number of local inflammatory reactions, which are often difficult to differentiate from those induced by other arthropod bites or stings. These include erythematous nodular or pustular lesions, erosive plaques, annular lesions of erythema chronicum migrans, and both scarring and nonscarring inflammatory alopecia. We report a case of nonscarring alopecia in a 21-year-old male who reported a recent history of tick bite to the scalp. The biopsy demonstrated a dense pseudolymphomatous inflammatory infiltrate with numerous eosinophils associated with hair follicle miniaturization and an elevated catagen-telogen count. Signs of external rubbing, including lichen simplex chronicus and the "hamburger sign", were also visualized and are indicative of the associated pruritus. To the authors' knowledge, this is the fifth report of nonscarring tick bite alopecia in the literature and the first in an adult patient. This text will review the classic clinical presentation, histologic findings, and proposed mechanism of tick bite alopecia.

  11. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... use practices like acupuncture in medicine. But until recently, most Western hospitals didn't provide any alternative ... medicine is often used instead of conventional medical techniques. Complementary medicine is used in addition to conventional ...

  12. Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... on some complementary approaches, such as acupuncture and yoga, but there have been fewer studies on other approaches, so much less is known about them. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is sponsoring research to learn more about ...

  13. Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... their care. Some approaches like meditation, yoga, and massage therapy are known as “complementary medicine” because they “ ... variety of procedures and techniques, such as acupuncture, massage therapy, spinal manipulation, yoga, tai chi and qi ...

  14. Cranial myology and bite force performance of Erlikosaurus andrewsi: a novel approach for digital muscle reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Lautenschlager, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of bite force and bite performance in fossil and extinct animals is a challenging subject in palaeontology and is highly dependent on the reconstruction of the cranial myology. Furthermore, the morphology and arrangement of the adductor muscles considerably affect feeding processes and mastication and thus also have important dietary and ecological ramifications. However, in the past, the reconstruction of the (cranial) muscles was restricted to the identification of muscle attachment sites or simplified computer models. This study presents a detailed reconstruction of the adductor musculature of the Cretaceous therizinosaur Erlikosaurus andrewsi based on a stepwise and iterative approach. The detailed, three-dimensional models of the individual muscles allow for more accurate measurements of the muscle properties (length, cross-section, attachment angle and volume), from which muscle and bite force estimates are calculated. Bite force estimations are found to be the lowest at the tip of the snout (43–65 N) and respectively higher at the first (59–88 N) and last tooth (90–134 N) position. Nevertheless, bite forces are comparatively low for E. andrewsi, both in actual numbers as well as in comparison with other theropod dinosaurs. The results further indicate that the low bite performance was mainly used for leaf-stripping and plant cropping, rather than active mastication or chewing processes. Muscle and thus bite force in E. andrewsi (and most likely all therizinosaurs) is considerably constrained by the cranial anatomy and declines in derived taxa of this clade. This trend is reflected in the changes of dietary preferences from carnivory to herbivory in therizinosaurs. PMID:23061752

  15. Australian wolf spider bites (Lycosidae): clinical effects and influence of species on bite circumstances.

    PubMed

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Framenau, Volker W

    2004-01-01

    Necrotic arachnidism continues to be attributed to wolf spider bites. This study investigates the clinical effects of bites by wolf spiders in Australia (family Lycosidae). Subjects were recruited prospectively from February 1999 to April 2001 from participating emergency departments or state poison information centers. Subjects were included if they had a definite bite by a wolf spider and had collected the spider, which was later identified by an arachnologist. Spiders were identified to the lowest taxonomic level possible and cephalothorax width was measured to correlate bite effects and spider size. There were 45 definite wolf spider bites (23 male and 22 female patients; age range 1 to 69 years, median age 28 years). Species level identifications (14 species) were possible for 31 of 43 spiders belonging to seven different generic groupings. Most bites were by spiders from four generic groupings, Tasmanicosa (including 'Lycosa') (15), Venatrix (8), Venator (10), and Hogna (7). Bites occurred more commonly in south-eastern Australia and occurred throughout the year, with 7 bites (16%) in late autumn or winter. In 7 cases (16%) the person was swimming in or cleaning a pool. Seventy-two percent of bites occurred on distal parts of limbs. Pain occurred in all bites and was severe in 11 cases (24%), with a median duration of 10 min (IQR: 2-60 min). Other effects included puncture marks/bleeding (33%), swelling (20%), redness (67%), and itchiness (13%). Minor systemic effects occurred in three patients (7%): nausea (two), headache (one) and malaise (one). There were no cases of necrotic ulcers [0%; 97.5% CI 0-8%]. Tasmanicosa spider bites caused significantly more itchiness and redness, and large spiders (>5 mm) more often caused severe pain and left fang marks. Wolf spider bites cause minor effects, no more severe than most other spiders, and do not appear to cause necrotic ulcers. The effects are likely to be due to mechanical injury, although minor local

  16. Confirmation of tick bite by detection of antibody to Ixodes calreticulin salivary protein.

    PubMed

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J

    2006-11-01

    Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne infection and the immune response to tick bite, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibody to a recombinant form of calreticulin protein found in the salivary glands of Ixodes scapularis, a member of a complex of Ixodes ticks that serve as the vectors for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Using this assay, we tested sera obtained from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice before and after experimental deer tick infestation. These mice developed antibody to Ixodes calreticulin antigen after infestation. We then used the same assay to test sera obtained from people before and after they experienced deer tick bite(s). People experiencing deer tick bite(s) developed Ixodes calreticulin-specific antibody responses that persisted for up to 17 months. This Ixodes recombinant calreticulin ELISA provides objective evidence of deer tick exposure in people.

  17. Confirmation of Tick Bite by Detection of Antibody to Ixodes Calreticulin Salivary Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Alarcon-Chaidez, Francisco; Ryan, Raymond; Wikel, Stephen; Dardick, Kenneth; Lawler, Caroline; Foppa, Ivo M.; Tomas, Patricio; Cushman, Alexis; Hsieh, Ann; Spielman, Andrew; Bouchard, Keith R.; Dias, Filiciano; Aslanzadeh, Jaber; Krause, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Ticks introduce a variety of pharmacologically active molecules into their host during attachment and feeding in order to obtain a blood meal. People who are repeatedly exposed to ticks may develop an immune response to tick salivary proteins. Despite this response, people usually are unaware of having been bitten, especially if they are not repeatedly exposed to ticks. In order to develop a laboratory marker of tick exposure that would be useful in understanding the epidemiology of tick-borne infection and the immune response to tick bite, we developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibody to a recombinant form of calreticulin protein found in the salivary glands of Ixodes scapularis, a member of a complex of Ixodes ticks that serve as the vectors for Lyme disease, human babesiosis, and human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Using this assay, we tested sera obtained from C3H/HeN and BALB/c mice before and after experimental deer tick infestation. These mice developed antibody to Ixodes calreticulin antigen after infestation. We then used the same assay to test sera obtained from people before and after they experienced deer tick bite(s). People experiencing deer tick bite(s) developed Ixodes calreticulin-specific antibody responses that persisted for up to 17 months. This Ixodes recombinant calreticulin ELISA provides objective evidence of deer tick exposure in people. PMID:16928887

  18. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Rock, K S; Wood, D A; Keeling, M J

    2015-09-01

    The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host-vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought.

  19. The effect of treatment of skeletal open bite with two types of bite-blocks.

    PubMed

    Kuster, R; Ingervall, B

    1992-12-01

    The treatment of anterior skeletal open bite was studied in two groups of children. The children of one group wore a removable spring-loaded bite-block in the lower jaw for one year. The bite-block exerted an intrusive force on the upper and lower posterior teeth. The children of the other group were treated for 3 months with bite-blocks with repelling magnets. These bite-blocks were cemented on the posterior teeth of both jaws. The effects of treatment were monitored by measurement of the bite-force (group with spring bite-blocks only), by electromyographic recording of the activity of the temporal and masseter muscles, and by X-ray cephalometry. Recordings were made before, during, and at the end of the treatment, and at a follow-up observation. The bite-force increased during the first months of treatment, but was then unchanged. The activity of the masseter muscle during maximal bite also increased in the first part of the period of treatment with a spring bite-block. In the group treated with magnetic bite-blocks, there was an increase in the resting activity of the masseter muscle and in the chewing activity of the anterior temporal muscle. The effects of the treatment on bite and facial morphology were less marked in the group with spring bite-blocks than in the group with magnetic bite-blocks, with an average improvement of the overbite of 1.3 mm with the spring bite-block therapy. In the group with magnetic bite-blocks, the average improvement in overbite was 3 mm. This was thought to be due to anterior rotation of the mandible and increased eruption of the incisors. The mandibular rotation was a result of intrusion of the upper and lower posterior teeth and possibly also increased mandibular growth. A follow-up of the cases treated with magnetic bite-blocks revealed a tendency for the beneficial effects of the treatment to relapse which possibly could be counteracted by a long phase of active retention.

  20. Lateral open bite: treatment and stability.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Marise de Castro; Cabrera, Carlos Alberto Gregório; de Freitas, Karina Maria Salvatore; Janson, Guilherme; de Freitas, Marcos Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Because of their multifactorial etiologies, dental and skeletal open bites are among the most difficult malocclusions to treat to a successful and stable result. Etiologic factors include vertical maxillary excess, skeletal pattern, abnormalities in dental eruption, and tongue-thrust problems. The purpose of this article was to report the treatment of an adult patient with a lateral open bite and a unilateral posterior crossbite. The treatment involved nonextraction therapy, including intermaxillary elastics, to obtain dentoalveolar extrusion in the region of the lateral open bite. The treatment results were successful and remained stable 2 years later. Copyright (c) 2010 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Functional analysis and treatment of nail biting.

    PubMed

    Dufrene, Brad A; Steuart Watson, T; Kazmerski, Jennifer S

    2008-11-01

    This study applied functional analysis methodology to nail biting exhibited by a 24-year-old female graduate student. Results from the brief functional analysis indicated variability in nail biting across assessment conditions. Functional analysis data were then used to guide treatment development and implementation. Treatment included a simplified habit reversal package that was modified based on results of the functional analysis. Following treatment implementation, nail biting decreased as evidenced by consistent nail growth and participant self-recorded data. Results are discussed in terms of treatment utility of functional analysis methodology for novel populations and response topographies.

  2. Blood feeding behavior of the stable fly

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stable fly is a fly that looks similar to a house fly but both sexes are blood feeders. Blood is required for successful fertilization and development of eggs. Bites are painful but there is usually no pain after the fly stops feeding. The stable fly is a persistent feeder and will continue trying t...

  3. Effectiveness of the National Program of Complementary Feeding for older adults in Chile on vitamin B12 status in older adults; secondary outcome analysis from the CENEX Study (ISRCTN48153354).

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Hugo; Albala, Cecilia; Lera, Lydia; Dangour, Alan D; Uauy, Ricardo

    2013-09-09

    Older people are at increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and the provision of fortified foods may be an effective way to ensure good vitamin B12 status in later life. To evaluate the effectiveness of a vitamin B12 fortified food provided by a national program of complementary food for older people on plasma vitamin B12 levels. A random sub-sample of 351 subjects aged 65-67 y from a large cluster randomised controlled trial provided blood samples at baseline and after 24 months of intervention. The intervention arm (10 clusters 186 participants) received a vitamin B12 fortified food designed to deliver 1.4 μg/day, while the control arm did not receive complementary food (10 clusters, 165 participants). Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels determined by radioimmunoassay were used to estimate the effect of intervention on vitamin B12 levels, adjusting for baseline levels and sex. Attrition at 24 months was 16.7% and 23.6% in the intervention and control arms respectively (p = 0.07). Over 24 months of intervention, mean (95% CI) serum vitamin B12 decreased from 392 (359-425) pmol/dL to 357 (300-414) pmol/dL (p < 0.07) in the intervention arm and from 395 (350-440) pmol/dL to 351 (308-395) pmol/dL in the control arm. There was no significant effect of the intervention on folate status. Our findings suggest that foods fortified with 1.4 μg/daily vitamin B12 as provided by Chile's national programme for older people are insufficient to ensure adequate vitamin B12 levels in this population. Chile has a long and successful experience with nutrition intervention programs; however, the country's changing demographic and nutritional profiles require a constant adjustment of the programs.

  4. The salivary secretome of the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis

    PubMed Central

    Lehiy, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are hematophagous insects with over 1400 species distributed throughout the world. Many of these species are of particular agricultural importance as primary vectors of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, yet little is known about Culicoides genomics and proteomics. Detailed studies of members from other blood-feeding Dipteran families, including those of mosquito (Culicidae) and black fly (Simuliidae), have shown that protein components within the insect’s saliva facilitate the blood feeding process. To determine the protein components in Culicoides sonorensis midges, secreted saliva was collected for peptide sequencing by tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-five secreted proteins were identified, including members of the D7 odorant binding protein family, Kunitz-like serine protease inhibitors, maltase, trypsin, and six novel proteins unique to C. sonorensis. Identifying the complex myriad of proteins in saliva from blood-feeding Dipteran species is critical for understanding their role in blood feeding, arbovirus transmission, and possibly the resulting disease pathogenesis. PMID:24949243

  5. Early management of skeletal open bite with spring-loaded and magnetic bite blocks.

    PubMed

    Doshi, Umal H; Bhad-Patil, Wasundhara A

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of spring-loaded and magnetic bite blocks in growing individuals with skeletal open bites. The sample consisted of patients between 8 and 13 years of age randomly divided into two groups. One group was treated with spring-loaded bite blocks while the other received treatment with magnetic bite blocks. Further, a group matched for age, sex, and mandibular plane angle served as a control. The treatment effects were evaluated clinically and cephalometrically and by electromyographic (EMG) examination of the masseter and temporalis muscles after 8 months. Both appliances showed significantly (P<.05) favorable orthopedic effects. The spring-loaded bite blocks closed the existing open bite by 3.3 mm on average with a significant maxillary incisor extrusion and molar intrusion. Magnetic bite blocks produced an average of 4.9 mm of open bite closure with significant intrusion of the molars in both arches. Overall, both appliances significantly enhanced condylar growth, altered it to a more anterosuperior direction, and produced significant true forward mandibular rotation. Significant increases in masseter and temporalis muscle activity at rest and maximum clenching were noted in both groups, which could be a positive factor in retaining the achieved result. After 10 months of retention with passive bite blocks, cephalograms indicated only an insignificant relapse.

  6. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  7. Infant Feeding Practices in Central Anatolia, Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanlier, Nevin; Unusan, Nurhan

    2009-01-01

    Infant feeding decisions are some of the most important choices parents make. Breast milk or formula is the first decision made in infant feeding. Complementary feeding is common among very young children in Turkey. Therefore, the aim of this research is to focus on the introduction of solid foods, and to determine the relationship between…

  8. Complementary and Integrative Gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Korzenik, Joshua; Koch, Anna K; Langhorst, Jost

    2017-09-01

    Complementary and integrative medicine is developing within gastroenterology, expanding options particularly for inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and reflux esophagitis. This article encompasses new developments in complementary integrative medicine with an emphasis on herbal therapies. Studies of potential therapies have been advancing with increasing sophistication. The best studied with the most promising results in ulcerative colitis is the use of curcumin both for the induction and maintenance of remission. Other polyphenols, such as resveratrol and epigallocatechin-3-gallate, also have supportive data for ulcerative colitis. Mind-body approaches have been applied in these diseases with positive data, particularly for irritable bowel syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. First Aid: Insect Stings and Bites

    MedlinePlus

    ... Me! Hey! A Flea Bit Me! Hey! A Scorpion Stung Me! Hey! A Brown Recluse Spider Bit Me! Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Summer Safety Center Bug Bites and Stings Contact Us Print Resources Send to a Friend ...

  10. Rat Bite Fever Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Akter, Ripa; Boland, Paul; Daley, Peter; Rahman, Proton; Al Ghanim, Nayef

    2016-01-01

    Rat bite fever is rare in Western countries. It can be very difficult to diagnose as blood cultures are typically negative and a history of rodent exposure is often missed. Unless a high index of suspicion is maintained, the associated polyarthritis can be mistaken for rheumatoid arthritis. We report a case of culture-positive rat bite fever in a 46-year-old female presenting with fever and polyarthritis. The clinical presentation mimicked rheumatoid arthritis. Infection was complicated by discitis, a rare manifestation. We discuss the diagnosis and management of this rare zoonotic infection. We also review nine reported cases of rat bite fever, all of which had an initial presumptive diagnosis of a rheumatological disorder. Rat bite fever is a potentially curable infection but can have a lethal course if left untreated. PMID:27366177

  11. Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... mosquito stings Share | Take a Bite Out of Mosquito Stings This article has been reviewed by Thanai ... lactic acid and carbon dioxide attract the female mosquito to skin. She inserts the tip of her ...

