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Sample records for bk070045 donor screen

  1. Novel guidelines for organ donor cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hassanain, Mazen

    2014-05-20

    Donor transmitted malignancy is a real disastrous risk when dealing with expanded criteria donors. As donor age is increasing, guidelines for cancer screening of the elderly brain dead organ donors must be evidence-based but systematic review of such is sparse. Based on a review of published literature and our 20 years' experience, we propose a new series of guidelines concerning screening for the four most common malignancies: breast colon, lung and prostate cancer. Prospective testing of the efficacy of such protocol will then follow.

  2. New technologies for infectious screening of organ donors.

    PubMed

    Fishman, J A

    2011-01-01

    Viral, bacterial, parasitic, prion, and fungal infections, although uncommon, have been transmitted via organ and tissue allografts. Improved screening techniques for infectious diseases in organ donors have helped to reduce disease transmission. Reports of clusters of donor-derived infections illustrate the need to improve the screening of tissue and organ donors. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for use as diagnostic tools in individuals believed to have a specific infection based on clinical or epidemiological criteria. These assays are frequently unsuitable in the screening of deceased organ donors. Nucleic acid testing may reduce the risk of disease transmission by detecting early-stage infection, including those from human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus in the "window" period before antibody seroconversion can be documented. Screening of organ donors for potential pathogens cannot completely exclude the risk of disease transmission. The process of donor screening must continue to evolve with advances in diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases.

  3. Effective serological and molecular screening of deceased tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A; Gillan, H L

    2013-12-01

    A comprehensive and effective screening programme is essential to support the banking of tissues from deceased donors. However, the overall quality of the samples obtained from deceased donors, quantity and condition, is often not ideal, and this may lead to problems in achieving accurate and reliable results. Additionally a significant percentage of referrals are still rejected upon receipt as unsuitable for screening. We are actively involved in improving the overall quality of deceased donor screening outcomes, and have specifically evaluated and validated both serological and molecular assays for this purpose, as well as developing a specific screening strategy to minimise the specificity issues associated with serological screening. Here we review the nature and effectiveness of the deceased donor screening programme implemented by National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT), the organisation with overall responsibility for the supply of tissue products within England. Deceased donor screening data, serological and molecular, from August 2007 until May 2012 have been collated and analysed. Of 10,225 samples referred for serology screening, 5.5 % were reported as reactive; of 2,862 samples referred for molecular screening, 0.1 % were reported as reactive/inhibitory. Overall 20 % of the serological and 100 % of the molecular screen reactivity was confirmed as reflecting true infection. The use of a sequential serology screening algorithm has resulted in a marked reduction of tissues lost unnecessarily due to non-specific screen reactivity. The approach taken by NHSBT has resulted in the development of an effective and specific approach to the screening of deceased tissue donors.

  4. The History and Challenges of Blood Donor Screening in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Li, Ka Yi; Yan, Ke; Ou, Guojin; Li, Wenhui; Wang, Jue; Song, Ning; Tian, Li; Ji, Xin; Chen, Yongjun; Liang, Xiaohua; Liu, Zhong; Wu, Yanyun

    2017-04-01

    Since the establishment of People's Republic of China in 1949, the Chinese government has encountered several catastrophes related to transfusion transmitted diseases. The government's increasing attention to blood safety has prompted the initiation of a series of policies and measures that have enhanced the level of safety for the blood supply and met the basic clinical demands of blood for 1.3 billion people in the country. Blood donation screening strategies in China predominantly comprise donor screening and donor testing. Donor screening includes selection of low-risk blood donors by the use of a donor history questionnaire, predonation physical examination, and initial rapid donor testing. Donor testing includes direct pathogen detection and serology tests. The year 1998 marked the most transformative change in blood donor selection and screening policies in China. Before 1998, paid donation was the predominant mode of blood donation. Donor screening and donor testing were conducted before donation, and only those who were eligible were allowed to donate. To ensure the safety of blood, donor testing was performed again after donation. After the implementation of the Blood Donation Law in 1998, to promote voluntary and unpaid donation, predonation donor testing was eliminated to reduce the amount of waiting time and to provide a more convenient donation experience for blood donors. However, it is the national requirement that donated blood should undergo 2 rounds of testing using different equipment or reagents, conducted by different personnel. Donor selection has transitioned from paid donation and obligatory donation to voluntary donation with fixed volunteer groups, as the latter mode of donation provides the lowest risks. Donations are currently screened for syphilis, hepatitis C virus, HIV, and hepatitis B virus (HBV). Units, previously typed only for ABO, are now routinely tested for both ABO and Rh(D). Innovations in testing technologies and methods

  5. [Chagas disease screening in the blood donor population].

    PubMed

    Assal, A; Pelletier, B; David, B; Tiberghien, P

    2009-12-01

    In May 2007, the French Blood Service (Etablissement français du sang, EFS) introduced systematic screening of at-risk blood donors for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. This concerned donors originating from an endemic area, donors with mothers originating from such an area and individuals who had lived in or travelled to endemic areas, whatever the length of their stay. Five samples out of 163,740 were positive, all from individuals originating from an endemic area. One thousand three hundred seventy-four blood donations were considered as equivocal because they had discordant results on the two Elisa tests used in screening. The authors discuss difficulties presented by routine screening of travellers and residents as well as the advantages and drawbacks of the strategy used. They present arguments in favour of its simplification.

  6. Blood donors screening for blood born viruses in Poland.

    PubMed

    Grabarczyk, Piotr; Kopacz, Aneta; Sulkowska, Ewa; Kubicka-Russel, Dorota; Mikulska, Maria; Brojer, Ewa; Łętowska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Blood donor screening of viral markers in Poland is based on serologic testing for anti-HCV, HBsAg, anti-HIV1/2 (chemiluminescence tests) and on nucleic acid testing (NAT) for RNA HCV, RNA HIV-1 and DNA HBV performed in minipools of 6 with real-time PCR (MPX 2.0 test on cobas s201) or with TMA in individual donations (Ultrio Plus or Ultrio Elite). Donors of plasma for anti-D and anti-HBs production are tested for parvovirus B19 DNA. Before implementation tests and equipment are evaluated at the Institute of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine (IHTM). The last 20 years witnessed a decreasing trend for HBsAg in both first time and repeat donors (1%-0.3% and 0.1%-0.02% respectively). Prevalence of anti-HCV repeat reactive results was stable and oscillated around 0.8% for first time donors and 0.2% for repeat donors. Elevated prevalence of seropositive HIV infected donors was recently observed (7.5-9 cases/100,000 donors). Since respective molecular markers implementation HCV RNA was detected on average in 1/119,235 seronegative donations, HIV RNA in 1/783,821 and HBV DNA in 1/61,047. HBV NAT yields were mostly occult hepatitis B (1/80,248); window period cases were less frequent (1/255,146). The efficiency of HBV DNA detection depends on the sensitivity of the HBV DNA screening system.

  7. Transmission of donor illness by stem cell transplantation: should screening be different in older donors?

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Gentilini, C; Hegenbart, U; Lange, T; Moosmann, P; Pönisch, W; Al-Ali, H; Raida, M; Ljungman, P; Tyndall, A; Urbano-Ispizua, A; Lazarus, H M; Gratwohl, A

    2004-10-01

    With increasing donor age, the potential of transmitting diseases from donor to recipient reaches new dimensions. Potentially transmittable diseases from donors include infections, congenital disorders, and acquired illnesses like autoimmune diseases or malignancies of hematological or nonhematological origin. While established nonmalignant or malignant diseases might be easy to discover, early-stage hematological diseases like CML, light-chain multiple myelomas, aleukemic leukemias, occult myelodysplastic syndromes and other malignant and nonmalignant diseases might not be detectable by routine screening but only by invasive, new and/or expensive diagnostic tests. In the following article, we propose recommendations for donor work-up, taking into consideration the age of the donors. In contrast to blood transfusions, stem cells from donors with abnormal findings might still be acceptable for HCT, when no other options are available and life expectancy is limited. This issue is discussed in detail in relation to the available donor and stem cell source. Finally, the recommendations presented here aim at harmonized worldwide work-up for donors to insure high standard quality.

  8. Screening of deceased organ donors: no easy answers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Robert C; Fishman, Jay A

    2011-01-27

    Transmission of infection to recipients of solid organs is uncommon but well documented. Improved technologies for the diagnosis of infectious diseases suggest possible changes to paradigms used in the screening of organ donors to prevent disease transmission with transplantation. Available microbiologic assays, including molecular tests, are generally designed for use as diagnostic tools in individuals believed to have a specific infection based on clinical or epidemiological criteria. By contrast, these assays often lack the performance characteristics required for screening of deceased organ donors. This challenge is apparent with the analysis of assays for human T-cell lymphotropic virus-I and -II in low-risk populations. Changing epidemiologic patterns associated with the spread of novel pathogens or altered patterns of immigration will necessitate flexibility in the "list" of potential pathogens. Individual benefits from transplantation generally outweigh the risk of transmission of infection. However, this favorable experience will not obviate the need to continuously improve screening practices.

  9. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated October 2013. The draft guidance document provides establishments that make donor eligibility......

  10. [Progress of improving blood donor screening by nucleic acid technology].

    PubMed

    Cai, Li-Na; Chen, Bao-An

    2014-08-01

    With increasing application of blood transfusion, the research of side-effects such as transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs) became more and more important. Up to the 90's of the 20th century, the first blood donor screening for pathogens transfected from blood transfusion entirely depended on serological test. At this time, the detection of virus were performed mainly by using method of detecting antibody, except hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be detected by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Now, the molecular technologies, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been used in clinic. These technologic methods can provide capability of detection for blood donor screening and reduced possibility of infection from blood transfusion. This review summarises the development of nucleic acid amplification technology and describes its current state.

  11. Organ donor screening practices for Trypanosoma cruzi infection among US Organ Procurement Organizations.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Paster, M; Ison, M G; Chin-Hong, P V

    2011-04-01

    Donor-derived Trypanosoma cruzi infection in solid organ transplant recipients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Little is known about T. cruzi screening practices among U.S. organ procurement organizations (OPOs). We distributed a questionnaire to all U.S. OPO directors, requesting data on T. cruzi screening strategies, laboratory methods, number of donors screened, disposition of organs from positive donors and attitudes toward screening. Fifty-eight (100%) U.S. OPOs responded to the survey. Donor screening began in 2002 and is presently performed by 11 (19%) OPOs. Among screening OPOs, four screen all donors and seven use a risk-based strategy. Three different T. cruzi serology tests are used for donor screening. During 2008, 9/993 (0.9%) donors screened positive by a T. cruzi screening test, 6/9 (66%) had confirmatory tests performed and 4/6 (66%) had positive confirmatory tests. These results led to the nonuse of five donors and 17 organs. Five organs from three seropositive donors were transplanted in 2008 without recognized disease transmission. Variability of T. cruzi donor screening strategies, laboratory methods and disposition of organs from positive donors currently exists. Further research is needed to identify the risk of donor-derived T. cruzi infections to help inform the best screening strategy.

  12. ESHRE Task Force on Ethics and Law 21: genetic screening of gamete donors: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, W; De Wert, G; Pennings, G; Shenfield, F; Devroey, P; Tarlatzis, B; Barri, P; Diedrich, K; Eichenlaub-Ritter, U; Tüttelmann, F; Provoost, V

    2014-07-01

    This Task Force document explores the ethical issues involved in the debate about the scope of genetic screening of gamete donors. Calls for expanded donor screening arise against the background of both occasional findings of serious but rare genetic conditions in donors or donor offspring that were not detected through present screening procedures and the advent of new genomic technologies promising affordable testing of donors for a wide range of conditions. Ethical principles require that all stakeholders' interests are taken into account, including those of candidate donors. The message of the profession should be that avoiding all risks is impossible and that testing should remain proportional.

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi screening in Texas blood donors, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M N; Woc-Colburn, L; Rossmann, S N; Townsend, R L; Stramer, S L; Bravo, M; Kamel, H; Beddard, R; Townsend, M; Oldham, R; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P J; Murray, K O

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease is an important emerging disease in Texas that results in cardiomyopathy in about 30% of those infected with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Between the years 2008 and 2012, about 1/6500 blood donors were T. cruzi antibody-confirmed positive. We found older persons and minority populations, particularly Hispanic, at highest risk for screening positive for T. cruzi antibodies during routine blood donation. Zip code analysis determined that T. cruzi is associated with poverty. Chagas disease has a significant disease burden and is a cause of substantial economic losses in Texas.

  14. HIV screening practices for living organ donors, New York State, 2010: need for standard policies.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Candice K; Al-Samarrai, Teeb; Smith, Lou C; Sabharwal, Charulata J; Valente, Kim A; Torian, Lucia V; McMurdo, Lisa M; Shepard, Colin W; Brooks, John T; Kuehnert, Matthew J

    2012-10-01

    Our survey of kidney and liver transplant centers in New York State found a wide variation among transplant centers in evaluation and screening for HIV risk and infection among prospective living donors. Survey results underscore the need to standardize practices. A recent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from a living donor to a kidney recipient revealed a possible limitation in existing screening protocols for HIV infection in living donors. We surveyed kidney and liver transplant centers (N = 18) in New York State to assess HIV screening protocols for living donors. Although most transplant centers evaluated HIV risk behaviors in living donors, evaluation practices varied widely, as did the extent of HIV testing and prevention counseling. All centers screened living donors for serologic evidence of HIV infection, either during initial evaluation or ≥1 month before surgery; however, only 50% of transplant centers repeated HIV testing within 14 days before surgery for all donors or donors with specific risk behaviors. Forty-four percent of transplant centers used HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT) to screen either all donors or donors with recognized risk behaviors, and 55% never performed HIV NAT. Results suggest the need to standardize evaluation of HIV risk behaviors and prevention counseling in New York State to prevent acquisition of HIV by prospective living organ donors, and to conduct HIV antibody testing and NAT as close to the time of donation as possible to prevent HIV transmission to recipients.

  15. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES..., you must screen a donor of cells or tissue by reviewing the donor's relevant medical records for: (1...) Communicable disease risks associated with xenotransplantation. (b) Donors of viable, leukocyte-rich cells...

  16. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES..., you must screen a donor of cells or tissue by reviewing the donor's relevant medical records for: (1...) Communicable disease risks associated with xenotransplantation. (b) Donors of viable, leukocyte-rich cells...

  17. (C)ces haplotype screening in Tunisian blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Moussa, Hajer; Ghommen, Néjiba; Romdhane, Houda; Abdelkefi, Saadia; Chakroun, Taher; Houissa, Batoul; Jemni, Saloua Yacoub

    2014-01-01

    Background The (C)ces haplotype, mainly found in black individuals, contains two altered genes: a hybrid RHD-CE-Ds gene segregated with a ces allele of RHCE with two single nucleotide polymorphisms, c. 733C>G (p.Leu245Val) in exon 5 and c. 1006G>T (Gly336Cys) in exon 7. This haplotype could be responsible for false positive genotyping results in RhD-negative individuals and at a homozygous level lead to the loss of a high incidence antigen RH34. The aim of this study was to screen for the (C)ces haplotype in Tunisian blood donors, given its clinico-biological importance. Material and methods Blood samples were randomly collected from blood donors in the blood transfusion centre of Sousse (Tunisia). A total of 356 RhD-positive and 44 RhD-negative samples were tested for the (C)ces haplotype using two allele-specific primer polymerase chain reactions that detect c. 733C>G (p.Leu245Val) and c. 1006G>T (p. Gly336Cys) substitutions in exon 5 and 7 of the RHCE gene. In addition, the presence of the D-CE hybrid exon 3 was evaluated using a sequence-specific primer polymerase chain reaction. Results Among the 400 individuals only five exhibited the (C)ces haplotype in heterozygosity, for a frequency of 0.625%. On the basis of the allele-specific primer polymerase chain reaction results, the difference in (C)ces haplotype frequency was not statistically significant between RhD-positive and RhD-negative blood donors. Discussion These data showed the presence of the (C)ces haplotype at a low frequency (0.625%) compared to that among Africans in whom it is common. Nevertheless, the presence of RHD-CE-Ds in Tunisians, even at a lower frequency, should be considered in the development of a molecular genotyping strategy for Rh genes, to ensure better management of the prevention of alloimmunisation. PMID:24333089

  18. Transmission of Hepatitis C Virus From Organ Donors Despite Nucleic Acid Test Screening.

    PubMed

    Suryaprasad, A; Basavaraju, S V; Hocevar, S N; Theodoropoulos, N; Zuckerman, R A; Hayden, T; Forbi, J C; Pegues, D; Levine, M; Martin, S I; Kuehnert, M J; Blumberg, E A

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) is recommended for screening of organ donors, yet not all donor infections may be detected. We describe three US clusters of HCV transmission from donors at increased risk for HCV infection. Donor's and recipients' medical records were reviewed. Newly infected recipients were interviewed. Donor-derived HCV infection was considered when infection was newly detected after transplantation in recipients of organs from increased risk donors. Stored donor sera and tissue samples were tested for HCV RNA with high-sensitivity quantitative PCR. Posttransplant and pretransplant recipient sera were tested for HCV RNA. Quasispecies analysis of hypervariable region-1 was used to establish genetic relatedness of recipient HCV variants. Each donor had evidence of injection drug use preceding death. Of 12 recipients, 8 were HCV-infected-6 were newly diagnosed posttransplant. HCV RNA was retrospectively detected in stored samples from donor immunologic tissue collected at organ procurement. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters of closely related HCV variants from recipients. These investigations identified the first known HCV transmissions from increased risk organ donors with negative NAT screening, indicating very recent donor infection. Recipient informed consent and posttransplant screening for blood-borne pathogens are essential when considering increased risk donors.

  19. HIV screening reactivity due to donor participation in HIV vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Hewitt, P E

    2009-08-01

    We report two instances of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serological screening reactivity in blood donations which were subsequently determined to be due to donor participation in HIV vaccine trials. Both donations were screen reactive with atypical patterns on confirmation; no definitive conclusion could be given for either donor. Subsequent questioning identified that both donors had been involved in HIV vaccine trials. In both cases the screening and confirmation identified the presence of HIV antibodies, although vaccine induced. While clinical trials of vaccines are important, the implications of some need careful consideration if they are not to adversely impact other areas of healthcare.

  20. Screening of blood donors for IgA deficiency: a study of the donor population of south-west England.

    PubMed Central

    Holt, P D; Tandy, N P; Anstee, D J

    1977-01-01

    Altogether 29 745 English blood donors were screened for IgA deficiency by double diffusion analysis; 57 had apparent absence of IgA, a frequency of 1:522. Further examination by the more sensitive haemagglutination inhibition assay revealed 34 samples having no detectable IgA, a frequency of 1:875. All donors negative by double diffusion analysis were tested for the presence of antibodies to IgA. Six class specific anti IgA antibodies and four anti IgA antibodies of limited specificity were detected. Three of these had the specificity anti alpha2 and one anti A2m(2). The 34 IgA deficient donors detected provide a source of IgA deficient blood for transfusion to patients with anti IgA antibodies. PMID:304071

  1. Considerations for screening live kidney donors for endemic infections: a viewpoint on the UNOS policy.

    PubMed

    Levi, M E; Kumar, D; Green, M; Ison, M G; Kaul, D; Michaels, M G; Morris, M I; Schwartz, B S; Echenique, I A; Blumberg, E A

    2014-05-01

    In February 2013, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network mandated that transplant centers perform screening of living kidney donors prior to transplantation for Strongyloides, Trypanosoma cruzi and West Nile virus (WNV) infection if the donor is from an endemic area. However, specific guidelines for screening were not provided, such as the optimal testing modalities, timing of screening prior to donation and the appropriate selection of donors. In this regard, the American Society of Transplantation Infectious Diseases Community of Practice, together with disease-specific experts, has developed this viewpoint document to provide guidance for the testing of live donors for Strongyloides, T. cruzi and WNV infection, specifically identifying at-risk populations and testing algorithms, including advantages, limitations and interpretation of results.

  2. Current practices and evaluation of screening solid organ donors for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Nett, R J; Kuehnert, M J; Ison, M G; Orlowski, J P; Fischer, M; Staples, J E

    2012-06-01

    The first cases of West Nile virus (WNV) transmitted through solid organ transplantation (SOT) were identified in 2002. Subsequently, 5 additional clusters have been reported to public health officials in the United States. Based upon a limited number of known cases, patients who acquire WNV from infected donor organs might be at higher risk for severe neurologic disease and death, compared with patients infected through mosquito bites. In response, some organ procurement organizations (OPOs) have instituted pre-transplant screening of organ donors for WNV infection. We evaluated the current practices, concerns, and challenges related to screening organ donors for WNV in the United States by reviewing the relevant medical literature and interviewing key stakeholders. Screening organ donors for WNV is not required by national policy. In 2008, 11 (19%) of 58 OPOs performed WNV screening using nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT). These OPOs differ in their screening strategies, NAT performed, and logistical challenges. Concerns of delays in receiving NAT results before transplant and potential false-positive results leading to organ wasting are limitations to more widespread screening. Furthermore, it is unknown if WNV screening practices decrease SOT-related morbidity and mortality, or if screening is cost-effective. Additional data are needed to assess and improve transplant outcomes related to WNV.

  3. Chagas Disease Screening in Maternal Donors of Publicly Banked Umbilical Cord Blood, United States

    PubMed Central

    Gilner, Jennifer B.; Hernandez, Jose; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Heine, R. Phillips

    2016-01-01

    To assess patterns of Chagas disease, we reviewed results of screening umbilical cord blood from a US public cord blood bank during 2007–2014. Nineteen maternal donors tested positive for Trypanosoma cruzi parasites (0.04%). Because perinatal transmission of Chagas disease is associated with substantial illness, targeted prenatal programs should screen for this disease. PMID:27433974

  4. Qualification of serological infectious disease assays for the screening of samples from deceased tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Kitchen, A D; Newham, J A

    2011-05-01

    Whilst some of the assays used for serological screening of post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors in some countries have been specifically validated by the manufacturer for this purpose, a significant number of those currently in use globally have not. Although specificity has previously been considered a problem in the screening of such samples, we believe that ensuring sensitivity is more important. The aim of this study was to validate a broader range of assays for the screening of post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors. Six microplate immunoassays currently in use within National Health Service Blood and Transplant (NHSBT) for the screening of blood, tissue and stem cell donations were included. Representative samples from confirmed positive donors were titrated in screen negative post-mortem samples in parallel with normal pooled negative serum to determine if there was any inhibition with the post-mortem samples. There were no significant differences seen (P < 0.005) between the dilution curves obtained for the positive samples diluted in post-mortem samples and normal pooled sera. Although small numbers of samples were studied, it can be surmised that the post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors, collected according to United Kingdom guidelines, are a suitable substrate for the assays evaluated. No diminution of reactivity was seen when dilution with sera from deceased donors was compared to dilution using pooled serum from live donors. In the absence of genuine low titre positive post-mortem samples, the use of samples spiked with various levels of target material provides a means of qualifying serological screening assays used by NHSBT for the screening of post-mortem blood samples from deceased tissue donors.

  5. Screening for insulitis in adult autoantibody-positive organ donors.

    PubMed

    In't Veld, Peter; Lievens, Dirk; De Grijse, Joeri; Ling, Zhidong; Van der Auwera, Bart; Pipeleers-Marichal, Miriam; Gorus, Frans; Pipeleers, Daniel

    2007-09-01

    Antibodies against islet cell antigens are used as predictive markers of type 1 diabetes, but it is unknown whether they reflect an ongoing autoimmune process in islet tissue. We investigated whether organs from adult donors that are positive for autoantibodies (aAbs) against islet cell antigens exhibit insulitis and/or a reduced beta-cell mass. Serum from 1,507 organ donors (age 25-60 years) was analyzed for islet cell antibodies (ICAs), glutamate decarboxylase aAbs (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 aAbs (IA-2As), and insulin aAbs. Tissue from the 62 aAb+ donors (4.1%) and from matched controls was examined for the presence of insulitis and for the relative area of insulin+ cells. Insulitis was detected in two cases; it was found in 3 and 9% of the islets and consisted of CD3+/CD8+ T-cells and CD68+ macrophages; in one case, it was associated with insulin+ cells that expressed the proliferation marker Ki67. Both subjects belonged to the subgroup of three donors with positivity for ICA, GADA, and IA-2-Ab and for the susceptible HLA-DQ genotype. Comparison of relative beta-cell area in aAb+ and aAb- donors did not show a significant difference. Insulitis was found in two of the three cases that presented at least three aAbs but in none of the other 59 antibody+ subjects or 62 matched controls. It was only detected in <10% of the islets, some of which presented signs of beta-cell proliferation. No decrease in beta-cell mass was detected in cases with insulitis or in the group of antibody+ subjects.

  6. A web-based application for initial screening of living kidney donors: development, implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Moore, D R; Feurer, I D; Zavala, E Y; Shaffer, D; Karp, S; Hoy, H; Moore, D E

    2013-02-01

    Most centers utilize phone or written surveys to screen candidates who self-refer to be living kidney donors. To increase efficiency and reduce resource utilization, we developed a web-based application to screen kidney donor candidates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of this web-based application. Method and time of referral were tabulated and descriptive statistics summarized demographic characteristics. Time series analyses evaluated use over time. Between January 1, 2011 and March 31, 2012, 1200 candidates self-referred to be living kidney donors at our center. Eight hundred one candidates (67%) completed the web-based survey and 399 (33%) completed a phone survey. Thirty-nine percent of donors accessed the application on nights and weekends. Postimplementation of the web-based application, there was a statistically significant increase (p < 0.001) in the number of self-referrals via the web-based application as opposed to telephone contact. Also, there was a significant increase (p = 0.025) in the total number of self-referrals post-implementation from 61 to 116 per month. An interactive web-based application is an effective strategy for the initial screening of donor candidates. The web-based application increased the ability to interface with donors, process them efficiently and ultimately increased donor self-referral at our center.

  7. Screening for hepatitis B virus DNA in serum of organ donors and renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Miédougé, M; Rostaing, L; Mansuy, J M; Sandres-Sauné, K; Boudet, F; Izopet, J

    2003-04-01

    In order to determine the impact of screening potential organ donors for hepatitis B virus DNA using a standardized test, the serum of 145 donor candidates was tested. All of the candidates were negative for hepatitis B virus DNA, but the status of one donor was doubtful for hepatitis B virus surface antigen and seven donors tested positive for hepatitis B virus core antibody without hepatitis B virus surface antigen. Nine transplant recipients tested positive for hepatitis B virus surface antibody; they were given kidneys from the donor with a doubtful hepatitis B virus surface antigen result and from four of the seven donors who tested positive for hepatitis B core antibody. Follow-up revealed no case of hepatitis B transmission. In this study, screening for hepatitis B virus DNA was useful and did not lead to donor organ shortage. Patients with hepatitis B virus surface antibodies can safely be given kidneys from donors who are positive for hepatitis B core antibody but negative for hepatitis B virus DNA.

  8. Transmission of infection with human allografts: essential considerations in donor screening.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jay A; Greenwald, Melissa A; Grossi, Paolo A

    2012-09-01

    Transmission of infection via transplantation of allografts including solid organs, eyes, and tissues are uncommon but potentially life-threatening events. Donor-derived infections have been documented following organ, tissue, and ocular transplants. Each year, more than 70 000 organs, 100 000 corneas, and 2 million human tissue allografts are implanted worldwide. Single donors may provide allografts for >100 organ and tissue recipients; each allograft carries some, largely unquantifiable, risk of disease transmission. Protocols for screening of organ or tissue donors for infectious risk are nonuniform, varying with the type of allograft, national standards, and availability of screening assays. In the absence of routine, active surveillance, coupled with the common failure to recognize or report transmission events, few data are available on the incidence of allograft-associated disease transmission. Research is needed to define the optimal screening assays and the transmissibility of infection with allografts. Approaches are reviewed that may contribute to safety in allograft transplantation.

  9. Romanian blood donors screening: is it really necessary and/or mandatory?

    PubMed

    Hâţu, Giorgiana; Brumboiu, Maria Irina; Gorgan, Iuliana Nela; Bocşan, I S

    2013-01-01

    Blood services are required to provide the safest possible products, but no transfusion can ever be totally free of the risk of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). Over the past decade, the risk of TTI through transfusion has been reduced (e.g. 1 in 300 000 for HBV to 1 in 2 million for HIV). With the introduction in 1999 of sensitive and expensive nucleic acid testing (NAT) technology in some countries, the disease transmission rate and the window period have been significantly reduced, but a remaining concern is the chance that a blood donor will be infected and not detected by such tests. To obtain safe blood and blood components it is important to ensure that the donors are healthy and free from TTI by using a donor selection procedure meticulously made, using a donor questionnaire to assess donor health and safety and for reducing the risk of transmission of infection, in particular for infections for which no suitable screening tests are available. In Romania the prevalence of TTI among donor population is high in comparison with other European Union (EU) countries. This may require significant improvements in the screening process of both donors and donations to minimize the infectious risk.

  10. Etiology of anemia of blood donor candidates deferred by hematologic screening

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Michel Alves; de Souza, Renata Andréia Volpe; Carlos, Aline Meneses; Soares, Sheila; Moraes-Souza, Helio; Pereira, Gilberto de Araujo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia and one of the main factors in the clinical deferral of blood donors. This fact prompted the current study that aimed to determine the prevalence and etiology of anemia in blood donor candidates and to evaluate the hematological screening technique used for the exclusion of these donors. Methods: This was a prospective study that compared two groups (Anemic and Non-anemic). Initially screening for anemia was performed by manually measuring hemoglobin (Bioclin® Kit); the results were subsequently compared with an automated screening method (Coulter T-890). The etiology was investigated by hemoglobin electrophoresis in alkaline and acid pH, Hb A2 dosage and measurement of the ferritin concentration by immunoagglutination. Differences and associations of interest were analyzed using the Yates and McNemar's Chi-square tests and the Fisher, Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: The deferral rate due to anemia was 4.2%; iron deficiency was identified in 37.5% and beta thalassemia in 9.3% of the excluded candidates. There was a significant discrepancy between the two techniques used to measure hemoglobin with 38.1% of initially deferred donors presenting normal hemoglobin levels by the automated method. Conclusion: The results show a high rate of blood donors being deferred for anemia and confirm that iron deficiency is the most prevalent cause. The discrepancies found by comparing screening methods suggest that hemoglobin and hematocrit levels should be confirmed before deferring a donor due to anemia; this may increase supplies in blood banks. PMID:23125544

  11. A retrospective analysis of false-positive infectious screening results in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Vo, Michelle T.; Bruhn, Roberta; Kaidarova, Zhanna; Custer, Brian S.; Murphy, Edward L.; Bloch, Evan M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND False-positive infectious transfusion screening results remain a challenge with continued loss of both donors and blood products. We sought to identify associations between donor demographic characteristics (age, race, sex, education, first-time donor status) and testing false positive for viruses during routine blood donation screening. In addition the study assessed the prevalence of high-risk behaviors in false-positive donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Blood Systems, Inc. donors with allogeneic donations between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2012, were compared in a case-control study. Those with a false-positive donation for one of four viruses (human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], human T-lymphotropic virus [HTLV], hepatitis B virus [HBV], and hepatitis C virus [HCV]) were included as cases. Those with negative test results were controls. For a subset of cases, infectious risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS Black race and Hispanic ethnicity were associated with HCV and HTLV false-positive results. Male sex and lower education were associated with HCV false positivity, and age 25 to 44 was associated with HTLV false positivity. First-time donors were more likely to be HCV false positive although less likely to be HBV and HTLV false positive. No significant associations between donor demographics and HIV false positivity were observed. A questionnaire for false-positive donors showed low levels of high-risk behaviors. CONCLUSION Demographic associations with HCV and HTLV false-positive results overlap with those of true infection. While true infection is unlikely given current testing algorithms and risk factor evaluation, the findings suggest nonrandom association. Further investigation into biologic mechanisms is warranted. PMID:26509432

  12. Systematic Evaluation of Different Nucleic Acid Amplification Assays for Cytomegalovirus Detection: Feasibility of Blood Donor Screening.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T; Knabbe, C; Dreier, J

    2015-10-01

    Acute primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections, which commonly occur asymptomatically among blood donors, represent a significant risk for serious morbidity in immunocompromised patients (a major group of transfusion recipients). We implemented a routine CMV pool screening procedure for plasma for the identification of CMV DNA-positive donors, and we evaluated the sensitivities and performance of different CMV DNA amplification systems. Minipools (MPs) of samples from 18,405 individual donors (54,451 donations) were screened for CMV DNA using the RealStar CMV PCR assay (Altona Diagnostic Technologies), with a minimum detection limit of 11.14 IU/ml. DNA was extracted with a high-volume protocol (4.8 ml, Chemagic Viral 5K kit; PerkinElmer) for blood donor pool screening (MP-nucleic acid testing [NAT]) and with the Nuclisens easyMAG system (0.5 ml; bioMérieux) for individual donation (ID)-NAT. In total, six CMV DNA-positive donors (0.03%) were identified by routine CMV screening, with DNA concentrations ranging from 4.35 × 10(2) to 4.30 × 10(3) IU/ml. Five donors already showed seroconversion and detectable IgA, IgM, and/or IgG antibody titers (IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(-) or IgA(+)/IgM(+)/IgG(+)), and one donor showed no CMV-specific antibodies. Comparison of three commercial assays, i.e., the RealStar CMV PCR kit, the Sentosa SA CMV quantitative PCR kit (Vela Diagnostics), and the CMV R-gene PCR kit (bioMérieux), for MP-NAT and ID-NAT showed comparably good analytical sensitivities, ranging from 10.23 to 11.14 IU/ml (MP-NAT) or from 37.66 to 57.94 IU/ml (ID-NAT). The clinical relevance of transfusion-associated CMV infections requires further investigation, and the evaluated methods present powerful basic tools providing sensitive possibilities for viral testing. The application of CMV MP-NAT facilitated the identification of one donor with a window-phase donation during acute primary CMV infection.

  13. Organ donor screening using parallel nucleic acid testing allows assessment of transmission risk and assay results in real time.

    PubMed

    Baleriola, C; Tu, E; Johal, H; Gillis, J; Ison, M G; Law, M; Coghlan, P; Rawlinson, W D

    2012-06-01

    Expansion of the donor pool may lead to utilization of donors with risk factors for viral infections. Donor laboratory screening relies on serological and nucleic acid testing (NAT). The increased sensitivity of NAT in low prevalence populations may result in false-positive results (FPR) and may cause unnecessary discard of organs.We developed a screening algorithm to deal, in real time, with potential FPR. Three NAT assays: COBAS AmpliScreen assay (CAS), AmpliPrep Total Nucleic Acid Isolation/CAS, and AmpliPrep/TaqMan assays, were validated and used in parallel for prospective screening of increased-risk donors (IRD), and the probability of FPR was calculated. The lower limit of detection of this algorithm was 9.79, 21.02, and 4.31 IU/mL for human immunodeficiency virus-1, hepatitis C virus, and hepatitis B virus, respectively, with an average turn-around-time of 7.67 h from sample receipt to result reporting. The probability that a donor is potentially infectious with two NAT concordant results was >90%. NAT screening of 35 IRD within 18 months resulted in transplantation of 102 additional organs that without screening would either not be used or used with restrictions in Australia. Using a parallel testing algorithm, real-time confirmation of seropositive donors allows use of organs from IRD and safer expansion of the donor pool.

  14. Carrier Screening is a Deficient Strategy for Determining Sperm Donor Eligibility and Reducing Risk of Disease in Recipient Children

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Ari J.; Larson, Jessica L.; Silver, Maxwell J.; Lim, Regine M.; Borroto, Carlos; Spurrier, Brett; Morriss, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aims: DNA-based carrier screening is a standard component of donor eligibility protocols practiced by U.S. sperm banks. Applicants who test positive for carrying a recessive disease mutation are typically disqualified. The aim of our study was to examine the utility of a range of screening panels adopted by the industry and the effectiveness of the screening paradigm in reducing a future child's risk of inheriting disease. Methods: A cohort of 27 donor applicants, who tested negative on an initial cystic fibrosis carrier test, was further screened with three expanded commercial carrier testing panels. These results were then compared to a systematic analysis of the applicants' DNA using next-generation sequencing (NGS) data. Results: The carrier panels detected serious pediatric disease mutations in one, four, or six donor applicants. Because each panel screens distinct regions of the genome, no single donor was uniformly identified as carrier positive by all three panels. In contrast, systematic NGS analysis identified all donors as carriers of one or more mutations associated with severe monogenic pediatric disease. These included 30 variants classified as “pathogenic” based on clinical observation and 66 with a high likelihood of causing gene dysfunction. Conclusion: Despite tremendous advances in variant identification, understanding, and analysis, the vast majority of disease-causing mutation combinations remain undetected by commercial carrier screening panels, which cover a narrow, and often distinct, subset of genes and mutations. The biological reality is that all donors and recipients carry serious recessive disease mutations. This challenges the utility of any screening protocol that anchors donor eligibility to carrier status. A more effective approach to reducing recessive disease risk would consider joint comprehensive analysis of both donor and recipient disease mutations. This type of high-resolution recessive disease risk analysis is now

  15. Use of computed tomography renal angiography for screening feline renal transplant donors.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Jennifer L; Aronson, Lillian R; Keith, Dennis G; Saunders, H Mark

    2003-01-01

    Preoperative knowledge of the renal vascular anatomy is important for selection of the appropriate feline renal donor. Intravenous urograms (IVUs) have been performed routinely to screen potential donors at the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania (VHUP), but the vascular phase views lack sufficient detail of the renal vascular anatomy. Computed tomography angiography (CTA), which requires a helical computed tomography (CT) scanner, has been found to provide superior renal vascular anatomic information of prospective human renal donors. The specific aims of this study were as follows: 1) develop the CTA technique for the feline patient; and 2) obtain preliminary information on feline renal vessel anatomy in potential renal donors. Ten healthy, potential feline renal donors were anesthetized and imaged using a third-generation helical CT scanner. The time delay between i.v. contrast medium injection and image acquisition, and other parameters of slice collimation, slice interval, pitch, exposure settings, and reconstruction algorithms were varied to maximize contrast medium opacification of the renal vascular anatomy. Optimal CTA acquisition parameters were determined to be: 1) 10-sec delay post-i.v. bolus of iodinated contrast medium; 2) two serially acquired (corresponding to arterial and venous phases) helical scans through the renal vasculature; 3) pitch of 2 (4 mm/sec patient translation, 2 mm slice collimation); and 4) 120-kVp, 160-mA, and 1-sec exposure settings. Retrospective reconstructed CTA transverse images obtained at a 2-mm slice width and a 1-mm slice interval in combination with two-dimensional reformatted images and three-dimensional reconstructed images were qualitatively evaluated for vascular anatomy; vascular anatomy was confirmed at surgery. Four cats had single renal arteries and veins bilaterally; four cats had double renal veins. One cat had a small accessory artery supplying the caudal pole of the left kidney. One cat had a

  16. A question of clarity: redesigning the American Association Of Blood Banks blood donor history questionnaire--a chronology and model for donor screening.

    PubMed

    Fridey, Joy L; Townsend, Mary J; Kessler, Debra A; Gregory, Kay R

    2007-07-01

    A new donor history questionnaire, introduced by the American Association of Blood Banks in 2004 and approved by Food and Drug Administration in 2006, is now in widespread use in the United States. The development of this questionnaire involved an in-depth look at the entire system of donor screening questions, and is notable for its use of survey design experts as well as blood banking experts, government agencies, and an ethicist who represented the public interest in developing the actual questions. The end result is a questionnaire that uses capture questions in a time bounded format, donor educational materials, and a medication deferral list. Detailed instructions for donor screeners include follow-up questions in easy-to-follow flow-charts. Most importantly, for the first time in the history of developing donor history questions, all materials were tested for donor comprehension using cognitive interview evaluation. This article discusses the development of the questionnaire, explains the methodology, and describes the thinking and rationale for decisions made during redesign of the questionnaire.

  17. Donor screening for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus 1/2: changing paradigms for changing testing capacity.

    PubMed

    Kaul, D R; Taranto, S; Alexander, C; Covington, S; Marvin, M; Nowicki, M; Orlowski, J; Pancoska, C; Pruett, T L; Ison, M G

    2010-02-01

    Organ Procurement and Transplant Network (OPTN) policy currently requires the testing of all potential organ donors for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV)-1/2. Most Organ Procurement Organizations (OPO) use the Abbott HTLV-I/HTLV-II Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA). This assay will no longer be manufactured after December 31, 2009; the only commercially available FDA-licensed assay will be the Abbott PRISM HTLV-I/II assay which poses many challenges to OPO use for organ donor screening. As a result, screening donors for HTLV-1/2 in a timely manner pretransplant after December 31, 2009 will be challenging. The true incidence of HTLV-1 in United States (U.S.) organ donors is not well described but appears to be low ( approximately 0.03-0.5%). HTLV-1 is associated with malignancy and neurological disease; HTLV-2 has not been convincingly associated with disease in humans. Donors that are HTLV-1/2 seropositive are infrequently used despite most results being either false positive or resulting from HTLV-2 infection. There is urgent need to encourage the development of assays, instruments and platforms optimized for organ donors that can be used to screen for transmissible disease in donors; these must have appropriate sensitivity and specificity to identify all infections while minimizing organ loss through false positive testing.

  18. Deceased organ donor screening for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C viruses: a survey of organ procurement organization practices.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, N; Jaramillo, A; Ladner, D P; Ison, M G

    2013-08-01

    Although Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) policy requires that all potential deceased organ donors are screened for human immunodeficiency (HIV), hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viruses by serology, no current policy requires the use of nucleic acid testing (NAT) for organ donor screening. An electronic survey was sent to 58 organ procurement organizations (OPO) in the United States to assess current screening practices of potential deceased organ donors. Fifty-seven responses were collected for data analysis; not all respondents answered all questions. All OPOs performed required HIV, HBV and HCV serology screening and 48 (84%) performed confirmatory testing for seropositive donors. Ninety-eight percent, 75% and 97% of OPOs performed prospective HIV, HBV and HCV NAT, respectively. Fifty-two percent and 47% used a transcription-mediated amplification assay for HIV and HCV NAT, respectively. Of the 56 respondents that performed HIV NAT and 55 respondents that performed HCV NAT, 39 tested all donors. Seventeen (32%) OPOs performed confirmatory testing for all HIV-positive NAT results, and 15 (27%) OPOs performed confirmatory testing for all HCV-positive NAT results. Since 2008, the number of OPOs performing NAT has increased and more OPOs are testing all donors.

  19. Diaphragmatic Hernia After Living Donor Right Hepatectomy: Proposal for a Screening Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Livingstone, Scott M.; Andres, Axel; Shapiro, A.M. James; Kneteman, Norman N.; Bigam, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is increasingly being used to improve access to liver transplantation for those with end-stage liver disease. Although recipient outcomes are equivalent, donor complication rates range from 10% to 41%. A rare, but potentially serious complication is occurrence of a diaphragmatic hernia (DH), of which 9 cases have been reported so far in the literature. The purpose of this work was to review the clinical impact of DH post-LDH, including risk factors (RF) in hope of mitigating impact. Methods A literature review was performed identifying all previous reports of post-operative DH in living liver donors. Demographic and outcome data were gathered to help identify RF. We also report 2 cases from our own institution. Results Reported incidences range from 0.6% to 2.3%, of which the majority are delayed (≥19 months). Obstruction or intestinal strangulation was present in 45%, 60% of whom required an intestinal resection. The most common RF was right lobe donation. Conclusions Postoperative DH is a rare but serious complication of LDH. The major RFs are right lobe donation and potentially conditions resulting in increased intraabdominal pressure. Diaphragmatic hernia frequently lead to intestinal obstruction and strangulation and should be repaired when identified. The implementation of a screening protocol for early identification could lead to repair before the development of complications. We propose the addition of screening chest x-ray to follow-up protocols to aid in the identification and subsequent repair of postoperative DH. Such a practice could hopefully reduce the clinical impact of this complication. PMID:27830178

  20. Recommendations for screening of donor and recipient prior to solid organ transplantation and to minimize transmission of donor-derived infections.

    PubMed

    Len, O; Garzoni, C; Lumbreras, C; Molina, I; Meije, Y; Pahissa, A; Grossi, P

    2014-09-01

    In the context of solid organ transplantation, screening of recipients and organ donors is crucial, and should be performed with great rigour to minimize the reactivation or the risk of transmission of certain infectious processes. This review aims to update understanding of the possible pathologies involved, as well as of emerging infections that, as a result of globalization, are gaining increasing prominence on a daily basis.

  1. Application of EU tissue and cell directive screening protocols to anonymous oocyte donors in western Ukraine: data from an Irish IVF programme.

    PubMed

    Walsh, A P H; Omar, A B; Collins, G S; Murray, G U; Walsh, D J; Salma, U; Sills, E Scott

    2010-01-01

    Anonymous oocyte donation in the EU proceeds only after rigorous screening designed to ensure gamete safety. If anonymous donor gametes originating from outside EU territory are used by EU patients, donor testing must conform to the same standards as if gamete procurement had occurred in the EU. In Ireland, IVF recipients can be matched to anonymous donors in the Ukraine (a non-EU country). This investigation describes the evolution of anonymous oocyte donor screening methods during this period and associated results. Data were reviewed for all participants in an anonymous donor oocyte IVF programme from 2006 to 2009, when testing consistent with contemporary EU screening requirements was performed on all Ukrainian oocyte donors. HIV and hepatitis tests were aggregated from 314 anonymous oocyte donors and 265 recipients. The results included 5,524 Ukrainian women who were interviewed and 314 of these entered the programme (5.7% accession rate). Mean age of anonymous oocyte donors was 27.9 years; all had achieved at least one delivery. No case of hepatitis or HIV was detected at initial screening or at oocyte procurement. This is the first study of HIV and hepatitis incidence specifically among Ukrainian oocyte donors. We find anonymous oocyte donors to be a low-risk group, despite a high background HIV rate. Following full disclosure of the donation process, most Ukrainian women wishing to volunteer as anonymous oocyte donors do not participate. Current EU screening requirements appear adequate to maintain patient safety in the context of anonymous donor oocyte IVF.

  2. Living donor and recipient screening for latent tuberculosis infection by tuberculin skin test and interferon-gamma releasing assay in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Moon, Song Mi; Park, In-Ah; Kim, Sun-Mi; Park, Su-Jin; Jung, Joo Hee; Kim, Young Hoon; Park, Jae Berm; Hong, Bumsik; Lee, Sang-Oh; Choi, Sang-Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Park, Su-Kil; Lee, Sang Koo; Park, Jung Sik; Han, Duck Jong; Kim, Sung-Han

    2013-10-01

    There are few data on donor screening for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) using the tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon-gamma releasing assay (IGRA). In South Korea, most renal allografts involve living donors (average, 80%). Hence, we have an opportunity to evaluate donor and recipient screening for LTBI by TST and IGRA. All donors and recipients admitted for kidney transplantation during a 20-month period were evaluated prospectively by using TST and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. The study population consisted of 205 living donor-recipient pairs (≥16 years) including 15 (7%) who yielded indeterminate donor or recipient ELISPOT results. Of the 205 donors, 63 (31%) gave a positive TST ≥5 mm, 33 (16%) a positive TST ≥10 mm, and 96 (47%) a positive ELISPOT. Of the 205 recipients, 9 (5%) gave a positive TST ≥5 mm, 3 (2%) a positive TST ≥10 mm, and 79 (39%) had a positive ELISPOT. Of the 205 donor-recipient pairs, only 59 (29%) gave negative donor and recipient ELISPOT results and 139 (68%) negative donor and recipient TSTs (<5 mm) (P < 0.001). One third of donor-recipient pairs tends to be positive in the TST, and two thirds of the donor-recipient pairs tends to be positive in the ELISPOT. Given the high positive rate of LTBI obtained by screening donors, further studies on the clinical value of solid organ transplant donors with positive TST or ELISPOT and health economics analysis in countries with intermediate burden of TB are needed for policy decisions on isoniazid (INH) prophylaxis.

  3. Population-based screening for anemia using first-time blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Johnson, Bryce; Wright, David J.; Cable, Ritchard G.; Carey, Patricia; Gottschall, Jerome L.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Simon, Toby L.; Murphy, Edward L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Anemia is an important public health concern. Data from population-based surveys such as the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) are the gold standard, but are obtained infrequently and include only small samples from certain minority groups. Objectives We assessed whether readily available databases of blood donor hemoglobin values could be used as a surrogate for population hemoglobin values from NHANES. Design Blood donor venous and fingerstick hemoglobin values were compared to 10,254 NHANES 2005-2008 venous hemoglobin values using demographically stratified analyses and ANOVA. Fingerstick hemoglobins or hematocrits were converted to venous hemoglobin estimates using regression analysis. Results Venous hemoglobin values from 1,609 first time donors correlated extremely well with NHANES data across different age, gender and demographic groups. Cigarette smoking increased hemoglobin by 0.26 to 0.59 g/dL depending on intensity. Converted fingerstick hemoglobin from 36,793 first time donors agreed well with NHANES hemoglobin (weighted mean hemoglobin of 15.53 g/dL for donors and 15.73 g/dL for NHANES) with similar variation in mean hemoglobin by age. However, compared to NHANES, the larger donor dataset showed reduced differences in mean hemoglobin between Blacks and other races/ethnicities. Conclusions Overall, first-time donor fingerstick hemoglobins approximate U.S. population data and represent a readily available public health resource for ongoing anemia surveillance. PMID:22460662

  4. Blood group genotyping: from patient to high-throughput donor screening.

    PubMed

    Veldhuisen, B; van der Schoot, C E; de Haas, M

    2009-10-01

    Blood group antigens, present on the cell membrane of red blood cells and platelets, can be defined either serologically or predicted based on the genotypes of genes encoding for blood group antigens. At present, the molecular basis of many antigens of the 30 blood group systems and 17 human platelet antigens is known. In many laboratories, blood group genotyping assays are routinely used for diagnostics in cases where patient red cells cannot be used for serological typing due to the presence of auto-antibodies or after recent transfusions. In addition, DNA genotyping is used to support (un)-expected serological findings. Fetal genotyping is routinely performed when there is a risk of alloimmune-mediated red cell or platelet destruction. In case of patient blood group antigen typing, it is important that a genotyping result is quickly available to support the selection of donor blood, and high-throughput of the genotyping method is not a prerequisite. In addition, genotyping of blood donors will be extremely useful to obtain donor blood with rare phenotypes, for example lacking a high-frequency antigen, and to obtain a fully typed donor database to be used for a better matching between recipient and donor to prevent adverse transfusion reactions. Serological typing of large cohorts of donors is a labour-intensive and expensive exercise and hampered by the lack of sufficient amounts of approved typing reagents for all blood group systems of interest. Currently, high-throughput genotyping based on DNA micro-arrays is a very feasible method to obtain a large pool of well-typed blood donors. Several systems for high-throughput blood group genotyping are developed and will be discussed in this review.

  5. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including: (i) Human immunodeficiency virus; (ii) Hepatitis B virus; (iii) Hepatitis C virus; (iv) Human...) Communicable disease risks associated with xenotransplantation. (b) Donors of viable, leukocyte-rich cells or... (a) and (b) of this section, as applicable, and except as provided under § 1271.90, you must...

  6. West Nile fever characteristics among viremic persons identified through blood donor screening.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shimian; Foster, Gregory A; Dodd, Roger Y; Petersen, Lyle R; Stramer, Susan L

    2010-11-01

    Nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood donors provides opportunities for identifying West Nile virus (WNV)-infected persons before symptoms develop and for characterizing subsequent illness. From June 2003 through 2008, the American Red Cross performed follow‐up interviews with and additional laboratory testing for 1436 donors whose donations had initial test results that were reactive for WNV RNA; 821 of the donors were subsequently confirmed to have WNV infection, and the remainder were unconfirmed or determined to have false‐positive results. Symptoms attributed to WNV infection were determined by comparing symptom frequency among 576 donors identified with early WNV infection (immunoglobulin M antibody negative) and those with unconfirmed infection. We estimate that 26% of WNV‐infected persons become symptomatic, defined by the presence of at least 3 of 8 indicator symptoms. Nearly one‐half of symptomatic persons sought medical care; only 5% received a diagnosis of WNV infection. Female subjects and persons with higher viral loads detected in the index donation were more likely than other subjects to develop symptoms.

  7. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., including: (i) Human immunodeficiency virus; (ii) Hepatitis B virus; (iii) Hepatitis C virus; (iv) Human...) Communicable disease risks associated with xenotransplantation. (b) Donors of viable, leukocyte-rich cells or... (a) and (b) of this section, as applicable, and except as provided under § 1271.90, you must...

  8. 21 CFR 1271.75 - How do I screen a donor?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., including: (i) Human immunodeficiency virus; (ii) Hepatitis B virus; (iii) Hepatitis C virus; (iv) Human...) Communicable disease risks associated with xenotransplantation. (b) Donors of viable, leukocyte-rich cells or... (a) and (b) of this section, as applicable, and except as provided under § 1271.90, you must...

  9. Screening of organ and tissue donors for West Nile virus by nucleic acid amplification--a three year experience in Alberta.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Peter A G; Fox, Julie D; Lee, Bonita; Chui, Linda; Preiksaitis, Jutta

    2008-10-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV)-specific nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT) of organ and tissue donors remains controversial. We report three years of WNV donor screening in Alberta Canada using NAAT. Between 2003 and 2005, 1549 initial specimens were received. A valid negative result was issued within the specified turnaround time on 1531 (98.8%). The initial NAAT was successful for 1393 samples (90%), while repeat testing using an alternate NAAT resolved a further 126 samples. For 12 of 14 donors, a second specimen provided a valid negative result. Failure to generate a valid negative result in time resulted in rescheduling of one living related organ transplant, and surgery proceeded in the absence of a final result in one multi-organ donation after risk assessment. For 11 tissue donors, tissues were discarded due to lack of a WNV result. Invalid results usually occurred on postmortem haemolyzed tissue donor samples due to inhibitory reactions. There were no confirmed positive donors, no false-positive results and no solid organs lost due to WNV testing. We conclude that WNV NAAT of organ and tissue donors can be implemented without compromising availability of donors but requires committed laboratory support.

  10. Humoral graft-versus-host disease after pancreas transplantation with an ABO-compatible and Rh-nonidentical donor. Case report and a rationale for preoperative screening.

    PubMed

    Sindhi, R; Landmark, J; Stratta, R J; Cushing, K; Taylor, R J

    1996-05-15

    Severe hemolysis and graft ischemia complicating solitary pancreas transplantation with an ABO-compatible, Rh-negative, anti-D-positive donor to Rh-positive recipient is described in this article. A brief review of the literature is presented. A rationale for preoperative screening for red cell antibodies during solid organ transplantation in this special setting is discussed.

  11. Blood Donor Screening for West NiIe Virus in Oklahoma and Its Contribution to Disease Surveillance, 2003 -2013.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Walter E; Bradley, Kristy; Duncan, Ashten; Smith, James

    2015-08-01

    Upon recognition that West Nile virus (WNV) was transmissible by transfusion, universal testing of blood donors by nucleic acid testing (NAT) was initiated in 2003. A retrospective review of 2003-2013 blood donor records and public health surveillance data in Oklahoma was undertaken to determine the percentage of WNV-positive blood donors who developed clinical symptoms post-donation and to examine the incidence and timing of WNV viremic donors in the context of WNV disease reported statewide. Among all WNV NAT-positive blood donors, 19% had self-described symptoms consistent with WNV disease. A viremic blood donor was the seasonal index case of WNV transmission in Oklahoma during one year [2006] of the study period. Blood donors remain an important surveillance component for epidemiologic monitoring of WNV in Oklahoma.

