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Sample records for bl lacertae objects

  1. BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.

    1998-01-01

    This grant has contributed to one of the original goals of the NAS/LTSA program, the goal of junior faculty development. Below I briefly summarize the following major results on BL Lacertae Objects that we have obtained. An invited talk on BL Lac Objects at IAU 175 "Extragalactic Radio Sources" at Bologna Italy in October 1995 summarized some of these results. A second invited talk in Oct 1998 at Green Bamk, WVA presented other BL Lac results at the conference entitled: "Highly Redshifted Radio Lines". We have used the EMSS sample to measure the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of BL Lacs. A new large sample of XBLs has been discovered.

  2. CCD photometry of 10 BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. Z.; Li, K. H.; Cheng, F. Z.; Lu, R. W.; Liu, B. F.; Hao, P. J.; Liu, Z. H.

    1991-03-01

    CCD photometric data for 10 BL Lacertae objects are given. The main results are: (1) a short timescale variability exists for OI 090.4 with a characteristic time of 80 minutes and an amplitude of Delta-B = 0.56 mag (+ or - 0.11 mag); (2) an outburst of 0.72 mag (+ or - 0.1 mag) within 40 minutes has again been recorded in the V band for ON + 231; its morphology strongly resembles that of the two previously reported outbursts of 1987 and 1988; and (3) a large amplitude outburst of 0.87 mag (+ or - 0.10 mag) within 96 minutes has been recorded for OJ-131 in the B band.

  3. IMAGING REDSHIFT ESTIMATES FOR BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Meisner, Aaron M.; Romani, Roger W. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.ed

    2010-03-20

    We have obtained high dynamic range, good natural seeing i' images of BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) to search for the active galactic nucleus host and thus constrain the source redshift. These objects are drawn from a sample of bright flat-spectrum radio sources that are either known (via recent Fermi Large Area Telescope observations) gamma-ray emitters or similar sources that might be detected in continuing gamma-ray observations. All had spectroscopic confirmation as BL Lac sources, but no redshift solution. We detected hosts for 25/49 objects. As these galaxies have been argued to be standard candles, our measured host magnitudes provide redshift estimates (ranging from 0.2 to 1.0). Lower bounds are established on the redshifts of non-detections. The mean of the fit redshifts (and lower limits) is higher than those of spectroscopic solutions in the radio-loud and gamma-ray-loud parent samples, suggesting corrections may be needed for the luminosity function and evolution of these sources.

  4. The beaming model and Hubble diagram of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, G. Z.; Liu, F. K.; Liu, B. F.; Lu, R. W.; Li, K. H.; Zhu, Y. Y.

    1991-09-01

    The enhancement of the observed flux density is determined for the relativistic beaming of BL Lacertae objects. The observed apparent magnitude of 33 BL Lac objects are corrected for enhancement by the bulk relativistic Doppler factor. The diagram of apparent magnitudes corrected for the Doppler effect correlates well with the Hubble relation, and 8 of the 33 BL Lac objects have large emission-line redshifts.

  5. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL Lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Shaw, M. S.; Healey, S. E.; Michelson, P. F.; Gasparrini, D.; Bolmer, J.; Cotter, G.; Potter, W. J.; Finke, J.; Greiner, J.; Rau, A.; Schady, P.; King, O.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L. E-mail: rwr@astro.stanford.edu E-mail: gasparrini@asdc.asi.it

    2014-01-01

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. In this work we use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. We find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z ≲ 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. We additionally find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called 'blazar sequence'. Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor of γ=6.1{sub −0.8}{sup +1.1}, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.

  6. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Gasparrini, D.; Shaw, M. S.; Bolmer, J.; Cotter, G.; Finke, J.; Greiner, J.; Healey, S. E.; King, O.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Michelson, P. F.; Potter, W. J.; Rau, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Richards, J. L.; Schady, P.

    2013-12-13

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. We use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. Here, we find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z lesssim 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. Additionally, we find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called "blazar sequence." Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor of $\\gamma =6.1^{+1.1}_{-0.8}$, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.

  7. The cosmic evolution of Fermi BL lacertae objects

    DOE PAGES

    Ajello, M.; Romani, R. W.; Gasparrini, D.; ...

    2013-12-13

    Fermi has provided the largest sample of γ-ray-selected blazars to date. We use a uniformly selected set of 211 BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects detected by Fermi during its first year of operation. We obtained redshift constraints for 206 out of the 211 BL Lac objects in our sample, making it the largest and most complete sample of BL Lac objects available in the literature. We use this sample to determine the luminosity function of BL Lac objects and its evolution with cosmic time. Here, we find that for most BL Lac classes the evolution is positive, with a space density peaking at modest redshift (z ≈ 1.2). Low-luminosity, high-synchrotron-peaked (HSP) BL Lac objects are an exception, showing strong negative evolution, with number density increasing for z lesssim 0.5. Since this rise corresponds to a drop-off in the density of flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), a possible interpretation is that these HSPs represent an accretion-starved end state of an earlier merger-driven gas-rich phase. Additionally, we find that the known BL Lac correlation between luminosity and photon spectral index persists after correction for the substantial observational selection effects with implications for the so-called "blazar sequence." Finally, by estimating the beaming corrections to the luminosity function, we find that BL Lac objects have an average Lorentz factor ofmore » $$\\gamma =6.1^{+1.1}_{-0.8}$$, and that most are seen within 10° of the jet axis.« less

  8. An X-ray survey of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Bowyer, S.; Jones, T. W.; Davidsen, A.; Mason, K. O.; Sanford, P. W.

    1976-01-01

    Results are reported for X-ray observations and nearly simultaneous photographic photometry of four BL Lacertae objects (BL Lac, W Com, ON 325, and AP Lib). The X-ray data were obtained in the band from 2.5 to 7.5 keV using a collimated proportional counter aboard OAO-C. Although none of the sources was detected above background at a statistically significant level, two-sigma upper limits on the X-ray flux incident at earth are given for each object. The photometric data indicate that all four objects were near the faint end of their visibility ranges during the time of the X-ray observations. The X-ray upper limits and B magnitudes are employed to calculate upper limits on the brightness temperatures and angular sizes of the radio synchrotron sources; upper limits on the distances to the objects are obtained from limits on the physical source sizes deduced from the radio variabilities. The strictest distance limit is 240 Mpc for BL Lac. Substantial evidence is noted for variability of ON 325 on a timescale of hours.

  9. X-Ray Variability of BL Lacertae Objects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, William Albert

    We have searched for X-ray emission from 63 optically active extragalactic objects using the A-1 detectors on the HEAO 1 spacecraft. Most of these sources are classified as BL Lacertae objects, and display one or more of the following properties: a high optical polarization, rapid optical variability, or a featureless (line free) optical spectrum. Fourteen objects are detected as sources of significant X-ray emission, eight of which were initially discovered with the A-1 detectors. Significant X-ray intensity variability is detected in all but three sources (and in these three objects only one observation is currently available, so that their X-ray behavior has yet to be determined). In somes cases (MRK 421, MRK 501, PKS 0548-322, and IZW 187) variations on monthly time scales are observed, while other sources (PKS 0521-365, PKS 0537-441, 1218+304, 3C 371, and PKS 2155-152) appear to vary on weekly (and in some cases, daily) time scales. In one source, PKS 2155-304, random factor of 2 variations in intensity are observed over time periods as short as 6 hours. A study of the X-ray variations observed in 3C 371 suggests that changes at these wavelengths result from either a succession (and partial superposition) of discrete events, or a variable injection rate. In those sources where X-ray emission is observed, the nonthermal optical flux extrapolates extremely well into the X-ray region, suggesting that emissions in these wavelength bands share a common origin. We show that both the variability and spectral form observed at X-ray wavelengths can be explained if (as suggested by the highly polarized optical flux) the emission is synchrotron radiation. It is necessary, however, that the synchrotron emitters move at relativistic velocities, in order to avoid excessive inverse-Compton losses that otherwise occur.

  10. X-ray variability of BL Lacertae objects

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    X-ray emission from 63 optically active extragalactic objects has been searched for using the A-1 detectors on the HEAO 1 spacecraft. Most of these sources are classified as BL Lacertae objects, and display one or more of the following properties: a high optical polarizaton, rapid optical variability, or a featureless (line free) optical spectrum. Fourteen objects are detected as sources of significant X-ray emission, eight of which were initially discovered with the A-1 detectors. Significant X-ray intensity variability is detected in all but three sources (and in these three objects only one observation is currently available, so that their X-ray behavior has yet to be determined). In some cases (MRK 421, MRK 501, PKS 0548-322, and IZW 187) variations on monthly time scales are observed, while other sources (PKS 0521-365, PKS 0537-441, 1218 + 304, 3C 371, and PKS 2155-152) appear to vary on weekly (and in some cases daily) time scales. In one surce, PKS 2155-304, random factor of 2 variations in intensity are observed over time periods as short as 6 hours. A study of the X-ray variations observed in 3C 371 suggests that changes at these wavelenghts result from either a succession (and partial superposition) of discrete events, or a variable injection rate. In those sources where X-ray emission is observed, the nonthermal optical flux extrapolates extremely well into the X-ray region, suggesting that emissions in these wavelength bands share a common origin. It is shown that both the variability and spectral form observed at X-ray wavelengths can be explained if (as suggested by the highly polarized optical flux) the emission is synchrotron radiation. It is necessary, however, that the synchrotron emitters move at relativistic velocities, in order to avoid excessive inverse-Compton losses that otherwise occur.

  11. A Search for Low-Luminosity BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric S.

    1999-05-01

    Many properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis, whereby BL Lacs are FR 1 radio galaxies viewed nearly along the jet axis. However, a possible problem with this model is that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR 1 galaxies has not been detected. A transition population of ``low-luminosity BL Lacs'' was predicted to exist in abundance in X-ray-selected samples such as the Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS) by Browne & Marcha. However, these BL Lacs may have been misidentified as clusters of galaxies. We have conducted a search for such objects in the EMSS with the ROSAT High-Resolution Imager (HRI) here we present ROSAT HRI images, optical spectra, and VLA radio maps for a small number of BL Lacs that were previously misidentified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. While these objects are slightly lower in luminosity than other EMSS BL Lacs, their properties are too similar to the other BL Lacs in the EMSS sample to ``bridge the gap'' between BL Lacs and FR 1 radio galaxies. Also, the number of new BL Lacs found is too low to alter significantly the X-ray luminosity function or value for the X-ray-selected EMSS BL Lac sample. Thus, these observations do not explain fully the discrepancy between the X-ray- and radio-selected BL Lac samples.

  12. The megaparsec-scale environments of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric P.; O'Dea, C. P.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    We compare observations of BL Lac megaparsec-scale clustering environments with those for F-R I radio galaxies V and R image data are used to show that the strengths of the clustering measured via spatial cross-correlation amplitude are similar for the two types of galaxies and are consistent with Abel richness class 0. We discuss the implications this has for the origin of the BL Lac phenomena. We also examine the evolution of clustering environments of F-R I radio galaxies and BL Lac objects with redshift.

  13. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  14. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan; Wandel, Amri

    1990-01-01

    The accretion disk is an attractive model for BL Lac objects because of its preferred axis and high efficiency. While the smooth continuum spectra of BL Lacs do not show large UV bumps, in marked contrast to quasars, high quality simultaneous data do reveal deviations from smoothness. Using detailed calculations of cool accretion disk spectra, the best measured ultraviolet and soft x ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted. The mass and accretion rate required are determined. A hot disk or corona could comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power law spectrum in the 1 to 10 keV range. The dynamic time scales in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft x ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations. The mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard x ray variability.

  15. First Ultraviolet Spectropolarimetry of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Allen, Richard G.; Angel, J. R. P.

    1993-01-01

    We present ultraviolet spectropolarimetry of the BL Lac objects OJ 287 and 0754+100 (0I 090.4) acquired with the Faint Object Spectrograph of the Hubble Space Telescope. These are the first such observations of radio-selected BL Lac objects and the polarimetry spans the wavelength range 1580-3300 A in the observer's frame. Neither object exhibited emission-line features in their UV spectra. OJ 287 was very faint during the UV observations (V approximately 16). The UV linear polarization of this object was approximately 20%. There is no indication that the degree of polarization or the polarization position angle varies with wavelength. Nearly simultaneous optical ground-based measurements show that the polarization does not significantly change with wavelength out to approximately 8000 A. The UV and optical polarization of 0754+100 was approximately 8% and also wavelength-independent during the epoch of observation. These observations confirm that the synchrotron emission that dominates the optical continuum also dominates in the ultraviolet in these two BL Lac objects. There is no evidence for significant contributions to the UV/optical flux by other emission components, and we set limits on the brightness of nonsynchrotron continuum components.

  16. Optical polarization of high-energy BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hovatta, T.; Lindfors, E.; Blinov, D.; Pavlidou, V.; Nilsson, K.; Kiehlmann, S.; Angelakis, E.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Liodakis, I.; Myserlis, I.; Panopoulou, G. V.; Pursimo, T.

    2016-12-01

    Context. We investigate the optical polarization properties of high-energy BL Lac objects using data from the RoboPol blazar monitoring program and the Nordic Optical Telescope. Aims: We wish to understand if there are differences between the BL Lac objects that have been detected with the current-generation TeV instruments and those objects that have not yet been detected. Methods: We used a maximum-likelihood method to investigate the optical polarization fraction and its variability in these sources. In order to study the polarization position angle variability, we calculated the time derivative of the electric vector position angle (EVPA) change. We also studied the spread in the Stokes Q/I-U/I plane and rotations in the polarization plane. Results: The mean polarization fraction of the TeV-detected BL Lacs is 5%, while the non-TeV sources show a higher mean polarization fraction of 7%. This difference in polarization fraction disappears when the dilution by the unpolarized light of the host galaxy is accounted for. The TeV sources show somewhat lower fractional polarization variability amplitudes than the non-TeV sources. Also the fraction of sources with a smaller spread in the Q/I-U/I plane and a clumped distribution of points away from the origin, possibly indicating a preferred polarization angle, is larger in the TeV than in the non-TeV sources. These differences between TeV and non-TeV samples seem to arise from differences between intermediate and high spectral peaking sources instead of the TeV detection. When the EVPA variations are studied, the rate of EVPA change is similar in both samples. We detect significant EVPA rotations in both TeV and non-TeV sources, showing that rotations can occur in high spectral peaking BL Lac objects when the monitoring cadence is dense enough. Our simulations show that we cannot exclude a random walk origin for these rotations. Conclusions: These results indicate that there are no intrinsic differences in the

  17. Looking for the least luminous BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capetti, A.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2015-08-01

    Among active galactic nuclei, BL Lac objects show extreme properties that have been interpreted as the effect of relativistic beaming on the emission from a plasma jet oriented close to the line of sight. The Doppler amplification of the jet emission makes them ideal targets for studying jet physics. In particular, low-power BL Lacs (LPBL) are very interesting because they probe the jet formation and emission processes at the lowest levels of accretion. However, they are difficult to identify since their emission is swamped by the radiation from the host galaxy in most observing bands. In this paper we propose a new LPBL selection method based on the mid-infrared emission, in addition to the traditional optical indices. We considered the radio-selected sample of Best & Heckman (2012, MNRAS, 421, 1569) and cross-matched it with the WISE all-sky survey. In a new diagnostic plane including the W2-W3 color and the Dn(4000) index, LPBL are located in a region scarcely populated by other sources. By filtering objects with small emission line equivalent width, we isolated 36 LPBL candidates up to redshift 0.15. Their radio luminosity at 1.4 GHz spans the range log Lr = 39.2-41.5 [erg s-1]. Considering the completeness of our sample, we analyzed the BL Lac luminosity function (RLF), finding a dramatic paucity of LPBL with respect to the extrapolation of the RLF toward low power. This requires a break in the RLF located at log Lr ~ 40.6 [erg s-1]. The consequent peak in the BL Lacs number density is possibly the manifestation of a minimum power required to launch a relativistic jet.

  18. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  19. Accretion disk emission from a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandel, Amri; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    It is suggested here that the UV and X-ray emission of BL Lac objects may originate in an accretion disk. Using detailed calculations of accretion disk spectra, the best-measured ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectra of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 are fitted, and the mass and accretion rate required is determined. The ultraviolet through soft X-ray continuum is well fitted by the spectrum of an accretion disk, but near-Eddington accretion rates are required to produce the soft X-ray excess. A hot disk or corona could Comptonize soft photons from the cool disk and produce the observed power-law spectrum in the 1-10 keV range. The dynamic time scale in the disk regions that contribute most of the observed ultraviolet and soft X-ray photons are consistent with the respective time scales for intensity variations observed in these two wave bands; the mass derived from fitting the continuum spectrum is consistent with the limit derived from the fastest hard X-ray variability.

  20. Upper limits from hard X-ray observations of five BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezler, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from hard X-ray observations of the five brightest X-ray BL Lacertae objects: PKS 0548-322, Mrk 421 (=1101+384), 2A 1219+305, Mrk 501 (=1652+398), and PKS 2155-304. The observations covered the energy range 15-165 keV from August 1977 to December 1978. The results are compared with previous studies.

  1. Upper limits from hard X-ray observations of five BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bezler, M.; Gruber, D. E.; Rothschild, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented from hard X-ray observations of the five brightest X-ray BL Lacertae objects: PKS 0548-322, Mrk 421 (=1101+384), 2A 1219+305, Mrk 501 (=1652+398), and PKS 2155-304. The observations covered the energy range 15-165 keV from August 1977 to December 1978. The results are compared with previous studies.

  2. Simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae object I Zw 187

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Pollock, J. T.; Pica, A. J.; Smith, A. G.; Webb, J. R.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Rudy, R. J.; Levan, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two sets of simultaneous spectra consisting of data obtained with radio, IR, optical, UV and X-ray telescopes were obtained 10 months apart for the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw 187. In addition, nonsimultaneous observations were made in several of the aforementioned observing bands in order to detect flux variations and galactic light contamination was removed from all observations. The BL Lac component is found to have a weak 3000 A bump superposed on an IR-optical-UV spectrum of slope 0.9. Consistent with the arising of the IR-through-X-ray continuum from a single synchrotron source, the X-ray data fall on or near an extrapolation of this power law. No flux variations have been detected in the flat radio spectrum. Optical and X-ray fluxes are observed to vary by a factor not greater than three, and the shortest variability time scales in these bands are comparable at about one week.

  3. Simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae object I Zw 187

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Pollock, J. T.; Pica, A. J.; Smith, A. G.; Webb, J. R.; Ku, W. H.-M.; Rudy, R. J.; Levan, P. D.

    1982-01-01

    Two sets of simultaneous spectra consisting of data obtained with radio, IR, optical, UV and X-ray telescopes were obtained 10 months apart for the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw 187. In addition, nonsimultaneous observations were made in several of the aforementioned observing bands in order to detect flux variations and galactic light contamination was removed from all observations. The BL Lac component is found to have a weak 3000 A bump superposed on an IR-optical-UV spectrum of slope 0.9. Consistent with the arising of the IR-through-X-ray continuum from a single synchrotron source, the X-ray data fall on or near an extrapolation of this power law. No flux variations have been detected in the flat radio spectrum. Optical and X-ray fluxes are observed to vary by a factor not greater than three, and the shortest variability time scales in these bands are comparable at about one week.

  4. Coordinated observations of X-ray bright BL lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mkn421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. Physical parameters of Mkn421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model. Taking the spectral turnover between infrared and radio for synchrotrom self absorption, the radio emmision originates in a more extended region than the infrared to X-ray emission, the source size of which should be less than .01 milliarcseconds. Relativistic beaming is required if the angular size is smaller than a few times .001 milliarcseconds. A possible explanation of the spectral change during the two epochs is also discussed.

  5. Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makino, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Matsuoka, M.; Koyama, K.; Inoue, H.; Makishima, K.; Hoshi, R.; Hayakawa, S.; Kondo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mrk 421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed on two occasions separated by 5 weeks in January and March 1984, and each observation was coordinated for about 1 week. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. The spectra show the gradual steepening toward high frequency; the power law indices are about 0.1, about 0.6, and about 1.0 for radio, infrared-optical, and UV bands, respectively. The UV and optical-infrared fluxes decreased by about 20 percent in 5 weeks, while the radio flux remained stable. The X-ray flux decreased by a factor of about 2, and the change was more pronounced at hard X-rays, which suggest that X-ray emission possibly consists of two components. The degree of polarization at the optical band varied on the time scale of a few days, while the position angle remained unchanged. Physical parameters of Mrk 421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model.

  6. Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Makino, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Matsuoka, M.; Koyama, K.; Inoue, H.; Makishima, K.; Hoshi, R.; Hayakawa, S.; Kondo, Y.

    1987-01-01

    Simultaneous multifrequency observations of the BL Lac object Mrk 421 covering radio through X-ray wavelengths were performed on two occasions separated by 5 weeks in January and March 1984, and each observation was coordinated for about 1 week. Composite multifrequency spectra of the central nonthermal component were obtained at the two epochs after subtracting the optical and infrared light of the underlying galaxy. The spectra show the gradual steepening toward high frequency; the power law indices are about 0.1, about 0.6, and about 1.0 for radio, infrared-optical, and UV bands, respectively. The UV and optical-infrared fluxes decreased by about 20 percent in 5 weeks, while the radio flux remained stable. The X-ray flux decreased by a factor of about 2, and the change was more pronounced at hard X-rays, which suggest that X-ray emission possibly consists of two components. The degree of polarization at the optical band varied on the time scale of a few days, while the position angle remained unchanged. Physical parameters of Mrk 421 are discussed in terms of the synchrotron self-Compton model.

  7. X-ray Emission of Low-Energy-Peaked BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Jill M.; Perlman, Eric S.

    2009-12-01

    Presented here is an analysis of X-ray observations of the following seven low-energy-peaked BL Lacertae objects: BL Lacertae, S5 0716+71, W Comae, 3C 66A, S4 0954+65, OJ 287, and AO 0235+16. The spectral data for these objects were taken from observations by the XMM-Newton and/or Chandra X-ray observatories. These objects are being analyzed in an effort to reanalyze all XMM-Newton and Chandra data of low-energy BL Lacs, similar to the efforts of Perlman et al. [4] for high energy BL Lacs. The objects were studied in an effort to understand the nature of the X-ray and multi-waveband emissions in these objects, study the shape of the spectra, and compare the observations of low-energy-peaked BL Lacs to previous observations of these objects and also to observations of high-energy-peaked BL Lacs. Light curves and spectra were analyzed to look for evidence of spectral variability in the objects and as a comparison to previous research on these objects. Most data shows both synchrotron and Inverse-Compton emission, though only little correlation was seen between the emission strength and the spectral slope. Our data is generally well-fitted to a broken power law model with distinct bimodality seen in the first spectral index (six observations with Γ1~0.4 and four observations with Γ1~3.0), a break in energy between 0.6 and 1.4 keV, and a second spectral index Γ2~2.0. None of the observations showed spectral lines, which is consistent with past results. For S5 0716+71 the XMM-Newton X-ray and optical data, along with radio data obtained from the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (UMRAO), a spectral energy distribution was created and peak frequencies were estimated.

  8. Multifrequency Observations of BL Lacertae Object A0 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, E. S.; Webb, J. R.; Benitez, E. M.; Balonek, T. J.; McGrath, E.; Shrader, C. R.; Inst. de Astronomia Team; CGRO/LHEA Team

    1999-05-01

    The BL Lacertae Object A0 0235+164 dramatically increased in brightness on October 20, 1997. This outburst was dectected with the 1 meter SARA (Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy) telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). As a result of our observations, AO 0235+164 was also observed during the outburst by the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment (RXTE), Foggy Bottom Observatory (Colgate), and University of Michigan 26 meter Radio telescope as a part of a Target of Opportunity (TOO) program. We present here the historical lightcurve A0 0235+164, multifrequency observations and multifrequency spectra collected during the 1997 through 1998 outburst.

  9. VERITAS and multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741+196

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Buchovecky, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Christiansen, J. L.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Flinders, A.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Huetten, M.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Brien, S.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pelassa, V.; Petrashyk, A.; Petry, D.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Ratliff, G.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Reynolds, K.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.

    2016-07-01

    We present results from multiwavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 1741 + 196, including results in the very high energy γ-ray regime using the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The VERITAS time-averaged spectrum, measured above 180 GeV, is well modelled by a power law with a spectral index of 2.7 ± 0.7stat ± 0.2syst. The integral flux above 180 GeV is (3.9 ± 0.8stat ± 1.0syst) × 10-8 m-2 s-1, corresponding to 1.6 per cent of the Crab nebula flux on average. The multiwavelength spectral energy distribution of the source suggests that 1ES 1741+196 is an extreme-high-frequency-peaked BL Lacertae object. The observations analysed in this paper extend over a period of six years, during which time no strong flares were observed in any band. This analysis is therefore one of the few characterizations of a blazar in a non-flaring state.

  10. The Einstein Observatory extended medium sensitivity survey sample of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, John T.; Morris, Simon L.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, Tommaso; Schild, R. E.; Wolter, A.

    1988-01-01

    We present new results on BL Lacertae Objects discovered in an extensive X-ray survey of the high galactic latitude sky performed by the Einstein satellite. While BL Lacs have been found primarily in high frequency radio surveys, we show that X-ray emission is an efficient new method for finding such objects and will offer an outstanding opportunity to find many of these objects in the near future using the ROSAT all-sky survey. It is also shown that X-ray selected BL Lac objects have somewhat different optical and radio properties than their radio selected counterparts. Using a complete, flux limited sample of 16 X-ray selected BL Lacs, we show that their number counts differ decisively from those of X-ray selected QSOs. Moreover, using the few red shifts available for these objects and limits on red shift determined from resolving the optical images of most of the remainder of the sample, a preliminary V/Vmax = 0.37 +/- 0.06. This value suggests an evolution in luminosity and/or density opposite in sense to that of QSOs.

  11. The research of BL Lacertae objects in Metsähovi Radio Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieppola, E.; Tornikoski, M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Valtaoja, E.

    2006-10-01

    We present the Metsähovi Radio Observatory research related to BL Lacertae objects during the ENIGMA era. The Metsähovi BLO sample consists of 398 objects. For most of them, we have determined the spectral energy distribution (SED) using archival multi-frequency data. We fitted a parabolic function to the synchrotron component of the SEDs and calculated the synchrotron peak frequencies, ν_{peak}, of the sample sources. When we studied the correlations of ν_{peak} and the source luminosities on several wavelengths, we found that the peak luminosity does not depend on ν_{peak}, contrary to the blazar sequence scenario. We also give a summary of the BLO observing project at Metsähovi and the impending BLO data publication, and close with some plans for the future.

  12. The Hubble Space Telescope Survey of BL Lacertae Objects. IV. Infrared Imaging of Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarpa, Riccardo; Urry, C. Megan; Padovani, Paolo; Calzetti, Daniela; O'Dowd, Matthew

    2000-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope NICMOS Camera 2 was used for H-band imaging of 12 BL Lacertae objects taken from the larger sample observed with the WFPC2 in the R band by Urry and coworkers and Scarpa and coworkers. Ten of the 12 BL Lacs are clearly resolved, and the detected host galaxies are large, bright ellipticals with average absolute magnitude =-26.2+/-0.45 mag and effective radius =10+/-5 kpc. The rest-frame integrated color of the host galaxies is on average =2.3+/-0.3, consistent with the value for both radio galaxies and normal, nonactive elliptical galaxies and indicating that the dominant stellar population is old. The host galaxies tend to be bluer in their outer regions than in their cores, with average color gradient Δ(R-H)/Δlogr=-0.2 mag, again consistent with results for normal nonactive elliptical galaxies. The infrared Kormendy relation, derived for the first time for BL Lac host galaxies, is μe=3.8logre+14.8, fully in agreement with the relation for normal ellipticals. The close similarity between BL Lac host galaxies and normal ellipticals suggests that the active nucleus has surprisingly little effect on the host galaxy. This supports a picture in which all elliptical galaxies harbor black holes that can be actively accreting for some fraction of their lifetime.

  13. Relativistic jet models for the BL Lacertae object Mrk 421 during three epochs of observation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mufson, S. L.; Hutter, D. J.; Kondo, Y.; Wisniewski, W. Z.

    1988-01-01

    Coordinated observation of the nearby BL Lacertae object Mrk 421 obtained during May 1980, January 1984, and March 1984 are described. These observations give a time-frozen picture of the continuous spectrum of Mrk 421 at X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and radio wavelengths. The observed spectra have been fitted to an inhomogeneous relativistic jet model. In general, the models reproduce the data well. Many of the observed differences during the three epochs can be attributed to variations in the opening angle of the jet and in the angle that the jet makes to the line of sight. The jet models obtained here are compared with the homogeneous, spherically symmetric, synchrotron self-Compton models for this source. The models are also compared with the relativistic jet models obtained for other active galactic nuclei.

  14. Is BZB J1450+5201 the most distant gamma-ray BL Lacertae object?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Neng-Hui; Bai, Jin-Ming; Wang, Jian-Guo; Liu, Hong-Tao; Zhang, Jiu-Jia; Jiang, Ning; Yuan, Zun-Li; Chen, Liang

    2015-03-01

    BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects at high redshifts (z ≥ 2) are rarely detected. Through careful analysis of its Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrum, BZB J1450+5201 is confirmed to be a high-z BL Lac object with z ≥ 2.471 by identifying the Lyα 1216 and CIV 1548/1550 absorption lines. This indicates that BZB J1450+5201 is the most distant BL Lac object discovered to date. Careful analysis of the five-year Fermi-LAT data of 2FGL J1451.0+5159 shows that its γ-ray emission is robust with a confidence level of 6.2σ at 1-3 GeV and 6.7σ at 3-10 GeV. This analysis with the five-year data overcomes confusion with its bright neighbor, which is a problem when analyzing the two-year data. In addition, 2FGL J1451.0+5159 is confirmed to be associated with BZB J1450+5201 using the five-year data. The analysis of multiwavelength data, from radio to γ-ray energies, indicates that BZB J1450+5201 is an intermediate synchrotron peaked (ISP) source. Its multiwavelength properties are consistent with distributions of other ISP sources at lower redshifts in the second Fermi-LAT AGN catalog. The pure synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model seems to be disfavored, but the scattering of weak external emission plus the SSC process can provide a satisfactory description of the broadband emission. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  15. The effects of intrinsic spectral curvature and flux limits on the measured evolutionary behavior of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Eileen T.

    The effects of modeling the intrinsic curvature of the spectral energy distributions of BL Lacertae objects in the soft x-ray on the V/V M evolutionary statistic were studied. It was found that the power law approximations in the soft x-ray could cause a significant bias in V/V M towards values supporting either negative or positive evolution for BL Lacs. The effects of such a bias on the Sedentary Survey, a large sample of 150 BL Lacertae objects, were found to be negligible on average though individual effects were appreciable. The luminosity function and parametric values of evolution for pure luminosity and pure density evolution were computed for the Sedentary Sample.

  16. Optically Identified BL Lacertae Objects From the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    386 BL Lacertae candidates identified from 2860 deg2 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey ( SDSS ) spectroscopic database. The candidates are primarily...selected to have quasi-featureless optical spectra and low proper motions as measured from SDSS and USNO-B positions; however, our ability to separate...Sky Survey ( SDSS ; York et al. 2000) and the Two-Degree Field QSO Red- shift Survey (2QZ; Boyle et al. 2000), have the potential to reveal new

  17. The swift observations of BL Lacertae object 1ES 2344+514

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, S.; Kapanadze, B.; Romano, P.; Vercellone, S.; Tabagari, L.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results based on the monitoring of the high energy peaked BL Lacertae object 1ES 2344+514 with the satellite Swift during 2005-2015. Our timing study shows that the source was highly variable on longer (weeks-to-months) time-scales with the 0.3-10 keV flux ranging by a factor of 13.3. The flux variability exhibited an erratic character, changing its amplitude and minimum flux level from flare to flare. In some epochs, an X-ray flare was accompanied by enhanced optical-UV activity, although the uncorrelated 0.3-10 keV and lower-frequency variabilities were also often seen. Our target was significantly passive on intra-day timescales compared to other HBLs. The logparabolic distribution of the X-ray emitting electrons and the underlying physical processes seem to be less important for this object in some epochs, since only seven out of the relatively rich spectra showed a curvature, while the majority of the 0.3-10 keV spectra fitted with a simple powerlaw well. The photon index varied on diverse timescales, and the source showed mainly a "harder-when-brighter" spectral evolution. In the hardness ratio-flux plane, 1ES 2344+514 showed both clockwise and counterclockwise loops, indicating a complex spectral evolution with the flux.

  18. Colour variation of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0537-441

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaopan; Zhang, Li; Luo, Yuhui; Wang, Lisha; Zhou, Li

    2015-05-01

    We present the colour indices V - R of BL Lacertae object PKS 0537-441 on the basis of the photometric data monitored by the Rapid Eye Mounting (REM) telescope located at the ESO Cerro La Silla observatory (Chile). Nearly 700 quasi-simultaneous data groups were collected during the period from 2004 to 2010. Our colour analysis shows the existence of at least two variability mechanisms: one is the long-term chromatic mechanism in which the variation traces a 0.04 ± 0.01 slope in the V - R versus V plot, the other is the chromatic mechanism implying the spectral changes during the flares and on intraday time-scales. A general bluer-when-brighter trend is confirmed in both ascent and descent states during the flares and in the 2010 February flare interval, while a much stronger bluer-when-brighter chromatism is observed in both faint and bright states on intraday time-scales. The discrete correlation function analysis reveals the existence of a time-lag of 13^{+5.8}_{-1.2} d between colour indices and magnitudes during the period MJD 54404-54453, whereas no measurable time-lag during other periods is found. Our results suggest that geometric effects may be responsible for the long-term achromatic mechanism, while the intrinsic shock-in-jet mechanism may produce the chromatic variability during the flares and on intraday time-scales.

  19. Six-year optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0806+52.4

    SciTech Connect

    Man, Zhongyi; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Wu, Jianghua; Zhou, Xu; Yuan, Qirong

    2014-12-01

    We present the results of the first systematic long-term multicolor optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0806+52.4. The monitoring was performed in multiple passbands with a 60/90 cm Schmidt telescope from 2005 December to 2011 February. The overall brightness of this object decreased from 2005 December to 2008 December but was regained after that. A sharp outburst probably occurred around the end of our monitoring program. Overlapping the long-term trend are some short-term small-amplitude oscillations. No intranight variability was found in the object, which is in accordance with the historical observations before 2005. By investigating the color behavior, we found a strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism for the long-term variability of 1ES 0806+52.4. The total amplitudes at the c, i, and o bands are 1.18, 1.12, and 1.02 mag, respectively. The amplitudes tend to increase toward shorter wavelengths, which may be a major cause of the bluer-when-brighter chromatism. Such bluer-when-brighter chromatisms are also found in other blazars, such as S5 0716+714, OJ 287. The hard-X-ray data collected from the Swift/BAT archive was correlated with our optical data. No positive result was found, the reason for which may be that the hard-X-ray flux is a combination of the synchrotron and inverse Compton emission, but with different timescales and cadences under the leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model.

  20. A Viewing Angle-Kinetic Luminosity Scheme for BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georganopoulos, Markos; Marscher, Alan P.

    1998-01-01

    We propose a unified classification for BL Lacertae objects (BLs), focusing on the synchrotron peak frequency of the spectral energy distribution. The unification scheme is based on the angle theta that describes the orientation of the relativistic jet and on the electron kinetic luminosity Lamba(sub kin) of the jet. We assume that Lamba(sub kin) scales with the size of the jet (r) in a self-similar fashion (Lamba(sub kin) is proportional to r(exp 2)), as supported by observational data. The jets are self-similar in geometry and have the same pressure and median magnetic field at the inlet, independent of size. The self-similarity is broken for the highest energy electrons, which radiate mainly at high frequencies, since for large sources they suffer more severe radiative energy losses over a given fraction of the jet length. We calculate the optically thin synchrotron spectrum using an accelerating inner jet model based on simple relativistic gas dynamics and show that it can fit the observed infrared-to-X-ray spectrum of PKS 2155-304. We couple the accelerating jet model to the unification scheme and compare the results to complete samples of BLs. The negative apparent evolution of X-ray-selected BLs is explained as a result of positive evolution of the jet electron kinetic luminosity Lamba(sub kin). We review observational arguments in favor of the existence of scaled-down accretion disks and broad emission-line regions in BLs. The proposed unification scheme can explain the lack of observed broad emission lines in X-ray-selected BLs as well as the existence of those lines preferentially in luminous radio-selected BLs. Finally, we review observational arguments that suggest the extension of this unification scheme to all blazars.

  1. LONG-TERM VARIABILITY OF RADIO-BRIGHT BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Nieppola, Elina; Hovatta, Talvikki; Tornikoski, Merja; Valtaoja, Esko; Aller, Margo F.; Aller, Hugh D.

    2009-06-15

    Radio-bright BL Lacertae objects (BLOs) are typically very variable and exhibit prominent flaring. We use a sample of 24 BLOs, regularly monitored at Metsaehovi Radio Observatory, to get a clear idea of their flaring behavior in the radio domain and to find possible commonalities in their variability patterns. Our goal was to compare the results given by computational timescales and the observed variability parameters determined directly from the flux curves. Also, we wanted to find out if the BLO flares adhere to the generalized shock model, which gives a schematic explanation for the physical process giving rise to the variability. We use long-term monitoring data from 4.8, 8, 14.5, 22, 37, 90, and 230 GHz, obtained mainly from the University of Michigan and Metsaehovi Radio Observatories. The structure function, discrete correlation function, and Lomb-Scargle periodogram timescales, calculated in a previous study, are analyzed in more detail. Also, we determine flare durations, rise and decay times, and absolute and relative peak fluxes from the monitoring data. We find that radio-bright BLOs demonstrate a wide range of variability behavior, and few common denominators can be found. BLOs include sources with fast and strong variability, such as OJ 287, PKS 1749+096, and BL Lac, but also sources with more rolling fluctuations such as PKS 0735+178. The most extreme flares can last for up to 13 years or have peak fluxes of approximately 12 Jy in the observer's frame. When the Doppler boosting effect is taken into account, the peak flux of a flare does not depend on the duration of the flare. A rough analysis of the time lags and peak flux evolution indicates that, typically, BLO flares in the mm-cm wavelengths are high peaking, i.e., are in the adiabatic stage. Thus, the results concur with the generalized shock model, which assigns shocks traveling in the jet as the main cause for active galactic nucleus variability. Comparing the computational timescales and the

  2. Absorption in the spectra of quasi-stellar objects and BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. J.; Burbidge, E. M.; Burbidge, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of absorption in the spectra of 64 QSOs and two BL Lac objects are reviewed. Criteria for selecting the absorption-line objects are discussed along with line identifications, properties of identified absorption systems, the observed absence of variability in the absorption lines, the redshift distribution, line locking, and absorption shortward of the Lyman limit. The possibility of noncosmological redshifts is noted, and two interpretations of the absorption-line data are considered: (1) the 'intrinsic' hypothesis that the absorptions arise in gas associated with the QSOs and (2) the 'intervening' hypothesis that they are produced by intervening galaxies, galactic halos, or intergalactic clouds intersected by the line of sight to a QSO. Direct observational tests for the location of the absorbing hydrogen in several individual objects are described. It is concluded that no conclusive observational evidence exists which is capable of establishing whether the absorption is intrinsic or intervening.

  3. Multiwavelength monitoring of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304. 4: Multiwavelength analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelson, R.; Krolik, J.; Madejski, G.; Maraschi, L.; Pike, G.; Urry, C. M.; Brinkmann, W.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Ellithorpe, J.; Horne, K.

    1995-01-01

    Simultaneous X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, and radio monitoring data were used to test and constrain models of continuum emission from the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304. Intensively sampled ultraviolet and soft X-ray light curves showed a clear temporal correlation with the X-rays leading the ultraviolet by 2-3 hr. This lag was found to be significantly different from zero after an exhaustive comparison of four different techniques for measuring temporal correlations. Variations in the ultraviolet trough optical wave bands were also strongly correlated, with no measurable lag down to limiting timescales of approximately less than 1-2 hr. This strong correlation extends to the near-infrared, but the less intensive sampling precludes measurement of any lag beyomnd an upper limit of approximately less than 1 day. These lags and limits of the order of hours are much shorter than most rapid observed single-band variations. Because of the very sparse radio sampling, it was not possible to measure quantitatively the correlation and lag with shorter wavelengths, but the data do suggest that the radio may lag the optical/ultraviolet by approximately 1 week, with longer delays and weaker variations to longer radio wavelengths. The epoch-folding Q(exp 2) statistic was used to test for periodicity, and no evidence for strict or quasi-periodicity was found in any of the light curves. Because they lead the lower frequencies, the soft X-rays (approximately less than 1 keV) cannot arise from synchrotron self-Compton scattering. These results also rule out the accretion disk model, which predicts a measurable lag between ultraviolet/optical wavelength bands and a correlation between hardness and brightness, neither of which were seen. They are consistent with the entire radio through X-ray continuum arising from direct synchrotron emission from a relativistic jet. However, the tapered jet model, in which the X-ray emission is produced closer in, has problems explaining

  4. Short timescale photometric and polarimetric behavior of two BL Lacertae type objects

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, S.; Baglio, M. C.; Foschini, L.; Sandrinelli, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.; Zhang, H.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bonnoli, G.; Böttcher, M.; Cecconi, M.; D’Ammando, F.; di Fabrizio, L.; Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Lindfors, E.; Lorenzi, V.; Molinari, E.; Prandini, E.; Raiteri, C. M.

    2015-06-05

    Context. Blazars are astrophysical sources whose emission is dominated by non-thermal processes, typically interpreted as synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. Although the general picture is rather robust and consistent with observations, many aspects are still unexplored. Aims. Polarimetric monitoring can offer a wealth of information about the physical processes in blazars. Models with largely different physical ingredients can often provide almost indistinguishable predictions for the total flux, but usually are characterized by markedly different polarization properties. We explore, with a pilot study, the possibility to derive structural information about the emitting regions of blazars by means of a joint analysis of rapid variability of the total and polarized flux at optical wavelengths. Methods. Short timescale (from tens of seconds to a couple of minutes) optical linear polarimetry and photometry for two blazars, BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, was carried out with the PAOLO polarimeter at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Several hours of almost continuous observations were obtained for both sources. Results. Our intense monitoring allowed us to draw strongly different scenarios for BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, with the former characterized by intense variability on time-scales from hours to a few minutes and the latter practically constant in total flux. Essentially the same behavior is observed for the polarized flux and the position angle. The variability time-scales turned out to be as short as a few minutes, although involving only a few percent variation of the flux. The polarization variability time-scale is generally consistent with the total flux variability. Total and polarized flux appear to be essentially uncorrelated. However, even during our relatively short monitoring, different regimes can be singled out. Conclusions. No simple scenario is able to satisfactorily model the very rich phenomenology exhibited in our data. As a

  5. Short timescale photometric and polarimetric behavior of two BL Lacertae type objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covino, S.; Baglio, M. C.; Foschini, L.; Sandrinelli, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Treves, A.; Zhang, H.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bonnoli, G.; Böttcher, M.; Cecconi, M.; D'Ammando, F.; di Fabrizio, L.; Giarrusso, M.; Leone, F.; Lindfors, E.; Lorenzi, V.; Molinari, E.; Paiano, S.; Prandini, E.; Raiteri, C. M.; Stamerra, A.; Tagliaferri, G.

    2015-06-01

    Context. Blazars are astrophysical sources whose emission is dominated by non-thermal processes, i.e. synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. Although the general picture is rather robust and consistent with observations, many aspects are still unexplored. Aims: Polarimetric monitoring can offer a wealth of information about the physical processes in blazars. Models with largely different physical ingredients can provide almost indistinguishable predictions for the total flux, but usually are characterized by different polarization properties. We explore the possibility to derive structural information about the emitting regions of blazars by means of a joint analysis of rapid variability of the total and polarized flux at optical wavelengths. Methods: Short timescale (from tens of seconds to a couple of minutes) optical linear polarimetry and photometry for two blazars, BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, was carried out with the PAOLO polarimeter at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Several hours of almost continuous observations were obtained for both sources. Results: Our intense monitoring allowed us to draw different scenarios for BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, with the former characterized by intense variability and the latter practically constant in total flux. Essentially the same behavior is observed for the polarized flux and the position angle. The variability time-scales turned out to be as short as a few minutes, although involving only a few percent variation of the flux. The polarization variability time-scale is generally consistent with the total flux variability. Total and polarized flux appear to be essentially uncorrelated. However, even during our relatively short monitoring, different regimes can be singled out. Conclusions: No simple scenario is able to satisfactorily model the very rich phenomenology exhibited in our data. Detailed numerical simulations show that the emitting region should be characterized by some symmetry, and the

  6. Short timescale photometric and polarimetric behavior of two BL Lacertae type objects

    DOE PAGES

    Covino, S.; Baglio, M. C.; Foschini, L.; ...

    2015-06-05

    Context. Blazars are astrophysical sources whose emission is dominated by non-thermal processes, typically interpreted as synchrotron and inverse Compton emission. Although the general picture is rather robust and consistent with observations, many aspects are still unexplored. Aims. Polarimetric monitoring can offer a wealth of information about the physical processes in blazars. Models with largely different physical ingredients can often provide almost indistinguishable predictions for the total flux, but usually are characterized by markedly different polarization properties. We explore, with a pilot study, the possibility to derive structural information about the emitting regions of blazars by means of a joint analysismore » of rapid variability of the total and polarized flux at optical wavelengths. Methods. Short timescale (from tens of seconds to a couple of minutes) optical linear polarimetry and photometry for two blazars, BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, was carried out with the PAOLO polarimeter at the 3.6 m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Several hours of almost continuous observations were obtained for both sources. Results. Our intense monitoring allowed us to draw strongly different scenarios for BL Lacertae and PKS 1424+240, with the former characterized by intense variability on time-scales from hours to a few minutes and the latter practically constant in total flux. Essentially the same behavior is observed for the polarized flux and the position angle. The variability time-scales turned out to be as short as a few minutes, although involving only a few percent variation of the flux. The polarization variability time-scale is generally consistent with the total flux variability. Total and polarized flux appear to be essentially uncorrelated. However, even during our relatively short monitoring, different regimes can be singled out. Conclusions. No simple scenario is able to satisfactorily model the very rich phenomenology exhibited in our data. As

  7. The Lack of Torus Emission from BL Lacertae Objects: An Infrared View of Unification with WISE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Markoff, Sera; Shemmer, Ohad; Wu, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number (~102) of BL Lac objects—low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the "nature versus nurture" debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  8. The HISS of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard L.; Schmidt, Gary D.; West, Steven C.

    1987-03-01

    The polarimetric variability of BL Lacertae is characterized by a random-walk noise spectrum on time scales of hours to weeks. The authors present here approximately 12 hr of polarimetric data obtained on three nights in 1983 - 1984 with the Hale 5 m telescope, which push our knowledge of the variability to the shortest time scales currently possible. During each of the runs, BL Lac was consistently variable. Power spectra of the variations in degree and position angle of polarization roughly follow power laws of index α ≈ 3±1 between time scales of 15 minutes to 3 hours. In the context of the "Christmas tree" model of variations, the steep spectrum at high frequencies suggests a lower limit near 1 light-hr for the size of individual components.

  9. Ultraviolet polarimetry and spectroscopy of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Richard G.; Smith, Paul S.; Angel, J. R. P.; Miller, Bryan W.; Anderson, Scott F.; Margon, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    HST and Faint Object Spectrograph spectropolarimetry is presented for the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304; attention is given to the wavelength dependence of the UV linear polarization in a BL Lac object. The UV polarimetry yields evidence that the UV polarized flux is generated by the synchrotron mechanism responsible for optical polarization. Both the UV and optical emission are produced in the same region of the source.

  10. The complete sample of 1 Jansky BL Lacertae objects. I - Summary properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stickel, M.; Fried, J. W.; Kuehr, H.; Padovani, P.; Urry, C. M.

    1991-01-01

    The first well-defined, homogeneous radio sample of 34 BL Lac objects selected from a large-area survey of sources brighter than 1 Jy at 5 GHz is presented. Extensive optical spectroscopy reveals weak emission lines in roughly 3/4 of the 34 BL Lac objects in the sample. Optical imaging reveals that the nearby BL Lac objects are not stellar, and that the surface brightness distribution of the surrounding fuzz is consistent with the host galaxies being bright ellipticals. The results suggest that gravitational lensing may affect three of the 17 high-redshift BL Lac objects in the sample. The observations do not support a microlensing scenario for the low-redshift objects.

  11. Radio constraints on the nature of BL Lacertae objects and their parent population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kollgaard, R. I.; Wardle, J. F. C.; Roberts, D. H.; Gabuzda, D. C.

    1992-01-01

    5 GHz VLA observations of 17 BL Lac objects with bright radio cores at both high and low resolution are reported. Extended emission is detected around most objects. None of the sources observed at low resolution show evidence of giant halos on the scale of tens of arcmin. In general, the sources with the most luminous extended emission exhibit FR II characteristics in both morphology and polarization, and less luminous sources exhibit FR I characteristics. Thus, the parent population of the BL Lac objects contains both FR I and FR II radio sources. No BL Lac objects are found that clearly exhibit quasarlike polarization at milliarcsec resolution. This argues against the view that the more luminous BL Lac objects are simply an extension of the quasar/OVV population, or that most BL Lac objects are gravitationally microlensed images of distant quasars. Other properties are generally consistent with the view the BL Lac objects are normal radio galaxies whose jets make a small angle to the line of sight.

  12. Thirteen new BL Lacertae objects discovered by an efficient x ray/radio/optical technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schachter, Jonathan F.; Stocke, John T.; Perlman, Eric; Elvis, Martin S.; Luu, Jane; Huchra, John P.; Humphreys, Roberta; Remillard, Ron; Wallin, John

    1992-01-01

    The discovery of 13 serendipitous BL Lac objects in the Einstein IPC Slew Survey by means of x ray/radio vs. x ray/optical color-color diagrams and confirmation by optical spectroscopy are reported. These 13 BL Lacs were discovered using a technique which exploits the characteristic broad band spectra of BL Lacs. New VLA detections provide accurate fluxes (f(6 cm) is approximately 0.5 mJy) and 2 in. positions, facilitating the determination of an optical counterpart. All 13 new BL Lacs show essentially featureless optical spectra. Nine of these lie within the range of colors of known x ray selected BL Lacs. Of the remaining four, one is apparently x ray louder (by a factor of 1.5) or optically quieter (by 0.8 mags); and three are optically louder (by 1-1.3 mags) than x ray selected BL Lacs. Approximately 50 new BL Lacs in total are expected from VLA work and upcoming Australia Telescope observations, yielding a complete Slew Survey sample of approximately 90 BL Lacs.

  13. Radio outburst of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buemi, C. S.; Leto, P.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Giroletti, M.; Orienti, M.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bach, U.

    2013-04-01

    We report on extremely high radio flux of BL Lacertae at 43 and 8 GHz. Observations at 43 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Noto (Italy) revealed a flux density of 10.5 +/- 0.2 Jy on 2013 April 10.65, while observations at 8 GHz with the 32 m radio telescope in Medicina (Italy) detected a flux density of 8.2 +/- 0.7 Jy on April 12.22. These extremely high radio fluxes show that the radio activity likely correlated to the strong optical, near-infrared, and gamma-ray activity of 2011-2012 (see ATels #4028, #4031, #4155, #4271, #4277, #4349, #4565, #4600), and X-ray activity of late 2012 (ATels #4557, #4627), is far to be exhausted.