  12. Epidemiology of the brown recluse spider bite.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, Jacqueline

    2007-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide a comprehensive epidemiological and clinical description of the brown recluse spider bite. Review of evidenced-based scientific literature and practice guidelines. A specific descriptive case study is interwoven through the article to tie in the clinical presenting figure associated with this bite. The brown recluse lives in a circumscribed area of the United States (the south central Midwest) with a few less common recluse species living in the more sparsely populated southwest United States. In these areas, where spider populations may be dense, recluse spiders may be a cause of significant morbidity. Most spider bites are asymptomatic but what makes this bite so devastating is the toxin injected by the brown recluse spider, which can cause considerable systemic symptoms as well as necrotic skin ulcers (necrotic arachnidism). The article presents process for diagnosis and stresses the importance of identifying the spider if at all possible.

  13. Spider bite-induced erythema multiforme.

    PubMed

    Özyurt, Selçuk; Er, Onur; Afsar, Fatma Sule; Ermete, Murat

    2013-09-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an immune-mediated mucocutaneous eruption characterized by symmetrically distributed, polymorphic targetoid lesions, mostly on the distal parts of the extremities. It occurs mostly in the setting of an infection in certain predisposed individuals. A 30-year-old pregnant woman was presented with a necrotic erythematous lesion on her right thigh following a spider bite. As she was pregnant for 16 weeks, no systemic medication was given. On the 8th day of the spider bite an erythematous vesicular and targetoid rash was seen on the distal parts of her extremities. Based on the clinical and histopathological findings, lesions were diagnosed as EM. She had not used any medication for 4 months and she gave no prior history of herpetic infection. So her EM lesions were thought to be an ID reaction most probably due to the spider bite. As far as we know, this is the first reported case of EM induced by a spider bite.

  14. Beware of Bug Bites and Stings

    MedlinePlus

    ... which features the latest on all FDA-regulated products. Date Posted: June 19, 2008 back to top Related Consumer Updates Spider Bites Ticks and Lyme Disease: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention Barbecue ...

  15. [Acute compartment syndrome following snake bite].

    PubMed

    Wagner, H E; Barbier, P; Frey, H P; Janggen, F M; Rothen, H U

    1986-04-01

    The experience with snake bites, causing local complications is discussed. Whenever systemic envenomation occurs, antivenin is the treatment of choice. Tissue necroses are treated by early debridement and a possible closed compartment syndrome demands the open fasciotomy.

  16. [Bites of venomous snakes in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Plate, Andreas; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Schneemann, Markus

    2016-06-08

    Although snake bites are rare in Europe, there are a constant number of snake bites in Switzerland. There are two domestic venomous snakes in Switzerland: the aspic viper (Vipera aspis) and the common European adder (Vipera berus). Bites from venomous snakes are caused either by one of the two domestic venomous snakes or by an exotic venomous snake kept in a terrarium. Snake- bites can cause both a local and/or a systemic envenoming. Potentially fatal systemic complications are related to disturbances of the hemostatic- and cardiovascular system as well as the central or peripheral nervous system. Beside a symptomatic therapy the administration of antivenom is the only causal therapy to neutralize the venomous toxins.

  17. Fiber Bragg Grating based bite force measurement.

    PubMed

    Umesh, Sharath; Padma, Srivani; Asokan, Sundarrajan; Srinivas, Talabattula

    2016-09-06

    The present study reports an in vivo, novel methodology for the dynamic measurement of the bite force generated by individual tooth using a Fiber Bragg Grating Bite Force Recorder (FBGBFR). Bite force is considered as one of the major indicators of the functional state of the masticatory system, which is dependent on the craniomandibular structure comprising functional components such as muscles of mastication, joints and teeth. The proposed FBGBFR is an intra-oral device, developed for the transduction of the bite force exerted at the occlusal surface, into strain variations on a base plate, which in turn is sensed by the FBG sensor bonded over it. The FBGBFR is calibrated against a Micro Universal Testing Machine (UTM) for 0-900N range and the resolution of the developed FBGBFR is found to be 0.54N. 36 volunteers (20 males and 16 females) performed the bite force measurement test at molar, premolar and incisor tooth on either side of the dental arch and the obtained results show clinically relevant bite forces varying from 176N to 635N. The bite forces obtained from the current study for a substantial sample size, show that the bite forces increases along the dental arch from the incisors towards the molars and are found to be higher in male than in female. The FBG sensor element utilized in FBGBFR is electrically passive, which makes it a safe in vivo intra-oral device. Hence the FBGBFR is viable to be employed in clinical studies on biomechanics of oral function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Anterior open-bite and sucking habits in Italian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Silvestrini-Biavati, A; Salamone, S; Silvestrini-Biavati, F; Agostino, P; Ugolini, A

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the consequences of prolonged sucking habits on the development of the orofacial complex in deciduous dentition. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving 235 preschool children. A questionnaire for children parents and clinical examinations were carried out by calibrated blinded examiners. The chi-square test and the T-Student test were used for statistical analysis. The prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (NNSH) in the sample was 74%. Anterior open-bite (AOB) was detected in 18%, and it was significantly related to non-nutritive sucking habits, bottle-feeding (only in the 3-year-old group) and persistent use of pacifier (p<0.05). NNSH and type of feeding were important contributing factors in the development of anterior open-bite in deciduous dentition.

  19. Terrestrial feeding in aquatic turtles: environment-dependent feeding behavior modulation and the evolution of terrestrial feeding in Emydidae.

    PubMed

    Stayton, Charles Tristan

    2011-12-15

    Evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial environments are common in vertebrate evolution. These transitions require major changes in most physiological functions, including feeding. Emydid turtles are ancestrally aquatic, with most species naturally feeding only in water, but some terrestrial species can modulate their feeding behavior appropriately for both media. In addition, many aquatic species can be induced to feed terrestrially. A comparison of feeding in both aquatic and terrestrial environments presents an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of terrestrial feeding from aquatic feeding, as well as a system within which to develop methods for studying major evolutionary transitions between environments. Individuals from eight species of emydid turtles (six aquatic, two terrestrial) were filmed while feeding underwater and on land. Bite kinematics were analyzed to determine whether aquatic turtles modulated their feeding behavior in a consistent and appropriate manner between environments. Aquatic turtles showed consistent changes between environments, taking longer bites and using more extensive motions of the jaw and hyoid when feeding on land. However, these motions differ from those shown by species that naturally feed in both environments and mostly do not seem to be appropriate for terrestrial feeding. For example, more extensive motions of the hyoid are only effective during underwater suction feeding. Emydids evolving to feed on land probably would have needed to evolve or learn to overcome many, but not all, aspects of the intrinsic emydid response to terrestrial feeding. Studies that investigate major evolutionary transitions must determine what responses to the new environment are shown by naïve individuals in order to fully understand the evolutionary patterns and processes associated with these transitions.

  20. Microbiology of Animal Bite Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Abrahamian, Fredrick M.; Goldstein, Ellie J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans is often polymicrobial, with a broad mixture of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Bacteria recovered from infected bite wounds are most often reflective of the oral flora of the biting animal, which can also be influenced by the microbiome of their ingested prey and other foods. Bacteria may also originate from the victim's own skin or the physical environment at the time of injury. Our review has focused on bite wound infections in humans from dogs, cats, and a variety of other animals such as monkeys, bears, pigs, ferrets, horses, sheep, Tasmanian devils, snakes, Komodo dragons, monitor lizards, iguanas, alligators/crocodiles, rats, guinea pigs, hamsters, prairie dogs, swans, and sharks. The medical literature in this area has been made up mostly of small case series or case reports. Very few studies have been systematic and are often limited to dog or cat bite injuries. Limitations of studies include a lack of established or inconsistent criteria for an infected wound and a failure to utilize optimal techniques in pathogen isolation, especially for anaerobic organisms. There is also a lack of an understanding of the pathogenic significance of all cultured organisms. Gathering information and conducting research in a more systematic and methodical fashion through an organized research network, including zoos, veterinary practices, and rural clinics and hospitals, are needed to better define the microbiology of animal bite wound infections in humans. PMID:21482724

  1. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  2. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  3. Mutually Exclusive, Complementary, or . . .

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schloemer, Cathy G.

    2016-01-01

    Whether students are beginning their study of probability or are well into it, distinctions between complementary sets and mutually exclusive sets can be confusing. Cathy Schloemer writes in this article that for years she used typical classroom examples but was not happy with the student engagement or the level of understanding they produced.…

  4. Complementary Coffee Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banchoff, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    What may have been the birth of a new calculus problem took place when the author noticed that two coffee cups, one convex and one concave, fit nicely together, and he wondered which held more coffee. The fact that their volumes were about equal led to the topic of this article: complementary surfaces of revolution with equal volumes.

  5. Effectiveness of the National Program of Complementary Feeding for older adults in Chile on vitamin B12 status in older adults; secondary outcome analysis from the CENEX Study (ISRCTN48153354)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Older people are at increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency and the provision of fortified foods may be an effective way to ensure good vitamin B12 status in later life. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of a vitamin B12 fortified food provided by a national program of complementary food for older people on plasma vitamin B12 levels. Subjects and methods A random sub-sample of 351 subjects aged 65-67y from a large cluster randomised controlled trial provided blood samples at baseline and after 24 months of intervention. The intervention arm (10 clusters 186 participants) received a vitamin B12 fortified food designed to deliver 1.4 μg/day, while the control arm did not receive complementary food (10 clusters, 165 participants). Serum vitamin B12 and folate levels determined by radioimmunoassay were used to estimate the effect of intervention on vitamin B12 levels, adjusting for baseline levels and sex. Results Attrition at 24 months was 16.7% and 23.6% in the intervention and control arms respectively (p = 0.07). Over 24 months of intervention, mean (95% CI) serum vitamin B12 decreased from 392 (359–425) pmol/dL to 357 (300–414) pmol/dL (p < 0.07) in the intervention arm and from 395 (350–440) pmol/dL to 351 (308–395) pmol/dL in the control arm. There was no significant effect of the intervention on folate status. Discussion Our findings suggest that foods fortified with 1.4 μg/daily vitamin B12 as provided by Chile’s national programme for older people are insufficient to ensure adequate vitamin B12 levels in this population. Chile has a long and successful experience with nutrition intervention programs; however, the country’s changing demographic and nutritional profiles require a constant adjustment of the programs. PMID:24016218

  6. A fatal cobra-bite in a snake expert.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M Z; Atiqullah, S; Saha, A C; Chowdhury, A J; Jahangir, K M; Faiz, M A

    2010-04-01

    A 35-year-old so called snake-expert from Thakurgaon district was admitted in Medicine department of Rangpur Medical College Hospital (RpMCH), Rangpur, Bangladesh on 2nd November 2007 with history of bites by a cobra snake. He was famous for his outstanding works to establish a snake farm first ever in Bangladesh. He had a collection of more than one hundred snakes of different species. He used to hatch eggs of the snakes, feed the young-snakes, collect venoms and sell those. Everyday many visitors used to visit his farm to watch exciting games with poisonous snakes. Several satellite television (TV) channels and some daily newspapers had covered him on different occasions. He was accidentally bitten by a newly caught hungry cobra snake while recording for a satellite TV channel. Following bites he was brought to the hospital three and a half hours later. By that time, neurotoxicity developed. Repeated doses of Anti Snake Venom (ASV) along with respiratory support and other supportive cares were provided. Despite utmost care feasible at RpMCH, patient expired around 49 hours later.

  7. The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst.

    PubMed

    Owen, Reuel

    2003-01-01

    The Crown Bite Jumping Herbst Appliance is evaluated and combined with Straight Wire Arch Fixed Orthodontics in treatment of Class II, Division I malocclusions. This article will evaluate a combined orthodontic approach of "straightening teeth" and an orthognathic approach of "moving jaws or making skeletal changes." Orthodontic treatment cannot be accomplished well without establishing a healthy temporomandibular joint. This is defined by Keller as a joint that is "noiseless, painless and has a normal range of motion without deviation and deflection." It is not prudent to separate orthodontic treatment as its own entity without being aware of the changes in the temporomandibular joint before, during and after treatment. In other words, "If you're doing orthodontics you're doing TMJ treatment." One should treat toward a healthy, beautiful face asking, "Will proposed treatment achieve this goal?" Treatment should be able to be carried out in an efficient manner, minimizing treatment time, be comfortable and affordable for the patient, and profitable for the dentist. The finished treatment should meet Andrews' Six Keys of Occlusion, or Loudon's Twelve Commandments. Above all, do no harm to the patient. We think that a specific treatment plan can embrace these tenets. The focus will be to show Class II treatment using a modified Herbst Appliance and fixed straight wire orthodontics.

  8. Maximal bite force, facial morphology and sucking habits in young children with functional posterior crossbite

    PubMed Central

    CASTELO, Paula Midori; GAVIÃO, Maria Beatriz Duarte; PEREIRA, Luciano José; BONJARDIM, Leonardo Rigoldi

    2010-01-01

    Objective The maintenance of normal conditions of the masticatory function is determinant for the correct growth and development of its structures. Thus, the aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of sucking habits on the presence of crossbite and its relationship with maximal bite force, facial morphology and body variables in 67 children of both genders (3.5-7 years) with primary or early mixed dentition. Material and methods The children were divided in four groups: primary-normocclusion (PN, n=19), primary-crossbite (PC, n=19), mixed-normocclusion (MN, n=13), and mixed-crossbite (MC, n=16). Bite force was measured with a pressurized tube, and facial morphology was determined by standardized frontal photographs: AFH (anterior face height) and BFW (bizygomatic facial width). Results It was observed that MC group showed lower bite force than MN, and AFH/ BFW was significantly smaller in PN than PC (t-test). Weight and height were only significantly correlated with bite force in PC group (Pearson’s correlation test). In the primary dentition, AFH/BFW and breast-feeding (at least six months) were positive and negatively associated with crossbite, respectively (multiple logistic regression). In the mixed dentition, breastfeeding and bite force showed negative associations with crossbite (univariate regression), while nonnutritive sucking (up to 3 years) associated significantly with crossbite in all groups (multiple logistic regression). Conclusions In the studied sample, sucking habits played an important role in the etiology of crossbite, which was associated with lower bite force and long-face tendency. PMID:20485925

  9. Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Effects Complementary and Alternative Medicine Complementary and Alternative Methods and Cancer Complementary and alternative are terms used ... with cancer here. What Are Complementary and Alternative Methods? How Are Complementary Methods Used to Manage Cancer? ...

  10. Complementary Feeding Diets Made of Local Foods Can Be Optimized, but Additional Interventions Will Be Needed to Meet Iron and Zinc Requirements in 6- to 23-Month-Old Children in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Broersen, Britt; van Liere, Marti J; De-Regil, Luz M; Bahirathan, Lavannya; Klassen, Eva; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2016-12-01

    The question whether diets composed of local foods can meet recommended nutrient intakes in children aged 6 to 23 months living in low- and middle-income countries is contested. To review evidence of studies evaluating whether (1) macro- and micronutrient requirements of children aged 6 to 23 months from low- and middle-income countries are met by the consumption of locally available foods ("observed intake") and (2) nutrient requirements can be met when the use of local foods is optimized, using modeling techniques ("modeled intake"). Twenty-three articles were included after conducting a systematic literature search. To allow for comparisons between studies, findings of 15 observed intake studies were compared against their contribution to a standardized recommended nutrient intake from complementary foods. For studies with data on intake distribution, %< estimated average requirements were calculated. Data from the observed intake studies indicate that children aged 6 to 23 months meet requirements of protein, while diets are inadequate in calcium, iron, and zinc. Also for energy, vitamin A, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, and vitamin C, children did not always fulfill their requirements. Very few studies reported on vitamin B6, B12, and magnesium, and no conclusions can be drawn for these nutrients. When diets are optimized using modeling techniques, most of these nutrient requirements can be met, with the exception of iron and zinc and in some settings calcium, folate, and B vitamins. Our findings suggest that optimizing the use of local foods in diets of children aged 6 to 23 months can improve nutrient intakes; however, additional cost-effective strategies are needed to ensure adequate intakes of iron and zinc. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Measurement of dynamic bite force during mastication.