  12. Two years' experience of implementing molecular screening of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus 1, 2 in Riyadh blood donors.

    PubMed

    Mohamud, Hanat S; Mohamed, Deqa H; Alqahtani, Farjah H; Almajid, Fahad M; Alswat, Khalid; Somily, Ali M

    2016-04-01

    Molecular screening technologies have improved blood safety by reducing the number of window-period transmissions relative to serological screening. In the two years following the introduction of molecular testing in King Khalid University Hospital, Saudi Arabia, 25,920 donor samples were screened in parallel by both serological and molecular techniques for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). No HCV or HIV NAT yields were detected. However, molecular screening enabled the interdiction of two confirmed HBV NAT yields. This is only the second report of confirmed HBV NAT yield in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and amongst the few reports in the wider Middle East and North Africa region.

  13. Comparison of the Accuracy of Noninvasive Hemoglobin Sensor (NBM-200) and Portable Hemoglobinometer (HemoCue) with an Automated Hematology Analyzer (LH500) in Blood Donor Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moon Jung; Park, Quehn; Kim, Myung Hee; Shin, Jeong Won

    2013-01-01

    Background The Hb levels of prospective blood donors are usually determined using a finger prick test. A new noninvasive Hb device has the advantage of not causing any sampling pain. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the noninvasive Hb sensor and to compare its measurements with those of a currently used portable hemoglobinometer. Methods Hb was measured using a noninvasive Hb sensor (NBM-200; OrSense, Israel), a portable hemoglobinometer (HemoCue; HemoCue AB, Sweden), and an automated hematology analyzer (LH500; Beckman Coulter, USA). The correlations between Hb measurements taken by the NBM-200 and HemoCue with those by an automated hematology analyzer were assessed using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). Hb measurements were compared among 3 different Hb level groups. Results The mean Hb values of 506 blood donors were 14.1 g/dL by the NBM-200, 14.0 g/dL by the LH500, and 14.3 g/dL by the HemoCue. The correlation between the LH500 and the NBM-200 was substantial (ICC=0.69), while that between the LH500 and the HemoCue agreed almost perfectly (ICC=0.86). Conclusions The possibility to judge to be eligible for donors who are ineligible to donate was substantial when using NBM-200. Even though the NBM-200 has the apparent advantage of noninvasiveness, its use in pre-screening should be given meticulous attention. Since pre-donation testing is crucial to protecting donors' health, complete evaluation of the instrument should be performed prior to use. PMID:23826562

  14. One window-period donation in two years of individual donor-nucleic acid test screening for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus

    PubMed Central

    Levi, José Eduardo; Pereira, Ricardo Antonio D'Almeida; Polite, Márcia Bernardino de Carvalho; Mota, Mariza Aparecida; Nunez, Silvia Patricia; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Kutner, José Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe general data on nucleic acid/serology testing and report the first hepatitis B-nucleic acid testing yield case of an immunized donor in Brazil. Methods A total of 24,441 donations collected in 2010 and 2011 were submitted to individual nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency virus using the TaqMan(r) MPX kit (Roche) on the Cobas s201 platform, in addition to routine screening for serological markers. Nucleic acid testing-reactive donations were further evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction using Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human immunodeficiency virus tests. Results Thirty-two donations were reactive by nucleic acid testing, 31 were also serologically reactive and one first-time donor was identified as having hepatitis B in the window period. Follow-up samples showed increasing titers of anti-HBs rising from 19 UI/mL in the index donation to 109 IU/mL seven months later attributable to his vaccination history. Curiously, this donor was never reactive for HbsAg nor for anti-HBc. In the yield donation, he was concomitantly reactive for syphilis (enzyme immunoassay and fluorescent treponemal antibody-absorption; venereal disease research laboratory non-reactive). Overall, six donors (0.02%) were characterized as occult hepatitis B. A total of 35% of the confirmed (recombinant immunoblot assay positive) hepatitis C donations were nucleic acid testing non-reactive and no human immunodeficiency virus "elite controller" was identified. Conclusion The yield rate (1:24,441; 95% confidence interval: 1:9,537 - 1:89,717) contrasts to the North American rate (1:410,540 donations) and strongly advocates the adoption of nucleic acid testing for hepatitis B in Brazil despite the increasing rate of anti-HBs reactive subjects due to the successful immunization program. PMID:23904804

  15. Utility of the clinical practice of administering thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin to healthy donors treated with G-CSF for mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells.

    PubMed

    Martino, Massimo; Luise, Francesca; Oriana, Vincenzo; Console, Giuseppe; Moscato, Tiziana; Mammì, Corrado; Messina, Giuseppe; Massara, Elisabetta; Irrera, Giuseppe; Piromalli, Angela; Lombardo, Vincenzo Trapani; Laganà, Carmelo; Iacopino, Pasquale

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify the utility of the clinical practice of administering thrombophilic screening and antithrombotic prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin to healthy donors receiving granulocyte colony-stimulating factor to mobilize peripheral blood stem cells. Thrombophilia screening comprised of testing for factor V Leiden G1691A, prothrombin G20210A, the thermolabile variant (C677T) of the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene, protein C, protein S, factor VIII and homocysteine plasmatic levels, antithrombin III activity, and acquired activated protein C resistance. We investigated prospectively 72 white Italian healthy donors, 39 men and 33 women, with a median age of 42 years (range, 18-65). Five donors (6.9%) were heterozygous carriers of Factor V Leiden G1691A; two healthy donors had the heterozygous prothrombin G20210A gene mutation; C677T mutation in the methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase gene was present in 34 (47.2%) donors in heterozygous and in 7 donors (9.7%) in homozygous. Acquired activated protein C resistance was revealed in 8 donors of the study (11.1%). The protein C plasmatic level was decreased in 3 donors (4.2%); the protein S level was decreased in 7 donors (9.7%). An elevated factor VIII dosage was shown in 10 donors (13.9%) and hyperhomocysteinemia in 9 donors (12.5%). Concentration of antithrombin III was in the normal range for all study group donors. The factor V Leiden mutation was combined with the heterozygous prothrombin G20210A in 2 cases and with protein S deficiency in one case; 2 healthy donors presented an associated deficiency of protein C and protein S. Although none of these healthy subjects had a previous history of thrombosis, low-molecular-weight heparin was administered to all donors during granulocyte colony-stimulating factor administration to prevent thrombotic events. No donor experienced short or long-term thrombotic diseases after a median follow-up of 29.2 months. Our data do not

  16. Applicability and significance of salicylate screening in sera of voluntary blood donors: evaluation of two analytical methods.

    PubMed Central

    Sharon, R; Frutkoff, I; Kidroni, G; Menczel, J

    1982-01-01

    Salicylate concentrations in 3819 sera of apparently healthy voluntary blood donors were determined in view of the significance of this drug in the induction of allergic reactions and its possible interference in platelet function. Two hundred and ninety-five sera were found by a modified colorimetric determination to contain salicylates. The colorimetric determination was compared with a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of salicylate-containing sera. Drug concentrations detected were mostly in the range of 20-100 mg/l. Such concentrations have been reported to evoke allergic reactions and to affect the haemostatic action of platelets. PMID:7061719

  17. Screening tests for hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in blood donors: evaluation of two chemiluminescent immunoassay systems.

    PubMed

    Sommese, Linda; Sabia, Chiara; Paolillo, Rossella; Parente, Delia; Capuano, Maria; Iannone, Carmela; Cavalca, Francesco; Schiano, Concetta; Vasco, Maria; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Casamassimi, Amelia; Napoli, Claudio

    2014-09-01

    Automated chemiluminescent immunoassays (CLIAs) are useful for the detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus 1/2 antigen/antibodies (HIV 1/2 Ag/Ab) in blood donor screening. Eight hundred and forty serum samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV antibodies (anti-HCV), and HIV1/2 Ag/Ab in parallel using 2 different CLIAs (Abbott Architect i2000SR and Roche Cobas e411). The concordance between the 2 systems was high (Cohen's kappa 0.97 for HBsAg, 0.77 for anti-HCV, 0.92 for HIV1/2 Ag/Ab) and the specificity and the positive predictive value were comparable. Among the 12 discrepant results, 11 were false-positive and 1 (reactive by Architect) was true-positive for anti-HCV. Positivity for HBV DNA, HCV RNA, and HIV RNA was recorded in 90.9%, 38.9%, and 100% of true-positive samples, respectively. This study represents the first stringent comparison between Architect i2000SR and Cobas e411 in blood donors. We observed a good correlation and high agreement among HBV, HCV, and HIV with the 2 automated systems.

  18. Synthetic aspects, spectral, thermal studies and antimicrobial screening on bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) complexes with oxo or thio donor ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauhan, H. P. S.; Carpenter, Jaswant; Joshi, Sapana

    2014-09-01

    The bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) complexes have been obtained by the reaction of chloro bis(N,N-dimethyldithiocarbamato-S,S‧)antimony(III) with corresponding oxo or thio donor ligands such as sodium benzoate 1, sodium thioglycolate 2, phenol 3, sodium 1-propanethiolate 4, potassium thioacetate 5, sodium salicylate 6, ethane-1,2-dithiolate 7 and disodium oxalate 8. These complexes have been characterized by the physicochemical [melting point, molecular weight determination and elemental analysis (C, H, N, S and Sb)], spectral [UV-Visible, FT-IR, far IR, NMR (1H and 13C)], thermogravimetric (TG & DTA) analysis, ESI-Mass and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thermogravimetric analysis of the complexes confirmed the final decomposition product as highly pure antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) and powder X-ray diffraction studies show that the complexes are in lower symmetry with monoclinic crystal lattice and nano-ranged particle size (11.51-20.82 nm). The complexes have also been screened against some bacterial and fungal strains for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and compared with standard drugs. These show that the complexes have greater activities against some human pathogenic bacteria and fungi than the activities of standard drugs.

  19. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... determine whether a donor is eligible? (a) Determination based on screening and testing. If you are the... eligible based upon the results of donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 and donor testing in... provisions only if: (1) Donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 indicates that the donor: (i) Is...

  20. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... determine whether a donor is eligible? (a) Determination based on screening and testing. If you are the... eligible based upon the results of donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 and donor testing in... provisions only if: (1) Donor screening in accordance with § 1271.75 indicates that the donor: (i) Is...

  1. 76 FR 65735 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and.... The draft guidance document recognizes the abbreviated donor history questionnaire and...

  2. Drug screening in urine by cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA) and kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS): a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Lutz; Külpmann, Wolf-Rüdiger; Vidal, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Two commercially available drug-screening assays were evaluated: the Roche kinetic interaction of microparticles in solution (KIMS) assay and the Microgenics cloned enzyme donor immunoassay (CEDIA). Urine samples from known drug-abuse patients were analyzed for amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, benzoylecgonine, cannabinoids, LSD, methadone and opiates. Samples with discordant findings for the two assays were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) or gas chromatography/electron capture detection (GC/ECD). Amphetamines showed 96.0% concordant results, with two false positive findings by CEDIA, three by KIMS and a further two false negatives by KIMS. Barbiturates showed 99.4% concordant results, with one false negative by KIMS. Benzodiazepines showed 97.4% concordant results, with two false negatives by KIMS (cutoff 100 microg/L, CEDIA cutoff 300 microg/L). Benzoylecgonine showed 17.8% concordant positive and 82.2% concordant negative results and no false finding by either assay. Cannabinoids showed 99.3% concordant results, with one sample negative by KIMS at a cutoff of 50 microg/L and positive by CEDIA (cutoff 25 microg/L). For LSD, 6.7% of findings were not in agreement. Methadone showed 97.5% concordant results, with two false positives by CEDIA, and one false positive and one false negative by KIMS. Opiates showed 96.9% concordant results, with no false KIMS results, but four false positives by CEDIA. The results indicate that the agreement of the CEDIA and KIMS results for the eight drugs is rather good (93.3-100%).

  3. Graft arterial stenosis in kidney en bloc grafts from very small pediatric donors: incidence, timing, and role of ultrasound in screening.

    PubMed

    Bent, C; Fananapazir, G; Tse, G; Corwin, M T; Vu, C; Santhanakrishnan, C; Perez, R V; Troppmann, C

    2015-11-01

    In previous studies with different donor selection criteria and noncontemporary surgical techniques, graft arterial stenosis (GAS) has been reported to occur more frequently in adult recipients of pediatric en bloc renal allografts (EBKT) as compared to single adult donor allografts. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the incidence of GAS within our EBKT recipient population and to evaluate clinical and imaging features of those cases with GAS. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 182 EBKT performed at a single institution. We identified cases of suspected GAS based on clinical factors, lab results, and noninvasive imaging. Diagnosis of GAS was confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. Two EBKT recipients (1.1% of 182) had angiographically confirmed GAS at 2.5 and 4.5 months after transplant. In both cases, the stenoses were short segment within the proximal (perianastomotic) donor aorta, color Doppler ultrasound demonstrated peak systolic velocities of >400 cm/s, and poststenotic parvus tardus waveforms were present. Both patients underwent angioplasty and demonstrated postintervention improvement in renal function and blood pressure. Restenosis did not occur during follow up. In conclusion, recipients of EBKT have a low incidence of GAS, similar to the lowest reported for adult single allografts.

  4. Donor Tag Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your ...

  5. Autologous blood donor screening indicated a lower prevalence of viral hepatitis in East vs West Germany: epidemiological benefit from established health resources.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, J; Luz, B; Mengelkamp, A-K; Moog, R; Koscielny, J; Halm-Heinrich, I; Susemihl, C; Bentzien, F; Diekmann, J; Wernet, D; Karger, R; Angert, K; Schmitt-Thomssen, A; Kiefel, V; Lutter, K; Hesse, R; Kätzel, R; Opitz, A; Luhm, J; Barz, D; Leib, U; Matthes, G; Tillmann, H L

    2009-10-01

    Prevalence data concerning viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the general population are usually scarce. We aimed for a large cohort representative of the general population that required little funding. Autologous blood donors are relatively representative of the general population, and are tested for viral hepatitis and HIV in many countries. However, frequently these data are not captured for epidemiologic purposes. We analysed data from well over 35,000 autologous blood donors as recorded in 21 different transfusion centres for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), HBsAg and anti-HIV, as well as TPHA if available. We found a lower prevalence of hepatitis B virus and HCV in East vs West Germany, 0.2%vs 0.32% and 0.16%vs 0.32% respectively, which confirms earlier data in smaller cohorts, thus supporting the value of our approach. HIV was too rare to disclose significant differences, 0.01%vs 0.02%. TPHA was higher in East (0.34%) vs West Germany (0.29%) without significant differences. HCV was more frequent in women vs men. Transfusion institutes managing autologous blood donations should be used as a resource for epidemiological data relating to viral hepatitis and HIV, if such testing is performed routinely. This approach generates data relating to the general population with special emphasis on undiagnosed cases.

  6. The significance of repeat testing in Turkish blood donors screened with HBV, HCV and HIV immunoassays and the importance of S/CO ratios in the interpretation of HCV/HIV screening test results and as a determinant for further confirmatory testing.

    PubMed

    Acar, Ali; Kemahli, Sabri; Altunay, Husnu; Kosan, Erdogan; Oncul, Oral; Gorenek, Levent; Cavuslu, Saban

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the intra-assay correlations amongst initial reactive and repeat screening results used in enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) for hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV in blood donors. This study evaluated the value of using the power of the signal to cut-off (S/CO) ratio index for confirming anti-HCV/HIV reactive screening results, thereby touching upon the utility of S/CO indices in determining whether further confirmatory testing was necessary. Screening test results of the 72,695 blood donors were evaluated over a 1-year period. Correlation analysis among each initial test and retests was done by Pearson r test. Appropriate S/CO values to determine the need of the confirmation testing was investigated by ROC analyses. EIA intra-assay correlations were of statistical significance and were determined as follows: 0.948 for anti-HCV, 0.827 for anti-HIV and 0.948 for HBsAg. The threshold S/CO ratio values which predicted more than 95% of the confirmation test result were 3.8 for HCV and 5.6 for HIV. We were able to demonstrate a strong level of intra-assay correlation amongst EIAs, thereby eliminating the need for repetition of the screening test. Hence, we suggest that repeat screening should only be limited to HBV and HIV tests with low EIA S/CO ratios. Thus, using the power of the S/CO ratio in determining the need for HCV confirmation testing can be a cost-effective measure, especially if the S/CO value is >or=3.8.

  7. [Assessment and selection of kidney living donors].

    PubMed

    Gentil Govantes, Miguel Ángel; Pereira Palomo, Porfirio

    2010-01-01

    Donor protection should always be taken account during the selection and assessment of a living donor. On these terms, the evaluation of a potential donor must include these issues: 1) The donor act is altruistic, consciousness and out of coercion; 2) Life expectancy and quality of life of the recipient will improve after the living donor kidney transplantation; 3) The donor has normal renal function and the potential risk of developing nephropathy in the long term follow up is scarce (familiar nephropathies and other processes that may increase the potential risk for renal disease in the future, like severe hypertension, diabetes, etc must be ruled out). The glomerular filtrate should meet criteria for the normal function corresponding to age furthermore the absence of proteinuria and urine smear is normal; 4) The screening in the donor should contemplate those clinical situations or diseases non related to the kidney function but might elevate the surgical and/or anesthesia risk besides disease transmission to the recipient (as neoplasia or infections); 5) The surgical act is possible without technical difficulties and always performed after a negative result of the crossmatch between donor and recipient. The living donor evaluation process will follow a different schedule based on each particular case and the center facilities. Any case, the mentioned process is divided in two parts: The first one contains an initial screening (using non invasive and low cost tests) that allows discarding contraindications for donation (in both donor and recipient). In a second phase the assessment of the donor varies with donor characteristics. However, a test for renal function is mandatory besides imaging techniques (like angioTC), screening for transmissible diseases and a detailed evaluation for psychosocial aspects preferably made by professional. Moreover Spanish policy on living donation requires a report with information about the consent for donation developed by an

  8. Blood donor well-being: a primary responsibility of blood collection agencies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Current FDA regulations and AABB standards do not adequately protect the well-being of blood donors. Several practices have adverse consequences for donors, including: elevated incidence of donation related reactions and injuries, iron deficiency anemia in premenopausal women, and inadequate counseling of donors to obtain medical follow-up for health risks identified during pre-donation health screening. These practices can be improved without impacting negatively on the national blood supply. In addition to revising current blood collection operations, blood centers should explore the feasibility of establishing expanded donor health screening programs and determining their effectiveness in improving donor health, donor recruitment, and donor retention.

  9. 76 FR 44013 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Implementation of Acceptable Full-Length and Abbreviated Donor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... Screening Donors of Source Plasma; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... Questionnaires and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Donors of Source Plasma'' dated July 2011. The... consistent with FDA's requirements and recommendations for collecting Source Plasma donor history...

  10. RhC Phenotyping, Adsorption/Elution Test, and SSP-PCR: The Combined Test for D-Elute Phenotype Screening in Thai RhD-Negative Blood Donors.

    PubMed

    Srijinda, Songsak; Suwanasophon, Chamaiporn; Visawapoka, Unchalee; Pongsavee, Malinee

    2012-01-01

    The Rhesus (Rh) blood group is the most polymorphic human blood group and it is clinically significant in transfusion medicine. Especially, D antigen is the most important and highly immunogenic antigen. Due to anti-D, it is the cause of the hemolytic disease of the newborn and transfusion reaction. About 0.1%-0.5% of Asian people are RhD-negative, whereas in the Thai population, the RhD-negative blood type only occurs in 0.3%. Approximately 10%-30% of RhD-negative in Eastern Asian people actually were D-elute (DEL) phenotype, the very weak D antigen that cannot be detected by indirect antiglobulin test (IAT). There are many reports about anti-D immunization in RhD-negative recipients through the transfusion of red blood cells from individuals with DEL phenotype. D-elute phenotype screening in Thai RhD-negative blood donors was studied to distinguish true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype. A total of 254 Thai serologically RhD-negative blood donors were tested for RhCE phenotypes and anti-D adsorption/elution test. In addition, RhC(+) samples were tested for RHD 1227A allele by SSP-PCR technique. The RhD-negative phenotype samples consisted of 131 ccee, 4 ccEe, 1 ccEE, 101 Ccee, 16 CCee, and 1 CcEe. The 42 Ccee and 8 CCee phenotype samples were typed as DEL phenotype and 96% of DEL samples were positive for RHD 1227A allele. The incidence of RhC(+) was 46.4%, and 48 of the 118 RhC(+) samples were positive for both anti-D adsorption/elution test and SSP-PCR technique for RHD 1227A allele. The sensitivity and specificity were 96% and 100%, respectively, for RHD 1227A detection as compared with the adsorption/elution test. In conclusion, RhC(+) phenotype can combine with anti-D adsorption/elution test and RHD 1227A allele SSP-PCR technique for distinguishing true RhD-negative from DEL phenotype.

  11. Negotiating boundaries: Accessing donor gametes in India

    PubMed Central

    Widge, A.; Cleland, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: This paper documents how couples and providers access donor materials for conception in the Indian context and perceptions about using them. The objective is to facilitate understanding of critical issues and relevant concerns. Methods: A postal survey was conducted with a sample of 6000 gynaecologists and in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 gynaecologists in four cities. Results: Donor gametes are relatively more acceptable than a few years ago, especially if confidentiality can be maintained, though lack of availability of donor materials is sometimes an impediment to infertility treatment. Donor sperms are usually accessed from in-house or commercial sperm banks, pathology laboratories, IVF centres, professional donors, relatives or friends. There is scepticism about screening procedures of sperm banks. Donor eggs are usually accessed from voluntary donors, friends, relatives, egg sharing programmes, donation from other patients, advertising and commercial donors. There are several concerns regarding informed consent for using donated gametes, using relatives and friends gametes, the unregulated use of gametes and embryos, record keeping and documentation, unethical and corrupt practices and commercialisation. Conclusion: These issues need to be addressed by patients, providers and regulatory authorities by providing information, counselling, ensuring informed consent, addressing exploitation and commercialisation, ensuring monitoring, proper documentation and transparency. PMID:24753849

  12. Volunteer donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Waxman, Dan A

    2002-02-01

    Volunteer donor apheresis has evolved from early plasmapheresis procedures that collected single components into technically advanced multicomponent procedures that can produce combinations of red blood cells, platelets, and plasma units. Blood collection and utilization is increasing annually in the United States. The number of apheresis procedures is also increasing such that single donor platelet transfusions now exceed platelet concentrates from random donors. Donor qualifications for apheresis vary from those of whole blood. Depending on the procedure, the donor weight, donation interval, and platelet count must be taken into consideration. Adverse effects of apheresis are well known and fortunately occur in only a very small percentage of donors. The recruitment of volunteer donors is one of the most challenging aspects of a successful apheresis program. As multicomponent apheresis becomes more commonplace, it is important for collection centers to analyze the best methods to recruit and collect donors.

  13. Should blood donors be routinely screened for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency? A systematic review of clinical studies focusing on patients transfused with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase-deficient red cells.

    PubMed

    Renzaho, Andre M N; Husser, Eliette; Polonsky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The risk factors associated with the use of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient blood in transfusion have not yet been well established. Therefore, the aim of this review was to evaluate whether whole blood from healthy G6PD-deficient donors is safe to use for transfusion. The study undertook a systematic review of English articles indexed in COCHRANE, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINHAL, with no date restriction up to March 2013, as well as those included in articles' reference lists and those included in Google Scholar. Inclusion criteria required that studies be randomized controlled trials, case controls, case reports, or prospective clinical series. Data were extracted following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews using a previously piloted form, which included fields for study design, population under study, sample size, study results, limitations, conclusions, and recommendations. The initial search identified 663 potentially relevant articles, of which only 13 studies met the inclusion criteria. The reported effects of G6PD-deficient transfused blood on neonates and children appear to be more deleterious than effects reported on adult patients. In most cases, the rise of total serum bilirubin was abnormal in infants transfused with G6PD-deficient blood from 6 hours up to 60 hours after transfusion. All studies on neonates and children, except one, recommended a routine screening for G6PD deficiency for this at-risk subpopulation because their immature hepatic function potentially makes them less able to handle any excess bilirubin load. It is difficult to make firm clinical conclusions and recommendations given the equivocal results, the lack of standardized evaluation methods to categorize red blood cell units as G6PD deficient (some of which are questionable), and the limited methodological quality and low quality of evidence. Notwithstanding these limitations, based on our review of the available literature, there is little to

  14. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-06-24

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor.

  15. Selecting suitable solid organ transplant donors: Reducing the risk of donor-transmitted infections

    PubMed Central

    Jr, Christopher S Kovacs; Koval, Christine E; van Duin, David; de Morais, Amanda Guedes; Gonzalez, Blanca E; Avery, Robin K; Mawhorter, Steven D; Brizendine, Kyle D; Cober, Eric D; Miranda, Cyndee; Shrestha, Rabin K; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mossad, Sherif B

    2014-01-01

    Selection of the appropriate donor is essential to a successful allograft recipient outcome for solid organ transplantation. Multiple infectious diseases have been transmitted from the donor to the recipient via transplantation. Donor-transmitted infections cause increased morbidity and mortality to the recipient. In recent years, a series of high-profile transmissions of infections have occurred in organ recipients prompting increased attention on the process of improving the selection of an appropriate donor that balances the shortage of needed allografts with an approach that mitigates the risk of donor-transmitted infection to the recipient. Important advances focused on improving donor screening diagnostics, using previously excluded high-risk donors, and individualizing the selection of allografts to recipients based on their prior infection history are serving to increase the donor pool and improve outcomes after transplant. This article serves to review the relevant literature surrounding this topic and to provide a suggested approach to the selection of an appropriate solid organ transplant donor. PMID:25032095

  16. Laboratory Testing of Donors and Stool Samples for Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Woodworth, Michael H; Neish, Emma M; Miller, Nancy S; Dhere, Tanvi; Burd, Eileen M; Carpentieri, Cynthia; Sitchenko, Kaitlin L; Kraft, Colleen S

    2017-04-01

    Fecal microbiota transplantation is an efficacious and inexpensive therapy for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection, yet its safety is thought to depend on appropriate fecal donor screening. FDA guidance for regulation of this procedure is in flux, but screening and manufacture of fecal material from asymptomatic donors present many challenges to clinical laboratories. This minireview summarizes FDA regulatory changes, principles of donor selection, and recommended laboratory screening practices for fecal microbiota transplantation.

  17. Donor-derived tuberculosis (TB): isoniazid-resistant TB transmitted from a lung transplant donor with inadequately treated latent infection.

    PubMed

    Jensen, T O; Darley, D R; Goeman, E E; Shaw, K; Marriott, D J; Glanville, A R

    2016-10-01

    Donor-derived tuberculosis (TB) is an increasingly recognized complication of solid organ transplantation. We report a case of isoniazid-resistant pulmonary TB in a lung transplant recipient. The patient acquired the infection from the lung donor who was previously empirically treated with isoniazid for latent TB. The case highlights the caveat that, while adequate treatment of latent TB with isoniazid is presumed, meticulous screening of donors is required.

  18. O-Glycosyl Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J. Cristóbal

    O-Glycosyl donors, despite being one of the last successful donors to appear, have developed themselves into a burgeoning class of glycosyl donors. They can be classified in two main types: O-alkyl and O-aryl (or hetaryl) glycosyl donors. They share, however, many characteristics, they can be (1) synthesized from aldoses, either by modified Fisher glycosidation (O-alkyl) or by nucleophilic aromatic substitution (O-aryl or O-hetaryl), (2) stable to diverse chemical manipulations, (3) directly used for saccharide coupling, and (4) chemoselectively activated. Among these, n-pentenyl glycosides stand apart. They were the first O-alkyl glycosyl donors to be described and have paved the way to many conceptual developments in oligosaccharide synthesis. The development of the chemoselectivity-based "armed-disarmed" approach for saccharide coupling, including its stereoelectronic or torsional variants, now extended to other kinds of glycosyl donors, was first recognized in n-pentenyl glycosides. The chemical manipulation of the anomeric substituent in the glycosyl donor to induce reactivity differences between related species (sidetracking) was also introduced in n-pentenyl glycosides. An evolution of this concept, the "latent-active" strategy for glycosyl couplings, first described in thioglycosyl donors (vide infra), has been elegantly applied to O-glycosyl donors. Thus, allyl and vinyl glycosides, 2-(benzyloxycarbonyl)benzyl (BCB) glycosides and 2'-carboxybenzyl (CB) glycosides are useful "latent-active" glycosyl pairs. Finally, unprotected 3-methoxy-2-pyridyl (MOP) glycosides have been used in glycosylation processes with moderate success.

  19. Donor Telomere Length SAA

    Cancer.gov

    A new NCI study has found that, among patients with severe aplastic anemia who received a hematopoietic cell transplant from an unrelated donor, those whose donor white blood cells had longer telomeres had higher survival rates five-years after transplant

  20. Rich Donors, Poor Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The shifting ideological winds of foreign aid donors have driven their policy towards governments in poor countries. Donors supported state-led development policies in poor countries from the 1940s to the 1970s; market and private-sector driven reforms during the 1980s and 1990s; and returned their attention to the state with an emphasis on…

  1. 78 FR 26785 - Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Implementation of an Acceptable Abbreviated Donor History Questionnaire and Accompanying Materials for Use in Screening Frequent Donors of Blood and Blood Components'' dated May 2013. The guidance document recognizes the abbreviated donor history questionnaire and accompanying......

  2. Detection of occult disease in tissue donors by routine autopsy.

    PubMed

    Otero, J; Fresno, M F; Escudero, D; Seco, M; González, M; Peces, R

    1998-01-01

    The transmission of infectious and neoplastic diseases is a potential risk of tissue allografting. In this study, we analyzed the occurrence of occult disease in tissue donors as detected by standard screening and autopsy. Whereas 18% of the potential donors initially evaluated were eliminated on the basis of their medical and social histories, laboratory screening and autopsy revealed that an additional 9% of tissue donors had undetected, transmissible disease that prohibited tissue donation. This report emphasizes once again the risk of occult disease being transplanted with grafts and the need for autopsy to reduce the likelihood of this occurring. If donor selection, appropriate screening tests, and autopsy are carefully carried out, the risk of transmitting diseases from tissue allografts can be kept to a minimum.

  3. Giant Platelets in Platelet Donors – A Blessing in Disguise?

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Ray, Deepanjan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inherited thrombocytopenias, including inherited giant platelet disorders (IGPD) are relatively rare, but their prevalence is probably underestimated. Harris platelet syndrome, the most common IGPD reported from Indian subcontinent, mostly from eastern part, is characterised by a low platelet count, high mean platelet volume (MPV) and absence of bleeding. Aim A short study was conducted to assess the prevalence of giant platelets in voluntary donors of single donor platelets (SDP) and analyse the effect of transfusion of such SDPs in patients. Materials and Methods Voluntary donors of SDPs were screened as per standard guidelines prior to the procedure. A complete blood count (including MPV) along with a peripheral smear was done. A total of 45 donors were screened for plateletpheresis. Following plateletpheresis from these donors, a platelet count from the collection bag was done after one hour. The SDP was transfused as a single unit or divided into two and transfused to the same patient at two different occasions, as per clinical need. Platelet counts on pateints were done after one hour and the platelet recovery was noted. Results Out of the 45 donors who were screened, 30 (66.67%) were found to have giant platelets. It was observed that the pre procedure platelet counts in donors having giant platelets were relatively low (1.5 -1.7 lacs) and so also the platelet yield (2.7-3x1011) compared to donors who did not, but the post transfusion platelet recovery was greater. Conclusion Since presence of giant platelets has been seen to be common in the Eastern part of India, a peripheral smear examination should always be considered during screening of plateletpheresis donors to avoid rejecting donors with giant platelets whose platelet counts are given falsely low by autoanalysers. PMID:26266124

  4. [Motivations of oocytes donors].

    PubMed

    Cauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Oocyte donation is a complex situation that requires the applicant couple to deal with the presence of the donor in the history of the child conception. Accepting the eggs is not the same thing than accepting the donor. Her place in the child's life depends on how his parents will accept her phantasmal reality beyond her real person. Paying attention to the story told by the donors on their motivations may help parents internalize this conception to three. We show from two clinical observations, that the generosity of donors is connected to personal issues that do not relate to unborn child or its parents. If there are two mothers in oocyte donation, they are not really in competition because there are also two children: the child conceived through donation is that of the project of the couple, the child to which the donor thinks, is and will remain in phantasmal domain, i.e. linked to the personal history of the donor. We also show that the psychological interview fully responds to the donor expectations when it seeks to highlight her motives.

  5. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Deger, S; Giessing, M; Roigas, J; Wille, A H; Lein, M; Schönberger, B; Loening, S A

    2005-01-01

    Laparoscopic live donor nephrectomy (LDN) has removed disincentives of potential donors and may bear the potential to increase kidney donation. Multiple modifications have been made to abbreviate the learning curve while at the same time guarantee the highest possible level of medical quality for donor and recipient. We reviewed the literature for the evolution of the different LDN techniques and their impact on donor, graft and operating surgeon, including the subtleties of different surgical accesses, vessel handling and organ extraction. We performed a literature search (PubMed, DIMDI, medline) to evaluate the development of the LDN techniques from 1995 to 2003. Today more than 200 centres worldwide perform LDN. Hand-assistance has led to a spread of LDN. Studies comparing open and hand-assisted LDN show a reduction of operating and warm ischaemia times for the hand-assisted LDN. Different surgical access sites (trans- or retroperitoneal), different vessel dissection approaches, donor organ delivery techniques, delivery sites and variations of hand-assistance techniques reflect the evolution of LDN. Proper techniques and their combination for the consecutive surgical steps minimize both warm ischaemia time and operating time while offering the donor a safe minimally invasive laparoscopic procedure. LDN has breathed new life into the moribund field of living kidney donation. Within a few years LDN could become the standard approach in living kidney donation. Surgeons working in this field must be trained thoroughly and well acquainted with the subtleties of the different LDN techniques and their respective advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Iron Replacement Therapy in the Routine Management of Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Barbara J.; Yau, Yu Ying; Arceo, Sarah M.; Daniel-Johnson, Jennifer; Hopkins, Julie A.; Leitman, Susan F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors frequently results in deferrals for low hemoglobin, yet blood centers remain reluctant to dispense iron replacement therapy to donors. Study Design and Methods During a 39-month period, 1236 blood donors deferred for hemoglobin <12.5 g/dL and 400 non-deferred control donors underwent health history screening and laboratory testing (CBC, iron studies). Iron depletion and deficiency were defined as ferritin of 9–19 mcg/L and <9 mcg/L in females and 18–29 mcg/L and <18 mcg/L in males. Deferred donors and iron-deficient control donors were given a 60-pack of ferrous sulfate 325 mg tablets, and instructed to take one tablet daily. Another 60-pack was dispensed at all subsequent visits. Results In the low hemoglobin group, 30% and 23% of females and 8% and 53% of males had iron depletion or deficiency, respectively, compared with 29% and 10% of females and 18% and 21% of males in the control group. Iron depleted/deficient donors taking iron showed normalization of iron-related laboratory parameters, even as they continued to donate. Compliance with oral iron was 68%. Adverse gastrointestinal effects occurred in 21% of donors. The study identified 13 donors with serious medical conditions, including eight with GI bleeding. No donors had malignancies or hemochromatosis. Conclusion Iron depletion or deficiency was found in 53% of female and 61% of male low hemoglobin donors, and in 39% of female and male control donors. Routine administration of iron replacement therapy is safe, effective, and prevents the development of iron depletion/deficiency in blood donors. PMID:22211316

  7. 21 CFR 1271.55 - What records must accompany an HCT/P after the donor-eligibility determination is complete; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... record number; (2) A statement whether, based on the results of screening and testing, the donor has been... the case of an HCT/P from a donor who is ineligible based on screening and released under paragraph (b... address of the testing laboratory or laboratories; (ii) Results and interpretation of all donor...

  8. 21 CFR 1271.55 - What records must accompany an HCT/P after the donor-eligibility determination is complete; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... record number; (2) A statement whether, based on the results of screening and testing, the donor has been... the case of an HCT/P from a donor who is ineligible based on screening and released under paragraph (b... address of the testing laboratory or laboratories; (ii) Results and interpretation of all donor...

  9. 21 CFR 1271.55 - What records must accompany an HCT/P after the donor-eligibility determination is complete; and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... record number; (2) A statement whether, based on the results of screening and testing, the donor has been... the case of an HCT/P from a donor who is ineligible based on screening and released under paragraph (b... address of the testing laboratory or laboratories; (ii) Results and interpretation of all donor...

  10. Hepatitis B surface antigen in blood donors. An epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, P A; Shanmugam, J; Hariprasad, D

    1983-01-01

    Of 8085 volunteer donors attending the blood bank at SCTIMST screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state by counterimmunoelectrophoresis, 103 (1.27%) were HBsAg positive. The personal data of donors showed a higher rate of HBsAg among men than women and in the age group of 21 to 30 years than in the other age groups. A significantly higher rate was noted among donors belonging to the lower socioeconomic group (p less than 0.05).

  11. Antibody titers in Group O platelet donors

    PubMed Central

    Tendulkar, Anita Amar; Jain, Puneet Ashok; Velaye, Sanjay

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The occurrence of hemolysis due to transfusion of ABO plasma-incompatible platelets (PLTs) is challenging. There has been no consensus for critical antibody titers in the transfusion community. This study was conducted to understand the trends of anti-A and anti-B antibody titer levels in O group donors and to identify any specific patterns of distribution in relation to age and gender. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 1635 Group O PLT donors were randomly selected for this prospective study. Serial 2-fold doubling dilutions were prepared for each sample to calculate the titer of anti-A and anti-B in a standard 96 well micro-plate. Tube technique was used for comparison with the microplate method for 100 samples. RESULTS: Out of 1635 donors, 1430 (87.46%) were males and 205 (12.54%) were females. The median titer for anti-A and anti-B was 128 with range from 4 to 2048. Spearman's correlation coefficient for microplate versus tube technique was estimated to be 0.803 (P < 0.01, two-tailed). 57.12% and 51.19% of all donors had titers ≥128 for anti-A and anti-B, respectively. The geometric mean of anti-A and anti-B was 155.7 and 137.28, respectively. The titers were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in female donors. An inverse relation between titer levels and age was seen. CONCLUSION: Microplate can be used to perform titers in resource-constrained settings. Screening for critical titers in O group donors is essential as they are more implicated in hemolytic transfusion reactions. In the absence of a global consensus on this topic, institutes may need to formulate their own guidelines on handling ABO plasma-incompatible PLT transfusions. PMID:28316436

  12. Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... instructions before and after surgery. • Have a compatible blood type. • Have an emotional tie with the recipient. • Not ... test is to find out if the donor's blood type matches the recipient’s blood type. Next, the transplant ...

  13. Dialing for Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2012-01-01

    When times get tough, grown children often turn to their parents for help--for some extra cash, even somewhere to stay. For colleges and universities, that role is filled by alumni donors. In 2011, with education budgets slashed across the country, giving accounted for 6.5 percent of college expenditures, according to the Council for Aid to…

  14. 21 CFR 1271.60 - What quarantine and other requirements apply before the donor-eligibility determination is complete?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following information must accompany the HCT/P: (i) The results of any donor screening required under § 1271... before the donor-eligibility determination is complete? 1271.60 Section 1271.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.60 What quarantine and other requirements apply before...

  15. 21 CFR 1271.60 - What quarantine and other requirements apply before the donor-eligibility determination is complete?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... following information must accompany the HCT/P: (i) The results of any donor screening required under § 1271... before the donor-eligibility determination is complete? 1271.60 Section 1271.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.60 What quarantine and other requirements apply before...

  16. 21 CFR 1271.60 - What quarantine and other requirements apply before the donor-eligibility determination is complete?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following information must accompany the HCT/P: (i) The results of any donor screening required under § 1271... before the donor-eligibility determination is complete? 1271.60 Section 1271.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.60 What quarantine and other requirements apply before...

  17. 21 CFR 1271.60 - What quarantine and other requirements apply before the donor-eligibility determination is complete?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following information must accompany the HCT/P: (i) The results of any donor screening required under § 1271... before the donor-eligibility determination is complete? 1271.60 Section 1271.60 Food and Drugs FOOD AND... TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.60 What quarantine and other requirements apply before...

  18. Assessing elements of informed consent among living donors

    PubMed Central

    Valapour, M; Kahn, JP; Bailey, R; Matas, AJ

    2011-01-01

    Living organ donors – 50% of solid organ donors in the United States – represent a unique population who accept medical risk for the benefit of another. One of the main justifications for this practice has been respect for donor autonomy, as realized through informed consent. In this retrospective study of living donors, we investigate 2 key criteria of informed consent: (1) depth of understanding and (2) degree of voluntariness. In our survey of 262 living kidney donors 2 to 40 months post donation, we found that more than 90% understood the effects of living donation on recipient outcomes, the screening process, and the short-term medical risks of donation. In contrast, only 69% understood the psychological risks of donation; 52% the long-term medical risks of donation; and 32%, the financial risks of donation. Understanding the effects of living donation on recipient outcomes was the only factor that would affect donors' decision to donate again. 40% of donors reported feeling some pressure to donate. Donors who are related to the recipient were more likely to report feeling pressure to donate. We conclude that more studies of informed consent are needed to identify factors that may compromise the validity of informed consent. PMID:21158924

  19. Being a Living Donor: Risks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Living Donation / Being a Living Donor / Risks Facts History Organs Frequently Asked Questions Discussing Living Donation Types Related Non-Related Non-Directed Paired Donation Blood Type Incompatible Positive Crossmatch Being a Living Donor ...

  20. National Marrow Donor Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-14

    Recipient Pair HLA typing project to characterize class I and class II alleles of donor/recipient paired samples from NMDP’s Repository was initiated...24 • Initiated investigation of the first class II non-ARS mismatch (DRB1*140101/1454) where both alleles have been seen in the same genotype... MHC Major Histocompatibility Complex B-LCLs B-Lymphocytic Cell Lines MICA MHC Class I-Like Molecule, Chain A BARDA Biomedical Advanced Research and

  1. Complications of donor apheresis.

    PubMed

    Winters, Jeffrey L

    2006-07-01

    A decreasing blood donor pool in the presence of increasing blood transfusion demands has resulted in the need to maximally utilize each blood donor. This has led to a trend in the increasing use of automated blood collections. While apheresis donation shares many reactions and injuries with whole blood donation, because of the differences, unique complications also exist. Overall, evidence in the literature suggests that the frequency of reactions to apheresis donation is less than that seen in whole blood donation, though the risk of reactions requiring hospitalization is substantially greater. The most common apheresis-specific reaction is hypocalcemia due to citrate anticoagulation, which, while usually mild, has the potential for severely injuring the donor. Other reactions to apheresis donation are uncommon (e.g., hypotension) or rare (e.g., air embolism). More worrisome, and in need of additional study, are the long-term effects of apheresis donation. Recent evidence suggests that repeated apheresis platelet donations may adversely effect thrombopoiesis as well as bone mineralization. Granulocyte donation has also been implicated in unexpected long-term consequences.

  2. Benchmarking DFT and semi-empirical methods for a reliable and cost-efficient computational screening of benzofulvene derivatives as donor materials for small-molecule organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortorella, Sara; Mastropasqua Talamo, Maurizio; Cardone, Antonio; Pastore, Mariachiara; De Angelis, Filippo

    2016-02-01

    A systematic computational investigation on the optical properties of a group of novel benzofulvene derivatives (Martinelli 2014 Org. Lett. 16 3424-7), proposed as possible donor materials in small molecule organic photovoltaic (smOPV) devices, is presented. A benchmark evaluation against experimental results on the accuracy of different exchange and correlation functionals and semi-empirical methods in predicting both reliable ground state equilibrium geometries and electronic absorption spectra is carried out. The benchmark of the geometry optimization level indicated that the best agreement with x-ray data is achieved by using the B3LYP functional. Concerning the optical gap prediction, we found that, among the employed functionals, MPW1K provides the most accurate excitation energies over the entire set of benzofulvenes. Similarly reliable results were also obtained for range-separated hybrid functionals (CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD) and for global hybrid methods incorporating a large amount of non-local exchange (M06-2X and M06-HF). Density functional theory (DFT) hybrids with a moderate (about 20-30%) extent of Hartree-Fock exchange (HFexc) (PBE0, B3LYP and M06) were also found to deliver HOMO-LUMO energy gaps which compare well with the experimental absorption maxima, thus representing a valuable alternative for a prompt and predictive estimation of the optical gap. The possibility of using completely semi-empirical approaches (AM1/ZINDO) is also discussed.

  3. Donor management in South-East Asia region (SEAR).

    PubMed

    Bharucha, Z S

    2005-01-01

    Quality management of a BTS starts with safe donor recruitment and donor care. In the South-East Asia region (SEAR) almost all countries except Thailand depend heavily on replacement of blood from relatives and friends. Most of these countries except Bangla Desh have ruled out the paid-donor system; however in the guise of replacement donation it still exists. Lack of resources, lack of professional management, myths and misconceptions arising from cultural and social differences form a barrier to blood donation. Most of the countries still do not have a National Blood Policy and/or a well planned blood programme. Besides recruitment, the donor screening and donor management are also not well addressed. The donors are mainly males of 20-35 years who come from the middle class of the society. Only 3-6 % of females donate blood. Most of the donors donate once in a lifetime as there is no emphasis on retention programmes. Only 5-10 % are repeat donors. The autologous transfusions are not widely practised. However, insistence on directed donors has increased. The prevalence of transfusion-transmissible infections in the region is variable; HIV 0-1.6 %, HBV 0.06-8.5 %, HCV 1.2-3 %. Training of staff and volunteers involved in the programme has started. Countries such as India and Sri Lanka are introducing NBP and moving towards reorganisation of their blood programme. All countries have now realised a need for regulation and implementation of a quality system as well as increased their efforts towards donor recruitment and retention. To improve the safety of blood supply, all are trying to phase out the replacement system and move towards 100 % voluntary non- remunerated regular blood donation. The aim of the presentation is to highlight the problems encountered as well as strategies used in making adequate and safe blood available.

  4. Silver-Coated Nylon Dressing Plus Active DC Microcurrent for Healing of Autogenous Skin Donor Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    Silver-Coated Nylon Dressing Plus Active DC Microcurrent for Healing of Autogenous Skin Donor Sites Edward W. Malin, MD, Chaya M. Galin, BSN, RN... microcurrent in comparison to silver-coated dressing with sham microcurrent on wound-closure time for autogenous skin donor sites. Methods: Four...hundred five patients were screened for treatment of their donor sites using a silver-coated nylon dressing with either sham or active microcurrent

  5. Transplant tourism and donor-derived parasitic infections.

    PubMed

    Kotton, C N

    2011-01-01

    Transplant tourism, travel with the intent of receiving or donating a transplanted organ, has grown immensely in the past decade but is not without risks. Solid organ donors are potential carriers of infection and rates of infection are high in transplant recipients. Returning transplant recipients should be screened for blood-borne pathogens, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV), as well as bacteremia, urinary tract infections, and other endemic pathogens (malaria, tuberculosis, Chagas disease, and so on). Efforts should be made to optimize posttransplantation prophylaxis against infection. Although donor-derived parasitic infections are rare, rates of morbidity and mortality are high. Increases in world travel and migration will likely contribute to increases in donor-derived parasitic infection. Appropriate epidemiological screening and diagnostic testing, including blood smears, serology, and stool assays, may help reduce the risk of such transmission.

  6. 21 CFR 1270.21 - Determination of donor suitability for human tissue intended for transplantation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of donor suitability for human..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Donor Screening and...

  7. 21 CFR 1270.21 - Determination of donor suitability for human tissue intended for transplantation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of donor suitability for human..., DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION HUMAN TISSUE INTENDED FOR TRANSPLANTATION Donor Screening and...

  8. [Psychosomatic selection of living liver donors].

    PubMed

    Erim, Y; Senf, W

    2001-01-01

    In the Essen University Clinic for Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, between January and December 2000, 54 potential liver donors and 12 kidney donors were examined. All the kidney donors were found to be suitable; 7 potential liver donors were rejected on psychosomatic grounds. Reasons for the rejection were addiction (1 donor), suspected financial dependency of the donor on the recipient (1 donor) and, in the case of one donor not related to the recipient, the apparent lack of a special emotional attachment. During the actual evaluation interview, 4 potential donors reversed their original decision. Such a psychosomatic evaluation is a great help for donors in clarifying their motives and their decision.

  9. [Clinical evaluation of living donor].

    PubMed

    Scolari, Maria Piera; Comai, G; La Manna, G; Liviano D'Arcangelo, G; Monti, M; Feliciangeli, G; Stefoni, S

    2009-01-01

    When possible, living donor transplantation represents the best therapeutic strategy for patients suffering from chronic renal failure. Studying the donor allows a complete and thorough clinical, laboratory and instrumental assessment that guarantees good organ function whilst protecting the health of the donor. The main parameters considered within this framework are age, renal function, nephrological complications, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, etc.), malignancies, and infection. Moreover, particular attention is paid to the sociopsychological aspects of the donation, particularly related to the donor, the recipient, and the entire family situation.

  10. Donor cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Arguelles, Alejandro

    2012-04-01

    Minimal residual disease refers to the tumour cells that are still present in a given patient after completion of a therapeutic scheme. The demonstration and quantification of residual neoplastic cells has a crucial impact in clinical decision making, for it might prompt continuation of treatment, while the absence of such cells might serve as evidence to withdraw therapy. Therefore, both sensitivity and specificity of the methods used to unravel residual neoplastic cells must be highly reliable and robust. Flow cytometry has been widely used for this purpose, and its clinical performance depends mainly on the criteria of interpretation, rather than in the technique by itself; molecular biology techniques have proved to be highly sensitive and specific but unfortunately they cannot be used in all patients or in all types of leukemia. Finally, the development of donor cell leukemia in transplanted patients, might mimic residual disease and add more confusion to an already controversial issue. These topics are discussed in this paper.

  11. Newborn Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Activities Importance of Newborn Screening Newborn Screening and Molecular Biology Branch Pulse Oximetry Screening for CCHDs Sickle Cell Disease Laboratory SCID Quality Assurance Training and Resources ...

  12. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The...

  13. The Independent Living Donor Advocate: An Essential Role for Living Kidney Donation.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Karen C

    2014-01-01

    Prior to 2007, living kidney donors who donated a kidney to a person with chronic kidney disease were screened, educated, and cared for by the same healthcare team caring for the recipient of the transplant. The independent living donor advocate or advocate team was created out of the need to ensure that the rights of the person donating a kidney are protected, respected, and maintained. Transplant programs must now have an advocate or advocate team who is separate from the recipient healthcare team to provide objective support for the donor, without regard for the recipient, and avoid any perception of a conflict of interest between the donor and recipient.

  14. Donor Deferral Characteristics for Plateletpheresis at a Tertiary Care Center in India- A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pujani, Mukta; Jyotsna, P Lalita; Pahuja, Sangeeta; Pathak, Chintamani; Jain, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Background: The demand for plateletpheresis is increasing day by day due to its many merits over random donor platelets. However, in our country, there is a dearth of apheresis donors due to greater devotion and time required for the procedure and lack of awareness. Aim: The aim of the present study is to analyse the reasons for deferral of apheresis donors at a tertiary care center. Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis was conducted to study the causes, frequency and the type of plateletpheresis donor deferral at regional blood transfusion center, Lady Hardinge Medical College and associated Shrimati Sucheta Kriplani Hospital and Kalawati Saran Childrens’ Hospital. The study was undertaken over a period of two years (from January 2010 to December 2011. Results: Out of a total of 343 donors screened, 87 donors were deferred, the overall deferral rate being 25.36%. The most frequent cause of deferral was a low platelet count accounting for 43.5% of all the causes followed by a low hemoglobin level (27.05%). Among the donors deferred for anaemia, 15 out of 23 (65.2%) had hemoglobin in the range of 11.5-12.4gm%, representing 17.2% of all deferrals. Conclusion: Based on these findings and the scarcity of apheresis donors in our country, we are of the opinion that the selection criteria for plateletpheresis donors should be revised to accommodate more donors and reduce deferral rate without compromising on the health of the donors. PMID:25177566

  15. Urinary biomarkers after donor nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk-van den Akker, Judith M; Warlé, Michiel C; van Zuilen, Arjan D; Kloke, Heinrich J; Wever, Kim E; d'Ancona, Frank C H; Ӧzdemir, Denise M D; Wetzels, Jack F M; Hoitsma, Andries J

    2015-05-01

    As the beginning of living-donor kidney transplantation, physicians have expressed concern about the possibility that unilateral nephrectomy can be harmful to a healthy individual. To investigate whether the elevated intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy causes early damage to the remaining kidney, we evaluated urine biomarkers after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We measured albumin and alpha-1-microglobulin (α-1-MGB) in urine samples collected during and after open and laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. Additionally, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were measured in urine samples collected during and after laparoscopic donor nephrectomy and colectomy. The same biomarkers were studied in patients randomly assigned to standard or low IAP during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy. We observed a peak in urinary albumin excretion during all procedures. Urine α-1-MGB rose in the postoperative period with a peak on the third postoperative day after donor nephrectomy. Urine α-1-MGB did not increase after laparoscopic cholecystectomy and colectomy. After laparoscopic nephrectomy, we observed slight increases in urine KIM-1 during surgery and in urine NGAL at day 2-3 after the procedure. After laparoscopic colectomy, both KIM-1 and NGAL were increased in the postoperative period. There were no differences between the high- and low-pressure procedure. Elevated urinary α-1-MGB suggests kidney damage after donor nephrectomy, occurring irrespective of IAP during the laparoscopic procedure.

  16. Laboratory and genetic assessment of iron deficiency in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Joseph E

    2015-03-01

    More than 9 million individuals donate blood annually in the United States. Between 200 and 250 mg of iron is removed with each whole blood donation, reflecting losses from the hemoglobin in red blood cells. Replenishment of iron stores takes many months, leading to a high rate of iron depletion. In an effort to better identify and prevent iron deficiency, blood collection centers are now considering various strategies to manage donor iron loss. This article highlights laboratory and genetic tests to assess the iron status of blood donors and their applicability as screening tests for blood donation.

  17. Reevaluating the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Collins, Mike

    2010-04-01

    The dead donor rule justifies current practice in organ procurement for transplantation and states that organ donors must be dead prior to donation. The majority of organ donors are diagnosed as having suffered brain death and hence are declared dead by neurological criteria. However, a significant amount of unrest in both the philosophical and the medical literature has surfaced since this practice began forty years ago. I argue that, first, declaring death by neurological criteria is both unreliable and unjustified but further, the ethical principles which themselves justify the dead donor rule are better served by abandoning that rule and instead allowing individuals who have suffered severe and irreversible brain damage to become organ donors, even though they are not yet dead and even though the removal of their organs would be the proximal cause of death.

  18. Living kidney donors and ESRD.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2015-07-01

    There are more than 325 living kidney donors who have developed end-stage renal disease and have been listed on the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN)/United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) deceased donor kidney wait list. The OPTN/UNOS database records where these kidney donors are listed and, if they donated after April 1994, where that donation occurred. These 2 locations are often not the same. In this commentary, I examine whether a national living donor registry should be created and whether transplantation centers should be notified when one of their living kidney donors develops end-stage renal disease. I consider and refute 5 potential objections to center notification. I explain that transplantation centers should look back at these cases and input data into a registry to attempt to identify patterns that could improve donor evaluation protocols. Creating a registry and mining the information it contains is, in my view, our moral and professional responsibility to future patients and the transplantation endeavor. As individuals and as a community, we need to acknowledge the many unknown risks of living kidney donation and take responsibility for identifying these risks. We then must share information about these risks, educate prospective donors about them, and attempt to minimize them.