  14. The radio structure source of X-ray-selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.

    1993-01-01

    Arcsecond-size radio structure for a complete sample of 14 X-ray-selected BL Lac objects (XBLs) from the Einstein Extended Medium-Sensitivity Survey is presented. Most objects possess radio morphologies which are similar to those of nearby Fanaroff-Riley type 1 (FR 1) radio galaxies once the effects of surface brightness dimming and beam dilution as a function of redshift are taken into account. In order to test the beamed FR 1 hypothesis for BL Lac objects, the core and extended power levels are determined for these sources and compared with samples of radio-selected BL Lac objects (RBLs) and FR 1 from galaxies from the literature. RBLs and XBLs are found to possess extended (and thus unbeamed) power levels and the largest angular sizes similar to those of the FR 1 galaxies both supporting the beaming hypothesis and a common parent population for XBLs and RBLs.

  15. THE LACK OF TORUS EMISSION FROM BL LACERTAE OBJECTS: AN INFRARED VIEW OF UNIFICATION WITH WISE

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Markoff, Sera; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Wu Jianfeng; Shemmer, Ohad

    2012-02-15

    We use data from the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to perform a statistical study on the mid-infrared (IR) properties of a large number ({approx}10{sup 2}) of BL Lac objects-low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with a jet beamed toward the Earth. As expected, many BL Lac objects are so highly beamed that their jet synchrotron emission dominates their IR spectral energy distributions. In other BL Lac objects, however, the jet is not strong enough to completely dilute the rest of the AGN emission. We do not see observational signatures of the dusty torus from these weakly beamed BL Lac objects. The lack of observable torus emission is consistent with suggestions that BL Lac objects are fed by radiatively inefficient accretion disks. Implications for the 'nature versus nurture' debate for FR I and FR II radio galaxies are briefly discussed. Our study supports the notion that, beyond orientation, accretion rate plays an important role in AGN unification.

  16. A ubiquitous absorption feature in the X-ray spectra of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg M.; Mushotzky, Richard F.; Weaver, Kimberly A.; Arnaud, Keith A.; Urry, C. Megan

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents the broadband (0.5-20-keV) X-ray spectra of five X-ray bright BL Lac objects observed with the Einstein Observatory Solid State Spectrometer (SSS) and Monitor Proportional Counter (MPC) detectors. The combination of moderate energy resolution and broad spectral coverage makes it possible to confirm the presence of an absorption feature at an energy of 650 eV in the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304, originally reported by Canizares and Kruper (1984) based on higher resolution Einstein Objective Grating Spectrometer (OGS) data.

  17. Properties of the EMSS Sample of X-Ray-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, T. A.; Stocke, J. T.; Perlman, E. S.; Morris, S. L.; Gioia, I. M.

    1998-12-01

    We present updated, complete radio, optical and X-ray data for BL Lacs in the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey (EMSS). The complete ``M91" sample first presented in Morris et al. (1991) is updated; and we define a new, virtually complete sample consisting of 40 EMSS BL Lacs (the ``D40" sample). New high signal-to-noise, arcsecond-resolution VLA maps are also presented for ten EMSS BL Lacs, completing VLA observations of the M91 sample. The addition of four new objects and updated X-ray flux and redshift information has increased the < V/Vmax >\\ value for the M91 sample to 0.399+/-0.057; and < V/Vmax >\\ = 0.416+/-0.046 for the newly defined D40 sample. In conjunction with the results of Bade et al. (1998) these results strongly establish negative evolution for X-ray-selected BL Lac Objects. The positive evolution seen in radio-selected BL Lacs poses a significant problem for the unified model. Also, our VLA observations of the M91 sample confirm that X-ray-selected BL Lacs are too core-dominated to be consistent with a beamed population of FR-1s seen at an intermediate angles for the moderate outflow velocities (gamma ~ 5) suggested for XBL emitting regions. The observed spectral and radio properties of XBLs, however, are completely consistent with XBLs being the beamed population of low-luminosity, FR-1 radio galaxies.

  18. Soft X-Ray Observations of a Complete Sample of X-Ray--selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, Eric S.; Stocke, John T.; Wang, Q. Daniel; Morris, Simon L.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of ROSAT PSPC observations of the X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects (XBLs) in the complete Einstein Extended Medium Sensitivity Survey (EM MS) sample. None of the objects is resolved in their respective PSPC images, but all are easily detected. All BL Lac objects in this sample are well-fitted by single power laws. Their X-ray spectra exhibit a variety of spectral slopes, with best-fit energy power-law spectral indices between α = 0.5-2.3. The PSPC spectra of this sample are slightly steeper than those typical of flat ratio-spectrum quasars. Because almost all of the individual PSPC spectral indices are equal to or slightly steeper than the overall optical to X-ray spectral indices for these same objects, we infer that BL Lac soft X-ray continua are dominated by steep-spectrum synchrotron radiation from a broad X-ray jet, rather than flat-spectrum inverse Compton radiation linked to the narrower radio/millimeter jet. The softness of the X-ray spectra of these XBLs revives the possibility proposed by Guilbert, Fabian, & McCray (1983) that BL Lac objects are lineless because the circumnuclear gas cannot be heated sufficiently to permit two stable gas phases, the cooler of which would comprise the broad emission-line clouds. Because unified schemes predict that hard self-Compton radiation is beamed only into a small solid angle in BL Lac objects, the steep-spectrum synchrotron tail controls the temperature of the circumnuclear gas at r ≤ 1018 cm and prevents broad-line cloud formation. We use these new ROSAT data to recalculate the X-ray luminosity function and cosmological evolution of the complete EMSS sample by determining accurate K-corrections for the sample and estimating the effects of variability and the possibility of incompleteness in the sample. Our analysis confirms that XBLs are evolving "negatively," opposite in sense to quasars, with Ve/Va = 0.331±0.060. The statistically significant difference between the values for

  19. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  20. Radio morphology and parent population of X-ray selected BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurent-Muehleisen, S. A.; Kollgaard, R. I.; Moellenbrock, G. A.; Feigelson, E. D.

    1993-01-01

    High-dynamic range (typically 1700:1) radio maps of 15 X-ray BL Lac (XBL) objects from the HEAO-1 Large Area Sky Survey are presented. Morphological characteristics of these sources are compared with Fanaroff-Riley (FR) class I radio galaxies in the context of unified schemes, with reference to one-sided kiloparsec-scale emission. Evidence that cluster membership of XBLs is significantly higher than previously thought is also presented. It is shown that the extended radio powers, X-ray emission, core-to-lobe ratios, and linear sizes of the radio selected BL Lac (RBL) and XBL populations are consistent with an FR I radio galaxy parent population. A source list and VLA observing log and map parameters are provided.

  1. Optical and near-infrared observations of BL Lacertae objects and active quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Balonek, Thomas J.; Elston, Richard; Heckert, Paul A.

    1987-01-01

    UBVRI and JHK photometric and polarimetric observations, obtained using the 1.5-m UCSD/UM telescope at Mount Lemmon, AZ during 1982-1984, are reported for a sample of 10 BL Lac objects, eight optically violent variable quasars, and the low-polarization quasar 3C 273. The data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and analyzed in detail. Most of the objects are found to have undergone large polarization variations on time scales ranging from 1 d to several months; five objects had fractional linear polarization P greater than 30 percent at least once during the period of observation, but four never had P greater than 10 percent. Of four objects which exhibited a preferred polarization position angle (theta), three had theta within 20 deg of the jet position angle determined by VLBI.

  2. EGRET observations of the BL Lacertae objects 0716+714 and 0521-365

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Dingus, B. L.; Esposito, J. A.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Mayer-Hasselwander, H. A.

    1995-01-01

    During the Compton Observatory's viewing programs Phase 1 (1991 April to 1992 November, also known as the All-Sky Survey) and Phase 2 (1992 November to 1993 September), the BL Lac object 0716+714 was in the field of view of the EGRET telescope a total of six times, three times in Phase 1 and three more times in Phase 2, while the BL Lac object 0521-365 was in the field of view of EGRET only once in Phase 1. The source 0716+714 was detected in high-energy gamma rays by EGRET at a flux level of (2.0 +/- 0.4) x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s for E greater than 100 MeV with a 6 sigma significance when it was first observed by EGRET in 1992 January 10 to 23. The corresponding spectral slope of the photon number distribution is determined to be -2.04 +/- 0.33. The gamma-ray flux of 0716+714 showed considerable time variability in subsequent EGRET observations. But the spectral slope stayed about the same within the statistical uncertainties of the EGRET data. The average spectral slope of the four viewing periods during which the photon flux of 0716+714 stayed above the EGRET detection threshold is found to be -1.85 +/- 0.20 from the combined data. The source 0521+365 was detected by EGRET in 1992 May 14 to June 4 at a flux level of (1.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(exp -7) photons/sq cm/s for E greater than 100 MeV with a 4 sigma significance. The corresponding spectral slope of the photon number distribution is found to be 2.16 +/- 0.36. Details of the observations of these two BL Lac objects with the EGRET telescope are presented.

  3. Is the BL Lacertae object AO 0235 + 164 being lensed by its intervening MG II absorber?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abraham, Roberto G.; Crawford, Carolin S.; Merrifield, Michael R.; Hutchings, John B.; McHardy, Ian M.

    1993-09-01

    We report the results of deep CFHT imaging of the BL Lac object AO 0235 + 164. This object exhibits Mg II absorption features and has been considered to be the best candidate for a microlensed BL Lac on the basis of its multiple redshift systems, decentered host, and extreme apparent superluminal motion. We test the microlensing hypothesis by modeling our images with a two-dimensional image fitting routine. The resulting best-fit models allow us to put strong constraints on lensing scenarios for this object, and to put limits on the mass-to-light ratio of the foreground Mg II absorbing galaxy. We conclude that, while AO 0235 + 164 is almost certainly being weakly amplified by macrolensing, microlensing by stars in the foreground lens is unnecessary in order to explain the observed properties of AO 0235 + 164. These results are combined with the work of previous authors to suggest that the (probably lensing) Mg II absorbing galaxy in the foreground of AO 0235 + 164 is embedded in a cooling flow.

  4. Optical and radio variability of the northern VHE gamma-ray emitting BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindfors, E. J.; Hovatta, T.; Nilsson, K.; Reinthal, R.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Pavlidou, V.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Richards, J.; Berdyugin, A.; Takalo, L.; Sillanpää, A.; Readhead, A. C. S.

    2016-09-01

    We compare the variability properties of very high energy gamma-ray emitting BL Lac objects in the optical and radio bands. We use variability information to distinguish multiple emission components in the jet, to be used as a guidance for spectral energy distribution modelling. Our sample includes 32 objects in the northern sky for which we have data for at least two years in both bands. We use optical R-band data from the Tuorla blazar monitoring program and 15 GHz radio data from the Owens Valley Radio Observatory blazar monitoring program. We estimate the variability amplitudes using the intrinsic modulation index, and study the time-domain connection by cross-correlating the optical and radio light curves assuming power law power spectral density. Our sample objects are in general more variable in the optical than radio. We find correlated flares in about half of the objects, and correlated long-term trends in more than 40% of the objects. In these objects we estimate that at least 10-50% of the optical emission originates in the same emission region as the radio, while the other half is due to faster variations not seen in the radio. This implies that simple single-zone spectral energy distribution models are not adequate for many of these objects.

  5. Optical-X-ray Observations of BL Lacertae Object AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Emily S.; Webb, James R.; Balonek, Thomas J.; McGrath, Elizabeth; Shrader, Chris R.

    1998-11-01

    The BL Lacertea object AO 0235+164 dramatically increased in brightness on October 20, 1997. This outburst was observed with the 1 meter SARA (Southeastern Association for Research in Astronomy) telescope located at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO) located southwest of Tucson, Arizona. As a result of our observations, AO 0235+164 was also observed during the outbust by the Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment (RXTE) and Foggy Bottom Observaotry, Colgate Univserity, New York as a part of a Target of Opportunity (TOO) program. We present here the historical lightcurve of AO 0235+164, Optical observations during the ourtburst from the SARA and Foggy Bottom Observatories and X-ray observations from RXTE. Also, we present multifrequency data during this period and compare the variability of the Optical and X-ray bands.

  6. Multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae objects OQ 530 and ON 325

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, D. M.; Puschell, J. J.; Bruhweiler, F. C.; Sitko, M. L.; Stein, W. A.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Hodge, P. E.; Rudy, R. J.; Miller, H. R.

    1984-01-01

    Spectral measurements of the two BL Lac objects OQ 530 and ON 325 are presented. The measurements were taken at frequencies ranging from radio to ultraviolet. Both sources show spectral curvature between the infrared and ultraviolet frequencies. The intensity and spectral shape of OQ 530 vary, but the spectral shape of ON 325 appears to remain constant during intensity variability. A nonthermal theoretical model of jet emission is developed which incorporates both the spectral and time variability data. The model predicts that ON 325 radiates at X-ray frequencies with Compton radiation dominating over synchrotron emission. The angular size of the jet emission is predicted to be less than 0.1 milli-arcsec at high radio frequencies.

  7. Detection of Lyman continuum absorption in the BL Lacertae object PKS 0735+178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    The detection of the Lyman edge in the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178 at the absorption red shift determined by optical measurements leads to a lower limit for the column density of atomic hydrogen, N(H I) not less than 4(17)/sq cm. The Lyman-alpha absorption line appears to have been detected, but only an approximate upper limit can be obtained from the data, of the order of 2(19)/sq cm. This amount of atomic hydrogen is less than that for a line of sight through the disk of a normal spiral galaxy. It is suggested that the absorbing material exists either in the halo of a galaxy or in the tenuous, extended, gaseous disk of a galaxy.

  8. The collective emission of electromagnetic waves from astrophysical jets - Luminosity gaps, BL Lacertae objects, and efficient energy transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Benford, Gregory; Eilek, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the inner portions of astrophysical jets is constructed in which a relativistic electron beam is injected from the central engine into the jet plasma. This beam drives electrostatic plasma wave turbulence, which leads to the collective emission of electromagnetic waves. The emitted waves are beamed in the direction of the jet axis, so that end-on viewing of the jet yields an extremely bright source (BL Lacertae object). The relativistic electron beam may also drive long-wavelength electromagnetic plasma instabilities (firehose and Kelvin-Helmholtz) that jumble the jet magnetic field lines. After a sufficient distance from the core source, these instabilities will cause the beamed emission to point in random directions and the jet emission can then be observed from any direction relative to the jet axis. This combination of effects may lead to the gap turn-on of astrophysical jets. The collective emission model leads to different estimates for energy transport and the interpretation of radio spectra than the conventional incoherent synchrotron theory.

  9. The collective emission of electromagnetic waves from astrophysical jets - Luminosity gaps, BL Lacertae objects, and efficient energy transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Benford, Gregory; Eilek, Jean A.

    1988-01-01

    A model of the inner portions of astrophysical jets is constructed in which a relativistic electron beam is injected from the central engine into the jet plasma. This beam drives electrostatic plasma wave turbulence, which leads to the collective emission of electromagnetic waves. The emitted waves are beamed in the direction of the jet axis, so that end-on viewing of the jet yields an extremely bright source (BL Lacertae object). The relativistic electron beam may also drive long-wavelength electromagnetic plasma instabilities (firehose and Kelvin-Helmholtz) that jumble the jet magnetic field lines. After a sufficient distance from the core source, these instabilities will cause the beamed emission to point in random directions and the jet emission can then be observed from any direction relative to the jet axis. This combination of effects may lead to the gap turn-on of astrophysical jets. The collective emission model leads to different estimates for energy transport and the interpretation of radio spectra than the conventional incoherent synchrotron theory.

  10. Intensive optical monitoring of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Paul S.; Hall, Patrick B.; Allen, Richard G.; Sitko, Michael L.

    1992-01-01

    Ground-based optical polarimetry and photometry of the BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 conducted just before and during the IUE monitoring program from November 1 to 19, 1991 are presented. The optical observations reveal strong daily variability in both flux and linear polarization. Broadband UBVRI photometry shows that the slope of the optical continuum remained relatively constant even though the object brightened by nearly a magnitude. PKS 2155-304 was near its historical photometric maximum during the last two weeks of November. The degree of polarization varied between 2 and 8 percent, and fluctuations of 2-3 percent were observed in a day. Daily variations in the position angle of the polarization were observed to be as high as 25 percent, though the position angle was observed to lie between 105 and 140 deg throughout the monitoring program. Some of the implications that these optical data have on models of the source of the continuum emission in PKS 2155-304 are discussed.

  11. Expected signatures from hadronic emission processes in the TeV spectra of BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, A.; Cerruti, M.; Mazin, D.

    2017-06-01

    Context. The wealth of recent data from Imaging Air Cherenkov telescopes (IACTs), ultra-high energy cosmic-ray experiments and neutrino telescopes have fuelled a renewed interest in hadronic emission models for γ-loud blazars. Aims: We explore physically plausible solutions for a lepto-hadronic interpretation of the stationary emission from high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (HBLs). The modelled spectral energy distributions are then searched for specific signatures at very high energies that could help to distinguish the hadronic origin of the emission from a standard leptonic scenario. Methods: By introducing a few basic constraints on parameters of the model, such as assuming the co-acceleration of electrons and protons, we significantly reduced the number of free parameters. We then systematically explored the parameter space of the size of the emission region and its magnetic field for two bright γ-loud HBLs, PKS 2155-304 and Mrk 421. For all solutions close to equipartition between the energy densities of protons and of the magnetic field, and with acceptable jet power and light-crossing timescales, we inspected the spectral hardening in the multi-TeV domain from proton-photon induced cascades and muon-synchrotron emission inside the source. Very-high-energy spectra simulated with the available instrument functions from the future Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) were evaluated for detectable features as a function of exposure time, source redshift, and flux level. Results: A range of hadronic scenarios are found to provide satisfactory solutions for the broad band emission of the sources under study. The TeV spectrum can be dominated either by proton-synchrotron emission or by muon-synchrotron emission. The solutions for HBLs cover a parameter space that is distinct from the one found for the most extreme BL Lac objects in an earlier study. Over a large range of model parameters, the spectral hardening due to internal synchrotron-pair cascades, the

  12. Multicolor Optical Monitoring of the BL Lacertae Object S5 0716+714 during the 2012 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Shanwei; Xiong, Dingrong; Bai, Jinming

    2017-08-01

    We monitored the BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714 in the optical bands during 2012 January and February with long time spans on intraday timescales (>5 hr) and high time resolutions. During this monitoring period, the object shows violent flaring activity in both short and intraday timescales. The object has a high duty cycle. The light curves detected as intraday variability show variability of various shapes. The variability amplitude is from 12.81% to 33.22%, and the average value is 19.92% ± 5.87%. The overall magnitude variabilities are \\bigtriangleup B=1\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.} 24, \\bigtriangleup V=1\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.} 42, \\bigtriangleup R=1\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.} 3, and \\bigtriangleup I=1\\buildrel{{m}}\\over{.} 23. During the observations, the average change rate is < {CR}> =0.035+/- 0.009 Mag/h during the ascent and < {CR}> =0.035+/- 0.014 Mag/h during the descent. However, different cases are found on certain nights. There are good interband correlations but no significant time lags for intraday and short timescales. The results of the autocorrelation function show that the variability timescales range from 0.054 to 0.134 day. Most nights show a bluer-when-brighter (BWB) chromatic trend, a weak redder-when-brighter (RWB) trend is found, and a few nights show no correlation between magnitude and color index. The BWB trend appears in short timescales. During the flare, the spectral index exhibits a clockwise loop for internights. A shock-in-jet model and the shock wave propagating along a helical path are likely to explain the variability and color index variability.

  13. Discovery of VHE γ-rays from the BL Lacertae object PKS 0548-322

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Behera, B.; Benbow, W.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bühler, R.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Boutelier, T.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Emmanoulopoulos, D.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fiasson, A.; Förster, A.; Fontaine, G.; Füßling, M.; Gabici, S.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Hauser, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Holleran, M.; Hoppe, S.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jung, I.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Kendziorra, E.; Kerschhaggl, M.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Keogh, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lohse, T.; Marandon, V.; Martin, J. M.; Martineau-Huynh, O.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Orford, K. J.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raubenheimer, B. C.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Renaud, M.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schröder, R.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spangler, D.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Superina, G.; Szostek, A.; Tam, P. H.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Venter, L.; Vialle, J. P.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.

    2010-10-01

    Aims: PKS 0548-322 (z = 0.069) is a “high-frequency-peaked” BL Lac object and a candidate very high energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-ray emitter, due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations at the VHE band provide insights into the origin of very energetic particles present in this source and the radiation processes at work. Methods: We report observations made between October 2004 and January 2008 with the HESS array, a four imaging atmospheric-Cherenkov telescopes. Contemporaneous UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite in November 2006 are also reported. Results: PKS 0548-322 is detected for the first time in the VHE band with HESS We measure an excess of 216 γ-rays corresponding to a significance of 5.6 standard deviations. The photon spectrum of the source is described by a power-law, with a photon index of Γ = 2.86 ± 0.34stat ± 0.10sys. The integral flux above 200 GeV is ~1.3% of the flux of the Crab Nebula, and is consistent with being constant in time. Contemporaneous Swift/XRT observations reveal an X-ray flux between 2 and 10 keV of F2-10 keV = (2.3±0.2)×10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, an intermediate intensity state with respect to previous observations. The spectral energy distribution can be reproduced using a simple one-zone synchrotron self Compton model, with parameters similar those observed for other sources of this type.

  14. Relativistic beaming effects in BL Lacertae objects: Evidence for RBL/XBL dichotomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odo, F. C.; Chukwude, A. E.; Ubachukwu, A. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we review the predictions of the popular relativistic beaming model for the unification of radio- and X-ray selected BL Lac (RBL and XBL) populations. Using results of recent analyses, we compare the detailed predictions against observational data and find that RBL-XBL orientation sequence is somewhat questionable. However, FSRQs and BL Lac populations can be unified via luminosity evolution with XBLs and RBLs representing different, but not continuous, stages in the evolution of FSRQs. RBLs, XBLs and FSRQs independently show significant anti-correlation (r ≥ 0.6) between core-to-lobe luminosity ratio and extended radio luminosity, suggestive that they are different representatives of a spectral sequence formed by similar underlying physical phenomenon. These results suggest that there are some fundamental differences between the two BL Lac populations, although orientation effect can also be playing a significant role.

  15. CATALOG AND STATISTICAL STUDY OF X-RAY SELECTED BL LACERTAE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kapanadze, Bidzina Z.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a catalog of 312 X-ray selected BL Lacerate objects (XBLs), optically identified through the end of 2011. It contains the names from different surveys, equatorial coordinates, redshifts, multifrequency flux values, and luminosities for each source. In addition, the different characteristics of XBLs are statistically investigated (redshift, radio/optical/X-ray luminosities, central black hole (BH) mass, synchrotron peak frequency, broadband spectral indices, optical flux variability). Their values are collected through an extensive bibliographic and database search or calculated by us. The redshifts range from 0.031 to 0.702 with a maximum of the distribution at z = 0.223. The 1.4 GHz luminosities of XBLs log {nu}L{sub {nu}} {approx} 39-42 erg s{sup -1} while optical V and X-ray 0.1-2.4 keV bands show log {nu}L{sub {nu}} {approx} 43-46 erg s{sup -1}. The XBL hosts are elliptical galaxies with effective radii r{sub eff} = 3.2625.40 kpc and ellipticities, in = 0.040.52. Their R-band absolute magnitudes M{sub R} range from -21.11 mag to -24.86 mag with a mean value of -22.83 mag. The V - R indices of the hosts span from 0.61 to 1.52 and reveal a fourth-degree polynomial relationship with z that enables us to evaluate the redshifts of five sources whose V - R indices were determined from the observations but whose irredshifts values are either not found or not confirmed. The XBL nuclei show a wider range of 7.31 mag for M{sub R} with the highest luminosity corresponding to M{sub R} = -27.24 mag. The masses of central BHs are found in the interval log M{sub BH} = 7.39-9.30 solar masses (with distribution maximum at log M{sub BH}/M{sub Sun} = 8.30). The synchrotron peak frequencies are spread over the range log {nu}{sub peak} = 14.56-19.18 Hz with a peak of the distribution at log {nu}{sub peak} = 16.60 Hz. The broadband radio-to-optical ({alpha}{sub ro}), optical-to-X-ray ({alpha}{sub ox}), and radio-to-X-ray ({alpha}{sub rx}) spectral indices are

  16. HESS J1943+213: a candidate extreme BL Lacertae object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Bazer-Bachi, A. R.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernlöhr, K.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Borrel, V.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Colom, P.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Goret, P.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Nguyen, N.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; Olive, J.-F.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Ryde, F.; Sahakian, V.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schöck, F. M.; Schönwald, A.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Shalchi, A.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tibolla, O.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Vivier, M.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.; Burnett, T. H.; Hill, A. B.

    2011-05-01

    Context. The H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array has been surveying the Galactic plane for new VHE (>100 GeV) gamma-ray sources. Aims: We report on a newly detected point-like source, HESS J1943+213. This source coincides with an unidentified hard X-ray source IGR J19443+2117, which was proposed to have radio and infrared counterparts. Methods: We combine new H.E.S.S., Fermi/LAT and Nançay Radio Telescope observations with pre-existing non-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of IGR J19443+2117 and discuss the likely source associations as well as the interpretation as an active galactic nucleus, a gamma-ray binary or a pulsar wind nebula. Results: HESS J1943+213 is detected at the significance level of 7.9σ (post-trials) at RA(J2000) = 19h 43m 55s ± 1^s_stat ± 1^s_sys, Dec(J2000) = +21° 18' 8'' ± 17''_stat ± 20 arcsec_sys. The source has a soft spectrum with photon index Γ = 3.1 ± 0.3stat ± 0.2sys and a flux above 470 GeV of (1.3 ± 0.2stat ± 0.3sys) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. There is no Fermi/LAT counterpart down to a flux limit of 6 × 10-9 cm-2 s-1 in the 0.1-100 GeV energy range (95% confidence upper limit calculated for an assumed power-law model with a photon index Γ = 2.0). The data from radio to VHE gamma-rays do not show any significant variability. Conclusions: The lack of a massive stellar counterpart disfavors the binary hypothesis, while the soft VHE spectrum would be very unusual in case of a pulsar wind nebula. In addition, the distance estimates for Galactic counterparts places them outside of the Milky Way. All available observations favor an interpretation as an extreme, high-frequency peaked BL Lac object with a redshift z > 0.14. This would be the first time a blazar is detected serendipitously from ground-based VHE observations, and the first VHE AGN detected in the Galactic Plane.

  17. ERRATIC JET WOBBLING IN THE BL LACERTAE OBJECT OJ287 REVEALED BY SIXTEEN YEARS OF 7 mm VLBA OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Agudo, Ivan; Gomez, Jose L.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Perucho, Manel; Piner, B. Glenn; Rioja, Maria; Dodson, Richard

    2012-03-01

    We present the results from an ultra-high-resolution 7 mm Very Long Baseline Array study of the relativistic jet in the BL Lacertae object OJ287 from 1995 to 2011 containing 136 total intensity images. Analysis of the image sequence reveals a sharp jet-position-angle swing by >100 Degree-Sign during [2004,2006], as viewed in the plane of the sky, which we interpret as the crossing of the jet from one side of the line of sight to the other during a softer- and longer-term swing of the inner jet. Modulating such long-term swing, our images also show for the first time a prominent erratic wobbling behavior of the innermost {approx}0.4 mas of the jet with fluctuations in position angle of up to {approx}40 Degree-Sign over timescales {approx}2 yr. This is accompanied by highly superluminal motions along non-radial trajectories, which reflect the remarkable non-ballistic nature of the jet plasma on these scales. The erratic nature and short timescales of the observed behavior rule out scenarios such as binary black hole systems, accretion disk precession, and interaction with the ambient medium as possible origins of the phenomenon on the scales probed by our observations, although such processes may cause longer-term modulation of the jet direction. We propose that variable asymmetric injection of the jet flow, perhaps related to turbulence in the accretion disk, coupled with hydrodynamic instabilities leads to the non-ballistic dynamics that causes the observed non-periodic changes in the direction of the inner jet.

  18. A study of BL Lacertae-type objects with Exosat. I - Flux correlations, luminosity variability, and spectral variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giommi, P.; Barr, P.; Pollock, A. M. T.; Garilli, B.; Maccagni, D.

    1990-06-01

    Results are presented on a systematic analysis of more than 200 X-ray observations on 36 BL Lac objects, obtained from the Exosat archive, providing further strong evidence that the population of currently known BL Lac objects can be divided into two subclasses, Q-BL Lacs and X-BL Lacs. The subclass Q-BL Lacs includes most of the classical radio-discovered BL objects which are characterized by a continuum energy distribution, from radio to X-rays, similar to that of flat-radio-spectrum QSOs, highly polarized quasars, and optically violent variable QSOs. The subclass X-BL Lacs includes all the BL Lac objects which were detected in high-frequency surveys (i.e., optical and X-ray). This subclass is characterized by a very smooth energy distribution from radio to X-rays, which is often considered to be the signature of synchrotron emission.

  19. Testing the Pairs-Reflection Model with X-Ray Spectral Variability and X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. Megan

    1997-01-01

    This grant was awarded to Dr. C. Megan Urry of the Space Telescope Science Institute in response to two successful ADP proposals to use archival Ginga and Rosat X-ray data for 'Testing the Pairs-Reflection model with X-Ray Spectral Variability' (in collaboration with Paola Grandi, now at the University of Rome) and 'X-Ray Properties of Complete Samples of Radio-Selected BL Lacertae Objects' (in collaboration with then-graduate student Rita Sambruna, now a post-doc at Goddard Space Flight Center). In addition, post-docs Joseph Pesce and Elena Pian, and graduate student Matthew O'Dowd, have worked on several aspects of these projects. The grant was originally awarded on 3/01/94; this report covers the full period, through May 1997. We have completed our project on the X-ray properties of radio-selected BL Lacs.

  20. Multifrequency observations of BL Lacertae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, Joel N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Neugebauer, G.; Soifer, B. T.

    1990-01-01

    Optical, IR, and radio monitoring data covering 20 years are presented for BL Lac. Also, four simultaneous multifrequency spectra are given, covering the range 10 to the 9th - 10 to the 18th Hz. These spectra include ground-based observations and data from the Einstein, Exosat, IUE, and IRAS satellites. From the monitoring data, the character of emission variability is determined using structure functions. The multifrequency spectra are used to study the origin of X-ray emission and to determine the physical parameters of emitting regions. The data show that the emitting region is inhomogeneous, with a small inner region of high density and magnetic field that eventually becomes a large, partially opaque radio emitting region with a low density and magnetic fields. Also, the two simple predictions of the synchrotron self-Compton model are reproduced by the multifrequency spectra.

  1. ESO VERY LARGE TELESCOPE OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF BL LACERTAE OBJECTS. IV. NEW SPECTRA AND PROPERTIES OF THE FULL SAMPLE

    SciTech Connect

    Landoni, M.; Treves, A.; Barattini, M.; Falomo, R.; Sbarufatti, B.; Decarli, R.; Kotilainen, J.

    2013-04-15

    We present the last chapter of a spectroscopy program aimed at deriving the redshift or a lower limit to the redshift of BL Lac objects using medium-resolution spectroscopy. Here we report new spectra for 33 BL Lac object candidates obtained in 2008-2009, confirming the BL Lac nature of 25 sources and obtaining new redshifts for 5 objects. These new observations are combined with our previous data in order to construct a homogeneous sample of {approx}70 BL Lac objects with high-quality spectroscopy. All these spectra can be accessed at the Web site http://www.oapd.inaf.it/zbllac/. The average spectrum, beaming properties of the full sample, discussion of intervening systems, and future perspectives are addressed.

  2. BL Lacertae objects beyond redshift 1.3 - UV-to-NIR photometry and photometric redshift for Fermi/LAT blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Greiner, J.; Salvato, M.; Ajello, M.; Bottacini, E.; Gehrels, N.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; Kann, D. A.; Klose, S.; Krühler, T.; Nardini, M.; Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Olivares E., F.; Rossi, A.; Sudilovsky, V.; Updike, A. C.; Hartmann, D. H.

    2012-02-01

    Context. Observations of the γ-ray sky with Fermi led to significant advances towards understanding blazars, the most extreme class of active galactic nuclei. A large fraction of the population detected by Fermi is formed by BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects, whose sample has always suffered from a severe redshift incompleteness due to the quasi-featureless optical spectra. Aims: Our goal is to provide a significant increase of the number of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac objects contained in the 2 LAC Fermi/LAT cataloge. Methods: For 103 Fermi/LAT blazars, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution fitting have been obtained. The photometry includes 13 broad-band filters from the far ultraviolet to the near-IR observed with Swift/UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG/ESO 2.2 m telescope. Data have been taken quasi-simultaneously and the remaining source-intrinsic variability has been corrected for. Results: We release the UV-to-near-IR 13-band photometry for all 103 sources and provide redshift constraints for 75 sources without previously known redshift. Out of those, eight have reliable photometric redshifts at z1.3, while for the other 67 sources we provide upper limits. Six of the former eight are BL Lac objects, which quadruples the sample of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac. This includes three sources with redshifts higher than the previous record for BL Lac, including CRATES J0402-2615, with the best-fit solution at z ≈ 1.9.

  3. An HST/COS observation of broad Lyα emission and associated absorption lines of the BL Lacertae object H 2356-309

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Taotao; Danforth, Charles W.; Stocke, John T.; Shull, J. Michael; Buote, David A.; Canizares, Claude R.; Gastaldello, Fabio

    2014-11-01

    Weak spectral features in BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) often provide a unique opportunity to probe the inner region of this rare type of active galactic nucleus. We present a Hubble Space Telescope/Cosmic Origins Spectrograph observation of the BL Lac H 2356-309. A weak Lyα emission line was detected. This is the fourth detection of a weak Lyα emission feature in the ultraviolet (UV) band in the so-called high-energy peaked BL Lacs, after Stocke et al. Assuming the line-emitting gas is located in the broad line region (BLR) and the ionizing source is the off-axis jet emission, we constrain the Lorentz factor (Γ) of the relativistic jet to be ≥8.1 with a maximum viewing angle of 3.°6. The derived Γ is somewhat larger than previous measurements of Γ ≈ 3-5, implying a covering factor of ∼3% of the line-emitting gas. Alternatively, the BLR clouds could be optically thin, in which case we constrain the BLR warm gas to be ∼10{sup –5} M {sub ☉}. We also detected two H I and one O VI absorption lines that are within |Δv| < 150 km s{sup –1} of the BL Lac object. The O VI and one of the H I absorbers likely coexist due to their nearly identical velocities. We discuss several ionization models and find a photoionization model where the ionizing photon source is the BL Lac object that can fit the observed ion column densities with reasonable physical parameters. This absorber can either be located in the interstellar medium of the host galaxy or in the BLR.

  4. BL Lacertae Objects Beyond Redshift 1.3 - UV-to-NIR Photometry and Photometric Redshift for Fermi/LAT Blazars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, A.; Schady, P.; Greiner, J.; Salvato, M.; Ajello, M.; Bottacini, E.; Gehrels, N.; Afonso, P. M. J.; Elliott, J.; Filgas, R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Context. Observations of the gamma-ray sky with Fermi led to significant advances towards understanding blazars, the most extreme class of Active Galactic Nuclei. A large fraction of the population detected by Fermi is formed by BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects, whose sample has always suffered from a severe redshift incompleteness due to the quasi-featureless optical spectra. Aims. Our goal is to provide a significant increase of the number of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac objects contained in the 2 LAC Fermi/LAT catalog. Methods. For 103 Fermi/LAT blazars, photometric redshifts using spectral energy distribution fitting have been obtained. The photometry includes 13 broad-band filters from the far ultraviolet to the near-IR observed with Swift/UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG/ESO 2.2m telescope. Data have been taken quasi-simultaneously and the remaining source-intrinsic variability has been corrected for. Results. We release the UV-to-near-IR 13-band photometry for all 103 sources and provide redshift constraints for 75 sources without previously known redshift. Out of those, eight have reliable photometric redshifts at z > or approx. 1.3, while for the other 67 sources we provide upper limits. Six of the former eight are BL Lac objects, which quadruples the sample of confirmed high-redshift BL Lac. This includes three sources with redshifts higher than the previous record for BL Lac, including CRATES J0402-2615, with the best-fit solution at z approx. = 1.9.

  5. Discovery of a new BL Lacertae object /1E 1402.3 + 0416/ with the Einstein Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stocke, J.; Liebert, J.; Stockman, H.; Danziger, J.; Lub, J.; Maccacaro, T.; Griffiths, R.; Giommi, P.

    1982-01-01

    It is noted that only one BL Lac object, designated 1E 1402.3 + 0416, has so far been discovered as part of an optical identification program for a complete sample of faint X-ray sources detected with the Einstein Observatory. Consistent with previously X-ray-discovered BL Lacs, this object is blue and radio weak (17 mJy at 6 cm). It is pointed out that the percentage of BL Lacs in the faint extragalactic X-ray sample (2%) is smaller than the percentage at higher X-ray fluxes (6%). Over the same range in X-ray flux, the percentage of emission-line active galaxy nuclei (QSO + Seyferts) rises from 40% to 74%). This is seen as suggesting that BL Lacs do not evolve in a manner similar to quasars and are, therefore, not substantial contributors to the X-ray background.

  6. Multifrequency observations of BL Lacertae in 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kawai, N.; Matsuoka, M.; Bregman, J. N.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Hughes, P. A.; Balbus, S. A.; Balonek, T. J.; Chambers, K. C.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of BL Lacertae were performed on two occasions separated by 1 month in 1988 June and July, covering the radio, submillimeter, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wave bands. In the wide-band photon spectra, the X-ray flux lies clearly above the extension of radio-ultraviolet continuum as expected. The slope of the X-ray spectra is significantly flatter than that at optical-ultraviolet regimes, and its spectral index 0.7-1.0 corresponds to the slope at submillimeter band. Comparison with earlier observations, in fact, indicates that the X-ray flux is correlated with the submillimeter band, and not with the others, and supports the SSC model.

  7. Intraday optical variability of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Nankun; Wu, Jianghua; Webb, James R.; Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Dai, Yan

    2017-08-01

    We monitored BL Lacertae simultaneously in the optical B, V, R and I bands for 13 nights during the period 2012-2016. The variations were well correlated in all bands and the source showed significant intraday variability (IDV). We also studied its optical flux and colour behaviour, and searched for inter-band time lags. A strong bluer-when-brighter chromatism was found on the intra-night time-scale. The spectral changes are not sensitive to the host galaxy contribution. Cross-correlation analysis revealed possible time delay of about 10 min between variations in the V and R bands. We interpreted the observed flares in terms of the model consisting of individual synchrotron pulses.

  8. The X-ray spectra of the BL Lacertae objects PKS 0548 - 322 and 3C 66A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maccacaro, T.; Maccagni, D.; Tarenghi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Einstein Observatory simultaneous imaging proportional counter and monitor proportional counter data are combined in order to derive the energy spectra of the BL Lac objects PKS 0548-322 and 3C 66A between 0.2 and 10 keV. While the latter is found to be variable in both intensity and spectral shape, the former, although constant in the present data, is found to have experienced a spectrum variation in view of results from other experiments. Attention is given to the implications of flux and spectral variability in BL Lac objects for models of X-ray emission mechanisms. It is suggested that the wide spread of the spectral index distribution is due to the detection of the highly variable synchrotron-produced X-rays that are generally undetected in QSOs.

  9. The jet of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0521-365 in the near-IR: MAD adaptive optics observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falomo, R.; Pian, E.; Treves, A.; Giovannini, G.; Venturi, T.; Moretti, A.; Arcidiacono, C.; Farinato, J.; Ragazzoni, R.; Diolaiti, E.; Lombini, M.; Tavecchio, F.; Brast, R.; Donaldson, R.; Kolb, J.; Marchetti, E.; Tordo, S.

    2009-07-01

    Context: BL Lac objects are low-power active nuclei exhibiting a variety of peculiar properties caused by the presence of a relativistic jet and orientation effects. Aims: We present adaptive optics near-IR images at high spatial resolution of the nearby BL Lac object PKS 0521-365, which is known to display a prominent jet both at radio and optical frequencies. Methods: The observations were obtained in Ks-band using the ESO multi-conjugated adaptive optics demonstrator at the Very Large Telescope. This allowed us to obtain images with 0.1 arcsec effective resolution. We performed a detailed analysis of the jet and its related features from the near-IR images, and combined them with images previously obtained with HST in the R band and by a re-analysis of VLA radio maps. Results: We find a remarkable similarity in the structure of the jet at radio, near-IR, and optical wavelengths. The broad-band emission of the jet knots is dominated by synchrotron radiation, while the nucleus also exhibits a significant inverse Compton component. We discovered the near-IR counterpart of the radio hotspot and found that the near-IR flux is consistent with being a synchrotron emission from radio to X-ray wavelengths. The bright red object (red-tip), detached but well aligned with the jet, is well resolved in the near-IR and has a linear light profile. Since it has no radio counterpart, we propose that it is a background galaxy not associated with the jet. Conclusions: The new adaptive optics near-IR images and previous observations at other frequencies allow us to study the complex environment around the remarkable BL Lac object PKS 0521-365. These data exemplify the capabilities of multi conjugate adaptive optics observations of extragalactic extended sources. Based on observations collected at ESO, Paranal, Chile, as part of MAD Guaranteed Time Observations.

  10. 1E 1415.6+2557 - An X-ray-selected BL Lacertae object in a luminous galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, J. P.; Impey, C. D.; Bothun, G. D.; Tapia, S.; Skillman, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    The identification of a fifth serendipitous Einstein source with a new BL Lac object in a very luminous galaxy is reported. The resolved component is well fitted by an exponential disk with scale length 18 kpc and absolute magnitude of roughly -24.2. A redshift of 0.237 is derived from stellar absorption features. No emission lines are seen in the 3200-9000 A wavelength range. Decomposition of the optical spectrum into a standard galaxy plus a power law yields a spectral index of 0.5 + or - 0.5, significantly flatter than in the average BL Lac object. Linear polarization of the nonstellar component is about 6 percent in the 4500-7000 A wavelength range. The X-ray flux in the 0.3-3.5 keV band is 1.16 x 10 to the -11th ergs/sq cm/s, corresponding to a luminosity of 3.5 x 10 to the 45th ergs/s . The radio flux density is 85.6 mJy at 20 cm and 54.5 mJy at 6 cm.

  11. Discovery of VHE γ -ray emission from the BL Lacertae object B3 2247+381 with the MAGIC telescopes

    DOE PAGES

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; ...

    2012-03-02

    Here, we study the non-thermal jet emission of the BL Lac object B3 2247+381 during a high optical state. The MAGIC telescopes observed the source during 13 nights between September 30th and October 30th 2010, collecting a total of 14.2 h of good quality very high energy (VHE) γ-ray data. Simultaneous multiwavelength data was obtained with X-ray observations by the Swift satellite and optical R-band observations at the KVA-telescope. We also use high energy γ-ray (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) data from the Fermi satellite. We also dedected the BL Lac object B3 2247+381 (z = 0.119) , for the first time,more » at VHE γ-rays at a statistical significance of 5.6σ. A soft VHE spectrum with a photon index of -3.2 ± 0.6 was determined. No significant short term flux variations were found. Finally, we model the spectral energy distribution using a one-zone SSC-model, which can successfully describe our data.« less

  12. CCD Photometric Monitoring of the BL Lacertae Object s5 0716+714 from 2001 TO 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Zheng, Y. G.; Zhang, H. J.; Liu, Y.; Wen, Y. B.; Wang, W.

    2008-11-01

    We present the optical photometries (B, V, R, and I) of the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 (z > 0.3), which were observed with the 1 m telescope at Yunnan Astronomical Observatory and the 1.56 m telescope at Shanghai Astronomical Observatory from 2001 February to 2006 April. Our results show a significant rapid variation and exhibit a short time variability of ΔI = 0.60 mag in 28 minutes, ΔR = 1.58 mag in 23 minutes, ΔV = 1.06 mag in 10 minutes, and ΔB = 1.36 mag in 33 minutes. We find a strong correlation between the V - R color index and the magnitude in 292 minutes. Our CCD photometry of the S5 0716+714 showed they are in good similitude with Raiteri et al., and Qian et al. presented the optical variability magnitude and light curves from 1994 to 2001.

  13. Discovery of hard-spectrum γ-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0414+009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Behera, B.; Bernloehr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Buesching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chounet, L.-M.; Clapson, A. C.; Coignet, G.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataie, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'c.; Dubois, F.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Foerster, A.; Fuesling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gerard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glueck, B.; Goret, P.; Goering, D.; Haeffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hampf, D.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hinton, J. A.; Hoffmann, A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzynski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khangulyan, D.; Khelifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluzniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, D.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Mehault, J.; Moderski, R.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pedaletti, G.; Pelletier, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Pita, S.; Puehlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de Los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Ruppel, J.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schoeck, F. M.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Sikora, M.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, L.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Vialle, J. P.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Voelk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S. L.; Costamante, L.; Fegan, S.; Ajello, M.

    2012-02-01

    Context. 1ES 0414 + 009 (z = 0.287) is a distant high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object, and has long been considered a likely emitter of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-rays due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Aims: Observations in the VHE γ-ray band and across the electromagnetic spectrum can provide insights into the origin of highly energetic particles present in the source and the radiation processes at work. Because of the distance of the source, the γ-ray spectrum might provide further limits on the level of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Methods: We report observations made between October 2005 and December 2009 with H.E.S.S., an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Observations at high energies (HE, 100 MeV-100 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT instrument in the first 20 months of its operation are also reported. To complete the multi-wavelength picture, archival UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite and optical observations with the ATOM telescope are also used. Results: Based on the observations with H.E.S.S., 1ES 0414 + 009 is detected for the first time in the VHE band. An excess of 224 events is measured, corresponding to a significance of 7.8σ. The photon spectrum of the source is well described by a power law, with photon index of ΓVHE = 3.45 ± 0.25stat ± 0.20syst. The integral flux above 200 GeV is (1.88 ± 0.20stat ± 0.38syst) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Observations with the Fermi-LAT in the first 20 months of operation show a flux between 200 MeV and 100 GeV of (2.3 ± 0.2stat) × 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1, and a spectrum well described by a power-law function with a photon index ΓHE = 1.85 ± 0.18. Swift/XRT observations show an X-ray flux between 2 and 10 keV of (0.8-1) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, and a steep spectrum ΓX = (2.2-2.3). Combining X-ray with optical-UV data, a fit with a log-parabolic function locates the synchrotron peak around 0.1 keV. Conclusions: Although the GeV-TeV observations do not provide better

  14. Discovery of high and very high-energy emission from the BL Lacertae object SHBL J001355.9-185406

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; O'C. Drury, L.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-06-01

    The detection of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object (HBL) SHBL J001355.9-185406 (z = 0.095) at high (HE; 100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. Dedicated observations were performed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, leading to a detection at the 5.5σ significance level. The measured flux above 310 GeV is (8.3 ± 1.7stat ± 1.7sys) × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1 (about 0.6% of that of the Crab Nebula), and the power-law spectrum has a photon index of Γ = 3.4 ± 0.5stat ± 0.2sys. Using 3.5 years of publicly available Fermi-LAT data, a faint counterpart has been detected in the LAT data at the 5.5σ significance level, with an integrated flux above 300 MeV of (9.3 ± 3.4stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-10 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of Γ = 1.96 ± 0.20stat ± 0.08sys. X-ray observations with Swift-XRT allow the synchrotron peak energy in νFν representation to be located at ~1.0 keV. The broadband spectral energy distribution is modelled with a one-zone synchrotronself-Compton (SSC) model and the optical data by a black-body emission describing the thermal emission of the host galaxy. The derived parameters are typical of HBLs detected at VHE, with a particle-dominated jet.

  15. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  16. On the Location of the gamma-Ray Outburst Emission in the BL Lacertae Object AO 0235 + 164 Through Observations Across the Electromagnetic Spectrum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agudo, Ivan; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gomez, Jose L.; Laehteenmaeki, Anne; Smith, Paul S.; Nilsson, Kari; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Aller, Margo F.; Heidt, Jochien; Gurwell, Mark; Thum, Clemens; Wehrle, Ann E.; Nikolashvili, Maria G.; Aller, Hugh D.; Benitez, Erika; Blinov, Dmitriy A.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Hiriart, David; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Joshi, Manasvita; Kimeridze, Givi N.; Kurtanidze, Omar M.; Kurtanidze, Sofia O.

    2011-01-01

    We present observations of a major outburst at centimeter, millimeter, optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray wavelengths of the BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164. We analyze the timing of multi-waveband variations in the flux and linear polarization, as well as changes in Very Long Baseline Array images at A = 7 mm with approx.0.15 milliarcsec resolution. The association of the events at different wavebands is confirmed at high statistical significance by probability arguments and Monte Carlo simulations. A series of sharp peaks in optical linear polarization, as well as a pronounced maximum in the 7 mm polarization of a superluminal jet knot, indicate rapid fluctuations in the degree of ordering of the magnetic field. These results lead us to conclude that the outburst occurred in the jet both in the quasi-stationary "core" and in the superluminal knot, both parsecs downstream of the supermassive black hole. We interpret the outburst as a consequence of the propagation of a disturbance, elongated along the line of sight by light-travel time delays, that passes through a standing recollimation shock in the core and propagates down the jet to create the superluminal knot. The multi-wavelength light curves vary together on long timescales (months/ years), but the correspondence is poorer on shorter timescales. This, as well as the variability of the polarization and the dual location of the outburst, agrees with the expectations of a multi-zone emission model in which turbulence plays a major role in modulating the synchrotron and inverse Compton fluxes.

  17. KEPLER OBSERVATIONS OF RAPID OPTICAL VARIABILITY IN THE BL LACERTAE OBJECT W2R1926+42

    SciTech Connect

    Edelson, R.; Mushotzky, R.; Vaughan, S.; Scargle, J.; Gandhi, P.; Malkan, M.; Baumgartner, W.

    2013-03-20

    We present the first Kepler monitoring of a strongly variable BL Lac, W2R1926+42. The light curve covers 181 days with {approx}0.2% errors, 30 minute sampling and >90% duty cycle, showing numerous {delta}I/I > 25% flares over timescales as short as a day. The flux distribution is highly skewed and non-Gaussian. The variability shows a strong rms-flux correlation with the clearest evidence to date for nonlinearity in this relation. We introduce a method to measure periodograms from the discrete autocorrelation function, an approach that may be well-suited to a wide range of Kepler data. The periodogram is not consistent with a simple power-law, but shows a flattening at frequencies below 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} Hz. Simple models of the power spectrum, such as a broken power law, do not produce acceptable fits, indicating that the Kepler blazar light curve requires more sophisticated mathematical and physical descriptions than currently in use.

  18. Very Long Baseline Polarimetry of BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denn, Grant R.; Mutel, Robert L.; Marscher, Alan P.