    PubMed

    Shimada, A; Yamabe, Y; Torisu, T; Baad-Hansen, L; Murata, H; Svensson, P

    2012-05-01

    Efficient mastication of different types and size of food depends on fast integration of sensory information from mechanoreceptors and central control mechanisms of jaw movements and applied bite force. The neural basis underlying mastication has been studied for decades but little progress in understanding the dynamics of bite force has been made mainly due to technical limitations of bite force recorders. The aims of this study were to develop a new intraoral bite force recorder which would allow the study of natural mastication without an increase in the occlusal vertical dimension and subsequently to analyze the relation between electromyographic (EMG) activity of jaw-closing muscles, jaw movements and bite force during mastication of five different types of food. Customized force recorders based on strain gauge sensors were fitted to the upper and lower molar teeth on the preferred chewing side in fourteen healthy and dentate subjects (21-39 years), and recordings were carried out during voluntary mastication of five different kinds of food. Intraoral force recordings were successively obtained from all subjects. anova showed that impulse of bite force as well as integrated EMG was significantly influenced by food (P<0·05), while time-related parameters were significantly affected by chewing cycles (P<0·001). This study demonstrates that intraoral force recordings are feasible and can provide new information on the dynamics of human mastication with direct implications for oral rehabilitation. We also propose that the control of bite force during mastication is achieved by anticipatory adjustment and encoding of bolus characteristics.

  12. The ontogenetic scaling of bite force and head size in loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta): implications for durophagy in neritic, benthic habitats.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Christopher D; Guzman, Alejandra; Narazaki, Tomoko; Sato, Katsufumi; Kane, Emily A; Sterba-Boatwright, Blair D

    2012-12-01

    Ontogenetic studies of vertebrate feeding performance can help address questions relevant to foraging ecology. Feeding morphology and performance can either limit access to food resources or open up new trophic niches in both aquatic and terrestrial systems. Loggerhead sea turtles are long-lived vertebrates with complex life histories that are marked by an ontogenetic shift from an oceanic habitat to a coastal neritic habitat, and a transition from soft oceanic prey to hard, benthic prey. Although considered durophagous and strong biters, bite performance has not been measured in loggerheads, nor has the ontogeny of bite performance been characterized. In the present study, we collected measurements of bite force in loggerhead turtles from hatchlings to adults. When subadults reach the body size at which the ontogenetic shift occurs, their crushing capability is great enough for them to consume numerous species of hard benthic prey of small sizes. As loggerheads mature and bite performance increases, larger and harder benthic prey become accessible. Loggerhead bite performance eventually surpasses the crushing capability of other durophagous carnivores, thereby potentially reducing competition for hard benthic prey. The increasing bite performance and accompanying changes in morphology of the head and jaws are likely an effective mechanism for resource partitioning and decreasing trophic competition. Simultaneous measurements of body and head size and the use of non-linear reduced major axis regression show that bite force increases with significant positive allometry relative to body size (straight carapace length, straight carapace width and mass) and head size (head width, height and length). Simple correlation showed that all recorded morphometrics were good predictors of measured bite performance, but an AICc-based weighted regression showed that body size (straight carapace width followed by straight carapace length and mass, respectively) were more likely

  13. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) < -3.00 and <-3.50, respectively], and change in LAZ. The incidence of severe stunting was 11.8%, 8.2%, 9.1% and 15.5% (P = 0.098) and that of very severe stunting 7.4%, 2.9%, 8.0% and 6.4% (P = 0.138) in control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. Between 9 and 12 months of age, the mean change in LAZ was -0.15, -0.02, -0.12 and -0.18 (P = 0.045) for control, milk-LNS, soy-LNS and CSB groups, respectively. There was no significant between-group difference in linear growth during other age-intervals. Although participants who received milk-LNS had the lowest incidence of severe and very severe stunting, the differences between the groups were smaller than expected. Thus, the results do not provide conclusive evidence on a causal association between the LNS supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  14. Instrument for measuring human biting force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopola, Harri K.; Mantyla, Olavi; Makiniemi, Matti; Mahonen, Kalevi; Virtanen, Kauko

    1995-02-01

    Alongside EMG activity, biting force is the primary parameter used for assessing the biting problems of dentulous patients and patients with dentures. In a highly conductive oral cavity, dielectric measurement methods are preferred, for safety reasons. The maximum biting force for patients with removable dentures is not more than 100 ... 300 N. We report here on an instrument developed for measuring human biting force which consists of three units: a mouthpiece, a signal processing and interface unit (SPI), and a PC. The mouthpiece comprises a sensor head of thickness 3.4 mm, width 20 mm and length 30 mm constructed of two stainless steel plates and with a fiber optic microbending sensor between them. This is connected to the SPI unit by a three-meter fiber optic cable, and the SPI unit to the PC by an RS connection. A computer program has been developed that includes measurement, display, zeroing, and calibration operations. The instrument measures biting force as a function of time and displays the time-dependent force profile and maximum force on a screen or plots it in hard copy. The dynamic measurement range of the mouthpiece is from 0 to 1000 N, and the resolution of the instrument is 10 N. The results of preliminary clinical measurements and repeatability tests are reported.

  15. Snake Bite in South Asia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alirol, Emilie; Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Bawaskar, Himmatrao Saluba; Kuch, Ulrich; Chappuis, François

    2010-01-01

    Snake bite is one of the most neglected public health issues in poor rural communities living in the tropics. Because of serious misreporting, the true worldwide burden of snake bite is not known. South Asia is the world's most heavily affected region, due to its high population density, widespread agricultural activities, numerous venomous snake species and lack of functional snake bite control programs. Despite increasing knowledge of snake venoms' composition and mode of action, good understanding of clinical features of envenoming and sufficient production of antivenom by Indian manufacturers, snake bite management remains unsatisfactory in this region. Field diagnostic tests for snake species identification do not exist and treatment mainly relies on the administration of antivenoms that do not cover all of the important venomous snakes of the region. Care-givers need better training and supervision, and national guidelines should be fed by evidence-based data generated by well-designed research studies. Poorly informed rural populations often apply inappropriate first-aid measures and vital time is lost before the victim is transported to a treatment centre, where cost of treatment can constitute an additional hurdle. The deficiency of snake bite management in South Asia is multi-causal and requires joint collaborative efforts from researchers, antivenom manufacturers, policy makers, public health authorities and international funders. PMID:20126271

  16. Animal bites and stings with anaphylactic potential.

    PubMed

    Klotz, John H; Klotz, Stephen A; Pinnas, Jacob L

    2009-02-01

    Anaphylaxis to animal bites and stings poses a significant medical risk of vascular or respiratory reactions that vary according to the patient's response and nature of the insult. Emergency Physicians frequently see patients who complain of an allergic reaction to an animal bite or sting. Although Hymenoptera stings, specifically those of wasps, bees, and hornets, account for the majority of these cases, other invertebrates and vertebrates are capable of causing allergic reactions and anaphylaxis. Many of the causative animals are quite unusual, and their bites and stings are not commonly appreciated as potential causes of anaphylaxis. We conducted a literature review to identify documented reports of anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions to animal bites and stings. This summary is meant to heighten awareness of the diversity of animals that may cause anaphylaxis, hopefully leading to more rapid diagnosis and treatment of this dangerous condition. A diverse group of animals was found whose bites and stings cause anaphylaxis and anaphylactoid reactions. Some case summaries are presented. A potentially life-saving plan is to direct patients to proper follow-up care to prevent a future life-threatening reaction, including: prescribing epinephrine and antihistamines with proper instructions for their use; referral to an allergist to determine if skin testing, radioallergosorbent test, and immunotherapy are indicated; and reporting the case to state or local Poison Control Centers. In some cases it may be helpful to consult an entomologist or a pest control service for help in identification and elimination of certain offenders.

  17. Bone-Breaking Bite Force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the Late Eocene of Egypt Estimated by Finite Element Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Snively, Eric; Fahlke, Julia M.; Welsh, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Bite marks suggest that the late Eocence archaeocete whale Basilosaurus isis (Birket Qarun Formation, Egypt) fed upon juveniles of the contemporary basilosaurid Dorudon atrox. Finite element analysis (FEA) of a nearly complete adult cranium of B. isis enables estimates of its bite force and tests the animal’s capabilities for crushing bone. Two loadcases reflect different biting scenarios: 1) an intitial closing phase, with all adductors active and a full condylar reaction force; and 2) a shearing phase, with the posterior temporalis active and minimized condylar force. The latter is considered probable when the jaws were nearly closed because the preserved jaws do not articulate as the molariform teeth come into occulusion. Reaction forces with all muscles active indicate that B. isis maintained relatively greater bite force anteriorly than seen in large crocodilians, and exerted a maximum bite force of at least 16,400 N at its upper P3. Under the shearing scenario with minimized condylar forces, tooth reaction forces could exceed 20,000 N despite lower magnitudes of muscle force. These bite forces at the teeth are consistent with bone indentations on Dorudon crania, reatract-and-shear hypotheses of Basilosaurus bite function, and seizure of prey by anterior teeth as proposed for other archaeocetes. The whale’s bite forces match those estimated for pliosaurus when skull lengths are equalized, suggesting similar tradeoffs of bite function and hydrodynamics. Reaction forces in B. isis were lower than maxima estimated for large crocodylians and carnivorous dinosaurs. However, comparison of force estimates from FEA and regression data indicate that B. isis exerted the largest bite forces yet estimated for any mammal, and greater force than expected from its skull width. Cephalic feeding biomechanics of Basilosaurus isis are thus consistent with habitual predation. PMID:25714832

  18. Bone-breaking bite force of Basilosaurus isis (Mammalia, Cetacea) from the late Eocene of Egypt estimated by finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Snively, Eric; Fahlke, Julia M; Welsh, Robert C

    2015-01-01

    Bite marks suggest that the late Eocence archaeocete whale Basilosaurus isis (Birket Qarun Formation, Egypt) fed upon juveniles of the contemporary basilosaurid Dorudon atrox. Finite element analysis (FEA) of a nearly complete adult cranium of B. isis enables estimates of its bite force and tests the animal's capabilities for crushing bone. Two loadcases reflect different biting scenarios: 1) an intitial closing phase, with all adductors active and a full condylar reaction force; and 2) a shearing phase, with the posterior temporalis active and minimized condylar force. The latter is considered probable when the jaws were nearly closed because the preserved jaws do not articulate as the molariform teeth come into occulusion. Reaction forces with all muscles active indicate that B. isis maintained relatively greater bite force anteriorly than seen in large crocodilians, and exerted a maximum bite force of at least 16,400 N at its upper P3. Under the shearing scenario with minimized condylar forces, tooth reaction forces could exceed 20,000 N despite lower magnitudes of muscle force. These bite forces at the teeth are consistent with bone indentations on Dorudon crania, reatract-and-shear hypotheses of Basilosaurus bite function, and seizure of prey by anterior teeth as proposed for other archaeocetes. The whale's bite forces match those estimated for pliosaurus when skull lengths are equalized, suggesting similar tradeoffs of bite function and hydrodynamics. Reaction forces in B. isis were lower than maxima estimated for large crocodylians and carnivorous dinosaurs. However, comparison of force estimates from FEA and regression data indicate that B. isis exerted the largest bite forces yet estimated for any mammal, and greater force than expected from its skull width. Cephalic feeding biomechanics of Basilosaurus isis are thus consistent with habitual predation.

  19. Feeding Kinematics, Suction, and Hydraulic Jetting Performance of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina)

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Christopher D.; Wieskotten, Sven; Hanke, Wolf; Hanke, Frederike D.; Marsh, Alyssa; Kot, Brian; Dehnhardt, Guido

    2014-01-01

    The feeding kinematics, suction and hydraulic jetting capabilities of captive harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) were characterized during controlled feeding trials. Feeding trials were conducted using a feeding apparatus that allowed a choice between biting and suction, but also presented food that could be ingested only by suction. Subambient pressure exerted during suction feeding behaviors was directly measured using pressure transducers. The mean feeding cycle duration for suction-feeding events was significantly shorter (0.15±0.09 s; P<0.01) than biting feeding events (0.18±0.08 s). Subjects feeding in-water used both a suction and a biting feeding mode. Suction was the favored feeding mode (84% of all feeding events) compared to biting, but biting comprised 16% of feeding events. In addition, seals occasionally alternated suction with hydraulic jetting, or used hydraulic jetting independently, to remove fish from the apparatus. Suction and biting feeding modes were kinematically distinct regardless of feeding location (in-water vs. on-land). Suction was characterized by a significantly smaller gape (1.3±0.23 cm; P<0.001) and gape angle (12.9±2.02°), pursing of the rostral lips to form a circular aperture, and pursing of the lateral lips to occlude lateral gape. Biting was characterized by a large gape (3.63±0.21 cm) and gape angle (28.8±1.80°; P<0.001) and lip curling to expose teeth. The maximum subambient pressure recorded was 48.8 kPa. In addition, harbor seals were able to jet water at food items using suprambient pressure, also known as hydraulic jetting. The maximum hydraulic jetting force recorded was 53.9 kPa. Suction and hydraulic jetting where employed 90.5% and 9.5%, respectively, during underwater feeding events. Harbor seals displayed a wide repertoire of behaviorally flexible feeding strategies to ingest fish from the feeding apparatus. Such flexibility of feeding strategies and biomechanics likely forms the basis of their opportunistic

  20. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana

    PubMed Central

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches’ mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case. PMID:26559671

  1. Scaling of jaw muscle size and maximal bite force in finches.

    PubMed

    van der Meij, M A A; Bout, R G

    2004-07-01

    Fringillids and estrildids differ in their husking performance on hard closed-shelled seeds, which are cracked before they are eaten. The time required to husk a seed is directly related to seed hardness, and husking time is therefore expected to be related to bite force as well. We investigated whether there is a significant difference in jaw muscle mass and maximal bite force between fringillids and estrildids. The analysis shows that fringillids have relatively larger jaw muscles than estrildids and are able to produce higher bite forces than estrildids of the same body size. This difference in jaw muscle mass mainly results from a difference in jaw closing muscles. Compared with other birds, the jaw muscles of both fringillids and estrildids scale strongly positively allometric with body size. Muscle fibre length scales negatively allometric with body size, which results in relatively high muscle and bite forces. Comparison with the scarce data available for other trophic groups suggests that the scaling of jaw muscle size depends on diet and that jaw muscle size in finches is an adaptation to their feeding behaviour.

  2. Fast and Powerful: Biomechanics and Bite Forces of the Mandibles in the American Cockroach Periplaneta americana.

    PubMed

    Weihmann, Tom; Reinhardt, Lars; Weißing, Kevin; Siebert, Tobias; Wipfler, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Knowing the functionality and capabilities of masticatory apparatuses is essential for the ecological classification of jawed organisms. Nevertheless insects, especially with their outstanding high species number providing an overwhelming morphological diversity, are notoriously underexplored with respect to maximum bite forces and their dependency on the mandible opening angles. Aiming for a general understanding of insect biting, we examined the generalist feeding cockroach Periplaneta americana, characterized by its primitive chewing mouth parts. We measured active isometric bite forces and passive forces caused by joint resistance over the entire mandibular range with a custom-built 2D force transducer. The opening angle of the mandibles was quantified by using a video system. With respect to the effective mechanical advantage of the mandibles and the cross-section areas, we calculated the forces exerted by the mandible closer muscles and the corresponding muscle stress values. Comparisons with the scarce data available revealed close similarities of the cockroaches' mandible closer stress values (58 N/cm2) to that of smaller specialist carnivorous ground beetles, but strikingly higher values than in larger stag beetles. In contrast to available datasets our results imply the activity of faster and slower muscle fibres, with the latter becoming active only when the animals chew on tough material which requires repetitive, hard biting. Under such circumstances the coactivity of fast and slow fibres provides a force boost which is not available during short-term activities, since long latencies prevent a specific effective employment of the slow fibres in this case.