  19. [Kidney grafts from elderly donors].

    PubMed

    Hiesse, Christian; Pessione, Fabienne; Cohen, Sophie

    2003-06-07

    FROM AN EPIDEMIOLOGICAL POINT OF VIEW: The epidemiology of renal transplantation had greatly changed over the past 10 years. The increasing number of patients with renal failure and candidates for transplantation increases the demand for grafts, whereas the sampling rate of organs remains stable. The mean age of the donors is rising, hence underlining the question of the use of organs of so-called "borderline" quality. THE WEAK POINTS OF ELDERLY GRAFTS: Aging of the kidneys affects the structure of the parenchyma and renal function, which decreases, notably in hypertensive persons. The elderly graft exhibits a critical mass of nephrons that is insufficient to fulfil the functional requirements of a poorly equipped recipient. The recipient is more sensitive to the added agressions: prolonged ischemia and immunological and medicinal agressions. THE RESULTS OF RENAL GRAFT FROM ELDERLY DONORS: They are quantitatively and qualitatively inferior to those of renal transplants from "ideal" donors. The donor's age is a significant factor influencing negatively influences the survival of the transplanted kidney, but dependent on past vascular history. Good results regarding the maintenance of dialysis are obtained by selecting the donors and by avoiding added risk factors. THE ASSESSMENT OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: This, basically, relies on clinical criteria: donor's history, cause of death and accurate measurement of the renal function. A biopsy of the graft, at the time of sampling, provides useful information. TRANSPLANTATION STRATEGY OF A GRAFT FROM AN ELDERLY DONOR: Donor-recipient matching by age is a common approach. Grafting of both kidneys in the same recipient is a method presently under assessment. The episode of ischemia must be reduced and the immunosuppressive therapy adapted.

  20. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation. PMID:25530909

  1. How to motivate whole blood donors to become plasma donors.

    PubMed

    Godin, Gaston; Germain, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI). Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3%) new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P < .001); the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps < .001) gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d = .26; SPI: d = .32); the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P < .05) the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  2. Donor states in inverse opals

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-21

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  3. Donor states in inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahan, G. D.

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the binding energy of an electron bound to a donor in a semiconductor inverse opal. Inverse opals have two kinds of cavities, which we call octahedral and tetrahedral, according to their group symmetry. We put the donor in the center of each of these two cavities and obtain the binding energy. The binding energies become very large when the inverse opal is made from templates with small spheres. For spheres less than 50 nm in diameter, the donor binding can increase to several times its unconfined value. Then electrons become tightly bound to the donor and are unlikely to be thermally activated to the semiconductor conduction band. This conclusion suggests that inverse opals will be poor conductors.

  4. Donor selection in heart transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Emani, Sitaramesh; Sai-Sudhakar, Chittoor B.; Higgins, Robert S. D.; Whitson, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    There is increased scrutiny on the quality in health care with particular emphasis on institutional heart transplant survival outcomes. An important aspect of successful transplantation is appropriate donor selection. We review the current guidelines as well as areas of controversy in the selection of appropriate hearts as donor organs to ensure optimal outcomes. This decision is paramount to the success of a transplant program as well as recipient survival and graft function post-transplant. PMID:25132976

  5. Tuberculin skin test positivity in pediatric allogeneic BMT recipients and donors in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Tavil, Betul; Gulhan, Bora; Ozcelik, Ugur; Cetin, Mualla; Tezcan, Ilhan; Tuncer, Murat; Uckan, Duygu

    2007-06-01

    The preliminary study was performed to determine the frequency of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among 26 patients and their donors screened by TST to investigate whether tuberculin positivity of a recipient or donor influenced the rate of tuberculosis disease, transplant-related events, and to evaluate the effectiveness of isoniazide (INAH) prophylaxis administered to those with positive TST. The frequency of TST positivity was 23% (n = 6) among recipients and also 23% (n = 6) among donors. Two recipients and five donors with positive TST received INAH prophylaxis for six months. Our use of INAH prophylaxis in transplant patients was very conservative because of the risk of drug interaction. The transplantation procedure was not postponed for either recipient or donor TST positivity. Despite the high frequency of tuberculosis in our country, we have not detected any case of tuberculosis in our center, either among the purified protein derivative-screened (n = 26) or non-screened (n = 128) patients except for disseminated tuberculosis infection because of BCG vaccination in two patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. In conclusion, TST positivity in either recipient or donor may not be a contraindication for bone marrow transplantation and the procedure may not be postponed. Pretransplantation TST screening may be needed in countries where tuberculosis is common in the general population.

  6. Occult hepatitis B viral infection among blood donors in South–Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nna, Emmanuel; Mbamalu, Chinenye; Ekejindu, Ifeoma

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a challenging clinical problem characterized by the absence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and low viral DNA load. We aimed at determining the prevalence of OBI among repeat blood donors in Abakaliki, south-eastern Nigeria. Of 113 informed consented repeat blood donors enrolled into the study, 12 donors (10.6%) tested positive to both serological HBsAg screening, anti-HBc total and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA Nested PCR tests. One donor (0.9%) tested HBsAg positive, anti-HBC positive but Nested PCR negative. All donors were negative for HIV 1 and 2 and HCV infections. Of the 100 HbsAg negative repeat blood donors, 8.0% (eight donors) were HBV DNA positive by nested PCR method and anti-HBc total positive by ELISA. The median viral load, determined by real time PCR-Taqman chemistry, in the OBI blood samples was 51 IU/ml compared to 228 IU/ml of the HBsAg screen positive donors. The observed OBI prevalence of 8.0% corroborated with high endemicity of HBV infection in Abakaliki. We therefore recommend routine HBV DNA testing by real time PCR method on all sero-negative blood donations in Abakaliki and for a similar policy to be evaluated across the sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24995918

  7. Motivations for Giving of Alumni Donors, Lapsed Donors and Non-Donors: Implications for Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rugano, Emilio Kariuki

    2011-01-01

    This descriptive and causal comparative study sought to identify motivations for alumni donor acquisition and retention in Christian institutions of higher learning. To meet this objective, motivations for alumni donors, lapsed donors, and non-donors were analyzed and compared. Data was collected through an electronic survey of a stratified sample…

  8. Cadaveric donor selection and management.

    PubMed

    Studer, Sean M; Orens, Jonathan B

    2004-12-01

    The current availability of lung donors is far exceeded by the number of potential transplant recipients who are waiting for an organ. This disparity results in significant morbidity and mortality for those on the waiting list. Although it is desirable to increase overall consent rates for organ donation, doing so requires an intervention to affect societal response. In contrast, increased procurement of organs from marginal donors and improved donor management may be realized through increased study and practice changes within the transplant community. Transplantation of organs from marginal or extended-criteria donors may result in some increase in complications or mortality, but this possibility must be weighed against the morbidity and risk of death risk faced by individuals on the waiting list. The effects of this trade-off are currently being studied in kidney transplantation, and perhaps in the near future lung transplantation may benefit from a similar analysis. Until that time, the limited data regarding criteria for donor acceptability must be incorporated into practice to maximize the overall benefits of lung transplantation.

  9. Dengue antibodies in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Ribas-Silva, Rejane Cristina; Eid, Andressa Ahmad

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue is an urban arbovirus whose etiologic agent is a virus of the genus Flavorius with four distinct antigen serotypes (DENV-1, DENV-2, DENV-3 and DENV-4) that is transmitted to humans through the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti. The Campo Mourão region in Brazil is endemic for dengue fever. Obtective The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies specific to the four serotypes of dengue in donors of the blood donor service in the city of Campo Mourão. Methods Epidemiological records were evaluated and 4 mL of peripheral blood from 213 blood donors were collected in tubes without anticoagulant. Serum was then obtained and immunochromatographic tests were undertaken (Imuno-Rápido Dengue IgM/IgGTM). Individuals involved in the study answered a social and epidemiological questionnaire on data which included age, gender and diagnosis of dengue. Results Only three (1.4%) of the 213 blood tests were positive for IgG anti-dengue antibodies. No donors with IgM antibody, which identifies acute infection, were identified. Conclusions The results of the current analysis show that the introduction of quantitative or molecular serological methods to determine the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or the detection of the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic regions should be established so that the quality of blood transfusions is guaranteed. PMID:23049418

  10. Psychometric properties and norms for the Personality Assessment Inventory in egg donors and gestational carriers.

    PubMed

    Sims, Jessica A; Thomas, Katherine M; Hopwood, Christopher J; Chen, Serena H; Pascale, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Although psychological evaluations are an integral element of screening for third-party reproduction and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) is commonly used for these evaluations, little is known about the psychometric properties or normative scores on the PAI among egg donors and carriers. We evaluated the PAI among 1,044 egg donors and gestational carriers from various fertility clinics across the United States. PAI scales were generally internally consistent in this population, although range restriction appeared to attenuate reliability on several scales. The PAI profiles of egg donors and carriers had elevated positive impression management and suppressed clinical scale scores relative to the community standardization sample, as would be expected given the contingencies of this assessment context. Scores were similar across egg donors and carriers and were similar whether the carrier or donor was known or not known to the prospective parents. Sample-specific norms are provided for the use of the PAI in this setting.

  11. The use of neoplastic donors to increase the donor pool.

    PubMed

    Fiaschetti, P; Pretagostini, R; Stabile, D; Peritore, D; Oliveti, A; Gabbrielli, F; Cenci, S; Ricci, A; Vespasiano, F; Grigioni, W F

    2012-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the experience of the Centre-Sud Transplant Organization (OCST) area using cadaveric donor with neoplastic diseases to evaluate the possibility of transmission to recipients. From January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2010, the neoplastic risk has been reported to be 5.4% (377/4654 referred donors). In 2003, the number of donors with a tumor and their mean age were respectively: 60 (10.3%) and 59.6 ± 19.9; 2004: 33 (5.2%) and 61.4 ± 15.9; 2005: 32 (6%) and 62.8 ± 15.5; 2006: 46 (7%) and 60.7 ± 19.1; 2007: 51 (7%) and 58.9 ± 16; in 2008: 58 (7%) and 59.7 ± 19.6; 2009: 47 (7%) and 57 ± 26; 2010: 49 (7%) and 64 ± 16. The organ most affected by tumor has been the central nervous system (18%). The tumor was diagnosed before in 325 (86%) cases, versus during organ retrieval in 48 (12.7%) donor operations but before, which four cases (1%) occured after transplantation. According to the histological types and grades, 28 evaluated donors (8.2%) were suitable for transplantation. The histological types were: thyroid carcinoma (n = 3); prostate carcinoma (n = 8), renal clear cell carcinoma (n = 7), oncocytoma (n = 1), meningiomas (n = 2), dermofibrosarcoma (n = 1); verrucous carcinoma of the vulva (n = 1), colon adenocarcinoma (n = 1), grade II astrocytoma (n = 1), adrenal gland tumor (n = 1), gastric GIST (n = 1), oligodendroglioma (n = 1). Forty-five organs were retrieved (22 livers, 19 kidneys, 3 hearts, and 1 pancreas) and transplanted into 44 recipients with 1 liver-kidney combined transplantation. Four recipients died due to causes not related to the tumor. No donor-transmitted tumor was detected among the recipients. Donation is absolutely not indicated in cases of tumors with high metastatic potential and high grades. Performing an accurate evaluation of the donor, taking into account the histological grade, currently can allow, organ retrieval and transplantation with an acceptable risk.

  12. Best practice guidelines for the operation of a donor human milk bank in an Australian NICU.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, B T; Pang, W W; Keil, A D; Hartmann, P E; Simmer, K

    2007-10-01

    Until the establishment of the PREM Bank (Perron Rotary Express Milk Bank) donor human milk banking had not occurred in Australia for the past 20 years. In re-establishing donor human milk banking in Australia, the focus of the PREM Bank has been to develop a formal and consistent approach to safety and quality in processing during the operation of the human milk bank. There is currently no existing legislation in Australia that specifically regulates the operation of donor human milk banks. For this reason the PREM Bank has utilised existing and internationally recognised management practices for managing hazards during food production. These tools (specifically HACCP) have been used to guide the development of Standard Operating Procedures and Good Manufacturing Practice for the screening of donors and processing of donor human milk. Donor screening procedures are consistent with those recommended by other human milk banks operating internationally, and also consistent with the requirements for blood and tissue donation in Australia. Controlled documentation and record keep requirements have also been developed that allow complete traceability from individual donation to individual feed dispensed to recipient and maintain a record of all processing and storage conditions. These operational requirements have been developed to reduce any risk associated with feeding pasteurised donor human milk to hospitalised preterm or ill infants to acceptable levels.

  13. Is seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II among blood donors in Lebanon relevant?

    PubMed

    Tamim, Hala; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Ramia, Sami; Almawi, Wassim Y; Al-Jisr, Tamima; Ayoub, Tanios; Nabulsi-Majzoub, Malak; Kazma, Hassan; Baz, Elizabeth Kfoury

    2004-06-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) is associated with certain hematologic and neurologic disorders. Seroprevalence studies demonstrated that the distribution of HTLV-I is heterogeneous worldwide and not specific to 1 region. Because blood is one of the major routes of transmission of the virus, blood banks of several countries routinely screen all blood donations for HTLV-I. The aim of the present study was to assess the seroprevalence rate of HTLV-I/II antibodies among Lebanese blood donors. Between August 2001 and March 2002, consecutive blood samples of 3529 blood donors were collected at blood banks of 4 major hospitals in Lebanon. Initial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening resulted in 23 (0.7%) positive samples, of which 12 (0.3%) were reconfirmed positive by ELISA. Further analysis by Western blot resulted in 2 (0.06%) positive samples, of which 1 tested positive for HTLV-I by PCR (0.028%). Although its very low prevalence among Lebanese blood donors does not support routine screening of Lebanese blood donors for HTLV-I, screening of blood donors from other nationalities may be exercised, especially those from HTLV-I endemic areas.

  14. Comparison of the risk of viral infection between the living and nonliving musculoskeletal tissue donors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Yao, Felix; Seed, Clive; Farrugia, Albert; Morgan, David; Wood, David; Zheng, Ming-Hao

    2008-10-01

    Screening of musculoskeletal tissue donors with nucleic acid testing (NAT) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been implemented in the United States and other developed nations. However, in contrast to the donor demographics in the United States, the majority of Australian musculoskeletal tissue donations are primarily from living surgical donors. The objective of our study was to determine and compare the risk of viral infection associated with musculoskeletal tissue donation from living and nonliving donors in Australia. We studied serum samples from 12 415 consecutive musculoskeletal tissue donors between 1993 and 2004. This included 10 937 surgical donations, and 1478 donations obtained from postmortem organ donation patients and cadaveric donors. Current mandatory retesting of surgical donors 6 months postdonation reduces the risk of viral infection by approximately 95% by eliminating almost all donors in the window period. The addition of nucleic acid amplification testing for nonliving donors would similarly reduce the window period, and consequently the residual risk by approximately 50% for hepatitis B virus, 55% for HIV, and 90% for HCV. NAT, using appropriately validated assays for nonliving donors, would reduce the residual risk to levels comparable to that in living donors (where the 95% reduction for quarantining pending the 180-day re-test is included).

  15. Single-Donor Leukophoretic Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eberhardt, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    Leukocyte separation-and-retrieval device utilizes granulocyte and monocyte property of leukoadhesion to glass surfaces as basis of their separation from whole blood. Device is used with single donor technique and has application in biological and chemical processing, veterinary research and clinical care.

  16. Laboratory and Genetic Assessment of Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Joseph E.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Over 9 million individuals donate blood annually in the US. Between 200 to 250 mg of iron is removed with each whole blood donation, reflecting losses from the hemoglobin in red blood cells. This amount represents approximately 25% of the average iron stores in men and almost 75% of the iron stores in women. Replenishment of iron stores takes many months, leading to a high rate of iron depletion, especially in frequent blood donors (e. g., more than 2 times per year). In large epidemiologic studies, donation frequency, female gender, and younger age (reflecting menstrual status), are particularly associated with iron depletion. Currently, a minimum capillary hemoglobin of 12.5 gm/dl is the sole requirement for donor qualification in the US as far as iron levels are concerned, yet it is known that hemoglobin level is a poor surrogate for low iron. In an effort to better identify and prevent iron deficiency, blood collection centers are now considering various strategies to manage donor iron loss, including changes in acceptable hemoglobin level, donation interval, donation frequency, testing of iron status, and iron supplementation. This chapter highlights laboratory and genetic tests to assess the iron status of blood donors and their applicability as screening tests for blood donation. PMID:25676373

  17. Donor hyperfine Stark shift and the role of central-cell corrections in tight-binding theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad; Rahman, Rajib; Salfi, Joe; Bocquel, Juanita; Voisin, Benoit; Rogge, Sven; Klimeck, Gerhard; Hollenberg, Lloyd L. C.

    2015-04-01

    Atomistic tight-binding (TB) simulations are performed to calculate the Stark shift of the hyperfine coupling for a single arsenic (As) donor in silicon (Si). The role of the central-cell correction is studied by implementing both the static and the non-static dielectric screenings of the donor potential, and by including the effect of the lattice strain close to the donor site. The dielectric screening of the donor potential tunes the value of the quadratic Stark shift parameter (η2) from -1.3 × 10-3 µm2 V-2 for the static dielectric screening to -1.72 × 10-3 µm2 V-2 for the non-static dielectric screening. The effect of lattice strain, implemented by a 3.2% change in the As-Si nearest-neighbour bond length, further shifts the value of η2 to -1.87 × 10-3 µm2 V-2, resulting in an excellent agreement of theory with the experimentally measured value of -1.9 ± 0.2 × 10-3 µm2 V-2. Based on our direct comparison of the calculations with the experiment, we conclude that the previously ignored non-static dielectric screening of the donor potential and the lattice strain significantly influence the donor wave function charge density and thereby leads to a better agreement with the available experimental data sets.

  18. Epidemiologic characteristics of blood donors with antibody to human immunodeficiency virus: Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nuchprayoon, C; Tanprasert, S; Chumnijarakij, T; Thanomchat, S; O'Prasert, B; Adulwijit, S

    1995-03-01

    Of 782,190 volunteer blood donors in Bangkok and nearby areas, who were screened for infection with human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) from January 1988 through December 1992, 3,219 tested positive on both enzyme immuno assay and Western blot assay. The identification variables of the donor were collected. The majority of HIV seropositive blood donors were male. The average age (median) of HIV seropositive was 26-29 years all through 1988-2992. The prevalence of HIV seropositive in male donors was higher than that in females. HIV seropositivity was confirmed in blood donations from first-time male donors in this study during 1988-1992. This rate has increased progressively from 0.87/1,000 in 1988 to 15.95/1,000 in 1992 with much higher rates in repeat donors. The repeat male donors increased from 0.77/1,000 in 1988 to 5.26/1,000 in 1991 and since then showed a decreased rate to 3.93/1,000 in 1992. Female donors were infected with HIV more frequently with the prevalence by sex ratio M:F rising from 27:1 in 1988 to 6.6:1 in 1992. Comparing the seropositive rate between first time and repeat female donors, the results showed an increase in rate from 0.11/1,000 in 1990 to 2.02/1,000 in 1992, but essentially the same rate in report donors. A majority of HIV seropositive blood donors (1990-1992) lived in Bangkok (42-49%) and among those who lived in one eastern province (Samut Prakan), 90-93% lived in the industrial areas. Of those who lived in Chon Buri Province, 73-88% lived in Sattaheep District, which is a naval base.

  19. Live donor transplantation--the incompetent donor: comparative law.

    PubMed

    Wolfman, Samuel; Shaked, Tali

    2008-12-01

    Informed consent of the patient to medical treatment is an essential prerequisite for any invasive medical procedure. However in emergency cases, when the patient is unable to sign a consent form due to unconsciousness or to psychotic state, than the primary medical consideration shall take place. In such a case, in order to save life or even prevent a major medical hazard to the patient, doctors are allowed, in certain cases and in accordance with well accepted medical practice, to perform invasive procedures, major surgery or risky pharmacological treatment, without the explicit consent of the patient. All the above refers to the cases when avoidance of such non-consented treatment may harm severely the health and wellbeing of the patient and there is no doubt that such treatment is for the ultimate benefit of the patient. The question, however, shall arise when such a medical procedure is not necessarily for the benefit of the patient, but rather for the benefit of somebody else. Such is the case in the transplantation area and the question of living donor-donee relationship. This paper shall analyze the legal situation in cases of non competent donors whose consent cannot be considered legal consent given in full understanding and out of free will. It will also compare three legal systems, the Israeli, the American and the traditional Jewish law, with regard to the different approaches to this human problem, where the autonomy of the donor may be sacrificed for the purpose of saving life of another person.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected blood donors: behavioral characteristics and reasons for donation. The HIV Blood Donor Study Group.

    PubMed

    Doll, L S; Petersen, L R; White, C R; Ward, J W

    1991-10-01

    Between May 1988 and September 1989, 829 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive donors were identified from 3,919,000 units of blood donated at 20 United States (US) blood centers. Of the 829,512 (62%) were interviewed to assess behavioral characteristics of the largest subgroup, men reporting sex with men, use of the confidential unit exclusion (CUE) and reasons for donation among all donors. Among 216 men reporting sex with men, 97 percent had male and 72 percent had female sexual contact since 1978. The majority identified themselves as bisexual (29%) or heterosexual (26%). Although 61 percent of 512 donors were aware of their risk behavior at donation, including 57 percent of those infected through heterosexual transmission, only 5 percent used the CUE. Reasons for donation included failure to read carefully (46%) or comprehend (15%) the deferral materials, pressure to donate (27%), a desire to be tested for HIV-1 (15%), and a reliance on screening to identify infected blood (10%). Reasons given for a perception of being at low risk included no recent risk behaviors, infrequent risk behaviors, or modification of risk behaviors. To reach high-risk donors, centers should assess whether referral materials provide necessary medical information and are clearly written for persons with diverse cultural and language backgrounds. Staff should be encouraged to avoid the use of culturally stigmatized terms and behaviors that may be perceived as high pressure.

  1. Health Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screenings are tests that look for diseases before you have symptoms. Screening tests can find diseases early, when they're easier ... Overweight and obesity Prostate cancer in men Which tests you need depends on your age, your sex, ...

  2. Depression Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Diseases + Condition Centers Mental Health Medical Library Depression Screening (PHQ-9) - Instructions The following questions are ... this tool, there is also text-only version . Depression Screening - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  3. Estimated risk of human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus infection among potential organ donors from 17 organ procurement organizations in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ellingson, K; Seem, D; Nowicki, M; Strong, D M; Kuehnert, M J

    2011-06-01

    To prevent unintentional transmission of bloodborne pathogens through organ transplantation, organ procurement organizations (OPOs) screen potential donors by serologic testing to identify human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Newly acquired infection, however, may be undetectable by serologic testing. Our objective was to estimate the incidence of undetected infection among potential organ donors and to assess the significance of risk reductions conferred by nucleic acid testing (NAT) versus serology alone. We calculated prevalence of HIV and HCV-stratified by OPO risk designation-in 13,667 potential organ donors managed by 17 OPOs from 1/1/2004 to 7/1/2008. We calculated incidence of undetected infection using the incidence-window period approach. The prevalence of HIV was 0.10% for normal risk potential donors and 0.50% for high risk potential donors; HCV prevalence was 3.45% and 18.20%, respectively. For HIV, the estimated incidence of undetected infection by serologic screening was 1 in 50,000 for normal risk potential donors and 1 in 11,000 for high risk potential donors; for HCV, undetected incidence by serologic screening was 1 in 5000 and 1 in 1000, respectively. Projected estimates of undetected infection with NAT screening versus serology alone suggest that NAT screening could significantly reduce the rate of undetected HCV for all donor risk strata.

  4. Prevalence of Syphilis among Blood and Stem Cell Donors in Saudi Arabia: An Institutional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Elyamany, Ghaleb; Al amro, Mohamed; Pereira, Winston Costa; Alsuhaibani, Omar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Syphilis is one of the known transfusion-transmissible infections and causes 100,000 deaths yearly, with around 90% of these deaths occurring in the developing world. Little data is available regarding the prevalence of syphilis among Saudi blood and stem cell donors. We conducted a survey on the incidence of syphilis among all blood and stem cell donors. Methods This study was conducted at the Prince Sultan Military Medical City in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia in the 10 years period data during 2006–2015. Data were analyzed about full history, physical examination, age, sex, weight, profession, marital status, number of the donations, data of last donation, having a relation who received blood transfusion, as well as the screening test results of the donated blood. We determined the seroprevalence of infection and compared by sex and other variable through frequency analysis, Chi square, Fisher, and prevalence ratios. Results Approximately 240,000 blood donors were screened and studied in the period of study. Most of the blood donors were male (98.3%) and 89% of them were citizens of Saudi Arabia. According to our findings, we estimated that, in the last 10 years, approximately 0.044% of all the blood donors were syphilis positive cases. No cases were detected as positive for syphilis among stem cell donors. Only 60 blood donors tested positive for syphilis. In addition, we studied 202 stem cell transplant donors during the same period, of which 59% were male and none texted positive for syphilis. Conclusions A concerted effort between the government, health care providers, regulatory bodies and accreditation agencies have all contributed in eliminating the risk of spreading syphilis among blood donors. PMID:27757184

  5. Establishment, operation and development of a donor human milk bank.

    PubMed

    Biasini, Augusto; Stella, Marcello; Malaigia, Laura; China, Mariachiara; Azzalli, Milena; Laguardia, Maria Chiara; Rizzo, Vittoria

    2013-10-01

    Human milk is very valuable in premature infant nutrition. The collection, screening, processing and distribution of donor human milk are described in this report. These activities take place in the Donor Human Milk Bank (DHMB) of the Large Romagna Area (LRA) in Italy, the development of which is also described here. Over the years, the activities of this bank, which is located in Cesena Hospital, in the center of the LRA, have developed from an informal and domestic-level activity to become a multistep controlled process designed to prevent the possibility of disease transmission. This little food-supply industry, run by a multi-disciplinary team with strict rules and diverse responsibilities, complies with the Hazards Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) system.

  6. Amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Chegaev, Konstantin; Lazzarato, Loretta; Rolando, Barbara; Marini, Elisabetta; Lopez, Gloria V; Bertinaria, Massimo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto

    2007-02-01

    Models of amphiphilic NO-donor antioxidants 24-26 were designed and synthesized. The products were obtained by linking a lipophilic tail (C(6), C(8), C(10)) with a polar head constituted by the 2,6-dimethoxyphenol antioxidant joined to the NO-donor 3-furoxancarboxamide substructure through a bridge containing a quaternary ammonium group. Compound 23, containing the shortest C(2)-alkyl chain, was also studied as a reference. The antioxidant properties (TBARS and LDL oxidation assays) and the vasodilator properties of the compounds were studied in vitro. The ability of these products to interact with phospholipid vesicles was also investigated by NMR techniques. The results indicate that both activities are modulated by the ability of the compounds to accumulate on phospholipid layers.

  7. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Donor notification. 630.6 Section 630.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an...

  8. Designing shallow donors in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Jonathan

    2015-03-01

    The production of n-type semiconducting diamond has been a long-standing experimental challenge. The first-principles simulation of shallow dopants in semiconductors has been a long-standing theoretical challenge. A desirable theoretical goal is to identify impurities that will act as shallow donors in diamond and assess their experimental viability. I will discuss this identification process for the LiN4 donor complex. It builds a scientific argument from several models and computational results in the absence of computational tools that are both trustworthy and computationally tractable for this task. I will compare the theoretical assessment of viability with recent experimental efforts to co-dope diamond with lithium and nitrogen. Finally, I discuss the computational tools needed to facilitate future work on this problem and some preliminary simulations of donors near diamond surfaces. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program lab managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  9. Double screening

    SciTech Connect

    Gratia, Pierre; Hu, Wayne; Joyce, Austin; Ribeiro, Raquel H.

    2016-06-15

    Attempts to modify gravity in the infrared typically require a screening mechanism to ensure consistency with local tests of gravity. These screening mechanisms fit into three broad classes; we investigate theories which are capable of exhibiting more than one type of screening. Specifically, we focus on a simple model which exhibits both Vainshtein and kinetic screening. We point out that due to the two characteristic length scales in the problem, the type of screening that dominates depends on the mass of the sourcing object, allowing for different phenomenology at different scales. We consider embedding this double screening phenomenology in a broader cosmological scenario and show that the simplest examples that exhibit double screening are radiatively stable.

  10. [Seroprevalence of viral markers among blood donors at the Blood Donor Center of Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital of Rabat, Morocco].

    PubMed

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Zahid, Hafidi; Unyendje, Loubet; Hadef, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among blood donors at the Blood Donor Center, Mohammed V Military Teaching Hospital between 2010 and 2012. We conducted a retrospective study among military blood donors aged 18-50 years, with a male predominance (95%). Pre-donation interview is the first selection barrier for individuals at risk. Biological screening was performed by liquid enzyme immunoassay technique using antibodies and/or antigen. Fourth generation combined HCV and HIV antigen/antibody ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test was used. The Blood Donor Center and the laboratory of virology used the same technique performed in duplicate to confirm results. Out of 25661 tested samples, the prevalence rate of HBV infections was 3.97 ‰ (n = 102), the prevalence rate of HCV infections was 2.45 ‰ (n = 63) and the prevalence rate of HIV infections was 0.15 ‰ (n = 4). A single case with HBV and HCV virus co-infection (0.039 ‰) was registered, no association between HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV or HBV, HCV and HIV infections was recorded. The low seroprevalence rates of viral markers recorded in our study show improvement in preventive measures for donor selection and screening tests. The registered prevalence encourages the use of combined reagent, which is the only alternative to molecular biology in developing countries.

  11. Heteroaromatic donors in donor-acceptor-donor based fluorophores facilitate zinc ion sensing and cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Divya, Kizhumuri P; Jayamurthy, Purushothaman; Mathew, Jomon; Anupama, V N; Philips, Divya Susan; Anees, Palappuravan; Ajayaghosh, Ayyappanpillai

    2012-11-01

    The excited state intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) property of fluorophores has been extensively used for the design of fluorescent chemosensors. Herein, we report the synthesis and properties of three donor–π-acceptor–π-donor (D–π-A–π-D) based molecular probes BP, BT and BA. Two heteroaromatic rings, pyrrole (BP), and thiophene (BT) and a non-heteroaromatic ring N-alkoxy aniline (BA) were selected as donor moieties which were linked to a bipyridine binding site through a vinylic linkage. The heteroaromatic systems BP and BT perform selective and ratiometric emission signalling for zinc ions whereas the non-heteroaromatic probe BA does not. The advantages of the D–π-A–π-D design strategy in the design of ICT based probes for the selective fluorescent ratiometric signalling of zinc ions in biological media is discussed. Further, the use of BP, BT and BA for imaging Zn(2+) ions from MCF-7 cell lines is demonstrated.

  12. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  13. [Serum ferritin in donors with regular plateletpheresis].

    PubMed

    Ma, Chun-Hui; Guo, Ru-Hua; Wu, Wei-Jian; Yan, Jun-Xiong; Yu, Jin-Lin; Zhu, Ye-Hua; He, Qi-Tong; Luo, Yi-Hong; Huang, Lu; Ye, Rui-Yun

    2011-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the impact of regular donating platelets on serum ferritin (SF) of donors. A total of 93 male blood donors including 24 initial plateletpheresis donors and 69 regular plateletpheresis donors were selected randomly. Their SF level was measured by ELISA. The results showed that the SF level of initial plateletpheresis donors and regular plateletpheresis donors were 91.08 ± 23.38 µg/L and 57.16 ± 35.48 µg/L respectively, and all were in normal levels, but there was significant difference between the 2 groups (p < 0.05). The SF level decreased when the donation frequency increased, there were no significant differences between the groups with different donation frequency. Correlation with lifetime donations of platelets was not found. It is concluded that regular plateletpheresis donors may have lower SF level.

  14. Simulation shows that HLA-matched stem cell donors can remain unidentified in donor searches

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Jürgen; Solloch, Ute V.; Giani, Anette S.; Hofmann, Jan A.; Schmidt, Alexander H.

    2016-01-01

    The heterogeneous nature of HLA information in real-life stem cell donor registries may hamper unrelated donor searches. It is even possible that fully HLA-matched donors with incomplete HLA information are not identified. In our simulation study, we estimated the probability of these unnecessarily failed donor searches. For that purpose, we carried out donor searches in several virtual donor registries. The registries differed by size, composition with respect to HLA typing levels, and genetic diversity. When up to three virtual HLA typing requests were allowed within donor searches, the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches ranged from 1.19% to 4.13%, thus indicating that non-identification of completely HLA-matched stem cell donors is a problem of practical relevance. The following donor registry characteristics were positively correlated with the share of unnecessarily failed donor searches: large registry size, high genetic diversity, and, most strongly correlated, large fraction of registered donors with incomplete HLA typing. Increasing the number of virtual HLA typing requests within donor searches up to ten had a smaller effect. It follows that the problem of donor non-identification can be substantially reduced by complete high-resolution HLA typing of potential donors. PMID:26876789

  15. Retesting of bone donors 2 months after donation guarantees sufficient safety of bone allografts.

    PubMed

    Hirn, M Y; Krusius, T

    1998-12-01

    Both allogeneic bone grafting and blood transfusion may transmit infections from the donor to the recipient. The most effective means to reduce the risk of infection is careful donor selection and screening of donors for markers of infection. The risk of blood transfusion-transmitted HIV infection in Finland, calculated with the incidence/window period model, is approximately 1:3,300,000. The calculated risk for hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) is 1:217,000 and 1:147,000 donations, respectively. In bone banking we can further reduce the risks by retesting the living donors. Retesting 2 months after donation seems to be sufficient, at least in countries with a low incidence of transplantation-transmitted infections.

  16. Donor free radical explosive composition

    DOEpatents

    Walker, Franklin E. [15 Way Points Rd., Danville, CA 94526; Wasley, Richard J. [4290 Colgate Way, Livermore, CA 94550

    1980-04-01

    An improved explosive composition is disclosed and comprises a major portion of an explosive having a detonation velocity between about 1500 and 10,000 meters per second and a minor amount of a donor additive comprising an organic compound or mixture of organic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and which is not an explosive, or an inorganic compound or mixture of inorganic compounds capable of releasing low molecular weight free radicals or ions under mechanical or electrical shock conditions and selected from ammonium or alkali metal persulfates.

  17. Surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus infection in Dutch blood donors.

    PubMed

    Lieshout-Krikke, R W; Molenaar-de Backer, M W A; van Swieten, P; Zaaijer, H L

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) is a reliable marker for HBV infection, but HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection occur. The introduction of HBV DNA screening of Dutch blood donors, which were not preselected for absence of HBV core antibodies, enabled the characterization of HBsAg-negative HBV infection in healthy persons and a comparison of the HBV genomes involved. The screening of 4.4 million Dutch blood donations identified 23 HBsAg-negative, HBV DNA-positive persons. Serological testing of the index donations, follow-up samples and archived earlier samples was performed to determine the nature of each HBV DNA-only case. Despite low viral loads HBV DNA could be sequenced in 14 out of 23 donors, allowing HBV genotyping and the analysis of mutations in the HBV surface gene. Four types of HBsAg-negative HBV infection were detected: infection in the early stage before occurrence of HBsAg; suppressed infection after vaccination; HBV genotype G infection with decreased HBsAg production; and chronic occult (HBsAg negative) HBV infection. In the donors with occult HBV genotype D infection the HBV surface gene showed multiple "escape" mutations in the HBsAg a-determinant and CTL epitopes, while in an occult genotype A case the surface gene showed no mutations. HBsAg-negative forms of HBV infection in healthy blood donors explain the ongoing transmission of HBV via blood transfusion, if donor screening is limited to HBsAg. The screening of blood donors for HBV DNA and HBV core antibodies seems to cover all stages and variants of HBV infection.

  18. Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy versus open donor nephrectomy: recipient's perspective.

    PubMed

    Jamale, Tukaram E; Hase, Niwrutti K; Iqbal, Anwar M

    2012-11-01

    Effects of laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) on graft function, especially early post-transplant, have been controversial. To assess and compare early and late graft function in kidneys procured by open and laparoscopic methods, a retrospective observational study was carried out on 37 recipients-donors who underwent LDN after introduction of this technique in February 2007 at our center, a tertiary care nephrology referral center. Demographic, immunological and intraoperative variables as well as immunosuppressive protocols and number of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches were noted. Early graft function was assessed by serum creatinine on Days two, five, seven, 14 and 28 and at the time of discharge. Serum creatinine values at three months and at one year post-transplant were considered as the surrogates of late graft function. Data obtained were compared with the data from 33 randomly selected kidney transplants performed after January 2000 by the same surgical team, in whom open donor nephrectomy was used. Pearson's chi square test, Student's t test and Mann-Whitney U test were used for statistical analysis. Early graft function (serum creatinine on Day five 2.15 mg/dL vs 1.49 mg/dL, P = 0.027) was poorer in the LDN group. Late graft function as assessed by serum creatinine at three months (1.45 mg/dL vs 1.31 mg/dL, P = 0.335) and one year (1.56 mg/dL vs 1.34 mg/dL, P = 0.275) was equivalent in the two groups. Episodes of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis were significantly higher in the LDN group (37.8% vs 12.1%, Z score 2.457, P = 0.014). Warm ischemia time was significantly prolonged in the LDN group (255 s vs 132.5 s, P = 0.002). LDN is associated with slower recovery of graft function and higher incidence of early acute graft dysfunction due to acute tubular necrosis. Late graft function at one year is however comparable.

  19. Hydroperoxides as Hydrogen Bond Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møller, Kristian H.; Tram, Camilla M.; Hansen, Anne S.; Kjaergaard, Henrik G.

    2016-06-01

    Hydroperoxides are formed in the atmosphere following autooxidation of a wide variety of volatile organics emitted from both natural and anthropogenic sources. This raises the question of whether they can form hydrogen bonds that facilitate aerosol formation and growth. Using a combination of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, FT-IR, and ab initio calculations, we have compared the gas phase hydrogen bonding ability of tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBuOOH) to that of tert-butanol (tBuOH) for a series of bimolecular complexes with different acceptors. The hydrogen bond acceptor atoms studied are nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulphur. Both in terms of calculated redshifts and binding energies (BE), our results suggest that hydroperoxides are better hydrogen bond donors than the corresponding alcohols. In terms of hydrogen bond acceptor ability, we find that nitrogen is a significantly better acceptor than the other three atoms, which are of similar strength. We observe a similar trend in hydrogen bond acceptor ability with other hydrogen bond donors including methanol and dimethylamine.

  20. [Clinical selection of blood donors].

    PubMed

    Danic, B

    2003-06-01

    For 20 years, the organization set up to insure the blood transfusion safety has never stopped strengthening. It is based on clinical and epidemiological selection of the blood donation candidates, biologic selection of blood donations and different physico-chemical techniques for pathogens reduction or inactivation in blood products. In France, this organization is optimized by the assertion of the voluntary and non-remunerated character of blood donation registered in the law of January 4th, 1993. The blood donors selection is structured in three successive stages. The first stage is the pre-donation information. The second stage begins with reading and filling out an info-questionnaire which prepare for an interview with a physician. This interview is specially directed to prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections and the prevention of adverse reactions after a 400 to 600 mL collection of whole blood or components. Finally, the third stage is the delivery of a post-donation information which invites the donor to contact the "établissement français du sang" (EFS) in case of a new event arisen after the donation or in case of reviewing of its own answers during the medical interview.

  1. Gamete donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring

    PubMed Central

    Kirkman, Maggie; Bourne, Kate; Fisher, Jane; Johnson, Louise; Hammarberg, Karin

    2014-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION What are the expectations and experiences of anonymous gamete donors about contact with their donor offspring? SUMMARY ANSWER Rather than consistently wanting to remain distant from their donor offspring, donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Donor conception is part of assisted reproduction in many countries, but little is known about its continuing influence on gamete donors' lives. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A qualitative research model appropriate for understanding participants' views was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted during January–March 2013. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Before 1998, gamete donors in Victoria, Australia, were subject to evolving legislation that allowed them to remain anonymous or (from 1988) to consent to the release of identifying information. An opportunity to increase knowledge of donors' expectations and experiences of contact with their donor offspring recently arose in Victoria when a recommendation was made to introduce mandatory identification of donors on request from their donor offspring, with retrospective effect. Pre-1998 donors were invited through an advertising campaign to be interviewed about their views, experiences and expectations; 36 sperm donors and 6 egg donors participated. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE This research is unusual in achieving participation by donors who would not normally identify themselves to researchers or government inquiries. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed that most donors did not characterize themselves as parents of their donor offspring. Donors' expectations and experiences of contact with donor offspring ranged from none to a close personal relationship. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION It is not possible to establish whether participants were representative of all pre-1998 donors. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS Anonymous

  2. West Nile Virus workshop: scientific considerations for tissue donors.

    PubMed

    Brubaker, Scott A; Robert Rigney, P

    2012-08-01

    This report contains selected excerpts, presented as a summary, from a public workshop sponsored by the American Association of Tissue Banks (AATB) held to discuss West Nile Virus (WNV) and scientific considerations for tissue donors. The daylong workshop was held 9 July 2010 at the Ritz-Carlton Hotel at Tyson's Corner in McLean, Virginia, United States (U.S.). The workshop was designed to determine and discuss scientific information that is known, and what is not known, regarding WNV infection and transmission. The goal is to determine how to fill gaps in knowledge of WNV and tissue donation and transplantation by pursuing relevant scientific studies. This information should ultimately support decisions leading to appropriate tissue donor screening and testing considerations. Discussion topics were related to identifying these gaps and determining possible solutions. Workshop participants included subject-matter experts from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, AATB-accredited tissue banks including reproductive tissue banks, accredited eye banks of the Eye Bank Association of America, testing laboratories, and infectious disease and organ transplantation professionals. After all presentations concluded, a panel addressed this question: "What are the scientific considerations for tissue donors and what research could be performed to address those considerations?" The slide presentations from the workshop are available at: http://www.aatb.org/2010-West-Nile-Virus-Workshop-Presentations.

  3. Donor Human Milk for the High-Risk Infant: Preparation, Safety, and Usage Options in the United States.

    PubMed

    2017-01-01

    The use of donor human milk is increasing for high-risk infants, primarily for infants born weighing <1500 g or those who have severe intestinal disorders. Pasteurized donor milk may be considered in situations in which the supply of maternal milk is insufficient. The use of pasteurized donor milk is safe when appropriate measures are used to screen donors and collect, store, and pasteurize the milk and then distribute it through established human milk banks. The use of nonpasteurized donor milk and other forms of direct, Internet-based, or informal human milk sharing does not involve this level of safety and is not recommended. It is important that health care providers counsel families considering milk sharing about the risks of bacterial or viral contamination of nonpasteurized human milk and about the possibilities of exposure to medications, drugs, or herbs in human milk. Currently, the use of pasteurized donor milk is limited by its availability and affordability. The development of public policy to improve and expand access to pasteurized donor milk, including policies that support improved governmental and private financial support for donor milk banks and the use of donor milk, is important.

  4. Recruitment of aged donor heart with pharmacological stress echo. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Arpesella, Giorgio; Gherardi, Sonia; Bombardini, Tonino; Picano, Eugenio

    2006-01-01

    Background The heart transplant is a treatment of the heart failure, which is not responding to medications, and its efficiency is already proved: unfortunately, organ donation is a limiting step of this life-saving procedure. To counteract heart donor shortage, we should screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease. Donors with a history of cardiac disease are generally excluded. Coronary angiography is recommended for most male donors older than 45 years and female donors older than 50 years to evaluate coronary artery stenoses. A simpler way to screen aged potential donor hearts for initial cardiomyopathy and functionally significant coronary artery disease should be stress echocardiography. Case report A marginal donor (A 57 year old woman meeting legal requirements for brain death) underwent a transesophageal (TE) Dipyridamole stress echo (6 minutes accelerated protocol) to rule out moderate or severe heart and coronary artery disease. Wall motion was normal at baseline and at peak stress (WMSI = 1 at baseline and peak stress, without signs of stress inducible ischemia). The pressure/volume ratio was 9.6 mmHg/ml/m2 at baseline, increasing to 14 mmHg/ml/m2 at peak stress, demonstrating absence of latent myocardial dysfunction. The marginal donor heart was transplanted to a recipient "marginal" for co-morbidity ( a 63 year old man with multiple myeloma and cardiac amyloidosis , chronic severe heart failure, NYHA class IV). Postoperative treatment and early immunosuppressant regimen were performed according to standard protocols. The transplanted heart was assessed normal for dimensions and ventricular function at transthoracic (TT) echocardiography on post-transplant day 7. Coronary artery disease was ruled out at coronary angiography one month after transplant; left ventriculography showed normal global and segmental LV function of the transplanted heart. Conclusion For the first time stress

  5. An effective screened Coulomb interaction in a quasi-one-dimensional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Miao, Wen-Dan; Zhai, Li-Xue

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we derive an analytical expression for the screened Coulomb potential between charge carriers in quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) semiconductor structures. As an application, this potential has been used to investigate the screening effect on the binding energy of a neutral donor (D0) in quantum wires (QWRs). It is found that the screening effect decreases the neutral donor binding energy, and the screening effects are more obvious in wide QWRs than that in narrow ones. Dependence of screening length on temperature and carrier concentration has also been discussed.

  6. Genetic screening

    PubMed Central

    Andermann, Anne; Blancquaert, Ingeborg

    2010-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE To provide a primer for primary care professionals who are increasingly called upon to discuss the growing number of genetic screening services available and to help patients make informed decisions about whether to participate in genetic screening, how to interpret results, and which interventions are most appropriate. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE As part of a larger research program, a wide literature relating to genetic screening was reviewed. PubMed and Internet searches were conducted using broad search terms. Effort was also made to identify the gray literature. MAIN MESSAGE Genetic screening is a type of public health program that is systematically offered to a specified population of asymptomatic individuals with the aim of providing those identified as high risk with prevention, early treatment, or reproductive options. Ensuring an added benefit from screening, as compared with standard clinical care, and preventing unintended harms, such as undue anxiety or stigmatization, depends on the design and implementation of screening programs, including the recruitment methods, education and counseling provided, timing of screening, predictive value of tests, interventions available, and presence of oversight mechanisms and safeguards. There is therefore growing apprehension that economic interests might lead to a market-driven approach to introducing and expanding screening before program effectiveness, acceptability, and feasibility have been demonstrated. As with any medical intervention, there is a moral imperative for genetic screening to do more good than harm, not only from the perspective of individuals and families, but also for the target population and society as a whole. CONCLUSION Primary care professionals have an important role to play in helping their patients navigate the rapidly changing terrain of genetic screening services by informing them about the benefits and risks of new genetic and genomic technologies and empowering them to

  7. Extended Criteria Donors in Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Vodkin, Irine; Kuo, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    Mortality rates on the liver transplant waiting list are increasing. The shortage of organs has resulted in higher utilization of extended criteria donors (ECDs), with centers pushing the limits of what is acceptable for transplantation. Donor quality is more appropriately represented as a continuum of risk, and careful selection and matching of ECD grafts with recipients may lead to excellent outcomes. Although there is no precise definition for what constitutes an ECD liver, this review focuses on frequently cited characteristics, including donor age, steatosis, donation after cardiac death, and donors with increased risk of disease transmission.

  8. Nitrogen related shallow thermal donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujita, N.; Jones, R.; Öberg, S.; Briddon, P. R.

    2007-07-01

    In this letter, the authors investigate the electrical properties of nitrogen related shallow thermal donor (STD) candidates and their concentrations under different doping conditions by means of density functional theory. Experimentally, the existence of STDs containing one nitrogen atom and both even and odd numbers of oxygen atoms has been proposed. However, so far first principles studies have not presented a candidate for the latter. Here, they show that the NO defect possesses a shallow donor level. Adding one or two more oxygen atoms results in the donor level to become shallower. The fraction of shallow nitrogen related donors to N dimers increases in material with low concentration of nitrogen.

  9. Donor-specific anti-HLA Abs and graft failure in matched unrelated donor hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Stefan O; Thall, Peter F; Wang, Xuemei; Wang, Sa A; Hu, Ying; Cano, Pedro; Aung, Fleur; Rondon, Gabriela; Molldrem, Jeffrey J; Korbling, Martin; Shpall, Elizabeth J; de Lima, Marcos; Champlin, Richard E; Fernandez-Vina, Marcelo

    2011-11-24

    Anti-HLA donor-specific Abs (DSAs) have been reported to be associated with graft failure in mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; however, their role in the development of graft failure in matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation remains unclear. We hypothesize that DSAs against a mismatched HLA-DPB1 locus is associated with graft failure in this setting. The presence of anti-HLA Abs before transplantation was determined prospectively in 592 MUD transplantation recipients using mixed-screen beads in a solid-phase fluorescent assay. DSA identification was performed using single-Ag beads containing the corresponding donor's HLA-mismatched Ags. Anti-HLA Abs were detected in 116 patients (19.6%), including 20 patients (3.4%) with anti-DPB1 Abs. Overall, graft failure occurred in 19 of 592 patients (3.2%), including 16 of 584 (2.7%) patients without anti-HLA Abs compared with 3 of 8 (37.5%) patients with DSA (P = .0014). In multivariate analysis, DSAs were the only factor highly associated with graft failure (P = .0001; odds ratio = 21.3). Anti-HLA allosensitization was higher overall in women than in men (30.8% vs 12.1%; P < .0001) and higher in women with 1 (P = .008) and 2 or more pregnancies (P = .0003) than in men. We conclude that the presence of anti-DPB1 DSAs is associated with graft failure in MUD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

  10. A Retrospective Analysis of Apheresis Donor Deferral and Adverse Reactions at a Tertiary Care Centre in India

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Ketan; Kaushik, Ankit; Sharma, Richa; Rawat, DS; Mandal, AK

    2016-01-01

    Introduction With increasing demand of platelet component each day, blood bank plays a pivotal role in ensuring supply of safe blood as and when required. Plateletpheresis procedure is a relatively simple, safe and important adjunct to blood bank inventory. However, recruitment of healthy blood donors is a challenge that the health industry is facing today. Aim To determine the reasons and rates of apheresis donor deferral along with investigation of adverse reactions encountered during the procedure. Materials and Methods Records of single donor apheresis were retrospectively analysed from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2014. The study was carried out at Blood Bank, Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. The donor details that were studied included – age, sex, type of donation (voluntary/replacement/ repeat), reason for donor deferral and type of adverse reaction, if encountered during the procedure. Results Among the 478 donors screened for plateletpheresis procedure during a study period of 5 years, 134 (28.03%) were deferred. Temporary deferrals accounted for majority (93.28%) of the deferrals. Low platelet count (50.75%) was the main reason of donor deferral followed by low haemoglobin (20.89%). Amongst the 344 selected donors, 15 (4.36%) had some type of adverse reaction associated with the procedure. Conclusion We suggest that the selection criteria for plateletpheresis donors should be revised to deal with shortage of apheresis donors. The criteria regarding minimum pre-procedure platelet count (above1.5 lac/μl) and haemoglobin (above 12.5 g/dl) need to be lowered so as to suit the Indian scenario. The lower adverse reaction rates, 14/344 (4.06%) associated with this procedure encourages safety of donors and is important in recruitment of new donors. PMID:28050376

  11. Nucleic acid-amplification testing for hepatitis B in cornea donors.

    PubMed

    Fornés, Maria Gema; Jiménez, Maria Angustias; Eisman, Marcela; Gómez Villagrán, Jose Luis; Villalba, Rafael

    2016-06-01

    Careful donor selection and implementation of tests of appropriate sensitivity and specificity are of paramount importance for minimizing the risk of transmitting infectious diseases from donors to corneal allograft recipients. Reported cases of viral transmission with corneal grafts are very unusual. Nevertheless potential virus transmission through the engraftment cannot be ruled out. According to European Guideline 2006/17/EC, screening for antibodies for Hepatitis B core antigen (anti HBc) is mandatory, and when this test is positive, some criteria must be established before using corneas. Despite the continuous progress in screening tests, donors carrying an occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) can cause transplant-transmitted hepatitis B. To date, Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is not an obligatory assay in corneal tissue setting neither in our country nor in the rest of European countries. Herein, we report three cornea donors that were rejected with the diagnosis of OBI through the testing of sensitive NAT and the serological profile of Hepatitis B virus. The aim of this report is to emphasize the need to include NAT in new reviews of EU Tissues and Cells Directives in order to increase level of security in tissue donation as well as not to reject a high number of donors with isolated profile of anti HBc in geographical areas with high prevalence of Hepatitis B, that could be rejected without a true criterion of Hepatitis B infection.

  12. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×10(5) IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening.

  13. Hepatitis E in blood donors: investigation of the natural course of asymptomatic infection, Germany, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Tanja; Diekmann, Juergen; Eberhardt, Matthias; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections have been found in blood donors from various European countries, but the natural course is rarely specified. Here, we compared the progression of HEV viraemia, serostatus and liver-specific enzymes in 10 blood donors with clinically asymptomatic genotype 3 HEV infection, measuring HEV RNA concentrations, plasma concentrations of alanine/aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and bilirubin and anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG antibodies. RNA concentrations ranged from 77.2 to 2.19×105 IU/mL, with viraemia lasting from less than 10 to 52 days. Donors showed a typical progression of a recent HEV infection but differed in the first detection of anti-HEV IgA, IgM and IgG and seropositivity of the antibody classes. The diagnostic window between HEV RNA detection and first occurrence of anti-HEV antibodies ranged from eight to 48 days, depending on the serological assay used. The progression of laboratory parameters of asymptomatic HEV infection was largely comparable to the progression of symptomatic HEV infection, but only four of 10 donors showed elevated liver-specific parameters. Our results help elucidate the risk of transfusion-associated HEV infection and provide a basis for development of screening strategies. The diagnostic window illustrates that infectious blood donors can be efficiently identified only by RNA screening. PMID:27608433

  14. Differences in social representation of blood donation between donors and non-donors: an empirical study

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Cinzia; Giannone, Francesca; Falgares, Giorgio; Caligaris, Aldo Ozino; Sales-Wuillemin, Edith

    2016-01-01

    Background Both donors and non-donors have a positive image of blood donation, so donors and non-donors do not differ regarding their views on donation but do differ in converting their opinion into an active deed of donation. Several studies have identified altruism and empathy as the main factors underlying blood donation. However, a mixture of various motivational factors mould the complex behaviour of donation. This paper presents an exploratory study on differences of social representations of blood donation between blood donors and non-donors, in order to understand the reasons that bring someone to take the decision to become a blood donor. Materials and methods Participants filled in the Adapted Self-Report Altruism Scale, Toronto Empathy Questionnaire and answered a test of verbal association. Descriptive and correlation analyses were carried out on quantitative data, while a prototypic analysis was used for qualitative data. Results The study was carried out on a convenience sample of 786 individuals, 583 donors (mean age: 35.40 years, SD: 13.01 years; 39.3% female) and 203 non-donors (mean age: 35.10 years, SD: 13.30 years; 67.5% female). Social representations of donors seem to be more complex and articulated than those of non-donors. The terms that appear to be central were more specific in donors (life, needle, blood, help, altruism were the words most associated by non-donors; life, aid, altruism, solidarity, health, love, gift, generosity, voluntary, control, needed, useful, needle were the words most associated by donors). Furthermore, non-donors associated a larger number of terms referring to negative aspects of blood donation. Discussion Aspects related to training and the accuracy of any information on blood donation seem to be important in the decision to become a donor and stabilise the behaviour of donation over time, thus ensuring the highest levels of quality and safety in blood establishments. PMID:26674814

  15. High prevalence of HIV p24 antigen among HIV antibody negative prospective blood donors in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Japhet, Margaret Oluwatoyin; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Adesina, Olufisayo Adeyemi; Donbraye, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Blood transfusion service centers in Nigeria screen donated blood for markers of HIV infection using antibody- (Ab) based rapid test and in some centers, positives are re-tested using Ab-based ELISA. Paucity of data exists on p24 antigen prevalence among HIV Ab-negative donors in Nigeria. This study aims at detecting HIV p24 antigen among prospective blood donors in Osun State, Nigeria. Prospective blood donors negative for HIV antibodies using Determine test kit were re-tested using BIORAD GENSCREEN Ultra Ag-Ab ELISA kit, a fourth-generation ELISA kit that detects HIV antibodies/p24 antigen. Of the 169 HIV Ab-negative prospective donors, 10 (5.9%) were positive for HIV p24 antigen and 70% (7/10) of them were in the age range 18-30 years. Results of this study show that blood transfusion is still one of the major routes of HIV transmission in Nigeria and a higher proportion is among youth. Inclusion of p24 antigen testing into the blood donor screening will help reduce transfusion associated HIV in Nigeria if Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) of all blood donor samples is not affordable; also, HIV enlightenment programs tailored toward youth may help reduce this rate among donors since more young people donate blood in low/middle-income countries than in high-income countries.