    2000-07-01

    We present the results of an extensive observing campaign designed to study the evolution of parsec-scale radio structure in the nucleus of the AGN galaxy BL Lacertae. The observations spanned 17 epochs from 1994.7 to 1998.3. The VLBA observations, made at regular intervals at 15, 22, and 43 GHz, show the ejection and evolution of four highly polarized superluminal components (denoted S7-S10). The trajectories of all components were significantly curved, with the slowest component (S8) exhibiting the most bending. All four components had nearly constant apparent speeds, at least between 1 and 3 mas separation from the core. Extrapolation of the core-component separation to a zero spacing epoch suggests that they may have been created in pairs, with fast and slow counterparts. Each superluminal component was moderately linearly polarized at all observed frequencies. The electric vector position angle (EVPA) was frequency independent but changed with core-component separation for all four components, with total EVPA rotation varying from 30° (S7) to 80° (S8). There was no preferred EVPA orientation with respect to the jet axis when components were young, i.e., close to the core. However, three of the four components' EVPAs rotated to within 20° of the jet direction at later epochs, consistent with emission from transverse shocks. The core was nearly unpolarized at 15 GHz, except when a new superluminal component was just emerging. At higher frequencies (22 and 43 GHz) core fractional polarization was low with a quadratic frequency dependence. We applied Hardee's model of helical twisting on an adiabatically expanding jet to explain the observed bent component trajectories. By searching the parameter space of allowed helical geometries, we found a best-fit set of parameters with fixed opening and line of sight angles for all four components. The preferred helical geometry was described by a line of sight angle Θ~=9deg and a jet half-opening angle Ψ~=2deg

  19. Activity of BL Lacertae after Last Great Outburst: Long-Term, Intraday and Intrahour Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolashvili, Maria; Kurtanidze, Omar

    2007-08-01

    We present the results of optical observations of BL Lacertae from 1998 to 2005. The LTV, IDV of BL Lacertae were studied on the bases of more than 600 nights. The maximum LTV in R band equals to 1.82 mag (rms=0.03). It were also demonstrated that BL Lacertae shows IDV within 0.30 (0.02), while IHV within 0.10 (0.01) magnitudes.

  20. Behaviour of BL Lacertae during 1999-2000:Long-Term and Intraday Variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtanidze, O. M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.

    We present the results of optical observations of BL Lacertae from August 1999 to October 2000. The LTV, IDV of BL Lacertae were studied on the bases of 107 and 119 nights, respectively. The maximum LTV in R band equals to 1.82 mag (rms=0.03). It is also demonstrated that BL Lacertae shows IDV within 0.30 (0.02), while IHV within 0.10 (0.01) magnitudes.

  1. Location of γ-ray Flare Emission in the Jet of the BL Lacertae Object OJ287 More than 14 pc from the Central Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agudo, Iván; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Marscher, Alan P.; Larionov, Valeri M.; Gómez, José L.; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Gurwell, Mark; Smith, Paul S.; Wiesemeyer, Helmut; Thum, Clemens; Heidt, Jochen; Blinov, Dmitriy A.; D'Arcangelo, Francesca D.; Hagen-Thorn, Vladimir A.; Morozova, Daria A.; Nieppola, Elina; Roca-Sogorb, Mar; Schmidt, Gary D.; Taylor, Brian; Tornikoski, Merja; Troitsky, Ivan S.

    2011-01-01

    We combine time-dependent multi-waveband flux and linear polarization observations with submilliarcsecond-scale polarimetric images at λ = 7 mm of the BL Lacertae type blazar OJ287 to locate the γ-ray emission in prominent flares in the jet of the source >14 pc from the central engine. We demonstrate a highly significant correlation between the strongest γ-ray and millimeter-wave flares through Monte Carlo simulations. The two reported γ-ray peaks occurred near the beginning of two major millimeter-wave outbursts, each of which is associated with a linear polarization maximum at millimeter wavelengths. Our very long baseline array observations indicate that the two millimeter-wave flares originated in the second of two features in the jet that are separated by >14 pc. The simultaneity of the peak of the higher-amplitude γ-ray flare and the maximum in polarization of the second jet feature implies that the γ-ray and millimeter-wave flares are cospatial and occur >14 pc from the central engine. We also associate two optical flares, accompanied by sharp polarization peaks, with the two γ-ray events. The multi-waveband behavior is most easily explained if the γ-rays arise from synchrotron self-Compton scattering of optical photons from the flares. We propose that flares are triggered by interaction of moving plasma blobs with a standing shock. The γ-ray and optical emission is quenched by inverse Compton losses as synchrotron photons from the newly shocked plasma cross the emission region. The millimeter-wave polarization is high at the onset of a flare, but decreases as the electrons emitting at these wavelengths penetrate less polarized regions.

  2. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 by the Egret telescope on the Compton Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation in the energy range from 50 MeV to well over 1 GeV has been observed from the direction of the BL Lac object Markarian 421 by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Observatory during the period 1991 June 27-July 11. The source flux is weak, but still statistically significant at the level of 10 exp -5; the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV is (1.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -7/sq cm s. The differential photon energy spectrum can be represented by a power law with exponent 1.96 +/- 0.14. This is the first detection of gamma-ray emission from a BL Lac object.

  3. Detection of high-energy gamma-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 by the Egret telescope on the Compton Observatory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Y. C.; Bertsch, D. L.; Chiang, J.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.; Kniffen, D. A.; Kwok, P. W.; Mattox, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    Gamma radiation in the energy range from 50 MeV to well over 1 GeV has been observed from the direction of the BL Lac object Markarian 421 by the Energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope on the Compton Observatory during the period 1991 June 27-July 11. The source flux is weak, but still statistically significant at the level of 10 exp -5; the integrated photon flux above 100 MeV is (1.4 +/- 0.3) x 10 exp -7/sq cm s. The differential photon energy spectrum can be represented by a power law with exponent 1.96 +/- 0.14. This is the first detection of gamma-ray emission from a BL Lac object.

  4. Optical observations of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304 and implications regarding the X-ray absorption feature at 600-700 eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, S.; Brodie, J.; Clarke, J. T.; Henry, J. P.

    1984-01-01

    The interpretation of the PKS 2155-304 identification as a BL Lac object whose X-ray spectrum contains an absorption trough has been hampered by the lack of a reliable redshift for the source. Spectra derived from extensive optical observations of this source imply a redshift of 0.117 + or - 0.002. With knowledge of the redshift, the range of mechanisms which can produce the X-ray trough can be reduced. Attention is given to these alternative mechanisms.

  5. X-Ray and TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from Parallel Electron-Positron or Electron-Proton Beams in BL Lacertae Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczynski, H.

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we discuss models of the X-ray and TeV γ-ray emission from BL Lac objects based on parallel electron-positron or electron-proton beams that form close to the central black hole, due to the strong electric fields generated by the accretion disk and possibly also by the black hole itself. Fitting the energy spectrum of the BL Lac object Mrk 501, we obtain tight constraints on the beam properties. Launching a sufficiently energetic beam requires rather strong magnetic fields close to the black hole (~100-1000 G). However, the model fits imply that the magnetic field in the emission region is only ~0.02 G. Thus, the particles are accelerated close to the black hole and propagate a considerable distance before instabilities trigger the dissipation of energy through synchrotron and self-Compton emission. We discuss various approaches to generate enough power to drive the jet and, at the same time, to accelerate particles to ~20 TeV energies. Although the parallel beam model has its own problems, it explains some of the long-standing problems that plague models based on Fermi-type particle acceleration, such as the presence of a very high minimum Lorentz factor of accelerated particles. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of the model for the difference between the processes of jet formation in BL Lac-type objects and those in quasars.

  6. Clustering environments of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ronald; Ellingson, Erica; Stocke, John T.; Yee, H. K. C.

    1993-01-01

    We report measurements of the amplitude of the BL Lac galaxy spatial covariance function, B(gb), for the fields of five BL Lacertae objects. We present evidence for rich clusters around MS 1207+39 and MS 1407+59, and confirm high richness for the cluster containing H0414+009. We discuss the ease of 3C 66 A and find evidence for a poor cluster based on an uncertain redshift of z = 0.444. These data suggest that at least some BL Lac objects are consistent with being FR 1 radio galaxies in rich clusters.

  7. HIGH-FREQUENCY-PEAKED BL LACERTAE OBJECTS AS SPECTRAL CANDLES TO MEASURE THE EXTRAGALACTIC BACKGROUND LIGHT IN THE FERMI AND AIR CHERENKOV TELESCOPES ERA

    SciTech Connect

    Mankuzhiyil, Nijil; Persic, Massimo; Tavecchio, Fabrizio

    2010-05-20

    The extragalactic background light (EBL) is the integrated light from all the stars that have ever formed, and spans the IR-UV range. The interaction of very high-energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) {gamma}-rays, emitted by sources located at cosmological distances, with the intervening EBL results in e {sup -} e {sup +} pair production that leads to energy-dependent attenuation of the observed VHE flux. This introduces a fundamental ambiguity into the interpretation of measured VHE {gamma}-ray spectra: neither the intrinsic spectrum nor the EBL are separately known-only their combination is. In this Letter, we propose a method to measure the EBL photon number density. It relies on using simultaneous observations of BL Lac objects in the optical, X-ray, high-energy (HE: E > 100 MeV) {gamma}-ray (from the Fermi telescope), and VHE {gamma}-ray (from Cherenkov telescopes) bands. For each source, the method involves best-fitting the spectral energy distribution from optical through HE {gamma}-rays (the latter being largely unaffected by EBL attenuation as long as z {approx_lt} 1) with a synchrotron self-Compton model. We extrapolate such best-fitting models into the VHE regime and assume they represent the BL Lacs' intrinsic emission. Contrasting measured versus intrinsic emission leads to a determination of the {gamma}{gamma} opacity to VHE photons. Using, for each given source, different states of emission will only improve the accuracy of the proposed method. We demonstrate this method using recent simultaneous multifrequency observations of the high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object PKS 2155-304 and discuss how similar observations can more accurately probe the EBL.

  8. Soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 as a tracer of elemental abundances at z approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg

    1994-01-01

    We report the soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lac object AO 0235+164, observed with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). This object (z = 0.94) has an intervening galaxy (or a protogalactic disk) at z = 0.524 present in the line of sight, producing both radio and optical absorption lines in the background BL Lac continuum. The X-ray spectrum exhibits a substantial soft X-ray cutoff, corresponding to several times that expected from our own Galaxy; we interpret that excess cutoff as due to the intervening galaxy. The comparison of the hydrogen column density inferred from the 21 cm radio data and the X-ray absorption allows, in principle, the determination of the elemental abundances in the intervening galaxy. However, the uncertainties in both the H I spin temperature and X-ray spectral parameters only loosely restrict these abundances to be 2 +/- 1 solar, which even at the lower limit appears higher than that inferred from studies of samples of optical absoprtion-line systems.

  9. Soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae object AO 0235+164 as a tracer of elemental abundances at z approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madejski, Greg

    1994-01-01

    We report the soft X-ray spectrum of BL Lac object AO 0235+164, observed with the Einstein Observatory Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC). This object (z = 0.94) has an intervening galaxy (or a protogalactic disk) at z = 0.524 present in the line of sight, producing both radio and optical absorption lines in the background BL Lac continuum. The X-ray spectrum exhibits a substantial soft X-ray cutoff, corresponding to several times that expected from our own Galaxy; we interpret that excess cutoff as due to the intervening galaxy. The comparison of the hydrogen column density inferred from the 21 cm radio data and the X-ray absorption allows, in principle, the determination of the elemental abundances in the intervening galaxy. However, the uncertainties in both the H I spin temperature and X-ray spectral parameters only loosely restrict these abundances to be 2 +/- 1 solar, which even at the lower limit appears higher than that inferred from studies of samples of optical absoprtion-line systems.

  10. Discovery of VHE γ -ray emission from the BL Lacertae object B3 2247+381 with the MAGIC telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Cea del Pozo, E.; De Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Kadenius, V.; Weidinger, M.; Buson, S.

    2012-03-02

    Here, we study the non-thermal jet emission of the BL Lac object B3 2247+381 during a high optical state. The MAGIC telescopes observed the source during 13 nights between September 30th and October 30th 2010, collecting a total of 14.2 h of good quality very high energy (VHE) γ-ray data. Simultaneous multiwavelength data was obtained with X-ray observations by the Swift satellite and optical R-band observations at the KVA-telescope. We also use high energy γ-ray (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) data from the Fermi satellite. We also dedected the BL Lac object B3 2247+381 (z = 0.119) , for the first time, at VHE γ-rays at a statistical significance of 5.6σ. A soft VHE spectrum with a photon index of -3.2 ± 0.6 was determined. No significant short term flux variations were found. Finally, we model the spectral energy distribution using a one-zone SSC-model, which can successfully describe our data.

  11. Discovery of VHE γ-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object B3 2247+381 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksić, J.; Alvarez, E. A.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Asensio, M.; Backes, M.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Berdyugin, A.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bock, R. K.; Boller, A.; Bonnoli, G.; Borla Tridon, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Cañellas, A.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Cossio, L.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Caneva, G.; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Lotto, B.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Diago Ortega, A.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Ferenc, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido, D.; Giavitto, G.; Godinović, N.; Hadasch, D.; Häfner, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Huber, B.; Jogler, T.; Kellermann, H.; Klepser, S.; Krähenbühl, T.; Krause, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; López, M.; López-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Pardo, S.; Paredes, J. M.; Partini, S.; Pasanen, M.; Pauss, F.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Pilia, M.; Pochon, J.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, K.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamatescu, V.; Stamerra, A.; Steinke, B.; Storz, J.; Strah, N.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Tibolla, O.; Torres, D. F.; Treves, A.; Uellenbeck, M.; Vankov, H.; Vogler, P.; Wagner, R. M.; Weitzel, Q.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Kadenius, V.; Weidinger, M.; Buson, S.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We study the non-thermal jet emission of the BL Lac object B3 2247+381 during a high optical state. Methods: The MAGIC telescopes observed the source during 13 nights between September 30th and October 30th 2010, collecting a total of 14.2 h of good quality very high energy (VHE) γ-ray data. Simultaneous multiwavelength data was obtained with X-ray observations by the Swift satellite and optical R-band observations at the KVA-telescope. We also use high energy γ-ray (HE, 0.1-100 GeV) data from the Fermi satellite. Results: The BL Lac object B3 2247+381 (z = 0.119) was detected, for the first time, at VHE γ-rays at a statistical significance of 5.6σ. A soft VHE spectrum with a photon index of -3.2 ± 0.6 was determined. No significant short term flux variations were found. We model the spectral energy distribution using a one-zone SSC-model, which can successfully describe our data.

  12. The Microvariability of BL Lacertae During the 1997 Optical Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Whitman, K.; Davis, S. M.; Beckerman, E.

    1998-12-01

    We report optical R filter CCD photometric observations from Colgate University's Foggy Bottom Observatory of the quasar BL Lacertae during the intense outburst in summer 1997. Throughout 1996 BL Lac hovered around a magnitude of R = 14.7-15.3, with night-to-night variations of several tenths of a magnitude. The 1997 outburst appears to be part of a general increase in activity which began after a minimum of 15.3 in July 1996. On June 23, 1997, BL Lac was observed to be at its brightest in 20 years, after which we commenced our intensive monitoring. BL Lac continued to be active during the next two months, flaring numerous times during this period within the range R = 14.2-12.4. Microvariability was observed on several timescales. First, there are the rises and declines, maxima and minima that occur over the entire night (or longer) of amplitude a magnitude or greater. A variability of 0.3-0.4 magnitudes over a six to eight hour period is most common, but occasionally larger changes occur. The maxima are very sharp, lasting only a matter of minutes with slopes of up to 0.4 magnitudes per hour near the peak, while the minima tend to be much more gradual. Secondly, there is variability of 0.04-0.10 magnitude amplitude on timescales of minutes on top of this night-long variation. The most common of these short-term variations seem to be small flares that last 20 to 40 minutes.

  13. X-ray spectral evolution of TeV BL Lacertae objects: eleven years of observations with BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton and Swift satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Tramacere, A.; Cavaliere, A.; Perri, M.; Giommi, P.

    2008-02-01

    Context: Many of the extragalactic sources detected in γ rays at TeV energies are BL Lac objects. In particular, they belong to the subclass of “high frequency peaked BL Lacs” (HBLs), as their spectral energy distributions exhibit a first peak in the X-ray band. At a closer look, their X-ray spectra appear to be generally curved into a log-parabolic shape. In a previous investigation of Mrk 421, two correlations were found between the spectral parameters. One involves the height Sp increasing with the position Ep of the first peak; this was interpreted as a signature of synchrotron emission from relativistic electrons. The other involves the curvature parameter b decreasing as Ep increases; this points toward statistical/stochastic acceleration processes for the emitting electrons. Aims: We analyse X-ray spectra of several TeV HBLs to pinpoint their behaviours in the E_p-Sp and E_p-b planes and to compare them with Mrk 421. Methods: We perfom X-ray spectral analyses of a sample of 15 BL Lacs. We report the whole set of observations obtained with the BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton and Swift satellites between 29/06/96 and 07/04/07. We focus on five sources (PKS 0548-322, 1H 1426+418, Mrk 501, 1ES 1959+650, PKS 2155-304) whose X-ray observations warrant detailed searching of correlations or trends. Results: Within our database, we find that four out of five sources, namely PKS 0548-322, 1H 1426+418, Mrk 501 and 1ES 1959+650, follow similar trends as Mrk 421 in the E_p-Sp plane, while PKS 2155-304 differs. As for the E_p-b plane, all TeV HBLs follow a similar behaviour. Conclusions: The trends exhibited by Mrk 421 appear to be shared by several TeV HBLs, such as to warrant discussing predictions from the X-ray spectral evolution to that of TeV emissions. Appendix A is only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Discovery of very high energy γ-ray emission from the BL Lacertae object PKS 0301-243 with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Ait Benkhali, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Böttcher, M.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Marx, R.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spies, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; Weitzel, Q.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2013-11-01

    The active galactic nucleus PKS 0301-243 (z = 0.266) is a high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lac object that is detected at high energies (HE, 100 MeV 100 GeV) by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) from observations between September 2009 and December 2011 for a total live time of 34.9 h. Gamma rays above 200 GeV are detected at a significance of 9.4σ. A hint of variability at the 2.5σ level is found. An integral flux I(E > 200 GeV) = (3.3 ± 1.1stat ± 0.7syst) × 10-12 ph cm-2 s-1 and a photon index Γ = 4.6 ± 0.7stat ± 0.2syst are measured. Multi-wavelength light curves in HE, X-ray and optical bands show strong variability, and a minimal variability timescale of eight days is estimated from the optical light curve. A single-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton scenario satisfactorily reproduces the multi-wavelength data. In this model, the emitting region is out of equipartition and the jet is particle dominated. Because of its high redshift compared to other sources observed at TeV energies, the very high energy emission from PKS 0301-243 is attenuated by the extragalactic background light (EBL) and the measured spectrum is used to derive an upper limit on the opacity of the EBL.

  15. Discovery of high and very high-energy emission from the BL Lacertae object SHBL J001355.9–185406

    DOE PAGES

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; ...

    2013-06-05

    In this paper, the detection of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object (HBL) SHBL J001355.9–185406 (z = 0.095) at high (HE; 100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. Dedicated observations were performed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, leading to a detection at the 5.5σ significance level. The measured flux above 310 GeV is (8.3 ± 1.7stat ± 1.7sys) × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1 (about 0.6% of that of the Crab Nebula), and the power-law spectrum has amore » photon index of Γ = 3.4 ± 0.5stat ± 0.2sys. Using 3.5 years of publicly available Fermi-LAT data, a faint counterpart has been detected in the LAT data at the 5.5σ significance level, with an integrated flux above 300 MeV of (9.3 ± 3.4stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-10 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of Γ = 1.96 ± 0.20stat ± 0.08sys. X-ray observations with Swift-XRT allow the synchrotron peak energy in νFν representation to be located at ~1.0 keV. The broadband spectral energy distribution is modelled with a one-zone synchrotronself-Compton (SSC) model and the optical data by a black-body emission describing the thermal emission of the host galaxy. Lastly, the derived parameters are typical of HBLs detected at VHE, with a particle-dominated jet.« less

  16. Discovery of VHE γ-ray emission and multi-wavelength observations of the BL Lacertae object 1RXS J101015.9-311909

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Gerbig, D.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Keogh, D.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Rayner, S. M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-06-01

    1RXS J101015.9-311909 is a galaxy located at a redshift of z=0.14 hosting an active nucleus (called AGN) belonging to the class of bright BL Lac objects. Observations at high (HE, E > 100 MeV) and very high (VHE, E > 100 GeV) energies provide insights into the origin of very energetic particles present in such sources and the radiation processes at work. We report on results from VHE observations performed between 2006 and 2010 with the H.E.S.S. instrument, an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. H.E.S.S. data have been analysed with enhanced analysis methods, making the detection of faint sources more significant. VHE emission at a position coincident with 1RXS J101015.9-311909 is detected with H.E.S.S. for the first time. In a total good-quality livetime of about 49 h, we measure 263 excess counts, corresponding to a significance of 7.1 standard deviations. The photon spectrum above 0.2 TeV can be described by a power-law with a photon index of Γ = 3.08 ± 0.42stat ± 0.20sys. The integral flux above 0.2 TeV is about 0.8% of the flux of the Crab nebula and shows no significant variability over the time reported. In addition, public Fermi/LAT data are analysed to search for high energy emission from the source. The Fermi/LAT HE emission in the 100 MeV to 200 GeV energy range is significant at 8.3 standard deviations in the chosen 25-month dataset. UV and X-ray contemporaneous observations with the Swift satellite in May 2007 are also reported, together with optical observations performed with the atom telescope located at the H.E.S.S. site. Swift observations reveal an absorbed X-ray flux of F(0.3-7) keV = 1.04+0.04-0.05 × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.3-7 keV range. Finally, all the available data are used to study the multi-wavelength properties of the source. The spectral energy distribution (SED) can be reproduced using a simple one-zone Synchrotron Self Compton (SSC) model with emission from a region with a Doppler factor of 30 and a

  17. Discovery of high and very high-energy emission from the BL Lacertae object SHBL J001355.9–185406

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Angüner, E.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker Tjus, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Bissaldi, E.; Biteau, J.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Chalme-Calvet, R.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Chrétien, M.; Colafrancesco, S.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; deWilt, P.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O’C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Edwards, T.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grudzińska, M.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Harris, J.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hervet, O.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Jankowsky, F.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Kieffer, M.; Klepser, S.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Kolitzus, D.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Krakau, S.; Krayzel, F.; Krüger, P. P.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lefaucheur, J.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Lenain, J. -P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C. -C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Meyer, M.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Murach, T.; Naumann, C. L.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Oakes, L.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Parsons, R. D.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P. -O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Poon, H.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raab, S.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez⋆, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schüssler, F.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Spieß, F.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J. -P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Trichard, C.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Wagner, P.; Ward, M.; Weidinger, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Willmann, P.; Wörnlein, A.; Wouters, D.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H. -S.

    2013-06-05

    In this paper, the detection of the high-frequency peaked BL Lac object (HBL) SHBL J001355.9–185406 (z = 0.095) at high (HE; 100 MeV < E < 300 GeV) and very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) with the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) is reported. Dedicated observations were performed with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, leading to a detection at the 5.5σ significance level. The measured flux above 310 GeV is (8.3 ± 1.7stat ± 1.7sys) × 10-13 photons cm-2 s-1 (about 0.6% of that of the Crab Nebula), and the power-law spectrum has a photon index of Γ = 3.4 ± 0.5stat ± 0.2sys. Using 3.5 years of publicly available Fermi-LAT data, a faint counterpart has been detected in the LAT data at the 5.5σ significance level, with an integrated flux above 300 MeV of (9.3 ± 3.4stat ± 0.8sys) × 10-10 photons cm-2 s-1 and a photon index of Γ = 1.96 ± 0.20stat ± 0.08sys. X-ray observations with Swift-XRT allow the synchrotron peak energy in νFν representation to be located at ~1.0 keV. The broadband spectral energy distribution is modelled with a one-zone synchrotronself-Compton (SSC) model and the optical data by a black-body emission describing the thermal emission of the host galaxy. Lastly, the derived parameters are typical of HBLs detected at VHE, with a particle-dominated jet.

  18. Non-radial motion in the TeV blazar S5 0716+714. The pc-scale kinematics of a BL Lacertae object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Britzen, S.; Kam, V. A.; Witzel, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, M. F.; Aller, H. D.; Karouzos, M.; Eckart, A.; Zensus, J. A.

    2009-12-01

    Context: Flat-spectrum radio sources often show a core-jet structure on pc-scales. Individual jet components reveal predominantly outward directed motion. For the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 conflicting apparent velocities have been reported in the literature. This object is an intra-day variable source and suited to investigate a possible correlation between kinematic properties and flux-density variability on different timescales. Aims: We study the kinematics in the pc-scale jet of S5 0716+714 to determine the apparent speeds of the jet components based on a much improved data set. In addition, we search for correlations between the radio flux-density light curves and the morphological changes detected along the VLBI jet. Methods: We (re-)analyze 50 VLBI observations obtained with the VLBA at 5 different frequencies (5-43 GHz) between 1992.73 and 2006.32. The data have been parameterized using circular Gaussian components. We analyze the jet component motion in detail taking care not only to account for motion in the radial but also in the orthogonal direction. We study the evolution of the jet ridge line and investigate the spectral properties of the individual components. We search for correlations between radio band light curves and the kinematic properties of the jet components. Results: We present an alternative kinematic scenario for jet component motion in S5 0716+714. We present evidence for the apparent stationarity of jet components (with regard to their core separation) with time. Jet components, however, do seem to move significantly non-radially with regard to their position angle and in a direction perpendicular to the major axis of the jet. We discuss a possible correlation between the long-term radio flux-density variability and apparent jet component motions. Conclusions: In S5 0716+714 an alternative motion scenario is proposed. With regard to the core separation, rather stationary components can fit the VLBI observations well. A new model to

  19. Spectroscopy of six X-ray-selected BL Lacertae candidates

    SciTech Connect

    Margon, B.; Boroson, T.A.; Chanan, G.A.; Thompson, I.B.; Schneider, D.P.

    1986-11-01

    Results of a continuing program aimed at extending the small list of X-ray-selected BL Lac objects are reported. High-quality spectra have been obtained of six faint blue objects that lie within the positional error boxes of X-ray sources discovered serendipitously by the Einstein Observatory. Three of the objects are found to be previously uncataloged low-red-shift quasi-stellar objects, including one formerly suggested as BL Lac candidate. Two are faint galactic stars, while the final object has a featureless spectrum, and thus remains a candidate. Although X-ray selection may ultimately be an effective means of discovering faint BL Lac objects, such sources are evidently rare at the X-ray flux levels attainable by the Einstein Observatory. 15 references.

  20. Intermediate BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Marchã, M. J. M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.

    2001-08-01

    The 200-mJy sample, defined by Marchã et al., contains about 60 nearby, northern, flat-spectrum radio sources. In particular, the sample has proved effective at finding nearby radio-selected BL Lac objects with radio luminosities comparable to those of X-ray-selected objects, and low-luminosity flat-spectrum weak emission-line radio galaxies (WLRGs). The 200-mJy sample contains 23 BL Lac objects (including 6 BL Lac candidates) and 19 WLRGs. We will refer to these subsamples as the 200-mJy BL Lac sample and the 200-mJy WLRG sample, respectively. We have started a systematic analysis of the morphological pc-scale properties of the 200-mJy radio sources using VLBI observations. This paper presents VLBI observations at 5 and 1.6GHz of 14 BL Lac objects and WLRGs selected from the 200-mJy sample. The pc-scale morphology of these objects is briefly discussed. We derive the radio beaming parameters of the 200-mJy BL Lac objects and WLRGs and compare them with those of other BL Lac samples and with a sample of FR I radio galaxies. The overall broad-band radio, optical and X-ray properties of the 200-mJy BL Lac sample are discussed and compared with those of other BL Lac samples, radio- and X-ray-selected. We find that the 200-mJy BL Lac objects fill the gap between HBL and LBL objects in the colour-colour plot, and have intermediate αXOX as expected in the spectral energy distribution unification scenario. Finally, we briefly discuss the role of the WLRGs.

  1. Polarimetry of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidt, J.; Nilsson, K.

    2011-05-01

    We present and discuss polarimetric observations of 182 targets drawn from an optically selected sample of 240 probable BL Lac candidates out of the SDSS compiled by Collinge et al. (2005, AJ, 129, 2542). In contrast to most other BL Lac candidate samples extracted from the SDSS, its radio- and/or X-ray properties have not been taken into account for its derivation. Thus, because its selection is based on optical properties alone, it may be less prone to selection effects inherent in other samples derived at different frequencies, so it offers a unique opportunity to extract the first unbiased BL Lac luminosity function that is suitably large in size. We found 124 out of 182 targets (68%) to be polarized, 95 of the polarized targets (77%) to be highly polarized (>4%). The low-frequency peaked BL Lac candidates in the sample are on average only slightly more polarized than the high-frequency peaked ones. Compared to earlier studies, we found a high duty cycle in high polarization (˜ 66+2-14% to be >4% polarized) in high-frequency peaked BL Lac candidates. This may come from our polarization analysis, which minimizes the contamination by host galaxy light. No evidence of radio-quiet BL Lac objects in the sample was found. Our observations show that the probable sample of BL Lac candidates of Collinge et al. (2005) indeed contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects. High S/N spectroscopy and deep X-ray observations are required to construct the first luminosity function of optically selected BL Lac objects and to test more stringently for any radio-quiet BL Lac objects in the sample. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory in the course of the observing proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC).Based on observations

  2. Properties of optically selected BL Lacertae candidates from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kügler, S. D.; Nilsson, K.; Heidt, J.; Esser, J.; Schultz, T.

    2014-09-01

    Context. Deep optical surveys open the avenue for finding large numbers of BL Lac objects that are hard to identify because they lack the unique properties classifying them as such. While radio or X-ray surveys typically reveal dozens of sources, recent compilations based on optical criteria alone have increased the number of BL Lac candidates considerably. However, these compilations are subject to biases and may contain a substantial number of contaminating sources. Aims: In this paper we extend our analysis of 182 optically selected BL Lac object candidates from the SDSS with respect to an earlier study. The main goal is to determine the number of bona fide BL Lac objects in this sample. Methods: We examine their variability characteristics, determine their broad-band radio-UV spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and search for the presence of a host galaxy. In addition we present new optical spectra for 27 targets with improved signal-to-noise ratio with respect to the SDSS spectra. Results: At least 59% of our targets have shown variability between SDSS DR2 and our observations by more than 0.1-0.27 mag depending on the telescope used. A host galaxy was detected in 36% of our targets. The host galaxy type and luminosities are consistent with earlier studies of BL Lac host galaxies. Simple fits to broad-band SEDs for 104 targets of our sample derived synchrotron peak frequencies between 13.5 ≤ log 10(νpeak) ≤ 16 with a peak at log 10 ~ 14.5. Our new optical spectra do not reveal any new redshift for any of our objects. Thus the sample contains a large number of bona fide BL Lac objects and seems to contain a substantial fraction of intermediate-frequency peaked BL Lacs. Based on observations collected with the NTT on La Silla (Chile) operated by the European Southern Observatory under proposal 082.B-0133.Based on observations collected at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA), operated jointly by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie and the

  3. Lacerta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lizard; abbrev. Lac, gen. Lacertae; area 201 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Cygnus and Andromeda, and culminates at midnight in late August. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687. Hevelius also gave it the alternative name of Stellio (the Stelli...

  4. Gamma-ray blazar BL Lacertae: the highest recorded cm/mm radio flux over the past 30 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamanavis, V.; Myserlis, I.; Fuhrmann, L.; Angelakis, E.; Nestoras, I.; Krichbaum, T. P.; Zensus, J. A.; Ungerechts, H.; Sievers, A.; Riquelme, D.

    2012-08-01

    We report on the recent flaring behavior of 2200+420 (BL Lacertae) at radio bands as observed by the F-GAMMA program. Recent activity: Radio observations performed with the Effelsberg 100-m and the IRAM 30-m telescopes reveal that BL Lacertae is currently in high state - the highest since the historical maximum of 1981 as observed by the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory (about 16 Jy at 14.5 GHz, e.g.

  5. Optical Outbursts of the Blazar BL Lacertae in 2000-2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. F.; Balonek, T. J.; Beem, J. L.; Fryer, E. K.; Caler, M. A.; Peters, C. S.

    2001-12-01

    BL Lacertae (2200+420; z=0.0686) is a well-known blazar that exhibits rapid and often large changes in flux in all wavebands. In the optical bands, this source is extremely variable on all time scales that have been monitored. Because of this rapid and complex variability behavior, the study of this object can benefit from monitoring at several observatories. In this spirit, observations from Colgate University's Foggy Bottom Observatory and Connecticut College's Olin Observatory were conflated to produce a more complete, better sampled, light curve. We chronicle the most recent variability of this classic AGN over a one and a half year interval, focusing on microvariability. We present new optical (R filter) CCD photometric observations of BL Lac covering the time from June 2000 through November 2001. At the start and end of this interval the source was relatively inactive, around R=14.3. During the intervening period it was in an active phase exhibiting several distinct outbursts. We obtained improved sampling during one outburst, lasting from May through August 2001, that reached a peak brightness of R=12.5 in July. On several nights, we found microvariability on the order of 0.1 magnitude within one to two hours. We did not see variations greater than 0.3 magnitude between nights, althought this limit may be set by undersampling. This hour to day variability is less extreme than that observed in the outburst of 1997.

  6. AGILE detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piano, G.; Pittori, C.; Lucarelli, F.; Verrecchia, F.; Tavani, M.; Minervini, G.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Ursi, A.; Cardillo, M.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Zoli, A.; Donnarumma, I.; Vercellone, S.; Striani, E.; Gianotti, F.; Trifoglio, M.; Giuliani, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Caraveo, P.; Perotti, F.; Chen, A.; Argan, A.; Costa, E.; Del Monte, E.; Evangelista, Y.; Feroci, M.; Lazzarotto, F.; Lapshov, I.; Pacciani, L.; Soffitta, P.; Sabatini, S.; Vittorini, V.; Pucella, G.; Rapisarda, M.; Di Cocco, G.; Fuschino, F.; Galli, M.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Pellizzoni, A.; Pilia, M.; Trois, A.; Barbiellini, G.; Vallazza, E.; Longo, F.; Morselli, A.; Picozza, P.; Prest, M.; Lipari, P.; Zanello, D.; Cattaneo, P. W.; Rappoldi, A.; Colafrancesco, S.; Parmiggiani, N.; Ferrari, A.; Paoletti, F.; Antonelli, A.; Giommi, P.; Salotti, L.; Valentini, G.; D'Amico, F.

    2017-06-01

    AGILE is revealing enhanced gamma-ray activity above 100 MeV from a source positionally consistent with BL Lacertae (HB89 2200+420, z=0.0686). Integrating between 2017-06-04 UT 04:00:00 and 2017-06-06 UT 04:00:00, a preliminary multi-source likelihood analysis detects a gamma-ray flux F( > 100 MeV) = (3.5 +/- 1.0) x 10^-6 photons/cm^2/s with a significance greater than 5 sigma.

  7. RAPID TeV GAMMA-RAY FLARING OF BL LACERTAE

    SciTech Connect

    Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Bouvier, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Dickherber, R.; Benbow, W.; Cesarini, A.; Connolly, M. P.; Ciupik, L.; Cui, W.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Dumm, J.; Fortson, L.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Federici, S.; Finnegan, G. E-mail: cui@purdue.edu; Collaboration: VERITAS Collaboration; and others

    2013-01-10

    We report on the detection of a very rapid TeV gamma-ray flare from BL Lacertae on 2011 June 28 with the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS). The flaring activity was observed during a 34.6 minute exposure, when the integral flux above 200 GeV reached (3.4 {+-} 0.6) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} photons m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, roughly 125% of the Crab Nebula flux measured by VERITAS. The light curve indicates that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered a significant portion of the decaying phase. The exponential decay time was determined to be 13 {+-} 4 minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen from a TeV blazar. The gamma-ray spectrum of BL Lacertae during the flare was soft, with a photon index of 3.6 {+-} 0.4, which is in agreement with the measurement made previously by MAGIC in a lower flaring state. Contemporaneous radio observations of the source with the Very Long Baseline Array revealed the emergence of a new, superluminal component from the core around the time of the TeV gamma-ray flare, accompanied by changes in the optical polarization angle. Changes in flux also appear to have occurred at optical, UV, and GeV gamma-ray wavelengths at the time of the flare, although they are difficult to quantify precisely due to sparse coverage. A strong flare was seen at radio wavelengths roughly four months later, which might be related to the gamma-ray flaring activities. We discuss the implications of these multiwavelength results.

  8. Gamma-Ray Blazar BL Lacertae at historic high brightness in millimeter, X-ray and far-infrared bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrle, Ann E.; Grupe, Dirk; Gurwell, Mark; Jorstad, Svetlana; Marscher, Alan

    2012-11-01

    We report on the current unprecedented brightness of BL Lacertae (2200+420) as observed by the Submillimeter Array (SMA), Swift, and the Herschel Space Observatory. Prompted by the reports of historic flaring at centimeter and millimeter bands by the F-GAMMA program (ATEL 4349.), we began Target of Opportunity monitoring in late October 2012 with the Submillimeter Array, Swift, and the Herschel Observatory.

  9. BL Lacertae: X-ray spectral evolution and a black-hole mass estimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titarchuk, Lev; Seifina, Elena

    2017-06-01

    We present an analysis of the spectral properties observed in X-rays from active galactic nucleus BL Lacertae using RXTE, Suzaku, ASCA, BeppoSAX, and Swift observations. The total time covered by these observations is approximately 20 yr. We show strong observational evidence that this source undergoes X-ray spectral transitions from the low hard state (LHS) through the intermediate state (IS) to the high soft state (HSS) during these observations. During the RXTE observations (1997-2001, 180 ks, for a total 145 datasets), the source was approximately 75%, 20% and only 5% of the time in the IS, LHS, and HSS, respectively. We also used Swift observations (470 datasets, for a total 800 ks), which occurred during 12 yr (2005-2016), the broadband (0.3-200 keV) data of BeppoSAX (1997-2000, 160 ks), and the low X-ray energy (0.3-10 keV) data of ASCA (1995-1999, 160 ks). Two observations of Suzaku (2006, 2013; 50 ks) in combinations with long-term RXTE and Swift data-sets fortunately allow us to describe all spectral states of BL Lac. The spectra of BL Lac are well fitted by the so-called bulk motion Comptonization (BMC) model for all spectral states. We have established the photon index saturation level, Γsat = 2.2 ± 0.1, in the Γ versus mass accretion rate (Ṁ) correlation. This Γ - Ṁ correlation allows us to estimate the black-hole (BH) mass in BL Lac to be MBH 3 × 107M⊙ for a distance of 300 Mpc. For the BH mass estimate, we use the scaling method taking stellar-mass Galactic BHs 4U 1543-47 and GX 339-4 as reference sources. The Γ - Ṁ correlation revealed in BL Lac is similar to those in a number of stellar-mass Galactic BHs and two recently studied intermediate-mass extragalactic BHs. It clearly shows the correlation along with the very extended Γ saturation at 2.2. This is robust observational evidence for the presence of a BH in BL Lac. We also reveal that the seed (disk) photon temperatures are relatively low, of order of 100 eV, which are consistent

  10. OPTICALLY SELECTED BL LACERTAE CANDIDATES FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY DATA RELEASE SEVEN

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Kimball, Amy E.; Brandt, W. N.; Schneider, Donald P.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Richmond, Michael W.; Shemmer, Ohad; Voges, Wolfgang; York, Donald G.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Snedden, Stephanie; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike E-mail: anderson@astro.washington.edu

    2010-02-15

    We present a sample of 723 optically selected BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic database encompassing 8250 deg{sup 2} of sky; our sample constitutes one of the largest uniform BL Lac samples yet derived. Each BL Lac candidate has a high-quality SDSS spectrum from which we determine spectroscopic redshifts for {approx}60% of the objects. Redshift lower limits are estimated for the remaining objects utilizing the lack of host galaxy flux contamination in their optical spectra; we find that objects lacking spectroscopic redshifts are likely at systematically higher redshifts. Approximately 80% of our BL Lac candidates match to a radio source in FIRST/NVSS, and {approx}40% match to a ROSAT X-ray source. The homogeneous multiwavelength coverage allows subdivision of the sample into 637 radio-loud BL Lac candidates and 86 weak-featured radio-quiet objects. The radio-loud objects broadly support the standard paradigm unifying BL Lac objects with beamed radio galaxies. We propose that the majority of the radio-quiet objects may be lower-redshift (z < 2.2) analogs to high-redshift weak line quasars (i.e., active galactic nucleus with unusually anemic broad emission line regions). These would constitute the largest sample of such objects, being of similar size and complementary in redshift to the samples of high-redshift weak line quasars previously discovered by the SDSS. However, some fraction of the weak-featured radio-quiet objects may instead populate a rare and extreme radio-weak tail of the much larger radio-loud BL Lac population. Serendipitous discoveries of unusual white dwarfs, high-redshift weak line quasars, and broad absorption line quasars with extreme continuum dropoffs blueward of rest-frame 2800 A are also briefly described.

  11. Optically Selected BL Lacertae Candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Richard M.; Anderson, Scott F.; Brandt, W. N.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Fan, Xiaohui; Hall, Patrick B.; Kimball, Amy E.; Richmond, Michael W.; Schneider, Donald P.; Shemmer, Ohad; Voges, Wolfgang; York, Donald G.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Snedden, Stephanie; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brewington, Howard; Malanushenko, Viktor; Malanushenko, Elena; Oravetz, Dan; Pan, Kaike; Simmons, Audrey

    2010-02-01

    We present a sample of 723 optically selected BL Lac candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic database encompassing 8250 deg2 of sky; our sample constitutes one of the largest uniform BL Lac samples yet derived. Each BL Lac candidate has a high-quality SDSS spectrum from which we determine spectroscopic redshifts for ~60% of the objects. Redshift lower limits are estimated for the remaining objects utilizing the lack of host galaxy flux contamination in their optical spectra; we find that objects lacking spectroscopic redshifts are likely at systematically higher redshifts. Approximately 80% of our BL Lac candidates match to a radio source in FIRST/NVSS, and ~40% match to a ROSAT X-ray source. The homogeneous multiwavelength coverage allows subdivision of the sample into 637 radio-loud BL Lac candidates and 86 weak-featured radio-quiet objects. The radio-loud objects broadly support the standard paradigm unifying BL Lac objects with beamed radio galaxies. We propose that the majority of the radio-quiet objects may be lower-redshift (z < 2.2) analogs to high-redshift weak line quasars (i.e., active galactic nucleus with unusually anemic broad emission line regions). These would constitute the largest sample of such objects, being of similar size and complementary in redshift to the samples of high-redshift weak line quasars previously discovered by the SDSS. However, some fraction of the weak-featured radio-quiet objects may instead populate a rare and extreme radio-weak tail of the much larger radio-loud BL Lac population. Serendipitous discoveries of unusual white dwarfs, high-redshift weak line quasars, and broad absorption line quasars with extreme continuum dropoffs blueward of rest-frame 2800 Å are also briefly described.

  12. Studies of the Jet in Bl Lacertae. II. Superluminal Alfvén Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Meier, D. L.; Arshakian, T. G.; Clausen-Brown, E.; Homan, D. C.; Hovatta, T.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lister, M. L.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Richards, J. L.; Savolainen, T.

    2015-04-01

    We study the kinematics of ridge lines on the parsec-scale jet of the active galactic nucleus BL Lacertae. We show that the ridge lines display transverse patterns that move superluminally downstream, and that the moving patterns are analogous to waves on a whip. Their apparent speeds β app (units of c) range from 3.9 to 13.5, corresponding to {β }{wave}{gal}=0.981-0.998 in the galaxy frame. We show that the magnetic field in the jet is well ordered with a strong transverse component, and assume that it is helical and that the transverse patterns are Alfvén waves propagating downstream on the longitudinal component of the magnetic field. The wave-induced transverse speed of the jet is non-relativistic ({β }{tr}{gal}≲ 0.09). In 2010 the wave activity subsided and the jet then displayed a mild wiggle that had a complex oscillatory behavior. The Alfvén waves appear to be excited by changes in the position angle of the recollimation shock, in analogy to exciting a wave on a whip by shaking the handle. A simple model of the system with plasma sound speed β s = 0.3 and apparent speed of a slow MHD wave β app, S = 4 yields Lorentz factor of the beam Γbeam ∼ 4.5, pitch angle of the helix (in the beam frame) α ∼ 67°, Alfvén speed β A ∼ 0.64, and magnetosonic Mach number M ms ∼ 4.7. This describes a plasma in which the magnetic field is dominant and in a rather tight helix, and Alfvén waves are responsible for the moving transverse patterns.

  13. Highest Historical X-ray Flux through 0.3-10 keV Band in BL Lacertae Source 1ES 1215+303

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapanadze, Bidzina

    2013-02-01

    We report the highest historical X-ray flux in the BL Lacertae source 1ES 1215+303(also known as ON 325, z=0.237) through 0.3-10 keV band detected by the X-ray Telescope (XRT) onboard the Swift satellite which observed the source during about 0.5 hr on 2013 February 19. Using the data allocated at the webpage http://www.swift.psu.edu/monitoring/, it was found that the object showed the 0.3-10 keV flux of 0.48+/-0.02 cts/s which is more than 4-times higher to that derived during previous observation performed on December 8, 2011 (0.11+0.01 cts/s).

  14. Multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae object 0735+178

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Hodge, P. E.; Rieke, G. H.; Lebofsky, M. J.; Pollock, J. T.; Pica, A. J.

    1984-01-01

    In each of the present four simultaneous spectra covering the radio-through-X-ray regimes, the IR-UV synchrotron continuum dominates the total observed power and presumably becomes opague between 10 to the 11th and 10 to the 13th Hz. Nonsimultaneous observations were also conducted, over a longer time period, in order to study long- and short-term variability at X-ray, optical, and radio frequencies. These data indicate that the rapid and dramatic variations evident at IR and optical wavelengths are absent at radio and X-ray frequencies, supporting a view of IR-UV flux emanation from a small region, while the X-rays are produced by the inverse Compton process in the radio-emitting region. Particles, photons and magnetic field may not be far from equipartition in this region. Theoretical suggestions are developed regarding the radial behavior of the electron density and magnetic field.

  15. Coordinated observations of X-ray bright BL Lacertae objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    No new International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) observations were scheduled. The work on the spectral extraction routine was continued. The computer code was adapted from the RDAF PDP 11/44 computer to a VAX 11/750, in order that it run more quickly. A chapter on ultraviolet observations of blazars for a book celebrating the scientific accomplishment of IUE was written in colloboration. A copy of the final draft is attached.

  16. Multifrequency observations of the BL Lacertae object PKS 0537 - 441

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maraschi, L.; Treves, A.; Schwartz, D. A.; Tanzi, E. G.

    1985-01-01

    PKS 0537 - 441 was repeatedly observed in the UV band with the International Ultraviolet Explorer and in the X-ray with the Einstein Observatory. On September 27, 1980, simultaneous observations in the two bands were obtained. Near-infrared photometry preceding and following the simultaneous observations by about one month is available from the literature, as is radio monitoring at 408 and 5000 MHz. Comparison of the observed X-ray flux with that predicted by the standard synchrotron self-Compton formalism, with a source dimension deduced from radio variability at 5 GHz, indicates that this component of the radio emission must be moving at relativistic speed with an effective projected Doppler beaming factor of about 10.

  17. Ondas de choque em jatos de quasares e objetos BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, F. E.; Botti, L. C. L.

    2003-08-01

    Este trabalho é parte de um projeto que vem sendo realizado há dois anos no CRAAM, cujos objetivos principais são analisar e aplicar um modelo generalizado de ondas de choque em jatos relativísticos de plasma, presentes em quasares e objetos BL Lacertae, para explicar a variabilidade observada nestes objetos. O método consiste em uma decomposição de curvas de luz em séries de explosões similares, em várias freqüências, baseando-se em uma evolução espectro-temporal média das explosões. A partir da evolução média, um ajuste de cada explosão é feito com base em equações empíricas, modificando-se apenas parâmetros específicos de cada explosão. Inicialmente o modelo foi aplicado ajustando-se as curvas de luz a explosões delineadas por uma evolução do choque em três estágios, segundo a predominância do processo de emissão: síncrotron, Compton e adiabático. Entretanto, nesta nova fase de projeto, visando uma parametrização mais concisa, uma otimização do algoritmo de ajuste e uma convergência mais rápida, a formulação para cada evento foi assumida com uma evolução em apenas dois estágios: subida e descida. Isto possibilitou uma ótima delineação das curvas de luz das fontes OV236, OJ287, 3C273 e BL Lac, entre 1980 e 2000, nas freqüências 4.8, 8.0, 14.5 e 22 GHz, utilizando-se dados do Observatório da Universidade de Michigan, do Observatório do Itapetinga (Atibaia SP) e do Observatório Metsähovi. Como conclusões importantes, verificou-se que: os parâmetros ajustados descrevem o comportamento do jato; os valores do índice que descreve a expansão do jato sugerem que o mesmo se expande de uma forma não-cônica; o campo magnético é turbulento atrás da frente de choque; e as peculiaridades das explosões são devidas à influência de grandezas tais como o coeficiente da distribuição espectral de energia dos elétrons, a intensidade de campo magnético e o fator de feixe Doppler, no início do choque.

  18. WEBT multiwavelength monitoring and XMM-Newton observations of BL Lacertae in 2007-2008. Unveiling different emission components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Capetti, A.; Aller, M. F.; Bach, U.; Calcidese, P.; Gurwell, M. A.; Larionov, V. M.; Ohlert, J.; Nilsson, K.; Strigachev, A.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Bachev, R.; Benítez, E.; Berdyugin, A.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Buttiglione, S.; Carosati, D.; Charlot, P.; Chen, W. P.; Dultzin, D.; Forné, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Gómez, J. L.; Gupta, A. C.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Hsiao, W.-S.; Jelínek, M.; Jorstad, S. G.; Kimeridze, G. N.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Kostov, A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionova, L. V.; Leto, P.; Latev, G.; Le Campion, J.-F.; Lee, C.-U.; Ligustri, R.; Lindfors, E.; Marscher, A. P.; Mihov, B.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nikolov, Y.; Ovcharov, E.; Principe, D.; Pursimo, T.; Ragozzine, B.; Robb, R. M.; Ros, J. A.; Sadun, A. C.; Sagar, R.; Semkov, E.; Sigua, L. A.; Smart, R. L.; Sorcia, M.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Uckert, K.; Umana, G.; Valcheva, A.; Volvach, A.