  3. Scorpion bite, a sting to the heart!

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Avinash; Kumar, Anand; Consul, Shuchi; Yadav, Ambuj

    2015-01-01

    Scorpion bites are common in India. Usually, these bites are harmless but sometimes have serious clinical sequelae, including death. We report herein a case of scorpion bite with electrocardiographic abnormalities simulating early myocardial infarction. Pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure accompanied these electrocardiographic changes as well as serum cardiac markers. The etiology of cardiovascular manifestations in severe scorpion sting is related to venom effect on sympathetic nervous system and the adrenal secretion of catecholamines as well as to the toxic effect of the venom on the myocardium itself. It is a rare case of scorpion sting presented as myocardial infarction and heart failure, successfully treated with Intensive Care Unit care, noninvasive ventilation, vasopressors, and antiischemic treatment. PMID:25878433

  4. Treatment of the first bite syndrome.

    PubMed

    Costales-Marcos, María; López Álvarez, Fernando; Fernández-Vañes, Laura; Gómez, Justo; Llorente, José Luis

    First bite syndrome is a potential complication of surgery involving the infratemporal fossa, deep lobe of the parotid gland and parapharyngeal space. It is described as an acute and intense pain in the parotid region caused with the first bite of each meal. It is related to damage to sympathetic innervation of the parotid gland. Parasympathetic hyperactivation is believed to stimulate an exaggerated myoepithelial cell contraction causing pain. Usual analgesic treatments have poor results. Botulinum toxin type A causes parasympathetic nerve paralysis of the parotid gland and this fact would minimize salivation and decrease first bite syndrome. The aim of this study is to show the details of the technique and our outcomes in 5 patients treated with botulinum toxin type A. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  5. Tick Bite by Nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeong Ho; Lee, Ji Hyun; Park, Young Min

    2016-01-01

    Ticks are parasites that usually suck the blood of wild or domestic animals; rarely, they ingest human blood and spread various febrile infectious diseases along with skin problems. Out of 40 cases of tick bite reported in Korea, only 3 were caused by nymphal ticks, and tick bites by nymphal Amblyomma testudinarium have not been reported previously. Herein, we report a rare case of tick bite by nymphal A. testudinarium. A 57-year-old woman presented with an asymptomatic solitary erythematous nodule on the left thigh that had been present for 6 days. The tick, which the patient removed from the lesion and brought to the hospital, was identified as a nymphal A. testudinarium. Doxycycline (200 mg) was used as treatment, and after seven days of use, the patient improved and no other lesions were detected. PMID:27904278

  6. [In relation to Cleopatra and snake bites].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, R

    2001-10-01

    Cleopatra VII, one of the last Egyptian sovereigns of the ptolomeic dynasty, is envisioned as a mythic figure, surrounded by intrigues and mystery. her mysterious death was caused, according to history, by a snake bite. This article shows some instances of great Cleopatra's life and the state of the art on snake venoms. Even at the present time, snake bites are a public health problem in Asia, Africa, Central and South America, causing more than 25,000 deaths every year. Most snake venoms have a protein structure and cause neurotoxic and hemolytic effects, altering coagulation and fibrinolysis. The mortality due to snake bites fluctuates between 1 and 22%. Specific treatment includes the use of specific antiserums with highly purified components.

  7. Taking the Bite out of Bruxism (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dictionary of Medical Words En Español What Other Kids Are Reading Taking Care of Your Ears Taking ... Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism KidsHealth > For Kids > Taking the Bite Out of Bruxism Print A ...

  8. Dog bite injuries to the hand.

    PubMed

    Nygaard, Marianne; Dahlin, Lars B

    2011-04-01

    Dog bites to the hand and forearm are common. Although bites are usually minor, aggressive dogs may cause extensive bites developing to a public health problem. In a database review of dog bites to the hand applied to Emergency Department or to the Department of Hand Surgery in Malmö, Sweden 2008-2009, we found 81 cases [42 men and 39 women; median age 45 (range 2-88) years]. Three of 81 (4%) were children younger than 11 years. Six of the 81 (8%) patients included had bilateral injuries. Seventy-five patients were treated at the Department of Hand Surgery, where 31 of 75 (41%) were admitted to hospital in 181 days (median 4, range 1-20). The injuries included lacerations of the skin, muscle, and tendons as well as fractures, arterial and nerve injuries, and traumatic amputations of fingers. Some cases developed infections, necrosis of muscle and skin, arthritis, osteomyelitis, and even sepsis. A total of 96 operations were done for 51 patients (median 1, range 1-8) and the patients had 343 (median 2, range 0-22) outpatient visits. Almost half of the bites occurred when the patients was trying to separate two fighting dogs. The size of the lacerations increased with the size of the dog. Serious infections were found independently of size of dog. We suggest that education of owners and the public, reporting of all bites, and control of animals are some of the actions to reduce the number of attacks. At least one serious case could have been prevented if the dog had been put down after a previous serious attack.

  9. Allergic reactions to insect stings and bites.

    PubMed

    Moffitt, John E

    2003-11-01

    Insect stings are an important cause of anaphylaxis. Anaphylaxis can also occur from insect bites but is less common. Insect venoms contain several well-characterized allergens that can trigger anaphylactic reactions. Effective methods to diagnose insect sting allergy and assess risk of future sting reactions have been developed. Management strategies using insect avoidance measures, self-injectable epinephrine, and allergen immunotherapy are very effective in reducing insect-allergic patients' risk of reaction from future stings. Diagnostic and management strategies for patients allergic to insect bites are less developed.

  10. Black widow spider bite: a case study.

    PubMed

    Gaisford, Kristine; Kautz, Donald D

    2011-01-01

    This article is a case study of a patient cared for in the hours before her death. After the patient's death, we learned the patient died of a black widow spider bite. This article sheds light on the potential seriousness of this venom and allows for more rapid detection and treatment of those who are unfortunate enough to be bitten. The authors have documented the sequence of events for the patient, outlined the care the patient received, examined the pathophysiology of the body to a spider bite, and then made a passionate appeal for other nurses who work in critical care to do the same with patients in similar situations.

  11. First bite syndrome following ipsilateral carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Bhamidipaty, Venu; MacCormick, Murray

    2013-02-01

    First bite syndrome (FBS) is characterized by unilateral pain in the parotid region after the first bite of each meal, usually following ipsilateral neck surgery. The proposed mechanism is sympathetic denervation of the parotid gland, from iatrogenic injury to the sympathetic trunk supplying this gland. Local botulinum toxin injection has emerged as a promising treatment option with favorable results. To date, there are 3 published cases in the literature describing FBS after carotid endarterectomy. We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman who developed FBS after carotid endarterectomy, to raise the awareness of this unusual and uncommon complication.

  12. [Local complications after poisonous snake bite].

    PubMed

    Kuzbari, R; Seidler, D; Deutinger, M

    1994-01-01

    The case of a zoo keeper who was bitten on the left finger by a venomous snake (Vipera xanthina) is reported. The administration of antivenom prevented the development of systemic poisoning but had no effect on the extent of the local complications. A compartment syndrome with a concomitant severe reaction at the bite site required fasciotomy of the upper and lower arm. The extensor tendon of the involved finger ruptured spontaneously, many weeks after wound healing was completed. Therefore, delayed local complications following snake bites may occur, even if signs of systemic poisoning are missing.

  13. Electrodeposition of Bi-Te alloy films

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Makoto; Oda, Youichi; Ogino, Takayuki; Furuta, Shinsaku . Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1993-09-01

    Electrochemical deposition of Bi-Te alloy films from acidic solutions containing Bi(NO[sub 3])[sub 3] and TeO[sub 2] has been investigated. The thickness, compound, and composition of the Bi-Te alloy films have been examined using stylus-type surface profiling techniques, X-ray diffraction peak measurement, and inductively coupled plasma/Auger electron spectroscopy measurements. At potentials where limiting current was observed, the compositions of films were controlled by the mole ratio [Bi[sup 3+

  14. Treatment of severe self-injurious and aggressive biting.

    PubMed

    Altmeyer, B K; Williams, D E; Sams, V

    1985-06-01

    The treatment of a 16-year-old severely mentally retarded and blind female client exhibiting severe biting of self and others consisted of the contingent application of an aversive gustatory stimulus (Tabasco Sauce), brief timeout, DRO, and contingent restraint against biting while in time-out. This is the first use of Tabasco as the aversive stimulus against biting. Deceleration of biting was rapid and maintained for 20 months after initiation of treatment.

  15. The Management of Domestic Animal Bites to the Hand.

    PubMed

    Howell, R Damani; Sapienza, Anthony

    2015-06-01

    Hand bites from domestic animals are extremely common. Though many may initially appear benign, it is important for treating physicians to be aware of the factors that place patients sustaining animal bites at additional risk for infection. As clinicians, we must be able to efficiently diagnose and treat these patients properly to avoid the morbidity that animal bites can provoke. The current paper reviews the evaluation and management of domestic animal bites to the hand.

  16. Responsive Feeding: Strategies to Promote Healthy Mealtime Interactions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Hurley, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    Responsive feeding is a derivative of responsive parenting that has been applied to infant and young child feeding. With a theoretical basis in the reciprocal interactions between parents and children, responsive feeding is particularly relevant during complementary feeding as young children progress from an exclusively milk-based liquid diet to the family diet and self-feeding. The period of complementary feeding includes multiple developmental changes that may threaten a successful transition and lead to growth and feeding problems. In spite of high rates of global childhood underweight, stunting, overweight, and obesity, and the inclusion of responsive feeding in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, there have been few intervention trials of responsive feeding. The aim of this chapter is to examine how parents and young children navigate the progression in feeding, with an emphasis on complementary feeding, and to address the following topics: (1) navigating the progression of feeding development, (2) provision of responsive feeding, (3) preventing or resolving growth and feeding problems, (4) responsive feeding research, and (5) strategies to promote healthy mealtime interactions. To advance responsive feeding research and practice, clarity is needed in both measurement and intervention strategies, guided by the reciprocity between parent and child interactions inherent in the theoretical basis of responsive feeding. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Cheek-biting disorder: another stereotypic movement disorder?

    PubMed

    Sarkhel, Sujit; Praharaj, Samir Kumar; Akhtar, Sayeed

    2011-12-01

    Recurrent cheek biting, a form of self-injurious behavior is a rare entity which presents mostly to dentists and dermatologists. We report a case of recurrent severe cheek biting in an adult male leading to mucosal ulceration. The stereotypic pattern of cheek biting and associated behavior bears striking resemblance to other impulse control disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ixodes ricinus immunogenic saliva protein, homologue to Amblyomma americanum AV422: Determining its potential for use in tick bite confirmation.

    PubMed

    Mihaljica, Darko; Marković, Dragana; Radulović, Željko; Mulenga, Albert; Ćakić, Sanja; Sukara, Ratko; Samardžić, Jelena; Tomanović, Snežana

    2017-03-01

    Tick bites often go unnoticed, so specific reliable tests are needed to confirm them for prompt diagnosis and treatment of tick-borne diseases. One of the promising candidates for developing such a test is AV422, a tick saliva protein that has been conserved across tick genera. In this study, we demonstrate the potential of the AV422 homologue from Ixodes ricinus to be used for tick bite detection for both Prostriata and Metastriata. We expressed recombinant (r) I. ricinus (Ir) AV422 in E. coli and subjected it to Western blot analysis using rat antibodies to saliva proteins of both I. ricinus (Prostriata) and Dermacentor reticulatus (Metastriata) larvae. Our data demonstrate that rIrAV422 specifically bound to antibodies from sera of rats used for both I. ricinus and D. reticulatus larvae feeding, but not to antibodies from control serum, emphasizing its specificity since tick bites were the sole cause of sera reactivity.

  19. Host preferences of ornithophilic biting midges of the genus Culicoides in the Eastern Balkans.

    PubMed

    Bobeva, A; Zehtindjiev, P; Ilieva, M; Dimitrov, D; Mathis, A; Bensch, S

    2015-09-01

    Many biting midges of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are competent vectors of a diverse number of pathogens. The identification of their feeding behaviour and of vector-host associations is essential for understanding their transmission capacity. By applying two different nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, of which one targeted the avian cyt b gene and the other targeted the COI gene of a wide range of vertebrates, we identified the blood hosts of six biting midge species including Culicoides circumscriptus, Culicoides festivipennis, Culicoides punctatus, Culicoides pictipennis, Culicoides alazanicus and Culicoides cf. griseidorsum, the latter two of which are reported in Bulgaria for the first time. Bird DNA was found in 50.6% of 95 investigated bloodmeals, whereas mammalian DNA was identified in 13.7%. Two Culicoides species were found to feed on both birds and mammals. There was remarkable diversity in the range of avian hosts: 23 species from four orders were identified in the abdomens of four Culicoides species. The most common bird species identified was the magpie, Pica pica (n = 7), which was registered in all four ornithophilic biting midge species. Six bloodmeals from the great tit, Parus major, were recorded only in C. alazanicus. None of the studied species of Culicoides appeared to be restricted to a single avian host. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Feeding mechanism and functional morphology of the jaws of the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Chondrichthyes, Carcharhinidae)

    PubMed

    Motta; Tricas; Summers

    1997-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that preparatory, expansive, compressive and recovery phases of biting behavior known for aquatically feeding anamniotes are conserved among extant elasmobranch fishes. The feeding mechanism of the lemon shark Negaprionbrevirostris is examined by anatomical dissection, electromyography and high-speed video analysis. Three types of feeding events are differentiated during feeding: (1) food ingestion primarily by ram feeding; (2) food manipulation; and (3) hydraulic transport of the food by suction. All feeding events are composed of the expansive, compressive and recovery phases common to aquatically feeding teleost fishes, salamanders and turtles. A preparatory phase is occasionally observed during ingestion bites, and there is no fast opening phase characteristic of some aquatically feeding vertebrates. During the compressive phase, palatoquadrate protrusion accounts for 26% of the gape distance during jaw closure and is concurrent with muscle activity in the dorsal and ventral preorbitalis and the levator palatoquadrati. Hydraulic transport events are shorter in duration than ram ingestion bites. Prey ingestion, manipulation and hydraulic transport events are all found to have a common series of kinematic and motor components. Individual sharks are capable of varying the duration and to a lesser extent the onset of muscle activity and, consequently, can vary their biting behavior. We propose a model for the feeding mechanism in carcharhinid sharks, including upper jaw protrusion. This study represents the first electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanism and behavior of an elasmobranch.

  1. [Spider's bite that develop eyelid necrosis].

    PubMed

    Portilla Cuenca, J; Maresca Quintero, M; Hoyos Sanabria, B; García Benito, J I; Vélez Medina, J

    2005-02-01

    We report the case of a spider bite in a 7 years-old girl that develop a dermonecrosis and did not need surgical treatment. We analize the mechanisms of these kind of lesions review and update therapeutic management of these kind of lesions.

  2. Facial fractures from dog bite injuries.

    PubMed

    Tu, Alexander H; Girotto, John A; Singh, Navin; Dufresne, Craig R; Robertson, Bradley C; Seyfer, Alan E; Manson, Paul N; Iliff, Nicholas

    2002-04-01

    Dog bites are commonly associated with soft-tissue injury to the face but rarely result in facial fractures. This article reports six new cases of facial fractures associated with dog bites and reviews additional cases reported in the literature. The demographics of the patients attacked, the location of facial fractures, and the characteristics of associated soft-tissue injuries or complications developing from the dog bite are described. With six new cases and 10 from the literature, this article reviewed a total of 16 cases involving 27 facial fractures. Eighty-seven percent of the cases involved children less than 16 years of age. The periorbital or nasal bones were involved in 69 percent of the cases. Lacerations were the most frequently associated soft-tissue injury. Additional injuries included facial nerve damage, lacrimal duct damage requiring stenting and reconstruction, ptosis from levator transection, and blood loss requiring transfusion. Although facial fractures are not commonly considered to be associated with dog bite injuries, the index of suspicion for a fracture should be raised when the injury occurs in a child, particularly when injury occurs near the orbit, nose, and cheek.

  3. Blastomycosis in Man after Kinkajou Bite

    PubMed Central

    Blaney, David D.; Lindsley, Mark D.; Zaki, Sherif R.; Paddock, Christopher D.; Drew, Clifton P.; Johnson, April J.; Landau, Douglas; Vanderbush, Joel; Baker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We report transmission of Blastomyces dermatitidis fungal infection from a pet kinkajou to a man. When treating a patient with a recalcitrant infection and a history of an animal bite, early and complete animal necropsy and consideration of nonbacterial etiologies are needed. PMID:21291603

  4. EduBites: Cliffs Notes for EPO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bartolone, L.; Wenger, M.; Martin, A.; Nichols-Yehling, M.; Llamas, J.; Hurt, R. L.; Squires, G. K.

    2013-06-01

    We present a new resource for the astronomy education community, with the goal of improving our community’s knowledge and understanding of the educational research papers pertinent to our work. When launched, EduBites will be a searchable database of summaries of peer-reviewed education papers, written by astronomy educators and posted for the entire community to use. While we are all aware that we should be basing our E/PO work on a solid research foundation, many people in the community are pushed for time when it comes to staying on top of the educational literature. EduBites aims to reduce that workload for the benefit of the entire community. Our database will ultimately tackle papers across the whole of the astronomy education spectrum, including formal and informal education, outreach, grades K-16, pedagogy, evaluation, and many other topics. We are keen to hear from anyone on the community who would be interested in joining our review team, and will welcome feedback on the EduBites user experience. EduBites is still currently under development but, when launched, it will be found at edubites.ipac.caltech.edu

  5. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient is...