  16. Quadruple screen test

    MedlinePlus

    Quad screen; Multiple marker screening; AFP plus; Triple screen test; AFP maternal; MSAFP; 4-marker screen; Down syndrome - quadruple; Trisomy 21 - quadruple; Turner syndrome - quadruple; Spina bifida - ...

  17. MRSA Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization and does not endorse non-AACC products and services. Advertising ... aureus Screening Related tests: Wound Culture All content on Lab Tests Online has been ...

  18. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  19. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  20. Get Screened

    MedlinePlus

    ... health. Depending on your age, sex, and medical history, you may need to be screened for things like: Certain types of cancer High blood pressure or high cholesterol Diabetes Osteoporosis (weak bones) ...

  1. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  2. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  3. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification. (a) Notification of donors. You, an establishment that collects blood or blood components, must make...

  4. Fecal microbiota transplantation and donor standardization.

    PubMed

    Owens, Casey; Broussard, Elizabeth; Surawicz, Christina

    2013-09-01

    Clostridium difficile diarrhea is a common and severe infectious disease. Antibiotics, which are standard initial treatment, are less effective for treating refractory or recurrent infection. Fecal microbiota transplantation, where healthy donor stool is transplanted into a patient, is an alternative to antibiotic therapy that requires standardization for donors and patients.

  5. Payment for donor kidneys: pros and cons.

    PubMed

    Friedman, E A; Friedman, A L

    2006-03-01

    Continuous growth of the end stage renal disease population treated by dialysis, outpaces deceased donor kidneys available, lengthens the waiting time for a deceased donor transplant. As estimated by the United States Department of Health & Human Services: '17 people die each day waiting for transplants that can't take place because of the shortage of donated organs.' Strategies to expand the donor pool--public relations campaigns and Drivers' license designation--have been mainly unsuccessful. Although illegal in most nations, and viewed as unethical by professional medical organizations, the voluntary sale of purchased donor kidneys now accounts for thousands of black market transplants. The case for legalizing kidney purchase hinges on the key premise that individuals are entitled to control of their body parts even to the point of inducing risk of life. One approach to expanding the pool of kidney donors is to legalize payment of a fair market price of about 40,000 dollars to donors. Establishing a federal agency to manage marketing and purchase of donor kidneys in collaboration with the United Network for Organ Sharing might be financially self-sustaining as reduction in costs of dialysis balances the expense of payment to donors.

  6. 21 CFR 630.6 - Donor notification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of donation of blood or blood components that the donor should not donate in the future; (3) Where... the reason for that decision; (ii) Where appropriate, the types of donation of blood or blood... GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR BLOOD, BLOOD COMPONENTS, AND BLOOD DERIVATIVES § 630.6 Donor notification....

  7. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  8. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  9. 42 CFR 35.64 - Donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Donors. 35.64 Section 35.64 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Contributions for the Benefit of Patients § 35.64 Donors. Authorized contributions...

  10. The Experience of Living Kidney Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Judith Belle; Karley, Mary Lou; Boudville, Neil; Bullas, Ruth; Garg, Amit X.; Muirhead, Norman

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the experiences, feelings, and ideas of living kidney donors. Using a phenomenological, qualitative research approach, the authors interviewed 12 purposefully selected living kidney donors (eight men and four women), who were between four and 29 years since donation. Interviews were audiotaped, and transcribed verbatim, and…

  11. Organ donors: deceased or alive? Quo vadis?

    PubMed

    Rozental, R

    2006-01-01

    Irrespectively of universal shortage of donor organs there is a tendency of increasing the number of transplantations from living and deceased donors. Each of these two methods has positive and negative features. The main obstacles using living donors are health hazard, necessity to solve certain donor's social and psychological problems, possibility of organ trade and moving. The main problems connected with organ retrieval from deceased donors are possible conflicts with public opinion: difficulties in interpretation of brain death, legislation, obtaining of informed consent from donor's relatives, etc. Future progress in organ transplantation may take place through activation of organ retrieval from deceased donors. The most perspective ways are change to presumed consent in all countries, establishing of centralized system of donor detection and registration, intensification of transplant coordination, active contacts with mass-media, etc. It is necessary to increase (enhance) participation of the members of the public in organ donation process, to develop solidarity among the public members and to involve public authorities to deal with this problem. Bioethical standards should be put in accordance with common progress and some ethical traditions should be changed.

  12. The evaluation of iron deficiency and anemia in male blood donors with other related factors

    PubMed Central

    Yousefinejad, Vahid; Darvishi, Nazila; Arabzadeh, Masoumeh; Soori, Masoumeh; Magsudlu, Mahtab; Shafiayan, Madjid

    2010-01-01

    Aims and Background: Iron deficiency is one of the most common nutritional disorders worldwide and blood donation may cause iron depletion. Limited studies with large sample size have been done on male donors. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among male donors in the Kurdistan Organization of Blood Transfusion in Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. Sample size was 1184 blood donors selected by systematic random sampling. Hemoglobin, serum iron, serum ferritin, total iron banding capacity (TIBC) and transferin saturation were measured in donors. Iron depletion, lack of iron stores, iron deficiency, iron deficiency anemia and anemia were evaluated among them. Data was analyzed with SPSS software and X2, one-way ANOVA, and LSD test. Results: Iron deficiency, anemia, iron deficiency anemia, iron depletion and lack of iron resources were seen in 2.3, 4.08, 2.14, 22.76 and 4.66 percent respectively. There was a significant relationship of iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia with instances of donation and interval from last donation (P < 0.05). A significant relationship was seen between iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia among blood donors with more than ten times blood donation (P < 0.05). Conclusions: This study showed regular male donors require especial attention. Therefore, serum ferritin is recommended as a more adequate index to use for iron deficiency screening and planning purposes for iron supplementation among them. PMID:20859513

  13. [HCC screening].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, T

    2008-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequently diagnosed tumour diseases throughout the world. In the vast majority of cases those affected are high-risk patients with chronic viral hepatitis and/or liver cirrhosis, which means there is a clearly identifiable target group for HCC screening. With resection, transplantation, and interventional procedures for local ablation, following early diagnosis curative treatment options are available with which 5-year survival rates of over 60% can be reached. Such early diagnosis is a reality only in a minority of patients, however, and in the majority of cases the disease is already in an advanced stage at diagnosis. One of the objects of HCC screening is diagnosis in an early stage when curative treatment is still possible. Precisely this is achieved by screening, so that the proportion of patients treated with curative intent is decisively higher. There is not yet any clear evidence as to whether this leads to a lowering of the mortality of HCC. As lower mortality is the decisive indicator of success for a screening programme the benefit of HCC screening has so far been neither documented nor refuted. Nonetheless, in large regions of the world it is the practice for high-risk patients to undergo HCC screening in the form of twice-yearly ultrasound examination and determination of AFP.

  14. Non Heart-Beating Donors in England

    PubMed Central

    Chaib, Eleazar

    2008-01-01

    When transplantation started all organs were retrieved from patients immediately after cardio-respiratory arrest, i.e. from non-heart-beating donors. After the recognition that death resulted from irreversible damage to the brainstem, organ retrieval rapidly switched to patients certified dead after brainstem testing. These heart-beating-donors have become the principal source of organs for transplantation for the last 30 years. The number of heart-beating-donors are declining and this is likely to continue, therefore cadaveric organs from non-heart-beating donor offers a large potential of resources for organ transplantation. The aim of this study is to examine clinical outcomes of non-heart-beating donors in the past 10 years in the UK as an way of decreasing pressure in the huge waiting list for organs transplantation. PMID:18297216

  15. Kinetics of thermal donor generation in silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, B.-Y.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1984-01-01

    The generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C in Czochralski-grown silicon was found to be altered by high-temperature preannealing (e.g., 1100 C for 30 min). Thus, when compared with as-grown Si, high-temperature preannealed material exhibits a smaller concentration of generated thermal donors and a faster thermal donor saturation. A unified mechanism of nucleation and oxygen diffusion-controlled growth (based on solid-state plate transformation theory) is proposed to account for generation kinetics of thermal donors at 450 C, in as-grown and high-temperature preannealed Czochralski silicon crystals. This mechanism is consistent with the main features of the models which have been proposed to explain the formation of oxygen thermal donors in silicon.

  16. Donor Conception and "Passing," or; Why Australian Parents of Donor-Conceived Children Want Donors Who Look Like Them.

    PubMed

    Wong, Karen-Anne

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the processes through which Australian recipients select unknown donors for use in assisted reproductive technologies and speculates on how those processes may affect the future life of the donor-conceived person. I will suggest that trust is an integral part of the exchange between donors, recipients, and gamete agencies in donor conception and heavily informs concepts of relatedness, race, ethnicity, kinship, class, and visibility. The decision to be transparent (or not) about a child's genetic parentage affects recipient parents' choices of donor, about who is allowed to "know" children's genetic backgrounds, and how important it is to be able to "pass" as an unassisted conception. In this way, recipients must trust the process, institutions, and individuals involved in their treatment, as well as place trust in the future they imagine for their child. The current market for donor gametes reproduces normative conceptions of the nuclear family, kinship, and relatedness by facilitating "matching" donors to recipients by phenotype and cultural affinities. Recipient parents who choose not to prioritize "matching," and actively disclose the process of children's conceptions, may embark on a project of queering heteronormative family structures and place great trust in both their own children and changing social attitudes to reduce stigma and generate acceptance for non-traditional families.

  17. Donor, dad, or…? Young adults with lesbian parents' experiences with known donors.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Allen, Katherine R

    2013-06-01

    In this exploratory qualitative study of 11 young adults, ages 19-29 years, we examine how young people who were raised by lesbian parents make meaning out of and construct their relationships with known donors. In-depth interviews were conducted to examine how participants defined their family composition, how they perceived the role of their donors in their lives, and how they negotiated their relationships with their donors. Findings indicate that mothers typically chose known donors who were family friends, that the majority of participants always knew who their donors were, and that their contact with donors ranged from minimal to involved. Further, participants perceived their donors in one of three ways: as strictly donors and not members of their family; as extended family members but not as parents; and as fathers. The more limited role of donors in participants' construction of family relationships sheds light on how children raised in lesbian, gay, and bisexual families are contributing to the redefinition and reconstruction of complex kinship arrangements. Our findings hold implications for clinicians who work with lesbian-mother families, and suggest that young adulthood is an important developmental phase during which interest in and contact with the donor may shift, warranting a transfer of responsibility from mother to offspring in terms of managing the donor-child relationship.

  18. Blood donors at high risk of transmitting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z

    1985-03-09

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood.

  19. Evaluation of blood donor deferral causes in the Trinidad and Tobago National Blood Transfusion Service.

    PubMed

    Charles, K S; Hughes, P; Gadd, R; Bodkyn, C J; Rodriguez, M

    2010-02-01

    The majority of blood donations in Trinidad and Tobago are made as replacement by family members or friends. National Blood Transfusion Policy was drafted in 2007 to promote voluntary, repeated donation. The objective of this study is to assess the current rate and reasons for donor deferral, and the aim is to guide the proposed donor education and recruitment programme. A retrospective study of pre-donation deferral of prospective blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Centre, Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, was conducted. Records of all pre-donation deferrals over a 12-month period were studied. As many as 11,346 pre-donation screening interviews were conducted. There were 4043 (35.6%) deferrals. The most common reasons for donor deferral were exposure to high-risk sexual activity (27.6%), low haemoglobin 22.2% and hypertension 17.5%. Other reasons such as medication, chronic medical illness, tattoos, travel history, recent pregnancy, surgery or presentation outside the accepted age limit caused 33.8% of all deferrals and the majority (34.7%) of male deferrals. Low haemoglobin (44.5%) was the most common reason among females. The rate of deferral of voluntary donors was not significantly different from that for replacement donors (31.7 vs. 35.4%, P = 0.25). This study exposed a lack of public awareness as the principal reason for an unacceptably high rate of donor deferral. Donor education about selection criteria needs to be urgently addressed as an objective of the National Policy. Monitoring and evaluation of deferral rates and reasons could be used as one indicator of the effectiveness of the Policy.

  20. Bright Solid-State Emission of Disilane-Bridged Donor-Acceptor-Donor and Acceptor-Donor-Acceptor Chromophores.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Masaki; Tsuchiya, Mizuho; Sakamoto, Ryota; Yamanoi, Yoshinori; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Nishihara, Hiroshi

    2016-02-24

    The development of disilane-bridged donor-acceptor-donor (D-Si-Si-A-Si-Si-D) and acceptor-donor-acceptor (A-Si-Si-D-Si-Si-A) compounds is described. Both types of compound showed strong emission (λem =ca. 500 and ca. 400 nm, respectively) in the solid state with high quantum yields (Φ: up to 0.85). Compound 4 exhibited aggregation-induced emission enhancement in solution. X-ray diffraction revealed that the crystal structures of 2, 4, and 12 had no intermolecular π-π interactions to suppress the nonradiative transition in the solid state.

  1. Predonation psychosocial evaluation of living kidney and liver donor candidates: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Duerinckx, Nathalie; Timmerman, Lotte; Van Gogh, Johan; van Busschbach, Jan; Ismail, Sohal Y; Massey, Emma K; Dobbels, Fabienne

    2014-01-01

    Evaluating a person's suitability for living organ donation is crucial, consisting not only of a medical but also of a thorough psychosocial screening. We performed a systematic literature review of guidelines, consensus statements, and protocols on the content and process of psychosocial screening of living kidney and liver donor candidates. We searched PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, and PsycINFO until June 22, 2011, following the PRISMA guidelines, complemented by scrutinizing guidelines databases and references of identified publications. Thirty-four publications were identified, including seven guidelines, six consensus statements, and 21 protocols or programs. Guidelines and consensus statements were inconsistent and lacked concreteness for both their content and process, possibly explaining the observed variability in center-specific evaluation protocols and programs. Overall, recommended screening criteria are not evidence-based and an operational definition of the concept "psychosocial" is missing, causing heterogeneity in terminology. Variation also exists on methods used to psychosocially evaluate potential donors. The scientific basis of predonation psychosocial evaluation needs to be strengthened. There is a need for high-quality prospective psychosocial outcome studies in living donors, a uniform terminology to label psychosocial screening criteria, and validated instruments to identify risk factors.

  2. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15−59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt. PMID:27115003

  3. Living donor liver transplantation in Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amer, Khaled E; Marwan, Ibrahim

    2016-04-01

    In Egypt there is no doubt that chronic liver diseases are a major health concern. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence among the 15-59 years age group is estimated to be 14.7%. The high prevalence of chronic liver diseases has led to increasing numbers of Egyptian patients suffering from end stage liver disease (ESLD), necessitating liver transplantation (LT). We reviewed the evolution of LT in Egypt and the current status. A single center was chosen as an example to review the survival and mortality rates. To date, deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) has not been implemented in any program though Egyptian Parliament approved the law in 2010. Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) seemed to be the only logical choice to save many patients who are in desperate need for LT. By that time, there was increase in number of centers doing LDLT (13 centers) and increase in number of LDLT cases [2,400] with improvement of the results. Donor mortality rate is 1.66 per 1,000 donors; this comprised four donors in the Egyptian series. The exact recipient survival is not accurately known however, and the one-year, three-year and five-year survival were 73.17%, 70.83% and 64.16% respectively in the International Medical Center (IMC) in a series of 145 adult to adult living donor liver transplantation (AALDLT) cases. There was no donor mortality in this series. LDLT are now routinely and successfully performed in Egypt with reasonable donor and recipient outcomes. Organ shortage remains the biggest hurdle facing the increasing need for LT. Although LDLT had reasonable outcomes, it carries considerable risks to healthy donors. For example, it lacks cadaveric back up, and is not feasible for all patients. The initial success in LDLT should drive efforts to increase the people awareness about deceased organ donation in Egypt.

  4. Determination of Eligibility in Related Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Donors: Ethical and Clinical Considerations. Recommendations from a Working Group of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Association.

    PubMed

    Bitan, Menachem; van Walraven, Suzanna M; Worel, Nina; Ball, Lynne M; Styczynski, Jan; Torrabadella, Marta; Witt, Volker; Shaw, Bronwen E; Seber, Adriana; Yabe, Hiromasa; Greinix, Hildegard T; Peters, Christina; Gluckman, Eliane; Rocha, Vanderson; Halter, Joerg; Pulsipher, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Related donors for hematopoietic cell (HC) transplantation are a growing population in recent years because of expanding indications for allogeneic transplantation. The safety and welfare of the donor are major concerns for the transplantation community, especially for related sibling donors of young recipients who are children and, thus, not able to fully consent. Because donation of HC does not improve the donor's own physical health and carries a risk of side effects, careful assessment of medical risks specific to the individual donor, as well as consideration of ethical and legal aspects associated with donation from a child, must be considered. In addition, donor centers must balance the needs of both the donor and the recipient, understanding the inherent conflict parents may have as they can be overly focused on the very sick child receiving a transplant, rather than on the relatively less significant health or emotional problems that a sibling donor may have, which could impact risk with donation. Likewise, consideration must be made regarding the nature of the relationship of the sibling donor to the recipient and also aspects of performing research on pediatric HC donors. In this article, as members of the Donor Issues Committee of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we review key ethical concerns associated with pediatric donation and then give recommendations for screening potential child donors with underlying health conditions. These recommendations are aimed at protecting the physical and emotional well-being of childhood donors and arise out of the Third International Conference on Health and Safety of Donors sponsored by the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

  5. Interventional radiology in living donor liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Fan; Ou, Hsin-You; Yu, Chun-Yen; Tsang, Leo Leung-Chit; Huang, Tung-Liang; Chen, Tai-Yi; Hsu, Hsien-Wen; Concerjero, Allan M; Wang, Chih-Chi; Wang, Shih-Ho; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Liu, Yueh-Wei; Yong, Chee-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hung; Lin, Chih-Che; Chiu, King-Wah; Jawan, Bruno; Eng, Hock-Liew; Chen, Chao-Long

    2014-05-28

    The shortage of deceased donor liver grafts led to the use of living donor liver transplant (LDLT). Patients who undergo LDLT have a higher risk of complications than those who undergo deceased donor liver transplantation (LT). Interventional radiology has acquired a key role in every LT program by treating the majority of vascular and non-vascular post-transplant complications, improving graft and patient survival and avoiding, in the majority of cases, surgical revision and/or re-transplant. The aim of this paper is to review indications, diagnostic modalities, technical considerations, achievements and potential complications of interventional radiology procedures after LDLT.

  6. Enhanced CRISPR/Cas9-mediated biallelic genome targeting with dual surrogate reporter-integrated donors.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yun; Xu, Kun; Ren, Chonghua; Li, Xinyi; Lv, Huijiao; Han, Furong; Wei, Zehui; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Zhiying

    2017-02-18

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has recently emerged as a simple, yet powerful genome engineering tool, which has been widely used for genome modification in various organisms and cell types. However, screening biallelic genome-modified cells is often time-consuming and technically challenging. In this study, we incorporated two different surrogate reporter cassettes into paired donor plasmids, which were used as both the surrogate reporters and the knock-in donors. By applying our dual surrogate reporter-integrated donor system, we demonstrate high frequency of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated biallelic genome integration in both human HEK293T and porcine PK15 cells (34.09% and 18.18%, respectively). Our work provides a powerful genetic tool for assisting the selection and enrichment of cells with targeted biallelic genome modification.

  7. [Guidelines for Chagas disease: Part III. Chagas disease in donors to blood banks].

    PubMed

    Apt B, Werner; Heitmann G, Ingrid; Jercic L, M Isabel; Jotré M, Leonor; Muñoz C del V, Patricia; Noemí H, Isabel; San Martin V, Ana M; Sapunar P, Jorge; Torres H, Marisa; Zulantay A, Inés

    2008-08-01

    In this chapter it is emphasized the importance to guarantee safety and high quality blood transfusions. Besides, the following topics are analyzed: the importance of Trypanosoma cruzi infection acquired by blood transfusions, the obligatory screening implemented in Chilean blood banks and serological diagnostic techniques used that for, the seroprevalence observed, the importance to confirm results and methods recommended in this purpose and, to notify the donor once the infection is confirmed. In addition a facsímil of a letter used to notify the positive donor is included as guidelines to make advice after, attaching a pro-forma of clinical-epidemiological registration to refer the donor to medical evaluation and treatment.

  8. Phonon induced spin relaxation times of single donors and donor clusters in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsueh, Yuling; Buch, Holger; Hollenberg, Lloyd; Simmons, Michelle; Klimeck, Gerhard; Rahman, Rajib

    2014-03-01

    The phonon induced relaxation times (T1) of electron spins bound to single phosphorous (P) donors and P donor clusters in silicon is computed using the atomistic tight-binding method. The electron-phonon Hamiltonian is directly computed from the strain dependent tight-binding Hamiltonian, and the relaxation time is computed from Fermi's Golden Rule using the donor states and the electron-phonon Hamiltonian. The self-consistent Hartree method is used to compute the multi-electron wavefunctions in donor clusters. The method takes into account the full band structure of silicon including the spin-orbit interaction, and captures both valley repopulation and single valley g-factor shifts in a unified framework. The single donor relaxation rate varies proportionally to B5, and is of the order of seconds at B =2T, both in good agreement with experimental single donor data (A. Morello et. al., Nature 467, 687 (2010)). T1 calculations in donor clusters show variations for different electron numbers and donor numbers and locations. The computed T1 in a 4P:5e donor cluster match well with a scanning tunneling microscope patterned P donor cluster (H. Buch et. al., Nature Communications 4, 2017 (2013)).

  9. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org

    PubMed Central

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2016-01-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations. PMID:27077139

  10. Donor Retention in Online Crowdfunding Communities: A Case Study of DonorsChoose.org.

    PubMed

    Althoff, Tim; Leskovec, Jure

    2015-05-01

    Online crowdfunding platforms like DonorsChoose.org and Kick-starter allow specific projects to get funded by targeted contributions from a large number of people. Critical for the success of crowdfunding communities is recruitment and continued engagement of donors. With donor attrition rates above 70%, a significant challenge for online crowdfunding platforms as well as traditional offline non-profit organizations is the problem of donor retention. We present a large-scale study of millions of donors and donations on DonorsChoose.org, a crowdfunding platform for education projects. Studying an online crowdfunding platform allows for an unprecedented detailed view of how people direct their donations. We explore various factors impacting donor retention which allows us to identify different groups of donors and quantify their propensity to return for subsequent donations. We find that donors are more likely to return if they had a positive interaction with the receiver of the donation. We also show that this includes appropriate and timely recognition of their support as well as detailed communication of their impact. Finally, we discuss how our findings could inform steps to improve donor retention in crowdfunding communities and non-profit organizations.

  11. The Kupffer Cell Number Affects the Outcome of Living Donor Liver Transplantation from Elderly Donors

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Masaaki; Eguchi, Susumu; Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Soyama, Akihiko; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Natsuda, Koji; Kugiyama, Tota; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Imamura, Hajime; Miuma, Satoshi; Miyaaki, Hisamitsu

    2016-01-01

    Background There have been no previous reports how Kupffer cells affect the outcome of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) with an elderly donor. The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of Kupffer cells on LDLT. Methods A total of 161 adult recipients underwent LDLT. The graft survival, prognostic factors for survival, and graft failure after LDLT were examined between cases with a young donor (<50, n = 112) and an elderly donor (≥50, N = 49). The Kupffer cells, represented by CD68-positive cell in the graft, were examined in the young and elderly donors. Results In a multivariable analysis, a donor older than 50 years, sepsis, and diabetes mellitus were significant predictors of graft failure after LDLT. The CD68 in younger donors was significantly more expressed than that in elderly donors. The group with a less number of CD68-positive cells in the graft had a significantly poor survival in the elderly donor group and prognostic factor for graft failure. Conclusions The worse outcome of LDLT with elderly donors might be related to the lower number of Kupffer cells in the graft, which can lead to impaired recovery of the liver function and may predispose patients to infectious diseases after LDLT. PMID:27819035

  12. The effect of donor characteristics on survival after unrelated donor transplantation for hematologic malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Kollman, Craig; Spellman, Stephen R.; Zhang, Mei-Jie; Hassebroek, Anna; Anasetti, Claudio; Antin, Joseph H.; Champlin, Richard E.; Confer, Dennis L.; DiPersio, John F.; Fernandez-Viña, Marcelo; Hartzman, Robert J.; Horowitz, Mary M.; Hurley, Carolyn K.; Karanes, Chatchada; Maiers, Martin; Mueller, Carlheinz R.; Perales, Miguel-Angel; Setterholm, Michelle; Woolfrey, Ann E.; Yu, Neng

    2016-01-01

    There are >24 million registered adult donors, and the numbers of unrelated donor transplantations are increasing. The optimal strategy for prioritizing among comparably HLA-matched potential donors has not been established. Therefore, the objective of the current analyses was to study the association between donor characteristics (age, sex, parity, cytomegalovirus serostatus, HLA match, and blood group ABO match) and survival after transplantation for hematologic malignancy. The association of donor characteristics with transplantation outcomes was examined using either logistic or Cox regression models, adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics associated with outcomes in 2 independent datasets: 1988 to 2006 (N = 6349; training cohort) and 2007 to 2011 (N = 4690; validation cohort). All donor-recipient pairs had allele-level HLA typing at HLA-A, -B, -C, and -DRB1, which is the current standard for selecting donors. Adjusting for patient disease and transplantation characteristics, survival was better after transplantation of grafts from young donors (aged 18-32 years) who were HLA matched to recipients (P < .001). These findings were validated for transplantations that occurred between 2007 and 2011. For every 10-year increment in donor age, there is a 5.5% increase in the hazard ratio for overall mortality. Increasing HLA disparity was also associated with worsening survival. Donor age and donor-recipient HLA match are important when selecting adult unrelated donors. Other donor characteristics such as sex, parity, and cytomegalovirus serostatus were not associated with survival. The effect of ABO matching on survival is modest and must be studied further before definitive recommendations can be offered. PMID:26527675

  13. Lookback study of HTLV-1 and 2 seropositive donors and their recipients in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Namen-Lopes, M S S; Martins, M L; Drummond, P C; Lobato, R R; Carneiro-Proietti, A B F

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to perform lookback study in recipients of blood components from human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) seropositive donors. HTLV-1/2 may be transmitted by blood transfusion. Brazil is an endemic area for the virus and its screening in blood donors is mandatory since 1993. Hemominas Foundation (HF) is the public transfusion centre in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data on HTLV-1/2 seropositive donors and recipients from 1993 to 2004 were obtained at HF and 24 contracting hospitals. From 1993 to 2004, HTLV-1/2 enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was performed in 918 678 donations of approximately 422 600 blood donor candidates. Of these, 456 donors (0.1%) were reactive and confirmed by Western blot (WB): 449 HTLV-1 and 7 HTLV-2. Sixty-six (14.5%) were repeat donors and had 194 blood cellular components produced from their previous donations. Of the distributed components, 119/146 (81.5%) had the recipient traced, with a total of 114 individuals. Of these, only 13 recipients were tested: six (46%) were HTLV-1 positive (four recipients of red cell units, two of platelets) and seven (54%) were negative (six of red cell units and one of platelets). Eleven did not respond and 62/114 (54.0%) were deceased. Another 28/114 (25.0%) could not be located. All six seropositive HTLV-1 recipients identified had no symptoms suggestive of HTLV-1-associated diseases. Acellular components, when used alone, were not associated with HTLV seropositivity. HTLV-1 transmission by cellular blood components occurred before screening for the virus was introduced. Haemovigilance was difficult to perform due to unavailability of computer systems before 1999 and to inadequate medical records at hospitals.

  14. Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections among blood donors at the blood bank of a Medical College of Kolkata.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Prasanta Ray; Shrivastava, Prabha; Ray, Tapobrata Guha

    2014-01-01

    Seroprevalence of transfusion transmissible infections (TTIs) among blood donors can be used to monitor the prevalence among apparently healthy adult population. The present study was conducted to determine the profile of blood donors and seroprevalence of TTI among them. Retrospective analysis of the donors of a blood bank attached with a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata in 2011 was carried out. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 17. Majority (85%) of the donors were male, two-third in the age group of 21-40 years. Among the donors 2.79% were positive for any of the screened TTIs. Seroprevalence was highest for hepatitis B (1.41%) followed by human immunodeficiency virus (0.60%) and hepatitis C (0.59%) and least for syphilis (0.23%). Seropositivity increased with age up to 50 years. There was no significant difference in seropositivity between male and female. Highly sensitive donor screening and public awareness program can make transfusion of blood products safe.

  15. Hearing Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Curiskis, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    Hearing levels are threatened by modern life--headsets for music, rock concerts, traffic noises, etc. It is crucial we know our hearing levels so that we can draw attention to potential problems. This exercise requires that students receive a hearing screening for their benefit as well as for making the connection of hearing to listening.

  16. A Time for Flexible Donor Agreements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Gerald B.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses why volatile markets and new donor expectations make now a good time to rework payout rates and gift agreements to bolster financial and strategic performance. Suggests seven options for action. (EV)

  17. The dead donor rule: a defense.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samuel C M

    2013-08-01

    Miller, Truog, and Brock have recently argued that the "dead donor rule," the requirement that donors be determined to be dead before vital organs are procured for transplantation, cannot withstand ethical scrutiny. In their view, the dead donor rule is inconsistent with existing life-saving practices of organ transplantation, lacks a cogent ethical rationale, and is not necessary for maintenance of public trust in organ transplantation. In this paper, the second of these claims will be evaluated. (The first and third are not addressed.) The claim that the dead donor rule lacks a cogent ethical rationale will be shown to be an expression of the contemporary rejection of the moral significance of the traditional distinction between killing and allowing to die. The moral significance of this traditional distinction, and the associated norm that doctors should not kill their patients, will be defended, and this critique of it shown to be unsuccessful.

  18. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed

    Serur, David; Bretzlaff, Gretchen; Christos, Paul; Desrosiers, Farrah; Charlton, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well.

  19. Citrate anticoagulation: Are blood donors donating bone?

    PubMed

    Bialkowski, Walter; Bruhn, Roberta; Edgren, Gustaf; Papanek, Paula

    2016-10-01

    An estimated 2.4 million volunteer apheresis blood donation procedures were performed in the United States in 2010, and increases in the proportion of transfused blood products derived from apheresis blood collections have been consistently reported. Anticoagulation is required during apheresis and is achieved with citrate. Donor exposure to citrate causes an acute physiological response to maintain serum mineral homeostasis. Some data are available on the sequelae of this acute response in the days and weeks following exposure, raising questions about bone mineral density in regular apheresis donors. New research is emerging that addresses the potential long-term health outcomes of repeated citrate exposure. This article reviews the acute physiological response to citrate anticoagulation in volunteer blood donors, presents contrasting perspectives on the potential effects of citrate exposure on bone density, and identifies key knowledge gaps in our understanding of long-term health outcomes in apheresis donors. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:459-463, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Becoming a Blood Stem Cell Donor

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... donors at http://www.marrow.org . Category Science & Technology License Standard YouTube License Show more Show less ... views 10:58 Susan Solomon: The promise of research with stem cells - Duration: 14:59. TED 61, ...

  1. Solicited kidney donors: Are they coerced?

    PubMed Central

    SERUR, DAVID; BRETZLAFF, GRETCHEN; CHRISTOS, PAUL; DESROSIERS, FARRAH; CHARLTON, MARIAN

    2016-01-01

    Most non-directed donors (NDDs) decide to donate on their own and contact the transplant centre directly. Some NDDs decide to donate in response to community solicitation such as newspaper ads or donor drives. We wished to explore whether subtle coercion might be occurring in such NDDs who are part of a larger community. One successful organization in a community in Brooklyn, NY, provides about 50 NDDs per year for recipients within that community. The donors answer ads in local papers and attend donor drives. Herein, we evaluated the physical and emotional outcomes of community-solicited NDDs in comparison to traditional NDDs who come from varied communities and are not responding to a specific call for donation. An assessment of coercion was used as well. PMID:26511772

  2. Donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant recipients from a single donor.

    PubMed

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P; Douglas, Laurie L; Stratta, Robert J; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C; Beaty, Michael W; Pettenati, Mark J; Iskandar, Samy S; Grier, David D; Kaczmorski, Scott A; Doares, William H; Gautreaux, Michael D; Freedman, Barry I; Powell, Bayard L

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement.

  3. Donor-Derived Myeloid Sarcoma in Two Kidney Transplant Recipients from a Single Donor

    PubMed Central

    Palanisamy, Amudha; Persad, Paul; Koty, Patrick P.; Douglas, Laurie L.; Stratta, Robert J.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Reeves-Daniel, Amber M.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Farney, Alan C.; Beaty, Michael W.; Pettenati, Mark J.; Iskandar, Samy S.; Grier, David D.; Kaczmorski, Scott A.; Doares, William H.; Gautreaux, Michael D.; Freedman, Barry I.; Powell, Bayard L.

    2015-01-01

    We report the rare occurrence of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma in two kidney transplant patients who received organs from a single deceased donor. There was no evidence of preexisting hematologic malignancy in the donor at the time of organ recovery. Both recipients developed leukemic involvement that appeared to be limited to the transplanted organ. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and molecular genotyping analyses confirmed that the malignant cells were of donor origin in each patient. Allograft nephrectomy and immediate withdrawal of immunosuppression were performed in both cases; systemic chemotherapy was subsequently administered to one patient. Both recipients were in remission at least one year following the diagnosis of donor-derived myeloid sarcoma. These cases suggest that restoration of the immune system after withdrawal of immunosuppressive therapy and allograft nephrectomy may be sufficient to control HLA-mismatched donor-derived myeloid sarcoma without systemic involvement. PMID:25977825

  4. The development of organic super electron donors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shengze; Farwaha, Hardeep; Murphy, John A

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, a host of exceptionally strong organic electron donors has been designed and prepared; their redox potentials are more negative than any previous neutral organic donors and extend beyond E(1/2) = -1 V vs. the saturated calomel electrode (SCE). Their ability to reduce a wide range of organic functional groups has been demonstrated and this article provides an overview of the main advances in the area and the guiding principles for the design of these reagents.

  5. Epidemiology of viral infections in the Swedish blood-donor population.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, A

    1994-12-01

    The epidemiological situation regarding blood-borne infections in Sweden is favourable and under very good control. The prevalence of infectious markers in the blood-donor population is low. In 1993 the frequencies of confirmed positive tests were three in 1,000,000 for human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), one in 100,000 for hepatitis B virus (HBV) and three in 100,000 for hepatitis C virus (HCV). The safety of the blood supply is high and relies on strict donor selection, information on risky behaviour, and screening for syphilis, HBV and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen, HCV, HIV-1, HIV-2 and human T-cell leukaemia virus type I and II (HTLV-I/-II). No donors with syphilis have been identified for many years. Screening for anti-HTLV-I/-II was introduced in February 1994 and no results have been reported yet. Donation is usually not permitted at the first visit, as the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections is greater in first-time donors. The risk of acquiring a transfusion-transmitted infection is low, but still a few cases of HBV and HCV infection occur each year among about 150,000 patients receiving transfusions. As far as we know, HIV infection has not been transmitted by blood components in Sweden since 1985.

  6. Prevalence and trends of markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human Immunodeficiency virus in Argentine blood donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmitted infections are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and trends of HBV, HCV and HIV in blood donors in Argentina. Methods A retrospective study was carried out in blood donors of 27 transfusion centers covering the whole country over a period of eight years (2004-2011). Serologic screening assays for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV were performed in all centers and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was performed in 2 out of the 27 centers. Results The 2,595,852 samples tested nationwide from 2004 to 2011 showed that the prevalence of HBsAg decreased from 0.336% to 0.198% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HBc from 2.391% to 2.007% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HCV from 0.721% to 0.460%, (p < 0.0001) and that of anti-HIV from 0.208% to 0.200 (p = 0.075). The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV was unevenly distributed among the different regions of the country. Two out of 74,838 screening- negative samples were positive in NAT assays (1 HIV-RNA and 1 HCV-RNA); moreover, HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA were detected in 60.29, 24.54 and 66.67% of screening-positive samples of the corresponding assays. As regards donors age, positive HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA donors were significantly older than healthy donors (46.6, 50.5 and 39.5 y respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions Argentina has a low prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in blood donors, with a decreasing trend for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV but not for anti-HIV over the last 8 years. The uneven distribution of transfusion-transmitted infections prevalence among the different regions of the country highlights the need to implement regional awareness campaigns and prevention. The discrepancy between samples testing positive for screening assays and negative for NAT assays highlights the problem of blood donors who test repeatedly reactive in screening assays but are not confirmed as positive upon further testing. The

  7. Donor identification 'kills gamete donation'? A response.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2012-12-01

    Two Australian government inquiries have recently called for the release of information to donor-conceived people about their gamete donors. A national inquiry, recommended 'as a matter of priority' that uniform legislation to be passed nationwide. A state-based inquiry argued that all donor-conceived people should have access to information and called for the enactment of retrospective legislation that would override donor anonymity. This paper responds to an opinion piece published in Human Reproduction in October 2012 by Professor Pennings in which he criticized such recommendations and questioned the motives of people that advocate for information release. I answer the arguments of Pennings, and argue that all parties affected by donor conception should be considered, and a compromise reached. The contact veto system is one such compromise. I discuss the education and support services recommended by the Victorian government and question Pennings' assertions that legislation enabling information release will lead to a decrease in gamete donation. Finally, I rebut Pennings' assertion that there is a 'hidden agenda' behind the call for information release. There is no such agenda in my work. If there is from others, then it is their discriminatory views that need to be addressed, not the move toward openness and honesty or the call for information by donor-conceived people.

  8. Living unrelated donor kidney transplantation between spouses.

    PubMed

    Haberal, M; Gulay, H; Tokyay, R; Oner, Z; Enunlu, T; Bilgin, N

    1992-01-01

    From November 3, 1975 to November 3, 1990, 874 kidney transplants were performed at out centers. Of these, 675 (77.2%) were from living donors and 199 (22.8%) were from cadaver donors. Five hundred eighty (66.4%) of the living donors were first degree related while 99 (11.3%) were unrelated or second degree related donors, 29 of which were spouses. All donor recipient pairs were ABO-compatible, with the exception of one pair. Donor recipient relations were wife to husband in 25 cases and husband to wife in 4 cases. All were first grafts and started functioning during surgery. In this series, the follow-up for the recipients was 4 to 64 months (mean 33.5 +/- 4.5 months). One-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 81.9%, respectively. Two-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 92.4% and 78.2%, respectively. The single ABO-incompatible case is also doing well, 21 months postoperatively. This study demonstrates that the interspouse kidney transplantation may be used when cadaver organ shortage is a problem. While providing the couple with a better quality of life, interspouse kidney transplantation also enables the couple to share the joy of giving and receiving the "gift of life" from one another.

  9. Changing Donor Funding and the Challenges of Integrated HIV Treatment.

    PubMed

    Nattrass, Nicoli; Hodes, Rebecca; Cluver, Lucie

    2016-07-01

    Donor financing for HIV prevention and treatment has shifted from supporting disease-specific ("vertical") programs to health systems strengthening ("horizontal") programs intended to integrate all aspects of care. We examine the consequences of shifting resources from three perspectives: first, through a broad analysis of the changing policy context of health care financing; second, through an account of changing priorities for HIV treatment in South Africa; and third, through a description of some clinical consequences that the authors observed in a research study examining adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and sexual health among adolescents. We note that AIDS responses are neither completely vertical nor horizontal but rather increasingly diagonal, as disease-specific protocols operate alongside integrated supply chain management, human resource development, and preventive screening. We conclude that health care programs are better conceived of as networks of policies requiring different degrees of integration into communities.

  10. Conductivity of a Weyl semimetal with donor and acceptor impurities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodionov, Ya. I.; Syzranov, S. V.

    2015-05-01

    We study transport in a Weyl semimetal with donor and acceptor impurities. At sufficiently high temperatures transport is dominated by electron-electron interactions, while the low-temperature resistivity comes from the scattering of quasiparticles on screened impurities. Using the diagrammatic technique, we calculate the conductivity σ (T ,ω ,nA,nD) in the impurities-dominated regime as a function of temperature T , frequency ω , and the concentrations nA and nD of acceptors and donors and discuss the crossover behavior between the regimes of low and high temperatures and impurity concentrations. In a sufficiently compensated material [| nA-nD|≪ (nA+nD) ] with a small effective fine structure constant α ,σ (ω ,T ) ∝T2/(T-2-i ω .const) in a wide interval of temperatures. For very low temperatures, or in the case of an uncompensated material, the transport is effectively metallic. We discuss experimental conditions necessary for realizing each regime.

  11. The JAK2V617F tyrosine kinase mutation in blood donors with upper-limit haematocrit levels

    PubMed Central

    Tagariello, Giuseppe; Di Gaetano, Rosanna; Sartori, Roberto; Zanotto, Daniela; Belvini, Donata; Radossi, Paolo; Risato, Renzo; Roveroni, Giovanni; Salviato, Roberta; Tassinari, Cristina; Toffano, Nunzio

    2009-01-01

    Background It is not rare to observe in blood donors a level of haematocrit (Hct) above or close to the highest normal limit. In the case of blood donors the diagnosis and clinical evaluation of this alteration may be complicated by regular blood donations that can mask an underlying disease such as polycythaemia vera. Recently a single acquired mutation in the Janus kinase 2 gene (JAK2) on chromosome 9 was identified and it was found that the incidence of this mutation was high in patients with polycythaemia vera. Material and Methods From the January 1, 2006 to December 31, 2006 all consecutive donors with a Hct above 50% if males (n=84) and 46% if females (n=19) underwent JAK2 mutation analysis. Seventy-nine donors (59 males and 20 females) whose Hct was normal at their last blood donation were randomly selected and used as controls. Results Among the group of blood donors with a high Hct, we identified one donor who was positive for the JAK2 mutation. This man had a Hct of 50.6% at his last donation, while his average Hct in the preceding year was 51.7%. The prevalence of the JAK2 mutation could be estimated to be 1%, 0.6% or 0.02% in the three different populations considered: donors with a Hct level above the upper limit of normal, all tested donors or the entire donor cohort attending our transfusion service, respectively. Conclusions The present study suggests that apparently healthy subjects with repeatedly high levels of Hct may have the acquired mutation in JAK2. Laboratory screening tests for JAK2 may be offered to blood donors at transfusion services with expertise in molecular genetics. PMID:19503632

  12. Comparative study of donor-induced quantum dots in Si nano-channels by single-electron transport characterization and Kelvin probe force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyszka, K.; Moraru, D.; Samanta, A.; Mizuno, T.; Jabłoński, R.; Tabe, M.

    2015-06-01

    We comparatively study donor-induced quantum dots in Si nanoscale-channel transistors for a wide range of doping concentration by analysis of single-electron tunneling transport and surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating KPFM observations of donor-induced potential landscapes with simulations based on Thomas-Fermi approximation, it is demonstrated that single-electron tunneling transport at lowest gate voltages (for smallest coverage of screening electrons) is governed most frequently by only one dominant quantum dot, regardless of doping concentration. Doping concentration, however, primarily affects the internal structure of the quantum dot. At low concentrations, individual donors form most of the quantum dots, i.e., "donor-atom" quantum dots. In contrast, at high concentrations above metal-insulator transition, closely placed donors instead of individual donors form more complex quantum dots, i.e., "donor-cluster" quantum dots. The potential depth of these "donor-cluster" quantum dots is significantly reduced by increasing gate voltage (increasing coverage of screening electrons), leading to the occurrence of multiple competing quantum dots.

  13. Comparative study of donor-induced quantum dots in Si nano-channels by single-electron transport characterization and Kelvin probe force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tyszka, K.; Moraru, D.; Samanta, A.; Mizuno, T.; Tabe, M.; Jabłoński, R.

    2015-06-28

    We comparatively study donor-induced quantum dots in Si nanoscale-channel transistors for a wide range of doping concentration by analysis of single-electron tunneling transport and surface potential measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). By correlating KPFM observations of donor-induced potential landscapes with simulations based on Thomas-Fermi approximation, it is demonstrated that single-electron tunneling transport at lowest gate voltages (for smallest coverage of screening electrons) is governed most frequently by only one dominant quantum dot, regardless of doping concentration. Doping concentration, however, primarily affects the internal structure of the quantum dot. At low concentrations, individual donors form most of the quantum dots, i.e., “donor-atom” quantum dots. In contrast, at high concentrations above metal-insulator transition, closely placed donors instead of individual donors form more complex quantum dots, i.e., “donor-cluster” quantum dots. The potential depth of these “donor-cluster” quantum dots is significantly reduced by increasing gate voltage (increasing coverage of screening electrons), leading to the occurrence of multiple competing quantum dots.

  14. Sperm donors describe the experience of contact with their donor-conceived offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hertz, R.; Nelson, M.K.; Kramer, W.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the attitudes and experiences of 57 sperm donors who responded to a survey posted online in the United States and indicated that they had had contact with their donor-conceived offspring or the parents of their donor-conceived offspring. On average, 18 years had elapsed since the respondents donated sperm. In the interim between donating and having contact with offspring, most had become curious about their offspring. Most made contact through a bank or online registry. Most respondents had communicated with at least one offspring at least once and most had exchanged photos with offspring. Approximately two-thirds had met in person once; the same proportion had communicated over email or text. Other forms of communication were less common. Almost half of the respondents now considered their donor-conceived offspring to be like a family member. At the same time, donors are respectful of the integrity of the family in which their offspring were raised. Donors with contact are open to having their partners and children know their donor-conceived offspring. Although contact is generally positive, donors report that establishing boundaries and defining the relationship can be very difficult. Some donors also urge those who are thinking of donating to consider the consequences and some suggest avoiding anonymity. There were no significant differences in attitudes and experiences between those who donated anonymously and those who had been identity-release for their offspring when they turned 18. PMID:26175887

  15. Outcomes of shipped live donor kidney transplants compared with traditional living donor kidney transplants.

    PubMed

    Treat, Eric G; Miller, Eric T; Kwan, Lorna; Connor, Sarah E; Maliski, Sally L; Hicks, Elisabeth M; Williams, Kristen C; Whitted, Lauren A; Gritsch, Hans A; McGuire, Suzanne M; Mone, Thomas D; Veale, Jeffrey L

    2014-11-01

    The disparity between kidney transplant candidates and donors necessitates innovations to increase organ availability. Transporting kidneys allows for living donors and recipients to undergo surgery with a familiar transplant team, city, friends, and family. The effect of shipping kidneys and prolonged cold ischemia time (CIT) with living donor transplantation outcomes is not clearly known. This retrospective matched (age, gender, race, and year of procedure) cohort study compared allograft outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants and nonshipped living donor kidney transplants. Fifty-seven shipped live donor kidneys were transplanted from 31 institutions in 26 cities. The mean shipping distance was 1634 miles (range 123-2811) with mean CIT of 12.1 ± 2.8 h. The incidence of delayed graft function in the shipped cohort was 1.8% (1/57) compared to 0% (0/57) in the nonshipped cohort. The 1-year allograft survival was 98% in both cohorts. There were no significant differences between the mean serum creatinine values or the rates of serum creatinine decline in the immediate postoperative period even after adjusted for gender and differences in recipient and donor BMI. Despite prolonged CITs, outcomes for shipped live donor kidney transplants were similar when compared to matched nonshipped living donor kidney transplants.

  16. The national marrow donor program 20 years of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen K; King, Roberta J; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Bolan, Charles D; Agura, Edward; Hartzman, Robert J; Kernan, Nancy A

    2008-09-01

    In the 20 years since the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) facilitated the first unrelated donor transplant, the organization has grown to include almost 7 million donors, and has facilitated over 30,000 transplants on 6 continents. This remarkable accomplishment has been facilitated by the efforts of over 600 employees, and an extensive international network including 171 transplant centers, 73 donor centers, 24 cord blood banks, 97 bone marrow collection centers, 91 apheresis centers, 26 HLA typing laboratories, and 26 Cooperative Registries. In this article, we review the history of the NMDP, and cite the major trends in patient demographics, graft sources, and conditioning regimens over the last 20 years.

  17. An analysis of the lack of donor pancreas utilization from younger adult organ donors.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Alexander C; Wainright, Jennifer L; Sleeman, Elizabeth; McBride, Maureen A; Baker, Tim; Samana, Ciara; Stock, Peter

    2010-09-15

    Donor pancreas utilization rates for whole organ transplant have remained low and have decreased over time. To identify the reasons for nonuse of pancreas from donors who meet common baseline acceptance criteria, we examined Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network data from 2005 to 2007 and identified a subgroup of 1763 "potential pancreas donors" defined by age (19-40 years), body mass index (<30 kg/m), successful liver donation, and negative viral serology testing, which were not used. We characterize this cohort of potential donors including reasons for refusal, factors that may contribute to pancreas acceptance and function, and potential explanations for the lack of growth in pancreas organ utilization.

  18. Expanding the live kidney donor pool: ethical considerations regarding altruistic donors, paired and pooled programs.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shaneel Rajendra; Chadha, Priyanka; Papalois, Vassilios

    2011-06-01

    In renal transplant, there is a well-known deficiency in organ supply relative to demand. Live donation provides superior results when compared with deceased donation including a better rate of graft success and fewer immunologic complications. This deficiency in organs leads to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Alternative avenues have been extensively explored that may expand the live donor pool. They include altruistic donation as well as paired and pooled exchange programs. Altruistic donation is a truly selfless act from a donor unknown to the recipient. Kidney paired donation involves 2 incompatible donor-recipient pairs swapping donors to produce compatibility. Pooled donation involves at least 2 pairs, and can take the form of domino chains in which altruistic input sets up a chain of transplants, in which each recipient's incompatible donor makes a donation for the next recipient. Despite application of these various methods, there lie extensive ethical issues surrounding them. Misconceptions frequently occur; for instance, the perceived benefit that donating an organ to a loved one is greater for a related donor than for an altruistic one. Additionally, it is frequently believed that immunologic incompatibility offers coerced donors liberation from surgery, and that overcoming these barriers by introducing exchange programs provides vulnerable donors less protection. This article explores these and other complex ethical issues surrounding the various methods of expanding the donor pool. The authors offer opinions that challenge the ethical issues and attempt to overcome those views that hinder progress in the field.

  19. Lesbian couples' views about and experiences of not being able to choose their sperm donor.

    PubMed

    Ravelingien, A; Provoost, V; Wyverkens, E; Buysse, A; De Sutter, P; Pennings, G

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we explore how lesbian recipients view and experience the selection of their anonymous sperm donor. The study was conducted in Belgium, where fertility centres follow a legal protocol that severely restricts personal choice in donor selection. While previous studies have shown that recipients want greater control and input in the selection of their sperm donor, this was not a main concern for most women in the present study. They generally acknowledged their lack of control on the selection outcome and accepted this as part and parcel of an anonymous donation policy that provides an opportunity to have a child. They actively and passively downplayed initial concerns about the donor selection procedure and felt they did not have or need a right to further control over the donor selection. In adopting this 'subordinate' position, they felt they should trust the hospital, which they hoped would fulfil rather high screening standards. Those who did want more choice were nuanced and careful about their motivations: they focused on selecting traits that would facilitate normal child development or increase family coherence. The findings shed light on how these patients perceive their position in this third-party reproduction setting.

  20. What is the significance of end-stage renal disease risk estimation in living kidney donors?

    PubMed

    Gaillard, François; Baron, Stéphanie; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Eladari, Dominique; Fournier, Catherine; Prot-Bertoye, Caroline; Bertocchio, Jean-Philippe; Lamhaut, Lionel; Friedlander, Gérard; Méjean, Arnaud; Legendre, Christophe; Courbebaisse, Marie

    2017-02-02

    Two end-stage renal disease (ESRD) risk calculators were recently developed by Grams et al., and Ibrahim et al. to calculate ESRD risk before donation among living kidney donors. However, those calculators have never been studied among potential donors for whom donation was refused due to medical contraindications and compared to a group of donors. We compared 15-year and lifetime ESRD risk of donors and nondonors due to medical cause as estimated by those two calculators. Nondonors due to medical cause (n = 27) had a significantly higher 15-year ESRD risk compared to donors (n = 288) with both calculators (0.25 vs. 0.14, P < 0.001 for that developed by Grams et al. and 2.21 vs. 1.43, P = 0.002 for that developed by Ibrahim et al.). On the contrary, lifetime ESRD risk was not significantly different between the two groups. At both times (15 years and lifetime), we observed a significant overlap of ESRD risk between the two groups. ESRD risk calculators could be complementary to standard screening strategy but cannot be used alone to accept or decline donation.

  1. 77 FR 68133 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Nucleic Acid Tests on Pooled and Individual Samples From Donors of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Reduce the Risk of Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus,'' dated October 2012. The guidance document provides recommendations on the use of FDA- licensed nucleic acid tests (NAT) to screen blood donors for hepatitis B virus...

  2. Strain and electric field control of hyperfine interactions for donor spin qubits in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, M.; Hill, C. D.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Rogge, S.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.

    2015-06-01

    Control of hyperfine interactions is a fundamental requirement for quantum computing architecture schemes based on shallow donors in silicon. However, at present, there is lacking an atomistic approach including critical effects of central-cell corrections and nonstatic screening of the donor potential capable of describing the hyperfine interaction in the presence of both strain and electric fields in realistically sized devices. We establish and apply a theoretical framework, based on atomistic tight-binding theory, to quantitatively determine the strain and electric-field-dependent hyperfine couplings of donors. Our method is scalable to millions of atoms, and yet captures the strain effects with an accuracy level of DFT method. Excellent agreement with the available experimental data sets allow reliable investigation of the design space of multiqubit architectures, based on both strain only as well as hybrid (strain + field) control of qubits. The benefits of strain are uncovered by demonstrating that a hybrid control of qubits based on (001) compressive strain and in-plane (100 or 010) fields results in higher gate fidelities and or faster gate operations, for all of the four donor species considered (P, As, Sb, and Bi). The comparison between different donor species in strained environments further highlights the trends of hyperfine shifts, providing predictions where no experimental data exists. While faster gate operations are realizable with in-plane fields for P, As, and Sb donors, only for the Bi donor, our calculations predict faster gate response in the presence of both in-plane and out-of-plane fields, truly benefiting from the proposed planar field control mechanism of the hyperfine interactions.