    2009-11-01

    Context: BL Lacertae is the prototype of the blazar subclass named after it. Yet, it has occasionally shown a peculiar behaviour that has questioned a simple interpretation of its broad-band emission in terms of synchrotron plus synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) radiation. Aims: In the 2007-2008 observing season we carried out a new multiwavelength campaign of the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope (WEBT) on BL Lacertae, involving three pointings by the XMM-Newton satellite in July and December 2007, and January 2008, to study its emission properties, particularly in the optical-X-ray energy range. Methods: The source was monitored in the optical-to-radio bands by 37 telescopes. The brightness level was relatively low. Some episodes of very fast variability were detected in the optical bands. Flux changes had larger amplitude at the higher radio frequencies than at longer wavelengths. Results: The X-ray spectra acquired by the EPIC instrument onboard XMM-Newton are well fitted by a power law with photon index Γ ˜ 2 and photoelectric absorption exceeding the Galactic value. However, when taking into account the presence of a molecular cloud on the line of sight, the EPIC data are best fitted by a double power law, implying a concave X-ray spectrum. The spectral energy distributions (SEDs) built with simultaneous radio-to-X-ray data at the epochs of the XMM-Newton observations suggest that the peak of the synchrotron emission lies in the near-IR band, and show a prominent UV excess, besides a slight soft-X-ray excess. A comparison with the SEDs corresponding to previous observations with X-ray satellites shows that the X-ray spectrum is very variable, since it can change from extremely steep to extremely hard, and can be more or less curved in intermediate states. We ascribe the UV excess to thermal emission from the accretion disc, and the other broad-band spectral features to the presence of two synchrotron components, with their related SSC emission. We fit the thermal

  19. The first Fermi multifrequency campaign on BL Lacertae: Characterizing the low-activity state of the eponymous blazar

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2011-03-10

    Here, we report on observations of BL Lacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BL Lac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsähovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate andmore » uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BL Lac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition.« less

  20. Can BL Lacertae emission explain the neutrinos above 0.2 PeV?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Andrea; Vissani, Francesco

    2017-07-01

    Context. Multi-messenger astronomy can help to investigate the sources of the high-energy neutrinos observed by the high-energy neutrino telescope IceCube. Aims: We consider the hypothesis that the highest energy neutrinos are produced by BL Lacs, arguing that this is not contradicted severely by any known fact. Methods: We check the BL Lac hypothesis by searching for correlations between the through-going muon events of IceCube and the BL Lacs of the second catalog of Fermi-LAT (2FHL). Results: We expect 10.2 ± 2.4 correlated events but we find that just 1 event has a BL Lac as counterpart. We also assess the probability of observing one multiplet from the same source, finding that the present null result is not yet of critical significance. Conclusions: We conclude that the hypothesis that the BL Lacs are the main emitters of the highest-energy neutrinos observed by IceCube is disfavored at 3.7σ. We discuss implications and possible ways out; for example, this could work if the angular resolution was 4°, which is much more than expected.

  1. Probing the Innermost Regions of AGN Jets and Their Magnetic Fields with RadioAstron. I. Imaging BL Lacertae at 21 Microarcsecond Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, José L.; Lobanov, Andrei P.; Bruni, Gabriele; Kovalev, Yuri Y.; Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.; Mizuno, Yosuke; Bach, Uwe; Sokolovsky, Kirill V.; Anderson, James M.; Galindo, Pablo; Kardashev, Nikolay S.; Lisakov, Mikhail M.

    2016-02-01

    We present the first polarimetric space very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) imaging observations at 22 GHz. BL Lacertae was observed in 2013 November 10 with the RadioAstron space VLBI mission, including a ground array of 15 radio telescopes. The instrumental polarization of the space radio telescope is found to be less than 9%, demonstrating the polarimetric imaging capabilities of RadioAstron at 22 GHz. Ground-space fringes were obtained up to a projected baseline distance of 7.9 Earth diameters in length, allowing us to image the jet in BL Lacertae with a maximum angular resolution of 21 μas, the highest achieved to date. We find evidence for emission upstream of the radio core, which may correspond to a recollimation shock at about 40 μas from the jet apex, in a pattern that includes other recollimation shocks at approximately 100 and 250 μas from the jet apex. Polarized emission is detected in two components within the innermost 0.5 mas from the core, as well as in some knots 3 mas downstream. Faraday rotation analysis, obtained from combining RadioAstron 22 GHz and ground-based 15 and 43 GHz images, shows a gradient in rotation measure and Faraday-corrected polarization vector as a function of position angle with respect to the core, suggesting that the jet in BL Lacertae is threaded by a helical magnetic field. The intrinsic de-boosted brightness temperature in the unresolved core exceeds 3× {10}12 K, suggesting, at the very least, departure from equipartition of energy between the magnetic field and radiating particles.

  2. Why are some BL Lacertaes detected by Fermi, but others not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongzu; Jiang, Dongrong; Gu, Minfeng; Chen, Liang

    2014-02-01

    By cross-correlating an archival sample of 170 BL Lacs with a 2 year Fermi/LAT AGN sample, we have compiled a sample of 100 BL Lacs with Fermi detection (FBLs) and a sample of 70 non-Fermi BL Lacs (NFBLs). We compared various parameters of FBLs with those of NFBLs, including the redshift, the low-frequency radio luminosity at 408 MHz (L408 MHz), the absolute magnitude of host galaxies (Mhost), the polarization fraction from the NVSS survey (PNVSS), the observed arcsecond scale radio core flux at 5 GHz (Fcore), and the jet Doppler factor. All these parameters are directly measured or derived from available data in the literature. We found that the Doppler factor is on average greater in FBLs than in NFBLs, and the Fermi γ-ray detection rate is higher in sources with higher Doppler factor. In contrast, there are no significant differences in terms of the intrinsic parameters of redshift, L408 MHz, Mhost, and PNVSS. FBLs seem to have a higher probability of exhibiting measurable proper motion. These results strongly indicate a stronger beaming effect in FBLs compared to NFBLs. The radio core flux is found to be strongly correlated with γ-ray flux, which remains after excluding the common dependence of the Doppler factor. At the fixed Doppler factor, FBLs have systematically larger radio core flux than NFBLs, implying lower γ-ray emission in NFBLs since the radio and γ-ray flux are significantly correlated. Our results indicate that the Doppler factor is an important parameter of γ-ray detection, that the non-detection of γ-ray emission in NFBLs is probably due to low beaming and/or low intrinsic γ-ray flux, and the γ-rays are very likely produced cospatially with the arcsecond-scale radio core radiation and mainly through the SSC process. Tables 2, 3, and Fig. 6 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Optical Variability of BL Lacertae During the Major Outburst of 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Sadun, A. C.; Soundarajaperumal, S.; Wang, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have undertaken an investigation of recent flux variability in BL Lac. We present optical observations taken over 12 nights documenting major as well as minor outbursts. This has been combined, for purposes of multifrequency analysis, with published X-ray and gamma ray data taken for an additional single night. On two nights in particular, which includes the night of the X-ray observations, a major outburst of about a full magnitude of variation was recorded. All the data have been analyzed with theoretical models. Attempts were made to use synchrotron self-Compton and external Comptonization models to explain the data; however both classes of models were found lacking. More satisfactory results were obtained using an analytical model proposed by Wang et al. that involves the evolution of synchrotron spectra in a homogeneous jet due to the injection of relativistic electrons, taking into account radiation losses during the outbursts. It is hoped that the results of this study of BL Lac, an archetype for the class of blazars in general, represent a more generic phenomenon applicable to the entire class.

  4. Optical Variability of BL Lacertae During the Major Outburst of 1997

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghosh, K. K.; Ramsey, B. D.; Sadun, A. C.; Soundararajaperumal, S.; Wang, J.

    2000-01-01

    We have undertaken an investigation of recent flux variability in BL Lac. We present optical observations taken over 22 nights documenting major as well as minor outbursts. This has been combined, for purposes of multifrequency analysis, with published X-ray and T-ray data taken for an additional single night, On two nights in particular, including the night of the X-ray observations, a major outburst of about a full magnitude of variation was recorded. All the data have been analyzed with theoretical models. Attempts were made to use synchrotron self-Compton and external Comptonization models to explain the data; however, both classes of models were found lacking. More satisfactory results were obtained using an analytical model proposed by Wang et al. that involves the evolution of synchrotron spectra in a homogeneous jet due to the injection of relativistic electrons, taking into account radiation losses during the outbursts. It is hoped that the results of this study of BL Lac, an archetype for the class of blazars in general, represent a more generic phenomenon applicable to the entire class.

  5. BL Lac objects and relativistic beaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    1986-01-01

    General arguments for relativistic beaming in BL Lac objects are reviewed. These include overproduction of X-rays and fast time variability. Comments are made about the relationship of the X-ray continuum to that at lower frequencies, and observational evidence for and against continuum radiation being relativistically beamed is discussed. Finally, there is discussion of the influence of geometrical effects on predictions for time variability as a function of frequency in the context of inhomogeneous synchrotron self-Compton jet models.

  6. Studies of the jet in BL Lacertae. I. Recollimation shock and moving emission features

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M. H.; Hovatta, T.; Meier, D. L.; Arshakian, T. G.; Homan, D. C.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Pushkarev, A. B.; Savolainen, T.

    2014-06-01

    Parsec-scale VLBA images of BL Lac at 15 GHz show that the jet contains a permanent quasi-stationary emission feature 0.26 mas (0.34 pc projected) from the core, along with numerous moving features. In projection, the tracks of the moving features cluster around an axis at a position angle of –166.°6 that connects the core with the standing feature. The moving features appear to emanate from the standing feature in a manner strikingly similar to the results of numerical two-dimensional relativistic magneto-hydrodynamic (RMHD) simulations in which moving shocks are generated at a recollimation shock (RCS). Because of this, and the close analogy to the jet feature HST-1 in M87, we identify the standing feature in BL Lac as an RCS. We assume that the magnetic field dominates the dynamics in the jet, and that the field is predominantly toroidal. From this we suggest that the moving features are compressions established by slow and fast mode magneto-acoustic MHD waves. We illustrate the situation with a simple model in which the slowest moving feature is a slow-mode wave, and the fastest feature is a fast-mode wave. In the model, the beam has Lorentz factor Γ{sub beam}{sup gal}≈3.5 in the frame of the host galaxy and the fast mode wave has Lorentz factor Γ{sub Fwave}{sup beam}≈1.6 in the frame of the beam. This gives a maximum apparent speed for the moving features, β{sub app} = v{sub app}/c = 10. In this model the Lorentz factor of the pattern in the galaxy frame is approximately three times larger than that of the beam itself.

  7. Stellar Populations in BL Lac type Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serote Roos, Margarida

    The relationship between an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) and its host galaxy is a crucial question in the study of galaxy evolution. We present an estimate of the stellar contribution in a sample of low luminosity BL Lac type objects. We have performed stellar population synthesis for a sample of 19 objects selected from Marchã et al. (1996, MNRAS 281, 425). The stellar content is quantified using the equivalent widths of all absorption features available throughout the spectrum. The synthesis is done by a variant of the GPG method (Pelat: 1997, MNRAS 284, 365).

  8. Simultaneous UV, optical and radio monitoring of the BL Lac object OJ 287 in March 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pian, E.; Edelson, R.; Wagner, S.; Bregman, J.; George, I.; Treves, A.; Wamsteker, W.; Bock, H.; Carini, M.; Courvoisier, T.

    1995-01-01

    The BL Lacertae object OJ 287 was intensively monitored with the IUE satellite from 1993 March 15 to 20 in the 2000-3000 A wavelength region. The very low emission state of the source hampered the detection during part of the 23 performed exposures. The light curve at 2650 A constructed with the 11 best images exhibits a variable trend with a factor is less than or approximately 2 enhancement of the flux in about 3 hours. Simultaneous ground based observations show an optical flux variability of smaller amplitude, but correlated with the UV light curve without any apparent lag. The radio light curve is nearly constant. The UV emission state is the weakest observed in 15 years for this flaring blazard, being a factor of less than orapproximately 20 lower than the maximum recorded one.

  9. Comparison between TeV and non-TeV BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chao; Fan, Jun-Hui

    2016-07-01

    BL Lacertae objects (BL Lacs) are the dominant population of TeV emitting blazars. In this work, we investigate whether there are any special observational properties associated with TeV sources. To do so, we will compare the observational properties of TeV detected BL Lacs (TeV BLs) with non-TeV detected BL Lac objects (non-TeV BLs). From the 3rd Fermi/LAT source catalog (3FGL), we can obtain 662 BL Lacs, out of which 47 are TeV BLs and 615 are non-TeV BLs. Their multi-wavelength flux densities (F R, F O, F X and F γ), photon spectral indexes (αX ph and αph γ), and effective spectral indexes (αRO and αOX) are compiled from the available literature. Then the luminosities (log vL R, log vL O, log vL X, log vL γ) are calculated. From comparisons, we find that TeV BLs are different from low synchrotron peaked BLs and intermediate synchrotron peaked BLs, but TeV BLs show similar properties to high synchrotron peaked (HSP) BLs. Therefore, we concentrated on a comparison between TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs. Analysis results suggest that TeV HSP BLs and non-TeV HSP BLs exhibit some differences in their αRO and αγ ph, but their other properties are quite similar.

  10. Another look at the BL Lacertae flux and spectral variability. Observations by GASP-WEBT, XMM-Newton, and Swift in 2008-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Bruschini, L.; Capetti, A.; Kurtanidze, O. M.; Larionov, V. M.; Romano, P.; Vercellone, S.; Agudo, I.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Berdyugin, A.; Blinov, D. A.; Böttcher, M.; Buemi, C. S.; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.; Casas, R.; Chen, W.-P.; Coloma, J.; Diltz, C.; di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Forné, E.; Gómez, J. L.; Gurwell, M. A.; Hakola, A.; Hovatta, T.; Hsiao, H. Y.; Jordan, B.; Jorstad, S. G.; Koptelova, E.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Larionova, E. G.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Ligustri, R.; Marscher, A. P.; Morozova, D. A.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Nilsson, K.; Ros, J. A.; Roustazadeh, P.; Sadun, A. C.; Sillanpää, A.; Sainio, J.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Troitsky, I. S.; Umana, G.

    2010-12-01

    Aims: In a previous study we suggested that the broad-band emission and variability properties of BL Lacertae can be accounted for by a double synchrotron emission component with related inverse-Compton emission from the jet, plus thermal radiation from the accretion disc. Here we investigate the matter with further data extending over a wider energy range. Methods: The GLAST-AGILE Support Program (GASP) of the whole earth blazar telescope (WEBT) monitored BL Lacertae in 2008-2009 at radio, near-IR, and optical frequencies to follow its flux behaviour. During this period, high-energy observations were performed by XMM-Newton, Swift, and Fermi. We analyse these data with particular attention to the calibration of Swift UV data, and apply a helical jet model to interpret the source broad-band variability. Results: The GASP-WEBT observations show an optical flare in 2008 February-March, and oscillations of several tenths of mag on a few-day time scale afterwards. The radio flux is only mildly variable. The UV data from both XMM-Newton and Swift seem to confirm a UV excess that is likely caused by thermal emission from the accretion disc. The X-ray data from XMM-Newton indicate a strongly concave spectrum, as well as moderate (~4-7%) flux variability on an hour time scale. The Swift X-ray data reveal fast (interday) flux changes, not correlated with those observed at lower energies. We compare the spectral energy distribution (SED) corresponding to the 2008 low-brightness state, which was characterised by a synchrotron dominance, to the 1997 outburst state, where the inverse-Compton emission was prevailing. A fit with an inhomogeneous helical jet model suggests that two synchrotron components are at work with their self inverse-Compton emission. Most likely, they represent the radiation from two distinct emitting regions in the jet. We show that the difference between the source SEDs in 2008 and 1997 can be explained in terms of pure geometrical variations. The

  11. The first Fermi multifrequency campaign on BL Lacertae: Characterizing the low-activity state of the eponymous blazar

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Antolini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Cannon, A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Costamante, L.; Cutini, S.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Donato, D.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Escande, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hughes, R. E.; Itoh, R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Garde, M. Llena; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nishino, S.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Schinzel, F. K.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Sokolovsky, K. V.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wallace, E.; Wang, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.; Berdyugin, A.; Boettcher, M.; Carramiñana, A.; Carrasco, L.; de la Fuente, E.; Diltz, C.; Hovatta, T.; Kadenius, V.; Kovalev, Y. Y.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lindfors, E.; Marscher, A. P.; Nilsson, K.; Pereira, D.; Reinthal, R.; Roustazadeh, P.; Savolainen, T.; Sillanpää, A.; Takalo, L. O.; Tornikoski, M.

    2011-03-10

    Here, we report on observations of BL Lacertae during the first 18 months of Fermi LAT science operations and present results from a 48 day multifrequency coordinated campaign from 2008 August 19 to 2008 October 7. The radio to gamma-ray behavior of BL Lac is unveiled during a low-activity state thanks to the coordinated observations of radio-band (Metsähovi and VLBA), near-IR/optical (Tuorla, Steward, OAGH, and MDM), and X-ray (RXTE and Swift) observatories. No variability was resolved in gamma rays during the campaign, and the brightness level was 15 times lower than the level of the 1997 EGRET outburst. Moderate and uncorrelated variability has been detected in UV and X-rays. The X-ray spectrum is found to be concave, indicating the transition region between the low- and high-energy components of the spectral energy distribution (SED). VLBA observation detected a synchrotron spectrum self-absorption turnover in the innermost part of the radio jet appearing to be elongated and inhomogeneous, and constrained the average magnetic field there to be less than 3 G. Over the following months, BL Lac appeared variable in gamma rays, showing flares (in 2009 April and 2010 January). There is no evidence for the correlation of gamma rays with the optical flux monitored from the ground in 18 months. The SED may be described by a single-zone or a two-zone synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) model, but a hybrid SSC plus external radiation Compton model seems to be preferred based on the observed variability and the fact that it provides a fit closest to equipartition.

  12. Optical Variability of the BL Lac Object 1418+546

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balonek, T. J.; Schirmer, A. F.; Kern, J. S.; Tremonti, C. A.

    1996-12-01

    The BVRI variability of the BL Lacertae type quasar 1418+546 over a two year time period is presented. CCD observations were obtained of the 1418+546 field on 136 nights in four filters from January, 1995, to July, 1996, using the Colgate University Foggy Bottom Observatory 16-inch telescope. BVRI and color index light curves were obtained from the nearly 1400 images. There is a base level (about magnitude 15.5 in R) from which the quasar frequently flared to around 14th magnitude. Although the outbursts have different amplitudes and durations, several outbursts exhibit similar profiles and color changes. There exists a strong correlation between the brightness in R and the color indices R-I and V-R, with the color indices decreasing as the source brightens (R-I = 0.55 at R = 15.5; R-I = 0.35 at R = 13.9). Assuming that the minimum brightness we observed during this two year interval corresponds to that of a long-term stable component, we remove this contribution from the total brightness and model the evolution of the individual outbursts.

  13. Observation of X-Ray Variability in the BL Lac Object 1ES1959+65

    SciTech Connect

    Giebels, Berrie

    2002-02-07

    This paper reports X-ray spectral observations of a relatively nearby (z = 0.048) BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object 1ES1959+65, which is a potential TeV emitter. The observations include 31 short pointings made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS), and 17 pointings by the PCA on board the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Most of these observations were spaced by less than 1 day. 1ES1959+65 was detected by the ARGOS USA detector in the range 1-16 keV, and by the PCA in the 2-16 keV range but at different times. During the closely spaced RXTE observations beginning on 2000 July 28, an ending of one flare and a start of another are visible, associated with spectral changes, where the photon index XBL-type blazar, with the X-ray emission likely to originate via the synchrotron process. The USA observations reveal another flare that peaked on 2000 November 14 and doubled the flux within a few days, again associated with spectral changes of the same form. The spectral variability correlated with the flux and timing characteristics of this object that are similar to those of other nearby BL Lacs, and suggest relativistic beaming with a Doppler factor {delta} {ge} 1.6 and magnetic fields of the order of a few mG. We also suggest that the steady component of the X-ray emission--present in this object as well as in other XBLs--may be due to the large-scale relativistic jet (such as measured by Chandra in many radio-loud AGN), but pointing very closely to our line of sight.

  14. BATSE observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Connaughton, V.; Laurent-Muehleisen, S.; McCollough, M.A; Robinson, C.F.

    1998-06-01

    The Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory has been shown to be sensitive to non-transient hard X-ray sources in our galaxy, down to flux levels of 100 mCrab for daily measurements, 3 mCrab for integrations over several years. We use the continuous BATSE database and the Earth Occultation technique to extract average flux values between 20 and 2OO keV from complete and radio- and X-ray- selected BL Lac samples over a 2 year period.

  15. The Megaparsec-scale X-ray Jet of The BL Lac Object OJ287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marscher, Alan P.; Jorstad, Svetlana G.

    2011-03-01

    We present an X-ray image of the BL Lacertae (BL Lac) object OJ287 revealing a long jet, curved by 55° and extending 20'' or 90 kpc from the nucleus. This de-projects to >1 Mpc based on the viewing angle on parsec scales. Radio emission follows the general X-ray morphology but extends even farther from the nucleus. The upper limit to the isotropic radio luminosity, ~2 × 1024 W Hz-1, places the source in the Fanaroff-Riley 1 (FR 1) class, as expected for BL Lac objects. The spectral energy distribution indicates that the extended X-ray emission is from inverse Compton scattering of cosmic microwave background photons. In this case, the derived magnetic field is B ≈ 5 μG, the minimum electron energy is 7-40m e c 2, and the Doppler factor is δ ≈ 8 in a knot 8'' from the nucleus. The minimum total kinetic power of the jet is (1-2)×1045 erg s-1. Upstream of the bend, the width of the X-ray emission in the jet is about half the projected distance from the nucleus. This implies that the highly relativistic bulk motion is not limited to an extremely thin spine, as has been proposed previously for FR 1 sources. The bending of the jet, the deceleration of the flow from parsec to kiloparsec scales, and the knotty structure can all be caused by standing shocks inclined by ~7° to the jet axis. Moving shocks resulting from major changes in the flow properties can also reproduce the knotty structure, but such a model does not explain as many of the observational details.

  16. Optical observations of BL Lac object ON 231 (W Comae) during 2010 March-April

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xin-Lun; Zhang, You-Hong; Xu, Lei

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents optical BVRI photometry of the intermediate-energy-peaked BL Lac object ON 231 (W Comae). It was observed for five nights during 2010 March-April with the 80-cm Tsinghua-NAOC Telescope (TNT). Although no extremely large variations were seen on either intra- or internight time-scales, a flare-like event was recorded on March 17. On a time-scale of ˜5 h, the source exhibited a change of ˜0.15 mag in the B band and variations of ˜0.1 mag in V, R and I bands. On either intra- or internight time-scales, the variability amplitudes appear to be larger for shorter wavelengths. Cross-correlation analysis suggests that the R-band variations lagged the B-band ones by ˜1200 s on March 17. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that a time lag has been claimed for the optical variability of ON 231. Bluer-when-brighter trends were present for all intranight variations. On the plot of B - R colour indices against B magnitudes, however, the correlations between the two parameters shifted vertically relative to each other on different nights, indicating that the source slightly changed its optical spectral slope from night to night. The averaged spectral energy distributions of each night are similar, perhaps the consequence of low-amplitude variability during our observational season. The intranight optical variations of ON 231, along with those of other similar sources, e.g. BL Lacertae and S5 0716+714, are quite similar to those of high-energy-peaked BL Lac objects. Both can be ascribed to synchrotron emission produced by the most energetic relativistic electrons residing in the magnetized relativistic jet roughly aligned with our line of sight.

  17. Variabilidade óptica de longo período e precessão de jato: o caso de BL Lacertae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caproni, A.; Abraham, Z.

    2003-08-01

    Variabilidade é tipicamente uma característica de AGNs, sendo observada em toda a faixa eletromagnética. Em relação às escalas de tempo, variações desde horas até de algumas décadas foram encontradas por vários autores. Em alguns casos, análises temporais de curvas de luz mostram a existência de periodicidade nas variações observadas. Um exemplo de objeto que preenche as características mencionadas acima é BL Lacertae, o protótipo da classe BL Lac dos AGNs. Neste trabalho, nós interpretamos a variabilidade periódica de longo período detectada na curva de luz na banda B (~7,5 anos) como o resultado da periodicidade na amplificação da radiação oriunda do jato relativístico. Neste cenário, a amplificação periódica seria induzida pela precessão, que muda o ângulo entre o jato e a linha de visada. Com esta abordagem e vínculos adicionais fornecidos por observações em altas energias, nós podemos impor limites para os parâmetros do modelo de precessão, tais como o fator de Lorentz associado ao movimento global do jato, o ângulo de abertura do cone de precessão e o ângulo entre o eixo do cone e a linha de visada.

  18. PKS 2155-304 relativistically beamed synchrotron radiation from BL LAC object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urry, C. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The newly discovered BL Lacertae object, PKS 2155-304, was observed with the medium and high intensity energy detectors of the HEAO-1 A2 experiment. The variability by a factor of two in less than a day reported by Snyder, et al (1979) is confirmed. Two spectra, obtained a year apart, while the satellite was in scanning mode, are well fit by simple power laws with energy spectral index alpha sub 1 equals approximately 1.4. A third spectrum, of higher statistical quality, obtained while the satellite was pointed at its source, has has two components. An acceptable fit was obtained using a two power law model, with indices alpha sub 1 equals 2.0 (+1.2, -0.6) and alpha sub 2 equals -1.5 (+1.5, -2.3). An interpretation of the overall spectrum from radio through X-rays in terms of a synchrotron self-Compton model gives a good description of the data if allowance is made for relativistic beaming. Thus, from a consideration of the spectrum, combined with an estimate of the size of the source, the presence of jets is inferred without their observation.

  19. HESS J1943+213: A candidate extreme BL Lacertae object

    DOE PAGES

    Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; ...

    2011-03-30

    In this paper, we report on a newly detected point-like source, HESS J1943+213. This source coincides with an unidentified hard X-ray source IGR J19443+2117, which was proposed to have radio and infrared counterparts. Here, we combine new H.E.S.S., Fermi/LAT and Nançay Radio Telescope observations with pre-existing non-simultaneous multi-wavelength observations of IGR J19443+2117 and discuss the likely source associations as well as the interpretation as an active galactic nucleus, a gamma-ray binary or a pulsar wind nebula.

  20. QUASI-PERIODICITIES OF THE BL LACERTAE OBJECT PKS 2155–304

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Covino, S.

    2014-09-20

    We have searched for periodicities in our VRIJHK photometry of PKS 2155–304, which covers the years 2005-2012. A peak of the Fourier spectrum with high significance is found at T ∼ 315 days, confirming the recent findings by Zhang et al. The examination of the gamma-ray light curves from the Fermi archives yields a significant signal at ∼2T, which, while nominally significant, involves data spanning only ∼6T. Assuming a black hole mass of 10{sup 9} M {sub ☉}, the Keplerian distance corresponding to the quasi-period T is ∼10{sup 16} cm, about 50 Schwarzschild radii.

  1. The environment of x ray selected BL Lacs: Host galaxies and galaxy clustering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurtz, Ron; Stocke, John T.; Ellingson, Erica; Yee, Howard K. C.

    1993-01-01

    Using the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope, we have imaged a complete, flux-limited sample of Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey BL Lacertae objects in order to study the properties of BL Lac host galaxies and to use quantitative methods to determine the richness of their galaxy cluster environments.

  2. Radio-weak BL Lac Objects in the Fermi Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaro, F.; Marchesini, E. J.; D'Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Andruchow, I.; Smith, Howard A.

    2017-01-01

    The existence of “radio-weak BL Lac objects” (RWBLs) has been an open question, and has remained unsolved since the discovery that quasars could be radio-quiet or radio-loud. Recently, several groups identified RWBL candidates, mostly found while searching for low-energy counterparts of the unidentified or unassociated gamma-ray sources listed in the Fermi catalogs. Confirming RWBLs is a challenging task since they could be confused with white dwarfs (WDs) or weak emission line quasars (WELQs) when there are not sufficient data to precisely draw their broadband spectral energy distribution, and their classification is mainly based on a featureless optical spectra. Motivated by the recent discovery that Fermi BL Lacs appear to have very peculiar mid-IR emission, we show that it is possible to distinguish between WDs, WELQs, and BL Lacs using the [3.4]-[4.6]-[12] μm color-color plot built using the WISE magnitudes when the optical spectrum is available. On the basis of this analysis, we identify WISE J064459.38+603131 and WISE J141046.00+740511.2 as the first two genuine RWBLs, both potentially associated with Fermi sources. Finally, to strengthen our identification of these objects as true RWBLs, we present multifrequency observations for these two candidates to show that their spectral behavior is indeed consistent with that of the BL Lac population.

  3. Photometry of BL Lac objects and optically violently variable quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.; McBreen, B.; Ekins, R.; Grimley, P.

    1989-09-01

    A photon-counting photometer has been used to observe BL Lac objects and optically violently variable (OVV) quasars. The development, construction, and performance of the photometer are discussed and the photometer configuration is illustrated. The observations were made on five nights in September 1986 using a 1-m telescope. Results are presented for observations of seven OVV objects and the star Chi Persei. No statistically significant variation were detected in the sources on timescales ranging from 0.1 sec to 5 days.

  4. X-ray observations of BL Lac objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. A.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.; Rothschild, R. H.

    1978-01-01

    The BL Lac objects MK501 and MK421 were observed with OSO-8 and HEAO-1 X-ray detectors in the 2-60 keV band. Their spectra are similar with best fitting power laws having energy index -.4 alpha 4. A soft X-ray excess is indicated in their spectra. There was no detectable X-ray absorption with implied column densities N sub H 1.5 x 10 to the 22d power at sq cm. MK421 was a factor 6 weaker in November 1977 than in May 1977. An identification of PKS0548-322 with a new source H0548,-32 is suggested.

  5. Quasi-simultaneous observations of the BL Lac object MK 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR and radio frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, D. M.; Worrall, D. M.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, R. L.; Hackney, K. H.; Oke, J. B.; Yee, H.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Quasi-simultaneous observations of the BL Lacertae (Lac) objects MK 501 were performed for the first time at X-ray, ultraviolet, visible, infrared, and radio frequencies. The observed spectral slope from the X-ray to UV regions is positive and continuous, but that from the mid UV to visible light region becomes gradually flat and possibly turns down toward lower frequencies; the optical radio emission can not be accounted for by a single power law. Several theoretical models were considered for the emission mechanism. A quantitative comparison was performed with the synchrotron-self-Compton model; the total spectrum is found consistent with this model. The spectrum from visible light to X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or with inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal cloud of electrons. The continuity of the spectral slope from X-ray to UV implied by the current data suggests that the previous estimates of the total luminosity of this BL Lac object is underestimated by a factor of about three or four.

  6. Discovery of hard-spectrum γ -ray emission from the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0414+009

    DOE PAGES

    Abramowski, A.

    2012-02-01

    1ES 0414 + 009 (z = 0.287) is a distant high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object, and has long been considered a likely emitter of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-rays due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations in the VHE γ-ray band and across the electromagnetic spectrum can provide insights into the origin of highly energetic particles present in the source and the radiation processes at work. Because of the distance of the source, the γ-ray spectrum might provide further limits on the level of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Methods. We report observations made between October 2005more » and December 2009 with H.E.S.S., an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Observations at high energies (HE, 100 MeV–100 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT instrument in the first 20 months of its operation are also reported. To complete the multi-wavelength picture, archival UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite and optical observations with the ATOM telescope are also used. Based on the observations with H.E.S.S., 1ES 0414 + 009 is detected for the first time in the VHE band. An excess of 224 events is measured, corresponding to a significance of 7.8σ. The photon spectrum of the source is well described by a power law, with photon index of ΓVHE = 3.45 ± 0.25stat ± 0.20syst. The integral flux above 200 GeV is (1.88 ± 0.20stat ± 0.38syst) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Observations with the Fermi-LAT in the first 20 months of operation show a flux between 200 MeV and 100 GeV of (2.3 ± 0.2stat) × 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1, and a spectrum well described by a power-law function with a photon index ΓHE = 1.85 ± 0.18. Swift/XRT observations show an X-ray flux between 2 and 10 keV of (0.8-1) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, and a steep spectrum ΓX = (2.2-2.3). Combining X-ray with optical-UV data, a fit with a log-parabolic function locates the synchrotron peak around 0.1 keV. Although the GeV–TeV observations do not provide better constraints on the EBL

  7. Evolutionary behaviour of AGN: Investigations on BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, V.

    2000-12-01

    The evolution and nature of AGN is still one of the enigmatic questions in astrophysics. While large and complete Quasar samples are available, special classes of AGN, like BL Lac objects and Seyfert II galaxies, are still rare objects. In this work I present two new AGN samples. The first one is the HRX-BL Lac survey, resulting in a sample of X-ray selected BL Lac objects. This sample results from 223 BL Lac candidates based on a correlation of X-ray sources with radio sources. The identification of this sample is 98% complete. 77 objects have been identified as BL Lac objects and form the HRX-BL Lac complete sample, the largest homogeneous sample of BL Lac objects existing today. For this sample, redshifts are now known for 62 objects (81 %). In total I present 101 BL Lac objects in the enlarged HRX-BL Lac survey, for which redshift information is available for 84 objects. During the HRX-BL Lac survey I found several objects of special interest. 1ES 1517+656 turned out to be the brightest known BL Lac object in the universe. 1ES 0927+500 could be the first BL Lac object with a line detected in the X-ray region. RX J1211+2242 is probably the the counterpart of the up to now unidentified gamma-ray source 3EG J1212+2304. Additionally I present seven candidates for ultra high frequency peaked BL Lac objects. RX J1054+3855 and RX J1153+3517 are rare high redshift X-ray bright QSO or accreting binary systems with huge magnetic fields. For the BL Lac objects I suggest an unified scenario in which giant elliptical galaxies, formed by merging events of spiral galaxies at z > 2, start as powerful, radio dominated BL Lacs. As the jet gets less powerful, the BL Lacs start to get more X-ray dominated, showing less total luminosities (for z < 1). This effect is seen in the different evolutionary behavior detected in high and low frequency cut off BL Lac objects (HBL and LBL, respectively). The model of negative evolution is supported by assumptions about the energetic effects

  8. TeV BL Lac objects at the dawn of the Fermi era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavecchio, F.; Ghisellini, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Foschini, L.; Maraschi, L.

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider the emission properties of BL Lac objects emitting in the high-energy γ-ray band, by exploiting the information in the MeV-GeV band obtained by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope in its first three months of operation. To this aim we construct the spectral energy distribution of all the BL Lacs revealed by LAT and of the known TeV BL Lacs not detected by LAT, also including data from the Swift satellite, and model them with a simple one-zone leptonic model. The analysis shows that the BL Lacs detected by LAT (whether or not already detected in the TeV band) share similar physical parameters. While some of the TeV BL Lacs not revealed by LAT have spectral energy distributions and physical parameters very similar to the LAT BL Lacs, one group of objects displays peculiar properties (larger electron energies and smaller magnetic fields), suggesting different physical conditions in the emission region. Finally, we discuss possible criteria to select in an effective manner good new candidates for the Cherenkov telescopes among the LAT sources, presenting a list of predicted fluxes in the very high-energy band calculated including the effects of absorption by extragalactic background light.

  9. Spectroscopy of optically selected BL Lac objects and their γ-ray emission

    SciTech Connect

    Sandrinelli, A.; Treves, A.; Farina, E. P.; Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Foschini, L.; Sbarufatti, B.

    2013-12-01

    We present Very Large Telescope optical spectroscopy of nine BL Lac objects of unknown redshift belonging to the list of optically selected radio-loud BL Lac candidates. We explore their spectroscopic properties and possible link with gamma-ray emission. From the new observations we determine the redshifts of four objects from faint emission lines or from absorption features of their host galaxies. In three cases we find narrow intervening absorptions from which a lower limit to the redshift is inferred. For the remaining two featureless sources, lower limits to the redshift are deduced from the absence of spectral lines. A search for γ counterpart emission shows that six out of the nine candidates are Fermi γ-ray emitters and we find two new detections. Our analysis suggests that most of the BL Lac objects still lacking redshift information are most likely located at high redshifts.

  10. Simultaneous multifrequency observations of BL Lac objects and violently variable quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bregman, J. N.; Glassgold, A. E.; Huggins, P. J.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectra simultaneous with radio, infrared, optical, and X-ray measurements were obtained for three BL Lac objects and one violently variable quasar during several epochs (0735+178, BL Lac, IZw-187, and 3C446). A feature common to these objects is that the radio-mm continuum must steepen in the far-infrared region in order to connect smoothly to the IR-UV continuum. This indicates that synchrotron emission becomes optically thick in the mm or far-infrared region. The continuum of 3C446 and BL Lac steepen quite rapidly between the IR and UV spectra with slopes near unity. The X-ray emission in BL Lac, 3C446, and 0735+178 has a different origin from the IR-UV radiation, probably from the inverse Compton process. However, the synchrotron radiation is the probable source of X-ray emission in the X-ray bright BL Lac object IZw-187. In IZw-187, most of the energy emerges in the UV - X-ray region, while for the other sources, most of the energy emerges in the far infrared region.

  11. Are BL Lac-type objects nearby black holes. [gas accretion model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shapiro, S. L.; Elliot, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that isolated black holes accreting interstellar gas can account for the characteristic properties of the Lacertids. Emission spectra for various interstellar gas densities and black hole masses are compared with the data plotted by Strittmatter et al. (1972) for the BL Lac-type objects. Rough estimates indicate that there may indeed be a finite number of stellar-mass black holes close to the earth as required by the theory. If it is determined that the BL Lac-type objects lie outside of the galactic disk a black hole accretion model may still apply if certain conditions are satisfied.

  12. OPTICAL SPECTROSCOPY OF SDSS J004054.65-0915268: THREE POSSIBLE SCENARIOS FOR THE CLASSIFICATION. A z ∼ 5 BL LACERTAE, A BLUE FSRQ, OR A WEAK EMISSION LINE QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Landoni, M.; Zanutta, A.; Bianco, A.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.; Ghisellini, G.

    2016-02-15

    The haunt of high-redshift BL Lacerate objects is day by day more compelling to firmly understand their intrinsic nature and evolution. SDSS J004054.65-0915268 is, at the moment, one of the most distant BL Lac candidates, at z ∼ 5. We present a new optical-near-IR spectrum obtained with ALFOSC-NOT with a new, custom designed dispersive grating aimed to detect broad emission lines that could disprove this classification. In the obtained spectra, we do not detect any emission features and we provide an upper limit to the luminosity of the C iv broad emission line. Therefore, the nature of the object is then discussed, building the overall spectral energy distribution (SED) and fitting it with three different models. Our fits, based on SED modeling with different possible scenarios, cannot rule out the possibility that this source is indeed a BL Lac object, though the absence of optical variability and the lack of strong radio flux seem to suggest that the observed optical emission originates from a thermalized accretion disk.

  13. Redshift Determination of BL Lac Objects as from Detection of Their Host Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Zafra, J.; Cellone, S. A.; Andruchow, I.; Buzzoni, A.; Portilla Barbosa, J. G.

    2017-07-01

    BL Lac objects are a subclass of blazars showing strong, non-thermal variable emission from radio to TeV energies. Their properties are usually attributed to beamed emission from a relativistic jet which is close to the line of sight. The lack of emission and/or absorption features in the optical spectra of these objects, makes the accurate determination of their redshifts very uncertain or even impossible. Since these sources are typically hosted by elliptical galaxies that are associated with groups or poor clusters, the detection of one of these structures in their close environment, serves as an estimator of their possible redshift. For this reason we perform a spectrophotometric study of the close environments of a sample of three BL Lac objects with unknown redshift: 3C 66A, PG 1553+113 and PKS 0332-403.

  14. VLBA Observations of Low Luminosity Flat Spectrum Radio Galaxies and BL Lac Objects: Polarisation Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondi, M.; Dallacasa, D.; Stanghellini, C.; Marchã, M. J. M.

    We obtained two-epoch VLBA observations at 5 GHz of a list of radio galaxies drawn from the 200 mJy sample (Marcha et al. 1996). The objects selected for milli-arcsecond scale observations are classified, on the basis of their optical spectroscopic and polarimetric properties, as BL Lac objects, normal weak line radio galaxies, broad line radio galaxies, and transition objects (those with intermediate properties). We present preliminary results on the radio polarization properties, on the milli-arcsecond scale, of objects with different optical properties and discuss structural variations detected from the two epochs.

  15. [Ultrastructure of primordial germ cells of Lacerta muralis and Lacerta viridis. Comparison with Lacerta vivipara (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Hubert, J

    1974-01-01

    The ultrastructure of primordial germ cells migrating through the embryo and situated in genital crests is described in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis. It is compared with the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara previously studied. The cytoplasmic ultrastructure is the same in the three Lacertilians, but several nuclear differences are observed. The outline of the nucleus is regular and his shape is spheric in Lacerta vivipara, but in the two others Lacertilians the nucleus shows a very sinuous outline with deep cytoplasmic invaginations. There are fibrous nuclear bodies in the three Lacertilians but the germ cells of Lacerta muralis have in addition granular bodies. The nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis is very different from the annular nucleolus of the germ cells of Lacerta vivipara. It is possible to distinguish three types of nucleoli: a compact nucleolus in Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis, a granular cords nucleolus in Lacerta viridis, a vacuolar nucleolus in Lacerta muralis. Each type can be seen during the migration of the gonocytes or during the colonisation of the genital region. Probably there is a relationship between these different architectures and the activity of nucleolus in synthesis and liberation of ribosomal RNA. However the nuclear fibrillar area which we have previosly called "masse para nucléolaire" in Lacerta vivipara, is present in the germ cells of Lacerta viridis and Lacerta muralis.

  16. STRUCTURED JETS IN BL LAC OBJECTS: EFFICIENT PeV NEUTRINO FACTORIES?

    SciTech Connect

    Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Guetta, Dafne

    2014-09-20

    The origin of high-energy neutrinos (0.1–1 PeV range) detected by IceCube remains a mystery. In this work, we explore the possibility that efficient neutrino production can occur in structured jets of BL Lac objects, characterized by a fast inner spine surrounded by a slower layer. This scenario has been widely discussed in the framework of the high-energy emission models for BL Lac objects and radio galaxies. One of the relevant consequences of a velocity structure is the enhancement of the inverse Compton emission caused by the radiative coupling of the two zones. We show that a similar boosting could occur for the neutrino output of the spine through the photo-meson reaction of high-energy protons scattering off the amplified soft target photon field of the layer. Assuming the local density and the cosmological evolution of γ-ray BL Lac object derived from Fermi Large Area Telescope data, we calculate the expected diffuse neutrino intensity, which can match the IceCube data for a reasonable choice of parameters.

  17. X-Ray Spectral Variability Signatures of Flares in BL Lac Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boettcher, Markus; Chiang, James; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We are presenting a detailed parameter study of the time-dependent electron injection and kinematics and the self-consistent radiation transport in jets of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. Using a time-dependent, combined synchrotron-self-Compton and external-Compton jet model, we study the influence of variations of several essential model parameters, such as the electron injection compactness, the relative contribution of synchrotron to external soft photons to the soft photon compactness, the electron- injection spectral index, and the details of the time profiles of the electron injection episodes giving rise to flaring activity. In the analysis of our results, we focus on the expected X-ray spectral variability signatures in a region of parameter space particularly well suited to reproduce the broadband spectral energy distributions of intermediate and low-frequency peaked BL Lac objects. We demonstrate that SSC- and external-Compton dominated models for the gamma-ray emission from blazars are producing significantly different signatures in the X-ray variability, in particular in the soft X-ray light curves and the spectral hysteresis at soft X-ray energies, which can be used as a powerful diagnostic to unveil the nature of the high-energy emission from BL Lac objects.

  18. The transition between BL Lac objects and flat spectrum radio quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghisellini, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Foschini, L.; Ghirlanda, G.

    2011-07-01

    We study the BL Lac objects detected in the 1-year all-sky survey of the Fermi satellite, with an energy spectral slope αγ in the 0.1-100 GeV band greater than 1.2. In the αγ versus γ-ray luminosity plane, these BL Lacs occupy the region populated by flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Studying the properties of their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and of their emitting lines, we find that several of these BL Lacs have an SED similar to FSRQs and that they do have broad lines of large equivalent width (EW), and should be reclassified as FSRQs even adopting the current phenomenological definition (i.e. EW of the emitting line greater than 5 Å). In other cases, even if the EW is small, the emitting lines can be as luminous as in quasars, and again their SED is similar to the SED of FSRQs. Sources classified as BL Lacs with an SED appearing as intermediate between BL Lacs and FSRQs also have relatively weak broad emission lines and small EW, and can be considered as transition sources. These properties are confirmed also by model fitting that allows us to derive the relevant intrinsic jet parameters and the jet power. This study leads us to propose a physical distinction between the two classes of blazars, based on the luminosity of the broad-line region measured in Eddington units. The dividing line is of the order of LBLR/LEdd˜ 5 × 10-4, in good agreement with the idea that the presence of strong emitting lines is related to a transition in the accretion regime, becoming radiatively inefficient below a disc luminosity of the order of 1 per cent of the Eddington one.

  19. Variability on Decaparsec scales of a number of BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hallahan, R.; Gabuzda, D.

    We present 18cm Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) polarisation observations of the 4 BL Lac objects 0735+178, 0954+658, 1803+784 and BL Lac at two epochs 4 1 years apart ( Jul 1999 and 2 Jan 2004). These results are part of an ongoing analysis of 18cm VLBA observations of the 34 1 Jy BL Lac objects in the complete sample defined by Kühr & Schmidt[4]. The 2004 observations were made at four distinct wavelengths between 18 and 22cm, allowing for the investigation of the intrinsic Faraday rotation in each source. The 4 sources each display a spine-sheath polarisation structure in the VLBI jet, consistent with the presence of helical magnetic (B) fields [2]. The jet morphology, polarisation structure and degree of linear polarisation are compared for the two epochs and shown to be very stable on the scales probed by these observations. Some rotation measure (RM) maps from the 2004 data display transverse gradients in the inner jet, interpreted as further evidence for the presence of helical B fields in the jet. The fractional polarisation maps also display gradients increasing away from the core and towards the jet edges, again consistent with helical jet B fields [5].

  20. 4U1722 + 11 - The discovery of an X-ray selected BL Lac object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffiths, R. E.; Wilson, A. S.; Ward, M. J.; Tapia, S.; Ulvestad, J. S.

    1989-01-01

    The Uhuru X-ray source 4U1722 + 11 was observed using the microchannel-plate detector (High Resolution Imager) on the Einstein Observatory, and its coordinates measured to a precision of about 5 arcsec. A 16th-magnitude stellar object within the error circle was observed spectroscopically at CTIO, and at the AAT, and found to have a featureless continuum. Subsequent radio observations at the VLA have established that the object is a radio source at the level of 60 mJy, and optical polarization measurements have determined that the source exhibits variable polarization at the level of 10 percent. On the basis of these observations, it is concluded that 4U1722 + 11 is a member of the class of objects known as X-ray selected blazars of BL Lac objects.

  1. Study of BL Lac objects in far infrared and submillimetre region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seal Braun, P.

    2017-07-01

    Here 35 BL Lac objects are studied from far infrared to submillimetre region (60 μm-850 μm) using the observational data from IRAS, ISO and SCUBA. Twelve Fanaroff-Riley radio galaxies are also studied for comparison. Using the flux densities at the far infrared and submillimetre bands, the luminosities, dust temperatures and dust masses are estimated. Total infrared luminosities L_{TIR} (8-1000 μm) (L_{⊙}) are derived from total flux densities (F_{8{-}1000}). The flux ratios at 100/60 vs. 170/100 plane show almost no correlation whereas the flux ratios at 60/850 vs. 100/850 plane show good correlation. About 50% of these sources show high F_{170} /F_{100} flux ratios indicating the presence of cold dust. Dust temperatures estimated from far infrared flux densities (F_{60} / F_{100}), vary from 25 K to 50 K, considering emissivity β = 1.5. The variation of dust temperature with total infrared luminosities L_{TIR} (L_{⊙}) shows good correlation whereas the variation of flux densities at 850 μm with total infrared luminosities L_{TIR} (L_{⊙}) shows weak correlation. The submillimetre luminosities at 850 μm (L_{850 } (L_{⊙})) and cold dust masses at 850 μm (Md) are estimated using the flux densities at 850 μm. The variation of the cold dust masses at 850 μm (Md (M0)) with submillimetre luminosities (L_{850 } (L_{⊙})) shows very good correlation. The submillimetre flux densities of BL Lac objects are much higher than the flux densities of radio galaxies or quasars but comparable to those of FR I radio galaxies. So the total IR luminosities (L_{TIR} (L_{⊙})), Luminosity at 850 μm (L_{850} (L_{⊙})) and cold dust mass (Md (M0)) of FR I radio galaxies are compared with the BL Lac objects. It is possible to compare the molecular gas mass M_{H2} with cold dust mass (Md) for only one BL Lac object W Com, due to unavailability of proper observational data.

  2. Fermi LAT Detection of a Gamma-ray Flare from the BL Lac Object ON 246

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Josefa

    2015-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object ON 246 (RA=187.55871 deg, Dec=25.30198 deg, J2000, Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13; with redshift z=0.135, Nass et al. 1996, A&A, 309, 419), also known as S3 1227+25 and 3FGL J1230.3+2519 (3FGL; Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003).

  3. Fermi LAT detection of a GeV flare from the BL Lac object Mrk 421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ammando, F.; Orienti, M.

    2012-07-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object Mrk 421 (also known as 2FGL J1104.4+3812, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31; R.A.= 11h04m27.3139s, Dec.= +38d12m31.799s, J2000.0, Fey et al. 2004, AJ, 127, 3587) at redshift z=0.03 (De Vaucouleurs et al.

  4. An Analysis of Periodic Components in BL Lac Object S5 0716 +714 with MUSIC Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithms are introduced to the estimation of the period of variation of BL Lac objects.The principle of MUSIC spectral analysis method and theoretical analysis of the resolution of frequency spectrum using analog signals are included. From a lot of literatures, we have collected a lot of effective observation data of BL Lac object S5 0716 + 714 in V, R, I bands from 1994 to 2008. The light variation periods of S5 0716 +714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC spectral analysis method and periodogram spectral analysis method. There exist two major periods: (3.33±0.08) years and (1.24±0.01) years for all bands. The estimation of the period of variation of the algorithm based on the MUSIC spectral analysis method is compared with that of the algorithm based on the periodogram spectral analysis method. It is a super-resolution algorithm with small data length, and could be used to detect the period of variation of weak signals.

  5. HESS J1943+213: A Non-classical High-frequency-peaked BL Lac Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straal, S. M.; Gabányi, K. É.; van Leeuwen, J.; Clarke, T. E.; Dubner, G.; Frey, S.; Giacani, E.; Paragi, Z.

    2016-05-01

    HESS J1943+213 is an unidentified TeV source that is likely a high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) object, but that is also compatible with a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) nature. Each of these enormously different astronomical interpretations is supported by some of the observed unusual characteristics. In order to finally classify and understand this object, we took a three-pronged approach, through time-domain, high angular resolution, and multi-frequency radio studies. First, our deep time-domain observations with the Arecibo telescope failed to uncover the putative pulsar powering the proposed PWN. We conclude with ˜70% certainty that HESS J1943+213 does not host a pulsar. Second, long-baseline interferometry of the source with e-MERLIN at 1.5 and 5 GHz shows only a core, that is, a point source at ˜ 1-100 mas resolution. Its 2013 flux density is about one-third lower than that detected in the 2011 observations with similar resolution. This radio variability of the core strengthens the HBL object hypothesis. Third, additional evidence against the PWN scenario comes from the radio spectrum we compiled. The extended structure follows a power-law behavior with spectral index α \\=\\-0.54+/- 0.04 while the core component displays a flat spectrum (α \\=\\-0.03+/- 0.03). In contrast, the radio synchrotron emission of PWNe predicts a single power-law distribution. Overall, we rule out the PWN hypothesis and conclude that the source is a BL Lac object. The consistently high fraction (70%) of the flux density from the extended structure then leads us to conclude that HESS J1943+213 must be a non-classical HBL object.