  6. Brown recluse spider bite on the breast.

    PubMed

    Norris, Kori; Misra, Subhasis

    2014-05-01

    Brown recluse spiders are one of two types of spiders in the United States that can cause significant tissue damage and, in rare cases, death. Brown recluse spider bites are most often benign and self-limiting, but in a few cases can cause severe necrotic skin lesions.

  7. Insecticidal sugar baits for adult biting midges

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the latest trends in mosquito control is the use of insecticidal sugar baits (ISBs) to reduce adult mosquito populations. Tested here is the ability of ISB’s to knock-down the biting midge, Culicoides sonorensis, a disease vector of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and vesicular sto...

  8. [Surgical management of animal bites in children].

    PubMed

    Touzet-Roumazeille, S; Jayyosi, L; Plenier, Y; Guyot, E; Guillard, T; François, C

    2016-10-01

    Children represent a population at risk, because of their short size, their naivety and their attraction to animals. The face and hands are the most specific locations in young children. Wounds are often multiple. In more than half the cases, the child knows the animal, which are dogs and cats by frequency argument. The bite episode occurs mostly when the child is alone with the pet without direct supervision, while playing or stroking the animal. As in all bites, pediatric lesions are infectious, functional and aesthetic emergencies, but the goal of this work was primarily to make a point on principles of surgical management of animal bites in children, highlighting pediatric specificities. Animal bites require psychological, anesthetic and surgical treatment, adapted to the child, in a specialized structure. Hospitalization and general anesthesia are more frequent in children. Any suspicion of mistreatment (and/or abuse) should lead to the child's hospitalization, even if wounds do not justify monitoring in a surgical environment. Emergency surgery is essential to limit functional and aesthetic consequences. The healing capacities of the child and the frequent lack of co-morbidity allow a conservative surgical treatment with suture, repositioning skin flaps and controlled healing in the first place. Immobilization, drainage, and antibiotics will complete the surgery. The healing process, however, leads to a specific management during scar remodeling phase and growth. Psychological care of the child and parents should not be forgotten, and has to start at the same time as surgical treatment at in acute phase.

  9. Simulation of a flow around biting teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narusawa, Hideaki; Yamamoto, Eriko; Kuwahara, Kunio

    2008-11-01

    We simulated a flow around biting teeth. The decayed tooth is a disease that a majority of people are annoyed. These are often generated from a deep groove at occlusal surface. It is known that a person who bites well doesn't suffer from a decayed tooth easily. Biting forces reach as much as 60 kg/cm^2 by an adult male, and when chewing, upper and lower teeth approach to bite by those forces. The crushed food mixed with saliva becomes high viscosity fluid, and is pushed out of ditches of teeth in the direction of the cheek or the tongue. Teeth with complex three dimension curved surface are thought to form venturi at this time, and to generate big pressure partially. An excellent dental articulation will possibly help a natural generation of a flow to remove dental plaque, i.e. the cause of the decayed tooth. Moreover, the relation of this flow with the destruction of the filled metal or the polymer is doubted. In this research, we try to clarify the pressure distributions by this flow generation as well as its dynamics when chewing. One of our goals is to enable an objective design of the shape of the dental fillings and the artificial tooth. Tooth has a very small uneven ground and a bluff body. In this case, to calculate a computational numerical simulation to solve the Navier-Stokes equations three dimension Cartesian coordinate system is employed.

  10. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  11. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  12. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  13. 21 CFR 882.5070 - Bite block.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bite block. 882.5070 Section 882.5070 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... is a device inserted into a patient's mouth to protect the tongue and teeth while the patient...

  14. Four-bar linkage modelling in teleost pharyngeal jaws: computer simulations of bite kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Grubich, Justin R; Westneat, Mark W

    2006-01-01

    The pharyngeal arches of the red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) possess large toothplates and a complex musculoskeletal design for biting and crushing hard prey. The morphology of the pharyngeal apparatus is described from dissections of six specimens, with a focus on the geometric conformation of contractile and rotational elements. Four major muscles operate the rotational 4th epibranchial (EB4) and 3rd pharyngobranchial (PB3) elements to create pharyngeal bite force, including the levator posterior (LP), levator externus 3/4 (LE), obliquus posterior (OP) and 3rd obliquus dorsalis (OD). A biomechanical model of upper pharyngeal jaw biting is developed using lever mechanics and four-bar linkage theory from mechanical engineering. A pharyngeal four-bar linkage is proposed that involves the posterior skull as the fixed link, the LP muscle as input link, the epibranchial bone as coupler link and the toothed pharyngobranchial as output link. We used a computer model to simulate contraction of the four major muscles, with the LP as the dominant muscle, the length of which determined the position of the linkage. When modelling lever mechanics, we found that the effective mechanical advantages of the pharyngeal elements were low, resulting in little resultant bite force. By contrast, the force advantage of the four-bar linkage was relatively high, transmitting approximately 50% of the total muscle force to the bite between the toothplates. Pharyngeal linkage modelling enables quantitative functional morphometry of a key component of the fish feeding system, and the model is now available for ontogenetic and comparative analyses of fishes with pharyngeal linkage mechanisms. PMID:16822272

  15. Protection From Mosquito Biting Provided by Permethrin-Treated Military Fabrics.

    PubMed

    Frances, Stephen P; Sferopoulos, Rodi; Lee, Bin

    2014-11-01

    A study to evaluate the protection provided by permethrin-treated fabric following cold-water washing against biting by mosquitoes is reported. Australian Defense Force (ADF) disruptive pattern combat uniform (DPCU) shirt fabric and entire shirts were treated by dipping in a 0.6% emulsion (Perigen Defense, containing 500 g/liter permethrin), and commercial factory treatment in the United States (Factory A) and Europe (Factory B). Protection was recorded after 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 50 washes. The treated fabric provided 100% protection against bites of Anopheles farauti Laveran for at least 50 washes, although only 4.8-19.0% of this species fed through untreated DPCU. The protection provided by each type of permethrin treatment against Aedes aegypti (L.) biting was variable; however, there were no significant differences between the percentage of mosquitoes biting between 1 and 10 washes. A comparison between the two factory treatments for 1-50 washes also showed no statistical difference in Ae. aegypti feeding. Chemical analysis of fabric was conducted using gas chromatography and showed that the initial dose was 0.125 mg/cm(2) for Perigen-treated fabric, which fell to 0.004 mg/cm(2) after 10 washes. By contrast, factory treatments resulted in initial dose rates of 0.20 mg/cm(2) for Factory A and 0.19 mg/cm(2) for Factory B. After 10 washes, Factory A-treated fabric had 0.09 mg/cm(2) and Factory B 0.15 mg/cm(2) of permethrin. Despite the higher concentrations of permethrin in the fabric, there was not a commensurate increase in biting protection provided by the factory-treated fabric, compared with fabric treated by dipping in permethrin emulsion.

  16. In vivo cranial bone strain and bite force in the agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri.

    PubMed

    Porro, Laura B; Ross, Callum F; Iriarte-Diaz, Jose; O'Reilly, James C; Evans, Susan E; Fagan, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    In vivo bone strain data are the most direct evidence of deformation and strain regimes in the vertebrate cranium during feeding and can provide important insights into skull morphology. Strain data have been collected during feeding across a wide range of mammals; in contrast, in vivo cranial bone strain data have been collected from few sauropsid taxa. Here we present bone strain data recorded from the jugal of the herbivorous agamid lizard Uromastyx geyri along with simultaneously recorded bite force. Principal and shear strain magnitudes in Uromastyx geyri were lower than cranial bone strains recorded in Alligator mississippiensis, but higher than those reported from herbivorous mammals. Our results suggest that variations in principal strain orientations in the facial skeleton are largely due to differences in feeding behavior and bite location, whereas food type has little impact on strain orientations. Furthermore, mean principal strain orientations differ between male and female Uromastyx during feeding, potentially because of sexual dimorphism in skull morphology. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  17. A new approach in the treatment of skeletal open bite: vertically activated bite block.

    PubMed

    Arat, Züleyha Mirzen; Sezer, F Emel; Arslan, Ayşegül Dalkiran

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effects of the vertically activated bite block, a new appliance designed for maxillary molar intrusion in open bite malocclusion, on the dentofacial structures in 1 adolescent patient and 1 adult patient. The vertically activated bite block consists of 2 parts, the main block and an auxiliary segment. The auxilliary segment is separated bilaterally from the main block in the posterior region and connected bilaterally to the main block in the palatal region by open jackscrews. Closing the jackscrews moves the auxiliary segment toward the palate, thereby inducing molar intrusion. The present study achieved a reduction in open bite, using the VABB through: (1) active intrusion of the maxillary molars; (2) control of posterior vertical alveolar development and/or compensatory eruption of the mandibular molars; (3) stimulation of anterior vertical alveolar development by restriction of the tongue; and (4) anterior repositioning of mandible. Achieving these dentoalveolar and skeletal changes are required treatment objectives in cases of skeletal open bite. As a result of attaining these objectives, the open bite was eliminated in 1 early growth and 1 late growth patient by 14 mm and 6 mm, respectively.

  18. A complementary MOS process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jhabvala, M. D.

    1977-01-01

    The complete sequence used to manufacture complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits is described. The fixed-gate array concept is presented as a means of obtaining CMOS integrated circuits in a fast and reliable fashion. Examples of CMOS circuits fabricated by both the conventional method and the fixed-gate array method are included. The electrical parameter specifications and characteristics are given along with typical values used to produce CMOS circuits. Temperature-bias stressing data illustrating the thermal stability of devices manufactured by this process are presented. Results of a preliminary study on the radiation sensitivity of circuits manufactured by this process are discussed. Some process modifications are given which have improved the radiation hardness of our CMOS devices. A formula description of the chemicals and gases along with the gas flow rates is also included.

  19. A study of dog bites on the Navajo reservation.

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, T J

    1986-01-01

    Reservation-wide dog-bite statistics indicate a bite rate on the Navajo Reservation that is comparable to that of a large city. Detailed analysis of 772 bite reports was made to determine the characteristics of biters and their victims. This included an assessment of the behavioral antecedents leading up to the bite incident; 98.4 percent of all cases for which a possible cause could be ascertained were provoked in some way. Both dog control and public education measures need to be taken to reduce the frequency of dog bites. PMID:3080791

  20. Homicide by direct snake bite: a case of contract killing.

    PubMed

    Ambade, Vipul Namdeorao; Borkar, Jaydeo Laxman; Meshram, Satin Kalidas

    2012-01-01

    It has been estimated that five million snake bite cases occur worldwide every year, causing about 100,000 deaths. Snake bite is exclusively accidental in nature. Suicide by snake bite is very rare and homicidal snake bite is not reported. In the present case, a contract killer was hired, who used a poisonous snake to kill an elderly couple by way of direct snake bite. We believe this to be the first case reported where a snake was directly used for the murder of two victims through a contract killer.

  1. The management of viper bites on the hand.

    PubMed

    Ince, B; Gundeslioglu, A O

    2014-07-01

    The management of Viperidae snake bites of the hand is discussed from an assessment of the results of snake bite treatments in our clinic. Between 2010 and 2012, 23 patients presenting with venomous snake bites were admitted. None of the patients received a blood transfusion or underwent fasciotomy. There were no severe sensitivity reactions owing to the snake antivenom; however, one patient required a surgical procedure. Repetition of antivenom therapy is necessary to decrease the complication rate in patients with venomous snake bites. Moreover, the use of a peripheral vasodilator may decrease the complication rates in cases where the bite is on the digits.

  2. Animal bites in children: burden in urban Delhi.

    PubMed

    Mehndiratta, Sumit

    2012-04-01

    Animal bites pose a significant problem throughout India. Despite the advances in and availability of modern vaccines, there remains a lack of awareness of the proper management of these bites. This study was conducted in a tertiary level referral hospital in Delhi in order to study the profile of paediatric victims of animal bites and to review the myths regarding the disease and management practices adopted by the parents of bite victims. It was found that parents are mostly unaware of the correct management practices regarding animal bites.

  3. The Western Conifer Seed Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) Has the Potential to Bite Humans.

    PubMed

    Hornok, Sándor; Kontschán, Jeno

    2017-03-10

    Among true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera), only hematophagous species (families Reduviidae, Cimicidae) have high veterinary and medical significance. In addition, several predatory and plant-feeding bug species, which also have piercing-sucking mouthparts, are known to occasionally bite humans. The majority of such examples are known from the New World. Here, we report the first case concerning the human-biting potential of the western conifer seed bug, Leptoglossus occidentalis Heidemann (Hemiptera: Coreidae). This is a phytophagous bug species, which has become widespread in North America, and has also been introduced into Europe where it shows a rapidly expanding geographical range. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Assortativity of complementary graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Winterbach, W.; van Mieghem, P.

    2011-09-01

    Newman's measure for (dis)assortativity, the linear degree correlationρD, is widely studied although analytic insight into the assortativity of an arbitrary network remains far from well understood. In this paper, we derive the general relation (2), (3) and Theorem 1 between the assortativity ρD(G) of a graph G and the assortativityρD(Gc) of its complement Gc. Both ρD(G) and ρD(Gc) are linearly related by the degree distribution in G. When the graph G(N,p) possesses a binomial degree distribution as in the Erdős-Rényi random graphs Gp(N), its complementary graph Gpc(N) = G1-p(N) follows a binomial degree distribution as in the Erdős-Rényi random graphs G1-p(N). We prove that the maximum and minimum assortativity of a class of graphs with a binomial distribution are asymptotically antisymmetric: ρmax(N,p) = -ρmin(N,p) for N → ∞. The general relation (3) nicely leads to (a) the relation (10) and (16) between the assortativity range ρmax(G)-ρmin(G) of a graph with a given degree distribution and the range ρmax(Gc)-ρmin(Gc) of its complementary graph and (b) new bounds (6) and (15) of the assortativity. These results together with our numerical experiments in over 30 real-world complex networks illustrate that the assortativity range ρmax-ρmin is generally large in sparse networks, which underlines the importance of assortativity as a network characterizer.

  5. Breast feeding in IMD.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  6. A review of facial injuries due to dog bites.

    PubMed

    Abuabara, Allan

    2006-07-01

    Bite injuries to the head and neck region can result in facial disfigurement with distressing physical and psychological consequences. This article reviewed the causes and management of facial bite wounds due to dog bites. A PUBMED search of the National Library of Medicine from 1995 to December 2005 was conducted. Keywords used in the search were facial wound, bite wound, dog bite. The results showed that the risk factors for dog attacks include: school-aged children, male, households with dogs, male dogs and certain breeds (german shepherds, bull terriers, blue/red heelers, dobermans and rottwellers). Early management of such complex injuries usually guarantees satisfactory outcome. Most of the cases involve a known dog (friends, neighbors) and family pet. Although animal bites are not the most accounted children injuries, deaths may a result of these attacks. Antibiotic therapy is indicated for infected bite wounds and fresh wounds considered at risk for infection, such as extremely large wounds, large hematoma, and cat bites, that appear be more infected than dog bites. Tetanus immunization status and the risk of rabies infection should be routinely addressed in bite wound management. Prevention strategies should be considered for preventing dog bites.

  7. Non-nutritive sucking habits, anterior open bite and associated factors in Brazilian children aged 30-59 months.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Flávia Maria Nassar de; Massoni, Andreza Cristina de Lima Targino; Heimer, Mônica Vilela; Ferreira, Angela Maria Brito; Katz, Cíntia Regina Tornisiello; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite as well as their main causes (associated factors) in Brazilian children aged 30-59 months. A cross-sectional study was carried out during the National Immunization Day for polio in the city of Recife in the northeastern region of Brazil. The sample was made up of 1,308 children. Data were collected from interviews with mothers or guardians as well as from clinical examinations carried out by previously trained dental students. The chi-square test was used for statistical analysis at 5% significance level. The prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits was 40%, and the habits were associated with gender (p=0.001), age (p=0.003) and feeding type (p<0.001). Anterior open bite was detected in 30.4% of children, and it was significantly associated with feeding type (p<0.001) and non-nutritive sucking habits (p<0.001). The variables found to be associated factors in the present study for the occurrence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite emphasize the need to establish strategies that include orientation regarding health promotion based on the “common determining factors” approach. Public health policies should be adopted to encourage a longer duration of breastfeeding, thereby contributing towards reducing the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits and anterior open bite.