  3. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

    PubMed Central

    Maghsudlu, Mahtab; Safabakhsh, Hamidreza; Jamili, Parastoo

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors’ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17–59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations. PMID:26420946

  4. Second-opinion stress tele-echocardiography for the Adonhers (Aged donor heart rescue by stress echo) project

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To resolve the current shortage of donor hearts, we established the Adonhers protocol. An upward shift of the donor age cut-off limit (from the present 55 to 65 years) is acceptable if a stress echo screening on the candidate donor heart is normal. This study aimed to verify feasibility of a "second opinion" of digitally transferred images of stress echo results to minimize technical variability in selection of aged donor hearts for heart transplant. Methods The informatics infrastructure was created for a core lab reading with a second opinion from the Pisa stress echo lab. To test the system, simulation standard stress echo cineloops were sent digitally from 5 peripheral labs to the central core lab. Starting January 2009, real marginal donor stress echos were sent via internet to the central core echo lab, Pisa, for a second opinion before heart transplant. Results In the simulation protocol, 30 dipyridamole stress echocardiograms were sent from the five peripheral echo labs to the central core lab in Pisa. Both the echo images and reports were correctly uploaded in the web system and sent to the core echo lab; the second opinion evaluation was obtained in all cases (100% feasibility). In the transplant protocol, eight donor cases were sent to the Pisa core lab for the second opinion protocol, and six of them were transplanted in marginal recipients. Conclusions Second-Opinion Stress Tele-Echocardiography can effectively be performed in a network aimed to safely expand the heart donor pool for heart transplant. PMID:20515476

  5. Risk factors for deferral due to low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a Brazilian center

    PubMed Central

    Dauar, Eloísa Tedeschi; Patavino, Giuseppina Maria; Mendrone Júnior, Alfredo; Gualandro, Sandra Fátima Menosi; Sabino, Ester Cerdeira; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar

    2015-01-01

    Objective Deferral of blood donors due to low hematocrit and iron depletion is commonly reported in blood banks worldwide. This study evaluated the risk factors for low hematocrit and iron depletion among prospective blood donors in a large Brazilian blood center. Method A case–control study of 400 deferred donors due to low hematocrit and 456 eligible whole blood donors was conducted between 2009 and 2011. Participants were interviewed about selected risk factors for anemia, and additional laboratory tests, including serum ferritin, were performed. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the association between predictors and deferral due to low hematocrit in the studied population and iron depletion in women. Results Donors taking aspirins or iron supplementation, those who reported stomachache, black tarry stools or hematochezia, and women having more than one menstrual period/month were more likely to be deferred. Risk factors for iron depletion were repeat donation and being deferred at the hematocrit screening. Smoking and lack of menstruation were protective against iron depletion. Conclusion This study found some unusual risk factors related to gastrointestinal losses that were associated with deferral of donors due to low hematocrit. Knowledge of the risk factors can help blood banks design algorithms to improve donor notification and referral. PMID:26408364

  6. Vision Screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Visi Screen OSS-C, marketed by Vision Research Corporation, incorporates image processing technology originally developed by Marshall Space Flight Center. Its advantage in eye screening is speed. Because it requires no response from a subject, it can be used to detect eye problems in very young children. An electronic flash from a 35 millimeter camera sends light into a child's eyes, which is reflected back to the camera lens. The photorefractor then analyzes the retinal reflexes generated and produces an image of the child's eyes, which enables a trained observer to identify any defects. The device is used by pediatricians, day care centers and civic organizations that concentrate on children with special needs.

  7. The role of the donor liaison officer at PlusLife (Perth Bone and Tissue Bank Inc.), Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Smythe, Claire; White, Nicola; Winter, Joyleen; Cowie, Anne

    2015-06-01

    Femoral head donation at the time of hip replacement surgery provides a much needed resource of bone allograft to orthopaedic surgeons. Prior to 2005, potential femoral head donors were identified and consented in the hospital setting on the day of surgery. This resulted in over 40 % of donations failing post operatively suggesting that more effort could be given to pre-operative screening resulting in substantial savings in the cost associated with collection and testing of donors who were subsequently failed. The Donor Liaison role was implemented in 2005 to coordinate a Femoral Head Donation program maximising the number of successful donations through pre-operative screening. This study reviews the effectiveness of pre-operative screening of potential femoral head donors at PlusLife from 2002-2012. A retrospective audit of the database was undertaken 2002-2012 and medical/social reasons for pre-operative and postoperative failures were collated into 4 main categories to enable comparison: malignancy, autoimmune conditions, variant Creutzfeldt Jakob disease risk and general medical/social reasons. The number of femoral heads failed post operatively has decreased significantly from 26 % in 2003 to 6 % in 2012. A cost of $121,000 was expended on femoral heads failed post operatively in 2004, as compared to $20,350 in 2012. Donors excluded due to the 4 main categories (medical/social history) were identified pre-operatively in over 80 % of all cases. Preoperative screening of femoral head donors through a coordinated Femoral Head Donation Program is a safe and cost effective method.

  8. Transparent screens.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, R J

    1988-01-01

    There is a kind of transitional phenomenon found among certain borderline patients which is quite distinct from Winnicott's transitional object. These are patients who are preoccupied with maintaining proper physical distance from their objects, in order to regulate anxieties about isolation on the one hand, and identity-annihilating closeness on the other. Since they believe the activity of looking to be intrusive and devouring, hence dangerous, transparent screens are interposed between self and other, and serve as protective barriers. These screens function intrapsychically as well, to split off or hide those aspects of the self felt to be unacceptable. The analyst may witness the failure of the screen in several ways: it may create too great a distance, isolating the individual and keeping him from life; it may become contaminated by projections and turn into a persecutor, or trap the individual, a state of intolerable claustrophobia; most dramatically, it may suddenly shatter. The latter is associated with psychosis and death, and its appearance may be a harbinger of suicide.

  9. Human mesenchymal stem cells stimulate EaHy926 endothelial cell migration: combined proteomic and in vitro analysis of the influence of donor-donor variability

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Merlin N.M.; Kohli, Nupur; Khan, Neelam; Major, Triin; Fuller, Heidi; Wright, Karina T.; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Johnson, William E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) stimulate angiogenesis within a wound environment and this effect is mediated through paracrine interactions with the endothelial cells present. Here we report that human MSC-conditioned medium (n=3 donors) significantly increased EaHy-926 endothelial cell adhesion and cell migration, but that this stimulatory effect was markedly donor-dependent. MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry demonstrated that whilst collagen type I and fibronectin were secreted by all of the MSC cultures, the small leucine rich proteoglycan, decorin was secreted only by the MSC culture that was least effective upon EaHy-926 cells. These individual extracellular matrix components were then tested as culture substrata. EaHy-926 cell adherence was greatest on fibronectin-coated surfaces with least adherence on decorin-coated surfaces. Scratch wound assays were used to examine cell migration. EaHy-926 cell scratch wound closure was quickest on substrates of fibronectin and slowest on decorin. However, EaHy-926 cell migration was stimulated by the addition of MSC-conditioned medium irrespective of the types of culture substrates. These data suggest that whilst the MSC secretome may generally be considered angiogenic, the composition of the secretome is variable and this variation probably contributes to donor-donor differences in activity. Hence, screening and optimizing MSC secretomes will improve the clinical effectiveness of pro-angiogenic MSC-based therapies. PMID:26195891

  10. Donor-to-Donor vs Donor-to-Acceptor Interfacial Charge Transfer States in the Phthalocyanine-Fullerene Organic Photovoltaic System.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong H; Dunietz, Barry D; Geva, Eitan

    2014-11-06

    Charge transfer (CT) states formed at the donor/acceptor heterointerface are key for photocurrent generation in organic photovoltaics (OPV). Our calculations show that interfacial donor-to-donor CT states in the phthalocyanine-fullerene OPV system may be more stable than donor-to-acceptor CT states and that they may rapidly recombine, thereby constituting a potentially critical and thus far overlooked loss mechanism. Our results provide new insight into processes that may compete with charge separation, and suggest that the efficiency for charge separation may be improved by destabilizing donor-to-donor CT states or decoupling them from other states.

  11. Superior Survival Using Living Donors and Donor-Recipient Matching Using a Novel Living Donor Risk Index

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, David S.; French, Benjamin; Abt, Peter L; Olthoff, Kim; Shaked, Abraham

    2014-01-01

    The deceased-donor organ supply in the U.S. has not been able to keep pace with the increasing demand for liver transplantation. We examined national OPTN/UNOS data from 2002–2012 to assess whether LDLT has surpassed deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) as a superior method of transplantation, and used donor and recipient characteristics to develop a risk score to optimize donor and recipient selection for LDLT. From 2002–2012, there were 2,103 LDLTs and 46,674 DDLTs that met the inclusion criteria. The unadjusted 3-year graft survival for DDLTs was 75.5% (95% CI: 75.1–76.0%) compared with 78.9% (95% CI: 76.9–80.8%; p<0.001) for LDLTs that were performed at experienced centers (>15 LDLTs), with substantial improvement in LDLT graft survival over time. In multivariable models, LDLT recipients transplanted at experienced centers with either autoimmune hepatitis or cholestatic liver disease had significantly lower risks of graft failure (HR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.37–0.84 and HR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.63–0.92, respectively). An LDLT risk score that included both donor and recipient variables facilitated stratification of LDLT recipients into high, intermediate, and low-risk groups, with predicted 3-year graft survival ranging from >87% in the lowest risk group to <74% in the highest risk group. Current post-transplant outcomes for LDLT are equivalent, if not superior to DDLT when performed at experienced centers. An LDLT risk score can be used to optimize LDLT outcomes and provides objective selection criteria for donor selection in LDLT. PMID:25042283

  12. Effect of donor variables on yield in single donor plateletpheresis by continuous flow cell separator.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Rajendra; Das, Sudipta Sekhar; Khetan, Dheeraj; Sinha, Pratul

    2006-04-01

    The quality of single donor platelets (SDPs) in terms of yield influences platelet recovery in the recipient. Various donor factors such as pre-donation platelet count and hemoglobin (Hb) concentration affect the platelet yield. We studied the influence of pre-donation donor clinical and laboratory factors such as gender, age, weight of the donor, platelet count and Hb on the platelet yield. A total of 94 plateletpheresis procedures performed on continuous flow cell separator (CS3000, Baxter Healthcare, Round Lake, IL, USA) were evaluated for platelet yield. A relationship between pre-donation donor variables and yield of platelets was studied using the Pearson correlation. The mean platelet yield was 2.8+/-0.73x10(11). While a direct relationship was observed between pre-donation platelet count and yield (r=0.50, p<0.001), no such correlation was noticed with donor Hb concentration (r=-0.10, p>0.005). Similarly, no correlation was observed between gender (r=0.05), age (r=0.11) and weight (r=0.18) of the donor with yield. Optimization of platelet yield, which is influenced by pre-donation platelet count, is an emerging issue in blood transfusion services. Identification of such factors may help in selecting donors to obtain higher platelet yields and consequently better clinical outcome.

  13. Access to information about donors by donor-conceived individuals: a human rights analysis.

    PubMed

    Allan, Sonia

    2013-03-01

    While assisted reproductive treatment using donated gametes is widespread, and in many places, widely accepted, it has historically been shrouded in secrecy. Over time, however, there has been an increasing call from donor-conceived people, recipient parents and some donors to end the secrecy, and to release identifying information about donors to donor-conceived people. "Rights-based" arguments have at times been used to justify this call. This article examines whether a human rights framework supports the release of information and how such a framework might be applied when there are competing rights. It argues that the current balancing approach used to resolve such issues weighs in favour of release. Legal action has the potential to be legitimate and justifiable. A measure such as a contact veto system, which would serve to prevent unwanted contact with the person lodging the veto (either the donor or the donor-conceived person), would ensure proportionality. In this way, both donor-conceived people's rights to private life, identity and family, and donors' rights to privacy may be recognised and balanced.

  14. Psychosocial data of potential living donors before living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marc; Bronner, Ekkehard; Steinmüller, Thomas; Klapp, Burghard F; Danzer, Gerhard

    2002-02-01

    In view of the scarcity of organ resources for transplantation, donation by living donors is assuming greater significance now that the technical-surgical problems involved have been solved. In the period between December 1999 and December 2000, 47 potential living liver donors were evaluated and a total of 27 hepatic lobes were transplanted at the Virchow-Klinikum of the Charité Hospital in Berlin. The close personal relationships between recipients and donors gives reason to anticipate high levels of psychosocial pressure during the pre-operative evaluation process; this process consists in part in looking into donor motivation, ambivalence and anxiety. The pre-operative psychometric evaluation of 40 potential living donors indicated that most of the potential donors see themselves as 'super-healthy' and tend to adapt to social expectations, while on the other hand those seven potential living donors not accepted for psychosocial reasons were marked by heightened values for anxious depression and pessimism. The results indicate in most cases a great willingness to donate and on the other hand a high level of obvious psychological pressure for a low number of potential donors. For the latter, both the clinical evaluation interview and the psychometric diagnostics used revealed clear-cut feelings of anxiety and ambivalence towards transplantation.

  15. Donor-substituted phosphanes - surprisingly weak Lewis donors for phosphenium cation stabilisation.

    PubMed

    Clark, Ewan R; Borys, Andryj M; Pearce, Kyle

    2016-10-18

    Paradoxically, N- and O-donor substituted tri-arylphosphanes are shown to be weaker donors than PPh3 when binding the soft Lewis acid moiety [PPh2](+). This arises from internal solvation and rehybridisation at phosphorus, precluding chelation and increasing steric demand, in direct contrast to coordination modes observed for metal complexes.

  16. The Effect of Donor Age on Corneal Transplantation Outcome: Results of the Cornea Donor Study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine whether graft survival over a 5-year follow-up period using corneal tissue from donors older than 65 years of age is similar to graft survival using corneas from younger donors. Design Multi-center prospective, double-masked, controlled clinical trial Participants 1090 subjects undergoing corneal transplantation for a moderate risk condition (principally Fuchs’ dystrophy or pseudophakic corneal edema); 11 subjects with ineligible diagnoses were not included Methods 43 participating eye banks provided corneas from donors in the age range of 12 to 75 with endothelial cell densities of 2300 to 3300 cells/mm2, using a random approach without respect to recipient factors. The 105 participating surgeons at 80 sites were masked to information about the donor cornea including donor age. Surgery and post-operative care were performed according to the surgeons’ usual routines. Subjects were followed for five years. Main Outcome Measures Graft failure, defined as a regraft or a cloudy cornea that was sufficiently opaque as to compromise vision for a minimum of three consecutive months. Results The 5-year cumulative probability of graft survival was 86% in both the <66.0 donor age group and the ≥66.0 donor age group (difference = 0%, upper limit of one-sided 95% confidence interval = 4%). In a statistical model with donor age as a continuous variable, there was not a significant relationship between donor age and outcome (P=0.11). Three graft failures were due to primary donor failure, 8 to uncorrectable refractive error, 48 to graft rejection, 46 to endothelial decompensation (23 of which had a prior, resolved episode of probable or definite graft rejection), and 30 to other causes. The distribution of the causes of graft failure did not differ between donor age groups. Conclusions Five-year graft survival for cornea transplants at moderate risk for failure is similar using corneas from donors ≥ 66.0 years and donors < 66.0 years. Surgeons and

  17. Impact of Donor Source on the Outcome of Live Donor Kidney Transplantation: A Single Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Matter, Yasser Elsayed; Nagib, Ayman M; Lotfy, Omar E; Alsayed, Ahmed Maher; Donia, Ahmed F; Refaie, Ayman F; Akl, Ahmed I; Abbas, Mohamed Hamed; Abuelmagd, Mohammed M; Shaeashaa, Hussein A; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal transplantation is the ideal method for management of end-stage renal disease. The use of living donors for renal transplantation was critical for early development in the field and preceded the use of cadaveric donors. Most donors are related genetically to the recipients, like a parent, a child, or a sibling of the recipient, but there are an increasing percentage of cases where donors are genetically unrelated like spouses, friends, or altruistic individuals. Donor shortages constitute the major barrier for kidney transplantation, and much effort has been made to increase the supply of living donors. The impact of donor source on the outcome of renal transplantation is not adequately studied in our country. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of donor source on the outcome of live donor kidney transplantation. Patients and Methods From March 1976 to December 2013, the number of patients that underwent living renal transplantation sharing at least one HLA haplotype with their donors was 2,485. We divided these patients into two groups: (1) 2,075 kidney transplant recipients (1,554 or 74.9% male and 521 or 25.1% female) for whom the donors were living related, (2) 410 kidney transplant recipients (297 or 72.4% male and 113 or 27.6% female) for whom the donors were living unrelated. All patients received immunosuppressive therapy, consisting of a calcineurin inhibitor, mycophenolate mofetil, or azathioprine and prednisolone. We compared acute rejection and complication rates, as well as long-term graft and patient survival of both groups. Demographic characteristics were compared using the chi-square test. Graft survival and patient survival were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The percentages of patients with acute vascular rejection were significantly higher in the unrelated group, while percentages of patients with no rejection were significantly higher in the related group, but there were no significant

  18. Ex-vivo partial nephrectomy after living donor nephrectomy: Surgical technique for expanding kidney donor pool

    PubMed Central

    Nyame, Yaw A.; Babbar, Paurush; Aboumohamed, Ahmed A.; Mori, Ryan L.; Flechner, Stuart M.; Modlin, Charles S.

    2017-01-01

    Renal transplantation has profound improvements in mortality, morbidity, and overall quality of life compared to renal replacement therapy. This report aims to illustrate the use of ex-vivo partial nephrectomy in a patient with a renal angiomyolipoma prior to living donor transplantation. The surgical outcomes of the donor nephrectomy and recipient transplantation are reported with 2 years of follow-up. Both the donor and recipient are healthy and without any significant comorbidities. In conclusion, urologic techniques such as partial nephrectomy can be used to expand the living donor pool in carefully selected and well informed transplant recipients. Our experience demonstrated a safe and positive outcome for both the recipient and donor, and is consistent with other reported outcomes in the literature. PMID:28216945

  19. Breast cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Mammogram - breast cancer screening; Breast exam - breast cancer screening; MRI - breast cancer screening ... performed to screen women to detect early breast cancer when it is more likely to be cured. ...

  20. Cross-infection of solid organ transplant recipients by a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase, likely derived from a multiorgan donor.

    PubMed

    Giani, Tommaso; Conte, Viola; Mandalà, Salvatore; D'Andrea, Marco Maria; Luzzaro, Francesco; Conaldi, Pier Giulio; Grossi, Paolo; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2014-07-01

    We describe two cases of bacteremic infections caused by a multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate producing the OXA-48 carbapenemase that occurred in two solid organ transplant (liver and kidney) recipients, which was apparently transmitted with the allografts. This finding underscores the risk of donor-derived infections by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens in solid organ transplant recipients and emphasizes the need for rapid screening of organ donors for carriage of similar pathogens.

  1. Prevalence of abdominal aortic calcifications in older living renal donors and its effect on graft function and histology.

    PubMed

    Wu, En-Haw; Wojciechowski, David; Chandran, Sindhu; Yeh, Benjamin M; Park, Meyeon; Westphalen, Antonio; Wang, Zhen J

    2015-10-01

    We assessed the prevalence of abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) in older living kidney donors and its effect on recipient eGFR and graft histology. A total of 292 consecutive living pairs with donor age ≥50 from 2003 to 2013 were identified (mean age 56; range 50-78; F/M: 1.8). Donor AAC was determined by prenephrectomy unenhanced CT. Recipient eGFR and spot urine protein: creatinine ratios (UPCRs) were recorded. A total of 180 recipients had 6-month protocol biopsies. AAC was present in 40.7% of donors, and they were older (58.6 versus 54.7 years old, P < 0.0001) and more likely to be male (77.6% vs. 37.3%, P = 0.004). There was no significant difference in eGFR or spot UPCR up to 36 months in recipients of allografts from donors with versus without AAC. At 6-month biopsy, there was a higher percentage of allografts with vascular fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyaline thickening from donors with versus without AAC (vascular fibrous intimal thickening: 38.8% vs. 7.1% and arteriolar hyaline thickening: 35.8% vs. 7.1%; P < 0.001 for both). The presence of donor AAC predicts the presence of vascular disease [vascular fibrous intimal thickening (OR: 7.2; CI:2.9-17.9) and arteriolar hyaline thickening (OR:5.7; CI:2.3-14.1)] in allografts at 6 months. Donor AAC is predictive of renal vascular disease and may help to improve the screening of potential donors and inform post-transplant management.

  2. Seroprevalence and trends in transfusion transmitted infections among blood donors in a university hospital blood bank: a 5 year study.

    PubMed

    Pallavi, P; Ganesh, C K; Jayashree, K; Manjunath, G V

    2011-03-01

    Blood is life. Transfusion of blood and blood components, as a specialized modality of patient management saves millions of lives worldwide each year and reduce morbidity. It is well known that blood transfusion is associated with a large number of complications, some are only trivial and others are potentially life threatening, demanding for meticulous pretransfusion testing and screening particularly for transfusion transmissible infections (TTI). These TTI are a threat to blood safety. The priority objective of BTS is thus to ensure safety, adequacy, accessibility and efficiency of blood supply at all levels. The objective of the present study was to assess the prevalence and trend of transfusion transmitted infections (TTI) among voluntary and replacement donors in the Department of Blood bank and transfusion Medicine of JSS College Hospital, a teaching hospital of Mysore during the period from 2004 to 2008. A retrospective review of donors record covering the period between 2004 and 2008 at the blood bank, JSS Hospital, Mysore was carried out. All samples were screened for HIV, HBsAg, HCV, syphilis and malaria. Of the 39,060, 25,303 (64.78%) were voluntary donors and the remaining 13,757 (35.22%) were replacement donors. The overall prevalence of HIV, HbsAg, HCV and syphilis were 0.44, 1.27, 0.23 and 0.28%, respectively. No blood donor tested showed positivity for malarial parasite. Majority were voluntary donors with male preponderance. In all the markers tested there was increased prevalence of TTI among the replacement donors as compared to voluntary donors. With the implementation of strict donor criteria and use of sensitive screening tests, it may be possible to reduce the incidence of TTI in the Indian scenario.

  3. Detection of Hepatitis E Virus Genotype 1 Among Blood Donors From Southwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Rahil; Adibzadeh, Setare; Behzad Behbahani, Abbas; Farhadi, Ali; Yaghobi, Ramin; Rafiei Dehbidi, Gholam Reza; Hajizamani, Saeideh; Rahbar, Sanaz; Nikouyan, Negin; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Naderi, Samaneh; Salehi, Saeede; Alizadeh, Marzieh; Ranjbaran, Reza; Zarnegar, Golnoosh; Alavi, Parnian

    2016-01-01

    Background Infection with hepatitis E virus (HEV) is endemic in developing countries and reveals significant regional differences. Several studies have reported virus transmission via blood transfusion. To date, however, no cases of HEV RNA detection in blood donors have been reported from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the presence of HEV RNA in plasma samples of blood donors referred to a blood transfusion center in Shiraz in the southwest of Iran. The HEV genotypes were also investigated using nucleotide sequencing. Patients and Methods Blood samples were collected from 700 blood donors who were referred to Fars blood transfusion organization from January to March 2014. Plasma samples were screened for the presence of HEV IgG and IgM antibodies by standard enzyme immunoassay. Samples seroreactive to anti-HEV were further tested for the presence of HEV RNA using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primers for detection of all four HEV genotypes. Positive PCR samples were then subjected to DNA sequencing for further analysis. Results Fifty (50, 7.1%) out of 700 plasma samples tested positive for anti-HEV antibodies. HEV RNA was detected in 7/50 (12%) of the antibody-positive samples, the majority of which were IgM positive. Sequence analysis of seven isolates of the HEV RNA ORF 2 gene region revealed > 80% similarity with genotype 1. Conclusions The analysis indicates that the HEV isolated from blood donors in the southwest of Iran belongs to genotype 1. However, more samples from other geographic regions of Iran are needed to confirm these findings. Because transmission of HEV by administration of blood or blood components is likely to occur, it may be sensible to screen donor blood for HEV to eliminate transfusion-transmitted HEV infection when the recipient is immunocompromised. PMID:27630719

  4. Screening effects and Friedel oscillations in quantum-well nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, V. M.; Chaplik, A. V.

    2008-11-15

    The screening of the Coulomb interaction is studied with regard to Friedel oscillations in multicomponent electron plasma structure. A double quantum well (QW) and a superlattice are considered. The groundstate energy of a donor (exciton) in a double quantum well is calculated by a variational method as a function of the population of subbands.

  5. Large-scale screening by the automated Wassermann reaction

    PubMed Central

    Wagstaff, W.; Firth, R.; Booth, J. R.; Bowley, C. C.

    1969-01-01

    In view of the drawbacks in the use of the Kahn test for large-scale screening of blood donors, mainly those of human error through work overload and fatiguability, an attempt was made to adapt an existing automated complement-fixation technique for this purpose. This paper reports the successful results of that adaptation. PMID:5776559

  6. Liver regeneration after living donor transplantation: adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation cohort study.

    PubMed

    Olthoff, Kim M; Emond, Jean C; Shearon, Tempie H; Everson, Greg; Baker, Talia B; Fisher, Robert A; Freise, Chris E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Everhart, James E

    2015-01-01

    Adult-to-adult living donors and recipients were studied to characterize patterns of liver growth and identify associated factors in a multicenter study. Three hundred and fifty donors and 353 recipients in the Adult-to-Adult Living Donor Liver Transplantation Cohort Study (A2ALL) receiving transplants between March 2003 and February 2010 were included. Potential predictors of 3-month liver volume included total and standard liver volumes (TLV and SLV), Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (in recipients), the remnant and graft size, remnant-to-donor and graft-to-recipient weight ratios (RDWR and GRWR), remnant/TLV, and graft/SLV. Among donors, 3-month absolute growth was 676 ± 251 g (mean ± SD), and percentage reconstitution was 80% ± 13%. Among recipients, GRWR was 1.3% ± 0.4% (8 < 0.8%). Graft weight was 60% ± 13% of SLV. Three-month absolute growth was 549 ± 267 g, and percentage reconstitution was 93% ± 18%. Predictors of greater 3-month liver volume included larger patient size (donors and recipients), larger graft volume (recipients), and larger TLV (donors). Donors with the smallest remnant/TLV ratios had larger than expected growth but also had higher postoperative bilirubin and international normalized ratio at 7 and 30 days. In a combined donor-recipient analysis, donors had smaller 3-month liver volumes than recipients adjusted for patient size, remnant or graft volume, and TLV or SLV (P = 0.004). Recipient graft failure in the first 90 days was predicted by poor graft function at day 7 (HR = 4.50, P = 0.001) but not by GRWR or graft fraction (P > 0.90 for each). Both donors and recipients had rapid yet incomplete restoration of tissue mass in the first 3 months, and this confirmed previous reports. Recipients achieved a greater percentage of expected total volume. Patient size and recipient graft volume significantly influenced 3-month volumes. Importantly, donor liver volume is a

  7. Risks for donors in uterus transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kisu, Iori; Mihara, Makoto; Banno, Kouji; Umene, Kiyoko; Araki, Jun; Hara, Hisako; Suganuma, Nobuhiko; Aoki, Daisuke

    2013-12-01

    Uterus transplantation (UTx) is an alternative to gestational surrogacy and adoption for patients with absolute uterine infertility. Studies have been conducted in animals, and UTx is now within the reach of clinical application in humans. Procedures in humans have been published, but many medical, ethical, and social problems and risks of UTx require discussion prior to widespread clinical application, from the perspectives of donors, recipients, families, and newborns. In this article, we summarize the burdens and risks of UTx, with a focus on donors who provide the uterus.

  8. Donor-related issues in hand transplantation.

    PubMed

    McDiarmid, Sue V; Azari, Kodi K

    2011-11-01

    The policies and procedures for solid-organ donation, under the auspices of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, currently cannot be applied to hand donation, because a hand allograft is considered a tissue in the United States and is under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. Hand transplant centers have developed their own protocols. This article discusses the unique elements of such protocols, including training and education, the consent process, the necessary recipient and donor data, donor management, and operating room procedures. Candidate listing, allocation, and oversight of hand donation in the future are also discussed.

  9. Post-transfusion hepatitis. Sudden drop of its incidence associated with hyperbilirubinemic donors disqualification.

    PubMed

    Pintera, J; Krácmar, C; Pinterová, A

    1986-01-01

    The lacking impact of various precautions on the incidence of post-transfusion hepatitis (PTH) in the last 15 years is presented. In 1984, however, PTH dropped from 0.12 to 0.04%. This PTH drop did not coincide with the disqualification of HBsAg carriers, nor with that of high ALT, nor with the introduction of complete voluntary donorship in 1982, but with the systematic exclusion of hyperbilirubinemic donors. Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were found in 28.9% of PTH compromised donors, and CIC are therefore supposed to be a marker of PTH risk even if HBsAg was not demonstrable. Re-examining donors compromised in 120 PTH found 12.4% HBsAg carriers who had not been detected by CIEP prior to the transfusions. Accumulation of more than one HBsAg positive transfusion in 56.5% of the PTH patients suggests a cumulative effect. The inability of specific tests to identify sources of infection in 50% of PTH suggests that doubts must be raised as to their post-transfusional origin. This thesis is also supported by the relative increase of this group after the considerable drop of PTH. The importance of viral sources non-B and B undetectable by sensitive specific methods must be emphasized. The latter is in accordance with the observed PTH drop due to a non-specific marker effect. The bilirubin level screening in each donor before stored blood collection is recommended by means of the described extended AST screening test and, besides HBsAg screening, this is supposed to be the most effective precaution for preventing PTH.

  10. Comparison of hepatitis B, core, HBc, and hepatitis B antibody, anti HBs, in a presumed low risk donor population.

    PubMed

    Heck, Ellen; Cavanagh, H Dwight

    2014-09-01

    Donors screened by medical social history interview negative for high risk behavior or communicable disease history, but subsequently exhibiting reactive serological markers, emphasize importance of duel safe guarding factors for determining donor suitability. This report examines a relationship between two immunoabsorption assay tests, hepatitis B core (HBc) antibody, a required food and drug administration (FDA) test, and hepatitis B antibody (anti HBs), non-required test. Reactive serology results, 129 cases, 3,581 donors (2008-2012) for HBc as the only initially positive serological marker were subjected to anti HBs testing in this history pre-screened donor population. Enzyme linked immunoabsorption assay kits hepatitis B, core and antibody, were used in this study. All samples were initially tested for human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, utilizing nucleic acid testing and antigen antibody immunoabsorption assay. Testing was performed by a FDA-registered CLEA-certified reference laboratory. Samples were deceased donor blood samples and a limited number of pre-mortem samples, separated, stored and analyzed according to manufacturer recommendation and FDA regulations. 129 reactive HBc only samples, were subsequently tested for anti HBs. Of these 129, 94 were found to be reactive for anti HBs. This represented 72 % of samples tested for antibody, a higher percentage than anticipated for a medical history negative, low risk population.

  11. Genomic detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by nucleic acid amplification test in a frequent platelet donor during the pre-seroconversion period.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2011-11-01

    Since serological donor-screening tests for HIV were introduced in 1985, the safety of donated blood components has improved dramatically. However, these tests do not completely prevent the risk of transfusion-associated HIV infection related to the use of blood donated during the pre-seroconversion window period. Testing based on nucleic acid amplification is being implemented to screen for HIV-infected blood donated during this period, which has reduced the probability of transmitting HIV through transfusion by shortening the window period. This article describes a case of acute HIV-1 infection, detected using a nucleic acid amplification test (NAT) in a repeat blood donor who donated during the pre-seroconversion window period and whose antigen and anti-HIV antibody expression was observed after molecular marker detection. In addition, the possible route of infection is discussed based on the patient's history, and finally, the need for NAT technology for blood donor screening is emphasized.

  12. Related hematopoietic cell donor care: is there a role for unrelated donor registries?

    PubMed

    Anthias, C; van Walraven, S M; Sørensen, B S; de Faveri, G N; Fechter, M; Cornish, J; Bacigalupo, A; Müller, C; Boo, M; Shaw, B E

    2015-05-01

    In almost half of allogeneic hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) transplants, a related donor (RD) is used, yet a lack of standardized guidelines means that their care is heterogeneous. Changes to regulatory standards aim to improve uniformity, but adherence to these regulations can prove logistically difficult for the transplant centers (TCs) managing RDs. Discussion has ensued around possible alternative models of related donor care and a session at the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) annual meeting in 2013 debated the question of whether a role exists for unrelated donor registries in the management of 'related' donors. In this overview, we discuss the issues raised at this debate and the pros and cons of donor registry involvement in various aspects of RD management. By examining existing models of related donor care that have been adopted by members of the World Marrow Donor Association (WMDA), we look for ways to enhance and homogenize RD care, while also enabling transplant centers to meet standards required for mandatory accreditation.

  13. ALTERNATIVE DONORS EXTEND TRANSPLANTATION FOR PATIENTS WITH LYMPHOMA WHO LACK AN HLA MATCHED DONOR

    PubMed Central

    Bachanova, Veronika; Burns, Linda J.; Wang, Tao; Carreras, Jeanette; Gale, Robert Peter; Wiernik, Peter H.; Ballen, Karen K.; Wirk, Baldeep; Munker, Reinhold; Rizzieri, David A.; Chen, Yi-Bin; Gibson, John; Akpek, Görgün; Costa, Luciano J.; Kamble, Rammurti T.; Aljurf, Mahmoud D.; Hsu, Jack W.; Cairo, Mitchell S.; Schouten, Harry C.; Bacher, Ulrike; Savani, Bipin N.; Wingard, John R.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Laport, Ginna G.; Montoto, Silvia; Maloney, David G.; Smith, Sonali M.; Brunstein, Claudio; Saber, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Alternative donor transplantation is increasingly used for high risk lymphoma patients. We analyzed 1593 transplant recipients (2000 to 2010) and compared transplant outcomes in recipients of 8/8 allele human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A, -B, -C, and DRB1 matched unrelated donors (MUD; n=1176), 7/8 allele HLA-matched unrelated donors (MMUD; n=275) and umbilical cord blood donors (1 or 2 units UCB; n=142). Adjusted 3-year non-relapse mortality of MMUD (44%) was higher as compared to MUD (35%; p=0.004), but similar to UCB recipients (37%; p=0.19), although UCB had lower rates of neutrophil and platelet recovery compared to unrelated donor groups. With a median follow-up of 55 months, 3-year adjusted cumulative incidence of relapse was lower after MMUD compared with MUD (25% vs 33%, p=0.003) but similar between UCB and MUD (30% vs 33%; p=0.48). In multivariate analysis UCB recipients had lower risks of acute and chronic graft versus host disease compared with adult donor groups (UCB vs MUD: HR=0.68, p=0.05; HR=0.35; p<0.001). Adjusted 3-year overall survival was comparable (43% MUD, 37% MMUD and 41% UCB). Data highlight that patients with lymphoma have acceptable survival after alternative donor transplantation. MMUD and UCB can expand the curative potential of allotransplant to patients who lack suitable HLA-matched sibling or MUD. PMID:25402415

  14. Tissue banking: relationship with blood donor and organ donor card status.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Kenneth D; Fitzpatrick, Patricia E; Sheehan, John D

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the relationships among altruistic health acts may serve to aid therapeutic research advances. In this paper, we report on the links between two such behaviours-donating blood and carrying an organ donor card-and willingness to donate urological tissue to a tissue bank. Reasons for the differential willingness to do so are examined in this paper. A systematic sample of 259 new and returning attendees at a tertiary urology referral clinic in Ireland completed a self-report questionnaire in an outpatient setting. In addition to demographic details, details of known diagnosis of malignancy and family history of cancer; attitudes to tissue donation for research purposes were gauged using a 5-point Likert scale. Both blood donors and organ donor card carriers were more likely to be willing to donate tissue for research purposes. Blood donors were more likely want to know their overall results in comparison to nonblood donors and want their samples to be used for nonprofit research. Our hypothesis that being a blood donor would be a better predictor to donate urological tissue than being an organ donor card carrier borne out by the trends reported above.

  15. Donor Hemodynamics as a Predictor of Outcomes After Kidney Transplantation From Donors After Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Allen, M B; Billig, E; Reese, P P; Shults, J; Hasz, R; West, S; Abt, P L

    2016-01-01

    Donation after cardiac death is an important source of transplantable organs, but evidence suggests donor warm ischemia contributes to inferior outcomes. Attempts to predict recipient outcome using donor hemodynamic measurements have not yielded statistically significant results. We evaluated novel measures of donor hemodynamics as predictors of delayed graft function and graft failure in a cohort of 1050 kidneys from 566 donors. Hemodynamics were described using regression line slopes, areas under the curve, and time beyond thresholds for systolic blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure). A logistic generalized estimation equation model showed that area under the curve for systolic blood pressure was predictive of delayed graft function (above median: odds ratio 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-1.90). Multivariable Cox regression demonstrated that slope of oxygen saturation during the first 10 minutes after extubation was associated with graft failure (below median: hazard ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.03-1.64), with 5-year graft survival of 70.0% (95%CI 64.5%-74.8%) for donors above the median versus 61.4% (95%CI 55.5%-66.7%) for those below the median. Among older donors, increased shock index slope was associated with increased hazard of graft failure. Validation of these findings is necessary to determine the utility of characterizing donor warm ischemia to predict recipient outcome.

  16. [Prevalence for seropositivity for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Rivera-López, María Rebeca F; Zavala-Méndez, Celia; Arenas-Esqueda, Alfonso

    2004-01-01

    Despite utilizing different actions to render blood safe for transfusions, we continue to have the risk of transmitting some viral infections. For this reason, it is important to determine prevalence of infections due to HIV and hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses in blood donors. Previous studies from Mexico indicate that HIV prevalence is 0.01 to 0.13%, while it is 0.11 to 1.22% for hepatitis B, and for hepatitis C, prevalence is 0.47 to 1.47%. We are checking the results of the screening tests (ELISA 3rd generation and chemiluminescent immunoassays) from blood donors studied at the Central Blood Bank (Banco Central de Sangre) at the Mexican Institute of Social Security's (IMSS) Twentieth First Century National Medical Center in Mexico City from 1995 to 2002. Reactive results were studied by confirmatory tests, Western Blot for HIV, AgHBs neutralization test for hepatitis B, and RIBA-HCV3.0 for hepatitis C. Reactive results from 513,062 blood donors confirmed for HV were 0.07%, reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis B from 511,733 blood donors were 0.13%, and reactive results and confirmation of hepatitis C from 511,115 blood donors were 0.31%. Rates obtained are low when compared with results of previous studies in Mexico for HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. It may be possible than these low rates indicate the positive impact obtained from preventive actions, better strategies of detection of blood donors with high risk, and the advantage of working with a fully automated test system with state-of-the-art technology.

  17. Debye screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydges, David C.; Federbush, Paul

    1980-10-01

    The existence and exponential clustering of correlation functions for a classical coulomb system at low density or high temperature are proven using methods from constructive quantum field theory, the sine gordon transformation and the Glimm, Jaffe, Spencer expansion about mean field theory. This is a vindication of a belief of long standing among physicists, known as Debye screening. That is, because of special properties of the coulomb potential, the configurations of significant probability are those in which the long range parts of r -1 are mostly cancelled, leaving an effective exponentially decaying potential acting between charge clouds. This paper generalizes a previous paper of one of the authors in which these results were obtained for a special lattice system. The present treatment covers the continuous mechanics situation, with essentially arbitrary short range forces and charge species. Charge symmetry is not assumed.

  18. Compliance with donor age recommendations in oocyte donor recruitment advertisements in the USA.

    PubMed

    Alberta, Hillary B; Berry, Roberta M; Levine, Aaron D

    2013-04-01

    IVF using donated oocytes offers benefits to many infertile patients, yet the technique also raises a number of ethical concerns, including worries about potential physical and psychological risks to oocyte donors. In the USA, oversight of oocyte donation consists of a combination of federal and state regulations and self-regulatory guidelines promulgated by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. This study assesses compliance with one of these self-regulatory guidelines - specifically, ASRM's preferred minimum age for donors of 21. To assess compliance, 539 oocyte donor recruitment advertisements from two recruitment channels (Craigslist and college newspapers) were collected and evaluated. Of these, 61% in the Craigslist dataset and 43% in the college newspaper dataset listed minimum ages between 18 and 20, which is inconsistent with ASRM's preferred minimum age recommendation of 21. Advertisements placed by oocyte donor recruitment agencies were more likely than advertisements placed by clinics to specify minimum ages between 18 and 20. These results indicate that ASRM should evaluate and consider revising its donor age guidelines. IVF using donated human eggs can help many patients who have difficulty having children. However, the technique also raises ethical concerns, including concerns about potential physical and psychological harms to egg donors. In the USA, oversight of egg donation relies on a combination of federal and state regulation and professional self-regulation. Governmental regulations address only limited aspects of egg donation, such as the potential spread of infectious diseases and the reporting of success rates, leaving voluntary guidelines developed by an association of medical professionals to address most issues, including ethical concerns raised by the practice. One of these voluntary guidelines recommends that egg donors should be at least 21 years of age. In this article, we analysed 539 egg donor recruitment advertisements

  19. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    PubMed

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies.

  20. Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-08-16

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Electron Donor Acceptor Interactions was held at Salve Regina University, Newport, Rhode Island, 8/11-16/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  1. Enzymatic Production of Universal Donor Erythrocytes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    strong activities of extracellular glycosidases that convert blood type A or B erythrocytes to universal donor blood type O erythrocytes; 2) to purify the... blood type B-degrading enzyme produced by a fecal strain of Ruminococcus AB; 3) to determine whether human type B red cells could be safety converted

  2. A Mobilization Guide for Blood Donor Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    PLATELETS ISOLATED FROM UNITS OF WHOLE BLOOD OR FROM DONORS BY APHERESIS PROCEDURES; FROZEN WITH 6% DMSO AND STORED AT -80 C; AND WASHED WITH SODIUM...8 Meal Pass .............................................. 8 Record of Donation ..................................... 9 UNIT PROCESSING...19 Cryoprecipitate ...................................... 20 Frozen Platelet Concentrates ........................ 20 Frozen Red Cells

  3. GFR Evaluation in Living Kidney Donor Candidates.

    PubMed

    Levey, Andrew S; Inker, Lesley A

    2017-04-01

    Evaluation of GFR, required in the evaluation of living kidney donor candidates, is now receiving increasing emphasis because recent data demonstrate increased risk of kidney disease after donation, including a small increase in the risk of kidney failure. The international guideline development group, Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes, recently published a comprehensive set of recommendations for living donor evaluation, with three recommendations regarding GFR. (1) Donor candidacy is evaluated in light of long-term risk, in which GFR is one of many factors. ESRD is considered a central outcome, and a method for estimating long-term risk of ESRD in donor candidates is described. (2) Two GFR thresholds are used for decision-making: a high threshold (≥90 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) to accept and a low threshold (<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) to decline, with 60-89 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) as an intermediate range in which the decision to accept or decline is made on the basis of factors in addition to GFR. (3) GFR is evaluated using several methods available at the transplant center, including estimating equations and clearance measurements. We review the rationale for the guideline recommendations, principles of GFR measurement and estimation, and our suggestions for implementation.

  4. Selection against genetic defects in semen donors.

    PubMed

    Smith, P E

    1984-08-01

    Artificial insemination donor selection requires predicting which men are likely to beget the healthiest offspring. Methods are developed for calculating the "offspring excess recurrence risk", delta R, for an anomaly in the offspring of an afflicted father. Mainly from published family survey and population data delta R is computed for 38 disorders. From a small survey a value for the with-treatment "affliction burden", Bt, is assigned to each anomaly. For each disorder the "offspring excess burden expectation" is delta RBt. Defects such as cataract, hereditary Parkinson disease, psoriasis, seropositive rheumatoid arthritis, and schizophrenia have such a high delta RBt that they are individually sufficient cause for rejecting a donor candidate. A candidate may be rejected because of a combination of lesser defects with sigma delta RBt exceeding an acceptable limit. A limit should also be placed on Bt, because the affliction burden for Tay-Sachs disease or cystic fibrosis is intolerable, however infrequent. Most of the important hereditary defects are late onset, and for the older donor the opportunity to select more directly against late-onset disorders offsets the added risk of newly-arising gene mutations. The most careful donor selection cannot completely eliminate the risk of a child inheriting some disorder, but selection can reduce the average total burden by as much as 17%.

  5. Hydrogen-donor coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Jr., Edward L.; Mitchell, Willard N.

    1980-01-01

    Improved liquid yields are obtained during the hydrogen-donor solvent liquefaction of coal and similar carbonaceous solids by maintaining a higher concentration of material having hydrogenation catalytic activity in the downstream section of the liquefaction reactor system than in the upstream section of the system.

  6. [Presence of Australia antigen in blood donors].

    PubMed

    Gota, F

    1980-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of type A and B viral hepatitis is discussed and guidelines for the prevention of post-transfusional hospital hepatitis are proposed. Methods for the immunological demonstration of HBs antigen are illustrated, together with the respective positivity percentages in blood donors.

  7. Criteria for selecting organ donors and recipients.

    PubMed

    Michielsen, P

    1990-11-01

    As there is a world-wide shortage of organs for transplantation, the selection of the patients is more defined by the availability of transplantable organs than by the medical condition of the potential recipient. This shortage of cadaveric organs is mainly responsible for the use of living donors. With HLA identical sibling donors the results are better than with cadaveric organs, but the ethical problems are usually underestimated. For the parent-to-child donation, the HLA compatibility is less than what could be achieved with well-matched cadaveric donors. The use of genetically unrelated donors is unacceptable from the ethical as well as from the medical point of view. The short- and long-term risk of donation has been insufficiently documented. The experience with the introduction of an opting-out legislation in Belgium in 1987 demonstrates that the shortage of cadaveric organs can be overcome. Harmonization of the legislation is, however, necessary so as to achieve comparable organ retrieval rates between countries participating in organ-exchange organisations.

  8. Electrostatically defined silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. Luhman, D. R.; Lilly, M. P.; Pacheco, J. L.; Perry, D.; Garratt, E.; Ten Eyck, G.; Bishop, N. C.; Wendt, J. R.; Manginell, R. P.; Dominguez, J.; Pluym, T.; Bielejec, E.; Carroll, M. S.

    2016-02-08

    Deterministic control over the location and number of donors is crucial to donor spin quantum bits (qubits) in semiconductor based quantum computing. In this work, a focused ion beam is used to implant antimony donors in 100 nm × 150 nm windows straddling quantum dots. Ion detectors are integrated next to the quantum dots to sense the implants. The numbers of donors implanted can be counted to a precision of a single ion. In low-temperature transport measurements, regular Coulomb blockade is observed from the quantum dots. Charge offsets indicative of donor ionization are also observed in devices with counted donor implants.

  9. Serological Patterns and Molecular Characterization of Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection among Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Zhao, Hong; Tang, Xinyi; Hu, Wenjia; Jiang, Nizheng; Zhu, Shaowen; Huang, Chengyin

    2016-01-01

    Background Hepatitis B infections, characterized by the presence of a viral genome without detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg; Occult hepatitis B infection [OBI]), have been reported recently. Objectives We performed serological and molecular characterization of OBI among blood donors at Jiangsu province blood center during years 2013 and 2014. Methods All donor samples were routinely screened by double enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Treponema pallidum (TP), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Single-reactive, nonreactive, and ALT-elevated samples were pooled or resolved by nucleic acid testing (NAT). Seromarkers were examined in HBsAg-/DNA+ samples. After 1 to 12 months of follow up, seromarkers were screened again to verify OBI samples. Results We studied 157119 samples from blood donors. A total of 154397 ELISA nonreactive donor samples were identified, and HBV DNA was detected in 81 samples; no samples were positive for HIV or HCV RNA. Hepatitis B virus viral loads in most donors were less than 20 - 200 IU/mL. There was only one HBsAg-positive sample. Eighty HBsAg-/DNA+ samples were evaluated further. Of these samples, 85% (68/80) were reactive for anti-HBc and 36.2% (29/800) were reactive for anti-HBc and anti-HBs; 11.3% (9/80) did not have any detectable serological markers. Twenty-nine donors were followed up. One was HBsAg ELISA positive, and of six seronegative donors, all had anti-HBc and anti-HBs, but were negative for DNA. Samples were HBV genotypes B, C and D. Mutations in the S region of HBV DNA included S114T, G119R, P120S, T125M, C139Y, T140I, C147W, T148A, A159V/G, E164D, V168A, and R169C. Conclusions Overall, we found that OBI was rare, but that the prevalence of OBI was slightly higher in Jiangsu than in other areas of China. PMID:27882070

  10. Molecular fragil X screening in normal populations

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, W.C.; Black, S.H.; Fallon, L.

    1996-07-12

    In December, 1993, we initiated a pilot project in which DNA fragile X (fraX) testing was offered during routine prenatal or genetic counseling to all pregnant women seen at the Genetics & IVF Institute, most of whom were referred for the indication of advanced maternal age. A brochure on fragile X syndrome was sent to each patient prior to her appointment and was reviewed by a counselor or physician during the counseling session. As of June 1995, 3,345 patients were offered testing; 474 women with no identified family history of mental retardation or learning disability and 214 women with a positive family history accepted the test on a self-pay basis. The second population screened was 271 potential donors in our anonymous egg donor program. DNA from blood was tested by Southern blot using EcoRI/EagI and StB12.3. If an expansion was detected, CGG repeat number was determined by PCR-based analysis. Among the 474 patients with unremarkable family histories, three fraX carriers were identified (repeat sizes = 60+), whereas none were found in the 214 patients with a positive family history. Among the potential egg donors, two high borderline patients were identified (repeat sizes = between 50 and 59). Our ongoing study indicates that screening of pregnant or preconceptual populations for fraX carrier status using DNA testing is accepted by many patients and is an important addition to current medical practice. 12 refs., 1 tab.

  11. Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Morin-Zorman, Sarah; Loiseau, Pascale; Taupin, Jean-Luc; Caillat-Zucman, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) is a curative treatment for a wide variety of hematological diseases. In 30% of the cases, a geno-identical donor is available. Any other situation displays some level of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) incompatibility between donor and recipient. Deleterious effects of anti-HLA immunization have long been recognized in solid organ transplant recipients. More recently, anti-HLA immunization was shown to increase the risk of primary graft failure (PGF), a severe complication of AHSCT that occurs in 3–4% of matched unrelated donor transplantation and up to 15% in cord blood transplantation and T-cell depleted haplo-identical stem cell transplantation. Rates of PGF in patients with DSA were reported to be between 24 and 83% with the highest rates in haplo-identical and cord blood transplantation recipients. This led to the recommendation of anti-HLA antibody screening to detect donor-specific antibodies (DSA) in recipients prior to AHSCT. In this review, we highlight the role of anti-HLA antibodies in AHSCT and the mechanisms that may lead to PGF in patients with DSA, and discuss current issues in the field. PMID:27570526

  12. Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) in graft by blood donor antibodies against host leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Jodi; Tinckam, Kathryn; denHollander, Neal; Haroon, Ayesha; Keshavjee, Shaf; Cserti-Gazdewich, Christine M

    2010-09-01

    It is unknown the extent to which transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) contributes to primary graft dysfunction (PGD), the leading cause of death after lung transplantation. In this case of suspected transfusion-associated acute bilateral graft injury in a 61-year-old idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patient, recipient sera from before and after transplantation/transfusion, as well as the sera of 22 of the 24 implicated blood donors, were individually screened by Luminex bead assay for the presence of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies, with recipient and lung donor HLA typing to explore for cognate relationships. A red-cell-unit donor-source anti-Cw6 antibody, cognate with the HLA type of the recipient, was identified. This is the second reported case of TRALI in the setting of lung transplantation, and the first to show an associated interaction between donor antibodies (in a low-plasma volume product) with recipient leukocytes (rather than graft antigens); therefore, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis of PGD.

  13. Panchromatic donor-acceptor-donor conjugated oligomers for dye-sensitized solar cell applications.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Romain; Xie, Dongping; Islam, Ashraful; Han, Liyuan; Reynolds, John R; Schanze, Kirk S

    2014-06-11

    We report on a sexithienyl and two donor-acceptor-donor oligothiophenes, employing benzothiadiazole and isoindigo as electron-acceptors, each functionalized with a phosphonic acid group for anchoring onto TiO2 substrates as light-harvesting molecules for dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). These dyes absorb light to wavelengths as long as 700 nm, as their optical HOMO/LUMO energy gaps are reduced from 2.40 to 1.77 eV with increasing acceptor strength. The oligomers were adsorbed onto mesoporous TiO2 films on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO)/glass substrates and incorporated into DSSCs, which show AM1.5 power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) ranging between 2.6% and 6.4%. This work demonstrates that the donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) molecular structures coupled to phosphonic acid anchoring groups, which have not been used in DSSCs, can lead to high PCEs.

  14. 75 FR 58400 - Donor Management Research: Improvements in Clinical Management of Deceased Organ Donors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Director, Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health Resources and Services...: James Bowman, MD, Medical Director at Division of Transplantation, Healthcare Systems Bureau, Health... circulatory death donors, the CIOP Program has not focused on specific research issues. Since the inception...

  15. Achieving donor repetition and motivation by block leaders among current blood donors.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents an explicative model on the recommendation of donating blood made to relatives and friends by current donors. This model establishes satisfaction and intention to return as direct antecedents, and the quality perceived in the donation process and the existence of inhibitors as indirect antecedents. The results show that (1) the perceived quality has a positive influence on satisfaction and intention to return; (2) the intention to donate again depends positively on satisfaction, but negatively on the existence of internal and external inhibitors; and lastly (3) the recommendation to donate depends on donor satisfaction and their intention to return to donate, this being the most influential factor. At the same time, we contrasted how the model does not vary, whether it is a first-time donor or a repeat donor.

  16. Gendering gametes: The unequal contributions of sperm and egg donors.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Rosanna; Nelson, Margaret K; Kramer, Wendy

    2015-12-01

    This paper compares three groups of gestational mothers who relied on gametes from donors they did not know. The three groups are women who have conceived with donor sperm and their own eggs, women who have conceived with donor eggs and a partner's sperm, and women who have conceived with embryos composed of both donor eggs and donor sperm. The paper explores three issues. First, it considers whether intending parents select sperm and egg donors for different attributes both when they are chosen as the only donor and when they are chosen as donors contributing to an entire embryo. Second, it examines how women imagine the donor. Finally, it looks at how women conceptualize the donor as an individual who contributes to their child's characteristics. Two significant findings emerged in this analysis of survey data. First, the data show that gametes are gendered with different attributes both when those gametes are separate and even more so when seen as complementary parts of a whole. Second, the data show that women minimize the impact of the egg donor (both when a sole contribution and especially when part of the complementary whole) and thus ignore the influence or impact of the egg donor relative to how they make sense of the influence or impact of the sperm donor. The data for this study comes from an online survey developed by the authors.

  17. Donor-based single electron pumps with tunable donor binding energy.

    PubMed

    Lansbergen, G P; Ono, Y; Fujiwara, A

    2012-02-08

    We report on single electron pumping via a tunable number of individual donors. We use a device that essentially consists of a silicon nanowire with local arsenic implantation between a set of fine gates. A temperature-dependent characterization of the pumped current allows us to extract the ionization energy of a single arsenic donor. We observe the ionization energy to be tunable by the gate electric field over a large range of energies.

  18. Hyperammonemia in ornithine transcarbamylase-deficient recipients following living donor liver transplantation from heterozygous carrier donors.