  6. Spectroscopy of 10 γ-Ray BL Lac Objects at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiano, Simona; Landoni, Marco; Falomo, Renato; Treves, Aldo; Scarpa, Riccardo

    2017-08-01

    We present optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratio of 10 BL Lac objects detected at GeV energies by the Fermi satellite (3FGL catalog), which previous observations suggested are at relatively high redshift. The new observations, obtained at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias, allowed us to find the redshift for J0814.5+2943 (z = 0.703), and we can set a spectroscopic lower limit for J0008.0+4713 (z > 1.659) and J1107.7+0222 (z > 1.0735) on the basis of Mg ii intervening absorption features. In addition we confirm the redshifts for J0505.5+0416 (z = 0.423) and J1450+5200 (z > 2.470). Finally we contradict the previous z estimates for five objects (J0049.7+0237, J0243.5+7119, J0802.0+1005, J1109.4+2411, and J2116.1+3339).

  7. Search for X-ray Spectral Features in Two BL Lac Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This grant covered the analysis and interpretation of astrophysical data obtained with the XMM-Newton satellite mission. BL Lac objects are active galactic nuclei that exhibit unusually strong polarization and variability, and are also missing the usual strong optical/ultraviolet emission lines. They are typically strong X-ray sources, but this is the first survey gathering high-quality spectral data from a significant number of these objects. The observations were successful, and all data (for objects in this proposal as well as that of Dr. Perlman s) were of very good quality, as expected. We find that the X-ray spectra of most of these objects are well described by a power-law after allowing for low-energy absorption that can be attributed to neutral gas in the line of sight, presumably located in our own Galaxy. However, in some cases we see indications of a deviation from power-law behavior in the sense that the spectrum appears to be steepening (softening) to higher energies. We are developing a theoretical model in which the steepening is a result of energy-dependent cooling of the radiating particles.We searched for discrete spectral features that might be intrinsic to the objects or their host galaxies, but we found none at the level of sensitivity provided by these data. These are interestingly strong upper bounds.

  8. On the galaxy surrounding the BL Lac object H2356 - 309

    SciTech Connect

    Falomo, R. )

    1991-03-01

    Imaging, optical spectrophotometry, and simultaneous NIR photometry of the X-ray selected BL Lac object H2356 - 309 are presented. The surrounding nebulosity is found well represented by a de Vaucouleurs r-exp 1/4 law with a small disk contribution suggested by pointed isophotes. The detection of stellar absorption features Ca II, G band, and Mg I makes it possible to derive the redshift z = 0.165 for the underlying galaxy whose absolute magnitude is M(V) = -22.3. Decomposition of the observed spectral flux distribution into a standard elliptical galaxy plus a power law is obtained with alpha(nu) = 0.75 and a galaxy contribution of 40 percent at 5500 A. 27 refs.

  9. A hadronic origin for ultra-high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerruti, M.; Zech, A.; Boisson, C.; Inoue, S.

    2015-03-01

    Current Cherenkov telescopes have identified a population of ultra-high-frequency peaked BL Lac objects (UHBLs), also known as extreme blazars, that exhibit exceptionally hard TeV spectra, including 1ES 0229+200, 1ES 0347-121, RGB J0710+591, 1ES 1101-232, and 1ES 1218+304. Although one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton (SSC) models have been generally successful in interpreting the high-energy emission observed in other BL Lac objects, they are problematic for UHBLs, necessitating very large Doppler factors and/or extremely high minimum Lorentz factors of the emitting leptonic population. In this context, we have investigated alternative scenarios where hadronic emission processes are important, using a newly developed (lepto-)hadronic numerical code to systematically explore the physical parameters of the emission region that reproduces the observed spectra while avoiding the extreme values encountered in pure SSC models. Assuming a fixed Doppler factor δ = 30, two principal parameter regimes are identified, where the high-energy emission is due to: (1) proton-synchrotron radiation, with magnetic fields B ˜ 1-100 G and maximum proton energies Ep; max ≲ 1019 eV; and (2) synchrotron emission from p-γ-induced cascades as well as SSC emission from primary leptons, with B ˜ 0.1-1 G and Ep; max ≲ 1017 eV. This can be realized with plausible, sub-Eddington values for the total (kinetic plus magnetic) power of the emitting plasma, in contrast to hadronic interpretations for other blazar classes that often warrant highly super-Eddington values.

  10. IUE observations of extragalactic objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boksenberg, A.; Snijders, M. A. J.; Wilson, R.; Benvenuti, P.; Clavell, J.; Macchetto, F.; Penston, M.; Boggess, A.; Gull, T. R.; Gondhalekar, P.

    1978-01-01

    During the commissioning phase of IUE several extragalactic objects were observed spectrally at low dispersion in the UV range lambda lambda 1150-3200: the Seyfert galaxies NGC4151 and NGC1068, the QSO 3C273, the BL Lacertae object B2 1101+38, the giant elliptical galaxy M87 and the spiral galaxy M81. The results obtained are presented and a preliminary analysis given for all six objects, discussing the continuous spectrum, extinction, emission line spectrum and absorption line spectrum, where possible for each case. Several new or confirmatory astrophysical results are obtained.

  11. GB6 J1058+5628: A NEW QUASI-PERIODIC BL LAC OBJECT FROM THE ASIAGO PLATE ARCHIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Nesci, R.

    2010-06-15

    We present the historic photographic light curves of three little known blazars (two BL Lac objects and one FSRQ), GB6 J1058+5628, GB6 J1148+5254, and GB6 J1209+4119, spanning a time interval of about 50 years, mostly built using the Asiago plate archive. All objects show evident long-term variability, over which short-term variations are superposed. One source, GB6 J1058+5628, showed a marked quasi-periodic variability of 1 mag on timescale of about 6.3 years, making it one of the few BL Lac objects with a quasi-periodic behavior.

  12. The physical properties of Fermi TeV BL Lac objects' jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, N.; Zhang, X.; Xiong, D. R.; Zhang, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the physical properties of Fermi TeV BL Lac objects' jets by modelling the quasi-simultaneous spectral energy distribution of 29 Fermi TeV BL Lacs in the frame of a one-zone leptonic synchrotron self-Compton model. Our main results are the following. (i) There is a negative correlation between B and δ in our sample, which suggests that B and δ are dependent on each other mainly in the Thomson regime. (ii) There are negative correlations between νsy and r, the νIC and r, which is a signature of the energy-dependent statistical acceleration or the stochastic acceleration. There is a significant correlation between r and s, which suggests that the curvature of the electron energy distribution is attributed to the energy-dependent statistical acceleration mechanism. (iii) By assuming one proton per relativistic electron, we estimate the jet power and radiative power. A size relation Pe ˜ Pp > Pr ≳ PB is found in our sample. The Pe > PB suggests that the jets are particle dominated, and the Pe ˜ Pp means that the mean energy of relativistic electrons approaches mp/me. There are not significant correlations between Pjet and black hole mass in high or low state with a subsample of 18 sources, which suggests that the jet power weakly depends on the black hole mass. (iv) There is a correlation between the changes in the flux density at 1 TeV and the changes in the γpeak, which suggests that the change/evolution of electron energy distribution may be mainly responsible for the flux variation.

  13. Discovery of hard-spectrum γ -ray emission from the BL Lacertae object 1ES 0414+009

    SciTech Connect

    Abramowski, A.

    2012-02-01

    1ES 0414 + 009 (z = 0.287) is a distant high-frequency-peaked BL Lac object, and has long been considered a likely emitter of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) γ-rays due to its high X-ray and radio flux. Observations in the VHE γ-ray band and across the electromagnetic spectrum can provide insights into the origin of highly energetic particles present in the source and the radiation processes at work. Because of the distance of the source, the γ-ray spectrum might provide further limits on the level of the extragalactic background light (EBL). Methods. We report observations made between October 2005 and December 2009 with H.E.S.S., an array of four imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. Observations at high energies (HE, 100 MeV–100 GeV) with the Fermi-LAT instrument in the first 20 months of its operation are also reported. To complete the multi-wavelength picture, archival UV and X-ray observations with the Swift satellite and optical observations with the ATOM telescope are also used. Based on the observations with H.E.S.S., 1ES 0414 + 009 is detected for the first time in the VHE band. An excess of 224 events is measured, corresponding to a significance of 7.8σ. The photon spectrum of the source is well described by a power law, with photon index of ΓVHE = 3.45 ± 0.25stat ± 0.20syst. The integral flux above 200 GeV is (1.88 ± 0.20stat ± 0.38syst) × 10-12 cm-2 s-1. Observations with the Fermi-LAT in the first 20 months of operation show a flux between 200 MeV and 100 GeV of (2.3 ± 0.2stat) × 10-9 erg cm-2 s-1, and a spectrum well described by a power-law function with a photon index ΓHE = 1.85 ± 0.18. Swift/XRT observations show an X-ray flux between 2 and 10 keV of (0.8-1) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1, and a steep spectrum ΓX = (2.2-2.3). Combining X-ray with optical-UV data, a fit with a log-parabolic function locates the synchrotron peak around 0.1 keV. Although the GeV–TeV observations do not provide better constraints on the EBL than

  14. The Gamma-Ray Bright BL Lac Object RX J1211+2242

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckmann, V.; Favre, P.; Tavecchio, F.; Bussien, T.; Fliri, J.; Wolter, A.

    2004-01-01

    RX J1211+2242 is an optically faint (B approximately equal to 19.2mag) but X-ray bright (f2-10kev = 5 x l0(exp -12)erg per square centimeter per second) AGN, which has been shown to be a BL Lac object at redshift z = 0.455. The ROSAT X-ray, Calar Alto optical, and NVSS radio data suggest that the peak of the synchrotron emission of this object is at energies as high as several keV. BeppoSAX observations have been carried out simultaneously with optical observations in order to extend the coverage to higher energies. The new data indeed indicate a turn-over in the 2 - 10keV energy region. We propose that RX J1211+2242 is the counterpart of the unidentified EGRET source 3EG J1212+2304, making it a gamma-ray emitter with properties similar to, for example, Markarian 501 in its bright state, though being at a much larger distance.

  15. Fermi LAT detection of a GeV flare from the BL Lac object PKS 2233-148

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2012-06-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object PKS 2233-148 (also known as 2FGL J2236.5-1431, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31, and OY -156) placed at R.A.: 339.1420296 deg, Dec.: -14.5561633 (J2000, Petrov et al. 2008, AJ, 136, 580). No redshift for the source has been measured up to now, demonstrating the BL Lac object character type of this source.

  16. Are some BL Lacs artefacts of gravitational lensing?

    PubMed

    Ostriker, J P; Vietri, M

    1990-03-01

    WE suggested in 1985 that a significant fraction of BL Lacertae objects, a kind of lineless quasar, seen in nearby galaxies are in fact images, gravitationally lensed and substantially amplified by stars in the nearby galaxy, of background objects, optically violent variable (OVV) quasars at redshifts z > 1 (ref. 1). This hypothesis was made on the basis of certain general similarities between BL Lacs and O Ws, but for two recently observed BL Lacs(2,3) a strong case can be made that the accompanying elliptical galaxy is a foreground object. In addition, we argue that the distribution of BL Lac redshifts is hard to understand without gravitational lensing, unless we happen to be at a very local maximum of the spatial cosmic distribution of BL Lacs. Our analysis also indicates that the galaxies whose stars are likely to act as microlenses will be found in two peaks, one nearby, with redshift 0.05-0.10, and the other near the distant quasar.

  17. Rapid Tev Gamma-ray Variability Of Bl Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Qi

    2011-09-01

    Recent VERITAS observations of BL Lacertae revealed rapid gamma-ray flaring of the object at TeV energies (Ong, 2011, ATel #3459). Here, we present preliminary results from the observations. The flaring activity was observed during a 20-minute exposure, when the flux above 200 GeV reached a peak of about 3x10^-6 m^-2s^-1 (roughly one and a half times the Crab Nebula flux). The light curve shows that the observations missed the rising phase of the flare but covered the decaying phase almost in its entirety. The decay time of the flare is about 4 minutes, making it one of the most rapid gamma-ray flares seen for any TeV blazars. Compared to several other blazars that are known to produce gamma-ray flares on a timescale of minutes, BL Lacertae produces the bulk of its radiation at much lower frequencies. The measured gamma-ray spectrum appears to be as soft as that of the non-flaring state, when compared with the published MAGIC spectrum of the source. We will discuss the implications of the results. VERITAS research is supported by grants from the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Smithsonian Institution, by NSERC in Canada, by STFC in the U.K. and by Science Foundation Ireland.

  18. Contemporaneous broadband observations of three high-redshift BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, M.

    2016-03-20

    We have collected broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three BL Lac objects, 3FGL J0022.1-1855 (z=0.689), 3FGL J0630.9-2406 (z > ~1.239), and 3FGL J0811.2-7529 (z=0.774), detected by Fermi with relatively flat GeV spectra. By observing simultaneously in the near-IR to hard X-ray band, we can well characterize the high end of the synchrotron component of the SED. Thus, fitting the SEDs to synchro-Compton models of the dominant emission from the relativistic jet, we can constrain the underlying particle properties and predict the shape of the GeV Compton component. Standard extragalactic background light (EBL) models explain the high-energy absorption well, with poorer fits for high UV models. The fits show clear evidence for EBL absorption in the Fermi spectrum of our highest redshift source 3FGL J0630.9-2406. While synchrotron self-Compton models adequately describe the SEDs, the situation may be complicated by possible external Compton components.

  19. Contemporaneous broadband observations of three high-redshift BL Lac objects

    DOE PAGES

    Ackerman, M.

    2016-03-20

    We have collected broadband spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of three BL Lac objects, 3FGL J0022.1-1855 (z=0.689), 3FGL J0630.9-2406 (z > ~1.239), and 3FGL J0811.2-7529 (z=0.774), detected by Fermi with relatively flat GeV spectra. By observing simultaneously in the near-IR to hard X-ray band, we can well characterize the high end of the synchrotron component of the SED. Thus, fitting the SEDs to synchro-Compton models of the dominant emission from the relativistic jet, we can constrain the underlying particle properties and predict the shape of the GeV Compton component. Standard extragalactic background light (EBL) models explain the high-energy absorption well, withmore » poorer fits for high UV models. The fits show clear evidence for EBL absorption in the Fermi spectrum of our highest redshift source 3FGL J0630.9-2406. While synchrotron self-Compton models adequately describe the SEDs, the situation may be complicated by possible external Compton components.« less

  20. BL LAC OBJECT PKS B1144-379: AN EXTREME SCINTILLATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R. J.; Ellingsen, S. P.; Shabala, S. S.; Blanchard, J.; Lovell, J. E. J.; McCallum, J. N.; Cimo, G.

    2012-08-01

    Rapid variability in the radio flux density of the BL Lac object PKS B1144-379 has been observed at four frequencies, ranging from 1.5 to 15 GHz, with the Very Large Array and the University of Tasmania's Ceduna antenna. Intrinsic and line-of-sight effects were examined as possible causes of this variability, with interstellar scintillation best explaining the frequency dependence of the variability timescales and modulation indices. This scintillation is consistent with a compact source 20-40 {mu}as or 0.15-0.3 pc in size. The inferred brightness temperature for PKS B1144-379 (assuming that the observed variations are due to scintillation) is 6.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} K at 4.9 GHz, with approximately 10% of the total flux in the scintillating component. We show that scintillation surveys aimed at identifying variability timescales of days to weeks are an effective way to identify the active galactic nuclei with the highest brightness temperatures.

  1. The Jet-Disk Symbiosis in Blazar and Unified Model of FSRQs and BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhao Hua; Li, Zhang

    2012-04-01

    Using multi-wave band data for a large sample of 70 blazars, including 38 flat-spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 32 BL Lac Objeces, we studied the correlations for both the flux and luminosity of the broad-line emission (FBLR) with the near-infrared flux (FK), X-ray flux (FX) and radio flux at 5 GHz (FR), respectively. We could see that there is always a strong correlation between the broad-line and multi-wave bands for a sample of 70 blazars; also, the slopes of the corresponding linear-regression equations are close to 1, which is consistent with the theoretical results. These results provide some new experimental evidence about coupling of the accretion disk and the jet of blazars. Simultaneously, we also indicated that the relative location of BL Lacs and FSRQs are quite separated, and that the luminosity of the the broad-line emission for BL Lacs is much less for FSRQs, which can prove that FSRQs and BL Lacs could be considered as a single population, or FSRQs and BL Lacs should be regarded as a class. But they are in different evolutionary stages of blazars, and have different types of accretion disks with different line-to-continuum ratios. Finally, the unified model of FSRQs and BL Lacs is also discussed.

  2. On the Redshift of TeV BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paiano, Simona; Landoni, Marco; Falomo, Renato; Treves, Aldo; Scarpa, Riccardo; Righi, Chiara

    2017-03-01

    We report results of a spectroscopic campaign carried out at the 10 m Gran Telescopio Canarias for a sample of 22 BL Lac objects detected (or candidates) at TeV energies, aiming to determine or constrain their redshift. This is of fundamental importance for the interpretation of their emission models and for population studies and is also mandatory for studying the interaction of high-energy photons with the extragalactic background light using TeV sources. Optical spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios in the range 4250–10000 Å were obtained to search for faint emission or absorption lines from both the host galaxy and the nucleus. We determine a new redshift for PKS 1424+240 (z = 0.604) and a tentative one for 1ES 0033+595 (z = 0.467). We are able to set new spectroscopic redshift lower limits for three other sources on the basis of Mg ii and Ca ii intervening absorption features: BZB J1243+3627 (z > 0.483), BZB J1540+8155 (z > 0.672), and BZB 0J2323+4210 (z > 0.267). We confirm previous redshift estimates for four blazars: S3 0218+357 (z = 0.944), 1ES 1215+303 (z = 0.129), W Comae (z = 0.102), and MS 1221.8+2452 (z = 0.218). For the remaining targets, in seven cases (S2 0109+22, 3C 66A, VER J0521+211, S4 0954+65, BZB J1120+4214, S3 1227+25, BZB J2323+4210), we do not validate the proposed redshift. Finally, for all sources of still-unknown redshift, we set a lower limit based on the minimum equivalent width of absorption features expected from the host galaxy.

  3. VERITAS OBSERVATIONS OF THE BL LAC OBJECT PG 1553+113

    SciTech Connect

    Aliu, E.; Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Behera, B.; Chen, X.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Bird, R.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dumm, J.; and others

    2015-01-20

    We present results from VERITAS observations of the BL Lac object PG 1553+113 spanning the years 2010, 2011, and 2012. The time-averaged spectrum, measured between 160 and 560 GeV, is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 4.33 ± 0.09. The time-averaged integral flux above 200 GeV measured for this period was (1.69 ± 0.06) × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, corresponding to 6.9% of the Crab Nebula flux. We also present the combined γ-ray spectrum from the Fermi Large Area Telescope and VERITAS covering an energy range from 100 MeV to 560 GeV. The data are well fit by a power law with an exponential cutoff at 101.9 ± 3.2 GeV. The origin of the cutoff could be intrinsic to PG 1553+113 or be due to the γ-ray opacity of our universe through pair production off the extragalactic background light (EBL). Given lower limits to the redshift of z > 0.395 based on optical/UV observations of PG 1553+113, the cutoff would be dominated by EBL absorption. Conversely, the small statistical uncertainties of the VERITAS energy spectrum have allowed us to provide a robust upper limit on the redshift of PG 1553+113 of z ≤ 0.62. A strongly elevated mean flux of (2.50 ± 0.14) × 10{sup –11} photons cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} (10.3% of the Crab Nebula flux) was observed during 2012, with the daily flux reaching as high as (4.44±0.71)×10{sup −11} photons cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (18.3% of the Crab Nebula flux) on MJD 56048. The light curve measured during the 2012 observing season is marginally inconsistent with a steady flux, giving a χ{sup 2} probability for a steady flux of 0.03%.

  4. Fermi LAT detection of a GeV gamma-ray flare from the BL Lac object AP Librae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object AP Lib (also known as PKS 1514-24 and 3FGL J1517.6-2422), with radio counterpart position R.A.: 229.424221 deg, Dec.: -24.372076 deg, (J2000.0, Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Fermi detection of BL Lac objects (Wu+, 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Z.; Jiang, D.; Gu, M.; Chen, L.

    2014-04-01

    By cross-correlating an archival sample of 170 BL Lacs with a 2 year Fermi/LAT AGN sample, we have compiled a sample of 100 BL Lacs with Fermi detection (FBLs) and a sample of 70 non-Fermi BL Lacs (NFBLs). We compared various parameters of FBLs with those of NFBLs, including the redshift, the low-frequency radio luminosity at 408MHz (L408MHz), the absolute magnitude of host galaxies (Mhost), the polarization fraction from the NVSS survey (PNVSS), the observed arcsecond scale radio core flux at 5GHz (Fcore), and the jet Doppler factor. All these parameters are directly measured or derived from available data in the literature. We found that the Doppler factor is on average greater in FBLs than in NFBLs, and the Fermi γ-ray detection rate is higher in sources with higher Doppler factor. In contrast, there are no significant differences in terms of the intrinsic parameters of redshift, L408MHz, Mhost, and PNVSS. FBLs seem to have a higher probability of exhibiting measurable proper motion. (1 data file).

  6. The Luminosity Function of the Host Galaxies of QSOs and BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carangelo, Nicoletta; Falomo, Renato; Treves, Aldo

    A clear insight of the galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei is of fundamental importance for understanding the processes of galaxies and nuclei formation and their cosmic evolution. A good characterization of the host galaxies properties requires images of excellent quality in order to disentangle the light of the galaxy from that of the bright nucleus. To this aim HST has provided a major improvement of data on QSOs (Disney et al. 1995; Bahcall et al. 1996,1997; Boyce et al. 1998; McLure et al. 1999; Hamilton et al. 2000; Kukula et al. 2001) and BL Lacs (Scarpa et al. 2000, Urry et al. 2000).

  7. Insight into the nature of the candidate Extreme BL Lac object RBS 0723 with the MAGIC telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carosi, A.; Lombardi, S.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.; Stamerra, A.

    2017-01-01

    In the past years, the MAGIC Telescopes have performed observation campaigns on candidates Extreme BL Lac objects (EHBL). These sources are known to show an extreme frequency of their synchrotron and inverse Compton peaks in the spectral energy distribution (in the hard X-ray and TeV bands respectively). Furthermore, they are characterized by the extreme hardness of the UV-X-ray and (de-absorbed) TeV continua. These characteristics are usually explained in a leptonic synchrotron+SSC emission model under the assumption that the energy distribution of the emitting relativistic electrons has a large value of the minimum Lorentz factor (˜ 105) coupled with a rather low magnetic field intensity (˜ 10-2 G); although alternative models including contributions from hadrons in the jet are also proposed. This aspect points out a significant difference with respect to the parameters usually used in 'classical' TeV BL Lacs modelling. Thus, EHBL are important and very interesting targets as their observation allows to investigate the properties of blazars belonging to a poorly known category of sources described by peculiar values of the relevant physical quantities of their jets. Despite the remarkable scientific interest, observations of the hard but faint high energy emission from EHBLs are still sparse, and only a handful of these has been discovered at TeV energies. The BL Lac object RBS 0723 fits quite well within the EHBL subclass. The source was detected on January 2014 by the MAGIC telescopes with a statistical significance of more than 5 standard deviations. Although with large uncertainties, the source shows a relatively soft spectrum. Furthermore, the non-detection in the earlier data taken in December and in the subsequent months points to a possible VHE flux variability at variance with the general view of these sources, commonly thought to be relatively steady objects.

  8. Fermi LAT detection of a GeV flare from the high redshift BL Lac object PKS 2131-021

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2012-08-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed gamma-ray flaring activity from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object PKS 2131-021 (also known as 2FGL J2133.8-0154, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31, and 4C -02.81) placed at radio coordinates R.A.: 323.5429567 deg, Dec.: -1.8881217 deg (J2000, Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  9. Fermi-LAT detection of a GeV flare from the BL Lac object 1ES 2322-409

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed an increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object 1ES 2322-409 (also know as 2FGL J2324.7-4042, Nolan et al. 2012, ApJS, 199, 31, and as 1FHL J2324.6-4041, Ackermann et al., ApJS, submitted, arXiv:1306.6772), with 2MASS counterpart coordinates, (J2000.0), R.A.: 351.18612 deg, Dec: -40.68036 deg (Mao 2011, New Ast., 16, 503).

  10. Fermi and Swift observations of correlated outburst activity from the BL Lac object OT 081 (PKS 1749+096)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Gonzalez, Josefa Becerra; Pivato, Giovanna; Thompson, David J.

    2016-07-01

    We report a strong multi-wavelength outburst in the BL Lac object OT 081 (also known as PKS 1749+096, 4C +09.57) with the radio counterpart position R.A.: 267.88674 deg, Dec.: 9.65020 deg (J2000.0, Lanyi et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 1695) and with redshift z=0.322 (Stickel, Fried, Kuehr 1988, A & A, 191, 16). Gamma ray and X-ray flares reached peaks during the interval 2016 July 16 and 20 simultaneous with an optical outburst (Balonek et al, 2016, ATel #9259).

  11. An Analysis of Light Periods of BL Lac Object S5 0716+714 with the MUSIC Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jie

    2012-07-01

    The multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm is introduced to the estimation of light periods of BL Lac objects. The principle of the MUSIC algorithm is given, together with a testing on its spectral resolution by using a simulative signal. From a lot of literature, we have collected a large number of effective observational data of the BL Lac object S5 0716+714 in the three optical wavebands V, R, and I from 1994 to 2008. The light periods of S5 0716+714 are obtained by means of the MUSIC algorithm and average periodogram algorithm, respectively. It is found that there exist two major periodic components, one is the period of (3.33±0.08) yr, another is the period of (1.24±0.01) yr. The comparison of the performances of periodicity analysis of two algorithms indicates that the MUSIC algorithm has a smaller requirement on the sample length, as well as a good spectral resolution and anti-noise ability, to improve the accuracy of periodicity analysis in the case of short sample length.

  12. Active Galactic Nuclei, Quasars, BL Lac Objects and X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The XMM COSMOS survey is producing the large surface density of X-ray sources anticipated. The first batch of approx. 200 sources is being studied in relation to the large scale structure derived from deep optical/near-IR imaging from Subaru and CFHT. The photometric redshifts from the opt/IR imaging program allow a first look at structure vs. redshift, identifying high z clusters. A consortium of SAO, U. Arizona and the Carnegie Institute of Washington (Pasadena) has started a large program using the 6.5meter Magellan telescopes in Chile with the prime objective of identifying the XMM X-ray sources in the COSMOS field. The first series of observing runs using the new IMACS multi-slit spectrograph on Magellan will take place in January and February of 2005. Some 300 spectra per field will be taken, including 70%-80% of the XMM sources in each field. The four first fields cover the center of the COSMOS field. A VLT consortium is set to obtain bulk redshifts of the field galaxies. The added accuracy of the spectroscopic redshifts over the photo-z's will allow much lower density structures to be seen, voids and filaments. The association of X-ray selected AGNs, and quasars with these filaments, is a major motivation for our studies. Comparison to the deep VLA radio data now becoming available is about to begin.

  13. The neurosteroid allopregnanolone impairs object memory and contextual fear memory in male C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Akiva; Cohen, Sarah J; Finn, Deborah A; Stackman, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    Allopregnanolone (ALLO, or 3α-hydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one) is a steroid metabolite of progesterone and a potent endogenous positive allosteric modulator of GABA-A receptors. Systemic ALLO has been reported to impair spatial, but not nonspatial learning in the Morris water maze (MWM) and contextual memory in rodents. These cognitive effects suggest an influence of ALLO on hippocampal-dependent memory, although the specific nature of the neurosteroid's effects on learning, memory or performance is unclear. The present studies aimed to determine: (i) the memory process(es) affected by systemic ALLO using a nonspatial object memory task; and (ii) whether ALLO affects object memory via an influence within the dorsal hippocampus. Male C57BL/6J mice received systemic ALLO either before or immediately after the sample session of a novel object recognition (NOR) task. Results demonstrated that systemic ALLO impaired the encoding and consolidation of object memory. A subsequent study revealed that bilateral microinfusion of ALLO into the CA1 region of dorsal hippocampus immediately following the NOR sample session also impaired object memory consolidation. In light of debate over the hippocampal-dependence of object recognition memory, we also tested systemic ALLO-treated mice on a contextual and cued fear-conditioning task. Systemic ALLO impaired the encoding of contextual memory when administered prior to the context pre-exposure session. Together, these results indicate that ALLO exhibits primary effects on memory encoding and consolidation, and extend previous findings by demonstrating a sensitivity of nonspatial memory to ALLO, likely by disrupting dorsal hippocampal function.

  14. The Whole Earth Blazar Telescope Campaign on the Intermediate BL Lac Object 3C 66A in 2007-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böttcher, M.; Fultz, K.; Aller, H. D.; Aller, M. F.; Apodaca, J.; Arkharov, A. A.; Bach, U.; Bachev, R.; Berdyugin, A.; Buemi, C.; Calcidese, P.; Carosati, D.; Charlot, P.; Ciprini, S.; di Paola, A.; Dolci, M.; Efimova, N. V.; Scurrats, E. Forné; Frasca, A.; Gupta, A. C.; Hagen-Thorn, V. A.; Heidt, J.; Hiriart, D.; Konstantinova, T. S.; Kopatskaya, E. N.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lanteri, L.; Larionov, V. M.; LeCampion, J.-F.; Leto, P.; Lindfors, E.; Mihov, E. Marilli B.; Nieppola, E.; Nilsson, K.; Ovcharov, J. M. Ohlert E.; Pääkkönen, P.; Pasanen, M.; Ragozzine, B.; Raiteri, C. M.; Ros, J. A.; Sadun, A.; Sanchez, A.; Semkov, E.; Sorcia, M.; Strigachev, A.; Takalo, L.; Tornikoski, M.; Trigilio, C.; Umana, G.; Valcheva, A.; Villata, M.; Volvach, A.; Wu, J.-H.; Zhou, X.

    2009-03-01

    Prompted by a high optical state in 2007 September, the Whole Earth Blazar Telescope consortium organized an intensive optical, near-IR (JHK) and radio observing campaign on the intermediate BL Lac object 3C 66A throughout the fall and winter of 2007-2008. In this paper, we present data from 28 observatories in 12 countries, covering the observing season from late 2007 July through 2008 February. The source remained in a high optical state throughout the observing period and exhibited several bright flares on timescales of ~10 days. This included an exceptional outburst around 2007 September 15-20, reaching a peak brightness at R~ 13.4. Our campaign revealed microvariability with flux changes up to |dR/dt|~ 0.02 mag hr-1. Our observations do not reveal evidence for systematic spectral variability in the overall high state covered by our campaign, in agreement with previous results. In particular, we do not find evidence for spectral hysteresis in 3C 66A for which hints were found in an earlier campaign in a somewhat lower flux state. We also did not find any evidence for spectral lags in the discrete correlation functions between different optical bands. We infer a value of the magnetic field in the emission region of B~ 19 e 2/7 B τ-6/7 h D 13/7 1 G, where eB is the magnetic field equipartition fraction, τ h is the shortest observed variability timescale in units of hours, and D 1 is the Doppler factor in units of 10. From the lack of systematic spectral variability, we can derive an upper limit on the Doppler factor, D <= 28 τ-1/8 h e 3/16 B . This is in perfect agreement with superluminal motion measurements with the VLBI/VLBA of βapp <= 27 and argues against models with very high Lorentz factors of Γ gsim 50, required for a one-zone synchrotron-self-Compton interpretation of some high-frequency-peaked BL Lac objects detected at TeV γ-ray energies. The radio-to-optical data presented in this paper are stored in the WEBT archive; for questions regarding

  15. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    DOE PAGES

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; ...

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energymore » distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.« less

  16. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  17. Quasi-simultaneous observations of BL Lac object Mrk 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR, and radio frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Worrall, D. M.; Oke, J. B.; Yee, H. K. C.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, R. L.; Hackney, K. R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in the X-ray, UV, visible, IR and radio regions of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 made over the course of two months are reported. The measurements were made with the A2 experiment on HEAO 1 (X-ray), the SWP and LWR cameras on IUE (UV), the 5-m Hale telescope (visible), the 2.5-m telescope at Mount Wilson (IR), the NRAO 92-m radio telescope at Green Bank (4750 MHz) and the 46-m radio telescope at the Algonquin Observatory (10275 and 10650 MHz). The quasi-simultaneously observed spectral slope is found to be positive and continuous from the X-ray to the UV, but to gradually flatten and possibly turn down from the mid-UV to the visible; the optical-radio emission cannot be accounted for by a single power law. The total spectrum is shown to be compatible with a synchrotron self-Compton emission mechanism, while the spectrum from the visible to the X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal electron cloud. The continuity of the spectrum from the UV to the X-ray is noted to imply a total luminosity greater than previous estimates by a factor of 3-4.

  18. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF FLARING ACTIVITY IN BL Lac OBJECT S5 0716+714 DURING THE 2015 OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Zhang, Haocheng; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-20

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. The rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  19. Quasi-simultaneous observations of BL Lac object Mrk 501 in X-ray, UV, visible, IR, and radio frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Y.; Worrall, D. M.; Oke, J. B.; Yee, H. K. C.; Neugebauer, G.; Matthews, K.; Feldman, P. A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Hackney, R. L.; Hackney, K. R. H.

    1981-01-01

    Observations in the X-ray, UV, visible, IR and radio regions of the BL Lac object Mrk 501 made over the course of two months are reported. The measurements were made with the A2 experiment on HEAO 1 (X-ray), the SWP and LWR cameras on IUE (UV), the 5-m Hale telescope (visible), the 2.5-m telescope at Mount Wilson (IR), the NRAO 92-m radio telescope at Green Bank (4750 MHz) and the 46-m radio telescope at the Algonquin Observatory (10275 and 10650 MHz). The quasi-simultaneously observed spectral slope is found to be positive and continuous from the X-ray to the UV, but to gradually flatten and possibly turn down from the mid-UV to the visible; the optical-radio emission cannot be accounted for by a single power law. The total spectrum is shown to be compatible with a synchrotron self-Compton emission mechanism, while the spectrum from the visible to the X-ray is consistent with synchrotron radiation or inverse-Compton scattering by a hot thermal electron cloud. The continuity of the spectrum from the UV to the X-ray is noted to imply a total luminosity greater than previous estimates by a factor of 3-4.

  20. On the Origin of the Hard X-Ray Excess of High-Synchrotron-Peaked BL Lac Object Mrk 421

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Liang

    2017-06-01

    For the first time, Kataoka & Stawarz reported a clear detection of a hard X-ray excess, above ≳ 20 {keV}, in the high-synchrotron-peaked BL Lac object Mrk 421. We find that this feature may not be produced by the low-energy part of the same electron population that produced the Fermi/LAT γ-ray. Because of that, it is required that the power-law electron energy go down to {γ }\\min ≈ 19, which predicts a very strong radio emission (radio flux larger than the observed), even considering the synchrotron self-absorption effect. We investigate the possibility of this excess being produced from the spine/layer jet structure, which has been clearly detected in Mrk 421. We find that (1) similar to one-zone modeling, the spine emissions provide good modeling of the broadband spectral energy distribution, except for the hard X-ray excess; and (2) the hard X-ray excess can be well represented by the synchrotron photons (from the layer) being inverse Compton scattered by the spine electrons.

  1. Fermi-LAT detection of the first GeV gamma-ray flare from the BL Lac object ON 246 (S3 1227+25)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutini, Sara; Gasparrini, Dario

    2015-01-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed for the first time on daily timescales gamma-ray outburst activity from a source positionally consistent with the bright optically peaked BL Lac object ON 246, also known as 3FGL J1230.3+2519.

  2. Multiwavelength Variability Study of the Classical BL Lac Object PKS 0735+178 on Timescales Ranging from Decades to Minutes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, Arti; Stawarz, Łukasz; Ostrowski, Michał; Larionov, Valeri; Gopal-Krishna; Wiita, Paul J.; Joshi, Santosh; Soida, Marian; Agudo, Iván

    2017-03-01

    We present the results of our power spectral analysis for the BL Lac object PKS 0735+178, utilizing the Fermi-LAT survey at high-energy γ-rays, several ground-based optical telescopes, and single-dish radio telescopes operating at GHz frequencies. The novelty of our approach is that, by combining long-term and densely sampled intra-night light curves in the optical regime, we were able to construct for the first time the optical power spectrum of the blazar for a time domain extending from 23 years down to minutes. Our analysis reveals that: (1) the optical variability is consistent with a pure red noise, for which the power spectral density can be well approximated by a single power law throughout the entire time domain probed; (2) the slope of power spectral density at high-energy γ-rays (∼1) is significantly flatter than that found at radio and optical frequencies (∼2) within the corresponding time variability range; (3) for the derived power spectra, we did not detect any low-frequency flattening, nor do we see any evidence for cutoffs at the highest frequencies down to the noise floor levels due to measurement uncertainties. We interpret our findings in terms of a model where the blazar variability is generated by the underlying single stochastic process (at radio and optical frequencies), or a linear superposition of such processes (in the γ-ray regime). Along with the detailed PSD analysis, we also present the results of our extended (1998–2015) intra-night optical monitoring program and newly acquired optical photo-polarimetric data for the source.

  3. What powers the most relativistic jets? - I. BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, Emma; Done, Chris

    2014-02-01

    The dramatic relativistic jets pointing directly at us in BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects can be well modelled by bulk motion beaming of synchrotron self-Compton emission powered by a low Eddington fraction accretion flow. Nearly 500 of these active galactic nuclei (AGN) are seen in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalogue of AGN. We combine the jet models which describe individual spectra with the expected jet parameter scalings with mass and mass accretion rate to predict the expected number of Fermi detected sources given the number densities of AGN from cosmological simulations. We select only sources with Eddington scaled mass accretion rate <0.01 (i.e. radiatively inefficient flows), and include cooling, orientation effects and the effects of absorption from pair production on the extragalactic infrared background. These models overpredict the number of Fermi detected BL Lacs by a factor of 1000! This clearly shows that one of the underlying assumptions is incorrect, almost certainly that jets do not scale simply with mass and accretion rate. The most plausible additional parameter which can affect the region producing the Fermi emission is black hole spin. We can reproduce the observed numbers of BL Lacs if such relativistic jets are only produced by the highest spin (a* > 0.8) black holes, in agreement with the longstanding spin-jet paradigm. This also requires that high spins are intrinsically rare, as predicted by the cosmological simulations for growing black hole mass via chaotic (randomly aligned) accretion episodes, where only the most massive black holes have high spin due to black hole-black hole mergers.

  4. Optical monitoring of BL Lac object S5 0716+714 and FSRQ 3C 273 from 2000 to 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Yu-Hai; Fan, Jun-hui; Tao, Jun; Qian, Bo-Chen; Costantin, Denise; Xiao, Hu-Bing; Pei, Zhi-Yuan; Lin, Chao

    2017-09-01

    Context. Using the 1.56 m telescope at the Shanghai Observatory (ShAO), China, we monitored two sources, BL Lac object S5 0716+714 and flat spectrum radio quasar (FSRQ) 3C 273. For S5 0716+714, we report 4969 sets of CCD (Charge-coupled Device) photometrical optical observations (1369 for V band, 1861 for R band and 1739 for I band) in the monitoring time from Dec. 4, 2000 to Apr. 5, 2014. For 3C 273, we report 460 observations (138 for V band, 146 for R band and 176 for I band) in the monitoring time from Mar. 28, 2006 to Apr. 9, 2014. Aims: The observations provide us with a large amount of data to analyze the short-term and long-term optical variabilities. Based on the variable timescales, we can estimate the central black hole mass and the Doppler factor. An abundance of multi-band observations can help us to analyze the relations between the brightness and spectrum. Methods: We use Gaussian fitting to analyze the intra-day light curves and obtain the intra-day variability (IDV) timescales. We use the discrete correlation function (DCF) method and Jurkevich method to analyze the quasi-periodic variability. Based on the VRI observations, we use the linear fitting to analyze the relations between brightness and spectrum. Results: The two sources both show IDV properties for S5 0716+714. The timescales are in the range from 17.3 min to 4.82 h; for 3C 273, the timescale is ΔT = 35.6 min. Based on the periodic analysis methods, we find the periods PV = 24.24 ± 1.09 days, PR = 24.12 ± 0.76 days, PI = 24.82 ± 0.73 days for S5 0716+714, and P = 12.99 ± 0.72, 21.76 ± 1.45 yr for 3C 273. The two sources displayed the "bluer-when-brighter" spectral evolution properties. Conclusions: S5 0716+714 and 3C 273 are frequently studied objects. The violent optical variability and IDV may come from the jet. Gaussian fitting can be used to analyze IDVs. The relations between brightness (flux density) and spectrum are strongly influenced by the frequency. A table of the

  5. X-ray and TeV Gamma-Ray Emission from Parallel Electron-Positron or Electron-Proton Beams in BL Lac Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krawczynski, Henric

    2007-04-01

    In this contribution we discuss models of the X-rays and TeV gamma-ray emission from BL Lac objects based on parallel electron-positron or electron-proton beams that form close to the central black hole owing to the strong electric fields generated by the accretion disk and possibly also by the black hole itself. Fitting the energy spectrum of the BL Lac object Mrk 501, we obtain tight constrains on the beam properties. Launching a sufficiently energetic beam requires rather strong magnetic fields close to the black hole 100-1000 G. However, the model fits imply that the magnetic field in the emission region is only 0.02 G. Thus, the particles are accelerated close to the black hole and propagate a considerable distance before instabilities trigger the dissipation of energy through synchrotron and self-Compton emission. We discuss various approaches to generate enough power to drive the jet and, at the same time, to accelerate particles to 20 TeV energies. Although the parallel beam model has its own problems, it explains some of the long-standing problems that plague models based on Fermi type particle acceleration, like the presence of a very high minimum Lorentz factor of accelerated particles. We conclude with a brief discussion of the implications of the model for the difference between the processes of jet formation in BL Lac type objects and in quasars.

  6. Variable X-ray spectra of BL Lac objects: HEAO-1 observations of PKS 0548-322 and 2A 1219+305

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, D. M.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Serlemitsos, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    X-ray spectra for the BL Lac objects PKS 0548-322 and 2A 1219+305 measured with the HEAO-1 A2 detectors during pointing maneuvers on September 30, 1978 and May 31, 1978 respectively are presented. Both fit single power law components with low energy absorption. For 2A 1219+305, a thermal bremsstrahlung form gives an unacceptable fit. From a comparison with other statistically poorer observations taken at 6 month intervals while the satellite was in its normal scanning mode, it is found that the sources exhibit spectral variability. A summary of measurements of the 5 BL Lac objects detected with the A2 experiment is presented and it is concluded that X-ray spectral changes in this class of source are common. Their general X-ray spectral characteristics distinguish BL Lac objects from other classes of X-ray emitting active galactic nuclei. Analysis of their total spectra indicates that most of the energy is emitted in the 5 to 100 eV band.

  7. Photometric Redshifts of High-z BL Lacs from 3FGL Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, Arne; Ajello, Marco; Paliya, Vaidehi; Hartmann, Dieter; Greiner, Jochen; Bolmer, Jan; Schady, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broad-band filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far ultraviolet to the near-Infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshifts determinations for 5 sources, with 3FGL J1918.2-4110 being the most distance in our sample at z=2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the Gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  8. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, A.; Ajello, M.; Greiner, J.; Hartmann, D. H.; Paliya, V. S.; Domínguez, A.; Bolmer, J.; Schady, P.

    2017-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broadband filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far-ultraviolet to the near-infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi-detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshift determinations for five sources, with 3FGL J1918.2–4110 being the most distant in our sample at z = 2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  9. New High-z Fermi BL Lacs with the Photometric Dropout Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, A.; Rau, Arne; Ajello, Marco; Hartmann, Dieter; Paliya, Vaidehi; Bolmer, Jan; Greiner, Jochen; Schady, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Determining redshifts for BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects using the traditional spectroscopic method is challenging due to the absence of strong emission lines in their optical spectra. We employ the photometric dropout technique to determine redshifts for this class of blazars using the combined 13 broad-band filters from Swift-UVOT and the multi-channel imager GROND at the MPG 2.2 m telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The wavelength range covered by these 13 filters extends from far ultraviolet to the near-Infrared. We report results on 40 new Fermi detected BL Lacs with the photometric redshifts determinations for 5 sources, with 3FGL J1918.2-4110 being the most distance in our sample at z=2.16. Reliable upper limits are provided for 20 sources in this sample. Using the highest energy photons for these Fermi-LAT sources, we evaluate the consistency with the Gamma-ray horizon due to the extragalactic background light.

  10. Fermi-LAT detection of hard spectrum and enhanced gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac object PKS 1717+177

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2015-12-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed a gamma-ray flare from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object PKS 1717+177 (also known as S3 1717+17, OT 129, and 3FGL J1719.2+1744, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS, 218, 23), with radio coordinates (J2000.0), R.A.: 259.804368 deg, Dec.: 17.751788 deg (Johnston et al. 1995, AJ, 110, 880).

  11. Fermi LAT detection of increasing GeV gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray emission from a source positionally consistent with the very-high energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (also known as TXS 1959+650 and 3FGL J2000.0+6509, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  12. Fermi LAT detection of the first GeV gamma-ray flare from the BL Lac object TXS 2241+406

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, Sara

    2015-02-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed for the first time on daily timescales gamma-ray outburst activity from a source positionally consistent with the BL Lac object TXS 2241+406 (a.k.a.3FGL J2244.1+4057, Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003) at RA=341.05305 deg, Dec=40.95378 deg (J2000, Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13) with redshift z=1.171 (Shaw et al. 2012, ApJ, 748, 49).

  13. Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, S.; Magill, J. D.; Dorner, D.; Biland, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mukherjee, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations report the detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the very-high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (a.k.a 3FGL J2000.0+6509, in the 3rd LAT source catalog, 3FGL, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  14. The BL Lac Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landt, H.; Padovani, P.

    1999-12-01

    In the optical wavelength range the distinction between a radio galaxy and a BL Lac object is mainly based on the Ca II H and K break observed in the optical spectrum. Marchã et al. (1996, MNRAS, 281, 425) have expanded on the previously used division by suggesting objects with Ca II break values lower than 0.4 to be classified as BL Lacs and sources with values higher than 0.4 to be classified as galaxies. We present new evidence that there is a smooth transition between BL Lac objects and Fanaroff-Riley type I radio galaxies. We find an increase in X-ray and radio core luminosity as the Ca II break gets more and more diluted. This suggests that the only difference between BL Lac objects and their parent population lies in orientation. The closer the jet of the radio galaxy to the observer's line of sight, the more its luminosity gets amplified and the object becomes BL Lac-like. We will address the question of the BL Lac parent population and will propose to unify the beamed and unbeamed objects in nomenclature.

  15. Systemic L-Kynurenine sulfate administration disrupts object recognition memory, alters open field behavior and decreases c-Fos immunopositivity in C57Bl/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Varga, Dániel; Herédi, Judit; Kánvási, Zita; Ruszka, Marian; Kis, Zsolt; Ono, Etsuro; Iwamori, Naoki; Iwamori, Tokuko; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József; Gellért, Levente

    2015-01-01

    L-Kynurenine (L-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway (KP). The systemic administration of L-KYN sulfate (L-KYNs) leads to a rapid elevation of the neuroactive KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). An elevated level of KYNA may have multiple effects on the synaptic transmission, resulting in complex behavioral changes, such as hypoactivity or spatial working memory deficits. These results emerged from studies that focused on rats, after low-dose L-KYNs treatment. However, in several studies neuroprotection was achieved through the administration of high-dose L-KYNs. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the systemic administration of a high dose of L-KYNs (300 mg/bwkg; i.p.) would produce alterations in behavioral tasks (open field or object recognition) in C57Bl/6j mice. To evaluate the changes in neuronal activity after L-KYNs treatment, in a separate group of animals we estimated c-Fos expression levels in the corresponding subcortical brain areas. The L-KYNs treatment did not affect the general ambulatory activity of C57Bl/6j mice, whereas it altered their moving patterns, elevating the movement velocity and resting time. Additionally, it seemed to increase anxiety-like behavior, as peripheral zone preference of the open field arena emerged and the rearing activity was attenuated. The treatment also completely abolished the formation of object recognition memory and resulted in decreases in the number of c-Fos-immunopositive-cells in the dorsal part of the striatum and in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. We conclude that a single exposure to L-KYNs leads to behavioral disturbances, which might be related to the altered basal c-Fos protein expression in C57Bl/6j mice.

  16. Systemic L-Kynurenine sulfate administration disrupts object recognition memory, alters open field behavior and decreases c-Fos immunopositivity in C57Bl/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Varga, Dániel; Herédi, Judit; Kánvási, Zita; Ruszka, Marian; Kis, Zsolt; Ono, Etsuro; Iwamori, Naoki; Iwamori, Tokuko; Takakuwa, Hiroki; Vécsei, László; Toldi, József; Gellért, Levente

    2015-01-01

    L-Kynurenine (L-KYN) is a central metabolite of tryptophan degradation through the kynurenine pathway (KP). The systemic administration of L-KYN sulfate (L-KYNs) leads to a rapid elevation of the neuroactive KP metabolite kynurenic acid (KYNA). An elevated level of KYNA may have multiple effects on the synaptic transmission, resulting in complex behavioral changes, such as hypoactivity or spatial working memory deficits. These results emerged from studies that focused on rats, after low-dose L-KYNs treatment. However, in several studies neuroprotection was achieved through the administration of high-dose L-KYNs. In the present study, our aim was to investigate whether the systemic administration of a high dose of L-KYNs (300 mg/bwkg; i.p.) would produce alterations in behavioral tasks (open field or object recognition) in C57Bl/6j mice. To evaluate the changes in neuronal activity after L-KYNs treatment, in a separate group of animals we estimated c-Fos expression levels in the corresponding subcortical brain areas. The L-KYNs treatment did not affect the general ambulatory activity of C57Bl/6j mice, whereas it altered their moving patterns, elevating the movement velocity and resting time. Additionally, it seemed to increase anxiety-like behavior, as peripheral zone preference of the open field arena emerged and the rearing activity was attenuated. The treatment also completely abolished the formation of object recognition memory and resulted in decreases in the number of c-Fos-immunopositive-cells in the dorsal part of the striatum and in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer of the hippocampus. We conclude that a single exposure to L-KYNs leads to behavioral disturbances, which might be related to the altered basal c-Fos protein expression in C57Bl/6j mice. PMID:26136670

  17. Kepler Observations of Rapid Optical Variability in the BL Lac Object W2r192+42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    R.Edelson; Mushotzky, R.; Vaughn, S.; Scargle, J.; Gandhi, P.; Malkan, M.; Baumgartner, W.

    2013-01-01

    We present the first Kepler monitoring of a strongly variable BL Lac, W2R1926+42. The light curve covers 181 days with approx. 0.2% errors, 30 minute sampling and >90% duty cycle, showing numerous delta-I/I > 25% flares over timescales as short as a day. The flux distribution is highly skewed and non-Gaussian. The variability shows a strong rms-flux correlation with the clearest evidence to date for non-linearity in this relation. We introduce a method to measure periodograms from the discrete autocorrelation function, an approach that may be well-suited to a wide range of Kepler data. The periodogram is not consistent with a simple power-law, but shows a flattening at frequencies below 7x10(exp -5) Hz. Simple models of the power spectrum, such as a broken power law, do not produce acceptable fits, indicating that the Kepler blazar light curve requires more sophisticated mathematical and physical descriptions than currently in use.