  8. Disproportionate mosquito feeding on aggregated hosts.

    PubMed

    Foppa, Ivo M; Moore, Jerrilynn; Caillouët, Kevin A; Wesson, Dawn M

    2011-11-01

    Despite the importance of per-capita feeding rates for mosquito-borne transmission dynamics, the relationship between host aggregation and per-capita feeding rates remains poorly characterized. We conducted indoor experiments to investigate how Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquitoes distribute their blood feeding on variably aggregated domestic chickens (Callus gallus domesticus L.) (one chicken vs. a flock of seven to nine birds). Mosquitoes were always more likely to feed on the larger chicken group; yet, the single chicken tended to be fed on at a higher per-capita rate. When 10 chickens were available the feeding intensity was 4.5 times higher for the single chicken compared with the flock. We conclude that more highly aggregated hosts may experience lower exposure to mosquito bites than less aggregated hosts.

  9. Complementary Barrier Infrared Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Hill, Cory J.; Gunapala, Sarath D.

    2009-01-01

    The complementary barrier infrared detector (CBIRD) is designed to eliminate the major dark current sources in the superlattice infrared detector. The concept can also be applied to bulk semiconductor- based infrared detectors. CBIRD uses two different types of specially designed barriers: an electron barrier that blocks electrons but not holes, and a hole barrier that blocks holes but not electrons. The CBIRD structure consists of an n-contact, a hole barrier, an absorber, an electron barrier, and a p-contact. The barriers are placed at the contact-absorber junctions where, in a conventional p-i-n detector structure, there normally are depletion regions that produce generation-recombination (GR) dark currents due to Shockley-Read- Hall (SRH) processes. The wider-bandgap complementary barriers suppress G-R dark current. The barriers also block diffusion dark currents generated in the diffusion wings in the neutral regions. In addition, the wider gap barriers serve to reduce tunneling dark currents. In the case of a superlattice-based absorber, the superlattice itself can be designed to suppress dark currents due to Auger processes. At the same time, the barriers actually help to enhance the collection of photo-generated carriers by deflecting the photo-carriers that are diffusing in the wrong direction (i.e., away from collectors) and redirecting them toward the collecting contacts. The contact layers are made from materials with narrower bandgaps than the barriers. This allows good ohmic contacts to be made, resulting in lower contact resistances. Previously, THALES Research and Technology (France) demonstrated detectors with bulk InAsSb (specifically InAs0.91Sb0.09) absorber lattice-matched to GaSb substrates. The absorber is surrounded by two wider bandgap layers designed to minimize impedance to photocurrent flow. The wide bandgap materials also serve as contacts. The cutoff wavelength of the InAsSb absorber is fixed. CBIRD may be considered as a modified

  10. Diagnosis and complementary examinations.

    PubMed

    Menghini, Moreno; Duncan, Jacque L

    2014-01-01

    Development of neuroprotective therapies requires an understanding of the mechanisms of retinal degeneration and a way to monitor response to treatment. With the increasing availability of genetic testing, precise characterization of the retinal degeneration phenotype is essential. This chapter covers standard and innovative diagnostic techniques and complementary examinations needed for the evaluation and treatment of retinal degenerative diseases. It aims to provide an overview of functional and structural diagnostic tools for the evaluation of retinal degenerative diseases, but is not intended as a comprehensive reference. Subjective assessment of visual function includes psychophysical tests, such as perimetry and microperimetry. Electrophysiology tests, such as the electroretinogram and electro-oculogram, are crucial in the assessment of retinal degenerative diseases and provide an objective assessment of global photoreceptor and retinal pigment epithelial cell function. Retinal structural measures are correlated with measures of retinal function to characterize the disease phenotype, including fundus photography using color, near-infrared, and autofluorescence imaging. Ocular perfusion can be assessed using fluorescein, indocyanine green, and noninvasive angiography. Optical coherence tomography provides information about retinal structure. Resolution of all images of retinal structure can be improved using adaptive optics, which permits visualization of individual photoreceptors and retinal pigment epithelial cells in the macula.

  11. Children and Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... NHIS study on children’s use of complementary health approaches, including natural products and mind and body practices, visit the National ... conventional care or prescribed medications with any health product or practice ... suggests a complementary approach, do not increase the dose or duration of ...

  12. The influence of bubbles on the perception carbonation bite.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Wolf, Madeline; Thom, Stephen R; Bryant, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form) and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form). Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated) solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed.

  13. The Influence of Bubbles on the Perception Carbonation Bite

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Paul M.; Wolf, Madeline; Thom, Stephen R.; Bryant, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Although many people naively assume that the bite of carbonation is due to tactile stimulation of the oral cavity by bubbles, it has become increasingly clear that carbonation bite comes mainly from formation of carbonic acid in the oral mucosa. In Experiment 1, we asked whether bubbles were in fact required to perceive carbonation bite. Subjects rated oral pungency from several concentrations of carbonated water both at normal atmospheric pressure (at which bubbles could form) and at 2.0 atmospheres pressure (at which bubbles did not form). Ratings of carbonation bite under the two pressure conditions were essentially identical, indicating that bubbles are not required for pungency. In Experiment 2, we created controlled streams of air bubbles around the tongue in mildly pungent CO2 solutions to determine how tactile stimulation from bubbles affects carbonation bite. Since innocuous sensations like light touch and cooling often suppress pain, we predicted that bubbles might reduce rated bite. Contrary to prediction, air bubbles flowing around the tongue significantly enhanced rated bite, without inducing perceived bite in blank (un-carbonated) solutions. Accordingly, though bubbles are clearly not required for carbonation bite, they may well modulate perceived bite. More generally, the results show that innocuous tactile stimulation can enhance chemogenic pain. Possible physiological mechanisms are discussed. PMID:23990956

  14. Clinical Profile of Snake Bite in Children in Rural India

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Minhajuddin; Colaco, Sylvia M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A high incidence of snake bite envenomation has been reported from rural India. Due to inadequate epidemiological data, the incidence is underestimated. This study analyses the pattern of snake bite and their management in children in rural areas of Maharashtra, India. To determine the age, mode of presentation, seasonal variation, clinical profile and outcome of patients with snake bite less than 15 years of age. Methods This study is a retrospective, descriptive study including 162 patients, who presented with history of snake bite. Clinical data about age, sex, clinical manifestations, complications and outcome were obtained from case records and were analyzed. Findings Out of the 162 patients 98 (60.49%) were males. The bites were vasculotoxic in 147 (90.74%) and neuroparalytic in 15 (9.25%) patients. Mainly bites occurred from July to September with 84 (51.85%) bites. Bites were more common in males in age more than 5 years (89%) with bite marks mainly on lower limbs in 120 (74.04%) patients. Deaths were reported in patients who reported late to the hospital with a mortality rate of 1.85%. Conclusion Snake bite is a life threatening emergency. The key to minimizing mortality and severe morbidity is aggressive management of the ABC‘s of resuscitation, and timely and judicious administration of adequate dose of anti-venom. PMID:24910739

  15. Annual incidence of snake bite in rural bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Ridwanur; Faiz, M Abul; Selim, Shahjada; Rahman, Bayzidur; Basher, Ariful; Jones, Alison; d'Este, Catherine; Hossain, Moazzem; Islam, Ziaul; Ahmed, Habib; Milton, Abul Hasnat

    2010-10-26

    Snake bite is a neglected public health problem in the world and one of the major causes of mortality and morbidity in many areas, particularly in the rural tropics. It also poses substantial economic burdens on the snake bite victims due to treatment related expenditure and loss of productivity. An accurate estimate of the risk of snake bite is largely unknown for most countries in the developing world, especially South-East Asia. We undertook a national epidemiological survey to determine the annual incidence density of snake bite among the rural Bangladeshi population. Information on frequency of snake bite and individuals' length of stay in selected households over the preceding twelve months was rigorously collected from the respondents through an interviewer administered questionnaire. Point estimates and confidence intervals of the incidence density of snake bite, weighted and adjusted for the multi-stage cluster sampling design, were obtained. Out of 18,857 study participants, over one year a total of 98 snake bites, including one death were reported in rural Bangladesh. The estimated incidence density of snake bite is 623.4/100,000 person years (95% C I 513.4-789.2/100,000 person years). Biting occurs mostly when individuals are at work. The majority of the victims (71%) receive snake bites to their lower extremities. Eighty-six percent of the victims received some form of management within two hours of snake bite, although only three percent of the victims went directly to either a medical doctor or a hospital. Incidence density of snake bite in rural Bangladesh is substantially higher than previously estimated. This is likely due to better ascertainment of the incidence through a population based survey. Poor access to health services increases snake bite related morbidity and mortality; therefore, effective public health actions are warranted.

  16. Forensic odontology, part 4. Human bite marks.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-04-23

    The aim of this paper is to give a brief overview of bite mark analysis: its usefulness and limitations. The study and analysis of such injuries is challenging and complex. The correct protocols for collection, management, preservation, analysis and interpretation of this evidence should be employed if useful information is to be obtained for the courts. It is now possible, with advances in digital technology, to produce more accurate and reproducible comparison techniques which go some way to preventing and reducing problems such as photographic distortions. Research needs to be continued to increase our knowledge of the behaviour of skin when bitten. However, when presented with a high quality bite mark showing good dental detail, and a limited, accessible number of potential biters, it can be extremely useful in establishing a link between the bitten person and the biter or excluding the innocent.

  17. Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns related to the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition

    PubMed Central

    ROMERO, Camila Campos; SCAVONE-JUNIOR, Helio; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; COTRIM-FERREIRA, Flávio Augusto; FERREIRA, Rívea Inês

    2011-01-01

    Objective Nutritional, immunological and psychological benefits of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life are unequivocally recognized. However, mothers should also be aware of the importance of breastfeeding for promoting adequate oral development. This study evaluated the association between breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking patterns and the prevalence of anterior open bite in primary dentition. Material and Methods Infant feeding and non-nutritive sucking were investigated in a 3-6 year-old sample of 1,377 children, from São Paulo city, Brazil. Children were grouped according to breastfeeding duration: G1 – non-breastfed, G2 – shorter than 6 months, G3 – interruption between 6 and 12 months, and G4 – longer than 12 months. Three calibrated dentists performed clinical examinations and classified overbite into 3 categories: normal, anterior open bite and deep bite. Chi-square tests (p<0.05) with odds ratio (OR) calculation were used for intergroup comparisons. The impact of breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking on the prevalence of anterior open bite was analyzed using binary logistic regression. Results The prevalence estimates of anterior open bite were: 31.9% (G1), 26.1% (G2), 22.1% (G3), and 6.2% (G4). G1 would have significantly more chances of having anterior open bite compared with G4; in the total sample (OR=7.1) and in the subgroup without history of non-nutritive sucking (OR=9.3). Prolonging breastfeeding for 12 months was associated with a 3.7 times lower chance of having anterior open bite. In each year of persistence with non-nutritive sucking habits, the chance of developing this malocclusion increased in 2.38 times. Conclusion Breastfeeding and non-nutritive sucking durations demonstrated opposite effects on the prediction of anterior open bite. Non-breastfed children presented significantly greater chances of having anterior open bite compared with those who were breastfed for periods longer than 12 months

  18. Review of complementary feeding practices in Mexican children.

    PubMed

    Pantoja-Mendoza, Itzayana Y; Meléndez, Guillermo; Guevara-Cruz, Martha; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E

    2014-10-19

    Antecedentes: El inicio de la alimentación complementaria temprana coincide con un aumento significativo en la prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad especialmente en los niños, lo cual se debe entre otras causas a los cambios en los patrones de alimentación que se han experimentado. El objetivo del estudio fue describir las prácticas de alimentación complementaria en niños mexicanos. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda de los estudios que evaluaron las prácticas alimentarias en menores de 2 años en México en Medline, Lilacs y de forma manual con los siguientes términos: alimentación complementaria, alimentación suplementaria, México, ablactación y destete. Se recabó la edad de inicio de la alimentación complementaria, tipo de alimento consumido, frecuencia de consumo de los alimentos y motivo por el que iniciaban la alimentación complementaria. Se realizó un análisis cualitativo de la información recolectada y los datos en las gráficas son mostrados como proporciones. Resultados: Se incluyeron 7 estudios que mostraron que los niños inician la alimentación complementaria antes de los 6 meses predominantemente con frutas, aunque también consumieron jugos industrializados, refrescos y frituras. El consumo de estos productos aumenta con el crecimiento de los niños, aunado a un bajo consumo de alimentos con proteína de alto valor biológico, especialmente las carnes rojas. Conclusiones: Los resultados de los estudios incluidos mostraron que los menores reciben alimentos con alta densidad energética, mientras que es bajo el consumo de aquellos que aportan proteína animal y hierro en particular, lo que puede contribuir a problemas de salud como sobrepeso, obesidad, desnutrición y anemia.

  19. Pheromonal Control of Biting Midges (Culicoides Spp.).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    4 I. INTRODUCTION Biting midges, principally of the genus Culicoides, are important as vectors of human and animal diseases. Particularly, in the...this species could be held relatively easily in laboratory culture. II. OBJECTIVES * The principal objectives of the study were as follows. (1...their capacity to stimulate males sexually. These studies also examined whether killing the females or removing their wings affected the - stimulus

  20. Compartmental syndrome due to viper bite.

    PubMed

    Vigasio, A; Battiston, B; De Filippo, G; Brunelli, G; Calabrese, S

    1991-01-01

    The case is reported of a young girl who was bitten on the hand by a viper and developed compartment syndrome of the intrinsic muscles more than 24 h later. Multiple dorsal and volar fasciotomies resolved the acute episode with complete restitutio ad integrum. The clinical case is discussed in detail and the literature on these rare complications of snake bites in European countries reviewed.

  1. Complementary and alternative medicine

    PubMed Central

    Gaboury, Isabelle; Johnson, Noémie; Robin, Christine; Luc, Mireille; O’Connor, Daniel; Patenaude, Johane; Pélissier-Simard, Luce; Xhignesse, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine whether medical training prepares FPs to meet the requirements of the Collège des médecins du Québec for their role in advising patients on the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). Design Secondary analysis of survey results. Setting Quebec. Participants Family physicians and GPs in active practice. Main outcome measures Perceptions of the role of the physician as an advisor on CAM; level of comfort responding to questions and advising patients on CAM; frequency with which patients ask their physicians about CAM; personal position on CAM; and desire for training on CAM. Results The response rate was 19.5% (195 respondents of 1000) and the sample appears to be representative of the target population. Most respondents (85.8%) reported being asked about CAM several times a month. A similar proportion (86.7%) believed it was their role to advise patients on CAM. However, of this group, only 33.1% reported being able to do so. There is an association between an urban practice and knowledge of the advisory role of physicians. More than three-quarters of respondents expressed interest in receiving additional training on CAM. Conclusion There is a gap between the training that Quebec physicians receive on CAM and their need to meet legal and ethical obligations designed to protect the public where CAM products and therapies are concerned. One solution might be more thorough training on CAM to help physicians meet the Collège des médecins du Québec requirements. PMID:27965354

  2. [Lyme disease: prophylaxis after tick bite].

    PubMed

    Patey, O

    2007-01-01

    Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is transmitted by infected ticks. The transmission depends on several factors, especially on the duration of the tick's presence in the host body (the nymph which is smaller than the adults and thus less visible, is in this case the most frequently involved) and on whether the tick is infected or not. The interpretation of results in the few available studies is made difficult by the lack of information obtained (due to difficulty to collect information and examination costs). The comparison is made even more difficult by the difference between Borrelia ticks species in various regions. Today, the best methods are preventive: protective clothing, tick repellents, checking and removal of ticks after a journey in an endemic zone, and in case of tick bite, regular examination of the bite site during the following weeks in order to initiate an early curative treatment if ECM is diagnosed. The currently available data seems to be insufficient to suggest systematic antimicrobial prophylaxis in case of tick bite.

  3. Animal bites: the current management guidelines.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Mala; Ichhpujani, R L

    2003-03-01

    Rabies is a major public health problem in India. It is mainly transmitted by stray dogs, which form an overwhelming population in the country. Dogs are responsible for upto 95% of animal bites requiring antirabies treatment. In view of the exceptionally high fatality rate of human rabies, the prevention of infection after exposure is of utmost importance. With the availability of safe and effective tissue culture vaccines prevention of this dreaded disease is virtually assured by immediate and appropriate post exposure treatment. This is a three pronged approach including proper wound management, judicious use of antirabies serum and modern tissue culture vaccines. In India, Neural Tissue Vaccine is still used for post exposure treatment in public sector, though effective, this vaccine has serious side effects. The production and use of tissue culture vaccine should be encouraged with the aim to phase out neural tissue vaccine. WHO recommends use of intradermal route of inoculation of Tissue Culture Vaccine which makes the treatment very economical. However, this route as yet, is not approved by Drug Controller, Government of India (DCGI). There are no uniform guidelines for management of animal bite cases in India. In this article an attempt is made to discuss various aspects of animal bite management.