    PubMed

    Rahayatri, Tri Hening; Uchida, Hajime; Sasaki, Kengo; Shigeta, Takanobu; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Mali, Vidyadhar; Fukuda, Akinari; Sakamoto, Seisuke; Kasahara, Mureo

    2017-02-01

    Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a urea cycle disorder of X-linked inheritance, affecting the detoxification of excess nitrogen and leading to hyperammonemia (hyper-NH3 ). Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has been applied for the treatment of OTCD. This case series retrospectively reviewed two OTCD patients who experienced hyper-NH3 following LDLT. The first case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 2 years of age. Ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) enzyme activity was 62% for the donor and 15% for the recipient. The patient suffered from recurrence of hyper-NH3 within 2 months following LDLT. The second case was a 5-year-old girl who had onset of OTCD at 3 years of age. OTC enzyme activity was 42.6% for the donor and 9.7% for the recipient. The patient suffered hyper-NH3 for 12 days starting on the date of surgery. Both of the patients transiently required continuous veno-venous hemodialysis; however, they are currently doing well without intensive medical treatment. The use of asymptomatic OTCD heterozygous donors in LDLT has been accepted with careful examination. However, an OTCD heterozygous carrier donor should be avoided if there is another donor candidate, due to the potentially fatal condition of hyper-NH3 following LDLT.

  19. Roller coaster marathon: being a live liver donor.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Charlotte C; Smolowitz, Janice

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the meaning of being a live liver donor. Six people between ages 27 and 53 years participated. A qualitative, in-depth, semistructured interview format was used to explore donors' thoughts and feelings about being an organ donor. Five themes were identified: (1) no turning back--how do I live without you? (2) roller coaster marathon, (3) donor network, (4) the scar, and (5) reflections--time to think. At the center of the experience was the donor's commitment to the recipient. Once donors began the process, they were determined to see it through. The process was complex, and donors received various levels of support from family, friends, health care professionals, and others. After donation, as donors recovered and were able to resume their usual daily responsibilities, they reflected on the impact of the experience and how it changed their view of life.

  20. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  1. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  2. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  3. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  4. National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry

    MedlinePlus

    ... National Marrow Donor Program and Be The Match Registry Past Issues / Summer 2011 Table of Contents Creating ... Donor Program (NMDP) and its Be The Match Registry are nonprofit organizations dedicated to creating an opportunity ...

  5. Living Kinship Trouble: Danish Sperm Donors' Narratives of Relatedness.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Danish sperm donors face a particular kind of kinship trouble: they find themselves in a cultural and organizational context that offers different and contrary ways of how to make connections to donor-conceived individuals meaningful. Whereas Danish sperm banks and Danish law want sperm donors to regard these connections as contractual issues, the dominant kinship narrative in Denmark asks sperm donors to also consider them as family and kinship relations. Based on interviews with Danish sperm donors and participant observation at Danish sperm banks, I argue that Danish sperm donors make sense of connections to donor-conceived individuals as a particular kind of relatedness that cannot be reduced to either contractual or kinship relations. Making sense of these connections, sperm donors negotiate their social significance and thereby participate in opening a space which offers avenues for new kinds of sociality.

  6. Used Safely, Donor Breast Milk Can Help Preemie Babies

    MedlinePlus

    ... milk-sharing, or buying donor milk over the internet," Abrams said. Unpasteurized donor milk could expose babies ... Please don't buy [breast milk] over the internet," Trembath said. "Do it the safe way, through ...

  7. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  8. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  9. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  10. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  11. Computer algorithms in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Steiner, David

    2012-01-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology, most often performed for patients with certain cancers of the blood or bone marrow. A lot of patients have no suitable HLA-matched donor within their family, so physicians must activate a "donor search process" by interacting with national and international donor registries who will search their databases for adult unrelated donors or cord blood units (CBU). Information and communication technologies play a key role in the donor search process in donor registries both nationally and internationaly. One of the major challenges for donor registry computer systems is the development of a reliable search algorithm. This work discusses the top-down design of such algorithms and current practice. Based on our experience with systems used by several stem cell donor registries, we highlight typical pitfalls in the implementation of an algorithm and underlying data structure.

  12. 21 CFR 640.12 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.12 Suitability of donor. The source blood for Red Blood Cells shall be obtained from a donor who meets the criteria for...

  13. 21 CFR 660.31 - Suitability of the donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Reagent Red Blood Cells § 660.31 Suitability of the donor. Donors of peripheral blood for Reagent Red Blood Cells shall meet...

  14. Ethical perspectives on living donor organ transplantation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Concejero, Allan M; Chen, Chao-Long

    2009-12-01

    Live donors are a continuing source of organ grafts for solid organ transplantation in Asia. Ethical issues surrounding the development of living donor organ transplantation in Eastern countries are different from those in Western countries. Donor safety is still the paramount concern in any donor operation. Issues on organ trafficking remain societal concerns in low-income nations. Religion, cultural background, economic prerogatives, and timely legislation contribute to the social acceptance and maturation of organ donation.

  15. Temporal Changes in Deceased Kidney Donor Characteristics in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Samuel; Campbell, Scott B.; Clayton, Phillip A.; Mudge, David W.; Cho, Yeoungjee; Hawley, Carmel M.; Johnson, David W.; Francis, Ross S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Demand for deceased donor kidneys has exceeded supply in Australia over the past 2 decades. With a desire to use as many donor organs as possible, the health characteristics of accepted donors may have changed over time. Methods All deceased kidney donors actually transplanted in Australia between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2013, were retrospectively analyzed, using data from the Australian and New Zealand Organ Donor Registry. Results Of 4172 deceased donors, 57% were men. Mean donor age increased from 37.2 ± 16.8 years to 46.1 ± 17.7 years over time, and donor numbers increased from 162 in 1994 to 334 in 2013. As the primary cause of death, motor vehicle accidents decreased from 27% to 12%, whereas cerebral pathology persisted at 50%. There was an increase in the proportion of donors with hypertension (12% to 24%), diabetes (2% to 7%), and an increase in mean body mass index (24.4 ± 4.4 kg/m2 to 27.5 ± 6.3 kg/m2) between 1994 and 2013. These changes were reflected by an increase in the median kidney donor risk index from 1.08 (interquartile range, 0.85-1.25) to 1.32 (interquartile range, 0.95-1.53). The proportion of medically higher risk donors increased over time. Conclusions Because deceased kidney donor numbers have increased, the range of donor quality has broadened, with an increase in both the proportion and number of high-risk donors, as well as a decline in donor quality. These data highlight the need for kidney allocation algorithms to evolve to ensure appropriate allocation of deceased donor kidneys. PMID:27826605

  16. Living donor liver transplantation using grafts with hepatic cysts.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seisuke; Nosaka, Shunsuke; Shigeta, Takanobu; Uchida, Hajime; Hamano, Ikumi; Karaki, Chiaki; Kanazawa, Hiroyuki; Fukuda, Akinari; Nakazawa, Atsuko; Kasahara, Mureo

    2012-12-01

    Cystic lesions in the liver are often found through the evaluation of liver donors. Multiple cysts are worrisome, and donor candidates with multiple cysts may be unacceptable as liver donors, especially when their recipients have fibrocystic disease (FCD), which is an inherited disorder. This study reviewed 183 cases of living donor liver transplantation. We collected clinical and radiological data associated with donors with cystic lesions and with donors without cystic lesions, and we evaluated the outcomes of these donors and their recipients. As part of the preoperative radiological assessment of grafts, magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) was performed to evaluate the biliary anatomy of donor candidates with multiple cysts. Thirty-four donors (18.6%) had 1 or more cystic lesions in the liver, and 6 of these donors had multiple cysts (ie, >10). Donors with multiple cysts were older and heavier, and there was a significant relationship between these donors and recipients whose original disease was FCD. During the follow-up (median = 3.1 years), all donors with cystic lesions were found to be doing well without any major postoperative complications. Fifteen recipients who received grafts with cystic lesions (12 left-sided lobes and 3 right-sided lobes) had no complications related to the cystic lesions. In conclusion, donors with cystic lesions may be acceptable as liver donors, although our data are limited mostly to left-sided lobe donation with a short follow-up period. MRC should be preoperatively performed to rule out any biliary anomalies, especially in donor candidates whose recipients have FCD.

  17. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S)-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis.

    PubMed

    Genz, Maika; Vickers, Clare; van den Bergh, Tom; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Dörr, Mark; Höhne, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe T

    2015-11-11

    To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S)-selective amine transaminase (ATA), a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417) was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal), as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions.

  18. Low Seroprevalence of West Nile Virus in Blood Donors from Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Piron, Maria; Plasencia, Antoni; Fleta-Soriano, Eric; Martinez, Ana; Martinez, Javier P; Torner, Nuria; Sauleda, Silvia; Meyerhans, Andreas; Escalé, Josefina; Trilla, Antoni; Pumarola, Tomás; Martinez, Miguel Julian

    2015-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus first recognized in Europe in the 1950s. Since then, outbreaks have been reported in several European countries. In 2010, the first WNV outbreak was recorded in Spain, affecting the southern part of the country. We conducted a seroprevalence study in the Catalonia region (northeastern Spain), an area considered at high risk of arbovirus transmission. A total of 800 serum samples from blood donors were collected and screened for antibodies against WNV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by a microneutralization assay. More than 50 samples tested positive by ELISA, but only one sample contained neutralizing antibodies against WNV and was obtained from a donor native of Pakistan. The low seroprevalence detected may serve as reference baseline data for monitoring WNV activity in our region in future years.

  19. Alteration of the Donor/Acceptor Spectrum of the (S)-Amine Transaminase from Vibrio fluvialis

    PubMed Central

    Genz, Maika; Vickers, Clare; van den Bergh, Tom; Joosten, Henk-Jan; Dörr, Mark; Höhne, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe T.

    2015-01-01

    To alter the amine donor/acceptor spectrum of an (S)-selective amine transaminase (ATA), a library based on the Vibrio fluvialis ATA targeting four residues close to the active site (L56, W57, R415 and L417) was created. A 3DM-derived alignment comprising fold class I pyridoxal-5′-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzymes allowed identification of positions, which were assumed to determine substrate specificity. These positions were targeted for mutagenesis with a focused alphabet of hydrophobic amino acids to convert an amine:α-keto acid transferase into an amine:aldehyde transferase. Screening of 1200 variants revealed three hits, which showed a shifted amine donor/acceptor spectrum towards aliphatic aldehydes (mainly pentanal), as well as an altered pH profile. Interestingly, all three hits, although found independently, contained the same mutation R415L and additional W57F and L417V substitutions. PMID:26569229

  20. Prostate cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Prostate cancer screening - PSA; Prostate cancer screening - digital rectal exam; Prostate cancer screening - DRE ... level of PSA could mean you have prostate cancer. But other conditions can also cause a high ...

  1. Mental Health Screening Center

    MedlinePlus

    ... confidential online depression screening Anxiety The Hamilton Anxiety Scale was authored by Max Hamilton. It is in ... mania screening Childhood Mania The Child Mania Rating Scale (CMRS) is a parent screening instrument for mania ...

  2. Health Screenings and Immunizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... your primary doctor. Blood Tests – A Common Screening Method (Source: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute) Click ... tests, see What Are Blood Tests? Other Screening Methods Doctors can't screen for all diseases and ...

  3. Screening for Prostate Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... for prostate cancer. It concluded that the expected harms of PSA screening are greater than the potential ... exam or other screening tests. Potential Benefits and Harms The main goal of a cancer screening test ...

  4. Alcohol Use Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Centers Mental Health Medical Library Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Instructions The following questions are a screening ... is also text-only version . Alcohol Use Screening (AUDIT-C) - Manual Instructions The following questions are a ...

  5. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Home For Patients Search FAQs Prenatal ... Screening Tests FAQ165, September 2016 PDF Format Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests Pregnancy What is prenatal genetic testing? ...

  6. Screening for Specific Phobias

    MedlinePlus

    ... Anxiety FAQs Screen Yourself ADAA Online Support Group Personal Stories of Triumph "Triumph" E-News Webinars Blog ... Screening for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Screening for Social Anxiety ... to fulfill responsibilities with work, school, or family? Yes No placed ...

  7. [Kidney donation by living donors. Surgical procedure].

    PubMed

    Baier, P K; Pisarski, P; Wimmenauer, S; Kirste, G

    1999-01-01

    The living donation of kidneys is gaining importance as a possible way to give a transplant to patients with terminal renal insufficiency. However we do not yet have experience with all the possibilities arising from this method. In particular, there is caution caused by the risks of the donor operation. In this context, the method is discussed according to the literature and our own experience of 89 living kidney donations. In our own practice with living donations, we have a success rate with 96% after 4 years and 82% after 16 years. We observed complications including wound infections (10.7%), haemorrhage, hernia and neurological complications (each 2.7%). When performed by specialists, the donor operation is safe and is a responsible alternative to the transplantation of cadaver kidneys, which opens up new possibilities in these times of organ shortage.

  8. Living donor liver transplantation in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Ivan; Panaro, Fabrizio; Di Francesco, Fabrizio; Troisi, Roberto; Sainz-Barriga, Mauricio; Muiesan, Paolo; Königsrainer, Alfred; Testa, Giuliano

    2016-01-01

    Living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) sparked significant interest in Europe when the first reports of its success from USA and Asia were made public. Many transplant programs initiated LDLT and some of them especially in Germany and Belgium became a point of reference for many patients and important contributors to the advancement of the field. After the initial enthusiasm, most of the European programs stopped performing LDLT and today the overall European activity is concentrated in a few centers and the number of living donor liver transplants is only a single digit fraction of the overall number of liver transplants performed. In this paper we analyse the present European activities and highlight the European contribution to the advancement of the field of LDLT. PMID:27115011

  9. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  10. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  11. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  12. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  13. 21 CFR 640.63 - Suitability of donor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.63 Suitability of donor. (a) Method of determining. The suitability of a donor for Source Plasma shall be determined by a qualified... year. (2)(i) A donor who is to be immunized for the production of high-titer plasma shall be...

  14. [Towards the development of living donor kidney transplantation].

    PubMed

    Macher, Marie-Alice

    2016-12-01

    Living donor kidney transplantation has been increasing since 2008. Living donors represent a significant potential for organ transplants, in a context where the needs outstrip the availability of organs from deceased donors. However, patients are still poorly informed regarding the conditions in which these transplants are possible.

  15. Donors to Higher Education. A Statistical Profile of Individual Giving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balz, Frank

    Patterns of individual giving to higher education in 1984 are reported, along with the characteristics of donors. The study sample consisted of 66 private and 33 public colleges and universities. Information is presented on: the size of the gift; the income level of donors, by household adjusted gross income; level of giving of donors by whether…

  16. When disaster strikes: death of a living organ donor.

    PubMed

    Ratner, L E; Sandoval, P R

    2010-12-01

    Donor safety is of paramount importance in living donor transplantation. Yet, living donor deaths occur. We believe that problems exist in our system of live donor transplantation that can be summarized in a series of simple statements: (1) Donor mortality can never be completely eliminated; (2) Live donor risk has not been mitigated so that it is as low as possible; (3) After a donor death, systematic reviews are not routinely performed to identify correctable causes; (4) The lessons learned from any donor death are not adequately communicated to other programs and (5) The administrative mechanisms and resources are not universally available at all transplant centers to implement lessons learned. To rectify these problems, we propose the following: (1) A national living donor death task force be established with the purpose of performing systematic reviews of any donor death. (2) Findings of these reviews be disseminated to all institutions performing live donor transplants on a secure, password-protected website. (3) A no-fault donor death indemnity fund be established to provide a financial imperative for institutions to cooperate with this external peer-review. These measures will serve the best interests of the involved institutions, the transplant community, and most importantly, the patients and their families.

  17. Noneligible Donors as a Strategy to Decrease the Organ Shortage.

    PubMed

    Croome, K P; Lee, D D; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2016-12-15

    Organ procurement organization (OPO) performance is generally evaluated by the number of organ procurement procedures divided by the number of eligible deaths (donation after brain death [DBD] donors aged <70 years), whereas the number of noneligible deaths (including donation after cardiac death donors and DBD donors aged >70 years) is not tracked. The present study aimed to investigate the variability in the proportion of noneligible liver donors by the 58 donor service areas (DSAs). Patients undergoing liver transplant (LT) between 2011 and 2015 were obtained from the United Network for Organ Sharing Standard Transplant Analysis and Research file. LTs from noneligible and eligible donors were compared. The proportion of noneligible liver donors by DSA varied significantly, ranging from 0% to 19.6% of total liver grafts used. In transplant programs, the proportion of noneligible liver donors used ranged from 0% to 35.3%. On linear regression there was no correlation between match Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score for programs in a given DSA and proportion of noneligible donors used from the corresponding DSA (p = 0.14). Noneligible donors remain an underutilized resource in many OPOs. Policy changes to begin tracking noneligible donors and learning from OPOs that have high noneligible donor usage are potential strategies to increase awareness and pursuit of these organs.

  18. Paucity of HLA-identical unrelated donors for African-Americans with hematologic malignancies: the need for new donor options.

    PubMed

    Dew, Alexander; Collins, Demetria; Artz, Andrew; Rich, Elizabeth; Stock, Wendy; Swanson, Kate; van Besien, Koen

    2008-08-01

    Identification of an HLA identical donor/recipient pair using high-resolution techniques at HLA A, B, C, and DRB1 optimizes survival after adult unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplant. It has been estimated that roughly 50% of African-Americans have suitable unrelated donors based on serologic typing, but there is little information on the likelihood of identifying an HLA-identical unrelated donor using molecular techniques. From February 2002 to May 2007, we performed 51 unrelated donor searches for African-American patients using the National Marrow Donor Program and found HLA identical unrelated donors for only 3. By contrast, 50 (98%) had at least 1, and often multiple, appropriately matched cord blood units available. Very few African-American recipients have HLA-identical unrelated donors. To allow more African-American patients to proceed to transplant, innovative donor strategies, including adult cord blood transplantation, haploidentical transplant, or the identification of permissive mismatches should be investigated.

  19. Living Donor Hepatectomy: Is it Safe?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Anna; Tapia, Viridiana; Parina, Ralitza; Berumen, Jennifer; Hemming, Alan; Mekeel, Kristin

    2015-10-01

    Living donor hepatectomy (LDH) is high risk to a healthy donor and remains controversial. Living donor nephrectomy (LDN), conversely, is a common practice. The objective is to examine the outcomes of LDH and compare this risk profile to LDN. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was queried for hepatectomies and nephrectomies from 1998 to 2011. LDH or LDN were identified by donor ICD-9 codes. Outcomes included in-hospital mortality and complications. Bivariate analysis compared nondonor hepatectomy or nondonor nephrectomy (NDN). Multivariate analyses adjusted for baseline organ disease, malignancy, or benign lesions. There were 430 LDH and 9211 nondonor hepatectomy. In-hospital mortality was 0 and 6 per cent, respectively (P < 0.001); complications 4 and 33 per cent (P < 0.001). LDH had fewer complications [odds ratio (OR) 0.15 (0.08-0.26)]. There were 15,631 LDN and 117,966 NDN. Mortality rates were 0.8 per cent LDN and 1.8 per cent NDN (P < 0.001). Complications were 1 and 21 per cent (P < 0.001). LDN had fewer complications [OR 0.06 (0.05-0.08)] and better survival [OR 0.32 (0.18-0.58)]. Complication rates were higher in LDH than LDN (4% vs 1%, P < 0.001), but survival was similar (0% vs 0.8% mortality, P = 0.06). In conclusion, morbidity and mortality rates of LDH are significantly lower than hepatectomy for other disease. This study suggests that the risk profile of LDH is comparable with the widely accepted LDN.

  20. Prevalence and characterization of occult hepatitis B infection among blood donors in central Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Alshayea, Areej I.; Eid, Gamal E.; El-Hazmi, Malak M.; Alhetheel, Abdulkarim F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B viral infections (OBIs) among blood donors considering the clinical and epidemiological importance of identifying OBIs. Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January 2011 and January 2012. Blood donors (n=8501) were screened for Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibodies (HBcAb). All HBsAg-negative and HBcAb-positive samples were tested further for hepatitis B surface antibodies (HBsAb), hepatitis B virus (HBV)-DNA, and HBV genotyping. Results: Of the 8501 serum samples tested, 56 (0.7%) were positive and 8445 (99.3%) were negative for HBsAg. Among the HBsAg-negative samples, 198 (2.3%) were positive for HBcAb and these patients were suspected to have OBIs. Among the HBcAb-positive samples, 119 (60.1%) were positive while 79 (39.9%) were negative for HBsAb. Analysis of HBV-DNA for the suspected OBIs showed that 17 out of 198 samples (8.6%) yielded positive results, and all of them were HBsAb-negative. The viral load was low (<20-186 IU/mL) in all OBIs. Hepatitis B virus genotyping showed that 15 out of 17 samples (88.2%) were genotype D, and the other 2 samples (11.8%) were genotype E. Conclusion: The prevalence of OBIs among blood donors in Riyadh was 0.2%. Therefore, it is recommended that HBV molecular testing should be incorporated with serological assays for screening of blood donors. PMID:27652363

  1. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic donor nephrectomy to optimize live donors' comfort.

    PubMed

    Warlé, M C; Berkers, A W; Langenhuijsen, J F; van der Jagt, M F; Dooper, Ph M; Kloke, H J; Pilzecker, D; Renes, S H; Wever, K E; Hoitsma, A J; van der Vliet, J A; D'Ancona, F C H

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, laparoscopic donor nephrectomy (LDN) has become the gold standard to procure live donor kidneys. As the relationship between donor and recipient loosens, it becomes of even greater importance to optimize safety and comfort of the surgical procedure. Low-pressure pneumoperitoneum has been shown to reduce pain scores after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Live kidney donors may also benefit from the use of low pressure during LDN. To evaluate feasibility and efficacy to reduce post-operative pain, we performed a randomized blinded study. Twenty donors were randomly assigned to standard (14 mmHg) or low (7 mmHg) pressure during LDN. One conversion from low to standard pressure was indicated by protocol due to lack of progression. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that low pressure resulted in a significantly longer skin-to-skin time (149 ± 86 vs. 111 ± 19 min), higher urine output during pneumoperitoneum (23 ± 35 vs. 11 ± 20 mL/h), lower cumulative overall pain score after 72 h (9.4 ± 3.2 vs. 13.5 ± 4.5), lower deep intra-abdominal pain score (11 ± 3.3 vs. 7.5 ± 3.1), and a lower cumulative overall referred pain score (1.8 ± 1.9 vs. 4.2 ± 3). Donor serum creatinine levels, complications, and quality of life dimensions were not significantly different. Our data show that low-pressure pneumoperitoneum during LDN is feasible and may contribute to increase live donors' comfort during the early post-operative phase.

  2. Mechnical tuning of ionized donors in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, David P.; Hrubesch, Florian M.; Kuenzl, Markus; Itoh, Kohei M.; Hoehne, Felix; Dreher, Lukas; Brandt, Martin S.

    2015-03-01

    Ionized donors in silicon have been shown to have extraordinarily long coherence times, exceeding tens of minutes even at room temperature, which, combined with the very advanced state of silicon technology, makes them attractive candidates for the realization of solid state qubits. The corresponding near perfect isolation from their environment, however, renders the individual addressing and coupling of such qubits a major challenge on the way towards a spin quantum computer based on ionized donors. We show that the application of strain to the silicon host crystal leads to shifts of the nuclear spin resonance frequencies of 75As+ due to the nuclear quadrupole interaction with crystal fields. This shift can be larger than the resonance linewidth already for modest strains, as we demonstrate by electrically detected electron nuclear double resonance (ED ENDOR) measurements on arsenic donors in strained silicon. We discuss how quadrupole interactions could allow for the individual addressing of ionized nuclear spins by mechanical tuning of their resonance frequency and, possibly, permit the elastic coupling of nuclear spin qubits to a mechanical resonator.

  3. Nitric oxide donors for cardiovascular implant applications.

    PubMed

    Naghavi, Noora; de Mel, Achala; Alavijeh, Omid Sadeghi; Cousins, Brian G; Seifalian, Alexander M

    2013-01-14

    In an era of increased cardiovascular disease burden in the ageing population, there is great demand for devices that come in to contact with the blood such as heart valves, stents, and bypass grafts that offer life saving treatments. Nitric oxide (NO) elution from healthy endothelial tissue that lines the vessels maintains haemostasis throughout the vasculature. Surgical devices that release NO are desirable treatment options and N-diazeniumdiolates and S-nitrosothiols are recognized as preferred donor molecules. There is a keen interest to investigate newer methods by which NO donors can be retained within biomaterials so that their release and kinetic profiles can be optimized. A range of polymeric scaffolds incorporating microparticles and nanomaterials are presenting solutions to current challenges, and have been investigated in a range of clinical applications. This review outlines the application of NO donors for cardiovascular therapy using biomaterials that release NO locally to prevent thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia (IH) and enhance endothelialization in the fabrication of next generation cardiovascular device technology.

  4. Non-detection of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA in HHV-8-seropositive blood donors from three Brazilian regions.

    PubMed

    Levi, José Eduardo; Nascimento, Maria Claudia; Sumita, Laura Masami; de Souza, Vanda Akico Ueda Fick; Freire, Wilton S; Mayaud, Philippe; Pannuti, Claudio S

    2011-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is the etiologic agent of all forms of Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma and the plasmablastic cell variant of multicentric Castleman disease. In endemic areas of sub-Saharan Africa, blood transfusions have been associated with a substantial risk of HHV-8 transmission. By contrast, several studies among healthy blood donors from North America have failed to detect HHV-8 DNA in samples of seropositive individuals. In this study, using a real-time PCR assay, we investigated the presence of HHV-8 DNA in whole-blood samples of 803 HHV-8 blood donors from three Brazilian states (São Paulo, Amazon, Bahia) who tested positive for HHV-8 antibodies, in a previous multicenter study. HHV-8 DNA was not detected in any sample. Our findings do not support the introduction of routine HHV-8 screening among healthy blood donors in Brazil. (WC = 140).

  5. What Is Carrier Screening?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary care providers Specialists Getting covered Research Basic science research Research in people ... screening Diagnostic testing Direct-to-consumer genetic testing Newborn screening Pharmacogenomic testing ...

  6. The donor, the father, and the imaginary constitution of the family: parents' constructions in the case of donor insemination.

    PubMed

    Grace, Victoria M; Daniels, Ken R; Gillett, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    Current international policy trends in the field of medically assisted conception are moving towards increased openness of information regarding the nature of conception where donated gametes are involved. In the case of donor insemination this means that the donor is no longer anonymous, offspring have the right to access information about the donor's identity, and parents are encouraged to tell children the nature of their donor-assisted conception. Until recently, however, the practice of donor insemination has tended to create the conditions for ignoring, or erasing, the existence of the donor as the provider of the gametes. Changing policy creates numerous challenges to this erasure, and to traditional conceptualisations of the father. This research is based on analysis of the narratives of a group of 41 New Zealand couples who conceived children with the assistance of donor insemination 15-18 years prior. This article focuses on their talk about the donor. The parents' negation of the donor supports the normative formation of 'family', and is in turn supported by an instrumental and de-personalising discourse in relation to the donor. A tension is created within the parents' talk whereby donors are negated and yet simultaneously appear as persons. We explore this discursive construction, suggesting that a new framework for thinking about donated gametes and the role of the donor is influencing parents' narrations and understandings of family. We discuss these influences and examine their implications, particularly with respect to a separation of the bio-genetic from the social-environmental.

  7. [Five years of Fiom KID-DNA Databank: experiences in matching sperm donors and donor-conceived offspring].

    PubMed

    Postema, D; Maas, A J B M

    2016-01-01

    Before the introduction of the Dutch Human Fertilisation (Donor Information) Act (in Dutch: Wet Donorgegevens Kunstmatige Bevruchting) in 2004, approximately 40,000 donor-conceived offspring were born in the Netherlands. The majority is conceived by means of artificial insemination with anonymous donor sperm (in Dutch: kunstmatige inseminatie met anoniem donorzaad - KID). This means that they have little or no access to information about their genetic origins. Through the Fiom KID-DNA Databank, established in 2010 in association with the Canisius Wilhelmina Hospital, it is possible for these donor-conceived offspring and donors to search for one another. DNA profiles are used to match donor-conceived offspring, donors and half-siblings. It is expected that the number of donor-related searches will increase. The experiences with matching and counselling of donor-conceived offspring and donors presented in this paper will help donor-conceived offspring and donors who start a search in the future. Moreover, they provide guidance for forming a meaningful relationship between those involved.

  8. Donor kidney adapts to body dimensions of recipient: no influence of donor gender on renal function after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tent, H; Lely, A T; Toering, T J; San Giorgi, M R M; Rook, M; Lems, S P M; Hepkema, B G; Hofker, H S; Ploeg, R J; Homan van der Heide, J J; Navis, G J

    2011-10-01

    Female kidneys and kidneys from small donors have been suggested to perform worse after kidney transplantation. Here, we evaluate the impact of gender and body dimensions on posttransplantation GFR in living donor transplantation. Two hundred and ninety-three donor-recipient pairs, who were transplanted at our center were evaluated. All pairs had detailed renal function measurement ((125) I-iothalamate and (131) I-hippuran) 4 months predonation in the donor and 2.5 months posttransplantation in donor and recipient. For 88 pairs, 5 years of recipient follow-up was available. Delta GFR was calculated as (recipient GFR-donor single kidney GFR). Recipients of both male and female kidneys had similar renal function at early and long term after transplantation. Male recipients had higher ERPF, ΔGFR and ΔERPF at both time points. Kidneys of donors smaller than their recipient had higher ΔGFR and ΔERPF than kidneys of larger donors at both time points (p < 0.05). In multivariate analysis, ΔGFR was predicted by donor/recipient BSA-ratio together with transplantation related factors (R(2) 0.19), irrespective of donor and recipient gender. In conclusion, in living donor transplantation, female kidneys perform as well as male donor kidneys. Kidneys adapt to the recipient's body size and demands, independent of gender, without detrimental effects in renal function and outcome up to mid-long term.

  9. Donor-Acceptor-Donor Modular Small Organic Molecules Based on the Naphthalene Diimide Acceptor Unit for Solution-Processable Photovoltaic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patil, Hemlata; Gupta, Akhil; Bilic, Ante; Jackson, Sam Leslie; Latham, Kay; Bhosale, Sheshanath V.

    2014-09-01

    Two novel solution-processable small organic molecules, 4,9-bis(4-(diphenylamino)phenyl)-2,7-dioctylbenzo[3,8]phenanthroline-1,3,6,8(2 H,7 H)-tetraone ( S6) and 4,9-bis(benzo[ b]thiophen-2-yl)-2,7-dioctylbenzo[3,8]phenanthroline-1,3,6,8 (2 H,7 H)-tetraone ( S7), have been successfully designed, synthesized, characterized, and applied in solution-processable photovoltaic devices. S6 and S7 contain a common electron-accepting moiety, naphthalene diimide (NDI), with different electron-donating moieties, triphenylamine ( S6) and benzothiophene ( S7), and are based on a donor-acceptor-donor structure. S7 was isolated as black, rod-shaped crystals. Its triclinic structure was determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction (XRD): space group , Z = 2, a = 9.434(5) Å, b = 14.460(7) Å, c = 15.359(8) Å, α = 67.256(9) degrees, β = 80.356(11) degrees, γ = 76.618(10) degrees, at 150 Kelvin (K), R = 0.073. Ultraviolet-visible absorption spectra revealed that use of triphenylamine donor functionality with the NDI acceptor unit resulted in an enhanced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) transition and reduction of the optical band gap compared with the benzothiophene analogue. Solution-processable inverted bulk heterojunction devices with the structure indium tin oxide/zinc oxide (30 nm)/active layer/molybdenum trioxide (10 nm)/silver (100 nm) were fabricated with S6 and S7 as donors and (6,6)-phenyl C70-butyric acid methyl ester (PC70BM) as acceptor. Power conversion efficiencies of 0.22% for S6/PC70BM and 0.10% for S7/PC70BM were achieved for the preliminary photovoltaic devices under simulated AM 1.5 illumination (100 mW cm-2). This paper reports donor-acceptor-donor modular small organic molecules, with NDI as central accepting unit, that have been screened for use in solution-processable inverted photovoltaic devices.

  10. Living donor bone banking: processing and discarding--from procurement to therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Hovanyecz, Paula; Lorenti, Alicia; Lucero, José Manuel Juan; Gorla, Adrián; Castiglioni, Alejandro Enrique

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle and osteoarticular tissue banks are responsible to procure, process, store and distribute tissues, from living and cadaveric donors. The procedures involve the application of protocols covering all aspects of the banking, ensuring the best tissue quality and maximum safety for the recipient. An analysis on the causes of bone tissue discarded by Biotar Tissue Bank between January 2005 and December 2012 was carried. Bone tissue was obtained from both hip and knee replacement (femoral heads and tibial plateau respectively) in living donors treated at different medical-surgical institutions in Argentina. These tissues were processed at the Bank to produce both frozen and lyophilized cancellous bone. Out of 3413 donated bones received by the Bank, 77.55 % resulted in final product, while the remaining 22.44 % was discarded in compliance with the quality standards of both the Bank and the regulatory authority. Comparing the last and the first year of the studied period, the number of discarded tissue increased 3.6 times, while the number of collected bones was approximately 10 times higher. Related to total disposed tissue, reactive serology was the most frequent cause (62.14 %), followed by inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample (30.81 %). A progressive reduction in the percentages of total discard was observed, and this was proportional to inappropriate collection/storage of blood sample. No significant differences were found in the discard rates due to positive serology throughout all the years studied. The success of a tissue bank requires full commitment of all the personnel especially the team members responsible for donor selection and the processing of allografts. It is important to critically screen donors in the early stages of donor recruitment. All of the procedures carried out by the tissue bank are parts of the quality control system which must be strictly carried out. Biotar Tissue Bank is continuously committed to ensure

  11. Action plan to regain unnecessary deferred blood donors due to malaria risk in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Değirmenci, Aysu; Döşkaya, Mert; Caner, Ayşe; Nergis, Sebnem; Gül, Kadri; Aydınok, Yeşim; Ertop, Tufan; Aksoy, Nurten; Korkmaz, Metin; Alkan, Mehmet Ziya; Üner, Ahmet; Gürüz, Yüksel

    2012-06-01

    Malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The present study aimed for the first time, to investigate malaria in "donors deferred for malaria risk" and to determine the regional rates of malaria deferral in Turkey. Blood samples were collected from several Blood Banks of southeastern provinces where local malaria cases still exist and from Blood Bank of Ege University Medical School (EUMS) located in western Turkey where malaria is eradicated decades ago. Plasmodium spp. and specific antibodies were investigated by stained smears, antigen detection, PCR and ELISA. Among the donors deferred for malaria risk, Plasmodium spp. were not detected by microscopy, PCR or antigen detection. Seroprevalances were 2% and 3.92% in western and southeastern regions, respectively. Rate of donor deferral for malaria risk was 0.9% in EUMS and deferrals were exclusively because of travel to southeastern Turkey. In southeastern provinces, deferrals were mainly due to malaria like fever history. The present study first time assessed regional rates of donor deferral due to malaria risk in Turkey. Previously, malaria was expected to be a major problem during blood donation in Turkey due to existence of malaria cases in southeastern region of Turkey. The results of the study showed that 97% of the deferrals were unnecessary. In conclusion, to reduce unnecessary donor deferrals in Turkey, in addition to comprehensive questioning for malaria history, the usage of a malaria antibody screening method should be initiated prior to deferral decision.

  12. Reduction of Donor Site Morbidity of Free Radial Forearm Flaps: What Level of Evidence Is Available?

    PubMed Central

    Loeffelbein, Denys J.; Al-Benna, Sammy; Steinsträßer, Lars; Satanovskij, Robin M.; Rohleder, Nils H.; Mücke, Thomas; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Kesting, Marco R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is the most commonly used free flap in head and neck reconstructive surgery. However, despite excellent results with respect to the site of reconstruction, donor site morbidity cannot be neglected. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge and analyzes the level of evidence with regard to perioperative management of the reduction of RFFF donor site morbidity. Methods: The medical Internet source PubMed was screened for relevant articles. All relevant articles were tabulated according to the levels of scientific evidence, and the available methods for reduction of donor site morbidity are discussed. Results: Classification into levels of evidence reveals 3 publications (1.5%) with level I (randomized controlled trials), 29 (14.0%) with level II (experimental studies with no randomization, cohort studies, or outcome research), 3 (1.5%) with level III (systematic review of case-control studies or individual case-control studies), 121 (58.7%) with level IV (nonexperimental studies, such as cross-sectional trials, case series, case reports), and 15 (7.3%) with level V (narrative review or expert opinion without explicit critical appraisal). Thirty-five (17.0%) articles could not be classified, because they focused on a topic other than donor site morbidity of the RFFF. Conclusions: Although great interest has been expressed with regard to reducing the donor site morbidity of the workhorse flap in microvascular reconstruction procedures, most publications fail to provide the hard facts and solid evidence characteristic of high-quality research. PMID:22331991

  13. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors from the Brazilian Amazon: implications for transfusion policy

    PubMed Central

    Moresco, M. N. dos S.; Virgolino, H. de A.; de Morais, M. P. E.; da Motta-Passos, I.; Gomes-Gouvêa, M. S.; de Assis, L. M. S.; Aguiar, K. R. de L.; Lombardi, S. C. F.; Malheiro, A.; Cavalheiro, N. de P.; Levi, J. E.; Torres, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brazil requires the performance of both a test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and a test for antibodies to the core of hepatitis B for blood donor screening. Blood centres in regions of high HBV endemicity struggle to maintain adequate stocks in face of the high discard rates due to anti-HBc reactivity. We evaluated the potential infectivity of donations positive for anti-HBc in search of a rational approach for the handling of these collections. Study Design and Methods We tested anti-HBc reactive blood donations from the state of Amazonas for the presence of HBV DNA and for titres of anti-HBs. The study population consists of village-based donors from the interior of Amazonas state. Results Among 3600 donations, 799 were anti-HBc reactive (22·2%). We were able to perform real-time PCR for the HBV S gene on specimens from 291 of these donors. Eight of these samples were negative for HBsAg and positive for HBV DNA and were defined as occult B virus infections (2·7%). Six of those eight specimens had anti-HBs titres above 100 mIU/ml, indicating the concomitant presence of the virus with high antibody titres. Conclusion A small proportion of anti-HBc reactive donors carry HBV DNA and anti-HBs testing is not useful for predicting viremia on them. This finding indicates the possibility of HBV transmission from asymptomatic donors, especially in areas of high HBV prevalence. Sensitive HBV DNA nucleic acid testing may provide another level of safety, allowing eventual use of anti-HBc reactive units in critical situations. PMID:24697276

  14. Guidelines for establishing a donor human milk depot.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Sheela R; List, Betsy A; Morrow, Georgia B

    2010-02-01

    Human milk is the preferred choice for infant feeding. When a sick or premature infant's own mother's milk is unavailable, donor human milk is becoming more widely used. Many potential milk donors do not live within close proximity to the 10 North American not-for-profit milk banks. Transporting milk via commercial carriers can be inconvenient and costly for recipient banks. A network of donor human milk depots is one practical way to increase the quantity of available donor human milk. This article provides guidelines and practical suggestions for establishing a donor human milk depot.

  15. Do affective attitudes predict organ donor registration? A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lee; O'Carroll, Ronan E

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed whether people's affective attitudes predicted organ donor registration at a later time. People who were not registered as an organ donor prior to completing the study (N = 150) first rated their affective attitudes towards organ donation. We then measured whether they clicked on a hyperlink to register as an organ donor. Believing that the body should be kept whole for burial (bodily integrity) was the only affective attitude to predict this organ donation behaviour. Future campaigns should target this concern in order to increase organ donor registration and the availability of donor organs.

  16. Disclosure of donor conception, age of disclosure and the well-being of donor offspring.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Guido

    2017-03-15

    The matter of disclosure of donor conception to donor offspring is a very contentious issue. A frequently mentioned argument is that disclosure is in the best interest of the child. The objectives of this paper are 2-fold: first, to find out whether there are any measureable, stable differences in the psychological well-being of donor offspring who are informed of the mode of their conception compared to those who are not, and second, to find out what is being done with the evidence. We found that there exists no empirical evidence of differences in psychological well-being of donor offspring in disclosing or nondisclosing families. Regarding the age of disclosure, the findings are inconclusive. Some studies indicate no difference and some show slight positive effects of early disclosure. We also found that authors tend to ignore their own findings when formulating recommendations and that the recommendations are based on implicit moral premises. We conclude that disclosure, and directive counseling towards disclosure, cannot be justified by the welfare of the donor offspring.

  17. Pediatric donor cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in AML patient from related donor.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla-Morales, Lucina; Pimentel-Gutiérrez, Helia J; Gallegos-Castorena, Sergio; Paniagua-Padilla, Jenny A; Ortega-de-la-Torre, Citlalli; Sánchez-Zubieta, Fernando; Silva-Cruz, Rocio; Corona-Rivera, Jorge R; Zepeda-Moreno, Abraham; González-Ramella, Oscar; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a male patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initially diagnosed as M5 and with karyotype 46,XY. After induction therapy, he underwent a HLA-matched allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and six years later he relapsed as AML M1 with an abnormal karyotype //47,XX,+10[2]/47,XX,+11[3]/48,XX,+10,+11[2]/46,XX[13]. Based on this, we tested the possibility of donor cell origin by FISH and molecular STR analysis. We found no evidence of Y chromosome presence by FISH and STR analysis consistent with the success of the allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from the female donor. FISH studies confirmed trisomies and no evidence of MLL translocation either p53 or ATM deletion. Additionally 28 fusion common leukemia transcripts were evaluated by multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assay and were not rearranged. STR analysis showed a complete donor chimerism. Thus, donor cell leukemia (DCL) was concluded, being essential the use of cytological and molecular approaches. Pediatric DCL is uncommon, our patient seems to be the sixth case and additionally it presented a late donor cell leukemia appearance. Different extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms have been considered to explain this uncommon finding as well as the implications to the patient.

  18. HLA Matching Trumps Donor Age: Donor-Recipient Pairing Characteristics That Impact Long-Term Success in Living Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Paired Kidney Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Milner, John; Melcher, Marc L.; Lee, Brian; Veale, Jeff; Ronin, Matthew; D'Alessandro, Tom; Hil, Garet; Fry, Phillip C.; Shannon, Patrick W.

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify donor characteristics influencing long-term graft survival, expressed by a novel measure, kidney life years (KLYs), in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT). Methods Cox and multiple regression analyses were applied to data from the Scientific Registry for Transplant Research from 1987 to 2015. Dependent variable was KLYs. Results Living donor kidney transplantation (129 273) were performed from 1987 to 2013 in the United States. To allow sufficient time to assess long-term results, outcomes of LDKTs between 1987 and 2001 were analyzed. After excluding cases where a patient died with a functioning graft (8301) or those missing HLA data (9), 40 371 cases were analyzed. Of 18 independent variables, the focus became the 4 variables that were the most statistically and clinically significant in that they are potentially modifiable in donor selection (P <0.0001; ie, HLA match points, donor sex, donor biological sibling and donor age). HLA match points had the strongest relationship with KLYs, was associated with the greatest tendency toward graft longevity on Cox regression, and had the largest increase in KLYs (2.0 year increase per 50 antigen Match Points) based on multiple regression. Conclusions In cases when a patient has multiple potential donors, such as through paired exchange, graft life might be extended when a donor with favorable matching characteristics is selected. PMID:27830179

  19. Computer applications in the search for unrelated stem cell donors.

    PubMed

    Müller, Carlheinz R

    2002-08-01

    The majority of patients which are eligible for a blood stem cell transplantation from an allogeneic donor do not have a suitable related donor so that an efficient unrelated donor search is a prerequisite for this treatment. Currently, there are over 7 million volunteer donors in the files of 50 registries in the world and in most countries the majority of transplants are performed from a foreign donor. Evidently, computer and communication technology must play a crucial role in the complex donor search process on the national and international level. This article describes the structural elements of the donor search process and discusses major systematic and technical issues to be addressed in the development and evolution of the supporting telematic systems. The theoretical considerations are complemented by a concise overview over the current state of the art which is given by describing the scope, relevance, interconnection and technical background of three major national and international computer appliances: The German Marrow Donor Information System (GERMIS) and the European Marrow Donor Information System (EMDIS) are interoperable business-to-business e-commerce systems and Bone Marrow Donors World Wide (BMDW) is the basic international donor information desk on the web.

  20. Transplanting Kidneys from Deceased Donors With Severe Acute Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Heilman, R L; Smith, M L; Kurian, S M; Huskey, J; Batra, R K; Chakkera, H A; Katariya, N N; Khamash, H; Moss, A; Salomon, D R; Reddy, K S

    2015-08-01

    Our aim was to determine outcomes with transplanting kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury, defined as a donor with terminal serum creatinine ≥2.0 mg/dL, or a donor requiring acute renal replacement therapy. We included all patients who received deceased donor kidney transplant from June 2004 to October 2013. There were 162 AKI donor transplant recipients (21% of deceased donor transplants): 139 in the standard criteria donor (SCD) and 23 in the expanded criteria donor (ECD) cohort. 71% of the AKI donors had stage 3 (severe AKI), based on acute kidney injury network (AKIN) staging. Protocol biopsies were done at 1, 4, and 12 months posttransplant. One and four month formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) biopsies from 48 patients (24 AKI donors, 24 non-AKI) underwent global gene expression profiling using DNA microarrays (96 arrays). DGF was more common in the AKI group but eGFR, graft survival at 1 year and proportion with IF/TA>2 at 1 year were similar for the two groups. At 1 month, there were 898 differentially expressed genes in the AKI group (p-value <0.005; FDR <10%), but by 4 months there were no differences. Transplanting selected kidneys from deceased donors with AKI is safe and has excellent outcomes.

  1. [Evaluation and follow-up of living kidney donors].

    PubMed

    Giessing, M; Schönberger, B; Fritsche, L; Budde, K

    2004-01-23

    An increase in waiting time for a cadaveric organs and a better graft-function, graft- and patient-survival with kidneys from a living donors have lead to an increase in living-donor renal transplantation in the therapy of end-stage renal disease. In Germany, with the implementation of a transplantation law in 1997 and due to improved surgical techniques (laparoscopy) the proportion of living renal donors has almost tripled during the last five years. The transplantation law also names the potential donors, including not only genetically related but also emotionally related donors. Inclusion criteria for living donation are age > 18 years, mental ability to give consent and an altruistic motivation (exclusion of financial benefits for the donor). If ABO blood group compatibility between donor and recipient is given and a cross match does not reveal immunologic obstacles a thorough medical and psychological examination must be performed with the potential donor. All risk factors for the donor beyond the actual operation must be excluded. Therefore all organ-systems have to be evaluated and risks for the donor as well as transferable pathologies and infections must be ruled out. International guidelines help to perform an efficient evaluation. Following organ donation the donor should be medically controlled as requested by law. Also, psychological counselling should be offered. The aim is to minimize risks for the single kidney and to recognize early potentially kidney damaging affections.

  2. Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis frequency among blood donors: A single center study.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Sule Menziletoglu; Candevir, Aslihan; Kibar, Filiz; Karaboga, Gulser; Turhan, Ferda Tekin; Kis, Cem; Dincer, Suleyman; Guvenc, Birol

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to provide updated results for seroprevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C viruses while presenting first data for human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis seropositivity amongst blood donors in Adana, Turkey. Screening and confirmatory test results of 62,461 donors were evaluated. HBsAg, anti-HCV, anti-HIV1/2 and syphilis seropositivity was 1.92%, 0.48%, 0.20%, 0.18% respectively, based on screening tests, and 1.66%, 0.05%, 0.003%, 0.10% respectively, according to confirmatory tests. Transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI) was more prevalent in low-educated donors. HBsAg and syphilis seropositivity rates were higher in married subjects. We found that the prevalence of HBV and HCV was significantly decreased in the last two decades in Adana. Importantly, this study provides first data in HIV and syphilis seropositivity rates among blood donors in our region and both HIV and syphilis seroprevalences were found to be low compared to many regions of Turkey. However, considering the fact that increasing number of immigrants may change prevalences and trends of TTI both in Adana and in Turkey, strict monitorization and yearly reporting of TTI rates seem necessary to be able to take proactive measures.

  3. Transplantation and differentiation of donor cells in the cloned pigs

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Arata; Tomii, Ryo; Kano, Koichiro; Nagashima, Hiroshi . E-mail: hnagas@isc.meiji.ac.jp

    2006-06-02

    The application of nuclear transfer technology is an interesting approach to investigate stem and progenitor cell transplantation therapy. If stem cells are used as a nuclear donor, donor cells can engraft into cloned animals without histocompatible problems. However, it is still uncertain whether donor cells can engraft to cloned animal and differentiate in vivo. To address this problem, we transplanted donor cells to dermal tissues of cloned pigs developed by using preadipocytes as donor cells. Preadipocytes are adipocytic progenitor which can differentiate to mature adipocytes in vitro. We showed that the donor preadipocytes were successfully transplanted into the cloned pigs without immune rejection and they differentiated into mature adipocytes in vivo 3 weeks after transplantation. In contrast, allogenic control preadipocytes, which can differentiate in vitro, did not differentiate in vivo. These results indicate that donor progenitor cells can differentiate in cloned animal.

  4. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  5. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  6. 21 CFR 1271.50 - How do I determine whether a donor is eligible?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CELLS, TISSUES, AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS Donor Eligibility § 1271.50 How do I... document the eligibility of a cell or tissue donor. (b) Eligible donor. A donor is eligible under...

  7. Risk Factors for Transfusion Transmissible Infections Elicited on Post Donation Counselling in Blood Donors: Need to Strengthen Pre-donation Counselling.

    PubMed

    Sachdev, Suchet; Mittal, Kshitija; Patidar, Gopal; Marwaha, Neelam; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Duseja, Ajay Kumar; Chawla, Yogesh Kumar; Arora, Sunil Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Donor notification and counselling transforms the legal and ethical requirement of disclosure of transfusion transmissible infection (TTI) in a blood donor into practice. The present study was done to assess the response to the disclosure of TTI reactivity results in blood donors, assess the risk factors in blood donors and follow the compliance of the disclosure and clinical referral in a population of blood donors who are difficult to convince that they may be harbouring infections apparently in a healthy state today but with possible clinical disease consequences in the future. A retrospective study was conducted from April 2011 to November 2012. Screening was done using third generation ELISA kits used according to the manufacturer's directions; these kits were approved for use in blood banks by the Drug Controller General of India. Those testing repeat reactive were referred for further confirmation and management. The total number of TTI reactive donors was 787 (0.93 %, N = 83,865). The observed response rate in the present study is 21.6 % (167, N = 787). The risk factors for acquiring infections in TTI reactive donors were statistically significant history of high risk behaviour (20.3 %) for human immunodeficiency virus infection and history of jaundice in themselves, family or close contacts (16.1 %) for hepatitis B virus infection. One hundred and ten (65.8 %) of the referred donors were on outpatient clinical care when post-referral follow up was conducted. The study emphasises on continuing sensitization of blood donation camp organisers to the need of privacy during blood donor selection. The study also stresses the need to strengthen the pre-donation counselling at outdoor blood donation at the same time raise awareness amongst blood donors about the importance of post-donation counselling and follow up.

  8. Intramolecular Charge-Transfer Interaction of Donor-Acceptor-Donor Arrays Based on Anthracene Bisimide.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Tetsuo; Ogawa, Marina; Yamauchi, Tomokazu; Toyota, Shinji

    2016-05-20

    We designed anthracene bisimide (ABI) derivatives having two triphenylamine (TPA) groups as donor units at the 9,10-positions to form a novel π-conjugated donor-acceptor system. These compounds and their analogues with ethynylene linkers were synthesized by Suzuki-Miyaura and Sonogashira coupling reactions, respectively. In UV-vis spectra, the linker-free derivatives showed broad absorption bands arising from intramolecular charge-transfer interactions. Introducing ethynylene linkers resulted in a considerable red shift of the absorption bands. In fluorescence spectra, the ethynylene derivatives showed intense emission bands at 600-650 nm. Their photophysical and electrochemical properties were compared with those of the corresponding mono TPA derivatives on the basis of theoretical calculations and cyclic voltammetry to evaluate the intramolecular electronic interactions between the donor and acceptor units.

  9. Microwave assisted synthesis of bithiophene based donor-acceptor-donor oligomers and their optoelectronic performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bathula, Chinna; Buruga, Kezia; Lee, Sang Kyu; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M.; Kang, Youngjong

    2017-07-01

    In this article we present the synthesis of two novel bithiophene based symmetrical π conjugated oligomers with donor-acceptor-donor (D-A-D) structures by microwave assisted PdCl2(dppf) catalyzed Suzuki coupling reaction. These molecules contain electron rich bithiophene as a donor, dithienothiadiazole[3,4-c]pyridine and phthalic anhydride units as acceptors. The shorter reaction time, excellent yields and easy product isolation are the advantages of this method. The photophysical prerequisites for electronic application such as strong and broad optical absorption, thermal stability, and compatible energy levels were determined for synthesized oligomers. Optical band gap for the oligomers is found to be 1.72-1.90 eV. The results demonstrated the novel oligomers to be promising candidates in organic optoelectronic applications.

  10. Impact of ABO incompatible kidney transplantation on living donor transplantation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background ABO incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi-KT) is an important approach for overcoming donor shortages. We evaluated the effect of ABOi-KT on living donor KT. Methods Two nationwide transplantation databases were used. We evaluated the impact of ABOi-KT on overall living donor transplant activity and spousal donation as subgroup analysis. In addition, we compared the clinical outcome between ABOi-KT and ABO compatible KT (ABOc-KT) from spousal donor, and performed a Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to define the risk factors affecting the allograft outcomes. Result The introduction of ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT by 12.2% and its portion was increased from 0.3% to 21.7% during study period. The ABOi-KT in living unrelated KT was two times higher than that of living related donor KT (17.8 vs.9.8%). Spousal donor was a major portion of living unrelated KT (77.6%) and ABOi-KT increased spousal donation from 10% to 31.5% in living donor KT. In addition, increasing rate ABOi-KT from spousal donor was 10 times higher than that of living related donor. The clinical outcome (incidence of acute rejection, allograft function, and allograft and patient survival rates) of ABOi-KT from spousal donor was comparable to that of ABOc-KT. Neither ABO incompatibility nor spousal donor was associated with acute rejection or allograft failure on multivariate analysis. Conclusions ABOi-KT increased overall living donor KT, and ABOi-KT from spousal donor is rapidly increasing with favorable clinical outcomes. PMID:28323892

  11. Cancer of the colon in an egg donor: policy repercussions for donor recruitment.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, K K; Simons, E G

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the tragic case of a young woman who died of cancer of the colon after successfully donating eggs to her younger sister. Although there is no direct link between her operation and the subsequent development of bowel carcinoma, this case imparts a feeling of unease when seen in conjunction with other cases reported during the last few years. It is a reminder that little is known of the long-term consequences of some aspects of assisted conception. Women undergoing ovarian stimulation for themselves or a matched recipient have the right to be advised, in an agreed format, that there is some concern about unproven potential risks from the stimulatory drugs. The safety of egg donors must assume priority over all other considerations, including lack of donors or any moral position. The recent decision by the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) to withdraw any form of payment or recompense to egg donors does not seem to us to be based on a balance of scientific advances, patient needs and the ethics of gamete supply. They state that the intention to withdraw payments was implicit in the 1990 Human Fertilisation and Embryology (HFE) Act. However the Act was based on the Warnock report made 6 years earlier. Even in 1990 ovum donation was uncommon and fertility drugs had not yet caused any unease. The Act provided the HFEA with discretionary powers to issue directions so that the future policies would be consistent with any emerging new medical evidence. It is imperative that the HFEA provide convincing evidence on how the current policy of payment to donors harms society, donors or recipients, and how in the UK the new policy will improve medical practice in assisted conception. Successful pilot studies must precede the implementation of any new policy. Failure to do this could cause irreversible harm to the practice of assisted conception using donor gametes, which will ultimately be against the basic aims of the 1990 HFE Act.