  18. MAGIC detection of short-term variability of the high-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524

    DOE PAGES

    Aleksi , J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; ...

    2015-05-29

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) 1ES 0806+524 (z = 0.138) was discovered in very high energy (VHE) γ-rays in 2008. Until now, the broad-band spectrum of 1ES 0806+524 has been only poorly characterized, in particular at high energies. In this paper, we analysed multiwavelength observations from γ-rays to radio performed from 2011 January to March, which were triggered by the high activity detected at optical frequencies. These observations constitute the most precise determination of the broad-band emission of 1ES 0806+524 to date. The stereoscopic Major Atmospheric Gamma-Ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) observations yielded a γ-ray signal above 250 GeV of (3.7more » ± 0.7) per cent of the Crab Nebula flux with a statistical significance of 9.9σ. The multiwavelength observations showed significant variability in essentially all energy bands, including a VHE γ-ray flare that lasted less than one night, which provided unprecedented evidence for short-term variability in 1ES 0806+524. The spectrum of this flare is well described by a power law with a photon index of 2.97 ± 0.29 between ~150 GeV and 1 TeV and an integral flux of (9.3 ± 1.9) per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 250 GeV. The spectrum during the non-flaring VHE activity is compatible with the only available VHE observation performed in 2008 with VERITAS when the source was in a low optical state. Lastly, the broad-band spectral energy distribution can be described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model with parameters typical for HBLs, indicating that 1ES 0806+524 is not substantially different from the HBLs previously detected.« less

  19. MAGIC detection of short-term variability of the high-peaked BL Lac object 1ES 0806+524

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksi , J.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Babic, A.; Bangale, P.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Borracci, F.; Bretz, T.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Caneva, G.; De Lotto, B.; de Ona Wilhelmi, E.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Di Pierro, F.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Fernandez-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Frantzen, K.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; Garcia Lopez, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Garrido Terrats, D.; Gaug, M.; Godinovi , N.; Gonzalez Munoz, A.; Gozzini, S. R.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Idec, W.; Kadenius, V.; Kellermann, H.; Knoetig, M. L.; Kodani, K.; Konno, Y.; Krause, J.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; La Barbera, A.; Lelas, D.; Lewandowska, N.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; Lopez, M.; Lopez-Coto, R.; Lopez-Oramas, A.; Lorenz, E.; Lozano, I.; Makariev, M.; Mallot, K.; Maneva, G.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Marcote, B.; Mariotti, M.; Martinez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Munar-Adrover, P.; Nakajima, D.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Orito, R.; Overkemping, A.; Paiano, S.; Palatiello, M.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Persic, M.; Poutanen, J.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Reinthal, R.; Rhode, W.; Ribo, M.; Rico, J.; Rodriguez Garcia, J.; Saito, T.; Saito, K.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schultz, C.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sillanpaa, A.; Sitarek, J.; Snidaric, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Steinbring, T.; Strzys, M.; Takalo, L.; Takami, H.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzi , T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Thaele, J.; Torres, D. F.; Toyama, T.; Treves, A.; Vogler, P.; Will, M.; Zanin, R.; Berger, K.; Buson, S.; D'Ammando, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Hovatta, T.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; Readhead, A.; Richards, J.

    2015-05-29

    The high-frequency-peaked BL Lac (HBL) 1ES 0806+524 (z = 0.138) was discovered in very high energy (VHE) γ-rays in 2008. Until now, the broad-band spectrum of 1ES 0806+524 has been only poorly characterized, in particular at high energies. In this paper, we analysed multiwavelength observations from γ-rays to radio performed from 2011 January to March, which were triggered by the high activity detected at optical frequencies. These observations constitute the most precise determination of the broad-band emission of 1ES 0806+524 to date. The stereoscopic Major Atmospheric Gamma-Ray Imaging Cherenkov (MAGIC) observations yielded a γ-ray signal above 250 GeV of (3.7 ± 0.7) per cent of the Crab Nebula flux with a statistical significance of 9.9σ. The multiwavelength observations showed significant variability in essentially all energy bands, including a VHE γ-ray flare that lasted less than one night, which provided unprecedented evidence for short-term variability in 1ES 0806+524. The spectrum of this flare is well described by a power law with a photon index of 2.97 ± 0.29 between ~150 GeV and 1 TeV and an integral flux of (9.3 ± 1.9) per cent of the Crab nebula flux above 250 GeV. The spectrum during the non-flaring VHE activity is compatible with the only available VHE observation performed in 2008 with VERITAS when the source was in a low optical state. Lastly, the broad-band spectral energy distribution can be described with a one-zone synchrotron self-Compton model with parameters typical for HBLs, indicating that 1ES 0806+524 is not substantially different from the HBLs previously detected.

  20. Observations of low and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs above 100 GeV with VERITAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Most of the ~ 50 blazars detected to date at TeV energies (E > 0.1 TeV) are high-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs). Only a handful episodic detections of low- and intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBL/IBLs, with synchrotron peak frequencies in the infrared and optical regime) have been reported by ground-based gamma-ray telescopes, typically during high-flux states. The VERITAS array located in southern Arizona has observed five known TeV LBL/IBLs since 2009: 3C 66A, WComae, PKS 1424+240, S5 0716+714 and BL Lacertae, with exposures of 5-10 hours/year, which so far resulted in the detection of a bright, sub-hour timescale gamma-ray flare of BL Lacertae in June 2011. We also report the detection and characterization of two new IBLs: VER J0521+211 and B2 1215+30.

  1. The C57BL/6J mice offspring originated from a parental generation exposed to tannery effluents shows object recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; Ferreira, Raíssa de Oliveira; Rabelo, Letícia Martins; E Silva, Bianca Costa; de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; de Menezes, Ivandilson Pessoa Pinto; Rodrigues, Aline Sueli de Lima; Vaz, Boniek Gontijo; de Oliveira Costa, Denys Ribeiro; Pereira, Igor; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2016-12-01

    The main aim of the present paper is to assess whether the parental generation exposure to such discharges could cause object recognition deficits in their offspring. Male and female C57Bl/6J mice were put to mate after they were exposed to 7.5% and 15% tannery effluents or water (control group), for 60 days. The male mice were withdrawn from the boxes after 15 days and the female mice remained exposed to the treatment during the gestation and lactation periods. The offspring were subjected to the object recognition test after weaning in order to assess possible cognition losses. The results of the analysis of the novel object recognition index found in the testing session (performed 1 h after the training session) applied to offspring from different experimental groups appeared to be statistically different. The novel object recognition index of the offspring from female mice exposed to tannery effluents (7.5% and 15% groups) was lower than that of the control group, and it demonstrated object recognition deficit in the studied offspring. The present study is the first to report evidences that parental exposure to effluent of tannery (father and mother) can cause object recognition deficit in the offspring, which is related to problems in the central nervous system.

  2. Fermi and Swift observations of a rapid flare in the BL Lac object SDSS J084411.67+531250.7 (NVSS J084411+531250)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of the two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray flux from a source positionally consistent with the optically-selected and polarized (Smith et al. 2007, ApJ, 663, 118) BL Lac object SDSS J084411.67+531250.7 (also known as NVSS J084411+531250, BZB J0844+5312, and 3FGL J0843.9+5311, Acero et al. 2015, arXiv:1501.02003), with optical counterpart coordinates (J2000.0) R.A.: 131.04872 deg, Dec.: 53.21407 deg (Adelman-McCarthy et. al 2008, ApJS, 175, 297).

  3. Variability and Period Analysis for BL Lac AO 0235+164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.; Kurtanidze, O.; Liu, Y.; Liu, X.; Yang, J. H.; Richter, G. M.; Nikolashvili, M. G.; Kurtanidze, S. O.; Wang, H. T.; Sasada, M.; Zhou, A. Y.; Lin, C.; Yuan, Y. H.; Zhang, Y. T.; Costantin, D.

    2017-03-01

    Variability is one of the extreme observational properties of BL Lacertae objects. AO 0235+164 is a well-studied BL Lac throughout all electromagnetic wavebands. In the present work, we show its optical R-band photometric observations carried out during the period from 2006 November to 2012 December using the Ap6E CCD camera attached to the primary focus of the 70 cm meniscus telescope at Abastumani Observatory, Georgia. During our monitoring period, it showed a large variation of {{Δ }}R=4.88 {mag} (14.19–19.07 mag) and a short timescale of {{Δ }}{T}v=73.5 {minutes}. During the period of 2006 December to 2009 November, we made radio observations of the source using the 25 m radio telescope at Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory. By adopting a discrete correlation function to the optical and radio observations we found that the optical variation leads a radio variation of 23.2 ± 12.9 days.

  4. Bright X-Ray Flares from the BL Lac Object Markarian 421, Detected with MAXI in 2010 January and February

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isobe, Naoki; Sugimori, Kousuke; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Negoro, Hitoshi; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Daikyuji, Arata; Eguchi, Satoshi; Hiroi, Kazuo; Ishikawa, Masaki; Ishiwata, Ryoji; Kawasaki, Kazuyoshi; Kimura, Masashi; Kohama, Mitsuhiro; Mihara, Tatehiro; Miyoshi, Sho; Morii, Mikio; Nakagawa, Yujin E.; Nakahira, Satoshi; Nakajima, Motoki; Ozawa, Hiroshi; Sootome, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Motoko; Tomida, Hiroshi; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Ueno, Shiro; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Yoshida, Atsumasa; MAXI Team

    2010-12-01

    Strong X-ray flares from the blazar Mrk 421 were detected in 2010 January and February through 7-month monitoring with the MAXI GSC. The maximum 2-10 keV flux in the January and February flares was measured to be 120±10 mCrab and 164±17 mCrab, respectively; the latter is the highest among those reported from the object. A comparison of the MAXI and Swift BAT data suggests a convex X-ray spectrum with an approximated photon index of Γ ≳ 2. This spectrum is consistent with a picture that MAXI is observing near the synchrotron peak frequency. The source exhibited a spectral variation during these flares, slightly different from those in previous observations, in which the positive correlation between the flux and hardness was widely reported. By equating the halving decay timescale in the January flare, td ˜ 2.5 × 104 s, to the synchrotron cooling time, the magnetic field was evaluated to be B ˜ 4.5 × 10-2G (δ/10)-1/3, where δ is the jet beaming factor. Assuming that the light crossing time of the emission region is shorter than the doubling rise time, tr ≲ 2 × 104 s, the region size was roughly estimated as R < 6 × 1015 cm (δ/10). These results are consistent with values previously reported. For the February flare, the rise time, tr < 1.3 × 105 s, gives a loose upper limit on the size as R < 4 × 1016 cm (δ/10), although the longer decay time, td ˜ 1.4 × 105s, indicates B ˜ 1.5 × 10-2G (δ/10)-1/3, which is weaker than the previous results. This could be reconciled by invoking a scenario that this flare is a superposition of unresolved events with a shorter timescale.

  5. Detection of the BL Lac object 1ES 1426+428 in the Very High Energy gamma-ray band by the CAT Telescope from 1998-2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djannati-Ataï, A.; Khelifi, B.; Vorobiov, S.; Bazer-Bachi, R.; Chounet, L. M.; Debiais, G.; Degrange, B.; Espigat, P.; Fabre, B.; Fontaine, G.; Goret, P.; Gouiffes, C.; Masterson, C.; Piron, F.; Punch, M.; Rivoal, M.; Rob, L.; Tavernet, J.-P.

    2002-08-01

    The BL Lac Object 1ES 1426+428, at a red-shift of z=0.129, has been monitored by the CAT telescope from February 1998 to June 2000. The accumulation of 26 h of observations shows a gamma -ray signal of 321 events above 250 GeV at 5.2 standard deviations, determined using data analysis cuts adapted to a weak, steep-spectrum source. The source emission has an average flux of Phidiff(400 GeV)= 6.73+/-1.27stat+/-1.45syst*E-11 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1, and a very steep spectrum, with a differential spectral index of gamma =-3.60 +/- 0.57 which can be refined to gamma =-3.66 +/- 0.41 using a higher flux data subset. If, as expected from its broad-band properties, the Very High Energy emission is hard at the source, these observations support a strong absorption effect of gamma-rays by the Intergalactic Infrared field.

  6. VERITAS Detection of γ-Ray Flaring Activity From the BL Lac Object 1ES 1727+502 During Bright Moonlight Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Bouvier, A.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Veritas Collaboration; Hughes, Z. D.

    2015-08-01

    During moonlit nights, observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes at very high energies (VHEs, E\\gt 100 GeV) are constrained since the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the telescope camera are extremely sensitive to the background moonlight. Observations with the VERITAS telescopes in the standard configuration are performed only with a moon illumination less than 35% of full moon. Since 2012, the VERITAS collaboration has implemented a new observing mode under bright moonlight, by either reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs (reduced-high-voltage; RHV configuration), or by utilizing UV-transparent filters. While these operating modes result in lower sensitivity and increased energy thresholds, the extension of the available observing time is useful for monitoring variable sources such as blazars and sources requiring spectral measurements at the highest energies. In this paper we report the detection of γ-ray flaring activity from the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 during RHV observations. This detection represents the first evidence of VHE variability from this blazar. The integral flux is (1.1+/- 0.2)× {10}-11 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 above 250 GeV, which is about five times higher than the low-flux state. The detection triggered additional VERITAS observations during standard dark-time. Multiwavelength observations with the FLWO 48″ telescope, and the Swift and Fermi satellites are presented and used to produce the first spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object during γ-ray flaring activity. The SED is then fitted with a standard synchrotron-self-Compton model, placing constraints on the properties of the emitting region and of the acceleration mechanism at the origin of the relativistic particle population in the jet.

  7. Decelerating Flows in TeV Blazars: A Resolution to the BL Lac -- FR I Unification Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2005-01-01

    TeV emission from BL Lacertae (BL) objects i s commonly modeled as Synchrotron-Self Compton (SSC) radiation from relativistically moving homogeneous plasma blobs. In the context of these models, the blob Lorentz factors needed to reproduce the corrected for absorption by the diffuse IR background (DIRB) TeV emission are large ($\\delta \\gtrsim 50$). The main reason for this is that stronger beaming eases the problem of the lack of $\\sim$ IR-UV synchrotron seed photons needed to produce the de-absorbed $\\sim $ few TeV peak of the spectral energy distribution (SED). However, such high Doppler factors are in strong disagreement with the unified scheme, according to which BLs are FR I radio galaxies with their jets closely aligned to the line of sight. Here, motivated by the detection of sub-luminal velocities in the sub-pc scale jets of the best studied TeV blazars, MKN 421 and MKN 501, we examine the possibility that the relativistic flows in the TeV BLs decelerate. In this case, the problem of the missing seed photons is solved because of Upstream Compton (UC) scattering, a process in which the upstream energetic electrons from the fast base of the flow 'see' the synchrotron seed photons produced in the slow part of the flow relativistically beamed. Modest Lorentz factors ($\\Gamma \\sim 15$), decelerating down to values compatible with the recent radio interferometric observations, reproduce the $\\sim $ few TeV peak energy of these sources. Furthermore, such decelerating flows are shown to be in agreement with the BL - FR I unification, naturally reproducing the observed BL/FR I broadband luminosity ratios.

  8. Detection of Possible Quasi-periodic Oscillations in the Long-term Optical Light Curve of the BL Lac Object OJ 287

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, G.; Zola, S.; Stawarz, Ł.; Ostrowski, M.; Winiarski, M.; Ogłoza, W.; Dróżdż, M.; Siwak, M.; Liakos, A.; Kozieł-Wierzbowska, D.; Gazeas, K.; Debski, B.; Kundera, T.; Stachowski, G.; Paliya, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    The detection of periodicity in the broadband non-thermal emission of blazars has so far been proven to be elusive. However, there are a number of scenarios that could lead to quasi-periodic variations in blazar light curves. For example, an orbital or thermal/viscous period of accreting matter around central supermassive black holes could, in principle, be imprinted in the multi-wavelength emission of small-scale blazar jets, carrying such crucial information about plasma conditions within the jet launching regions. In this paper, we present the results of our time series analysis of the ˜9.2 yr long, and exceptionally well-sampled, optical light curve of the BL Lac object OJ 287. The study primarily used the data from our own observations performed at the Mt. Suhora and Kraków Observatories in Poland, and at the Athens Observatory in Greece. Additionally, SMARTS observations were used to fill some of the gaps in the data. The Lomb-Scargle periodogram and the weighted wavelet Z-transform methods were employed to search for possible quasi-periodic oscillations in the resulting optical light curve of the source. Both methods consistently yielded a possible quasi-periodic signal around the periods of ˜400 and ˜800 days, the former with a significance (over the underlying colored noise) of ≥slant 99 % . A number of likely explanations for this are discussed, with preference given to a modulation of the jet production efficiency by highly magnetized accretion disks. This supports previous findings and the interpretation reported recently in the literature for OJ 287 and other blazar sources.

  9. A Multiwavelength Study of Flaring Activity in the High-energy Peaked BL Lac Object 1ES 1959+650 During 2015–2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Navpreet; Chandra, S.; Baliyan, Kiran S.; Sameer; Ganesh, S.

    2017-09-01

    We present the results from a multiwavelength study of the flaring activity in the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 during 2015 January–2016 June. The source underwent two major outbursts, during 2015 March and 2015 October, across the whole electromagnetic spectrum (EMS). We used data from Fermi-LAT and Swift-XRT/UVOT, and optical data from Mt. Abu InfraRed Observatory and Steward Observatory to look for possible correlations between the emissions at different energies and the nature of the variability during the flaring state. During the 2015 October outburst, the nightly averaged V-band brightest magnitude, 14.45(0.03), and faintest magnitude, 14.85(0.02), were recorded. Apart from long-term flares, rapid and short-term variabilities were noticed at all energies. Our study suggests that the flaring activities at all frequencies, with diverse flare durations and time lags, are correlated. The magnetic field strength is estimated to be 4 G using the synchrotron-cooling timescale (2.3 hr), and the upper limits on the sizes of both emission regions, γ-ray and optical, are estimated to be of the order of 1016 cm. The quasi-simultaneous flux enhancements in 15 GHz and VHE γ-ray emissions indicate a fresh injection of plasma into the jet, which interacts with a standing submillimeter core, resulting in co-spatial emissions across the EMS. The synchrotron peak shifts to higher frequency in the spectral energy distribution while the γ-ray spectra softens during the flaring. The shape of the inverse-Compton spectra indicates a change in the particle energy distribution pre- and post-flare.

  10. On the relation of mid-infrared emission with the gamma-ray properties of Fermi-detected BL Lac objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Li-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    We present the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) photometric data of 158 Fermi-detected BL Lacs and investigate the nature of their mid-infrared (MIR) continuum emission. In the [3.4]-[4.6]-[12] μm color-color diagram, nearly all their colors lie within the WISE Blazar strip (WBS), which is an effective diagnostic tool to separate sources dominated by non-thermal radiation from those dominated by thermal radiation. This feature indicates that their MIR emission is predominantly non-thermal. This argument is further supported by the strong radio-MIR flux correlation. We derive their MIR spectral indices and compare them with the near-infrared (NIR) spectral indices. We find that there is a prevalent steepening from MIR spectrum to NIR spectrum. The low-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (LBLs) have on average a larger MIR spectral index and a higher MIR luminosity than the high-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (HBLs), and the intermediate-frequency-peaked BL Lacs (IBLs) appear to bridge them. The MIR- γ-ray flux correlation is highly significant. A strong positive correlation is also found between the MIR and γ-ray spectral indices. The γ-ray-MIR loudness is significantly correlated with the synchrotron peak frequency. Finally we propose that the γ-rays are highly associated with the MIR emission from the jet, and the γ-ray emission is likely from the synchrotron self-Compton process for the Fermi-detected BL Lacs in our sample.

  11. Polarimetry on RGB BL lacs

    SciTech Connect

    Heinamaki, S; Katajainen, A; Muehleisen, S L; Nilsson, P; Pursimo, T; Schmidt, G; Sillanpaa, L O; Smith, P S

    1998-06-01

    We present results on polarimetry on RGB BL Lacs. This sample has its roots in ROSAT and Green Bank catalogues. The broad band spectral energy distribution of RGB BL Lacs differs from the ''traditional'' BL Lacs, filling the gap between two extremes, HBLs and LBLs. We found that the polarization properties of the sample are also intermediate to HBLs and LBLs. The highest measured polarization was {minus}19% and {minus}60% of the objects had high polarization. Our results suggests that there is a connection between HBLs and LBLs and between the synchrotron peak frequency and the degree of polarization.

  12. How photoperiod influences body temperature selection in Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Rismiller, P D; Heldmaier, G

    1988-02-01

    European green lizards, Lacerta viridis, show a distinct annual cycle in their day and nighttime selected body temperature (T b) levels when monitored under natural photoperiod. The amplitude between daily photophase and scotophase temperatures varies throughout the year. Highest body temperatures with smallest day/night variation are selected from May through July. Throughout fall, the difference between day and nighttime selected T b levels increases. Lizards inevitably enter a state of winter dormancy which terminates daily rhythmicity patterns. Under natural photoperiodic conditions, cessation of dormancy occurs spontaneously by mid-March, regardless whether high temperatures are available or not. Lacerta viridis respond to an artificial long photoperiod (16 h light, 8 h dark) at all times of the year with modifications in both diel patterns and levels of selected T b to summer-like conditions. When, however, the natural photoperiod at different phases in the annual cycle is held constant for six to eight weeks, T b selection of Lacerta viridis also remains stable at the level corresponding to the prevailing photoperiod. These results implicate that the photoperiod is a more prominent Zeitgeber for seasonal cueing of temperature selection than has been surmised in the past. Further, we suggest that the large variations recorded in daily T b cycles do not imply that this lizard is an "imprecise" thermoregulator, but rather indicates an important integral process necessary for seasonal acclimatization.

  13. Examination of the hippocampal contribution to serotonin 5-HT2A receptor-mediated facilitation of object memory in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gongliang; Cinalli, David; Cohen, Sarah J; Knapp, Kristina D; Rios, Lisa M; Martínez-Hernández, José; Luján, Rafael; Stackman, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    The rodent hippocampus supports non-spatial object memory. Serotonin 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2AR) are widely expressed throughout the hippocampus. We previously demonstrated that the activation of 5-HT2ARs enhanced the strength of object memory assessed 24 h after a limited (i.e., weak memory) training procedure. Here, we examined the subcellular distribution of 5-HT2ARs in the hippocampal CA1 region and underlying mechanisms of 5-HT2AR-mediated object memory consolidation. Analyses with immuno-electron microscopy revealed the presence of 5-HT2ARs on the dendritic spines and shafts of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and presynaptic terminals in the CA1 region. In an object recognition memory procedure that places higher demand on the hippocampus, only post-training systemic or intrahippocampal administration of the 5-HT2AR agonist TCB-2 enhanced object memory. Object memory enhancement by TCB-2 was blocked by the 5-HT2AR antagonist, MDL 11,937. The memory-enhancing dose of systemic TCB-2 increased extracellular glutamate levels in hippocampal dialysate samples, and increased the mean in vivo firing rate of hippocampal CA1 neurons. In summary, these data indicate a pre- and post-synaptic distribution of 5-HT2ARs, and activation of 5-HT2ARs selectively enhanced the consolidation of object memory, without affecting encoding or retrieval. The 5-HT2AR-mediated facilitation of hippocampal memory may be associated with an increase in hippocampal neuronal firing and glutamate efflux during a post-training time window in which recently encoded memories undergo consolidation.

  14. Fermi LAT detection of a GeV gamma-ray flare from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1215+303 (B2 1215+30, ON 325)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2017-04-01

    The Large Area Telescope (LAT), one of two instruments on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, has observed increasing gamma-ray emission from a source positionally consistent with the very-high energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1215+303 (also known as ON 325, Ton 605, B2 1215+30 and 3FGL J1217.8+3007, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 184.467008 deg, Dec.: 30.116843 deg (Petrov & amp; Taylor 2011, AJ, 142, 89). This blazar has a redshift z=0.131 (Paiano et al. 2017, ApJ, 837, 144; Bade et al. 1998, A & amp;A, 334, 459).

  15. Doppler imaging of AR Lacertae at three epochs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, Frederick M.; Neff, James E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Rodono, Marcello

    1988-01-01

    Observations from IUE were used to study the structure of the lower chromosphere of AR Lacertae in the light of Mg II k. Sequences of LWR/P-HI images distributed around the binary period at three epochs were obtained. Discrete plage-like regions of enhanced Mg II surface flux in this system are identified. There are temporal variations in the Mg II flux on timescales of hours as well as substantial changes in chromospheric morphology on timescales of years. Even with the limited S/N attainable with the IUE, one can map the gross structures of active stellar atmospheres. With such information, one can begin to study the true 3-D structure of the atmospheres of late-type stars.

  16. Borrelia lusitaniae and green lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Derdáková, Marketa; Víchová, Bronislava; Pet'ko, Branislav

    2006-12-01

    In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%-94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae.

  17. Borrelia lusitaniae and Green Lizards (Lacerta viridis), Karst Region, Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Majláth, Igor; Derdáková, Marketa; Víchová, Bronislava; Peťko, Branislav

    2006-01-01

    In Europe, spirochetes within the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks. Specific associations are described between reservoir hosts and individual genospecies. We focused on green lizard (Lacerta viridis) as a host for ticks and potential host for borreliae. In 2004 and 2005, a total of 146 green lizards infested by ticks were captured, and 469 I. ricinus ticks were removed. Borrelial infection was detected in 16.6% of ticks from lizards. Of 102 skin biopsy specimens collected from lizards, 18.6% tested positive. The most frequently detected genospecies was B. lusitaniae (77.9%–94.7%). More than 19% of questing I. ricinus collected in areas where lizards were sampled tested positive for borreliae. B. garinii was the dominant species, and B. lusitaniae represented 11.1%. The presence of B. lusitaniae in skin biopsy specimens and in ticks that had fed on green lizards implicates this species in the transmission cycle of B. lusitaniae. PMID:17326941

  18. BL LAC candidates for TeV observations

    SciTech Connect

    Massaro, F.; Paggi, A.; Errando, M.; D'Abrusco, R.; Masetti, N.; Tosti, G.; Funk, S.

    2013-07-01

    BL Lac objects are the most numerous class of extragalactic TeV-detected sources. One of the biggest difficulties in investigating their TeV emission is due to their limited number, since only 47 BL Lac objects are known to be TeV emitters. In this paper, we propose new criteria to select TeV BL Lac candidates based on infrared and X-ray observations. We apply our selection criteria to the BL Lac objects listed in the ROMA-BZCAT catalog, thereby identifying 41 potential TeV emitters. We then perform a search over a more extended sample combining the ROSAT bright source catalog and the WISE all-sky survey, revealing 54 additional candidates for TeV observations. Our investigation also led to a tentative classification of 16 unidentified X-ray sources as BL Lac candidates. This analysis provides new interesting BL Lac targets for future observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes.

  19. NIR brightening of BL LAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Chavushyan, V.; Carraminana, A.

    2013-11-01

    We report on the recent observation that revealed a NIR brightening of the prototype blazar, BL LAC itself. On October 30th,2013 (JD 2456595.735567), its flux in the H band corresponded to the magnitude H = 10.124 +/- 0.03. It is brightest since the time we started monitoring his object in the NIR (JD2454358.657246). Our observations were carried out with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory operated by the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (Mexico), equipped with the instrument CANICA a NIR camera.

  20. [Chemically induced ectropodia in the Lacerta viridis embryo and formation of styliform limbs in reptiles].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Clergue-Gazeau, M

    1984-01-01

    Administered into the eggs of Lacerta virifis on days 10 and 11 of incubation (at 25 degrees C), Cytosine-arabinofuranoside induces ectropodia in embryos, with a high frequency, which may reach 66%. The resulting styliform limbs display a general structure similar to that of the limbs of several species of serpentiform Reptilia.

  1. [Cutaneous lesions with papillomatous structure associated with viruses in the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1976-10-04

    Numerous papillomata affecting the skin of the dorsal part of the body occur in a population of Lacerta viridis reared in the laboratory. Electron microscopic study of three of these growths revealed the presence of viral particles belonging, from the morphological aspect, to the groups of the viruses of Herpes, Reo and Papova.

  2. [Searching for Rare Celestial Objects Automatically from Stellar Spectra of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Eight].

    PubMed

    Si, Jian-min; Luo, A-li; Wu, Fu-zhao; Wu, Yi-hong

    2015-03-01

    There are many valuable rare and unusual objects in spectra dataset of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release eight (DR8), such as special white dwarfs (DZ, DQ, DC), carbon stars, white dwarf main-sequence binaries (WDMS), cataclysmic variable (CV) stars and so on, so it is extremely significant to search for rare and unusual celestial objects from massive spectra dataset. A novel algorithm based on Kernel dense estimation and K-nearest neighborhoods (KNN) has been presented, and applied to search for rare and unusual celestial objects from 546 383 stellar spectra of SDSS DR8. Their densities are estimated using Gaussian kernel density estimation, the top 5 000 spectra in descend order by their densities are selected as rare objects, and the top 300 000 spectra in ascend order by their densities are selected as normal objects. Then, KNN were used to classify the rest objects, and simultaneously K nearest neighbors of the 5 000 rare spectra are also selected as rare objects. As a result, there are totally 21 193 spectra selected as initial rare spectra, which include error spectra caused by deletion, redden, bad calibration, spectra consisting of different physically irrelevant components, planetary nebulas, QSOs, special white dwarfs (DZ, DQ, DC), carbon stars, white dwarf main-sequence binaries (WDMS), cataclysmic variable (CV) stars and so on. By cross identification with SIMBAD, NED, ADS and major literature, it is found that three DZ white dwarfs, one WDMS, two CVs with company of G-type star, three CVs candidates, six DC white dwarfs, one DC white dwarf candidate and one BL Lacertae (BL lac) candidate are our new findings. We also have found one special DA white dwarf with emission lines of Ca II triple and Mg I, and one unknown object whose spectrum looks like a late M star with emission lines and its image looks like a galaxy or nebula.

  3. New satellite DNA in Lacerta s. str. lizards (Sauria: Lacertidae): evolutionary pathways and phylogenetic impact.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Doina; Grechko, Vernata V; Darevsky, Ilya S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2004-11-15

    A new tandemly repeated (satellite) DNA family namely Agi160, from Lacerta agilis and Lacerta strigata (Lacerta sensu stricto (s. str.), Linnaeus 1758) have been cloned and sequenced. Agi160 is found in the above two species, as well as two other representatives of the same genus, L. viridis and L. media. DNA hybridization did not reveal it in Darevskia, Podarcis, Zootoca, Eremias, Ophisops, and Gallotia - the other genera of the family Lacertidae. The results suggest that Agi160 is a Lacerta s. str. specific family of tandem DNA repeats. However, a comparison between sequences of Agi160 and CLsat repeat units revealed 60 bp regions 62-74% identical. The latter is a satellite DNA family typical for Darevskia (syn. "L. saxicola complex") (Grechko et al., Molecular-genetic classification and phylogenetic relatedness of some species of Lacertidae lizards by taxonoprint data. Mol Biol 32:172-183, 1988.). Both Agi160 and CLsat tandem repeats share several common features (e.g., the same AT content and distribution of multiple short A-T runs, internal structure of repeated units, the presence of conservative regions). These data are indicative of their common origin and a possibly strong selective pressure upon conserving both satellites. A comparative analysis of structure, organization, and abundance of these two families of satDNA reveals evolutionary pathways that led to their formation and divergence. The data are consistent with the hypotheses of the concerted evolution of satellite DNA families. The possibility of use of Agi160 as a phylogenetic tool, defining relationships within Lacerta s. str., as well as within the whole family of Lacertidae is discussed. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. NIR Flaring of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Carraminana, A.; Escobedo, G.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Mayya, D. Y.

    2011-05-01

    Following the Fermi LAT report (ATel#3368) of increased activity of BL Lac. We carried out NIR Photometry of this object and found on May,23rd, 2011 (JD 2455704.991690) that the object was indeed brighter (H = 10.08 ± 0.06) than our previous determination on JD 2455575.609653 when it had a flux corresponding to H = 11.439 ± 0.05. This is consistent with the increase in flux in the optical reported in ATel #3371.Observations were carried out with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory operated by the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (Mexico), equipped with the instrument CANICA a NIR camera.

  5. Functional anatomy of the lungs of the green lizard, Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Meban, C

    1978-02-01

    The gas-exchange area in the lung of Lacerta viridis has been studied by light microscopy and electron microscopy. The interior of the lung in this species is partitioned into air sacs by radially disposed septa. The surfaces of each septum are covered by a continuous epithelium, the cells of which are termed 'pneumonocytes'. Deep to the epithelium there is a close-meshed plexus of capillaries. The middle layer of the septum contains smooth muscle and fibrous tissue. Two varieties of pneumonocytes can be identified. The type I cells are squamous and give off attenuated sheets of cytoplasm which spread widely over the septal surface; these sheets contain few organelles. The type II cells are more compact and possess many organelles; their osmiophilic inclusion bodies are especially conspicuous. The pulmonary capillaries of Lacerta are evaginated into the air sacs and often display marked attenuation of their endothelium. The possible functional significance of these features is discussed.

  6. NIR brightening of BL LAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, L.; Recillas, E.; Porras, A.; Carraminana, A.

    2013-10-01

    We report that BL LAC cross identified with the Fermi LAT Gamma Ray source 2FGLJ2202.8+4216 is undergoing a significant NIR brigthening, on October 16th,2013 JD2456581.771019 we determined the flux in the H band to corresponde to H = 10.396 +/- 0.05. That is to be compared with the flux determined for this object on JD 2456282.665081 when the flux was H = 11.979 +/- 0.07. Observations were carried out with the 2.1m telescope of the Guillermo Haro Observatory operated by the National Institute for Astrophysics, Optics and Electronics (Mexico), equipped with the instrument CANICA a NIR camera.

  7. The BL LAC phenomenon: X-ray observations of transition objects and determination of the x-ray spectrum of a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worrall, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the activities related to two ROSAT investigations: (1) x-ray properties of radio galaxies thought to contain BL Lac type nuclei; and (2) x-ray spectra of a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources. The following papers describing the research are provided as attachments: Multiple X-ray Emission Components in Low Power Radio Galaxies; New X-ray Results on Radio Galaxies; Analysis Techniques for a Multiwavelength Study of Radio Galaxies; Separation of X-ray Emission Components in Radio Galaxies; X-ray Emission in Powerful Radio Galaxies and Quasars; Extended and Compact X-ray Emission in Powerful Radio Galaxies; and X-ray Spectra of a Complete Sample of Extragalactic Core-dominated Radio Sources.

  8. VHE BL Lacs through the MAGIC glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra González, Josefa; MAGIC Collaboration

    2015-03-01

    In this contribution an overview of the latest results on the study of BL Lac objects with the MAGIC telescopes at the very high energy (VHE, E>100 GeV) gamma-rays is presented. Three new VHE sources were detected during 2014, two BL Lac objects and the gravitational lensed blazar S3 0218+357. MAGIC detected very fast intra-night variability from IC 310. This detection points to smaller emitting regions than the event horizon, this is hard to be explained in the framework of the current theoretical models. The long term multi wavelength (MWL) study of the BL Lac PKS 1424+240 shows correlation between the radio and optical emission, pointing to a common origin. The MWL SED is not well fitted by a one-zone synchrotron-self Compton (SSC) model, but a two-zone SSC model can explain both, the MWL light curve and the SED. Spectral curvature has been found in the observed VHE spectrum from PG 1553+113. This is the first time that spectral curvature compatible with the EBL absorption is found in an individual object.

  9. The Discovery of Low-Luminosity BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rector, Travis A.; Stocke, John T.

    1995-12-01

    Many of the properties of BL Lacs have become explicable in terms of the ``relativistic beaming'' hypothesis whereby BL Lacs are ``highly beamed'' FR-I radio galaxies (i.e. our line of sight to these objects is nearly along the jet axis). Further, radio-selected BL Lacs (RBLs) are believed to be seen nearly ``on-axis'' (the line-of-sight angle theta ~ 8deg ) while X-ray selected BL Lacs (XBLs) are seen at larger angles (theta ~ 30deg ; the X-ray emitting jet is believed to be less collimated). However, a major problem with this model was that a transition population between beamed BL Lacs and unbeamed FR-Is had not been detected. Low-luminosity BL Lacs may be such a transition population, and were predicted to exist by Browne and Marcha (1993). We present ROSAT HRI images, VLA radio maps and optical spectra which confirm the existence of low-luminosity BL Lacs, objects which were previously mis-identified in the EMSS catalog as clusters of galaxies. Thus our results strengthen the relativistic beaming hypothesis.

  10. Response of the regenerating telencephalon of Lacerta viridis to nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Del Grande, P; Minelli, G

    1980-01-01

    To identify the nature of the dividing cells during the regenerative process of the telencephalon, the authors administered nerve growth factor (NGF) to Lacerta viridis with a wedge of telencephalon removed. Some known centers of cell proliferation were unresponsive to the treatment, whereas the ventral end of the telencephalic ventricle underwent an increase of up to 200% in proliferation rate. On the basis of this observation and data in the literature, the authors propose that the cell proliferation beginning in the medial area during the regeneration of the telencephalic ventricle is due to catecholaminergic neuroblasts still present in the adult.

  11. Intestinal helminth communities in the green lizard, lacerta viridis, from bulgaria

    PubMed

    Biserkov; Kostadinova

    1998-09-01

    A data set comprising individual host/parasite lists from 100 Lacerta viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) belonging to four isolated populations in Bulgaria was studied. A total of seven helminth species was recovered (Leptophallus nigrovenosus, Plagiorchis molini, Oswaldocruzia filiformis, Spauligodon extenuatus, Skrjabinelazia hoffmanni, Physaloptera clausa and Mesocestoides sp.). Lacerta viridis is a new host record for the first five of these species. Communities of intestinal helminths of L. viridis consist of a few species which resulted in a low species richness, abundance and diversity of infracommunities, which exhibit substantial homogeneity among the four samples. A similar pattern of dominance of two nematode species leading to a relatively high community similarity at both infra- and component community levels was observed. While intestinal helminth communities in lizards from 'marginal' habitats were dominated by the host generalist, O. filiformis, those in hosts from 'typical' habitats were dominated by the lizard specialist S. extenuatus. The results indicate that the characteristics of the host's habitat are important in determining the composition rather than structure of intestinal helminth communities in L. viridis.

  12. LHEA contributions to the Future of Ultraviolet Astronomy Based on Six Years of IUE Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, R. F.; Urry, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    Astronomical models of galactic nuclei emission spectra are reassessed in light of ultraviolet and X-ray spectroscopic observations. Spectral analysis of BL Lacertae objects using data collected by the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and other astronomical observatories is presented.

  13. Lipophilic compounds from the femoral gland secretions of male Hungarian green lizards, Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Kopena, Renata; López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemical signals (pheromones) in the reproductive behaviour of lizards, only a few studies have examined the role of specific chemical compounds as sexual signals. The secreted chemicals vary widely between species but whether this variation reflects phylogenetic or environmental differences remains unclear. Based on mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS, we found 40 lipophilic compounds in femoral gland secretions of male green lizards (Lacerta viridis), including several steroids, alpha-tocopherol, and esters of n-C16 to n-C20 carboxylic acids, and minor components such as alcohols between C12 and C20, squalene, three lactones and one ketone. We compared these chemicals with those previously found in other closely related green lizard species, and discussed how phylogenetical differences and/or environmental conditions could be responsible for the differential presence of chemicals in different lizard species.

  14. The effect of photoperiod on temperature selection in the European green lizard, Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Rismiller, Peggy D; Heldmaier, Gerhard

    1982-01-01

    Voluntary body temperature selection of unrestrained Lacerta viridis revealed consistant photoperiod entrained diel patterns. Each daily cycle was characterized by an elevation in body temperature (T b) to a high level plateau which declined at the onset of scotophase to a low level; both of which were maintained within narrow ranges.Under natural photoperiod in fall, lizards responded to shorter days by sinking low level T b's and expanding the duration of these low levels until no rhythmicity was shown. Subsequent exposure to long day, LD 16:8, induced self-arousal and a slightly altered diel T b selection with significantly higher T b's being chosen at both the elevated and lower daily levels. Changes in the relations of diel T b selection due to shift in photoperiod, suggest that photoperiod acts as a seasonal indicator for thermal adaptation.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome of Lacerta bilineata and comparison with its closely related congener L. Viridis.

    PubMed

    Kolora, Sree Rohit; Faria, Rui; Weigert, Anne; Schaffer, Stefan; Grimm, Annegret; Henle, Klaus; Sahyoun, Abdullah H; Stadler, Peter F; Nowick, Katja; Bleidorn, Christoph; Schlegel, Martin

    2017-01-01

    We sequenced the mitochondrial genome of the Western green lizard (Lacerta bilineata) using Illumina technology and additional Sanger sequencing. The assembled 17 086 bp mitogenome had a GC content of 40.32% and consisted of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region (CR), with a gene order identical to the chordate consensus. In addition, we re-sequenced the mitogenome of the closely related Eastern green lizard L. viridis using the same techniques as for L. bilineata. The mitogenomes of L. bilineata and L. viridis showed a sequence identity of 94.4% and 99.9%, respectively, relative to the previously published L. viridis mitogenome. The phylogenetic reconstruction based on 17 Lacertinae mitogenomes using Anolis carolinensis as the outgroup supported L. bilineata and its sister species L. viridis as distinct lineages.

  16. An hypothesis on the influence of the temperature on the telencephalic reparative processes in Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Minelli, G; Del Grande, P

    1980-01-01

    The authors removed a simple plug from the dorsal hippocampus, or from the dorsal hippocampus and part of the medial hippocampus in a telencephalic hemisphere in specimens of Lacerta viridis. The specimens were sacrificed some time after the operation after administration of 6-3 H thymidina. The examination of the emulsified slides showed that in these experimental condition no reparative process is observed, except for an impressive proliferation of cells and fibres which, from the meninx, bridges the cortical gap and, penetrating the telencephalic ventricle, attaches itself to the surrounding nerve tissue. The authors also described a limited cellular proliferation in the ependima of the telencephalic ventricles as a result of resection of the medial hippocampus; this observation is interpreted as a phenomenum connected to compensatory hypertrophy.

  17. Preliminary study of the regenerative processes of the dorsal cortex of the telencephalon of Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Minelli, G; del Grande, P; Mambelli, M C

    1977-01-01

    The authors removed from Lacerta viridis specimens part of the dorsal hippocampus of one telencephalic hemisphere. The animals were sacrificed 110 and 260 days after the operation; 24 hours before the operation on the encephalon, each was dosed with 6--3H thymidine. An examination of the historadiographic slides showed a clear remedial process in the operated area which, 260 days after has renewed in thickness but was still minus its characteristic cellular layer. The area of the telencephalon affected by the remedial process was examined by the authors and they have put forward the hypothesis that in relation to the type of operation performed, said area is localized prevalently in the dorsal hippocampus of the caudal half of the telencephalic hemispherg. The authors have also shown that the remedial procress, though attenuated is still in progress. 260 days after the operation.

  18. Blood parasites in two co-existing species of lizards (Zootoca vivipara and Lacerta agilis).

    PubMed

    Majláthová, Viktória; Majláth, Igor; Haklová, Božena; Hromada, Martin; Ekner, Anna; Antczak, Marcin; Tryjanowski, Piotr

    2010-10-01

    We investigated the occurrence of blood parasites of two lizard species: the common or viviparous lizard (Zootoca vivipara) and the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) in western Poland. Selected traits of lizard body morphology were studied with respect to the presence and intensity of haematozoan infection in blood samples collected from 218 adult lizards; 88 of the common lizard and 130 of the sand lizard. Haemogregarinid blood parasites were found to be the common parasite of both lizard species in studied locality with prevalence 39.8 (95% CL, 29.5-50.8) for Z. vivipara and 22.3 (95% CL, 15.5-30.4) for L. agilis. Incidence of parasitemia did not differ between sexes and was not correlated with morphological traits or presence of ectoparasites--Ixodes ricinus ticks. However, a significant difference between the two species of lizards was a greater frequency of haemogregarinid parasitism in Z. vivipara.

  19. SPECTROSCOPY OF THE THREE DISTANT ANDROMEDAN SATELLITES CASSIOPEIA III, LACERTA I, AND PERSEUS I

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Ibata, Rodrigo A.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Flewelling, Heather; Kaiser, Nicholas; Magnier, Eugene A.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Collins, Michelle L. M.; Rich, R. Michael; Bell, Eric F.; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.

    2014-09-20

    We present Keck II/DEIMOS spectroscopy of the three distant dwarf galaxies of M31 Lacerta I, Cassiopeia III, and Perseus I, recently discovered within the Pan-STARRS1 3π imaging survey. The systemic velocities of the three systems (v {sub r,} {sub helio} = –198.4 ± 1.1 km s{sup –1}, –371.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup –1}, and –326 ± 3 km s{sup –1}, respectively) confirm that they are satellites of M31. In the case of Lacerta I and Cassiopeia III, the high quality of the data obtained for 126 and 212 member stars, respectively, yields reliable constraints on their global velocity dispersions (σ{sub vr} = 10.3 ± 0.9 km s{sup –1} and 8.4 ± 0.6 km s{sup –1}, respectively), leading to dynamical-mass estimates for both of ∼4 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} within their half-light radius. These translate to V-band mass-to-light ratios of 15{sub −9}{sup +12} and 8{sub −5}{sup +9} in solar units. We also use our spectroscopic data to determine the average metallicity of the three dwarf galaxies ([Fe/H] = –2.0 ± 0.1, –1.7 ± 0.1, and –2.0 ± 0.2, respectively). All these properties are typical of dwarf galaxy satellites of Andromeda with their luminosity and size.

  20. Lectin cytochemical localisation of glycoconjugates in the olfactory system of the lizards Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula.

    PubMed

    Franceschini, V; Lazzari, M; Ciani, F

    2000-07-01

    To investigate the presence of defined carbohydrate moieties on the cell surface of the olfactory and vomeronasal receptor cells and the projections of the latter into the olfactory bulbs, a lectin binding study was performed on the olfactory system of the lizards: Lacerta viridis and Podarcis sicula. Both lizards showed a high lectin binding for N-acetyl-glucosamine in the sensory neurons. The lectin binding patterns in Lacerta indicated that the main olfactory system possessed a moderate density of N-acetyl-galactosamine residues and detectable levels of galactose ones. The vomeronasal system on the other hand contained a high density of N-acetyl-galactosamine moieties and a moderate density of glucosamine ones. In Podarcis the main olfactory system and vomeronasal organ contained respectively detectable and moderate levels of galactose residues. The expression of specific glycoconjugates may be associated with outgrowth, guidance and fasciculation of olfactory and vomeronasal axons.

  1. Spectroscopy of BL Cam - observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez, M.; Michel, R.; Fox-Machado, L.; Sareyan, J. P.; Fauvaud, S.; Tovmassian, G.

    2011-10-01

    The star BL Camelopardalis (GD 428, GSC 04067-00471, V=12.92, B=13.1), is a SX Phoenicis pulsating variable showing a high amplitude variability (300-350 mmag), with a very clear period of 56.3 min. It has being recently studied by Fauvaud et al. (2010), they show that the observed variability is due to a clear and single pulsation, as expected for these type of pulsators. It was discovered as a variable star on 1976 by Berg & Duthie (1977).

  2. Modeling BL Lac Emission Lines: A Preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Sunil; Schlegel, Eric M.; Packham, Chris

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results based on a model of the emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) combining special relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD), radiative transfer effects, and the spin rate of the super-massive black hole (SMBH). The RMHD code, PLUTO, can compute radiative cooling losses at each user definable time step and we use these capabilities to generate spectra. Additionally, the code will be used to model temporal variability of total broad band flux and line emission. We will use these model results to compare with observed spectra of AGN, focusing on blazars with the goal of predicting line strengths in BL Lac objects. We present methods for estimating line strengths from our simulated results.

  3. The importance of habitat resistance for movement decisions in the common lizard, Lacerta vivipara.

    PubMed

    Zajitschek, Susanne R K; Zajitschek, Felix; Clobert, Jean

    2012-07-24

    Movement behaviour can be influenced by a multitude of biotic and abiotic factors. Here, we investigate the speed of movement in relation to environmental and individual phenotypic properties in subadult common lizards (Lacerta vivipara). We aim to disentangle the importance of substrate, cover, humidity, basking opportunity and individual phenotype on moving tendencies in 12 treatment combinations, at which each lizard was tested. We find that movement behaviour depends on the starting conditions, the physical properties of the dispersal corridor, and on the individuals' phenotype. Specifically, the presence of cover and substrate providing suitable traction in the corridor had positive effects on individual movement decisions. Additionally, we find high phenotypic variation in the propensity to move dependent on the presence of cover. Individual back patterns also strongly affected movement decisions in interaction with the physical properties of the dispersal corridor. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the habitat resistance for movement patterns, with humid habitats with covering vegetation providing the best conditions to initiate movement in the common lizard. In addition, population effects, differences in back pattern phenotype and individual plasticity were identified as key parameters influencing movement behaviour.

  4. Microchromosome polymorphism in the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758 (Reptilia, Squamata)

    PubMed Central

    Lisachov, Artem P.; Borodin, Pavel M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Most true lizards (Lacertidae) share a conservative karyotype, consisting of 18 pairs of macrochromosomes and one microchromosome pair. Homeologues of the microchromosome are present in other squamates and even in chickens. No structural autosomal microchromosome polymorphisms have been described previously in lizards. We found homozygous and heterozygous carriers of a microchromosome variant in a Siberian population of the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis Linnaeus, 1758. The variant microchromosome was almost twice as long as the standard one. In heterozygotes at pachytene, the microchromosomes firstly pair in proximal regions and the central part of the longer axial element undergoes foldback synapsis, then its distal region pairs with the distal region of the standard partner. At metaphase-I, the heteromorphic microchromosome bivalents have a proximal chiasma. The content of the additional segment was Ag-NOR, C-like DAPI, CMA3 negative. FISH with telomere PNA probe did not detect interstitial (TTAGGG)n sequences in the heteromorphic and any other bivalents. Both homo- and heterozygous carriers were phenotypically normal. The presence of homozygotes shows that heterozygotes are fertile. Reduction in the number of microchromosomes is a clear trend in squamate evolution, as a result of microchromosomes fusing together or with macrochromosomes. Our findings indicate that gaining additional DNA may lead to a transformation of microchromosomes into small macrochromosomes without fusion. PMID:27830048

  5. Calcium provision to oviparous and viviparous embryos of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James R; Ecay, Tom W; Heulin, Benoit

    2009-08-01

    Embryos of oviparous squamate reptiles typically obtain calcium from both yolk and eggshell but differ from other oviparous amniotes (turtles, birds and crocodilians) because they are heavily dependent on calcium-rich yolk. Eggs of viviparous squamates lack calcareous eggshells, and embryos receive calcium solely from yolk or from both yolk and placenta. The pattern of calcium mobilization by amniote embryos has been predicted to influence the evolution of viviparity if embryos are dependent on calcium from the eggshell and calcium placentotrophy evolves subsequent to viviparity. We studied the pattern of maternal provision and embryonic utilization of calcium of an oviparous and a viviparous population of the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta vivipara to test the hypotheses: (1) oviparous embryos are not dependent on eggshell calcium and (2) calcium content of viviparous hatchlings does not differ from oviparous hatchlings. Our findings do not support either of these hypotheses because oviparous females oviposited eggs with heavily calcified shells and calcium-poor yolk, and embryonic mobilization of shell calcium was greater than for other oviparous squamates. The calcium content of yolk from viviparous females did not differ from oviparous yolk, but viviparous eggs lacked calcareous eggshells. Uterine secretion by viviparous females compensated for the low calcium content of yolk, and placental calcium transfer was among the highest recorded for squamates. The pattern of calcium provision in these two populations suggests that dependence on uterine calcium, either stored temporarily in an eggshell or transferred directly across a placenta, did not constrain the evolution of reproductive mode in this lineage.