  4. Comparative lever analysis and ontogenetic scaling in esocid fishes: Functional demands and constraints in feeding biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Goulet, Courtney L; Smith, Harrison J; Maie, Takashi

    2016-11-01

    When animals grow, the functional demands that they experience often change as a consequence of their increasing body size. In this study, we examined the feeding biomechanics in esocid species that represent different size classes (small, Esox americanus; intermediate, Esox niger; large, Esox lucius), and how their bite forces and associated functional variables change as they grow. In order to evaluate bite performance through ontogeny, we dissected and measured dimensions of the feeding apparatus and the adductor mandibulae muscle complex with its segmentum facialis subdivisions such as the ricto-malaris, stegalis and endoricto-malaris across a wide range of body sizes. The collected morphological data was used as input variables for a published anatomical model to simulate jaw function in these fish species. Maximum bite forces for both anterior bite and posterior bite increased in isometry in E. americanus and E. niger. The posterior bite of E. lucius also increases in isometry, however, the anterior bite increases in positive allometry. Intraspecific comparison within E. lucius indicated the increase of bite forces in more developed individuals accelerated after the fish grew out of fingerling stage. In addition, our analysis indicated functional differentiation between subdivisions of the adductor mandibulae segmentum facialis, as well as interspecific differences in the pattern of contribution to the bite performance by these subdivisions. Our study provides insights into not only the musculoskeletal basis of the jaw function of esocid species, but also the feeding capacity of this species in relation to the functional demands it faces as one of the top predators in lake and river systems. J. Morphol. 277:1447-1458, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  6. Infant and Young Child Feeding in Developing Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arabi, Mandana; Frongillo, Edward A.; Avula, Rasmi; Mangasaryan, Nune

    2012-01-01

    Feeding practices are important determinants of growth and development of children. Using infant and young child feeding indicators and complementary feeding guidelines, 7 practices in 28 countries are described, showing substantial variation across countries. Only 25% of 0- to 5-month-olds were exclusively breastfed, and only half of 6- to…

  7. Single tooth bite forces in healthy young adults.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Serrao, G; Dellavia, C; Tartaglia, G M

    2004-01-01

    The assessment of bite forces on healthy single tooth appears essential for a correct quantification of the actual impact of single implant oral rehabilitations. In the present study, a new single tooth strain-gauge bite transducer was used in 52 healthy young adults (36 men, 16 women) with a complete permanent dentition. The influences of tooth position along the dental arch, of side, and of sex, on maximum bite force were assessed by an ANOVA. No significant left-right differences were found. On average, in both sexes the lowest bite force was recorded on the incisors (40-48% of maximum single tooth bite force), the largest force was recorded on the first molar. Bite forces were larger in men than in women (P < 0.002), and increased monotonically along the arch until the first or second permanent molar (P < 0.0001). The present data can be used as reference values for the comparison of dental forces in patients.

  8. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Morton, Jane A.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Chang, Chao-chin

    2016-01-01

    Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typical two to three days' incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic. PMID:26885419

  9. Child health update. Management of dog bites in children.

    PubMed

    Sabhaney, Vikram; Goldman, Ran D

    2012-10-01

    A 4-year-old girl was playing with her neighbour's dog. The dog became excited and bit the girl on the forearm, leaving a puncture wound. As a result of the injury, she has presented to my office. Should she be treated with antibiotics? If so, which antibiotic should be used and for how long? Initiation of prophylactic antibiotics is indicated if the dog bite has undergone primary closure; if there is a moderate or severe bite wound; for puncture wounds (especially if penetration of bone, tendon sheath, or joint), facial bites, bites to the hands or feet, or genital area bites; or wounds sustained by victims who are immunocompromised or asplenic. The first-line choice of antibiotic is amoxicillin-clavulanate. Appropriate tetanus and rabies prophylaxis as indicated should also be a part of caring for a patient who has sustained a dog bite, as well as local debridement and thorough cleaning of the wound.

  10. First Pediatric Case of Tularemia after a Coyote Bite.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Morton, Jane A; Kasten, Rickie W; Chang, Chao-Chin

    2016-01-01

    Bite-transmitted tularemia is a rare event in humans and most of the cases have been associated with cat bites. We report the first pediatric case of tularemia caused by a coyote (Canis latrans) bite. Coyotes can be healthy carriers of Francisella tularensis and transmit this infectious agent through a bite. Pediatricians should be aware of this risk after a carnivore bite and implement appropriate antibiotic therapy, as amoxicillin/clavulanate potassium (Augmentin) may have prolonged the typical two to three days' incubation period commonly observed for tularemia after an animal bite and was not effective in preventing clinical signs in this child. Finally, it emphasizes again the importance of early and late serum samples for appropriate serodiagnostic.

  11. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  12. Symptoms and circumstances associated with bites by the brown tree snake (Colubridae: Boiga irregularis) on Guam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fritts, T.H.; McCoid, M.J.; Haddock, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    A review of 94 cases of snakebite by the brown tree snake, Boiga irregularis, in Guam spanning a two year period shows a high proportion (80%) involve victims bitten while sleeping in their homes at night. Some bites apparently involve attempts to feed on small children. Of all children less than 1 yr old that were bitten in a two year period, infants 1-3 mo old comprised 82%. The symptoms exhibited by children are more severe than those experienced by adults. The snake is a rear-fanged (i.e., has enlarged and grooved teeth on the posterior maxillae) colubrid with a moderately large Duvernoy's gland.

  13. Bite force in the extant coelacanth Latimeria: the role of the intracranial joint and the basicranial muscle.

    PubMed

    Dutel, Hugo; Herbin, Marc; Clément, Gaël; Herrel, Anthony

    2015-05-04

    The terrestrialization process involved dramatic changes in the cranial anatomy of vertebrates. The braincase, which was initially divided into two portions by the intracranial joint in sarcopterygian fishes, became consolidated into a single unit in tetrapods and lungfishes [1-3]. The coelacanth Latimeria is the only extant vertebrate that retains an intracranial joint, which is associated with a unique paired muscle: the basicranial muscle. The intracranial joint has long been thought to be involved in suction feeding by allowing an extensive elevation of the anterior portion of the skull, followed by its rapid depression driven by the basicranial muscle [4-7]. However, we recently challenged this hypothesis [8, 9], and the role of the basicranial muscle with respect to the intracranial joint thus remains unclear. Using 3D biomechanical modeling, we show here that the basicranial muscle and the intracranial joint are involved in biting force generation. By flexing the anterior portion of the skull at the level of the intracranial joint, the basicranial muscle increases the overall bite force. This likely allows Latimeria to feed on a broad range of preys [10, 11] and coelacanths to colonize a wide range of environments during their evolution [4]. The variation in the morphology of the intracranial joint observed in Devonian lobe-finned fishes would have impacted to various degrees their biting performance and might have permitted feeding specializations despite the stability in their lower jaw morphology [12]. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  14. [Complementary medicine--the facts].

    PubMed

    Grossman, Ehud

    2011-08-01

    The popularity of complementary medicine in the western world continues to grow. Complementary medicine has a wide scope of topics including acupuncture, hypnosis, meditation, chiropractic manipulation, tai chi, yoga, botanical and herbal supplements and many other undefined modalities such as copper bracelets, magnets, holy water etc. For most modalities the mechanism of action is unknown and the evidence of benefit is poor. Some modalities such as acupuncture, hypnosis and tai chi may improve pain and other subjective complains. It seems that most of the beneficial effects of complementary medicine are placebo effects. Complementary treatment may be associated with side effects and should not be an alternative to the conventional medicine. Complementary medicine can be used as an adjunct to the conventional medicine and should be used in full agreement with and under the supervision of the attending physician. Patients should be informed about the existing evidence and what to expect from complementary medicine. Further meticulous research should be conducted to expand our knowledge in complementary medicine.

  15. Culicoides Midge Bites Modulate the Host Response and Impact on Bluetongue Virus Infection in Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Pages, Nonito; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses. PMID:24421899

  16. Culicoides midge bites modulate the host response and impact on bluetongue virus infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Pages, Nonito; Bréard, Emmanuel; Urien, Céline; Talavera, Sandra; Viarouge, Cyril; Lorca-Oro, Cristina; Jouneau, Luc; Charley, Bernard; Zientara, Stéphan; Bensaid, Albert; Solanes, David; Pujols, Joan; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Many haematophagous insects produce factors that help their blood meal and coincidently favor pathogen transmission. However nothing is known about the ability of Culicoides midges to interfere with the infectivity of the viruses they transmit. Among these, Bluetongue Virus (BTV) induces a hemorrhagic fever- type disease and its recent emergence in Europe had a major economical impact. We observed that needle inoculation of BTV8 in the site of uninfected C. nubeculosus feeding reduced viraemia and clinical disease intensity compared to plain needle inoculation. The sheep that developed the highest local inflammatory reaction had the lowest viral load, suggesting that the inflammatory response to midge bites may participate in the individual sensitivity to BTV viraemia development. Conversely compared to needle inoculation, inoculation of BTV8 by infected C. nubeculosus bites promoted viraemia and clinical symptom expression, in association with delayed IFN- induced gene expression and retarded neutralizing antibody responses. The effects of uninfected and infected midge bites on BTV viraemia and on the host response indicate that BTV transmission by infected midges is the most reliable experimental method to study the physio-pathological events relevant to a natural infection and to pertinent vaccine evaluation in the target species. It also leads the way to identify the promoting viral infectivity factors of infected Culicoides in order to possibly develop new control strategies against BTV and other Culicoides transmitted viruses.

  17. [Eyelid necrosis caused by an hymenopteran insect bite].

    PubMed

    Offret, H; Porras, J; Labetoulle, M; Offret, O; Fabre, M

    2008-11-01

    We report a case report of extensive eyelid necrosis caused by an insect bite. A 39-year-old man had suffered ocular trauma from a hymenopteran insect in Tunisia. The patient presented with eyelid necrosis. Eyelid necrosis mechanisms following insect bites are discussed and other causes of eyelid necrosis are presented. Eyelid necrosis, often caused by vasoconstrictive medications or animal venoms, notably hymenopteran insect bites, can result in substantial eyelid injury.

  18. Methods to Prevent Tick Bites and Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin; Schofield, Steven W

    2015-12-01

    Current approaches for prevention of tick bites, Lyme disease, and other tick-borne diseases are described. Particular attention is paid to 4 risk-reduction strategies: (i) avoiding risk areas; (ii) personal protective measures that reduce the risk of tick bites or transmission of the agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi; (iii) reducing the number of infected ticks in the environment; and (iv) use of prophylactic antibiotic treatments following a bite to prevent clinical Lyme disease.

  19. An Analytical Study of Mammalian Bite Wounds Requiring Inpatient Management

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Geun; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Background Mammalian bite injuries create a public health problem because of their frequency, potential severity, and increasing number. Some researchers have performed fragmentary analyses of bite wounds caused by certain mammalian species. However, little practical information is available concerning serious mammalian bite wounds that require hospitalization and intensive wound management. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to perform a general review of serious mammalian bite wounds. Methods We performed a retrospective review of the medical charts of 68 patients who were referred to our plastic surgery department for the treatment of bite wounds between January 2003 and October 2012. The cases were analyzed according to the species, patient demographics, environmental factors, injury characteristics, and clinical course. Results Among the 68 cases of mammalian bite injury, 58 (85%) were caused by dogs, 8 by humans, and 2 by cats. Most of those bitten by a human and both of those bitten by cats were male. Only one-third of all the patients were children or adolescents. The most frequent site of injury was the face, with 40 cases, followed by the hand, with 16 cases. Of the 68 patients, 7 were treated with secondary intention healing. Sixty-one patients underwent delayed procedures, including delayed direct closure, skin graft, composite graft, and local flap. Conclusions Based on overall findings from our review of the 68 cases of mammalian bites, we suggest practical guidelines for the management of mammalian bite injuries, which could be useful in the treatment of serious mammalian bite wounds. PMID:24286042

  20. Is extreme bite performance associated with extreme morphologies in sharks?

    PubMed

    Huber, Daniel R; Claes, Julien M; Mallefet, Jérôme; Herrel, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    As top predators in many oceanic communities, sharks are known to eat large prey and are supposedly able to generate high bite forces. This notion has, however, largely gone untested due to the experimental intractability of these animals. For those species that have been investigated, it remains unclear whether their high bite forces are simply a consequence of their large body size or the result of diet-related adaptation. As aquatic poikilotherms, sharks can grow very large, making them ideal subjects with which to investigate the effects of body size on bite force. Relative bite-force capacity is often associated with changes in head shape because taller or wider heads can, for example, accommodate larger jaw muscles. Constraints on bite force in general may also be released by changes in tooth shape. For example, more pointed teeth may allow a predator to penetrate prey more effectively than blunt, pavementlike teeth. Our analyses show that large sharks do not bite hard for their body size, but they generally have larger heads. Head width is the best predictor of bite force across the species included in our study as indicated by a multiple regression model. Contrary to our predictions, sharks with relatively high bite forces for their body size also have relatively more pointed teeth at the front of the tooth row. Moreover, species including hard prey in their diet are characterized by high bite forces and narrow and pointed teeth at the jaw symphysis.

  1. Barking mad? Another lunatic hypothesis bites the dust

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Simon; Morrell, Stephen

    2000-01-01

    Objective To assess whether dog bites requiring hospital admission occur more at the full moon. Design Review of dates of admission for dog bites to accident and emergency departments, June 1997 to June 1998, compared with dates of the full moon. Setting All public hospitals in Australia. Main outcome measures Admissions for dog bites. Results 12 peak clusters of admissions were unrelated to the time of the full moon. Conclusion Dog bites are no more frequent on full moons than at any other time of the month. Sceptics rejoice. PMID:11124174

  2. Bite force and dental implant treatment: a short review.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    Dental implants are placed endosseously, and the bone is the ultimate bearer of the occlusal load. Patients are not uniform in the maximum bite force they can generate. The occlusal biting load in the posterior jaw is usually about three times of that found in the anterior. It is possible for supporting implants to be overloaded by the patients' biting force, resulting in bone loss and failure of the fixture. Bite force measurement may be an important parameter when planning dental implant treatment. Some patients can generate extreme biting loads that may cause a luxation of the fixture and subsequent loss of osseointegration. A patient with low biting force may be able to have a successful long-term outcome even with poor anatomical bone qualities. Patients with a high bite force capability may have an increased risk for late component fracture or implant failure. There is no correlation of any bite force value that would indicate any overload of a given implant in a given osseous site. Nonetheless, after bite force measurement, a qualitative judgement may be made by the clinician for the selection of an implant diameter and length and prosthetic design.

  3. An approach to spider bites. Erroneous attribution of dermonecrotic lesions to brown recluse or hobo spider bites in Canada.

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Robert G.; Vetter, Richard S.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To dispel prevalent myths surrounding diagnosis of dermonecrotic and associated conditions supposedly resulting from bites of brown recluse, hobo, or other spiders in Canada. SOURCES OF INFORMATION: Worldwide, spider bites are regularly misdiagnosed as the etiologic agents in human dermonecrosis mainly as a result of inaccurate, erroneous, or hyperbolic popular and professional literature based on inference, circumstantial evidence, inferior clinical trials, and misunderstanding of the facts regarding spider-bite envenomation. MAIN MESSAGE: A working diagnosis of "spider bite" or publishing a case history should be considered only when a spider is caught in the act of biting or otherwise reliably associated with a lesion. Accurate identification of the spider could be critical for correct diagnosis and subsequent treatment. CONCLUSION: Brown recluse spiders are not found in Canada. Hobo spiders have not been reliably implicated in dermonecrosis. Worldwide, spider-bite envenomation is an unlikely cause of dermonecrosis. Canadian physicians should give priority consideration to other, more likely, causes. PMID:15455808

  4. THE ETIOLOGY OF RAT-BITE FEVER

    PubMed Central

    Blake, Francis G.