  12. RBC Antibody Screen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cell Antibody Screen Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; Blood Typing ; RBC Antibody Identification ; Type and Screen; Crossmatch All content on Lab Tests Online has been reviewed and approved by our Editorial Review Board . At a ... screen is used to screen an individual's blood for antibodies directed against red blood cell (RBC) ...

  13. HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide expands the donor pool for patients with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Fuchs, Ephraim J; Luznik, Leo; Lanzkron, Sophie M; Gamper, Christopher J; Jones, Richard J; Brodsky, Robert A

    2012-11-22

    Allogeneic marrow transplantation can cure sickle cell disease; however, HLA-matched donors are difficult to find, and the toxicities of myeloablative conditioning are prohibitive for most adults with this disease. We developed a nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation platform using related, including HLA-haploidentical, donors for patients with sickle cell disease. The regimen consisted of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus or sirolimus. After screening 19 patients, we transplanted 17, 14 from HLA-haploidentical and 3 from HLA-matched related donors. Eleven patients engrafted durably. With a median follow-up of 711 days (minimal follow up 224 days), 10 patients are asymptomatic, and 6 patients are off immunosupression. Only 1 patient developed skin-only acute graft-versus-host disease that resolved without any therapy; no mortality was seen. Nonmyeloablative conditioning with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide expands the donor pool, making marrow transplantation feasible for most patients with sickle cell disease, and is associated with a low risk of complications, even with haploidentical related donors. Graft failure, 43% in haploidentical pairs, remains a major obstacle but may be acceptable in a fraction of patients if the majority can be cured without serious toxicities.

  14. Acute, Recent and Past HEV Infection among Voluntary Blood Donors in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Meiyu; Fu, Ping; Yin, Yonghua; He, Miao; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis E virus is one of new threats to blood safety which was usually considered to be transmitted via fecal-oral route. China is one of the hyperendemic regions where frequent outbreaks of hepatitis E are noted. However, the overall prevalence of HEV infection among mainland Chinese blood donors is not clear until now. Method The peer-reviewed literatures reporting the prevalence of HEV in Chinese blood donors were identified by systematic searching of five electronic databases. The systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement issued in 2009. Data manipulation and statistical analyses were performed by Stata 12.0. Results Fourteen eligible articles involving 22 independent studies were included. Pooled prevalence of HEV infection biomarkers (anti-HEV IgG, anti-HEV IgM, RNA and antigen) among mainland Chinese blood donors were 29.2%, 1.1%, 0.1% and 0.1%, respectively which were higher than the data reported in other countries. The analysis of HEV genotypes indicated that the most prevalent strains in Chinese blood donors were genotype 1 and 4. Conclusions Mainland China is indicated with a relatively higher risk of transmission of hepatitis E through transfusion and the screening of blood donors for HEV RNA, especially in HEV-endemic areas, might reduce the potential risk of HEV infection via transfusion. PMID:27597991

  15. HLA-haploidentical bone marrow transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide expands the donor pool for patients with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Ephraim J.; Luznik, Leo; Lanzkron, Sophie M.; Gamper, Christopher J.; Jones, Richard J.; Brodsky, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Allogeneic marrow transplantation can cure sickle cell disease; however, HLA-matched donors are difficult to find, and the toxicities of myeloablative conditioning are prohibitive for most adults with this disease. We developed a nonmyeloablative bone marrow transplantation platform using related, including HLA-haploidentical, donors for patients with sickle cell disease. The regimen consisted of antithymocyte globulin, fludarabine, cyclophosphamide, and total body irradiation, and graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide, mycophenolate mofetil, and tacrolimus or sirolimus. After screening 19 patients, we transplanted 17, 14 from HLA-haploidentical and 3 from HLA-matched related donors. Eleven patients engrafted durably. With a median follow-up of 711 days (minimal follow up 224 days), 10 patients are asymptomatic, and 6 patients are off immunosupression. Only 1 patient developed skin-only acute graft-versus-host disease that resolved without any therapy; no mortality was seen. Nonmyeloablative conditioning with posttransplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide expands the donor pool, making marrow transplantation feasible for most patients with sickle cell disease, and is associated with a low risk of complications, even with haploidentical related donors. Graft failure, 43% in haploidentical pairs, remains a major obstacle but may be acceptable in a fraction of patients if the majority can be cured without serious toxicities. PMID:22955919

  16. Failure of self-disclosure of deferrable risk behaviors associated with transfusion-transmissible infections in blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Horas Tze Hoo; Lee, Shui Shan; Lee, Cheuk-Kwong; Chan, Denise Pui Chung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND To date, most studies on deferral of blood donors have focused on men who have sex with men (MSM) and/or injecting drug users. Few have examined deferrable risk behaviors relating to transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs) in general. This study aimed to examine the prevalence of, and factors associated with, nondisclosure of TTI-related risk behaviors in donors. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS Chinese-speaking donors who had just given blood in Hong Kong were invited to self-complete an anonymous questionnaire. Practices of one or more of seven deferrable risk behaviors associated with TTI were inquired. Factors associated with noncompliance with self-disclosure were evaluated by logistic regression. RESULTS Over a 4-week study period in 2012, a total of 1143 donors were recruited. Overall, 0.2% gave a history of drug injection, 1.7% had had sex with sex worker(s), and 0.3% had had sex with a human immunodeficiency virus–infected partner, while none had been paid for sex. Some 1.5% of male donors reported having same-sex behaviors. Factors associated with noncompliance were male gender (odds ratio [OR] 31.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.7-263.6), having multiple sex partners (OR, 89.7; 95% CI, 28.7-279.9), and previous history of temporary deferral (OR, 11.4; 95% CI, 2.5-53.3). If suspected noncompliance was included, the overall prevalence of nondisclosure of deferrable behaviors could be high at 6.5%. CONCLUSION Albeit uncommon, some donors fail to provide accurate answers to predonation screening questions and are not deferred appropriately. There is room for improvement to make deferral policy acceptable and understandable, so as to minimize the risk of TTI. Efforts are also needed to tackle the paucity of data on noncompliance of non-MSM donors. PMID:25846739

  17. [The prevalence of hepatitis C antibodies among volunteer blood donors with elevated blood transaminase and antibodies to the B virus core antigen].

    PubMed

    Gavilán Carrasco, J C; González Santos, P; Rosario Díaz, E

    1996-05-01

    The use of non-specific markers before 1989 (increased serum transaminase values and antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen) as a screening method for blood donors in an attempt to decrease the incidence of post-transfusional non-A non-B hepatitis (currently hepatitis C virus) was a matter of controversy. To determine the impact of the use of these markers on the detection of blood donors infected with hepatitis C virus, a prospective study was undertaken in Málaga (1988-1989) with 5,003 volunteer donors with two objectives: a) to know the prevalence of these non-specific markers (anti-HBc and increased serum transaminase) and antibodies to HCV (anti-C100) in our blood donor population; b) to determine whether the presence of some of these non specific markers in blood donors was associated with a higher rate of virus C infection. The prevalence of antibodies to HCV in blood donors with increased serum transaminase and/or anti-HBc was significantly higher than the prevalence found among the general blood donor population.

  18. Lymphocyte Changes in Normal Apheresis Donors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    SE -1 R I TY* -tL 1’Ct 4, T- T -J𔃾, A -ý r - H I- A IN 1* P 1, -c A REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE RA) INkr ,, fi;N ;5 E~R UdR2 GOVT ACCESO NO~ 3 ;PE,’>o...donors’ immune status. Furthermore, it is not known if there are cumulative effects resulting from multiple apheresis procedures. Of further concern is... multiple sclerosis, severe atopic eczema, infiammatory bowel disease and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. In contrast, excessive numbers of T8+ suppressor

  19. Potential donor segregation to promote blood donation.

    PubMed

    Martín-Santana, Josefa D; Beerli-Palacio, Asunción

    2008-04-01

    This work is set in the field of social marketing and more specifically in the context of blood donation. Its principal objective focuses on segregating potential donors by using the inhibitors or barriers to a blood donation behaviour as criteria. Moreover, an analysis of the predisposition to donate blood, the intrinsic and extrinsic motivations for donating blood, and the incentives that may stimulate their donation conduct was conducted for each of the four identified groups. The results reveal that the four segments differ significantly in their predisposition to donate, in their motivations and in the incentives that encourage them to donate blood.

  20. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOEpatents

    Eakle, Robert F.; Pak, Donald J.

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  1. Is the Kidney Donor Risk Index a step forward in the assessment of deceased donor kidney quality?

    PubMed

    Lee, Alison P K; Abramowicz, Daniel

    2015-08-01

    The allocation of deceased donor kidneys has become more complex because of the increasing spectrum of donors and recipients age and comorbidities. Several scoring systems have been proposed to evaluate the donor quality of deceased donor kidneys, based on clinical, pathological or combined parameters to predict the risk of renal allograft failure. Nonetheless, besides the dichotomous extended criteria donor (ECD) score, none of the others have been used in clinical practice because of numerous reasons, ranging from lack of robust validation to the technical challenges associated with the evaluation of donor biopsies. Recently, the Kidney Donor Risk Index (KDRI) and Profile Index (KDPI) were introduced in the USA as a refined version of the ECD score. This scoring system is based on 10 donor factors, therefore providing a finely granulated evaluation of donor quality without the need of a kidney biopsy.Here, we review the advantages and drawbacks of the main scoring systems, and we describe the components of the KDRI and KDPI. It is an easily accessible online tool, based solely on donor factors readily available at the moment of the donor offer. Importantly, the KDPI has also been made part of the 'longevity matching' allocation in the USA, where the best kidneys are allocated to the recipients with the longest predicted post-transplant survival. The KDRI should provide us with a robust qualitative evaluation of deceased donor quality, and therefore will probably play a role in deceased donor kidney allocation policies across Europe in the near future. Hopefully, the KDRI and the KDPI should help transplant programmes to better allocate the scarce resource of deceased donor kidneys.

  2. Management to optimize organ procurement in brain dead donors.

    PubMed

    Mascia, L; Mastromauro, I; Viberti, S; Vincenzi, M; Zanello, M

    2009-03-01

    The demand for donor organs continues to exceed the number of organs available for transplantation. Many reasons may account for this discrepancy, such as the lack of consent, the absence of an experienced coordinator team able to solve logistical problems, the use of strict donor criteria, and suboptimal, unstandardized critical care management of potential organ donors. This has resulted in efforts to improve the medical care delivered to potential organ donors, so as to reduce organ shortages, improve organ procurement, and promote graft survival. The physiological changes that follow brain death entail a high incidence of complications jeopardizing potentially transplantable organs. Adverse events include cardiovascular changes, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, and disruption of internal homeostasis. Brain death also upregulates the release of pro-inflammatory molecules. Recent findings support the hypothesis that a preclinical lung injury characterized by an enhanced inflammatory response is present in potential donors and may predispose recipients to an adverse clinical prognosis following lung transplantation. In clinical practice, hypotension, diabetes insipidus, relative hypothermia, and natremia are more common than disseminated intravascular coagulation, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, acute lung injury, and metabolic acidosis. Strategies for the management of organ donors exist and consist of the normalization of donor physiology. Management has been complicated by the recent use of ''marginal'' donors and donors of advanced age or with ''extended'' criteria. Current guidelines suggest that the priority of critical care management for potential organ donors should be shifted from a ''cerebral protective'' strategy to a multimodal strategy aimed to preserve peripheral organ function.

  3. Highly n -doped silicon: Deactivating defects of donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, D. Christoph; Fichtner, Wolfgang

    2004-12-01

    We report insight into the deactivation mechanisms of group V donors in heavily doped silicon. Based on our ab initio calculations, we suggest a three step model for the donor deactivation. In highly n -type Si grown at low temperatures, in the absence of excess native point defects, the intrinsic limit to ne seems to rise in part by means of donor deactivating distortions of the silicon lattice in the proximity of two or more donor atoms that share close sites. Also, donor dimers play an important part in the deactivation at high doping concentrations. While the dimers constitute a stable or metastable inactive donor configuration, the lattice distortions lower the donor levels gradually below the impurity band in degenerate silicon. On the other hand, we find that, in general, none of the earlier proposed deactivating donor pair defects is stable at any position of the Fermi level. The lattice distortions may be viewed as a precursor to Frenkel pair generation and donor-vacancy clustering process (step 2) that account for deactivation at elevated temperature and longer annealing times. Ultimately, and most prominently in the case of the large Sb atoms, precipitation of the donor atoms may set in as the last step of the deactivation process chain.

  4. Liver transplantation in children using organs from young paediatric donors.

    PubMed

    Herden, Uta; Ganschow, Rainer; Briem-Richter, Andrea; Helmke, Knut; Nashan, Bjoern; Fischer, Lutz

    2011-06-01

    Nowadays, most paediatric liver transplant recipients receive a split or other technical variant graft from adult deceased or live donors, because of a lack of available age- and size matched paediatric donors. Few data are available, especially for liver grafts obtained from very young children (<6 years). We analysed all paediatric liver transplantations between 1989 and 2009. Recipients were divided into five groups (1-5) depending on donor age (<1, ≥1 to <6, ≥6 to <16, ≥16 to <45, ≥45 years). Overall, 413 paediatric liver transplantations from deceased donors were performed; 1- and 5-year graft survival rates were 75%, 80%, 78%, 81%, 74% and 75%, 64%, 70%, 67%, 46%, and 1- and 5-year patient survival rates were 88%, 91%, 90%, 89%, 78% and 88%, 84%, 84%, 83%, 63% for groups 1-5, respectively, without significant difference. Eight children received organs from donors younger than 1 year and 45 children received organs from donors between 1 and 6 years of age. Overall, vascular complications occurred in 13.2% of patients receiving organs from donors younger than 6 years. Analysis of our data revealed that the usage of liver grafts from donors younger than 6 years is a safe procedure. The outcome was comparable with grafts from older donors with excellent graft and patient survival, even for donors younger than 1 year.

  5. Recovery of Platelet Count among Apheresis Platelet Donors

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnamoorthy; Anandan, Ashwin; Panicker, Vinod Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Increase in awareness regarding use of single donor platelets and the availability of technology has resulted in increased platelet pheresis procedures. The interval between two succesive plateletpheresis donations is much less compared to whole blood donations. Plateletpheresis procedures are associated with short term and long term adverse events. The effect of plateletpheresis on haematopoietic system remains significant. Aim To study the recovery of platelet count to baseline in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods Fifty, first time apheresis donors were followed for platelet count recovery. Platelet count was measured before donation and at 30 minutes, 48 hours, 7th day and 14th day post-donation. Donor platelet count recovery to baseline was observed during the two week period. Results were analysed statistically, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Platelet count recovered to baseline by 7th day post-donation in 50% of donors in groups I (Pre-donation platelet count 1.5 lacs/μl to 2.2 lacs/μl) and II (Donors with platelet count >2.2 lacs/μl to 2.75 lacs/μl), 30% of donors in group III (Donors with platelet count >2.75 lacs/μl to 3.5 lacs/μl) of the donors. Donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in 85% of donors by day 14 in across the three groups. Recruitment of platelets from spleen was observed in donors with pre-donation platelet count on the lower limit of normal. Conclusion By day 7, donor’s platelet count recovered to baseline in majority of the donors. Allowing enough recovery periods for donor platelet count, the minimum interval between two apheresis donations can be 7 days till more prospective studies conclude on the frequency and minimum interval between plateletpheresis donations. PMID:28208861

  6. Survey of the seroprovalence of HTLV I/II in hemodialysis patients and blood donors in Urmia.

    PubMed

    Khameneh, Zakieh Rostamzadeh; Baradaran, Mohammad; Sepehrvand, Nariman

    2008-09-01

    Human T lymphocytotropic virus HTLV is a virus from retroviridae family, and more than 20 million people are infected with this virus worldwide. It can cause leukemia/lymphoma in adults, tropical spastic paralysis, HTLV associated myelopathy, spastic paraparesis, tropical myelopathy (HAM/TSP), and some other nervous system diseases. It is transmitted by means of blood products via blood transfusion. In Iran, except the Great Khorasan region, none of blood products undergo screening for HTLV. Immunodeficiency in HD patients, results in increased risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HTLV-I/II antibody among hemo-dialysis patients and healthy blood donors in Urmia, Iran. A cross-sectional study was conducted from April 2005 to January 2006 among healthy blood donors and in 2006 among hemodialysis patients. The serum of 2046 blood donors and 95 Hemodialysis patients was checked with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for anti HTLV-I/II, and positive cases were confirmed by western blot. Three seropositive cases among 95 hemodialysis patients were detected, and only one of them was confirmed by western blot. Of the healthy blood donors 1910 (93.4%) were males and 136 (6.6%) were females. Serum of 1997 (97.6%) subjects was negative, and 49 (2.6%) cases were positive for HTLV by ELISA. Among the positive cases western blot confirmed only 7 (14.3%) persons as HTLV positive, 37 (75.5%) as negative, and 5 (10.2%) as indeterminate. Among the 7 positive cases 6 (85.6%) were infected with HTLV-I, and only one (14.3%) with HTLV-I /II infection. Total Serologic prevalence of HTLV in healthy blood donors was 0.34%. We conclude that such high serologic prevalence in the population of blood donors in Urmia city, suggests the high probability of transmission through blood transfusion, and therefore screening of blood donors for human T-lymphocyte virus is essential in this region. HD patients should be screened for HTLV and positive

  7. Donor Motivations and Decision Making: Understanding the Major Gift Development Process from a Donor's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Anna Lee

    2015-01-01

    Higher education is faced with a challenge to its traditional funding structure. As a result, academic programs must seek alternative sources of support. Chief among these sources is philanthropy in the form of major gifts. Insight into donor motivations and decision making when approached to consider a major gift may help to maximize the success…

  8. Deceased donor kidney transplantation from donors with acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Mekeel, K L; Moss, A A; Mulligan, D C; Chakkera, H A; Hamawi, K; Mazur, M J; Heilman, R L; Reddy, K S

    2009-07-01

    With the current shortage of solid organs for transplant, the transplant community continues to look for ways to increase the number of organ donors, including extending the criteria for donation. In rhabdomyolysis, the byproducts of skeletal muscle breakdown leak into the circulation resulting in acute renal failure in up to 30% of patients. In nonbrain dead patients, this condition is reversible and most patients recover full renal function. Seven potential donors had rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure as evidenced by the presence of urine hemoglobin, plasma creatinine kinase levels of greater than five times the normal and elevated creatinine. One donor required dialysis. At our institution, 10 kidneys were transplanted from the seven donors. Two grafts had immediate function, five grafts experienced slow graft function and three grafts had delayed graft function requiring hemodialysis. At a mean of 8.7 months posttransplant (2.4-25.2 months), all patients have good graft function, are off dialysis and have a mean creatinine of 1.3 (0.7-1.8). In conclusion, our experience suggests that rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure should not be a contraindication for donation, although recipients may experience slow or delayed graft function.

  9. The Willed Body Donor Interview Project: Medical Student and Donor Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohl, Michael; Holman, Alexis; Mueller, Dean A.; Gruppen, Larry D.; Hildebrandt, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    The Anatomical Donations Program at the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) has begun a multiphase project wherein interviews of donors will be recorded and later shown to medical students who participate in the anatomical dissection course. The first phase of this project included surveys of both current UMMS medical students and donors…

  10. [Lung cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Sánchez González, M

    2014-01-01

    Lung cancer is a very important disease, curable in early stages. There have been trials trying to show the utility of chest x-ray or computed tomography in Lung Cancer Screening for decades. In 2011, National Lung Screening Trial results were published, showing a 20% reduction in lung cancer mortality in patients with low dose computed tomography screened for three years. These results are very promising and several scientific societies have included lung cancer screening in their guidelines. Nevertheless we have to be aware of lung cancer screening risks, such as: overdiagnosis, radiation and false positive results. Moreover, there are many issues to be solved, including choosing the appropriate group to be screened, the duration of the screening program, intervals between screening and its cost-effectiveness. Ongoing trials will probably answer some of these questions. This article reviews the current evidence on lung cancer screening.

  11. [Prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection among blood donors in Santa Fe Province, Argentina].

    PubMed

    Brun, Roque O; Astarloa, Laura; Salomon, Horacio E; Biglione, Mirna M

    2004-01-01

    Subsequent to the National Epidemiologic Surveillance Program developed in 1997 by the National AIDS Program, anti-HTLV-I/II antibodies among blood donors in Santa Fe Province started to be detected. On the basis of this initial finding, it was regarded of interest to evaluate the true HTLV-I/II seroprevalence in this population during a four-year survey. Thus, from 1997 up to 2002, 9425 samples were studied from 17 out of the 19 provincial departments. Out of the total sampling, 38 proved reactive by agglutination techniques, 18 of which were confirmed by western blot (WB). Out of the latter, 10 were HTLV-I/II seropositive with a final prevalence of 0.1% (10/9425), whereas 7 were indeterminate and 1 negative. Among these 10 confirmed sera, 2 (0.02%) were HTLV, 3 (0.03%) HTLV-I and 5 (0.05%) HTLV-II. It should be highlighted that the presence of HTLV-I/II infection in blood donors in Santa Fe Province was demonstrated for the first time, with a prevalence greater than that reported for blood donors in non-endemic Argentine areas. Such findings confirm the need of corresponding systematic screening through regulatory blood bank norms in Santa Fe Province.

  12. [Seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 in blood donors from Misiones Province].

    PubMed

    Malan, Richard; Berini, Carolina A; Eirin, María E; Delfino, Cecilia M; Pedrozo, Williams; Krupp, Ramón; García Plichta, Atilio; Biglione, Mirna M

    2010-01-01

    Human T-cell Lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1), the first human oncoretrovirus to be discovered, is the etiologic agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1 Associated Mielopathy or Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP). It is endemic worldwide, including the North of Argentina where both associated diseases have also been detected. No etiologic role has been described for HTLV-2, although it has been associated with HAM/TSP-like neurologic syndromes. Both retroviruses are endemic in native populations of The Americas, Africa and at-risk populations. They are transmitted through sex contact, parenterally and from mother to child. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 in a blood donor population from Misiones province. A total of 6912 accepted blood donations in 2008 were analyzed. HTLV-1/2 screening was performed with ELISA and particle agglutination, and reactive samples were confirmed by Western Blot. From the total, 5 samples resulted seropositive with a final prevalence of 0.00072. Out of the 5 positive samples, one was an HTLV, three HTLV-1 and one HTLV-2. These blood donors were residents of Posadas, Eldorado and Oberá, with no risk antecedents. This study demonstrates the presence of HTLV-1/2 in a population of Misiones with a prevalence rate similar to those reported among blood donors from non-endemic areas.

  13. Cysticercus antibodies and antigens in serum from blood donors from Pondicherry, India.

    PubMed

    Parija, Subhash Chandra; Balamurungan, N; Sahu, Priyadarshi Soumyaranjan; Subbaiah, S P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to screen the serum of blood donors, which are apparently healthy and residing in Pondicherry or its neighboring districts of Tamil Nadu State, for specific detection of Cysticercus antigens and antibodies. A total of 216 blood samples were collected from blood donors at the Central Blood Bank, JIPMER Hospital, Pondicherry, India during January and February 2004. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to demonstrate anti-Cysticercus antibodies and the Co-agglutination (CoA) was used to detect antigen in sera. 14 (6.48 %) males were positive for either anti-Cysticercus antibodies or antigens. Of these eight sera were positive for anti-Cysticercus antibodies and six were positive for antigens. Results of the present study show that serum Cysticercus antigen detection may be a useful adjunct to antibody testing for seroprevalence studies of cysticercosis in the community. The present study is the first kind of study, carried out to determine both cysticercal antibodies as well as antigens in the serum samples collected from the healthy blood donors.

  14. Comparison between psychosocial long-term outcomes of recipients and donors after adult-to-adult living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Noma, Shun'ichi; Hayashi, Akiko; Uehara, Minako; Uemoto, Shinji; Murai, Toshiya

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial states of recipients and donors several years after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and to find out the pre-transplant predictors of desirable post-transplant psychosocial states. The recipients and donors of adult-to-adult LDLT at Kyoto University Hospital, Japan, from November 2001 through July 2003 were interviewed and examined by means of questionnaires about anxiety, depression, and quality of life (QOL), and the participants were evaluated by the same test batteries sent by mail three to five yr after LDLT. Twenty-seven pairs of recipients and donors, 13 recipients, and three donors participated in this study. The recipients and the donors had a decline in social QOL. The main predictor of psychosocial states of the recipients was the length of wait for LDLT, and the predictors of the donors were family or support system availability and recipients' depressive states at LDLT. The donors who were spouses of the recipients had better QOL than other donors. It might be better to perform LDLT as soon as possible once LDLT has been judged to be necessary, and the relative who is on close terms with the recipient should be selected as donor.

  15. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: The REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Tobler, Leslie H.; Simon, Toby L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency. We evaluated the effects of blood donation intensity on iron and hemoglobin in a prospective study. Methods Four cohorts of frequent and first time or reactivated blood donors (no donation in 2 years), female and male, totaling 2425 were characterized and followed as they donated blood frequently. At enrollment and the final visit, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Models to predict iron deficiency and hemoglobin deferral were developed. Iron depletion was defined at two levels: Iron Deficient Erythropoiesis (IDE) [log (soluble transferrin receptor/ferritin ≥ 2.07)] and Absent Iron Stores (AIS) (ferritin < 12 ng/mL). Results Among returning female first time/reactivated donors, 20% and 51% had AIS and IDE at their final visit, respectively; corresponding proportions for males were 8% and 20%. Among female frequent donors who returned, 27% and 62% had AIS and IDE, respectively, while corresponding proportions for males were 18% and 47%. Predictors of IDE and/or AIS included a higher frequency of blood donation in the last 2 years, a shorter interdonation interval, and being female and young; conversely, taking iron supplements reduced the risk of iron depletion. Predictors of hemoglobin deferral included female gender, Black race and a shorter interdonation interval. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of iron depletion in frequent blood donors. Increasing the interdonation interval would reduce the prevalence of iron depletion and hemoglobin deferral. Alternatively, replacement with iron supplements may allow frequent donation without the adverse outcome of iron depletion. PMID:22023513

  16. Clinical outcomes of and patient satisfaction with different incision methods for donor hepatectomy in living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Suh, Suk-Won; Lee, Kwang-Woong; Lee, Jeong-Moo; Choi, YoungRok; Yi, Nam-Joon; Suh, Kyung-Suk

    2015-01-01

    With the decrease in the average donor age and the increase in the proportion of female donors, both donor safety and cosmetic appearance are major concerns for some living donors in living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) because a large abdominal incision is needed that may influence the donor's quality of life. In all, 429 donors who underwent donor hepatectomy for LDLT from April 2010 to February 2013 were included in the study. Donors were divided into 3 groups based on the type of incision: conventional inverted L incision (n = 268; the C group), upper midline incision (n = 147; the M group), and transverse incision with laparoscopy (n = 14; the T group). Demographics, perioperative outcomes, postoperative complications for donors and recipients, and questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction with cosmetic appearance were compared. The mean age was lower (P < 0.001), the female ratio was higher (P < 0.001), and the body mass index (BMI) was lower (P = 0.017) in the M and T groups versus the C group. The operation time (P < 0.001) and the hospital stay duration (P = 0.010) were lowest in the M group. The postoperative complications did not differ by the type of incision and also did not show any significant effect in a multivariate analysis (P = 0.867). In the assessment of questionnaire-derived donor satisfaction matched by age (±5 years), sex, graft, height, weight, and BMI, a more satisfactory cosmetic result and more self-confidence were noted in the M and T groups versus the C group. In conclusion, the use of a minimal incision is technically feasible for some donor hepatectomy cases with a favorable safety profile. The patient satisfaction levels were greater with improved cosmetic outcomes in cases of minimal incision versus cases of conventional incision.

  17. Improving Photoconductance of Fluorinated Donors with Fluorinated Acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Garner, Logan E.; Larson, Bryon; Oosterhout, Stefan; Owczarczyk, Zbyslaw; Olson, Dana C.; Kopidakis, Nikos; Boltalina, Olga V.; Strauss, Steven H.; Braunecker, Wade A.

    2016-11-21

    This work investigates the influence of fluorination of both donor and acceptor materials on the generation of free charge carriers in small molecule donor/fullerene acceptor BHJ OPV active layers. A fluorinated and non-fluorinated small molecule analogue were synthesized and their optoelectronic properties characterized. The intrinsic photoconductance of blends of these small molecule donors was investigated using time-resolved microwave conductivity. Blends of the two donor molecules with a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene (PC70BM) as well as a fluorinated fullerene (C60(CF3)2-1) were investigated using 5% and 50% fullerene loading. We demonstrate for the first time that photoconductance in a 50:50 donor:acceptor BHJ blend using a fluorinated fullerene can actually be improved relative to a traditional non-fluorinated fullerene by fluorinating the donor molecule as well.

  18. A brown dwarf mass donor in an accreting binary.

    PubMed

    Littlefair, S P; Dhillon, V S; Marsh, T R; Gänsicke, Boris T; Southworth, John; Watson, C A

    2006-12-08

    A long-standing and unverified prediction of binary star evolution theory is the existence of a population of white dwarfs accreting from substellar donor stars. Such systems ought to be common, but the difficulty of finding them, combined with the challenge of detecting the donor against the light from accretion, means that no donor star to date has a measured mass below the hydrogen burning limit. We applied a technique that allowed us to reliably measure the mass of the unseen donor star in eclipsing systems. We were able to identify a brown dwarf donor star, with a mass of 0.052 +/- 0.002 solar mass. The relatively high mass of the donor star for its orbital period suggests that current evolutionary models may underestimate the radii of brown dwarfs.

  19. Donor-associated malignancy in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Cai-Bin; Gerber, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Skin cancer cells with donor genotype have been identified in allogeneic transplant patients; however, the donor contribution to the recipient’s epithelial malignancy remains to be established. In this issue of the JCI, Verneuil et al. provide the first evidence for donor contribution to the malignant epithelium of skin squamous cell carcinoma in a kidney transplant recipient. This case report may have important implications for cancer research and clinical care of long-surviving kidney transplant patients. PMID:23979157

  20. [Volunteer blood donors--relation between gender and motivation].

    PubMed

    Andjelić, D

    1991-01-01

    The study included 1,825 persons, aged from 18 to 65 years. A representative sample was formed of 1,325 persons who donated blood for the first time, and of 500 persons who donated blood five or more times till the moment of investigation. Among blood donors in the Republic of Serbia, regardless the number of blood donations, the percentage of female donors is significantly lower compared to the percentage of male blood donors. The first time donor population consisted of 22.26% of female and 77.74% of male blood donors. The multiple blood donor population was composed of 15.8% of female and 84.2% of male blood donors. Motives for blood donation were studied in 500 persons who donated blood five or more times. The following motives were recorded: a) altruism in 85% of multiple donors; b) the other motives (habit, superiority and/or inferiority complex, self-punishment and benefit) were recorded in 8% of them; c) in 7% of donors the primary motive for blood donation could not be determined.

  1. Paid Living Donation and Growth of Deceased Donor Programs.

    PubMed

    Ghahramani, Nasrollah

    2016-06-01

    Limited organ availability in all countries has stimulated discussion about incentives to increase donation. Since 1988, Iran has operated the only government-sponsored paid living donor (LD) kidney transplant program. This article reviews aspects of the Living Unrelated Donor program and development of deceased donation in Iran. Available evidence indicates that in the partially regulated Iranian Model, the direct negotiation between donors and recipients fosters direct monetary relationship with no safeguards against mutual exploitation. Brokers, the black market and transplant tourism exist, and the waiting list has not been eliminated. Through comparison between the large deceased donor program in Shiraz and other centers in Iran, this article explores the association between paid donation and the development of a deceased donor program. Shiraz progressively eliminated paid donor transplants such that by 2011, 85% of kidney transplants in Shiraz compared with 27% across the rest of Iran's other centers were from deceased donors. Among 26 centers, Shiraz undertakes the largest number of deceased donor kidney transplants, most liver transplants, and all pancreas transplants. In conclusion, although many patients with end stage renal disease have received transplants through the paid living donation, the Iranian Model now has serious flaws and is potentially inhibiting substantial growth in deceased donor organ transplants in Iran.

  2. Emotional support to apheresis donors: effect and implication.

    PubMed

    Pagliariccio, Antonella; Vavic, Nataša; Bulajić, Milica; Marinozzi, Maria

    2013-06-01

    It is widely accepted that well-being and satisfaction are unavoidably interlinked requirements that predispose donors to become regular. Detecting in advance even the mildest symptoms of discomfort during first donation, that may simply be the result of an unknown experience, is useful in preventing more disturbing symptoms (mens sana in corpore sano). Being able to recognize any form of uneasiness, even when not immediately apparent, creates in donors the awareness that staff is professionally skilled and really interested in their safety and comfort. This reinforces the staff/donor relationship and gives donors the chance to keep their calm and to learn how to manage disturbing emotions. Emotional support given to first-time platelet familiar donors during donation prevented or mitigated the onset of vaso-vagal symptoms and also freed positive emotions that reinforced the desire to donate. As a result, 62% of these donors, informed about the shortage of voluntary platelet donors, spontaneously gave their address contact to be called also for non-familiar recipients. The application of the psychological approach in Italy increased the rate of donor return to 97% and its partial application in Serbia was useful in converting familiar donors into voluntary ones.

  3. Expanding the donor pool: donation after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Elgharably, Haytham; Shafii, Alexis E; Mason, David P

    2015-01-01

    Lung transplantation (LTx) is the definitive treatment of patients with end-stage lung disease. Availability of donor lungs remains the primary limitation and leads to substantial wait-list mortality. Efforts to expand the donor pool have included a resurgence of interest in the use of donation after cardiac death (DCD) lungs. Unique in its physiology, lung viability seems more tolerant to the variable durations of ischemia that occur in DCD donors. Initial experience with DCD LTx is promising and, in combination with ex vivo lung perfusion systems, seems a valuable opportunity to expand the lung donor pool.

  4. Recruiting and retaining plasmapheresis donors: A critical belief analysis.

    PubMed

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Masser, Barbara M; White, Katherine M; Starfelt, Louise C

    2015-06-01

    This paper identifies critical beliefs underpinning intentions to commence and continue plasmapheresis donation. Whole blood (n = 624) and first-time plasmapheresis (n = 460) donors completed a cross-sectional survey assessing the belief-base of the theory of planned behaviour and rated their plasmapheresis donation intentions. While the idea of red blood cells being returned was a key deterrent for all donors, critical beliefs underlying commencement and continuation in the plasmapheresis donor panel differed and varied as a function of blood donation history. Findings will assist the development of targeted persuasion messages to optimise recruitment and retention of plasmapheresis donors in a non-remunerated context.

  5. Improving the organ donor card system in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David

    2013-08-22

    This paper analyses the current organ donor card system in Switzerland and identifies five problems that may be partially responsible for the country's low deceased organ donation rates. There are two minor issues concerning the process of obtaining a donor card: the Swisstransplant website understates the prospective benefits of donation, and the ease with which donor cards can be obtained raises questions regarding whether any consent to donation provided is truly informed. Furthermore, there are two major practical problems that might affect those who carry an organ donor card: the lack of a central donor registry increases the likelihood that donors' wishes will be "lost", and there is a high probability that family members will veto organ donation. The fact that these two practical problems are not mentioned to potential donors by Swisstransplant constitutes the fifth problem. Donation rates would probably improve if more accurate information about the benefits of donation were provided to potential donors, a central donor registry were created, and families were not permitted to veto donation from those on the registry.

  6. Strategies for evaluation of suitable donors: Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Venettoni, Sante; Emilio, Sergio Curtoni; Scalamogna, Mario; Grossi, Paolo; Gianelli, Andrea; Grigioni, Walter; Ciancio, Bruno Christian; Rossi, Massimo; Gabbrielli, Francesco; Rizzato, Lucia; Costa, Alessandro Nanni

    2004-01-01

    Italy was lacking standardised procedures for donor safety evaluation. We developed practice guidelines, while a panel of experts coordinated by the National Transplant Centre, is available 24 hours a day to support decisions in difficult cases. The guidelines identify five levels of risk and give recommendations for the utilization of donors with HBV and HCV infections as well as for malignancies with negligible or very low risk of transmission. In conclusion we aim to standardize the process of donor evaluation across Italy, to increase the pool of utilised donors and to reduce the risk of communicable disease transmission.

  7. Improvement of a rapid screening test for chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Iacobini, M; Duse, M; Di Coste, A; Balducci, L

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of CGD is made by demonstrating absent or markedly reduced oxidase activity in stimulated neutrophils. The screening test proposed is based upon the naked eye evaluation of the reduction of NBT on a solid surface. It seems to be a useful tool for rapid and inexpensive detection of CGD patients, especially for large-scale screening purposes. The test was carried out on forty-five subjects: two males affected by CGD, three female carriers and forty healthy donors. The test confirmed the results obtained with flow cytometric and NBT assays.

  8. [Standardization of serological tests for Chagas disease: an immunoenzymatic test for blood donors triage].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A W; Belem, Z R; Moura, M E; Camargo, M E

    1991-01-01

    In the serological diagnosis of Chagas disease large divergences may be found even between laboratories with experience, as a consequence of different criteria for the standardization of the tests. To standardize a immunoenzymatic test developed primarily for screening blood donors, serum panels were carefully chosen so as to best represent chagasic and non-chagasic populations. Produced for the highest sensibility and stability, the new reagent (bioELISA cruzi, Biolab Diagnóstica S/A, Brasil), was tested in serum from 1648 patients 219 with Chagas disease and 104 with other diseases, plus a comparison with well standardized immunofluorescence and hemagglutination tests in 1325 sera. In the immunoenzymatic assays, the cut off was indicated by the absorbance value of a chagasic serum showing a minimal reactivity. ELISA sensibility was 0.9954 and specificity 0.9969, as co-negativity. False positive results were absent with sera from syphilis, toxoplasmosis, mononucleosis and high titered sera for antistreptolysin 0 antibodies. However they were seen in 5 to 15 cases of tegumentar leishmaniasis, 1 of 12 Kala-azar 1 of 15 rheumatoid arthritis and 1 of 12 systemic lupus erythematosus. The high sensibility in chagasics and high specificity in the general population indicate the confiability of the immunoenzymatic assay for screening blood donors and even to confirm a clinical diagnosis of Chagas' disease.

  9. On the effect of nuclear bridge modes on donor-acceptor electronic coupling in donor-bridge-acceptor molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Daly; Toroker, Maytal Caspary; Speiser, Shammai; Peskin, Uri

    2009-03-01

    We report a theoretical study of intra-molecular electronic coupling in a symmetric DBA (donor-bridge-acceptor) complex, in which a donor electronic site is coupled to an acceptor site by way of intervening orbitals of a molecular bridge unit. In the off-resonant (deep tunneling) regime of electronic transport, the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (MO's) of the DBA system are split into distinguishable donor/acceptor and bridge orbitals. The effect of geometrical changes at the bridge on the donor/acceptor electronic energy manifold is studied for local stretching and bending modes. It is demonstrated that the energy splitting in the manifold of donor/acceptor unoccupied MOs changes in response to such changes, as assumed in simple McConnell-type models. Limitations of the simple models are revealed where the electronic charging of the bridge orbitals correlates with increasing donor/acceptor orbital energy splitting only for stretching but not for bending bridge modes.

  10. Reduced-intensity bone marrow transplantation from an alternative unrelated donor for myelodysplastic syndrome of first-donor origin.

    PubMed

    Komeno, Yukiko; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Kandabashi, Koji; Kawazu, Masahito; Goyama, Susumu; Takeshita, Masataka; Nannya, Yasuhito; Niino, Miyuki; Nakamoto, Tetsuya; Kurokawa, Mineo; Tsujino, Shiho; Ogawa, Seishi; Aoki, Katsunori; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-03-01

    A male patient had a relapse of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) 2 years after BMT from a female matched unrelated donor. Conventional cytogenetics, FISH, and short-tandem repeat chimerism analysis proved a relapse of donor origin. He underwent reduced-intensity BMT after a conditioning with fludarabine and busulfan, since he had impaired renal, liver, and pulmonary functions. Chimerism analysis on day 28 after the second BMT showed mixed chimerism of the first and the second donors, which later turned to full second-donor chimerism on day 60. He developed grade II acute GVHD of the skin and cytomegalovirus reactivation, but both were improved with methylprednisolone and ganciclovir, respectively. He remains in complete remission 6 months after the second BMT. Reduced-intensity second BMT from an alternative donor appeared to be a tolerable treatment option for donor-derived leukemia/MDS after the first conventional transplantation.

  11. New normal values not related to age and sex, of glomerular filtration rate by (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging, for the evaluation of living kidney graft donors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuyi; Shao, Yahui; Wang, Yanming; Tian, Jun; Sun, Ben; Ru, Yanhui; Zhang, Aimin; Hao, Junwen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the normal values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by technetium-99m diaethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) renal dynamic imaging for living kidney graft donors. In a total of 212 candidate donors, GFR was examined using (99m)Tc-DTPA renal dynamic imaging. Donors with GFR≥80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and as low as with GFR≥70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) but a normal endogenous creatinine clearance rate (CCr) were quantified for living kidney donation. Differences in GFR levels based on sex and age were analyzed using rank correlation coefficient. Out of the 212 candidates, 161 were finally selected as kidney graft donors. The double kidney total GFR between the male and female donor groups, the GFR levels among differently-aged donor groups, and the GFR levels between the elderly (>55 years) and young- and middle-aged (≤55 years) donor groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05). After kidney donation, renal function measured by blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine of all donors returned to normal within one week, and no serious complications were noticed. In conclusion, renal dynamic imaging by (99m)Tc-DTPA had a good accuracy and repeatability in GFR evaluation for living kidney donors. Candidate donors with GFR between 70mL/(min×1.73m(2)) and 80mL/(min×1.73m(2)) can be selected as kidney donors after strict screening. In living kidney donors GFR is not significantly correlated with age or sex.

  12. Screening for antinuclear antibodies by enzyme immunoassay.

    PubMed

    Jaskowski, T D; Schroder, C; Martins, T B; Mouritsen, C L; Litwin, C M; Hill, H R

    1996-04-01

    Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) ia most widely used method in clin clinical laboratories to screen for autoantibodies against a wide variety of nuclear antigens. Recently, a number of antinuclear antibody (ANA) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) screens have become commercially available and claim to be an alternative method to screen for ANAs. Given the subjectivity of technical interpretation of IFA and the high number of ANA negative samples, a suitable EIA method for ANA screening would be beneficial to clinical laboratories with large samples volumes. Five ANA EIA screens were compared (Elias, Helix, Sanofi, TheraTest and Zeus) to IFA using a human epithelial cell line (HEp-2). Sera from 601 patients submitted to our reference laboratory for autoimmune testing, and from 202 normal healthy blood donors, were included in this study. Samples with discordant results between IFA and EIA were further analyzed using single antigen EIAs for SSA, SSB, Sm, RNP, Scl-70, histones, dsDNA, and ssDNA. Analyses were based on clinically significant IFA titers of > or equal to 1:160 as positive and <1:40 as negative. When compared to IFA, agreement, sensitivity and specificity for each ANA EIA screen were as follows: Elias: 87.0%, 69.5% and 97.9%; Helix: 94.6%, 90.2%, and 97.3%; Sanofi: 95.0%, 93.7%, and 95.9%; TheraTest: 95.3%, 97.7%, and 93.5%; Zeus: 87.1%, 96.2%, and 81.4%, respectively. In conclusion, screening for ANAs by EIA using several commercial assays was both sensitive and specific when compared to IFA. Moreover, the EIA is objective and much less labor intensive when screening a large number of clinical specimens. None of the EIAs were 100% sensitive and, thus, may fail to detect a few of the nonspecific ANAs that demonstrate atypical as well as classical IFA patterns. The advantages of employing these nonsubjective assays to screen out the vast majority of ANA negative sera is clear. The authors still recommend confirming titers and patterns of sera with positive EIA

  13. Blood safety implications of donors using HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Seed, C R; Yang, H; Lee, J F

    2017-03-31

    HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is the use of one or more antiretroviral medications (in combination) to prevent HIV infection. The most commonly used PrEP medication (Truvada(®) , Gilead Sciences, Inc.) acts by inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. If someone who is using PrEP unknowingly becomes HIV infected (termed 'PrEP breakthrough infection'), there may be suppressed viral replication resulting in a virus level undetectable by the most sensitive HIV NAT. Failure to seroconvert and seroreversion (loss of previously detectable HIV antibodies) have also both been observed with 2nd, 3rd and 4th generation screening immunoassays, as well as Western blot assays. If such a person was tested in the course of donating blood, the results may therefore be difficult to interpret. The index of suspicion for possible PrEP 'interference' should be highest in the context of concomitant low-level positive or 'greyzone' reactivity on HIV NAT and serological tests, which is an unusual pattern in acutely HIV-infected blood donors. Another possibility is detectable HIV RNA with negative HIV serology (i.e. a potential 'NAT yield' case) but without subsequent HIV seroconversion (or disappearance of HIV RNA). Excluding antiretroviral therapy or PrEP use by the donor in such circumstances would be important. The current rarity of PrEP breakthrough infection indicates that any potential safety risk is likely very small. However, considering the increasing use of PrEP we feel it is prudent for those interpreting HIV donor screening test results to consider the potential for PrEP interference.

  14. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B.; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1–9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3–13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion. PMID:26999057

  15. Hepatitis B, HIV, and Syphilis Seroprevalence in Pregnant Women and Blood Donors in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Mbah, Rahel; Rembert, Nicole J.; Tancho, Samuel; Halle-Ekane, Gregory E.; Enah, Comfort; Welty, Thomas K.; Tih, Pius M.; Tita, Alan T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated seroprevalence and correlates of selected infections in pregnant women and blood donors in a resource-limited setting. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of laboratory seroprevalence data from pregnant women and voluntary blood donors from facilities in Cameroon in 2014. Rapid tests were performed to detect hepatitis B surface antigen, syphilis treponemal antibodies, and HIV-1/2 antibodies. Blood donations were also tested for hepatitis C and malaria. Results. The seroprevalence rates and ranges among 7069 pregnant women were hepatitis B 4.4% (1.1–9.6%), HIV 6% (3.0–10.2%), and syphilis 1.7% (1.3–3.8%) with significant variability among the sites. Correlates of infection in pregnancy in adjusted regression models included urban residence for hepatitis B (aOR 2.9, CI 1.6–5.4) and HIV (aOR 3.5, CI 1.9–6.7). Blood donor seroprevalence rates and ranges were hepatitis B 6.8% (5.0–8.8%), HIV 2.2% (1.4–2.8%), syphilis 4% (3.3–4.5%), malaria 1.9%, and hepatitis C 1.7% (0.5–2.5%). Conclusions. Hepatitis B, HIV, and syphilis infections are common among pregnant women and blood donors in Cameroon with higher rates in urban areas. Future interventions to reduce vertical transmission should include universal screening for these infections early in pregnancy and provision of effective prevention tools including the birth dose of univalent hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:27578957

  16. Motivation and Social Capital among prospective blood donors in three large blood centers in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalez, Thelma T.; Di Lorenzo Oliveira, Claudia; Carneiro-Proietti, Anna Barbara F.; Moreno, Elizabeth C.; Miranda, Carolina; Larsen, Nina; Wright, David; Leão, Silvana; Loureiro, Paula; de Almeida-Neto, Cesar; Lopes, Maria-Inês; Proietti, Fernando A.; Custer, Brian; Sabino, Ester

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies analyzing motivation factors that lead to blood donation have found altruism to be the primary motivation factor; however social capital has not been analyzed in this context. Our study examines the association between motivation factors (altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal) and social capital (cognitive and structural) across three large blood centers in Brazil. Study Design and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 7,635 donor candidates from October 15 through November 20, 2009. Participants completed self-administered questionnaires on demographics, previous blood donation, HIV testing and knowledge, social capital and donor motivations. Enrollment was determined prior to the donor screening process. Results Among participants, 43.5% and 41.7% expressed high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal respectively, while only 26.9% expressed high levels of self-interest. More high self-interest was observed at Hemope-Recife (41.7%). Of participants, 37.4% expressed high levels of cognitive social capital while 19.2% expressed high levels of structural social capital. More high cognitive and structural social capital was observed at Hemope-Recife (47.3% and 21.3%, respectively). High cognitive social capital was associated with high levels of altruism, self-interest and response to direct appeal. Philanthropic and high social altruism was associated with high levels of altruism and response to direct appeal. Conclusion Cognitive and structural social capital and social altruism are associated with altruism and response to direct appeal, while only cognitive social capital is associated with self-interest. Designing marketing campaigns with these aspects in mind may help blood banks attract potential blood donors more efficiently. PMID:22998740

  17. Recent developments in nitric oxide donor drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M R; Megson, I L

    2007-01-01

    During the 1980s, the free radical, nitric oxide (NO), was discovered to be a crucial signalling molecule, with wide-ranging functions in the cardiovascular, nervous and immune systems. Aside from providing a credible explanation for the actions of organic nitrates and sodium nitroprusside that have long been used in the treatment of angina and hypertensive crises respectively, the discovery generated great hopes for new NO-based treatments for a wide variety of ailments. Decades later, however, we are still awaiting novel licensed agents in this arena, despite an enormous research effort to this end. This review explores some of the most promising recent advances in NO donor drug development and addresses the challenges associated with NO as a therapeutic agent. PMID:17401442

  18. Donors' attitudes towards body donation for dissection.

    PubMed

    Richardson, R; Hurwitz, B

    1995-07-29

    We report a survey in the UK of potential whole-body donors for dissection. 218 people (age range 19-97 years) answered a postal questionnaire, giving information about themselves, their reasons for donation, attitudes towards the dead body, funeral preferences and medical giving and receiving. In addition to altruism, motives included the wish to avoid funeral ceremonies, to avoid waste, and in a few cases, to evade the expense of a funeral. 44% understood that their bodies would be used as teaching material, 42% for experiments. Whilst 69% believed in one or more supernatural phenomena, only 39% said they were religious. 69% requested cremation after dissection; 2% wanted to be buried. The notion of money incentives to promote donation was overwhelmingly rejected.

  19. Stretching Screens and Imaginations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douthwaite, Shelaugh

    1983-01-01

    Secondary students utilize a simplified technique to make silk screen prints, which can be printed onto T-shirts. The only materials needed from art suppliers are a few squeegees and a few yards of polyester screen mesh. (RM)

  20. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  1. Cancer Screening Overview (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... is important that you understand the benefits and harms of screening tests and make an informed choice ... provider . Every screening test has both benefits and harms. Your health care provider should talk to you ...

  2. Screening for VHL

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the most harmful consequences of this gene mutation. It is important to diagnose and begin screening ... to determine if a child has a VHL mutation and needs to follow the recommended screening. The ...

  3. Video Screen Capture Basics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunbar, Laura

    2014-01-01

    This article is an introduction to video screen capture. Basic information of two software programs, QuickTime for Mac and BlueBerry Flashback Express for PC, are also discussed. Practical applications for video screen capture are given.

  4. Lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Lynn T; Tanner, Nichole T; Gould, Michael K; Silvestri, Gerard A

    2015-01-01

    The United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) in adults of age 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and are currently smoking or have quit within the past 15 years. This recommendation is largely based on the findings of the National Lung Screening Trial. Both policy-level and clinical decision-making about LDCT screening must consider the potential benefits of screening (reduced mortality from lung cancer) and possible harms. Effective screening requires an appreciation that screening should be limited to individuals at high risk of death from lung cancer, and that the risk of harm related to false positive findings, overdiagnosis, and unnecessary invasive testing is real. A comprehensive understanding of these aspects of screening will inform appropriate implementation, with the objective that an evidence-based and systematic approach to screening will help to reduce the enormous mortality burden of lung cancer.

  5. Standard Printing Screen System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    area pattern screens. It also describes the creation of a 100-step continuous growth halftone scale for the purpose of specifying quality control tolerances of screen tints for the printed product. (Author)

  6. Newborn Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... The screens are used to detect four rare metabolic disorders To use the sharing features on this page, ... of screening tests designed to detect four rare metabolic disorders in newborns has been approved by the U.S. ...

  7. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... These are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  8. Pre-transplant Evaluation of Donor Urinary Biomarkers can Predict Reduced Graft Function After Deceased Donor Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Tai Yeon; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Lee, Yonggu; Ko, Kwang-Pil; Lee, Kyoung-Bun; Lee, Sik; Park, Suk Joo; Park, Jae Berm; Han, Miyeon; Lim, Hye Jin; Ahn, Curie; Yang, Jaeseok

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Several recipient biomarkers are reported to predict graft dysfunction, but these are not useful in decision making for the acceptance or allocation of deceased donor kidneys; thus, it is necessary to develop donor biomarkers predictive of graft dysfunction. To address this issue, we prospectively enrolled 94 deceased donors and their 109 recipients who underwent transplantation between 2010 and 2013 at 4 Korean transplantation centers. We investigated the predictive values of donor urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and L-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) for reduced graft function (RGF). We also developed a prediction model of RGF using these donor biomarkers. RGF was defined as delayed or slow graft function. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to generate a prediction model, which was internally validated using a bootstrapping method. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to assess the association of biomarkers with 1-year graft function. Notably, donor urinary NGAL levels were associated with donor AKI (P = 0.014), and donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP were predictive for RGF, with area under the receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUROC) of 0.758 and 0.704 for NGAL and L-FABP, respectively. The best-fit model including donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine conveyed a better predictive value for RGF than donor serum creatinine alone (P = 0.02). In addition, we generated a scoring method to predict RGF based on donor urinary NGAL, L-FABP, and serum creatinine levels. Diagnostic performance of the RGF prediction score (AUROC 0.808) was significantly better than that of the DGF calculator (AUROC 0.627) and the kidney donor profile index (AUROC 0.606). Donor urinary L-FABP levels were also predictive of 1-year graft function (P = 0.005). Collectively, these findings suggest donor urinary NGAL and L-FABP to be useful biomarkers for RGF, and support

  9. Utilization of elderly donors in living related kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahin, S; Manga Sahin, G; Turkmen, A; Sever, M S

    2006-03-01

    Kidney transplantation has become the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease. However, its application is limited due to inadequate organ supply, mainly because many dialysis patients do not have suitable living donors. The increasing discrepancy between organ supply and demand has forced many transplant centers to consider using organs procured from marginal donors. The aim of this study was to investigate whether utilization of kidneys from living related elderly donors is safe for the recipients in the long term. We analyzed the clinical results of 296 consecutive recipients of living related renal transplants, among whom 44 recipients received kidneys from donors over 60 years of age. By the end of 12 months, the mean serum creatinine level of the recipients who were transplanted from the older donors was higher (1.55 +/- 0.45 mg/dL) than that from other donors (1.21 +/- 0.3 mg/dL), but the difference was not significant (P = .08). In the long term (60 months), the graft function was similar (1.88 +/- 0.55 vs 1.52 +/- 0.38) for both groups. The similarity in outcomes of ideal versus older donors as shown less in the present series has encouraged us to utilize elderly living donors. We concluded that transplantations performed from the elderly donors yielded similar results to those of conventional donors. The long waiting list for transplantation, the treatment of choice for end-stage renal disease, should encourage us to be more flexible about donor selection.

  10. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    MedlinePlus

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... better nutrition, growth, and lung function. This screening test helps doctors identify children with CF before they ...

  11. Medicare Preventive and Screening Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... B (Medical Insurance) covers: Abdominal aortic aneurysm screening Alcohol misuse screenings & counseling Bone mass measurements (bone density) Cardiovascular disease screenings Cardiovascular disease (behavioral therapy) Cervical & ...