  6. Lipids in the femoral gland secretions of male Schreiber's green lizards, Lacerta schreiberi.

    PubMed

    López, Pilar; Martín, José

    2006-01-01

    In spite of the importance of chemoreception and chemical signals in social organization of lizards, only a few studies have examined the chemical composition of secretions that lizards use for intraspecific communication. The secretion of the femoral glands of male Schreiber's green lizards (Lacerta schreiberi) contains 51 lipophilic compounds, including several steroids, a-tocopherol, n-C9 to n-C22 carboxylic acids and their esteres, and minor components such as alcohols between C12 and C24, two lactones, two ketones, and squalene. These compounds were identified on the basis of mass spectra, obtained by GC-MS. We compared these chemicals with those found in other lizard species, and discussed how environmental conditions could explain the differential presence of chemicals in different lizards. Particularly, the high abundance of a-tocopherol in this lizard is suggested to contribute to avoid oxidation of other lipids in secretions, increasing chemical stability of scent marks in the humid conditions of its habitat.

  7. Optical and UV spectroscopy of the peculiar RS CVn system, RT Lacertae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huenemoerder, D. P.; Barden, S. C.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra in the H-alpha and H-beta regions of the peculiar double-lined RS CVn binary, RT Lacertae, were obtained in the fall of 1984. Limited International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) long wavelength low and high resolution spectra were obtained concurrently. The ground based spectra have shown an asymmetry with orbital phase in the H-alpha profile. The H-beta profiles were consistent with the same effect. One hemisphere showed excess emission and the other excess absorption, with a broad Gaussian emission component superposed upon the excess H-alpha line. An improved radial velocity curve, giving a better determined mass ratio and geometry was derived. This combined with the radii implied by the rotational broadening of the spectra, showed one component to be 80 to 90% filling the equilibrium Roche surface. The two-faced nature is, therfore, very likely due to mass transfer from the contact component impacting upon its companion. Low resolution ultraviolet data showed that the supposed cooler component is bluer than its companion. High resolution ultraviolet data taken during secondary eclipse showed Mg II emission strength which decreased more slowly than the area visible. The phase behavior of the low resolution data support the former situation, indicating traditional chromospheric activity.

  8. Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis).

    PubMed

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-12-23

    Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male-male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male-male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success.

  9. Responses of European green lizards Lacerta viridis following administration of Leishmania agamae promastigotes.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G A; Molyneux, D H

    1984-12-01

    European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) were injected intraperitoneally, subcutaneously or orally with viable Leishmania agamae promastigotes. Neither promastigotes nor amastigotes were later found in blood and tissue impression smears, or in blood and selected organ cultures. However, by the use of an immunoperoxidase technique, parasite antigens were detected in the liver, stomach, small intestine, kidney, gonad, heart, lung and skin but not in the bone marrow, brain or spleen. Non-precipitating antibodies with beta 2-electrophoretic mobility were induced against L. agamae. They were detected in the sera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay 3-7 days post-infection. The titres increased significantly above background levels (P less than 0.001) and reached maxima after 6-7 weeks, with 27 out of 29 lizards producing antibodies. The mean serum protein concentration significantly increased after infection (P less than 0.005) with no significant differences in mean values between male and female animals. Lizard sera separated into 7 components on cellulose acetate membranes with migration rates comparable to albumin, alpha- and beta-globulins of human serum; gamma-globulins were absent. Significant decreases occurred (P less than 0.05) in the albumin fraction, with significant increases in the beta-globulin region of anti-L. agamae sera. C-reactive protein was not detected in either normal or immune lizard sera.

  10. The primary humoral immune response of European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to Leishmania agamae.

    PubMed

    Ingram, G A; Molyneux, D H

    1983-01-01

    European green lizards, Lacerta viridis, produced relatively thermostable, dithiothreitol-sensitive, non-precipitating, agglutinins and complement-fixing antibodies (CFA) to Leishmania agamae administered subcutaneously (SC), intraperitoneally (IP) or orally (OR). Antibodies were also detected by the immobilization test (IMM) and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most sensitive method for the detection of stimulated immunoglobulins was ELISA. Antibodies were detected as early as 3 days post-infection with ELISA and between 5 and 7 for CFA, direct agglutination (DA) and indirect haemagglutination (IHA). In the case of IMM, the times of first detection varied from 14 to 28 days. Maximum CFA (2(-8)), DA (2(-8)), IHA (2(-11)) and ELISA (2(-16)) titres were reached from 42 to 49 days with significantly higher values occurring in the OR and IP groups. With IMM, maxima occurred after 5 or 6 weeks. Following exposure, two- to five-fold significant increases in serum lysozyme levels were demonstrated but the concentrations in sera following SC, IP or OR routes of antigen administration were not significantly different when the groups were compared with each other. The highest lysozyme values (approximately 12.3 - 12.5 micrograms ml(-1)) were found in the SC and OR groups when compared to the IP (7.40 micrograms ml(-1)).

  11. Reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) to major repellent compounds secreted by Graphosoma lineatum (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    PubMed

    Gregorovičová, Martina; Černíková, Alena

    2015-06-01

    The chemical defence of Heteroptera is primarily based on repellent secretions which signal the potential toxicity of the bug to its predators. We tested the aversive reactions of green lizards (Lacerta viridis) towards the major compounds of the defensive secretion of Graphosoma lineatum, specifically: (i) a mixture of three aldehydes: (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-oct-2-enal, (E)-dec-2-enal; (ii) a mixture of these three aldehydes and tridecane; (iii) oxoaldehyde: (E)-4-oxohex-2-enal; (iv) secretion extracted from metathoracic scent glands of G. lineatum adults and (v) hexane as a non-polar solvent. All chemicals were presented on a palatable food (Tenebrio molitor larvae). The aversive reactions of the green lizards towards the mealworms were evaluated by observing the approach latencies, attack latencies and approach-attack intervals. The green lizards exhibited a strong aversive reaction to the mixture of three aldehydes. Tridecane reduced the aversive reaction to the aldehyde mixture. Oxoaldehyde caused the weakest, but still significant, aversive reaction. The secretion from whole metathoracic scent glands also clearly had an aversive effect on the green lizards. Moreover, when a living specimen of G. lineatum or Pyrrhocoris apterus (another aposematic red-and-black prey) was presented to the green lizards before the trials with the aldehyde mixture, the aversive effect of the mixture was enhanced. In conclusion, the mixture of three aldehydes had the strong aversive effect and could signal the potential toxicity of G. lineatum to the green lizards.

  12. UV-Deprived Coloration Reduces Success in Mate Acquisition in Male Sand Lizards (Lacerta agilis)

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Mats; Andersson, Staffan; Wapstra, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent work on animal signals has revealed a wide occurrence of UV signals in tetrapods, in particular birds, but also in lizards (and perhaps other Squamate reptiles). Our previous work on the Swedish sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) has verified, both in correlative selection analyses in the wild and with laboratory and field experiments, the importance of the green ‘badge’ on the body sides of adult males for securing mating opportunities, probably mostly through deterring rival males rather than attracting females. The role of UV in communication has, however, never been examined. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that when measured immediately after spring skin shedding, there is also signaling in the UV. By UV-depriving the signal (reflectance) with sun block chemicals fixated with permeable, harmless spray dressing, we show that males in the control group (spray dressing only) had significantly higher success in mate acquisition than UV-deprived males. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest that at least two colour traits in sand lizards, badge area and UV, contribute to rival deterrence and/or female choice on UV characters, which elevates success in mate acquisition in UV intact male sand lizards. PMID:21602928

  13. The mucosubstance coating the pneumonocytes in the lungs of Xenopus laevis and Lacerta viridis.

    PubMed

    Meban, C

    1975-01-01

    The layer of mucosubstance that is associated with the free surface membranes of the pneumonocytes in the lungs of the toad Xenopus laevis and the lizard Lacerta viridis was demonstrated by electron microscopy using iron oxide stain. The form and staining reactions of the mucosubstance layer were similar in both animals. In electron micrographs the mucosubstance was represented by a band of densely stained material (25-50 nm thick) which coated the entire free surface of the pneumonocytes. It appeared to be firmly attached to the outer leaflet of the superficial plasma membrane. Short lengths of osmiophilic membranes, presumed to be fragments of pulmonary surfactant, were often observed lying free in the air spaces but they did not show any affinity for iron stain. Incubation of lung sections in a solution of neuraminidase produced a marked decrease in the intensity of the surface staining; no change was detected after incubation in trypsin, papain, hyaluronidase, N-acetyl cysteine, or phosphate buffer. It is, therefore, concluded that the pneumonocyte surface coat consists mainly of a sialomucin.

  14. The sensory component of the facial nerve of a reptile (Lacerta viridis).

    PubMed

    Jacobs, V L

    1979-04-01

    The sensory fibers of the facial nerve in Lacerta viridis have been studied with a silver impregnation method to follow the course of axonal degeneration. Destruction of the geniculate ganglion demonstrated the degenerated sensory component of the facial nerve adjacent to the anterior vestibular root. Within the lateral vestibular area the facial sensory fibers consist of numerous rootlets separated by vestibular fibers and cells. These rootlets may join to form a main or paired sensory tract that passes through the vestibular nuclei to enter the tractus solitarius and divide into a small ascending prefacial component and a major descending prevagal division. A few fibers continue into the postvagal part of tractus solitarius and extend caudally to terminate in the nucleus commissura infima. Prefacial fibers terminate along the periventricular gray while prevagal fibers terminate within the tractus solitarius on the dendrites of cells of nucleus tractus solitarius and near the periphery of the dorsal motor nucleus of X. There was no noticeable degeneration in the descendens tractus trigemini. Terminal degeneration to descendens nucleus trigemini and motor nucleus of VII followed the tractus solitarius course. Most facial sensory fibers are probably related to taste and other visceral information.

  15. Ultraviolet nuptial colour determines fight success in male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis)

    PubMed Central

    Bajer, Katalin; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Herczeg, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Animal communication through colour signals is a central theme in sexual selection. Structural colours can be just as costly and honest signals as pigment-based colours. Ultraviolet (UV) is a structural colour that can be important both in intrasexual competition and mate choice. However, it is still unknown if a UV signal alone can determine the outcome of male–male fights. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) males develop a nuptial throat coloration with a strong UV component. Among males differing only in their manipulated UV colour, females prefer males with higher UV. Here, we experimentally decreased the UV coloration of randomly chosen males from otherwise similar male pairs to test the hypothesis that a difference in UV colour alone can affect fight success during male–male competition. Our results fully supported the hypotheses: in almost 90 per cent of the contests the male with reduced UV lost the fight. Our results show that UV can be an important signal, affecting both female mate choice and determining male fight success. PMID:21715397

  16. Reptilian myotomal myogenesis-lessons from the sand lizard Lacerta agilis L. (Reptilia, Lacertidae)Update.

    PubMed

    Rupik, Weronika; Swadźba, Elwira; Dubińska-Magiera, Magda; Jędrzejowska, Izabela; Daczewska, Małgorzata

    2012-10-01

    Reptilian myotomal myogenesis is poorly understood. This paper reports on structural, ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies of muscle differentiation in sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) embryos. During somitogenesis, the somites are composed of epithelial vesicles with a centrally located somitocoel. At later developmental stages the ventral portion of the somite cortex disaggregates into the sclerotome mesenchyme, while the dorsal wall of the somite differentiates into dermomyotome. At these developmental stages, mononucleated cells of the dermomyotome are Pax3-positive. The dermomyotome layer forms the dorsomedial and ventromedial lips. The myotome is first composed of mono- and then of multinucleated myotubes and small mononucleated cells that occur in the vicinity of the myotubes. These mononucleated cells exhibit low proliferative potential as revealed by the use of PCNA antibody. At subsequent stages of myogenesis the mononucleated cells express Pax7 protein, a marker of satellite cells, and assume ultrastructural features characteristic of satellite cells. Some of the mononucleated cells contribute to muscle growth, being involved in fusion with differentiating muscle fibers. This study revealed similarities of myotomal myogenesis in reptiles to that of other vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Molecular systematics and historical biogeography of the green lizards (Lacerta) in Greece: insights from mitochondrial and nuclear DNA.

    PubMed

    Sagonas, Kostas; Poulakakis, Nikos; Lymberakis, Petros; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Pafilis, Panayiotis; Valakos, Efstratios D

    2014-07-01

    The green lizards of the genus Lacerta (Sauria, Lacertidae) comprise nine recognized species, which in Europe are mainly restricted to the southern peninsulas. Four of them (L. trilineata, L. viridis, L. bilineata and L. agilis) occur in Greece. The uncertainty of morphological diversification renders the taxonomic assignment into species and subspecies problematic. In this study sequence data derived from two mitochondrial (cytochrome b and 16S rRNA) genes and one nuclear (NKTR) gene were used to (a) evaluate the taxonomic status of the genus Lacerta in Greece with emphasis on L. trilineata group and (b) investigate the evolutionary history of the genus through the application of phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses, using Gallotia and Timon as outgroups. The phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of four major clades. The first clade corresponds to L. trilineata group, the second to L. media, the third to L. agilis and the fourth to a complex of L. viridis and L. bilineata. However, the produced phylogenetic relationships are not congruent with the current taxonomy, especially in the first clade in which L. trilineata appeared to be paraphyletic in regard to L. pamphylica. Six distinct lineages were inferred within L. trilineata, despite the current recognition of nine morphological subspecies, the genetic differentiation of which exceeds that of other Lacerta species, imposing a thorough taxonomic revision of the species. Our results suggested a rapid diversification of L. trilineata group during the late Miocene. We believe that the present distribution of the genus in Greece is the result of several dispersal and vicariant events that took place during the late Miocene and early Pliocene.

  18. The REX survey as a Tool to Test the Beaming Model for BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caccianiga, A.; della Ceca, R.; Gioia, I. M.; Maccacaro, T.; Wolter, A.

    We present the preliminary properties of the BL Lacs discovered in the REX survey (Caccianiga et al. 1998). In particular, we discuss a few sources with optical spectral properties ``intermediate'' between those of BL Lacs and those of elliptical galaxies. These objects could harbour weak (in the optical band) sources of non-thermal continuum in their nuclei and, if confirmed, they could represent the faint tail of the BL Lac population. The existence of such ``weak'' BL Lacs is matter of discussion in recent literature (e.g. Marcha et al. 1996) and could lead to a revision of the defining criteria of a BL Lac and, consequently, of their cosmological and statistical properties.

  19. [Effects of ablation of the hindlimb on the organization of the ventral horn of the spinal cord in the lumbar region of green lizard embryos (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Clairambault, P

    1978-01-01

    After extirpation of an hind limb in embryos of Lacerta viridis, numerous motor neuroblasts degenerate on the operated side, in the ventral horn of the lumbar spinal cord and the corresponding motor column is reduced or disappears. The lumbar spinal ganglia are affected and reduced on the operated side.

  20. [Ultrastructural characteristics of several constituants of limb buds in the embryos of the slowworm (Anguis fragilis L.) and the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-06-09

    Ultrastructural characteristics of the cells of the apical crest, of the mesoblast and of the ventral processes of somites, in the anlage of the anterior limb buds of embryos of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) are described at early stages of the development. Differences between the two species studied are brought to light.

  1. Mating order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard Lacerta vivipara.

    PubMed

    Fitze, Patrick S; Cote, Julien; Clobert, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies indicate that directional female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice importantly contribute to non-random mating patterns. In species where females prefer larger sized males, disentangling different hypotheses leading to non-random mating patterns is especially difficult, given that male size usually correlates with behaviours that may lead to non-random mating (e.g. size-dependent emergence from hibernation, male fighting ability). Here we investigate female mate choice and order-dependent female mate choice in the polygynandrous common lizard (Lacerta vivipara). By sequentially presenting males in random order to females, we exclude non-random mating patterns potentially arising due to intra-sexual selection (e.g. male-male competition), trait-dependent encounter probabilities, trait-dependent conspicuousness, or trait-dependent emergence from hibernation. To test for order-dependent female mate choice we investigate whether the previous mating history affects female choice. We show that body size and body condition of the male with which a female mated for the first time were bigger and better, respectively, than the average body size and body condition of the rejected males. There was a negative correlation between body sizes of first and second copulating males. This indicates that female mate choice is dependent on the previous mating history and it shows that the female's choice criteria are non-static, i.e. non-directional. Our study therefore suggests that context-dependent female mate choice may not only arise due to genotype-environment interactions, but also due to other female mating strategies, i.e. order-dependent mate choice. Thus context-dependent female mate choice might be more frequent than previously thought.

  2. Extraembryonic membrane development in a reproductively bimodal lizard, Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara.

    PubMed

    Stewart, James R; Heulin, Benoit; Surget-Groba, Yann

    2004-01-01

    Reproductive mode has been remarkably labile among squamate reptiles and the evolutionary transition from oviparity to viviparity commonly has been accompanied by a shift in the pattern of embryonic nutrition. Structural specializations for placental transfer of nutrients during intrauterine gestation are highly diverse and many features of the extraembryonic membranes of viviparous species differ markedly from those of oviparous species. However, because of a high degree of evolutionary divergence between the species used for comparisons it is likely that the observed differences arose secondarily to the evolution of viviparity. We studied development of the extraembryonic membranes and placentation in the reproductively bimodal lizard Lacerta vivipara because the influence of reproductive mode on the structural/functional relationship between mothers and embryos can best be understood by studying the most recent evolutionary events. Lecithotrophic viviparity has evolved recently within this species and, although populations with different reproductive modes are allopatric, oviparous and viviparous forms interbreed in the laboratory and share many life history characteristics. In contrast to prior comparisons between oviparous and viviparous species, we found no differences in ontogeny or structure of the extraembryonic membranes between populations with different reproductive modes within L. vivipara. However, we did confirm conclusions from previous studies that the tertiary envelope of the egg, the eggshell, is much reduced in the viviparous population. These conclusions support a widely accepted model for the evolution of squamate placentation. We also found support for work published nearly 80 years ago that the pattern of development of the yolk sac of L. vivipara is unusual and that a function of a unique structure of squamate development, the yolk cleft, is hematopoiesis. The structure of the yolk sac splanchnopleure of L. vivipara is inconsistent with a

  3. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D Ross; Baldwin, Carole C

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats.

  4. The embryonic development of the cortical plate in reptiles: a comparative study in Emys orbicularis and Lacerta agilis.

    PubMed

    Goffinet, A M

    1983-04-20

    From the earliest stage of its ontogenesis, the mammalian cerebral cortex displays a remarkable cytoarchitectonic organization, with its neurons oriented radially within the cortical plate (CP). It is not known whether this radial organization of cortical neurons is characteristic of every cerebral cortex or whether it reflects a progressive phylogenetic acquisition. In order to study this question, the embryonic development of the cortex has been examined in reptiles, where it is the most primitive. Two species, Emys orbicularis and Lacerta agilis, representative of the two principal reptilian orders (chelonians and squamates), have been studied with histological methods. Golgi impregnation, and electron microscopy. Very similar patterns of cell proliferation, migration, maturation, and synaptogenesis have been observed. However, important species differences are present in the cellular organization of the cortical plate. Whereas in Emys the structure of the cortical plate is rudimentary, in Lacerta it appears well developed and quite reminiscent of its mammalian counterpart. Preliminary comparisons with embryological preparations of Sphenodon and Crocodilus niloticus show that the organization of the cortical plate displays significant variations among the different reptilian groups. The present results suggest that the radial organization of cortical neurons is not an all or nothing phenomenon but has been acquired independently and is thus a case of homoplasy, probably due to convergence (Northcutt, 81). Several possible implications of these findings are discussed and a working hypothesis based on the role of radial glial cells in the formation of cytoarchitectonic patterns (Rakic, '80) is presented.

  5. Varicus lacerta, a new species of goby (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini, Nes subgroup) from a mesophotic reef in the southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Tornabene, Luke; Robertson, D. Ross; Baldwin, Carole C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We describe a new species of goby, Varicus lacerta sp. n., which was collected from a mesophotic reef at Curacao, southern Caribbean. The new species is the tenth species of Varicus, all of which occur below traditional SCUBA depths in the wider Caribbean area. Its placement in the genus Varicus is supported by a molecular phylogenetic analysis of three nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b. In addition, the new species has one anal-fin pterygiophore inserted anterior to the first haemal spine, which distinguishes Varicus species from most species in the closely related and morphologically similar genus Psilotris. Varicus lacerta sp. n. is distinguished from all other named species of Varicus by the absence of scales, having highly branched, feather-like pelvic-fin rays, and in its live coloration. We provide the cytochrome c oxidase I DNA barcode of the holotype and compare color patterns of all species of Varicus and Psilotris for which color photographs or illustrations are available. This study is one of several recent studies demonstrating the utility of manned submersibles in exploring the diversity of poorly studied but species-rich deep-reef habitats. PMID:27408581

  6. The CLASS BL Lac sample: the radio luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchã, M. J. M.; Caccianiga, A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a new sample of BL Lac objects selected from a deep (30 mJy) radio survey of flat spectrum radio sources (the CLASS blazar survey). The sample is one of the largest well-defined samples in the low-power regime with a total of 130 sources of which 55 satisfy the `classical' optical BL Lac selection criteria, and the rest have indistinguishable radio properties. The primary goal of this study is to establish the radio luminosity function (RLF) on firm statistical ground at low radio luminosities where previous samples have not been able to investigate. The gain of taking a peek at lower powers is the possibility to search for the flattening of the luminosity function which is a feature predicted by the beaming model but which has remained elusive to observational confirmation. In this study, we extend for the first time the BL Lac RLF down to very low radio powers ˜1022 W Hz-1, i.e. two orders of magnitude below the RLF currently available in the literature. In the process, we confirm the importance of adopting a broader, and more physically meaningful set of classification criteria to avoid the systematic missing of low-luminosity BL Lacs. Thanks to the good statistics we confirm the existence of weak but significant positive cosmological evolution for the BL Lac population, and we detect, for the first time the flattening of the RLF at L ˜ 1025 W Hz-1 in agreement with the predictions of the beaming model.

  7. Galactic membership of BL Her type variable stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurkovic, M. I.; Stojanovic, M.; Ninkovic, S.

    2016-05-01

    As the RR Lyrae stars evolve on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram they are believed to become short period Type II Cepheids, known as BL Her type (with a pulsation period from 1 to 3-8 days). Assuming that their mass is around 0.5-0.6M_Sol, and that they are low metallicity objects, they were thought to belong to the halo of the Milky Way. We investigated seven Galactic short period Type II Cepheids (BL Her, SW Tau, V553 Cen, DQ And, BD Cas, V383 Cyg, and KT Com) in order to establish their membership within the Galactic structure using the kinematic approach. Gaia should provide us with more data needed to conduct the study of the whole sample.

  8. On fuzzy ideals of BL-algebras.

    PubMed

    Meng, Biao Long; Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true.

  9. Spermatogenesis of the lizard Lacerta vivipara: histological studies and amino acid sequence of a protamine lacertine 1.

    PubMed

    Martinage, A; Depeiges, A; Wouters, D; Morel, L; Sautière, P

    1996-06-01

    The lizard Lacerta vivipara is a seasonal breeder with a well characterized reproductive cycle. An histological study of the lizard testis has been performed at different stages of spermatogenesis and the nuclear basic proteins content was assessed by electrophoretical analysis. Two protamines, lacertines 1 and 2, are present in spermatozoa in April and May. We have isolated lacertine1 and characterized a protamine with a mass of 4,963.7 Da. Amino acid sequence of this protamine (41 residues) was established from data provided by automated Edman degradation. It is characterized by a basic amino acid stretch in the N- and C-terminal regions and by a central part which only consists of 3 different intermingled amino acids. This protamine presents 62% homology with scylliorhinine Z3 from dog-fish Scylliorhinus caniculus and 58% homology with quail protamine. The reported lizard protamine sequence is the first reptilian protamine sequence available so far.

  10. Rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra stars. IV - The spatially resolved chromosphere of AR Lacertae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Neff, J. E.; Linsky, J. L.; Gibson, D. M.; Rodono, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors observed the RS Canum Venaticorum system AR Lacertae systematically over an orbital period with the International Ultraviolet Explorer in October 1983. Contemporaneous radio observations were obtained at the VLA. The spectra of the Mg II k emission line were analyzed using a Doppler imaging technique. In this way, three discrete regions of emission were identified in the outer atmosphere of the K star-two 'plages' and a chromospheric brightening that was related to a radio flare. The widths of the plage profiles indicate that the two plages together cover about 2 percent of the visible stellar hemisphere, and their v sin i values indicate that they lie close to the equator of the K star. The Mg II k surface flux in the plages is about five times the mean Mg II k surface flux of the K star.

  11. Multiband Microvariability of BL Lac During Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.; Carini, M. T.; Noble, J. C.

    1998-01-01

    The blazar BL Lac recently underwent a major outburst. A search for microvariability was made with the 0.76 m telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. Nearly 300 CCD observations in V and R were made over ten nights in July. During that time, BL Lac varied by more than 1.5 magnitudes and exhibited substantial microvariability. In fact, it exhibited microvariability each of the eight nights multiple exposures were made, being most active when brightest on July 29. On this night, four mini-flares were seen within 7 hours. During one of these flares, BL Lac brightened by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The variations in V and R were simultaneous within the limits of the observations. However, the V and R magnitudes did not always change at the same rate. On July 3, BL Lac brightened in R faster than in V. Then on July 4, it dimmed in V faster than in R. Yet over the ten nights observed, BL Lac became bluer as it brightened. Another interesting difference between the V and R data was seen on July 4 when a mini-flare was seen in V but not in R. Clearly, while the V and R variations are highly correlated, there are compelling differences. Here we present these observations and discuss them in relation to models intended to explain microvariability. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NASA grant NCC5-228.

  12. [Electron microscopic study of the penetration and distribution of somitic cells in the mesoblast of the limb buds of reptiles (Anguis fragilis and Lacerta viridis)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-09-29

    Based on characteristics of mitochondria and on the amount of lipid inclusions, a distinction between somitic cells and mesoblastic somatopleural cells is possible, at the early stages of the development of the limb bud in Reptiles (Anguis fragilis and Lacerta viridis). The dislocation of the ventral processes of the somites and the localisation of the somitic cells in the mesoblast of the anterior limb buds could be studied.

  13. The Radio-optical Spectra of BL Lacs and Possible Relatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J.

    I consider the suggestion that, in a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources with available optical spectra (Marcha et al 1996), the strong emission line objects, or those with passive elliptical spectra are close relatives of the BL Lacs. New observations at four frequencies from 8 to 43GHz are presented, together with evidence for radio variability. Combined with other radio and optical data from the literature, we are able to construct the non-thermal SEDs and use these to address the questions: are the optically passive objects potentially `unrecognised' BL Lacs (either intrinsically weak and/or hidden by starlight)? What is the relationship between the surprising number of strong emission-line objects and the BL Lacs?

  14. On Fuzzy Ideals of BL-Algebras

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiao Long

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we investigate further properties of fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra. The notions of fuzzy prime ideals, fuzzy irreducible ideals, and fuzzy Gödel ideals of a BL-algebra are introduced and their several properties are investigated. We give a procedure to generate a fuzzy ideal by a fuzzy set. We prove that every fuzzy irreducible ideal is a fuzzy prime ideal but a fuzzy prime ideal may not be a fuzzy irreducible ideal and prove that a fuzzy prime ideal ω is a fuzzy irreducible ideal if and only if ω(0) = 1 and |Im⁡(ω)| = 2. We give the Krull-Stone representation theorem of fuzzy ideals in BL-algebras. Furthermore, we prove that the lattice of all fuzzy ideals of a BL-algebra is a complete distributive lattice. Finally, it is proved that every fuzzy Boolean ideal is a fuzzy Gödel ideal, but the converse implication is not true. PMID:24892085

  15. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  16. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  17. B-L mediated SUSY breaking with radiative B-L symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Kikuchi, Tatsuru; Kubo, Takayuki

    2008-11-23

    We explore a mechanism of radiative B-L symmetry breaking in analogous to the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The breaking scale of B-L symmetry is related to the neutrino masses through the see-saw mechanism. Once we incorporate the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry in SUSY models, the U(1){sub B-L} gaugino, Z-tilde{sub B-L} appears, and it can mediate the SUSY breaking (Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking) at around the scale of 10{sup 6} GeV. Then we find a links between the neutrino mass (more precisly the see-saw or B-L scale of order 10{sup 6} GeV) and the Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking scale. It is also very interesting that the gluino at the weak scale becomes relatively light, and almost compressed mass spectra for the gaugino sector can be realized in this scenario, which is very interesting in scope of the LHC.

  18. [Effects of cytosine-arabinofuranoside on the development of reptilian embryos (Lacerta viridis, Laur. and Anguis fragilis, L.)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A

    1982-01-01

    Administered into the yolk sac of eggs of Lacerta viridis as a single dose of 17 to 40 micrograms, cytosine-arabinoside (Ara-C) was compatible with survival of the embryo, from the sixth day of incubation, for at least 20 to 25 days. The LD50 was 40 to 50 micrograms per egg. Doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C introduced in the yolk sac of eggs of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) cultured in vitro, at stages of the allantoid bud of 0,5 mm to 2,5 mm long, killed the embryo in 4 to 8 days (possibly due to alterations of capillary blood vessels of allantois and area vasculosa). In the two species, these doses caused cytotoxic effects on embryonic proliferating tissues, growth inhibition and a variety of developmental defects. In young embryos of Anguis fragilis, similar doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C caused, in 2 to 4 days, death of many cells in the anlagen of growing organs: neural tube, sensory organs, bronchi, mesoderm of the limb bud, subcutaneous mesenchyme, anlage of dorsal skeletal structures, etc.; followed by growth inhibition and malformations. On the other hand, in the limb bud, the apical ridge was less retrogressed than in control embryos; the limb buds showed slightly better development in treated embryos than in controls, but, Ara-C induced severe damage in their mesoderm. In all embryos of Lacerta viridis, treated at the stage of 6 days or of 10 days of incubation by doses of 20 to 40 micrograms of Ara-C and killed 15 to 35 days later, there was a general reduction of size and of weight and external and internal malformations, more or less severe, were present: modifications of the form of the head, shortening of the lower jaw, labial clefts, microphthalmia, micromelia and other limbs defects, developmental defects of the tail. In some embryos, the only external defects observed were missing fingers and toes; in three of these embryos, the same digits were missing in the four limbs. Modifications of limb morphogenesis induced by Ara-C are

  19. RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 and Their Complex Proteins Implicated in Many Cellular Pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorynia, Sabine; Bandeiras, Tiago M.; Matias, Pedro M.; Pinho, Filipa G.; McVey, Colin E.; Donner, Peter; Carrondo, Maria Arménia

    RuvBL1 and its homolog RuvBL2 belong to the AAA+ family of ATPases and play important roles in chromatin remodeling, in transcriptional regulation, in DNA repair and in the c-Myc and Wnt signaling pathways. Proteins involved in these pathways are often mutated in human cancers. Both RuvBL proteins form a complex and act alone or together in diverse cellular processes. The three-dimensional structures of human RuvBL1 refined using diffraction data to 2.2 Å resolution and of the human RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex with a truncated domain II at 3 Å resolution are presented. The dodecameric RuvBL1/RuvBL2 complex structure differs from previously described models. It consists of two heterohexameric rings with alternating RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 monomers that interact with each other via domain II. ATPase and helicase activities of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 were also tested. Interestingly, truncation of domain II resulted not only in a substantial increase of ATP consumption by the RuvBL proteins, but also in stimulation of helicase activity, which was not observed with the full-length proteins.

  20. Further evidence of the existence of oviparous populations of Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara in the NW of the Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Heulin, B; Guillaume, C P; Vogrin, N; Surget-Groba, Y; Tadic, Z

    2000-05-01

    The lizard Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara, which is viviparous in the greatest part of its distribution range, has however some oviparous populations on the southern margin of its range. The present study aimed at determining the reproductive mode and the ATA (aspartate transaminase) enzyme characteristics of four populations in Slovenia and one population in Croatia. The Slovenian females studied here presented an oviparous reproductive mode which strongly resembled those observed in the oviparous populations of south-western France and north-western Spain. Our electrophoresis analyses revealed the existence of two distinct alleles, ATA-150 and ATA-200, in the oviparous populations of Slovenia. These alleles were identical to those observed in the French and Spanish oviparous group and were distinct from the allele ATA-100 characterizing the viviparous populations that we had previously studied. Although we did not study the reproductive mode of Croatian females, the allele ATA-200 observed in one population of Croatia strongly suggested that this population might also be oviparous.

  1. European green lizard (Lacerta viridis) personalities: Linking behavioural types to ecologically relevant traits at different ontogenetic stages.

    PubMed

    Bajer, Katalin; Horváth, Gergely; Molnár, Orsolya; Török, János; Garamszegi, László Zsolt; Herczeg, Gábor

    2015-02-01

    Consistent individual differences within (animal personality) and across (behavioural syndrome) behaviours became well recognized during the past decade. Nevertheless, our knowledge about the evolutionary and developmental mechanisms behind the phenomena is still incomplete. Here, we explored if risk-taking and exploration were consistent and linked to different ecologically relevant traits in wild-caught adult male European green lizards (Lacerta viridis) and in their 2-3 weeks old laboratory-reared offspring. Both adults and juveniles displayed animal personality, consistency being higher in juveniles. We found correlation between risk-taking and exploration (suggestive of a behavioural syndrome) only in adults. Juveniles were more explorative than adults. Large or ectoparasite-free adult males were more explorative than small or parasitized males. Juvenile females tended to be more risk-taking than males. Behaviour of fathers and their offspring did not correlate. We conclude that European green lizards show high behavioural consistency and age is an important determinant of its strength and links to traits likely affecting fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Iridophores and not carotenoids account for chromatic variation of carotenoid-based coloration in common lizards (Lacerta vivipara).

    PubMed

    San-Jose, Luis M; Granado-Lorencio, Fernando; Sinervo, Barry; Fitze, Patrick S

    2013-03-01

    Abstract Carotenoids typically need reflective background components to shine. Such components, iridophores, leucophores, and keratin- and collagen-derived structures, are generally assumed to show no or little environmental variability. Here, we investigate the origin of environmentally induced variation in the carotenoid-based ventral coloration of male common lizards (Lacerta vivipara) by investigating the effects of dietary carotenoids and corticosterone on both carotenoid- and background-related reflectance. We observed a general negative chromatic change that was prevented by β-carotene supplementation. However, chromatic changes did not result from changes in carotenoid-related reflectance or skin carotenoid content but from changes in background-related reflectance that may have been mediated by vitamin A1. An in vitro experiment showed that the encountered chromatic changes most likely resulted from changes in iridophore reflectance. Our findings demonstrate that chromatic variation in carotenoid-based ornaments may not exclusively reflect differences in integumentary carotenoid content and, hence, in qualities linked to carotenoid deposition (e.g., foraging ability, immune response, or antioxidant capacity). Moreover, skin carotenoid content and carotenoid-related reflectance were related to male color polymorphism, suggesting that carotenoid-based coloration of male common lizards is a multicomponent signal, with iridophores reflecting environmental conditions and carotenoids reflecting genetically based color morphs.

  3. A sensitivity analysis to the role of the fronto-parietal suture in Lacerta bilineata: a preliminary finite element study.

    PubMed

    Moazen, Mehran; Costantini, David; Bruner, Emiliano

    2013-02-01

    Cranial sutures are sites of bone growth and development but micromovements at these sites may distribute the load across the skull more evenly. Computational studies have incorporated sutures into finite element (FE) models to assess various hypotheses related to their function. However, less attention has been paid to the sensitivity of the FE results to the shape, size, and stiffness of the modeled sutures. Here, we assessed the sensitivity of the strain predictions to the aforementioned parameters in several models of fronto-parietal (FP) suture in Lacerta bilineata. For the purpose of this study, simplifications were made in relation to modeling the bone properties and the skull loading. Results highlighted that modeling the FP as either an interdigitated suture or a simplified butt suture, did not reduce the strain distribution in the FP region. Sensitivity tests showed that similar patterns of strain distribution can be obtained regardless of the size of the suture, or assigned stiffness, yet the exact magnitudes of strains are highly sensitive to these parameters. This study raises the question whether the morphogenesis of epidermic scales in the FP region in the Lacertidae is related to high strain fields in this region, because of micromovement in the FP suture.

  4. Spotted fever group rickettsiae detected in immature stages of ticks parasitizing on Iberian endemic lizard Lacerta schreiberi Bedriaga, 1878.

    PubMed

    Kubelová, Michaela; Papoušek, Ivo; Bělohlávek, Tomáš; de Bellocq, Joëlle Goüy; Baird, Stuart J E; Široký, Pavel

    2015-09-01

    Spotted fever rickettsioses are tick-borne diseases of growing public health concern. The prevalence of rickettsia-infected ticks and their ability to parasitize humans significantly influence the risk of human infection. Altogether 466 Ixodes ricinus ticks (428 nymphs and 38 larvae) collected from 73 Lacerta schreiberi lizards were examined by PCR targeting the citrate synthetase gene gltA for the presence of Rickettsia spp. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 47% of nymphs and 31.6% of larvae. They were subsequently subjected to a second PCR reaction using primers derived from the outer membrane protein rOmpA encoding gene (ompA) to detect spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFG). This analysis shows that 41.4% of nymphs and 7.9% of larvae collected from the lizards contain DNA of SFG rickettsiae. Sequencing of 43 randomly selected samples revealed two different haplotypes, both closely related to R. monacensis (39 and 4 samples, respectively). The remaining ompA negative Rickettsia spp. samples were determined to be R. helvetica based on sequencing of ompB and gltA fragments. Our results indicate that the role of Iberian endemic lizard L. schreiberi and its ectoparasites in the ecology and epidemiology of zoonotic SFG rickettsioses may be appreciable.

  5. Oxygen consumption in the lizard genus Lacerta in relation to diel variation, maximum activity and body weight.

    PubMed

    Cragg, P A

    1978-12-01

    1. Diel recordings of VO2 under a 12 h Light/12 h Dark regime, constant light or constant dark reveal a strong endogenous diurnal rhythm in L. sicula. L. vivipara show an exogeneous rhythm with activity occurring only in the light whilst L. viridis have a weak endogeneous rhythm that is modified by behavioural factors and inhibited by dark. 2. Standard (or basal) VO2 can only be attained after several hours in an 'indifferent' environment, shielded from extraneous stimuli. Measurements must be at night (light or dark) for unrestrained L. sicula and in the dark (day or night, restrained or unrestrained) for L. vivipara and L. viridis. Intrageneric std VO2 (ml h-1 STPD) = 0.328 W0.76 or 0.216 W0.77 for 1- or 3-days starvation at 30 degrees C for 0.2 to 34 g Lacerta. 3. Intrageneric maximum VO2 (determined for 30 to 60 s of provoked activity during the day) = 2.66 W0.747 at 30 degrees C for 1-days starvation. 4. Respiratory exchange ratio, R = 0.75 or 0.85 for std VO2 after 1 or 3 days starvation and 0.95 and 1.45 for mean daily and max VO2. High R values are considered a result of anaerobic metabolism and hyperventilation during activity.

  6. The complete mitochondrial genome of the green lizard Lacerta viridis viridis (Reptilia: Lacertidae) and its phylogenetic position within squamate reptiles.

    PubMed

    Böhme, M U; Fritzsch, G; Tippmann, A; Schlegel, M; Berendonk, T U

    2007-06-01

    For the first time the complete mitochondrial genome was sequenced for a member of Lacertidae. Lacerta viridis viridis was sequenced in order to compare the phylogenetic relationships of this family to other reptilian lineages. Using the long-polymerase chain reaction (long PCR) we characterized a mitochondrial genome, 17,156 bp long showing a typical vertebrate pattern with 13 protein coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs (tRNA), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) and one major noncoding region. The noncoding region of L. v. viridis was characterized by a conspicuous 35 bp tandem repeat at its 5' terminus. A phylogenetic study including all currently available squamate mitochondrial sequences demonstrates the position of Lacertidae within a monophyletic squamate group. We obtained a narrow relationship of Lacertidae to Scincidae, Iguanidae, Varanidae, Anguidae, and Cordylidae. Although, the internal relationships within this group yielded only a weak resolution and low bootstrap support, the revealed relationships were more congruent with morphological studies than with recent molecular analyses.

  7. Project Based Learning (PjBL) Practices at Politeknik Kota Bharu, Malaysia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Md. Baharuddin Haji Abdul; Daud, Khairul Azhar Mat; Jusoff, Kamaruzaman; Ghani, Nik Azida Abd

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the utilization of Project-based Learning module in the subject of project development for the Mechanical Engineering students at Politeknik Kota Bharu. This study focuses on the development of the PjBL module based on socio-constructivist approach. The objective of this study is to explore the influence of the utilization of…

  8. Simultaneous spectra and radio properties of BL Lacs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mingaliev, M.; Sotnikova, Yu.; Mufakharov, T.; Nieppola, E.; Tornikoski, M.; Tammi, J.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Udovitskiy, R.; Erkenov, A.

    2017-07-01

    We present the results of nine years of the blazar observing programme at the RATAN-600 radio telescope (2005-2014). The data were obtained at six frequency bands (1.1, 2.3, 4.8, 7.7, 11.2, 21.7 GHz) for 290 blazars, mostly BL Lacs. In addition, we used data at 37 GHz obtained quasi-simultaneously with the Metsahovi radio observatory for some sources. The sample includes blazars of three types: high-synchrotron peaked (HSP), low-synchrotron peaked (LSP), and intermediate-synchrotron peaked (ISP). We present several epochs of flux density measurements, simultaneous radio spectra, spectral indices and properties of their variability. The analysis of the radio properties of different classes of blazars showed that LSP and HSP BL Lac blazars are quite different objects on average. LSPs have higher flux densities, flatter spectra and their variability increases as higher frequencies are considered. On the other hand, HSPs are very faint in radio domain, tend to have steep low frequency spectra, and they are less variable than LSPs at all frequencies. Another result is spectral flattening above 7.7 GHz detected in HSPs, while an average LSP spectrum typically remains flat at both the low and high frequency ranges we considered.

  9. Hard synchrotron BL lacs: The case of 1ES 1101-232

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolter, Anna; Ghisellini, Gabriele; Tagliaferri, Gainpiero; Tavecchio, Fabrizio; Caccianiga, Alessandro

    2001-12-01

    The bright X-ray selected BL Lac object 1ES1101-232 shows a flat X-ray spectrum, making it detectable with high statistics over the wide BeppoSAX energy range. We have observed it in two different epochs with BeppoSAX, and found a variation of the flux of about 30% that can be explained by a change in the spectral index above the synchrotron peak. We present here the data and infer limits on the strength of the magnetic field based on models of emission for High-frequency peaked BL Lacs. .

  10. B2 1101 + 38 (Markaryan 421) - Polarization and photometric behavior in the optical during 1974-1982

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen-Torn, V. A.; Marchenko, S. G.; Smekhacheva, R. I.; Iakovleva, V. A.

    1983-04-01

    The results are given of polarization and photometric observations of the BL Lacertae object B2 1101 + 38 (Markaryan 421) during 1974-1982. Variability with characteristic times from a few days to several years has been found. It is associated with variability of the nonthermal sources of polarized radiation which are superimposed on the underlying galaxy. The existence of a preferred direction of the polarization at theta(0) = 173 deg indicates the presence of a stable magnetic field, which can be regarded as an argument in favor of the single-body hypothesis for BL Lacertae objects.

  11. Indomethacin treatment prevents diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, but not glucose intolerance in C57BL/6J mice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    OBJECTIVE: We performed experiments to examine the metabolic consequences of inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) activity in obesity-prone C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat/high sucrose (HF/HS) diet. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: C57BL/6J mice were fed a HF/HS diet for 7 weeks under thermoneutral conditio...

  12. The gBL transport equations

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1989-05-01

    The transport equations arising from the ''generalized Balescu- Lenard'' (gBL) collision operator are obtained, and some of their properties examined. The equations contain neoclassical and turbulent transport as two special cases, having the same structure. The resultant theory offers potential explanation for a number of results not well understood, including the anomalous pinch, observed ratios of Q/GAMMAT on TFTR, and numerical reproduction of ASDEX profiles by a model for turbulent transport invoked without derivation, but by analogy to neoclassical theory. The general equations are specialized to consideration of a number of particular transport mechanisms of interest. 10 refs.

  13. [Cytophotometric studies on the levels of proteins and RNA in the nuclei of the apical crest ane the epiblast of the limb bud of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.) and the blindworm (Anguis fragilis L)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Jeanny, J C; Gontcharoff, M

    1975-06-16

    Cytophotometric determinations establish that in the limb buds of young embryos of the slow worm (Anguis fragilis L.) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis Laur.) the level of nuclear proteins and RNA is higher in the cells of the apical crest than in the cells of the epiblast on either side of the crest. This relative increase is progressively y reduced.

  14. Oxidative DNA damage and antioxidant defenses in the European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) in supercooled and frozen states.

    PubMed

    Voituron, Yann; Servais, Stéphane; Romestaing, Caroline; Douki, Thierry; Barré, Hervé

    2006-02-01

    The European common lizard (Lacerta vivipara) tolerates long periods at sub-zero temperatures, either in the supercooled or the frozen state. Both physiological conditions limit oxygen availability to tissues, compelling lizards to cope with potential oxidative stress during the transition from ischemic/anoxic conditions to reperfusion with aerated blood during recovery. To determine whether antioxidant defenses are implicated in the survival of lizards when facing sub-zero temperatures, we monitored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress either during supercooling or during freezing exposures (20 h at -2.5 degrees C) and 24 h after thawing in two organs of lizards--muscle and liver. Supercooling induced a significant increase in the total SOD and GPx activity in muscle (by 67 and 157%, respectively), but freezing had almost no effect on enzyme activity, either in muscle or in liver. By contrast, thawed lizards exhibited higher GPx activity in both organs (a 133% increase in muscle and 59% increase in liver) and a significant decrease in liver catalase activity (a 47% difference between control and thawed lizards). These data show that supercooling (but not freezing) triggers activation of the antioxidant system and this may be in anticipation of the overgeneration of oxyradicals when the temperature increases (while thawing or at the end of supercooling). Oxidative stress was assessed from the content of 8-oxodGuo and the different DNA adducts resulting from lipid peroxidation, but it was unaltered whatever the physiological state of the lizards, thus demonstrating the efficiency of the antioxidant system that has been developed by this species. Overall, antioxidant defenses appear to be part of the adaptive machinery for reptilian tolerance to sub-zero temperatures.

  15. [Cytogenetical approaches to the problem of form-formation and subspeciation in the complex Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara (Lacertidae, Sauria)].

    PubMed

    Kupriianova, L A

    2004-01-01

    Results of the author's long-term study of the karyotype of Lacerta (Zootoca) vivipara (family Lacertidae, Sauria) have been generalized and supplemented with relevant literature data. Within the species an interpopular karyotype variability was established, and several chromosomal forms were described. Karyotypes of L. (Z.) vivipara from four new, previously not examined populations have been first presented in this paper, and cytogenetical features of their chromosomes are given. Finally, cytogenetical analysis of particular specimens from different localities enabled the author to reveal a new chromosomal form and to define the limits of distribution of other forms of the species. The complex L. (Z.) vivipara has appeared to be more complicated than earlier believed. This complex includes several chromosomal forms of unclear taxonomic status, and some subspecies characterized by various modes of reproduction and distinct distribution ranges. It has been confirmed that in the complex L. (Z.) vivipara intensive chromosomal changes accompany the processes of form-formation and subspeciation. Some cytogenetical regularities of these processes have been demonstrated and compared with hybridogeneous form-formation and speciation. Based on the critical analysis of the available karyological data, some mechanisms of chromosomal changes were described, and their tendencies were determined. In addition, intraspecific relationships were analysed. The proposed scheme was compared with the pattern of intraspecific phylogeny of L. (Z.) vivipara based on molecular data. It has been shown that a high cytogenetical differentiation of the found chromosomal forms and subspecies is correlated with their low morphological differentiation and with a rather low genetical differentiation. The results of the combined analysis suggest the leading role of cytogenetical data for understanding the processes of form-formation and subspeciation. The importance of chromosomal rearrangements in

  16. Structural and Photometric Properties of the Andromeda Satellite Dwarf Galaxy Lacerta I from Deep Imaging with WIYN PODI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhode, Katherine L.; Crnojević, Denija; Sand, David J.; Janowiecki, Steven; Young, Michael D.; Spekkens, Kristine

    2017-02-01

    We present results from WIYN pODI imaging of Lacerta I (And XXXI), a satellite dwarf galaxy discovered in the outskirts of the Andromeda galaxy (M31) in Pan-STARRS1 survey data. Our deep, wide-field g,i photometry reaches ∼3 mag fainter than the photometry in the Pan-STARRS1 discovery paper and allows us to trace the stellar population of Lac I beyond two half-light radii from the galaxy center. We measure a Tip of the Red Giant Branch distance for Lac I of {(m-M)}0=24.44+/- 0.11 mag (773 ± 40 kpc, or 264 ± 6 kpc from M31), which is consistent with the Pan-STARRS1 distance. We use a maximum-likelihood technique to derive structural properties for the galaxy, and find a half-light radius (r h ) of 3.24 ± 0.21 arcmin (728 ± 47 pc), ellipticity (ε ) of 0.44 ± 0.03, total magnitude M V = ‑11.4 ± 0.3, and central surface brightness {μ }V,0=24.8+/- 0.3 mag arcsec‑2. We find no H i emission in archival data and set a limit on Lac I’s neutral gas mass-to-light ratio of {M}{{H}{{I}}}/{L}V < 0.06 {M}ȯ /{L}ȯ , confirming Lac I as a gas-poor dwarf spheroidal galaxy. Photometric metallicities derived from Red Giant Branch stars within 2 r h yield a median [Fe/H] of ‑1.68 ± 0.03, which is more metal-rich than the spectroscopically derived value from Martin et al. Combining our measured magnitude with this higher metallicity estimate places Lac I closer to its expected position on the luminosity–metallicity relation for dwarf galaxies.