    1916-01-01

    The similarity in the cases of rat-bite fever recorded in the literature establishes it as a definite clinical entity. The same symptomatology occurs in cases from Asia, Europe, and America. The greater frequency of the disease in Japan than elsewhere is probably due to the housing conditions and habits of the people resulting in the more frequent occurrence of rat-bites. It does not seem necessary to consider that cases occurring in Europe and America are due to the bites of rats that have been imported from Japan. The clinical picture and course of the disease indicate that it is infectious in origin. Until Schottmüller's case appeared in 1914, the etiology had been undiscovered. He isolated from his case in eight consecutive blood cultures a streptothrix which he has designated Streptothrix muris ratti. His work has been confirmed by the isolation of an identical streptothrix from the blood during life and at autopsy in the case here reported. Further confirmation of the etiological relationship of this organism to the infection in our patient is found in the production of powerful agglutinins for the organism in the blood serum of this case and in the demonstration of the organism in the vegetation on the mitral valve. It is not unreasonable to suppose that Proescher (13) observed the same organism in the sections of the excised wound in his case. Although it is fully realized that Koch's postulates have not been fulfilled in the absence of successful animal experimentation, nevertheless the accumulated evidence here presented leaves little reason to doubt that the specific cause of rat-bite fever is Streptothrix muris ratti. The pathology of rat-bite fever has hitherto been largely a matter of surmise. One autopsy only has been recorded in the literature (Miura (22)), and nothing abnormal was noted other than injection of the pial vessels. The autopsy in the case here reported has proved of considerable interest in the extent and character of the lesions

  5. Bacteria isolated from conspecific bite wounds in Norway and black rats: implications for rat bite-associated infections in people.

    PubMed

    Himsworth, Chelsea G; Zabek, Erin; Tang, Patrick; Parsons, Kirbee L; Koehn, Martha; Jardine, Claire M; Patrick, David M

    2014-02-01

    Bites associated with wild and domestic Norway and black rats (Rattus norvegicus and Rattus rattus) may have a variety of health consequences in people. Bite-related infections are among the most significant of these consequences; however, there is little data on the infectious agents that can be transmitted from rats to people through biting. This is problematic because without an accurate understanding of bite-related infection risks, it is difficult for health professionals to evaluate the adequacy of existing guidelines for empirical therapy. The objectives of this study were to increase our knowledge of the bacterial species associated with rat bites by studying bite wounds that wild rats inflict upon one another and to review the literature regarding rat bites and bite wound management. Wild Norway and black rats (n=725) were trapped in Vancouver, Canada, and examined for bite wounds in the skin. All apparently infected wounds underwent aerobic and anaerobic culture, and isolated bacteria were identified. Thirty-six rats had bite wound-related infections, and approximately 22 different species of bacteria belonging to 18 genera were identified. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common isolate; however, the majority of infections (72.5%) were polymicrobial. Rat bites can result in infection with a number of aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In humans, these wounds are best managed through early recognition and cleansing. The benefit of prophylactic antimicrobial treatment is debatable, but given the deep puncturing nature of rodent bites, we suggest that they should be considered a high risk for infection. Antibiotics selected should include coverage for a broad range of bacterial species.

  6. A Note on Complementary Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. Photo: iStock Herbal supplements, meditation, chiropractic manipulation, and acupuncture are types of complementary and ... useful to include acupuncture along with standard care. Chiropractic provides some benefit for low back pain, however ...

  7. Small sets of complementary observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grassl, M.; McNulty, D.; Mišta, L.; Paterek, T.

    2017-01-01

    Two observables are called complementary if preparing a physical object in an eigenstate of one of them yields a completely random result in a measurement of the other. We investigate small sets of complementary observables that cannot be extended by yet another complementary observable. We construct explicit examples of unextendible sets up to dimension 16 and conjecture certain small sets to be unextendible in higher dimensions. Our constructions provide three complementary measurements, only one observable away from the ultimate minimum of two. Almost all our examples in finite dimensions are useful for discriminating pure states from some mixed states, and they help to shed light on the complex topology of the Bloch space of higher-dimensional quantum systems.

  8. Paying for Complementary Health Approaches

    MedlinePlus

    ... to chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, yoga, meditation, and massage therapy. Out-of-Pocket Spending on Complementary Health ... integrative health practitioners such as chiropractors, acupuncturists, and massage therapists $12.8 billion out-of-pocket on ...

  9. Oncology pain and complementary therapy.

    PubMed

    Running, Alice; Turnbeaugh, Elizabeth

    2011-08-01

    Half of all patients with cancer experience some level of pain, so pain management is an important topic for oncology nurses. Pharmacologic measures traditionally are the primary intervention for bone, visceral, neuropathic, and procedural pain; however, many patients are turning to an integrative approach of Western and complementary therapies for pain and symptom management. The authors explored the current evidence concerning the effectiveness of complementary therapies in relation to cancer pain and symptom control.

  10. Complementary roles of interventional radiology and therapeutic endoscopy in gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Ray, David M; Srinivasan, Indu; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Vilmann, Andreas S; Vilmann, Peter; McCowan, Timothy C; Patel, Akash M

    2017-01-01

    Acute upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tubes and luminal strictures are some of the common reasons for gastroenterology service. While surgery was initially considered the main treatment modality, the advent of both therapeutic endoscopy and interventional radiology have resulted in the paradigm shift in the management of these conditions. In this paper, we discuss the patient’s work up, indications, and complementary roles of endoscopic and angiographic management in the settings of gastrointestinal bleeding, enteral feeding, cecostomy tube placement and luminal strictures. These conditions often require multidisciplinary approaches involving a team of interventional radiologists, gastroenterologists and surgeons. Further, the authors also aim to describe how the fields of interventional radiology and gastrointestinal endoscopy are overlapping and complementary in the management of these complex conditions. PMID:28396724

  11. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    PubMed Central

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H.; Baab, Karen L.; Smith, Amanda L.; Weber, Gerhard W.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens) cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA) to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1) less well configured, or (2) better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting) side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint dislocation and

  12. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints.

    PubMed

    Ledogar, Justin A; Dechow, Paul C; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H; Gordon, Adam D; Baab, Karen L; Smith, Amanda L; Weber, Gerhard W; Grosse, Ian R; Ross, Callum F; Richmond, Brian G; Wright, Barth W; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens) cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA) to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1) less well configured, or (2) better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting) side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint dislocation and

  13. The individualisation of a dog bite mark: a case study highlighting the bite mark analysis, with emphasis on differences between dog and human bite marks.

    PubMed

    Bernitz, Herman; Bernitz, Zephné; Steenkamp, Gerhard; Blumenthal, Ryan; Stols, Gerrit

    2012-05-01

    A person who keeps or controls a dog in his own interest is liable "without fault" should that dog cause harm to any person. By owning a dog, man welcomes into his home a beast that preserves much of its primordial self, and is capable of inflicting a fatal bite wound. The courts may require the forensic expert to identify which specific dog caused the damage or fatal bite in an effort to establish the owner/controller of the animal. Very little has been published on the individualisation of dog bite marks, the procedures to be followed when confronted with usable bite marks and the range of analysis techniques available. The authors advocate a multidisciplinary approach, and utilise a case study to demonstrate the protocol to be followed when analysing a dog bite mark. The paper also highlights differences between human and dog inflicted bites. The authors warn against over interpretation of poor quality bite marks and a final conclusion of absolute certainty.

  14. Acetylcholinesterases of blood-feeding flies and ticks.

    PubMed

    Temeyer, Kevin B; Tuckow, Alexander P; Brake, Danett K; Li, Andrew Y; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2013-03-25

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is the biochemical target of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate pesticides for invertebrates, vertebrate nerve agents, and AChE inhibitors used to reduce effects of Alzheimer's disease. Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are widely used to control blood-feeding arthropods, including biting flies and ticks. However, resistance to OPs in pests affecting animal and human health has compromised control efficacy. OP resistance often results from mutations producing an OP-insensitive AChE. Our studies have demonstrated production of OP-insensitive AChEs in biting flies and ticks. Complementary DNA (cDNA) sequences encoding AChEs were obtained for the horn fly, stable fly, sand fly, and the southern cattle tick. The availability of cDNA sequences enables the identification of mutations, expression and characterization of recombinant proteins, gene silencing for functional studies, as well as in vitro screening of novel inhibitors. The southern cattle tick expresses at least three different genes encoding AChE in their synganglion, i.e. brain. Gene amplification for each of the three known cattle tick AChE genes and expression of multiple alleles for each gene may reduce fitness cost associated with OP-resistance. AChE hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter, acetylcholine, but may have additional roles in physiology and development. The three cattle tick AChEs possess significantly different biochemical properties, and are expressed in neural and non-neural tissues, which suggest separation of structure and function. The remarkable complexity of AChEs in ticks suggested by combining genomic data from Ixodes scapularis with our genetic and biochemical data from Rhipicephalus microplus is suggestive of previously unknown gene duplication and diversification. Comparative studies between invertebrate and vertebrate AChEs could enhance our understanding of structure-activity relationships. Research with ticks as a model system offers the opportunity to

  15. Ability of essential oil candles to repel biting insects in high and low biting pressure environments.

    PubMed

    Müller, Günter C; Junnila, Amy; Kravchenko, Vasiliy D; Revay, Edita E; Butler, Jerry; Orlova, Olga B; Weiss, Robert W; Schlein, Yosef

    2008-03-01

    The first goal of this study was to compare the degree of personal protection against biting insects provided by geraniol, linalool, and citronella candle (5%) vapors outdoors, where such products are commonly used. At a distance of 1.0 m, citronella candles reduced the number of female mosquitoes caught in Centers for Disease Control and Prevention traps by 35.4% and sand flies by 15.4%, linalool candles reduced female mosquitoes by 64.9% and sand flies by 48.5%, while geraniol candles reduced female mosquitoes by 81.5% and sand flies by 69.8%. By increasing the distance to 2 m and 3 m, the repellency dropped significantly. The second goal was to compare the degree of personal protection provided by the best performing candle, geraniol, under conditions of high and low biting pressure. The introduction of geraniol candles to protect volunteers in a high biting pressure environment reduced the mosquito pressure by an average of 56% and the sand fly pressure by 62% over a distance of 1.0 m. In the low biting pressure environment, geraniol reduced the mosquito pressure by an average of 62%. No sand flies were present at this site.

  16. Biting injuries and transmission of Tasmanian devil facial tumour disease.

    PubMed

    Hamede, Rodrigo K; McCallum, Hamish; Jones, Menna

    2013-01-01

    The Tasmanian devil is threatened with extinction by devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), a unique infectious cancer in which the tumour cells themselves, which derive from a single long-dead host devil, are the infective agent and the tumour is an infectious parasitic cell line. Transmission is thought to occur via direct inoculation of tumour cells when susceptible and infected individuals bite each other or by fomitic transfer of tumour cells. The nature of transmission and the extent to which biting behaviour and devil ecology is associated with infection risk remains unclear. Until our recent study in north-west Tasmania showed reduced population and individual impacts, DFTD had caused massive population declines in all populations monitored. In this paper, we investigate seasonal patterns of injuries resulting from bites between individuals, DFTD infection status and tumour location in two populations to determine whether the number of bites predicts the acquisition of DFTD and to explore the possibility that the reduced impacts of DFTD in north-west Tasmania are attributed to reduced bite rates. Devils with fewer bites were more likely to develop DFTD and primary tumours occurred predominantly inside the oral cavity. These results are not consistent with transmission occurring from the biter to the bitten animal but suggest that dominant individuals delivering bites, possibly by biting the tumours of other devils, are at higher risk of acquiring infection than submissive individuals receiving bites. Bite rates, which were higher during autumn and winter, did not differ between sites, suggesting that the reduced population impacts in north-west Tasmania cannot be explained by lower bite rates. Our study emphasizes the importance of longitudinal studies of individually marked animals for understanding the ecology and transmission dynamics of infectious diseases and parasites in wild populations.

  17. Midazolam increases bite force during intravenous sedation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ming-Yu; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Kaneko, Yuzuru; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2012-08-01

    Although there have been many reports on the effects of midazolam on vital function and the recovery profile, little is known about muscle power during sedation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of midazolam on muscle power during moderate sedation. The subjects were 20 male volunteers classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I. Each subject underwent 2 experiments in a randomized crossover manner (midazolam and control groups). After baseline data were obtained, midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) was administered. Thirty minutes after midazolam administration, flumazenil (0.5 mg) was administered to antagonize the sedative effects of midazolam in the midazolam group. Heart rate, noninvasive blood pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and the bispectral index value were monitored. The Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale and the correct-answer rate of the Stroop color word test were assessed. To evaluate muscle power, grip strength and bite force were measured. After baseline measurement, all variables were measured 2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes after midazolam administration and 5, 10, and 20 minutes after flumazenil administration. For statistical comparisons, repeated measures analysis of variance, the Friedman χ(2) test, and the Student t test for paired samples were used. No significant changes were observed for any variable in the control group. In the midazolam group, the bispectral index value and the Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation scale decreased during midazolam sedation. The correct-answer rate of the Stroop color word test decreased 5 and 10 minutes after midazolam administration. Grip strength decreased during midazolam sedation. Bite force increased immediately after midazolam administration and remained increased even after flumazenil administration. Although the detailed mechanisms are unknown, bite force increases despite the muscle-relaxant action of midazolam

  18. Severity of Old World Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Is Influenced by Previous Exposure to Sandfly Bites in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mondragon-Shem, Karina; Al-Salem, Waleed S.; Kelly-Hope, Louise; Abdeladhim, Maha; Al-Zahrani, Mohammed H.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Background The sandfly Phlebotomus papatasi is the vector of Leishmania major, the main causative agent of Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Saudi Arabia. Sandflies inject saliva while feeding and the salivary protein PpSP32 was previously shown to be a biomarker for bite exposure. Here we used recombinant PpSP32 to evaluate human exposure to Ph. papatasi bites, and study the association between antibody response to saliva and CL in endemic areas in Saudi Arabia. Methodology/Principal Findings In this observational study, anti-PpSP32 antibodies, as indicators of exposure to sandfly bites, were measured in sera from healthy individuals and patients from endemic regions in Saudi Arabia with active and cured CL. Ph. papatasi was identified as the primary CL vector in the study area. Anti-PpSP32 antibody levels were significantly higher in CL patients presenting active infections from all geographical regions compared to CL cured and healthy individuals. Furthermore, higher anti-PpSP32 antibody levels correlated with the prevalence and type of CL lesions (nodular vs. papular) observed in patients, especially non-local construction workers. Conclusions Our findings suggest a possible correlation between the type of immunity generated by the exposure to sandfly bites and disease outcome. PMID:25646796

  19. Puff and bite: the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and anti-predator performance in checkered puffer (Sphoeroides testudineus).

    PubMed

    Cull, Felicia; O'Connor, Constance M; Suski, Cory D; Shultz, Aaron D; Danylchuk, Andy J; Cooke, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    Individual variation in the endocrine stress response has been linked to survival and performance in a variety of species. Here, we evaluate the relationship between the endocrine stress response and anti-predator behaviors in wild checkered puffers (Sphoeroides testudineus) captured at Eleuthera Island, Bahamas. The checkered puffer has a unique and easily measurable predator avoidance strategy, which is to inflate or 'puff' to deter potential predators. In this study, we measured baseline and stress-induced circulating glucocorticoid levels, as well as bite force, a performance measure that is relevant to both feeding and predator defence, and 'puff' performance. We found that puff performance and bite force were consistent within individuals, but generally decreased following a standardized stressor. Larger puffers were able to generate a higher bite force, and larger puffers were able to maintain a more robust puff performance following a standardized stressor relative to smaller puffers. In terms of the relationship between the glucocorticoid stress response and performance metrics, we found no relationship between post-stress glucocorticoid levels and either puff performance or bite force. However, we did find that baseline glucocorticoid levels predicted the ability of a puffer to maintain a robust puff response following a repeated stressor, and this relationship was more pronounced in larger individuals. Our work provides a novel example of how baseline glucocorticoids can predict a fitness-related anti-predator behavior.

  20. Onychophagia (Nail biting), anxiety, and malocclusion.

    PubMed

    Sachan, Avesh; Chaturvedi, T P

    2012-01-01

    Nail biting is a stress removing habit adopted by many children and adults. People usually do it when they are nervous, stressed, hungry, or bored. All of these situations are having a common phenomenon between them is anxiety. Onychophagia is also a sign of other emotional or mental disorders. It is a habit that is not easy to quit and reflection of extreme nervousness or inability to handle stressful conditions. This abnormal habit may cause various malocclusions associated with dentoalveolar segment of the oral cavity. Crowding and rotations of incisors are common with this habit.