  12. Breast awareness and screening.

    PubMed

    Harmer, Victoria

    Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK. Breast awareness and screening, along with better treatment, can significantly improve outcomes, and more women than ever are now surviving the disease. This article discusses breast awareness and screening, symptoms and risk factors for breast cancer, and how nurses can raise breast awareness and screening uptake.

  13. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike.

  14. Screen time and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity ) Screen time increases your child's risk of obesity because: Sitting and watching a screen is time that is not spent being physically active. TV commercials and other screen ads can lead to unhealthy food choices . Most of the time, the foods in ads ...

  15. Association of ABO and Rh Blood Groups to Blood-Borne Infections among Blood Donors in Tehran-Iran

    PubMed Central

    MOHAMMADALI, Fatemeh; POURFATHOLLAH, Aliakbar

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C, HIV and syphilis infections in blood donors referred to Tehran Blood Transfusion Center (TBTC), and determine any association between blood groups and blood- borne infections between the years of 2005 and 2011. Methods This was a retrospective study conducted at TBTC. All of the donor serum samples were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis by using third generation ELISA kits and RPR test. Initial reactive samples were tested in duplicate. Confirmatory tests were performed on all repeatedly reactive donations. Blood group was determined by forward and reverse blood grouping. The results were subjected to chi square analysis for determination of statistical difference between the values among different categories according to SPSS program. Results Overall, 2031451 donor serum samples were collected in 2005-2011. Totally, 10451 were positive test for HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis. The overall seroprevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, and syphilis was 0.39%, 0.11%, 0.005%, and 0.010%, respectively. Hepatitis B and HIV infections were significantly associated with blood group of donors (P <0.05) ; percentage of HIV Ag/Ab was higher in donors who had blood group “A” and percentage of HBs Ag was lower in donors who had blood group O. There was no significant association between Hepatitis C and syphilis infections with ABO and Rh blood groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Compared with neighboring countries and the international standards, prevalence of blood-borne infections is relatively low. PMID:25909065

  16. Deceased tissue donor serology and molecular testing for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C viruses: a lack of cadaveric validated tests.

    PubMed

    Victer, Thayssa Neiva da Fonseca; Dos Santos, Cris Stéphany Rodrigues; Báo, Sônia Nair; Sampaio, Thatiane Lima

    2016-12-01

    Vital to patient safety is the accurate assessment and minimization of risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis C (HCV), and Hepatitis B (HBV) virus transmission by deceased donor organ and tissue transplantation. The pathogens are tested by serological kits based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), chemiluminescence (CLIA) and eletrochemiluminescence (ECLIA) immunoassays. Organ transplantation is a highly successful life-saving treatment in Brazil, but the Brazilian Health Surveillance Agency currently mandates that all deceased organ donors are screened for HIV, HCV and HBV following living donor policies. In this review, six ELISA (Wama(®), Bio-Rad(®), Biomerieux(®), DiaSorin(®), Acon Biotech(®) and Biokit(®)), three CLIA (Abbott(®), Siemens(®), Diasorin(®)) and one ECLIA (Roche(®)) were utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of those serological tests for deceased donors in Brazil according to manufacturer's guidelines. NAT for HIV, HCV and HBV can assist with detection of pre-seroconversion for those infections, and only Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test, the Tigris System(®) Procleix Ultrio Assay(®) and the Bio-Manguinhos(®) HIV/HCV/HBV NAT are commercially available. Between all the tests, only the manufacturer Abbott(®) and Cobas(®) TaqScreen MPX(®) test are currently validated for cadaver samples.

  17. In vitro Biphasic Effect of Honey Bee Venom on Basophils from Screened Healthy Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    Zanoni, Giovanna; Ortolani, Riccardo; Vella, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Apis mellifera L. bee venom is the most studied hymenoptera allergen, but many aspects of its action on human basophils remain unclear. Allergologists seek evidence of the effectiveness of bee venom immunotherapy as this approach is the chosen treatment for systemic allergic reactions. The effect of bee venom on human basophils in vitro has not been studied in detail for many reasons, including the paucity of basophils in peripheral blood, inter-individual basophil response variability, and the reliability and predictability of basophil activation tests. We conducted a brief preliminary survey of the effect of Apis bee venom on healthy asymptomatic (non-allergic) subjects. A dose of an aqueous commercial extract of Apis bee venom as high as 10 µg/mL activated resting basophils (CD63=+80-90%, CD203c=+30%), while it inhibited the expression of CD63 (-50%) following basophil stimulation by the soluble agonists formyl-Met-Leu-Phe or anti-IgE. The activation of resting basophils appeared to be dose-related. Only when basophils were activated with an IgE-mediated agonist, did bee venom extract exhibit a possible priming mechanism at the lowest doses used only via CD63, while it was ineffective via CD203c. Autocrine interleukin-3 may play a role in the observed biphasic behavior. PMID:21217927

  18. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  19. Solvent as electron donor: Donor/acceptor electronic coupling is a dynamical variable

    SciTech Connect

    Castner, E.W. Jr.; Kennedy, D.; Cave, R.J.

    2000-04-06

    The authors combine analysis of measurements by femtosecond optical spectroscopy, computer simulations, and the generalized Mulliken-Hush (GMH) theory in the study of electron-transfer reactions and electron donor-acceptor interactions. The study focus is on ultrafast photoinduced electron-transfer reactions from aromatic amine solvent donors to excited-state acceptors. The experimental results from femtosecond dynamical measurements fall into three categories: six coumarin acceptors reductively quenched by N,N-dimethylaniline (DMA), eight electron-donating amine solvents reductively quenching coumarin 152 (7-(dimethylamino)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin), and reductive quenching dynamics of two coumarins by DMA as a function of dilution in the nonreactive solvents toluene and chlorobenzene. Applying a combination of molecular dynamics trajectories, semiempirical quantum mechanical calculations (of the relevant adiabatic electronic states), and GMH theory to the C152/DMA photoreaction, the authors calculate the electron donor/acceptor interaction parameter H{sub DA} at various time frames, H{sub DA} is strongly modulated by both inner-sphere and outer-sphere nuclear dynamics, leading us to conclude that H{sub DA} must be considered as a dynamical variable.

  20. Utilization of kidneys with similar kidney donor risk index values from standard versus expanded criteria donors.

    PubMed

    Woodside, K J; Merion, R M; Leichtman, A B; de los Santos, R; Arrington, C J; Rao, P S; Sung, R S

    2012-08-01

    With the shortage of standard criteria donor (SCD) kidneys, efficient expanded criteria donor (ECD) kidney utilization has become more vital. We investigated the effects of the ECD label on kidney recovery, utilization and outcomes. Using data from the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients from November 2002 to May 2010, we determined recovery and transplant rates, and modeled discard risk, for kidneys within a range of kidney donor risk index (KDRI) 1.4-2.1 that included both SCD and ECD kidneys. To further compare similar quality kidneys, these kidneys were again divided into three KDRI intervals. Overall, ECD kidneys had higher recovery rates, but lower transplant rates. However, within each KDRI interval, SCD and ECD kidneys were transplanted at similar rates. Overall, there was increased risk for discard for biopsied kidneys. SCD kidneys in the lower two KDRI intervals had the highest risk of discard if biopsied. Pumped kidneys had a lower risk of discard, which was modulated by KDRI for SCD kidneys but not ECD kidneys. Although overall ECD graft survival was worse than SCD, there were no differences within individual KDRI intervals. Thus, ECD designation adversely affects neither utilization nor outcomes beyond that predicted by KDRI.

  1. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  2. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  3. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  4. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  5. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  6. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  7. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  8. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  9. 21 CFR 640.66 - Immunization of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Immunization of donors. 640.66 Section 640.66 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.66 Immunization of donors....

  10. 21 CFR 640.31 - Suitability of donors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suitability of donors. 640.31 Section 640.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Plasma § 640.31 Suitability of donors. (a)...

  11. Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Martin Morse

    2011-01-01

    What responsibilities do universities have to donors, many of whom are alumni? Presumably, one responsibility is to respect their wishes when they provide gifts with specific purposes. Yet Martin Morse Wooster shows in this report that universities often neglect the wishes of contributors. "Games Universities Play: And How Donors Can Avoid Them"…

  12. Fathers Anonymous: Beyond the Best Interests of the Sperm Donor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annas, George J.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews the rationale for the practice of Artificial Insemination Donor (AID) practices, the manner whereby donors are selected, and how records are kept. The importance of developing standards which serve the best interests of the AID child is stressed. (Author/DB)

  13. Digging up Classroom Dollars on DonorsChoose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Back in 2000, Charles Best was teaching at Wings Academy, an alternative high school in the Bronx, when he got the idea for a Web site where teachers could solicit donations for class projects. With help from his students, DonorsChoose.org soon was born. Last year, the site won Amazon.com's Nonprofit Innovation Award. So far, DonorsChoose has…

  14. You...as Blood Donor: Teacher Strategies and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degroat, Diane Zagare; And Others

    This curriculum guide for teaching about blood donation was prepared to improve school-community participation in the New York City Blood Donor Program. It contains plans for five lessons on the following topics: (1) the nature of blood; (2) blood and technology--modern-day advances; (3) blood and your personal health; (4) the blood donor as good…

  15. Crowd Around: Expanding Your Donor Pool with Crowdfunding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    At most institutions, annual fund-giving is down. Crowdfunding sites allow people with a great idea or worthy cause to bypass traditional funding methods and take their case directly to web-savvy investors and donors. This article describes how higher education institutions are expanding their donor pool through such crowdfunding sites as USEED,…

  16. Potential use and perspectives of nitric oxide donors in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Marvasi, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged in the last 30 years as a key molecule involved in many physiological processes in plants, animals and bacteria. Current research has shown that NO can be delivered via donor molecules. In such cases, the NO release rate is dependent on the chemical structure of the donor itself and on the chemical environment. Despite NO's powerful signaling effect in plants and animals, the application of NO donors in agriculture is currently not implemented and research remains mainly at the experimental level. Technological development in the field of NO donors is rapidly expanding in scope to include controlling seed germination, plant development, ripening and increasing shelf-life of produce. Potential applications in animal production have also been identified. This concise review focuses on the use of donors that have shown potential biotechnological applications in agriculture. Insights are provided into (i) the role of donors in plant production, (ii) the potential use of donors in animal production and (iii) future approaches to explore the use and applications of donors for the benefit of agriculture. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Settlement Ends Dispute between Princeton and Donors' Heirs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masterson, Kathryn; Gose, Ben

    2009-01-01

    This article reports that Princeton University has settled a long-running dispute with the heirs of a major donor by agreeing to pay $50-million to the heirs' foundation and approximately the same amount for their legal fees. The case has been closely watched as a test of how strictly institutions must adhere to donors' wishes. The settlement…

  18. Understanding Philanthropic Motivations of Northeast State Community College Donors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Heather J.

    2012-01-01

    At Northeast State Community College (NeSCC) nearly 70% of students need some form of financial aid to attend. State support is flattening or decreasing and the gap is filled by private donors' support (Northeast State Community College, 2011). Hundreds of donors have made significant contributions to aid in the education of those in the Northeast…

  19. Optical Control of Donor Spin Qubits in Silicon

    PubMed Central

    Gullans, M. J.; Taylor, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We show how to achieve optical, spin-selective transitions from the ground state to excited orbital states of group-V donors (P, As, Sb, Bi) in silicon. We consider two approaches based on either resonant, far-infrared (IR) transitions of the neutral donor or resonant, near-IR excitonic transitions. For far-IR light, we calculate the dipole matrix elements between the valley-orbit and spin-orbit split states for all the goup-V donors using effective mass theory. We then calculate the maximum rate and amount of electron-nuclear spin-polarization achievable through optical pumping with circularly polarized light. We find this approach is most promising for Bi donors due to their large spin-orbit and valley-orbit interactions. Using near-IR light, spin-selective excitation is possible for all the donors by driving a two-photon Λ-transition from the ground state to higher orbitals with even parity. We show that externally applied electric fields or strain allow similar, spin-selective Λ-transition to odd-parity excited states. We anticipate these results will be useful for future spectroscopic investigations of donors, quantum control and state preparation of donor spin qubits, and for developing a coherent interface between donor spin qubits and single photons. PMID:28127227

  20. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy.

  1. Newborn screening: current status.

    PubMed

    Arn, Pamela H

    2007-01-01

    Newborn screening, which represents one of the major advances in child health of the past century, has been carried out in all fifty U.S. states since the 1970s. Newborn screening programs are state-run, and decisions are left to the individual states regarding the conditions to be screened for, the mechanism for confirmatory testing, follow-up care, and financing of the programs. Laboratory advances in tandem mass spectrometry make it possible to screen newborns for many rare inborn errors of metabolism. This raises many policy issues including screening's cost-effectiveness, ethics, quality, and oversight.

  2. Virtual screening for OLED materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halls, Mathew D.; Giesen, David J.; Hughes, Thomas F.; Goldberg, Alexander; Cao, Yixiang; Kwak, H. Shaun; Gavartin, Jacob

    2014-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are under widespread investigation to displace or complement inorganic optoelectronic devices for solid-state lighting and active displays. The materials comprising the active layers in OLED devices are selected or designed to provide the required intrinsic and extrinsic electronic properties needed for efficient charge injection and transport, and desired stability and emissive properties. The chemical design space for OLED materials is enormous and there is need for the development of computational approaches to help identify the most promising chemical solutions for experimental development. In this work we present a multi-scale simulation approach to efficiently screen libraries of potential OLED molecular materials. The workflow to assess potential OLED materials is: 1) evaluation based on first-principles prediction of key intrinsic properties (EHOMO, ELUMO, λe/h, Etriplet), 2) classical simulation of thin film morphology (RDF, ρ), and 3) first-principles evaluation of electron coupling for donor-acceptor pairs (Hab) from the simulated condensed phase morphology.

  3. Silicon quantum dots with counted antimony donor implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Pacheco, Jose; Perry, Daniel; Wendt, Joel; Manginell, Ronald; Dominguez, Jason; Pluym, Tammy; Luhman, Dwight; Bielejec, Edward; Lilly, Michael; Carroll, Malcolm

    Antimony donor implants next to silicon quantum dots have been detected with integrated solid-state diode detectors with single ion precision. Devices with counted number of donors have been fabricated and low temperature transport measurements have been performed. Charge offsets, indicative of donor ionization and coupling to the quantum dot, have been detected in these devices. The number of offsets corresponds to 10-50% of the number of donors counted. We will report on tunneling time measurements and spin readout measurements on the donor offsets. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  4. Donation after circulatory death: burying the dead donor rule.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Smith, Maxwell J; Lazar, Neil M

    2011-08-01

    Despite continuing controversies regarding the vital status of both brain-dead donors and individuals who undergo donation after circulatory death (DCD), respecting the dead donor rule (DDR) remains the standard moral framework for organ procurement. The DDR increases organ supply without jeopardizing trust in transplantation systems, reassuring society that donors will not experience harm during organ procurement. While the assumption that individuals cannot be harmed once they are dead is reasonable in the case of brain-dead protocols, we argue that the DDR is not an acceptable strategy to protect donors from harm in DCD protocols. We propose a threefold alternative to justify organ procurement practices: (1) ensuring that donors are sufficiently protected from harm; (2) ensuring that they are respected through informed consent; and (3) ensuring that society is fully informed of the inherently debatable nature of any criterion to declare death.

  5. Surgical aspects of donor hand recovery for transplantation.

    PubMed

    Banegas, Rodrigo N; Moreno, Rodrigo; Duggal, Anil; Breidenbach, Warren C

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share our institution's experience in optimizing the suitability of composite donor tissue for use in hand transplantation. The centerpiece of this process includes procurement techniques, preservation and timing issues, and anatomical matching. Recovery of the donor hand must proceed in an efficient, organized, and expedient manner. Proper timing of the donor operation not only ensures the quality of donor tissue and outcome for the hand recipient, but also allows surgeons recovering other organs to obtain high quality tissue for those recipients. Timing remains a critical factor in preserving tissue after removal from the donor. We will also consider the factors of temperature and preservation solution during transport.

  6. Separate, dedicated care teams for living organ donors.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Brenda; Gordon, Debra

    2003-06-01

    Living donation is an increasingly common option offered to patients in most transplant programs. Staff involved in the education, assessment, and care of this patient group is faced with increasingly complicated assessments both medically and psychologically. Supporting arguments for dedicated care teams for living organ donors include the large number of transplantations performed using living donors, the continued need to promote living organ donation, and the growing complexity of both medical and psychological factors in donor assessments. In addition, there is a need to implement the standards proposed by the 2000 Consensus Group, as well as to develop a body of evidence-based research related both to short- and long-term issues for this patient group. The ethical issues related to simultaneous involvement with both donors and recipients, and a need to ensure confidentiality are additional supporting arguments for the need to provide separate care providers for donors and recipients.

  7. Prevalence of hepatitis C virus antibodies and genotypes in asymptomatic, first-time blood donors in Namibia.

    PubMed Central

    Vardas, E.; Sitas, F.; Seidel, K.; Casteling, A.; Sim, J.

    1999-01-01

    Reported is the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in Namibia as determined using a third-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) on samples of blood collected from all asymptomatic, first-time blood donors between 1 February and 31 July 1997 (n = 1941). The HCV seroprevalence was 0.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.5-1.5%) and no associations were detected between a positive HCV serostatus and the person's sex, region of residence, or previous hepatitis B exposure or hepatitis B carrier status, as determined by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). The only significant association in a logistic regression model was an increase in HCV positivity with increasing age (P = 0.04). Viral RNA was amplified from 2 out of 18 (11.1%) specimens that were ELISA positive. Genotyping of these specimens, by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), showed the presence of genotypes 5 and 1a. The positive predictive value of using HBsAg positivity as a surrogate screening marker for HCV in Namibian blood donors was poor (1.6%), with low sensitivity (16.7%) and specificity (89.3%), and detecting only 3 out of 18 serologically HCV-positive specimens. The results of this first study of the prevalence and epidemiology of HCV infection in Namibia suggest that donor blood should be screened for HCV by ELISA in order to prevent the transmission of hepatitis C virus. PMID:10680243

  8. The Unexamined Donor: For Better Planning and Greater Returns, Segment the Annual Fund by Giving Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardillo, Charlie

    2000-01-01

    Guidelines for conducting an annual fund at colleges and universities stress the importance of aggregate donor behavior and donor value, rather than solicitation technique, in driving strategic planning and goal-setting. Suggests fund raisers track three measures of donor participation: donor retention, lapsed donor reactivation, and new donor…

  9. HIV, HCV, HBV and syphilis rate of positive donations among blood donations in Mali: lower rates among volunteer blood donors.

    PubMed

    Diarra, A; Kouriba, B; Baby, M; Murphy, E; Lefrere, J-J

    2009-01-01

    Good data on background seroprevalence of major transfusion transmitted infections is lacking in Mali. We gathered data on the rate of positive donations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and syphilis among blood donations in Mali for calendar year 2007. Donations with repeatedly reactive results on screening enzyme immunoassay (EIA) were considered to be seropositive. Rate of positive donations per blood unit collected was 2.6% for HIV, 3.3% for HCV, 13.9% for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 0.3% for syphilis. For HIV, HBsAg and syphilis, rate of positive donations was significantly (p<0.001) higher among donations from replacement donors than those from volunteer donors, while HCV rate of positive donations was similar in the two groups. Rate of positive donations was also significantly (p<0.0001) lower in blood units from regular than from first-time donors. These data reinforce WHO recommendations for increasing the number of regular, volunteer blood donors in Africa.

  10. Phenotypic and allelic profile of ABO and Rhésus D blood group system among blood donor in Antananarivo.

    PubMed

    Randriamanantany, Z A; Rajaonatahina, D H; Razafimanantsoa, F E; Rasamindrakotroka, M T; Andriamahenina, R; Rasoarilalamanarivo, F B; Hanitriniala, S P; Herisoa, F R; Rasamindrakotroka, A; Rakoto Alson, O A

    2012-12-01

    This study assessed the phenotypic and allelic profiles of ABO and Rhesus D blood group system among first time blood donors at the National Centre of Blood Supply of Antananarivo. We collected through this retrospective study all data registered during 7 years of practice (from 2003 to 2009). Age and sex were analysed with the result of ABO and RhD screening. They were tested both with Beth Vincent and Simonin tests which were performed in a plate, by using commercial monoclonal antibody (Diaclone(®) et Eryclone(®)), and home-made red cells tests. The Rh D was performed with the same commercial kits. The frequencies of alleles were calculated by using Bernstein method. Data about 45,857 donors were obtained. A male predominance (80.46%) was found and most of our donors were aged <40 (74.92%). 98.90% of the donors were Rh D positive. Phenotypic distribution of each ABO antigen was, respectively, 22.61, 29.66, 6.13 and 41.60% for A, B, AB and O antigen. Allelic frequencies of A, B and O were 0.1559, 0.1987 and 0.6454. These results confirmed the fact that Madagascan population had admixed ethnic origin.

  11. The Significance of Evalution of Haematocrit in Plateletpheresis Donors

    PubMed Central

    Jagtap, Pratap Eknath; Nagane, Nitin Sopan; Dhonde, Sushma Prakash; Belwalkar, Gajanan J.; Mane, Vaibhav Pandurang

    2015-01-01

    Background: The collection of platelets by apheresis is considered as a very great progress in transfusion medicine. In present era, many automated cell separation are available each model has tried to improve productivity, quality of plateletpheresis. Further various studies have been done to correlate the quality of platelet concentrates. Also, various biochemical studies have been done on plateletpheresis donors. However, safety issue with regards to post procedure levels of biochemical parameters decreased in donors undergoing plateletpheresis have been only minimally explored. Objectives: Investigating Haematological and Biochemical parameters (Hematocrit value and Serum Calcium levels) pre and post in plateletpheresis donors. Materials and Methods: Sixty two healthy first time voluntary plateletpheresis donors at Apheresis unit in blood bank Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University Medical College & Hospital, Sangli, Maharashtra, India. Hematocrit value of plateletpheresis donors were analysed and based on mean value 43.2% considering this as standard in the present study. We categorized plateletpheresis donors in two groups (A) these having value less than 43.2% (n = 36) and Group (B) having haematocrit more than 43.3% (n = 26). Volume of ACD required for donors from both group were noted. Result: We observed mean of ACD infused in group A plateletpheresis donors was 347.7 ml ± 35.75 SD while group ‘B’ donors required mean volume ACD to be infused was 379.6 ml ± 46.24 S.D. was statistically significant (p <0.005). Conclusion: Plateletpheresis induces marked metabolic effects, with sustained changes in serum calcium and haematocrit after ACD infusion, the results show, before procedure (Plateletpheresis) one must consider the haematocrit value along with serum calcium levels in Plateletpheresis donor to avoid severe symptoms of hypocalcaemia. PMID:26023547

  12. Corneal Donor Tissue Preparation for Endothelial Keratoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, Maria A.; Titus, Michael; Mavin, Kyle; Shtein, Roni M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past ten years, corneal transplantation surgical techniques have undergone revolutionary changes1,2. Since its inception, traditional full thickness corneal transplantation has been the treatment to restore sight in those limited by corneal disease. Some disadvantages to this approach include a high degree of post-operative astigmatism, lack of predictable refractive outcome, and disturbance to the ocular surface. The development of Descemet's stripping endothelial keratoplasty (DSEK), transplanting only the posterior corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and endothelium, has dramatically changed treatment of corneal endothelial disease. DSEK is performed through a smaller incision; this technique avoids 'open sky' surgery with its risk of hemorrhage or expulsion, decreases the incidence of postoperative wound dehiscence, reduces unpredictable refractive outcomes, and may decrease the rate of transplant rejection3-6. Initially, cornea donor posterior lamellar dissection for DSEK was performed manually1 resulting in variable graft thickness and damage to the delicate corneal endothelial tissue during tissue processing. Automated lamellar dissection (Descemet's stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, DSAEK) was developed to address these issues. Automated dissection utilizes the same technology as LASIK corneal flap creation with a mechanical microkeratome blade that helps to create uniform and thin tissue grafts for DSAEK surgery with minimal corneal endothelial cell loss in tissue processing. Eye banks have been providing full thickness corneas for surgical transplantation for many years. In 2006, eye banks began to develop methodologies for supplying precut corneal tissue for endothelial keratoplasty. With the input of corneal surgeons, eye banks have developed thorough protocols to safely and effectively prepare posterior lamellar tissue for DSAEK surgery. This can be performed preoperatively at the eye bank. Research shows no significant difference

  13. Real-time PCR diagnosis of Plasmodium vivax among blood donors

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background When selecting blood donors in transfusion centres, one important problem is to identify, during screening, individuals with infectious diseases that can be transmitted by blood, such as malaria, especially when the parasite densities are very low. This problem is particularly severe in endemic areas, such as the Brazilian Amazon. In the present study, molecular diagnostic (real-time PCR) of Plasmodium vivax was used to identify blood donors infected with malaria parasites. Methods Samples from 595 blood donors were collected in seven haemotherapy centres in northern Brazil located in areas at risk for malaria transmission, and the analyses were performed by real-time PCR with TaqMan probes on 7500 Real-Time PCR Systems, to genotype the mitochondrial DNA region specific to P. vivax. The experiment was designed for hybridization of the cytochrome c oxidase genes of the mitochondrial genome (GenBank GI63022502). The serological data were obtained using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay - ELISA (Anti-HIV, Anti-HTLV I-II; Anti-HVC, HBsAg, Anti-HBc, Chagas disease) and VDRL (Syphilis) from the Blood Bank System of the Haematology and Haemotherapy Centre of Pará. Results The assay identified eight individuals in the sample (1.34%) infected with P. vivax at the time of blood donation. This percentage was higher than the altered serological results (reactive or inconclusive) of the prevalence of anti-HIV (0.67%), anti-hepatitis C virus (0.34%), anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (0.67%), anti-human T-lymphotropic virus I/II (1.18%), anti-Chagas disease (0.17%) and syphilis (VDRL) (0.50%), but not higher than anti-hepatitis B core antigen antibodies (4.37%). This result indicates the need to use more sensitive methods of diagnosing malaria in blood banks. Conclusion The real-time PCR with TaqMan probes enabled the identification of P. vivax in a high proportion of clinically healthy donors, highlighting the potential risk for transfusion-transmitted malaria

  14. Lung Cancer Screening Update.

    PubMed

    Ruchalski, Kathleen L; Brown, Kathleen

    2016-07-01

    Since the release of the US Preventive Services Task Force and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services recommendations for lung cancer screening, low-dose chest computed tomography screening has moved from the research arena to clinical practice. Lung cancer screening programs must reach beyond image acquisition and interpretation and engage in a multidisciplinary effort of clinical shared decision-making, standardization of imaging and nodule management, smoking cessation, and patient follow-up. Standardization of radiologic reports and nodule management will systematize patient care, provide quality assurance, further reduce harm, and contain health care costs. Although the National Lung Screening Trial results and eligibility criteria of a heavy smoking history are the foundation for the standard guidelines for low-dose chest computed tomography screening in the United States, currently only 27% of patients diagnosed with lung cancer would meet US lung cancer screening recommendations. Current and future efforts must be directed to better delineate those patients who would most benefit from screening and to ensure that the benefits of screening reach all socioeconomic strata and racial and ethnic minorities. Further optimization of lung cancer screening program design and patient eligibility will assure that lung cancer screening benefits will outweigh the potential risks to our patients.

  15. Automated Groundwater Screening

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Glenn A.; Collard, Leonard, B.

    2005-10-31

    The Automated Intruder Analysis has been extended to include an Automated Ground Water Screening option. This option screens 825 radionuclides while rigorously applying the National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) methodology. An extension to that methodology is presented to give a more realistic screening factor for those radionuclides which have significant daughters. The extension has the promise of reducing the number of radionuclides which must be tracked by the customer. By combining the Automated Intruder Analysis with the Automated Groundwater Screening a consistent set of assumptions and databases is used. A method is proposed to eliminate trigger values by performing rigorous calculation of the screening factor thereby reducing the number of radionuclides sent to further analysis. Using the same problem definitions as in previous groundwater screenings, the automated groundwater screening found one additional nuclide, Ge-68, which failed the screening. It also found that 18 of the 57 radionuclides contained in NCRP Table 3.1 failed the screening. This report describes the automated groundwater screening computer application.

  16. Cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, A.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the role of family physicians in screening for cancer of the cervix, to review the evidence for screening, in particular, frequency and technique for screening, and to review the reasons cervical cancer has not been prevented and the role of family physicians in addressing these failures. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The value of screening has been established with level II evidence. Many of the unresolved issues are not supported either way by good evidence; level II and III evidence predominates. MAIN FINDINGS: In Canada, 1350 women were predicted to be diagnosed with cancer of the cervix in 1996. Most of these women had not been screened. Minority, rural, low-income, and older women face important barriers to screening. Family physicians have a role in reaching out to these women to provide effective health care, including cancer screening. When cancer screening is performed, it should conform to recommended techniques with appropriate follow up of abnormal test results. CONCLUSIONS: Family physicians have an important role in preventing cancer of the cervix. Efforts should be concentrated on encouraging a greater proportion of eligible women to be screened. Criteria are suggested for effective screening. PMID:9721422

  17. Hydrogen donor solvent coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Plumlee, Karl W.

    1978-01-01

    An indigenous hydrocarbon product stream boiling within a range of from about C.sub.1 -700.degree. F., preferably C.sub.1 -400.degree. F., is treated to produce an upgraded hydrocarbon fuel component and a component which can be recycled, with a suitable donor solvent, to a coal liquefaction zone to catalyze the reaction. In accordance therewith, a liquid hydrocarbon fraction with a high end boiling point range up to about 700.degree. F., preferably up to about 400.degree. F., is separated from a coal liquefaction zone effluent, the separated fraction is contacted with an alkaline medium to provide a hydrocarbon phase and an aqueous extract phase, the aqueous phase is neutralized, and contacted with a peroxygen compound to convert indigenous components of the aqueous phase of said hydrocarbon fraction into catalytic components, such that the aqueous stream is suitable for recycle to the coal liquefaction zone. Naturally occurring phenols and alkyl substituted phenols, found in the aqueous phase, are converted, by the addition of hydroxyl constituents to phenols, to dihydroxy benzenes which, as disclosed in copending Application Ser. Nos. 686,813 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,536; 686,814 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,049,537; 686,827 now U.S. Pat. No. 4,051,012 and 686,828, K. W. Plumlee et al, filed May 17, 1976, are suitable hydrogen transfer catalysts.

  18. Screening in liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Paolo Del; Mazzoleni, Marzio

    2006-01-01

    A disease is suitable for screening if it is common, if the target population can be identified and reached and if both a good screening test and an effective therapy are available. Of the most common liver diseases only viral hepatitis and genetic hemochromatosis partially satisfy these conditions. Hepatitis C is common, the screening test is good and the therapy eliminates the virus in half of the cases, but problems arise in the definition of the target population. In fact generalized population screening is not endorsed by international guidelines, although some recommend screening immigrants from high prevalence countries. Opportunistic screening (case finding) of individuals with classic risk factors, such as transfusion before 1992 and drug addiction, is the most frequently used strategy, but there is disagreement whether prison inmates, individuals with a history of promiscuous or traumatic sex and health care workers should be screened. In a real practice setting the performance of opportunistic screening by general practitioners is low but can be ameliorated by training programs. Screening targeted to segments of the population or mass campaigns are expensive and therefore interventions should be aimed to improve opportunistic screening and the detection skills of general practitioners. Regarding genetic hemochromatosis there is insufficient evidence for population screening, but individual physicians can decide to screen racial groups with a high prevalence of the disease, such as people in early middle age and of northern European origin. In the other cases opportunistic screening of high risk individuals should be performed, with a high level of suspicion in case of unexplained liver disease, diabetes, juvenile artropathy, sexual dysfunction and skin pigmentation. PMID:16981254

  19. Expanded infectious diseases screening program for Hispanic transplant candidates.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, M A; Caicedo, J C; Stosor, V; Ison, M G

    2010-08-01

    Most guidelines for pre-transplant screening recommend enhanced screening among patients with potential exposure to such pathogens as Strongyloides stercoralis and Trypanosoma cruzi, the cause of Chagas disease. The incidence of these diseases in the Hispanic immigrant population has not been extensively studied. Transplant candidates who were evaluated by our program's Hispanic Transplant Program were referred for expanded infectious disease screening including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, S. stercoralis, Leishmania, and T. cruzi. Between December 2006 and December 2008, 83 patients were screened. Most were from Mexico but we also screened patients from Ecuador, Puerto Rico, and Peru. Most patients lived in urban locations before moving to the United States. Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) was found in 20%, and 6.7% had serologic evidence of S. stercoralis infection. These patients underwent treatment of latent infection without difficulty. To date, 14 patients have undergone living-donor kidney transplantation. Two of these patients had positive Leishmania titers and are being followed clinically, 1 was treated for S. stercoralis, and 2 were treated for LTBI pre-transplant. All have done well without evidence of screened pathogens an average of 348 days (range 65-766 days) post transplant. Expanded screening identifies endemic infections in the Hispanic immigrant population that can be treated before transplant, thereby minimizing post-transplant infectious complications.

  20. Iron Deficiency in Blood Donors: Analysis of Enrollment Data from the REDS-II Donor Iron Status Evaluation (RISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cable, Ritchard G.; Glynn, Simone A.; Kiss, Joseph E.; Mast, Alan E.; Steele, Whitney R.; Murphy, Edward L.; Wright, David J.; Sacher, Ronald A.; Gottschall, Jerry L.; Vij, Vibha; Simon, Toby L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Regular blood donors are at risk of iron deficiency, but characteristics which predispose to this condition are poorly defined. Methods 2425 red cell donors, either first time (FT) or reactivated donors (no donations for 2 years) or frequent donors were recruited for follow-up. At enrollment, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and hemoglobin were determined. Donor variables included demographics, smoking, dietary intake, use of iron supplements, and menstrual/pregnancy history. Models to predict two measures of iron deficiency were developed: Absent iron stores (AIS) were indicated by ferritin < 12 ng/mL and iron deficient erythropoiesis (IDE) by log (sTfR/ferritin) ≥ 2.07. Results 15.0% of donors had AIS, 41.7% IDE. In frequent donors, 16.4% and 48.7% of males had AIS and IDE, respectively, with corresponding proportions of 27.1% and 66.1% for females. Donation intensity was most closely associated with AIS/IDE (ORs from 5.3 to 52.2 for different donation intensity compared to FT donors). Being female, younger, and/or menstruating also increased the likelihood of having AIS/IDE, as did having a lower weight. Marginally significant variables for AIS and/or IDE were being a non-smoker, previous pregnancy and not taking iron supplements. Dietary variables were in general unrelated to AIS/IDE, as was race/ethnicity. Conclusion A large proportion of both female and male frequent blood donors have iron depletion. Donation intensity, gender/menstrual status, weight, and age are important independent predictors of AIS/IDE. Reducing the frequency of blood donation is likely to reduce the prevalence of iron deficiency among blood donors, as might implementing routine iron supplementation. PMID:20804527

  1. Comparison of real-time PCR and antigen assays for detection of hepatitis E virus in blood donors.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T; Knabbe, C; Dreier, J

    2014-06-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is recognized as an emerging and often undiagnosed disease in industrialized countries, with asymptomatic infections actually occurring in blood donors. Sensitive detection of HEV-RNA is crucial for diagnosis and monitoring of disease progression. We evaluated the analytical sensitivity and performance of three HEV RT-PCR assays (RealStar HEV reverse transcription-PCR [RT-PCR], hepatitis@ceeramTools, and ampliCube HEV RT-PCR) for screening of individuals for HEV infections (ID-nucleic acid amplification technology [ID-NAT]) and for blood donor pool screening (minipool-NAT [MP-NAT]). RNA was extracted using NucliSens easyMAG (ID-NAT) and a high-volume extraction protocol (4.8 ml, chemagic Viral 5K, MP-NAT). Three NAT assays were evaluated for ID-NAT but only two assays for MP-NAT due to inhibition of the ampliCube HEV RT-PCR kit using the corresponding RNA extract. Assays provided good analytical sensitivity, ranging from 37.8 to 180.1 IU/ml (ID-NAT) and from 4.7 to 91.2 IU/ml (MP-NAT). The applicability of HEV antigen (HEV-Ag) screening was compared to that of RT-PCR screening and detection of HEV-IgM antibodies using seroconversion panels of 10 HEV genotype 3-infected individuals. Four individuals revealed a positive HEV-Ag detection result, with corresponding viremias ranging from 1.92 E + 03 to 2.19 E + 05 IU/ml, while the progression of HEV-Ag followed that of HEV viremia. The other six individuals showed no presence of HEV-Ag although the corresponding viremias were also in the range of >1.0 E + 03. Anti-HEV-IgM antibodies were detectable in seven donors; one donor presented parallel positivities of HEV-Ag and anti-HEV IgM. The evaluated NAT methods present powerful tools providing sensitive HEV detection. Application of HEV-Ag or anti-HEV IgM screening is currently inferior for the early detection of HEV infection due to the decreased sensitivity compared to NAT methods.

  2. Personality of semen donors and their social behaviour.

    PubMed

    Taus, L; Gerzová, J

    1991-01-01

    The authors examined, using three generally accepted methods, the personality structure of 80 semen donors (Cattell's 16-factor questionnaire, 16PF, Eysenck's personality questionnaire, EOD, and Leary's method of interpersonal diagnosis of personality). The donors were selected by means of the Questionnaire of semen donors. The group is subdivided into four sub-groups by the grade of education, i.e. university graduates, men with secondary and elementary education and university students. All are 20-40 years old. The authors describe the assembled results in different sub-groups and in the group as a whole and compare them mutually and with the standardized norm. With regard to the specificity of individual methods and their application the findings are summarized. The donors are balanced personalities, slightly extrovert, emotionally well developed with a realistic outlook. They have positive, sensitive relations with their environment an behaviour towards other people, they are considerate, careful and disciplined. They respect social norms as regards preservation of originality of personality. They have a slight tendency of sheltering behaviour, they wish to be somewhat more aggressive. No pathological phenomena were observed in the donors. Their intelligence is above average. They make a favourable impression with regard to the demand of mental health and transmission of genetic information. The authors evaluate favourably the Questionnaire for semen donors as the method for selection of donors.

  3. Evaluation of the return rate of volunteer blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Lourençon, Adriana de Fátima; Almeida, Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos; Ferreira, Oranice; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi

    2011-01-01

    Background To convert first-time blood donors into regular volunteer donors is a challenge to transfusion services. Objectives This study aims to estimate the return rate of first time donors of the Ribeirão Preto Blood Center and of other blood centers in its coverage region. Methods The histories of 115,553 volunteer donors between 1996 and 2005 were analyzed. Statistical analysis was based on a parametric long-term survival model that allows an estimation of the proportion of donors who never return for further donations. Results Only 40% of individuals return within one year after the first donation and 53% return within two years. It is estimated that 30% never return to donate. Higher return rates were observed among Black donors. No significant difference was found in non-return rates regarding gender, blood type, Rh blood group and blood collection unit. Conclusions The low percentage of first-time donors who return for further blood donation reinforces the need for marketing actions and strategies aimed at increasing the return rates. PMID:23049294

  4. Donor cancer transmission in kidney transplantation: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Xiao, D; Craig, J C; Chapman, J R; Dominguez-Gil, B; Tong, A; Wong, G

    2013-10-01

    Transplantation of any biological material from a donor to a host will carry some inherent risk of disease transmission. Our aims were to summarize the totality of the published evidence about donor cancer transmission among kidney transplant recipients and to determine the cancer-specific survival of these patients. We systematically reviewed all case reports, case series and registry studies that described the outcomes of kidney transplant recipients with donor cancer transmission published to December 2012. A total of 69 studies with 104 donor-transmitted cancer cases were identified. The most common transmitted cancer types were renal cancer (n = 20, 19%), followed by melanoma (n = 18, 17%), lymphoma (n = 15, 14%) and lung cancer (n = 9, 9%). Patients with melanoma and lung cancers had the worst prognosis, with less than 50% of recipients surviving after 24 months from transplantation. Recipients with transmitted renal cancers had the best outcomes, with over 70% of recipients surviving for at least 24 months after transplantation. Overall, the risk of donor transmission of cancer appears low, but there is a high likelihood of reporting bias. Our findings support the current recommendations for rejecting organs from donors with a history of melanoma and lung cancer, but suggest that the use of donor kidneys with a history of small, incidental renal cell cancer may be reasonable.

  5. Alternative donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hemoglobinopathies.

    PubMed

    Alfraih, Feras; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Fitzhugh, Courtney D; Kassim, Adetola A

    2016-04-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) offers a curative therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies, mainly severe sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia (TM). However, the applicability of HSCT has been limited mainly by donor availability, with a less than 25%-30% of eligible patients having human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling donors. Previous outcomes using alternate donor options have been markedly inferior due to increased regimen-related toxicity, transplant-related mortality, graft failure, and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Advances in transplant technology, including high-resolution HLA typing, improved GVHD prophylactic approaches with tolerance induction, and better supportive care over the last decade, are addressing these historical challenges, resulting in increasing donor options. Herein, we review alternate donor HSCT approaches for severe SCD and TM using unrelated donors, umbilical cord blood units, or related haploidentical donors. Though this is an emerging field, early results are promising and in selected patients, this may be the preferred option to mitigate against the age-related morbidity and early mortality associated with these disorders.

  6. Improvements in kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Hoogland, E R Pieter; Snoeijs, Maarten G J; Habets, Margot A W; Brandsma, D Steven; Peutz-Kootstra, Carine J; Christiaans, Maarten H L; van Heurn, L W Ernest

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the growing waiting list for kidney transplantation, we explored the limits of kidney transplantation from donors after cardiac death by liberally accepting marginal donor kidneys for transplantation. As the percentage of primary non-function (PNF) increased, we evaluated our transplantation program and implemented changes to reduce the high percentage of PNF in 2005, followed by a second evaluation over the period 2006-2009. Recipients of a kidney from a donor after cardiac death between 1998 and 2005 were analyzed, with PNF as outcome measure. During the period 2002-2005, the percentage of PNF increased and crossed the upper control limits of 12% which was considered as unacceptably high. After implementation of changes, this percentage was reduced to 5%, without changing the number of kidney transplantations from donors after cardiac death. Continuous monitoring of the quality of care is essential as the boundaries of organ donation and transplantation are sought. Meticulous donor, preservation, and recipient management make extension of the donor potential possible, with good results for the individual recipient. Liberal use of kidneys from donors after cardiac death may contribute to a reduction in the waiting list for kidney transplantation and dialysis associated mortality.

  7. Transport Measurements on Si Nanostructures with Counted Sb Donors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Meenakshi; Bielejec, Edward; Garratt, Elias; Ten Eyck, Gregory; Bishop, Nathaniel; Wendt, Joel; Luhman, Dwight; Carroll, Malcolm; Lilly, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Donor based spin qubits are a promising platform for quantum computing. Single qubits using timed implant of donors have been demonstrated.1 Extending this to multiple qubits requires precise control over the placement and number of donors. Such control can be achieved by using a combination of low-energy heavy-ion implants (to reduce depth straggle), electron-beam lithography (to define position), focused ion beam (to localize implants to one lithographic site) and counting the number of implants with a single ion detector.2 We report transport measurements on MOS quantum dots implanted with 5, 10 and 20 Sb donors using the approach described above. A donor charge transition is identified by a charge offset in the transport characteristics. Correlation between the number of donors and the charge offsets is studied. These results are necessary first steps towards fabricating donor nanostructures for two qubit interactions. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. The work was supported by Sandia National Laboratories Directed Research and Development Program. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed-Martin Company, for the U. S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. 1J. J. Pla et al., Nature 496, 334 (2013) 2J. A. Seamons et al., APL 93, 043124 (2008).

  8. Living donor kidney transplantation: "beauty and the beast"!

    PubMed

    Danovitch, Gabriel M

    2013-01-01

    The report by Terasaki and colleagues in 1995 that the outcomes of spousal and biologically unrelated transplants were essentially the same as for 1-haplotype matched living related transplants changed the course of clinical transplantation. This article, entitled metaphorically "Beauty and the Beast", describes the dramatic change in the practice of living donor transplantation that followed. In the ensuing two decades, biologically unrelated living donor transplantation became commonplace in the developed world and reached its apotheosis in cross-country living donor paired exchange programs that have made transplantation accessible to many whose donors were deemed "incompatible". Such exchanges can indeed be thought of as a "thing of beauty". Sadly, the same observation was abused to exploit vulnerable donors, and the "beast" in the form of transplant tourism became a feature of transplantation in the developing world. The responsibility of the transplant community to protect the welfare of living donors and their recipients and the key role of trust in the evaluation of living donors is discussed.

  9. Identifying potential kidney donors using social networking web sites.

    PubMed

    Chang, Alexander; Anderson, Emily E; Turner, Hang T; Shoham, David; Hou, Susan H; Grams, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Social networking sites like Facebook may be a powerful tool for increasing rates of live kidney donation. They allow for wide dissemination of information and discussion and could lessen anxiety associated with a face-to-face request for donation. However, sparse data exist on the use of social media for this purpose. We searched Facebook, the most popular social networking site, for publicly available English-language pages seeking kidney donors for a specific individual, abstracting information on the potential recipient, characteristics of the page itself, and whether potential donors were tested. In the 91 pages meeting inclusion criteria, the mean age of potential recipients was 37 (range: 2-69); 88% were US residents. Other posted information included the individual's photograph (76%), blood type (64%), cause of kidney disease (43%), and location (71%). Thirty-two percent of pages reported having potential donors tested, and 10% reported receiving a live-donor kidney transplant. Those reporting donor testing shared more potential recipient characteristics, provided more information about transplantation, and had higher page traffic. Facebook is already being used to identify potential kidney donors. Future studies should focus on how to safely, ethically, and effectively use social networking sites to inform potential donors and potentially expand live kidney donation.

  10. Significance of anti-HLA and donor-specific antibodies in long-term renal graft survival.

    PubMed

    Saidman, S

    2007-04-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated an association of posttransplant HLA antibodies with decreased long-term graft survival. The presence of C4d deposition in these cases supports the hypothesis that antibody and complement deposition are involved in the pathogenesis of graft failure. Development of HLA antibodies may predate the clinical manifestation of chronic rejection (CR). However, frequency of donor-specific antibody is low when all patients are screened regardless of their graft function, and it may be more valuable to look for antibody only in patients with mild dysfunction. Effective treatment for CR has not been identified, although increased immunosuppression has been shown to decrease antibody levels and stabilize graft function. Many patients have been identified with good graft function despite the presence of circulating donor-specific HLA antibody. Additional studies focusing on the mechanism behind the apparent protection from the detrimental effects of antibody in such patients are needed.

  11. An apparent case of undiagnosed donor Kawasaki disease manifesting as coronary artery aneurysm in a pediatric heart transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Friedland-Little, Joshua; Aiyagari, Ranjit; Gajarski, Robert J; Schumacher, Kurt R

    2013-02-01

    We present a case of coronary ectasia and LAD coronary artery aneurysm with angiographic characteristics of Kawasaki disease in a three-yr-old girl two-yr status post-orthotopic heart transplant. Coronary anomalies were noted during initial screening coronary angiography two yr after transplant. Subsequent review of the donor echocardiogram revealed that the LMCA had been mildly dilated prior to transplant. In the absence of any symptoms consistent with Kawasaki disease in the transplant recipient, this appears to be a case of Kawasaki disease in the organ donor manifesting with coronary anomalies in the transplant recipient. The patient has done well clinically, and repeat coronary angiography has revealed partial regression of coronary anomalies. Given multiple reports in the literature of persistent abnormalities of coronary artery morphology and function after Kawasaki disease, close monitoring is warranted, with consideration of potential coronary protective medical therapies.

  12. Turbulent flow through screens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, R. D.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed experimental investigation has been carried out on the effects of different types of screens on turbulent flow, in particular turbulent boundary layers. The effect of a screen on a turbulent boundary layer is to give it a 'new lease of life'. The boundary layer turbulence is reorganized and the thickness reduced, thus making it less susceptible to separation. The aerodynamic properties of plastic screens are found to differ significantly from those of the conventional metal screens, evidently because of differences in the weaving properties. The 'overshoot' in mean velocity profile near the boudnary layer edge is shown to be a result of the effect of screen inclination on pressure drop coefficient. A more accurate formulation for the deflection coefficient of a screen is also proposed.

  13. Perioperative Bacterial Infections in Deceased Donor and Living Donor Liver Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Joy; Gomathy, Narasimhan; Rajashekhar, Perumalla; Venugopal, Kota; Olithselvan, Arikichenin; Vivekanandan, Shanmugam; Naresh, Shanmugam; Sujatha, Chandrasekaran; Vijaya, Srinivasan; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    Background Deceased donor (DDLT) and living donor (LDLT) liver transplant (LT) is in vogue in several centers in India. Most centers are resorting to LDLT as a preferred surgery due to shortage of deceased donor liver. The risk of infection and its effect on survival in both groups of recipients from the Indian subcontinent are not known. The study was conducted to compare the bacterial infection rates among LDLT and DDLT recipients and their impact on survival at a tertiary referral center. Methods Retrospective data on 67 LT recipients were reviewed. Data on pre-, per-, and postoperative bacterial infection rates and the common isolates were obtained. Results Thirty-five patients had LDLT and 32 had DDLT. The prevalence of pre-operative bacterial infection and the isolates was similar in both groups. The perioperative bacterial infection rates were significantly higher in DDLT recipients (P < 0.01) (relative risk: 1.44 95% confidence interval 1.04–1.9). In both LDLT and DDLT, the common source was urinary tract followed by bloodstream infection. The common bacterial isolates in either transplant were Klebsiella followed by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and nonfermenting gram-negative bacteria. Six patients (four LDLT; two DDLT) were treated for tuberculosis. Among the risk factors, cold ischemic time, and duration of stay in the intensive care unit was significantly higher for DDLT (p < 0.01). The death rates were not significantly different in the two groups. However, the odds for death were significantly high at 26.8 (p < 0.05) for postoperative bacterial infection and 1.8 (p < 0.001) for past alcohol. Conclusion Liver transplant recipients are at high-risk for bacterial infection irrespective of type of transplant, more so in DDLT. PMID:25755404

  14. Blood donor selection in European Union directives: room for improvement

    PubMed Central

    de Kort, Wim; Mayr, Wolfgang; Jungbauer, Christof; Vuk, Tomislav; Kullaste, Riin; Seifried, Erhard; Grazzini, Giuliano; de Wit, Jeroen; Folléa, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmissible infections have made both blood bankers and health authorities overly cautious. The general public expects and hence reinforces this policy. To obtain a high level of blood product safety, blood and plasma donors have to meet increasingly stringent eligibility criteria; however, it is not known whether this policy translates into improved outcomes for patients. There is a risk that the management of donors does not match the ambition of greater safety for patients. European directives related to the collection process and donor selection will probably be reconsidered in the next few years. Material and methods The development of European directives on donor selection and their basis in the literature were reviewed with an emphasis on the background and considerations for eligibility criteria to be included in the directives. Results The precautionary principle appears to be the predominant reason behind the set of eligibility criteria. However, the formal eligibility criteria, put into force in 2004, do not balance with the developments of the past decade in laboratory tests and measures that have substantially reduced actual infection risks. In no cases were the effects of eligibility criteria on the donor pool and donor well-being quantified. Regional differences in the epidemiology of transfusion-transmissible infections were not taken into consideration either. Discussion First, the Authors promote the collection of epidemiological data on the incidence and prevalence of conditions in the general population and in blood and plasma donors which could pose a risk for transfused patients, in order to use these data as a basis for decision-making in donor-selection policies. Second, the Authors suggest including allowance for differential deferral criteria throughout Europe, based on factual risk levels. There should be an accepted balance between donor and patient welfare, and also between risk to transfusion safety and risk of

  15. Donor Funding for Newborn Survival: An Analysis of Donor-Reported Data, 2002–2010

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Catherine; Lawn, Joy E.; Ranganathan, Meghna; Mills, Anne; Hanson, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Background Neonatal mortality accounts for 43% of global under-five deaths and is decreasing more slowly than maternal or child mortality. Donor funding has increased for maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH), but no analysis to date has disaggregated aid for newborns. We evaluated if and how aid flows for newborn care can be tracked, examined changes in the last decade, and considered methodological implications for tracking funding for specific population groups or diseases. Methods and Findings We critically reviewed and categorised previous analyses of aid to specific populations, diseases, or types of activities. We then developed and refined key terms related to newborn survival in seven languages and searched titles and descriptions of donor disbursement records in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Creditor Reporting System database, 2002–2010. We compared results with the Countdown to 2015 database of aid for MNCH (2003–2008) and the search strategy used by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Prior to 2005, key terms related to newborns were rare in disbursement records but their frequency increased markedly thereafter. Only two mentions were found of “stillbirth” and only nine references were found to “fetus” in any spelling variant or language. The total value of non-research disbursements mentioning any newborn search terms rose from US$38.4 million in 2002 to US$717.1 million in 2010 (constant 2010 US$). The value of non-research projects exclusively benefitting newborns fluctuated somewhat but remained low, at US$5.7 million in 2010. The United States and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) provided the largest value of non-research funding mentioning and exclusively benefitting newborns, respectively. Conclusions Donor attention to newborn survival has increased since 2002, but it appears unlikely that donor aid is commensurate with the 3.0 million newborn deaths and 2.7 million

  16. Chlamydia Screening Decision Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    uncomplicated chlamydia infection can be treated with an inexpensive course of oral antibiotics taken on an outpatient basis, while pelvic inflammatory disease... contraception , I would screen for chlamydia . Chlamydia Screening 31 I would say intuition doesn’t play into my decision making because there are high risk...or inconsistent barrier contraception Chlamydia Screening 34 practice. This view was not supported by the data obtained from the review of patient

  17. Composite scintillator screen

    DOEpatents

    Zeman, Herbert D.

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator screen for an X-ray system includes a substrate of low-Z material and bodies of a high-Z material embedded within the substrate. By preselecting the size of the bodies embedded within the substrate, the spacial separation of the bodies and the thickness of the screen, the sensitivity of the screen to X-rays within a predetermined energy range can be predicted.

  18. Separation of donor and recipient bacteria by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zsigray, R M; Fulk, G E; Lawton, W D

    1970-08-01

    When donor and recipient strains of Escherichia coli were added to columns containing Cellex-P (a cation-exchange cellulose), more than 80% of the female cells passed through the column but only 11% or less of the male cells were eluted. However, when donor strains were blended before their addition to the column, the majority of these cells were eluted. These results indicated that the filamentous appendages termed F pili (which are removed by blending) were the structures responsible for the adherence of donor cells to the cellulose.

  19. Intramolecular charge transfer in donor-acceptor molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Slama-Schwok, A.; Blanchard-Desce, M.; Lehn, J.M. )

    1990-05-17

    The photophysical properties of donor-acceptor molecules, push-pull polyenes and carotenoids, have been studied by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. The compounds bear various acceptor and donor groups, linked together by chains of different length and structure. The position of the absorption and fluorescence maxima and their variation in solvents of increasing polarity are in agreement with long-distance intramolecular charge-transfer processes, the linker acting as a molecular wire. The effects of the linker length and structure and of the nature of acceptor and donor are presented.

  20. Donor human milk banking and the emergence of milk sharing.

    PubMed

    Landers, Susan; Hartmann, Ben T

    2013-02-01

    Donor human milk has emerged as the preferred substrate to feed extremely preterm infants, when mother's own milk is unavailable. This article summarizes the clinical data demonstrating the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of feeding donor human milk to premature babies. It describes the current state of milk banking in North America, as well as other parts of the world, and the differing criteria for donor selection, current pasteurization techniques, and quality control measures. A risk assessment methodology is proposed, which would allow milk banks globally to assess the safety of their process and respond appropriately to differing risk environments.