  17. Geographic variation of life-history traits in the sand lizard, Lacerta agilis: testing Darwin's fecundity-advantage hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Roitberg, E S; Eplanova, G V; Kotenko, T I; Amat, F; Carretero, M A; Kuranova, V N; Bulakhova, N A; Zinenko, O I; Yakovlev, V A

    2015-03-01

    The fecundity-advantage hypothesis (FAH) explains larger female size relative to male size as a correlated response to fecundity selection. We explored FAH by investigating geographic variation in female reproductive output and its relation to sexual size dimorphism (SSD) in Lacerta agilis, an oviparous lizard occupying a major part of temperate Eurasia. We analysed how sex-specific body size and SSD are associated with two putative indicators of fecundity selection intensity (clutch size and the slope of the clutch size-female size relationship) and with two climatic variables throughout the species range and across two widespread evolutionary lineages. Variation within the lineages provides no support for FAH. In contrast, the divergence between the lineages is in line with FAH: the lineage with consistently female-biased SSD (L. a. agilis) exhibits higher clutch size and steeper fecundity slope than the lineage with an inconsistent and variable SSD (L. a. exigua). L. a. agilis shows lower offspring size (egg mass, hatchling mass) and higher clutch mass relative to female mass than L. a. exigua, that is both possible ways to enhance offspring number are exerted. As the SSD difference is due to male size (smaller males in L. a. agilis), fecundity selection favouring larger females, together with viability selection for smaller size in both sexes, would explain the female-biased SSD and reproductive characteristics of L. a. agilis. The pattern of intraspecific life-history divergence in L. agilis is strikingly similar to that between oviparous and viviparous populations of a related species Zootoca vivipara. Evolutionary implications of this parallelism are discussed. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  18. [Demonstration, by means of electron microscopy, of the penetration of somitic cells into the mesoblast of the limb buds of reptile embryos (Anguis fragilis, Lacerta viridis)].

    PubMed

    Raynaud, A; Adrian, M

    1975-01-01

    An electron microscopic study of the components of anterior limb buds of the slow-worm (Anguis fragilis) and of the green lizard (Lacerta viridis) (embryos of Anguis whose allantoic bud reach 0,7 to 4 mm of length; embryos of Lacerta 2 to 7 days old) provides data on the cytological characteristics of the components of the limb bud at these early stages. 1. The cells of the distal extremity of the somitic processes extending in the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta, are elongated cells with ovoid nuclei containing large nucleolus; they possess mitochondria always thin and with dense matrix; they are rich in lipid droplets; they possess cilia; they are devoid of myofilaments; endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosomes and polyribosomes are abundant. Golgi networks display signs of activity. These characteristics are also observed in the cells of the "dermatome" layer of the dermo-myotome; and so, it appears probable that the cells of the "dermatome". Furthermore, in Anguis embryos, the cells of the distal extremities of the somitic processes possess numerous lysosomes and a certain number of cells among them, degenerate early. 2. The somatopleural mesoblastic cells of the limb bud of Anguis and Lacerta embryos keep the characters of the cells of the mesodermic layer of lateral plate from which they originate; they have rounded nuclei, cilia, and their mitochondria are always larger and more transparent to electrons, than the ones of cells of the somitic processes and of cells of the epiblastic apical crest. Golgi networks are well developped, endoplasmic reticulum is abundant, lipid droplets are rare. 3. The processes of somites which extend in the dorsal part of the limb bud of Anguis embryos are cords of cells with thin lumina; at the stage of the allantoic bud of 0,6 to 0,8 mm long, the distal extremity of these processes dislocate in group of cells which afterwards dissociate, releasing individual somitic cells which are integrated among the mesoblastic somatopleural

  19. Galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Normal galaxies, radio galaxies, and Seyfert galaxies are considered. The large magellanic cloud and the great galaxy in Andromedia are highlighted. Quasars and BL lacertae objects are also discussed and a review of the spectral observations of all of these galaxies and celestial objects is presented.

  20. Fatty acid production from amino acids and alpha-keto acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C

    2004-11-01

    Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and alpha-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of alpha-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and alpha-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from alpha-keto acids only. BL2 also converted alpha-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and alpha-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event.

  1. Intranight Variability During the 1997 Outburst of BL Lac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Sandra D.; Carini, Michael T.; Noble, John C.

    1998-02-01

    The blazar BL Lac underwent a major outburst this summer. To search for intranight variability during the outburst, observations of BL Lac were made with the 30 inch telescope at the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory. During ten nights in July, nearly 300 CCD observations were made. BL Lac was seen to vary by more than 1.5 magnitudes over those ten nights. Substantial intranight variability was also observed. For example, on July 29, BL Lac increased in brightness by more than 0.5 magnitude in less than 2.5 hours. The observations of BL Lac taken in July are reported here and discussed in relation to the models intended to explain intranight variability.

  2. Reduction of fear-potentiated startle by benzodiazepines in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kiersten S.; Meloni, Edward G.; Myers, Karyn M.; Veer, Ashlee Van't; Carlezon, William A.; Rudolph, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Anxiety disorders affect 18% of the United States adult population annually. Recent surges in the diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) from combat-exposed veterans have prompted an urgent need to understand the pathophysiology underlying this debilitating condition. Objectives Anxiety and fear responses are partly modulated by gamma aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor-mediated synaptic inhibition; benzodiazepines potentiate GABAergic inhibition and are effective anxiolytics. Many genetically modified mouse lines are generated and/or maintained on the C57BL/6J background, a strain where manipulation of anxiety-like behavior using benzodiazepines is difficult. Fear-potentiated startle (FPS), a test of conditioned fear, is a useful preclinical tool to study PTSD-like responses but has been difficult to establish in C57BL/6J mice. Methods We modified several FPS experimental parameters and developed a paradigm to assess conditioned fear in C57BL/6J mice. The 6-day protocol consisted of three startle Acclimation days, a Pre-Test day followed by Training and Testing for FPS. Subject responses to the effects of three benzodiazepines were also examined. Results C57BL/6J mice had low levels of unconditioned fear assessed during Pre-Test (15–18%) but showed robust FPS (80–120%) during the Test session. Conditioned fear responses extinguished over repeated test sessions. Administration of the benzodiazepines alprazolam (0.5 and 1 mg/kg, i.p.), chlordiazepoxide (5 and 10 mg/kg, i.p.), and diazepam (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly reduced FPS to Pre-Test levels. Conclusions We used a modified and pharmacologically-validated paradigm to assess FPS in mice thereby providing a powerful tool to examine the neurobiology of PTSD in genetic models of anxiety generated on the C57BL/6J background. PMID:20922362

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The CLASS BL Lac sample (Marcha+, 2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcha, M. J. M.; Caccianiga, A.

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents a new sample of BL Lac objects selected from a deep (30mJy) radio survey of flat spectrum radio sources (the CLASS blazar survey). The sample is one of the largest well-defined samples in the low-power regime with a total of 130 sources of which 55 satisfy the 'classical' optical BL Lac selection criteria, and the rest have indistinguishable radio properties. The primary goal of this study is to establish the radio luminosity function (RLF) on firm statistical ground at low radio luminosities where previous samples have not been able to investigate. The gain of taking a peek at lower powers is the possibility to search for the flattening of the luminosity function which is a feature predicted by the beaming model but which has remained elusive to observational confirmation. In this study, we extend for the first time the BL Lac RLF down to very low radio powers ~1022W/Hz, i.e. two orders of magnitude below the RLF currently available in the literature. In the process, we confirm the importance of adopting a broader, and more physically meaningful set of classification criteria to avoid the systematic missing of low-luminosity BL Lacs. Thanks to the good statistics we confirm the existence of weak but significant positive cosmological evolution for the BL Lac population, and we detect, for the first time the flattening of the RLF at L~1025W/Hz in agreement with the predictions of the beaming model. (1 data file).

  4. Dark matter in B-L extended MSSM models

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-15

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of the supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutralino can be the B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or the extra Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We compute the thermal relic abundance of these particles and show that, unlike the lightest neutralino in the MSSM, they can account for the observed relic abundance with no conflict with other phenomenological constraints. The prospects for their direct detection, if they are part of our galactic halo, are also discussed.

  5. Umbelliprenin induced both anti-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines in C57/BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Khaghanzadeh, Narges; Samiei, Afshin; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Ramezani, Mohammad; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Ghaderi, Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Umbelliprenin is a prenyloxy-coumarin with pharmacologically polyvalent activity. Several studies have shown Several studies have been shown its anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, and antigenotoxic activities. However, the exact mechanism of action of this compound on the immune response has not yet been shown. Here, we investigated umbelliprenin effects on the predominance of Th1 and Th2 responses in normal C57/BL6 mice. Materials and Methods: Umbelliprenin (2.5 mg/200 µl IP) were administered to six C57/BL6 mice every other day for 8 days. Paraffin and PBS-injected mice were enrolled as solvent and control groups, respectively (n=6 mice/group). IL-10, IFN-γ, and IL-4 levels were determined in sera and also in splenocytes culture supernatants in the presence of Con A (3 µg/ml) after 72 hr. H&E staining of paraffin embedded blocks was performed for lung and liver tissues of mice. Results: Umbelliprenin could significantly increase the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-4 in sera and IL-10 in splenocytes cultures. Comparison of IFN-γ/IL-4 in the sera and splenocytes culture supernatants showed lower ratios in umbelliprenin treated mice than in solvent and untreated groups. Conclusion: The in vivo study showed that umbelliprenin could induce anti-inflammatory responses via the predominance of Th2 cells and some regulatory responses in C57/BL6 mice. PMID:28852449

  6. MASTER serendipitous observations of the gamma-ray flaring BL Lac CGRaBS J0211+1051

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudelina, I.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Balanutsa, P.; Lipunov, V.; Kornilov, V.; Belinski, A.; Shatskiy, N.; Tyurina, N.; Kuvshinov, D.; Chazov, V.; Kuznetsov, A.; Zimnukhov, D.; Kornilov, M.; Tlatov, A.; Parhomenko, A. V.; Dormidontov, D.; Yurkov, V.; Sergienko, Yu.; Varda, D.; Krushinski, V.; Zalozhnih, I.; Popov, A.; Ivanov, K.; Yazev, S.; Budnev, N.; Konstantinov, E.; Chuvalaev, O.; Poleschuk, V.; Gres, O.; Shumkov, V.; Shurpakov, S.

    2011-01-01

    Following the gamma-ray flare of the BL Lac object CGRaBS J0211+1051 (also known as MG1 J021114+1051, and 1FGL J0211.2+1049, Abdo et al. 2010, ApJS, 188, 405) detected by Fermi LAT on 2011 January 23 (ATel #3120), we try to find images of the BL Lac in our DATA BASE. We find 16 serendipitous optical unfiltered observations by MASTER-Net sites from 03 feb 2004 to 26 Jan 2011. In all cases we use the same Apogee CCD on the wide field telescopes.

  7. HYDROGEOLOGIC CHARACTERIZATION OF THE U-3bl COLLAPSE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada and National Security Technologies, LLC

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing.

  8. Characterization of (357439) 2004 BL86 on its close approach to Earth in 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birlan, M.; Popescu, M.; Nedelcu, D. A.; Turcu, V.; Pop, A.; Dumitru, B.; Stevance, F.; Vaduvescu, O.; Moldovan, D.; Rocher, P.; Sonka, A.; Mircea, L.

    2015-09-01

    Context. The potentially hazardous asteroid (PHA) (357439) 2004 BL86 grazed Earth on January 26, 2015 at a distance of about 1.2 million km. This favorable geometry allowed observing it to derive its physical and dynamical parameters. (357439) 2004 BL86 was previously estimated to be a 500-m body. We study it also considering possible mechanisms that might mitigate the effect of asteroids that might become dangerous for Earth. Aims: Physical and dynamical investigations of this peculiar object were performed to be able to characterize this object. Methods: We used spectral observations obtained in the visible (V) using the Isaac Newton Telescope and in the near-infrared (NIR) using the InfraRed Telescope Facility. A complementary photometric survey during two nights was also provided by the Astronomical Observatory Cluj-Feleacu station in Romania. We anlyzed the data using reliable mathematical tools that were previously published under the acronym M4AST. Results: VNIR spectral observations classify (357439) 2004 BL86 as V-type asteroid. The mineralogical analysis reveals its similarities to howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorites. The band analysis reveals that the object is more similar to a eucritic and howarditic composition, and that it originated from the crust of a large parent body. The analysis yields a mineralogical solution of Wo17Fs39 with an error bar of 4%. Based on the average value of the thermal albedo for V-type objects, its diameter was re-estimated to a value of 290 ± 30 m. The dynamical analysis shows a chaotical behavior of (357439) 2004 BL86. The statistics on meteorite falls show that (357439) 2004 BL86 does not appear to significantly contribute to the current howardite-eucrite-diogenite meteorite flux. For the two photometrical observing runs the following values of the rotational period and peak-to-peak amplitude were estimated for the light curves: 2.637 ± 0.024 h, 0.105 ± 0.007 mag, and 2.616 ± 0.061 h, 0.109 ± 0.018 mag

  9. Radar Imaging of Binary Near-Earth Asteroid (357439) 2004 BL86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance AM; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Busch, Michael W.; Ford, H. Alyson; Ghigo, Frank; Nolan, Michael C.; Slade, Martin A.; Lawrence, Kenneth J.; Richardson, James E.; Rivera-Valentin, Edgard G.; Rozek, Agata

    2015-08-01

    We report radar observations of near-Earth asteroid 2004 BL86 obtained during 2015 Jan. 26-31 at the 70 m and 34 m Goldstone facilities, Arecibo, Green Bank, and elements of the Very Long Baseline Array. 2004 BL86 approached within 0.0080 au (3.1 lunar distances) on Jan. 26, the closest known approach by any object with an absolute magnitude brighter than ~19 until 2027. Prior to the encounter, virtually nothing was known about its physical properties other than its absolute magnitude of 19, which suggested a diameter within a factor of two of 500 m. Due to its size and the extremely close approach, 2004 BL86 was a very strong radar target that provided an outstanding opportunity for radar imaging and physical characterization. The radar images confirmed photometric results reported by Pravec et al. (2015, CBET 4063) that 2004 BL86 is a binary system. This is the 43rd near-Earth asteroid binary detected by radar. Delay-Doppler images placed thousands of 3.75 m-resolution pixels on the object and reveal a rounded and oblate primary with an equatorial diameter of ~300 m, suggesting it is optically-bright, evidence for ridges, small-scale topography including boulders, and a large angular feature near one of the poles. A preliminary estimate for the diameter of the secondary is ~70 m. The images hint that the secondary’s rotation is synchronous with its orbital period. The observations also yielded the first detection of an asteroid with a new 80 kW C-band radar (7190 MHz, 4.2 cm) at the 34 m DSS-13 antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex. This new radar can achieve a range resolution up to 1.875 m/pixel that is twice as fine as the highest resolution previously achievable.

  10. Perfluorooctanoic Acid–Induced Immunomodulation in Adult C57BL/6J or C57BL/6N Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Jamie C.; Copeland, Carey B.; Strynar, Mark J.; Luebke, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), an environmentally persistent compound of regulatory concern, has been reported to reduce antibody responses in mice at a single dose. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate PFOA effects on humoral and cellular immunity using standard assays for assessing immune function, and to derive dose–response data. Methods C57BL/6J mice received 0 or 30 mg PFOA/kg/day for 10 days; half of the exposed groups were switched to vehicle and half continued on PFOA for five days. C57BL/6N mice received 0–30 mg/kg/day of PFOA in drinking water for 15 days. Mice were immunized with sheep red blood cells or sensitized to bovine serum albumin in Freund’s complete adjuvant on day 10 of exposure; immune responses were determined 1 day post-exposure. Results We found that 30 mg PFOA/kg/day given for 10 or 15 days reduced IgM synthesis; serum collected 1 day postexposure contained 8.4 × 104 or 2.7 × 105 ng PFOA/mL, respectively. IgM synthesis was suppressed at exposures ≥ 3.75 mg PFOA/kg/day in a dose-dependent manner, and IgG titers were elevated at 3.75 and 7.5 mg PFOA/kg/day. Serum PFOA at 3.75 mg/kg/day was 7.4 × 104 ng/mL 1 day postexposure, or 150-fold greater than the levels reported in individuals living near a PFOA production site. Using a second-degree polynomial model, we calculated a benchmark dose of 3 mg/kg/day, with a lower bound (95% confidence limit) of 1.75 mg/kg/day. Cell-mediated function was not affected. Conclusions IgM antibodies were suppressed after PFOA exposure. The margin of exposure for reduced IgM antibody synthesis was approximately 150 for highly exposed human populations. PMID:18470313

  11. A comparative phenotypic and genomic analysis of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mouse inbred line C57BL/6J is widely used in mouse genetics and its genome has been incorporated into many genetic reference populations. More recently large initiatives such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium (IKMC) are using the C57BL/6N mouse strain to generate null alleles for all mouse genes. Hence both strains are now widely used in mouse genetics studies. Here we perform a comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the two strains to identify differences that may influence their underlying genetic mechanisms. Results We undertake genome sequence comparisons of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N to identify SNPs, indels and structural variants, with a focus on identifying all coding variants. We annotate 34 SNPs and 2 indels that distinguish C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N coding sequences, as well as 15 structural variants that overlap a gene. In parallel we assess the comparative phenotypes of the two inbred lines utilizing the EMPReSSslim phenotyping pipeline, a broad based assessment encompassing diverse biological systems. We perform additional secondary phenotyping assessments to explore other phenotype domains and to elaborate phenotype differences identified in the primary assessment. We uncover significant phenotypic differences between the two lines, replicated across multiple centers, in a number of physiological, biochemical and behavioral systems. Conclusions Comparison of C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N demonstrates a range of phenotypic differences that have the potential to impact upon penetrance and expressivity of mutational effects in these strains. Moreover, the sequence variants we identify provide a set of candidate genes for the phenotypic differences observed between the two strains. PMID:23902802

  12. Comparative study of fertilization rates of C57BL/6NKorl and C57BL/6N mice obtained from two other sources

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Woo Bin; Kim, Hye Ryeong; Kim, Ji Eun; Choi, Jun Young; Lee, Mi Rim; Park, Jin Ju; Song, Bo Ram; Jung, Young Suk; Song, Hyun Keun; Cho, Joon Young; Kim, Kil Soo

    2017-01-01

    C57BL/6N is the most widely used inbred mouse strain applied in a wide variety of research areas including cancer, cardiovascular biology, developmental biology, diabetes and obesity, genetics, immunology, neurobiology, and sensorineural research. To compare the fertilization rates of C57BL/6NKorl mice with two commercial C57BL/6N stocks, differences in reproductive organ structures, sperm and egg numbers, fertilization rates, and embryo development rates among C57BL/6NKorl (Korea FDA source), C57BL/6NA (USA source), and C57BL/6NB (Japan source) mice were determined. Among the stocks, no significant differences were detected in organ weight and histological structure of male and female reproductive organs, although body weight was higher in C57BL/6NKorl mice than that in the other groups. The concentration and morphology of sperm and eggs in C57BL/6NKorl mice were similar to those of C57BL/6NA and C57BL/6NB mice. Furthermore, the three stocks had similar in vitro fertilization and embryo development rates, although these rates tended to be higher in C57BL/6NB mice. Pup body weight was higher in C57BL/6NKorl and C57BL/6NB mice than that in C57BL/6NA mice. The results of the present study suggest that C57BL/6NKorl, C57BL/6NA, and C57BL/6NB mice obtained from three different sources have similar fertilization and embryo development rates, although there were slight differences in the magnitude of their responses rates. PMID:28747985

  13. Color Variations of Two Blazars: BL Lac and PKS 0736+017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, S. D.

    2002-12-01

    Multi-night campaigns to monitor sources for microvariability were undertaken in the summer of 1997 for BL Lac and in early 2002 for PKS 0736+017. BL Lac was observed at Rosemary Hill Observatory in Bronson, Florida and PKS 0736+017 was observed with the SARA telescope on Kitt Peak in Arizona. Both sources underwent dramatic flares and exhibited substantial microvariability. During each campaign, the source was observed alternately through V and R filters so that color variations could be monitored as well. The most commonly reported behavior for such objects is that they become redder when fainter. This is observed in the BL Lac data. These data do not indicate that the point source varies in color however. Instead, they support the notion that the underlying host galaxy contributes a larger fraction of the total flux when the source is faint than when it is bright. More unusual was the observation that PKS 0736+017 was observed to be redder when brighter. The data support the notion that the observed color variation may be related more to the nature of the variation (flaring, subsiding, or quiescent) than to the flux level.

  14. Molecular actions of two synthetic brassinosteroids, iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL, which cause altered physiological activities between Arabidopsis and rice

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Shozo; Ito, Shinsaku; Kigawa, Takanori; Shimada, Yukihisa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Asami, Tadao; Seto, Hideharu; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have different BR activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. Our bioassay indicated that iso-carbaBL has relatively strong BR activity in Arabidopsis, but is inactive in rice and competitively inhibits BR activity. The bioactivity of 6-deoxoBL was similar to that of BL in Arabidopsis, but was much lower in rice. Binding experiments using recombinant Arabidopsis and rice BRI1 protein fragments suggested that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL bind to both receptors. These results showed that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, of BRs in rice. A docking simulation analysis suggested that iso-carbaBL fits deeper in the binding pocket to block the binding of active BR to rice BRI1. The simulated binding energy of 6-deoxoBL with rice BRI1 is much lower than that with Arabidopsis BRI1. The possible structural characteristics of rice BRI1 were determined based on the difference in the BR activities of iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL in Arabidopsis and rice. PMID:28369122

  15. Molecular actions of two synthetic brassinosteroids, iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL, which cause altered physiological activities between Arabidopsis and rice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ayako; Tochio, Naoya; Fujioka, Shozo; Ito, Shinsaku; Kigawa, Takanori; Shimada, Yukihisa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Yoshida, Shigeo; Kinoshita, Toshinori; Asami, Tadao; Seto, Hideharu; Nakano, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) is an important plant hormone that is perceived by the BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE 1 (BRI1) receptor. BRI1 is conserved among dicot and monocot species; however, the molecular mechanism underlying BR perception in monocots is not fully understood. We synthesised two BRs, iso-carbabrassinolide (iso-carbaBL) and 6-deoxoBL, which have different BR activities in Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) and rice. Our bioassay indicated that iso-carbaBL has relatively strong BR activity in Arabidopsis, but is inactive in rice and competitively inhibits BR activity. The bioactivity of 6-deoxoBL was similar to that of BL in Arabidopsis, but was much lower in rice. Binding experiments using recombinant Arabidopsis and rice BRI1 protein fragments suggested that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL bind to both receptors. These results showed that iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL act as an antagonist and agonist, respectively, of BRs in rice. A docking simulation analysis suggested that iso-carbaBL fits deeper in the binding pocket to block the binding of active BR to rice BRI1. The simulated binding energy of 6-deoxoBL with rice BRI1 is much lower than that with Arabidopsis BRI1. The possible structural characteristics of rice BRI1 were determined based on the difference in the BR activities of iso-carbaBL and 6-deoxoBL in Arabidopsis and rice.

  16. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  17. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  18. Estimation of the extragalactic background light using TeV observations of BL Lac objects

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, Atreyee; Acharya, B. S.; Sahayanathan, S.; Godambe, S.; Misra, R. E-mail: acharya@tifr.res.in E-mail: gsagar@barc.ernet.in

    2014-11-01

    The very high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray spectral index of high-energy peaked blazars correlates strongly with its corresponding redshift, whereas no such correlation is observed in the X-ray or GeV bands. We attribute this correlation to photon-photon absorption of TeV photons with the extragalactic background light (EBL), and utilizing this we compute the allowed flux range for the EBL, which is independent of previous estimates. The observed VHE spectrum of the sources in our sample can be well approximated by a power law, and if the de-absorbed spectrum is also assumed to be a power law, then we show that the spectral shape of EBL will be εn(ε) ∼ klog (ε/ε {sub p}). We estimate the range of values for the parameters defining the EBL spectrum, k and ε {sub p}, such that the correlation of the intrinsic VHE spectrum with redshift is nullified. The estimated EBL depends only on the observed correlation and the assumption of a power-law source spectrum. Specifically, it does not depend on the spectral modeling or radiative mechanism of the sources or on any theoretical shape of the EBL spectrum obtained through cosmological calculations. The estimated EBL spectrum is consistent with the upper and lower limits imposed by different observations. Moreover, it also agrees closely with the theoretical estimates obtained through cosmological evolution models.

  19. Fractal Property in the Light Curve of BL Lac Object S5 0716 + 714

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, J. W.; Zheng, Y. G.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we compile the historical R-band data of S5 0716 + 714 from literature and obtain its fractal dimension by using a fractal method and then simulate the data with the Weierstrass-Mandelbrot (W-M) function. It is considered that the light curve has a fractal property.

  20. Behavioral changes in aging female C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Fahlström, Andreas; Yu, Qian; Ulfhake, Brun

    2011-10-01

    Using a range of tests we have studied alterations in behavior with advancing age in female C57BL/6 (of Jackson origin), the golden standard on which most genetically engineered mice are back-crossed. In parallel, growth and survival data were collected. In a protected environment the 90% and 75% cohort survival age was 20 and 25 months, respectively, and the 50% cohort survival was 32 months. In mice, body weight increases continuously until 15-20 months of age, while in advanced age whole body weight drops. The body mass loss in senescence is associated with emergence of other aged phenotype features such as kyphosis, balding and loss of fur-color. Our behavioral data show that aging modulates certain aspects of basic behavior in a continuous manner, like explorative and locomotor activities. Advanced age associates with an acceleration of behavioral impairments evident in most of the tests used, including motor skill acquisition and memory consolidation. However, certain domains of mouse behavior were well preserved also in advanced age such as thermal noxious threshold and working memory as assessed by an object recognition task. The decreased drive to explore is suggested to be a key factor underlying many aspects of reduced performance including cognitive capacity during aging. Behavioral aging affects genetically closely related individuals housed under strictly standardized conditions differentially (Collier, T.J., Coleman, P.D., 1991. Divergence of biological and chronological aging: evidence from rodent studies. Neurobiol. Aging, 12, 685-693; Ingram, D.K., 1988. Motor performance variability during aging in rodents. Assessment of reliability and validity of individual differences. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci., 515, 70-96). Consistent with this a subpopulation of the 28-month-old mice showed an explorative activity similar to young-adult mice and a significantly stronger preference for a novel object than aged mice with a less explorative behavior. Thus, subtle

  1. Constrained Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-28

    degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154

  2. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  3. No Interstitial Telomeres on Autosomes but Remarkable Amplification of Telomeric Repeats on the W Sex Chromosome in the Sand Lizard (Lacerta agilis).

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Matsuda, Yoichi; Miller, Emily; Olsson, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Telomeres are repeat (TTAGGG) n sequences that form terminal ends of chromosomes and have several functions, such as protecting the coding DNA from erosion at mitosis. Due to chromosomal rearrangements through evolutionary history (e.g., inversions and fusions), telomeric sequences are also found between the centromere and the terminal ends (i.e., at interstitial telomeric sites, ITSs). ITS telomere sequences have been implicated in heritable disease caused by genomic instability of ITS polymorphic variants, both with respect to copy number and sequence. In the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis), we have shown that telomere length is predictive of lifetime fitness in females but not males. To assess whether this sex specific fitness effect could be traced to ITSs differences, we mapped (TTAGGG) n sequences using fluorescence in situ hybridization in fibroblast cells cultured from 4 specimens of known sex. No ITSs could be found on autosomes in either sex. However, females have heterogametic sex chromosomes in sand lizards (ZW, 2n = 38) and the female W chromosome showed degeneration and remarkable (TTAGGG) n amplification, which was absent in the Z chromosomes. This work warrants further research on sex chromosome content, in particular of the degenerate W chromosome, and links to female fitness in sand lizards. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in the sand lizard Lacerta agilis and co-infection of these bacteria in hosted Ixodes ricinus ticks

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anaplasmataceae and Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. are important tick-borne bacteria maintained in nature by transmission between ticks and vertebrate hosts. However, the potential role of lizards as hosts has not been sufficiently studied. Results The current study showed that 23 of 171 examined sand lizards Lacerta agilis were PCR positive for Anaplasmataceae. The nucleotide sequences of the several selected PCR products showed 100% homology with Anaplasma spp. found in Ixodes ricinus collected in Tunisia and Morocco (AY672415 - AY672420). 1.2% of lizard collar scale samples were PCR positive for B. lusitaniae. In addition, 12 of 290 examined I. ricinus were PCR positive for B. burgdorferi s.l. and 82 were PCR positive for Anaplasmatacea. The number of ticks per lizard and the number of ticks PCR positive for both microorganisms per lizard were strongly correlated. Moreover, we found a significant correlation between numbers of ticks infected with Anaplasmataceae and with B. burgdorferi s.l. living on the same lizard. However, there was no significant correlation between detection of both bacteria in the same tick. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Anaplasmataceae DNA and additionally the second report of B. burgdorferi s.l DNA detection in the sand lizard. PMID:21933412

  5. Ultrastructural features of the differentiating thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis L.) from the differentiation of the cellular cords to the formation of the follicular lumen.

    PubMed

    Rupik, Weronika; Kowalska, Magdalena; Swadźba, Elwira; Maślak, Robert

    2016-04-01

    The differentiation of the thyroid primordium of lacertilian species is poorly understood. The present study reports on the ultrastructural analysis of the developing thyroid primordium in the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis) during the early stages of differentiation. The early thyroid primordium of sand lizard embryos was composed of cellular cords that contained single cells with a giant lipid droplet, which were eliminated by specific autophagy (lipophagy). The follicular lumens at the periphery of the primordium differentiated even before the division of the cellular cords. When the single cells within the cords started to die through paraptosis, the adjacent cells started to polarise and junctional complexes began to form around them. After polarisation and clearing up after the formation of the lumens, the cellular cords divided into definitive follicles. The cellular cords in the central part of the primordium started to differentiate later than those at the periphery. The cellular cords divided into presumptive follicles first and only later differentiated into definitive follicles. During this process, a population of centrally located cells was removed through apoptosis to form the lumen. Although the follicular lumen in sand lizard embryos is differentiated by cavitation similar to that in the grass snake, there were very important differences during the early stages of the differentiation of the cellular cords and the formation of the thyroid follicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Identification of the linkage group of the Z sex chromosomes of the sand lizard (Lacerta agilis, Lacertidae) and elucidation of karyotype evolution in lacertid lizards.

    PubMed

    Srikulnath, Kornsorn; Matsubara, Kazumi; Uno, Yoshinobu; Nishida, Chizuko; Olsson, Mats; Matsuda, Yoichi

    2014-12-01

    The sand lizard (Lacerta agilis, Lacertidae) has a chromosome number of 2n = 38, with 17 pairs of acrocentric chromosomes, one pair of microchromosomes, a large acrocentric Z chromosome, and a micro-W chromosome. To investigate the process of karyotype evolution in L. agilis, we performed chromosome banding and fluorescent in situ hybridization for gene mapping and constructed a cytogenetic map with 86 functional genes. Chromosome banding revealed that the Z chromosome is the fifth largest chromosome. The cytogenetic map revealed homology of the L. agilis Z chromosome with chicken chromosomes 6 and 9. Comparison of the L. agilis cytogenetic map with those of four Toxicofera species with many microchromosomes (Elaphe quadrivirgata, Varanus salvator macromaculatus, Leiolepis reevesii rubritaeniata, and Anolis carolinensis) showed highly conserved linkage homology of L. agilis chromosomes (LAG) 1, 2, 3, 4, 5(Z), 7, 8, 9, and 10 with macrochromosomes and/or macrochromosome segments of the four Toxicofera species. Most of the genes located on the microchromosomes of Toxicofera were localized to LAG6, small acrocentric chromosomes (LAG11-18), and a microchromosome (LAG19) in L. agilis. These results suggest that the L. agilis karyotype resulted from frequent fusions of microchromosomes, which occurred in the ancestral karyotype of Toxicofera and led to the disappearance of microchromosomes and the appearance of many small macrochromosomes.

  7. Multimodal sexual signals in male ocellated lizards Lacerta lepida: vitamin E in scent and green coloration may signal male quality in different sensory channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2010-06-01

    The mechanisms that confer honesty to multiple sexual signals of vertebrates remain less known. We suggest that vitamin E in the scent (femoral secretions) and carotenoids in coloration of Lacerta lepida lizards might advertise quality because they are relevant in metabolism as major antioxidants and have a dietary origin. Results showed that there may be similar trade-offs between immunity and both chemical and visual signaling, as males with more vitamin E in secretions and those with more greenish, darker, and saturated carotenoid-dependent colorations had a higher immune response. This suggests that only high-quality males can divert from metabolism and allocate enough vitamin E to secretions and enough carotenoids to coloration. Therefore, information provided by visual and chemical signals is congruent. The use of multiple sensory channels may allow signaling a male quality under different circumstances or reinforce the reliability of the signal when both signals are perceived simultaneously. However, we also found that characteristics of carotenoid-dependent coloration mirror the amounts of vitamin E in secretions. This might support that carotenoids, which are not true antioxidants in the organism, would just reflect and “inform” on the actual contents of metabolic antioxidant vitamin E, which is part of the true system that prevent oxidation. We suggest that the metabolic roles of vitamins might be the actual basis of honesty of many sexual displays, and that carotenoid-based signals might be just the visible part of the whole system.

  8. The cloned 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase gene from Sinorhizobium sp. strain BL3 in Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 promotes nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala.

    PubMed

    Tittabutr, Panlada; Awaya, Jonathan D; Li, Qing X; Borthakur, Dulal

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the role of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase of symbionts in nodulation and growth of Leucaena leucocephala. The acdS genes encoding ACC deaminase were cloned from Rhizobium sp. strain TAL1145 and Sinorhizobium sp. BL3 in multicopy plasmids, and transferred to TAL1145. The BL3-acdS gene greatly enhanced ACC deaminase activity in TAL1145 compared to the native acdS gene. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native or BL3 acdS gene could grow in minimal media containing 1.5mM ACC, whereas BL3 could tolerate up to 3mM ACC. The TAL1145 acdS gene was inducible by mimosine and not by ACC, while the BL3 acdS gene was highly inducible by ACC and not by mimosine. The transconjugants of TAL1145 containing the native- and BL3-acdS genes formed nodules with greater number and sizes, and produced higher root mass on L. leucocephala than by TAL1145. This study shows that the introduction of multiple copies of the acdS gene increased ACC deaminase activities of TAL1145 and enhanced its symbiotic efficiency on L. leucocephala.

  9. Agile Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German, Senta; Harris, Jim

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors argue that the art-historical canon, however it is construed, has little relevance to the selection of objects for museum-based teaching. Their contention is that all objects are fundamentally agile and capable of interrogation from any number of disciplinary standpoints, and that the canon of museum education,…

  10. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  11. Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanover School System, MA.

    This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…

  12. Cognitive Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkin, Robin A.

    1988-01-01

    Reflecting on obsessional play objects of infants, Hodgkin suggests that a proper understanding of these "transitional" or "cognitive" objects could lead to an educational model of a "learner" involving a number of human competencies, all developing synergistically. Contends that such a model may be truer to life than…

  13. On the redshifts of the BL Lac 3FGL J0909.0+2310 and its close companion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa-González, D.; Coutiño de León, S.; Mayya, Y. D.; Carramiñana, A.; Aretxaga, I.; Becerra González, J.; Furniss, A.; Terlevich, E.; Vega, O.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; León Tavares, J.; Longinotti, A. L.; Terlevich, R.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the redshift of the BL Lac object 3FGL J0909.0+2310 based on observations obtained with the OSIRIS Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) mounted on the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias. A redshift of 0.432 ± 0.002 was obtained by the identification of three absorption features (Ca II K&H and the G band) detected in the spectrum of the BL Lac host galaxy. The closest object to the BL Lac at an angular separation of 3.8 arcsec (∼21 kpc at this distance) has a similar redshift of 0.431 ± 0.002. This companion galaxy could be the most likely cause of the nuclear activity as postulated by studies based on more extended data sets and cosmological models. MOS allows us to study the object's neighbourhood within a field of view of approximately 7 × 2 arcmin2 and we find two small groups of galaxies at redshifts 0.28 and 0.39 which are probably not related to the activity of 3FGL J0909.0+2310.

  14. Proteomic analysis on acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using (1)H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4.

  15. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    SciTech Connect

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K. E-mail: valerie.domcke@desy.de E-mail: kai.schmitz@ipmu.jp

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying Ω{sub GW}h{sup 2} ∼ 10{sup −13}–10{sup −8}, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  16. The gravitational wave spectrum from cosmological B-L breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchmüller, W.; Domcke, V.; Kamada, K.; Schmitz, K.

    2013-10-01

    Cosmological B-L breaking is a natural and testable mechanism to generate the initial conditions of the hot early universe. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, the false vacuum phase drives hybrid inflation, ending in tachyonic preheating. The decays of heavy B-L Higgs bosons and heavy neutrinos generate entropy, baryon asymmetry and dark matter and also control the reheating temperature. The different phases in the transition from inflation to the radiation dominated phase produce a characteristic spectrum of gravitational waves. We calculate the complete gravitational wave spectrum due to inflation, preheating and cosmic strings, which turns out to have several features. The production of gravitational waves from cosmic strings has large uncertainties, with lower and upper bounds provided by Abelian Higgs strings and Nambu-Goto strings, implying ΩGWh2 ~ 10-13-10-8, much larger than the spectral amplitude predicted by inflation. Forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO, ET, BBO and DECIGO will reach the sensitivity needed to test the predictions from cosmological B-L breaking.

  17. Response of lymphosarcoma LS/BL cells to continuous irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Juraskova, V.; Drasil, V.

    1984-12-01

    Mouse lymphosarcoma LS/BL cells growing as an ascites tumor in the peritoneal cavity of C57BL mice were continuously irradiated in vivo at a low exposure rate of 1.2 Gy per day (5 rad/hr). The growth of the ascites tumor evaluated by direct counting of the cells in the peritoneal cavity and their capacity to form colonies in livers declined with increasing time of continuous irradiation. The radiosensitivity and repair ability of LS/BL cells were studied by a serial dilution method using host survival time as the end point and by the liver colony assay. The radiosensitivity of continuously irradiated LS/BL-CI cells showed no remarkable change as measured by the D/sub 0/ values, but from the 150th week of irradiation the inital shoulder on the survival curves appeared and its width increased with time of exposure. The extrapolation number (n) increased from 1.0 to 8.4 after 350 weeks of irradiation. The reappearance of the initial shoulder was proved with the split-dose technique.

  18. Proteomic Analysis on Acetate Metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Man; Lee, Sung-Eun; Park, Byeoung-Soo; Son, Mi-Kyung; Jung, Young-Mi; Yang, Seung-Ok; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Hur, Sung-Ho; Yum, Jong Hwa

    2012-01-01

    Mass production of glucosamine (GlcN) using microbial cells is a worthy approach to increase added values and keep safety problems in GlcN production process. Prior to set up a microbial cellular platform, this study was to assess acetate metabolism in Citrobacter sp. BL-4 (BL-4) which has produced a polyglucosamine PGB-2. The LC-MS analysis was conducted after protein separation on the 1D-PAGE to accomplish the purpose of this study. 280 proteins were totally identified and 188 proteins were separated as acetate-related proteins in BL-4. Acetate was converted to acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA synthetase up-regulated in the acetate medium. The glyoxylate bypass in the acetate medium was up-regulated with over-expression of isocitrate lyases and 2D-PAGE confirmed this differential expression. Using 1H-NMR analysis, the product of isocitrate lyases, succinate, increased about 15 times in the acetate medium. During acetate metabolism proteins involved in the lipid metabolism and hexosamine biosynthesis were over-expressed in the acetate medium, while proteins involved in TCA cycle, pentose phosphate cycle and purine metabolism were down-regulated. Taken together, the results from the proteomic analysis can be applied to improve GlcN production and to develop metabolic engineering in BL-4. PMID:22211106

  19. Probing BL Lac and Cluster Evolution via a Wide-angle, Deep X-ray Selected Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlman, E.; Jones, L.; White, N.; Angelini, L.; Giommi, P.; McHardy, I.; Wegner, G.

    1994-12-01

    The WARPS survey (Wide-Angle ROSAT Pointed Survey) has been constructed from the archive of all public ROSAT PSPC observations, and is a subset of the WGACAT catalog. WARPS will include a complete sample of >= 100 BL Lacs at F_x >= 10(-13) erg s(-1) cm(-2) . A second selection technique will identify ~ 100 clusters at 0.15BL Lacs are known and the largest complete samples are also small, with 20-50 objects each. Current data shows a discrepancy between XBL (X-ray selected BL Lac) and RBL (Radio-selected BL Lac) evolution, with = 0.304 +/- 0.062 for XBLs but = 0.60 +/- 0.05 for RBLs. Models of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) are also poorly constrained. WARPS will allow us to compute an accurate XLF, decreasing the error bars above by over a factor of two. We will also test for low-luminosity BL Lacs, whose non-thermal nuclear sources are dim compared to the host galaxy. Browne and Marcha (1993) claim the EMSS missed most of these objects and is incomplete. If their predictions are correct, 20-40% of the BL Lacs we find will fall in this category, enabling us to probe the evolution and internal workings of BL Lacs at lower luminosities than ever before. By removing likely QSOs before optical spectroscopy, WARPS requires only modest amounts of telescope time. It will extend measurement of the cluster XLF both to higher redshifts (z>0.5) and lower luminosities (LX<1x10(44) erg s(-1) ) than previous measurements, confirming or rejecting the 3sigma detection of negative evolution found in the EMSS, and constraining Cold Dark Matter cosmologies. Faint NELGs are a recently discovered major contributor to the X-ray background. They are a mixture of Sy2s, starbursts and galaxies of unknown type. Detailed classification and evolution of their XLF will be determined for the first time.

  20. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  1. Anxiety and memory deficits induced by tannery effluent in C57BL/6J female mice.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Ferreira, Raissa; de Souza, Joyce Moreira; da Silva, Wellington Alves Mizael; da Silva, Anderson Rodrigo; de LimaRodrigues, Aline Sueli; de Melo E Silva, Daniela; Costa, Renata Mazaro E; da Silva Castro, André Luis; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of female C57Bl/6J mice exposed to tannery effluents diluted in drinking water. Female mice were divided into a control group, in which the animals received only drinking water, and experimental groups, which received raw tannery effluent in 7.5 and 15 % concentrations diluted in water (period of 60 days). In the last experimental week, the mice (in diestrus phase) were subjected to different behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze, open-field test, forced swim test, and object recognition test. Our data demonstrated that exposure to tannery effluent increased the anxiety index of animals and decreased the locomotion ratio in the central quadrants/total, indicating an increase in anxiety-like behavior. Regarding the forced swim test, we did not observe changes in the evaluated behaviors. There were no statistically significant differences in the recognition index of the novel and familiar object in the groups exposed to tannery effluent compared with the control group, indicating a possible influence of the constituents of tannery effluent on cognition. Thus, our findings support the hypothesis that effluents, containing neurotoxic substances, could cause behavioral disruptions in female C57Bl/6J mice.

  2. Radar imaging of binary near-Earth asteroid (357439) 2004 BL86

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benner, Lance A. M.; Brozovic, Marina; Giorgini, Jon D.; Taylor, Patrick A.; Howell, Ellen S.; Busch, Michael W.; Nolan, Michael C.; Jao, Joseph S.; Lee, Clement G.; Ford, H. Alyson; Ghigo, Frank D.

    2015-11-01

    We report radar imaging of near-Earth asteroid 2004 BL86 obtained at Goldstone, Arecibo, Green Bank, and elements of the Very Long Baseline Array between 2015 January 26-31. 2004 BL86 approached within 0.0080 au on January 26, the closest known approach by any object with an absolute magnitude brighter than ~19 until 2027. Prior to the encounter, virtually nothing was known about its physical properties other than its absolute magnitude of 19, which suggested a diameter within a factor of two of 500 m. 2004 BL86 was a very strong radar target that provided an outstanding opportunity for radar imaging and physical characterization. Delay-Doppler images with range resolutions as fine as 3.75 m placed thousands of pixels on the object and confirmed photometric results reported by Pravec et al. (2015, CBET 4063) that 2004 BL86 is a binary system. During the observations, the asteroid moved more than 90 deg and provided a range of viewing geometries. The bandwidth was relatively narrow on Jan. 26, reached a maximum on Jan. 27, and then narrowed on Jan. 28, a progression indicating that the subradar latitude moved across the equator during those days. The images reveal a rounded primary with an equatorial diameter of ~350 m, evidence for ridges, possible boulders, and a pronounced angular feature ~100 m in diameter near one of the poles. Images from Jan. 26 show arcs of radar-bright pixels on the approaching and receding limbs that extend well behind the trailing edge in the middle of the echo. This is the delay-Doppler signature of an oblate shape seen at least a few tens of degrees off the equator. A rough estimate for the diameter of the secondary is ~70 m and its narrow bandwidth is consistent with the 14-h orbital period reported by Pravec et al. (2015). The images are suitable for 3D shape, pole, orbit, and mass estimation. The observations utilized new data taking equipment at Green Bank to receive X-band (8560 MHz, 3.5 cm) transmissions from the 70 m DSS-14

  3. Complete Genome Sequence of the Probiotic Lactobacillus casei Strain BL23▿

    PubMed Central

    Mazé, Alain; Boël, Grégory; Zúñiga, Manuel; Bourand, Alexa; Loux, Valentin; Yebra, Maria Jesus; Monedero, Vicente; Correia, Karine; Jacques, Noémie; Beaufils, Sophie; Poncet, Sandrine; Joyet, Philippe; Milohanic, Eliane; Casarégola, Serge; Auffray, Yanick; Pérez-Martínez, Gaspar; Gibrat, Jean-François; Zagorec, Monique; Francke, Christof; Hartke, Axel; Deutscher, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The entire genome of Lactobacillus casei BL23, a strain with probiotic properties, has been sequenced. The genomes of BL23 and the industrially used probiotic strain Shirota YIT 9029 (Yakult) seem to be very similar. PMID:20348264

  4. Catalog of SAS-2 gamma-ray observations (Fichtel, et al. 1990)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The SAS-2 gamma ray catalog contains fluxes measured with the high energy gamma ray telescope flown aboard the second NASA Small Astronomy Satellite. The objects measured include various types of galaxies, quasi-stellar, and BL Lacertae objects, and pulsars. The catalog contains separate files for galaxies, pulsars, other objects, notes, and references.

  5. B-1 Systems Approach to Training. Behavioral Objectives for the Pilot, Copilot, and Offensive Systems Operator. Volume 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-07-01

    IJ i. i 1 1 I I I ■ I I : Calspan B’l SYSTEMS APPROACH TO TRAINING TECHNICAL MEMORANDUM SAT-2 BEHAVIORAL OBJECTIVES FOR THE... Training B-l Behavioral Objectives Enabling Objectives Training Objectives ZO. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side II necessary and Identity by block...number) 5^hr The Systems Approach to Training (SAT) for the B-l aircrew involves the transformation of task analysis data into complete and

  6. Variation in eggshell characteristics and in intrauterine egg retention between two oviparous clades of the lizard Lacerta vivipara: insight into the oviparity-viviparity continuum in squamates.

    PubMed

    Heulin, Benoit; Ghielmi, Samuele; Vogrin, Nusa; Surget-Groba, Yann; Guillaume, Claude Pierre

    2002-06-01

    The concept of the oviparity-viviparity continuum refers to the wide range in the length of intrauterine egg retention and, hence, in the stage of embryonic development at oviposition existing in squamates. The evolutionary process underlying this continuum may involve not only a lengthening of egg retention in utero, but also a marked reduction in the thickness of the eggshell. The idea that there may exist a negative correlation between the developmental stage reached by the embryo at oviposition and the eggshell thickness within squamates, although supported by the comparison of oviparous vs. viviparous species, has seldom been evaluated by comparing eggshell thickness of oviparous forms with different lengths of intrauterine egg retention. Eggs of two distinct oviparous clades of the lizard Lacerta vivipara were compared. The eggs laid by females from Slovenian and Italian populations have thicker eggshells, contain embryos on average less developed at the time of oviposition, and require a longer incubation period before hatching than the eggs laid by females from French oviparous populations. Our data and several other examples available from the literature support the idea that the lengthening of intrauterine retention of eggs and the shortening of the subsequent external incubation of eggs are associated with reduction in the thickness of the eggshell, at least in some lineages of oviparous squamates. The current hypotheses that may account for this correlation are presented and a few restrictions and refinements to those hypotheses are discussed. In particular, other changes, such as increased vascularization of the oviduct and of the extraembryonic membranes, may play the same role as the decrease of eggshell thickness in facilitating prolonged intrauterine egg retention in squamates. Future studies should also consider the hypothesis that the length of intrauterine retention might directly depend on the extent of maternal-fetal chemical communication

  7. LACERTA I AND CASSIOPEIA III. TWO LUMINOUS AND DISTANT ANDROMEDA SATELLITE DWARF GALAXIES FOUND IN THE 3{pi} PAN-STARRS1 SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Nicolas F.; Laevens, Benjamin P. M.; Slater, Colin T.; Bell, Eric F.; Schlafly, Edward F.; Morganson, Eric; Rix, Hans-Walter; Bernard, Edouard J.; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Finkbeiner, Douglas P.; Burgett, William S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.; Hodapp, Klaus W.; Kaiser, Nicholas; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Magnier, Eugene A.; Morgan, Jeffrey S.; Tonry, John L.; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Price, Paul A.

    2013-07-20

    We report the discovery of two new dwarf galaxies, Lacerta I/Andromeda XXXI (Lac I/And XXXI) and Cassiopeia III/Andromeda XXXII (Cas III/And XXXII), in stacked Pan-STARRS1 r{sub P1}- and i{sub P1}-band imaging data. Both are luminous systems (M{sub V} {approx} -12) located at projected distances of 20. Degree-Sign 3 and 10. Degree-Sign 5 from M31. Lac I and Cas III are likely satellites of the Andromeda galaxy with heliocentric distances of 756{sup +44}{sub -28} kpc and 772{sup +61}{sub -56} kpc, respectively, and corresponding M31-centric distances of 275 {+-} 7 kpc and 144{sup +6}{sub -4} kpc. The brightest of recent Local Group member discoveries, these two new dwarf galaxies owe their late discovery to their large sizes (r{sub h} = 4.2{sup +0.4}{sub -0.5} arcmin or 912{sup +124}{sub -93} pc for Lac I; r{sub h} = 6.5{sup +1.2}{sub -1.0} arcmin or 1456 {+-} 267 pc for Cas III) and consequently low surface brightness ({mu}{sub 0} {approx} 26.0 mag arcsec{sup -2}), as well as to the lack of a systematic survey of regions at large radii from M31, close to the Galactic plane. This latter limitation is now alleviated by the 3{pi} Pan-STARRS1 survey, which could lead to the discovery of other distant Andromeda satellite dwarf galaxies.

  8. Brain plasticity and cognitive functions after ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Stragier, E; Martin, V; Davenas, E; Poilbout, C; Mongeau, R; Corradetti, R; Lanfumey, L

    2015-01-01

    Acute or chronic administrations of high doses of ethanol in mice are known to produce severe cognitive deficits linked to hippocampal damage. However, we recently reported that chronic and moderate ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice induced chromatin remodeling within the Bdnf promoters, leading to both enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and hippocampal neurogenesis under free-choice protocol. We performed here a series of cellular and behavioral studies to analyze the consequences of these modifications. We showed that a 3-week chronic free-choice ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice led to a decrease in DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene within the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus, and upregulated hippocampal BDNF signaling pathways mediated by ERK, AKT and CREB. However, this activation did not affect long-term potentiation in the CA1. Conversely, ethanol intake impaired learning and memory capacities analyzed in the contextual fear conditioning test and the novel object recognition task. In addition, ethanol increased behavioral perseveration in the Barnes maze test but did not alter the mouse overall spatial capacities. These data suggested that in conditions of chronic and moderate ethanol intake, the chromatin remodeling leading to BDNF signaling upregulation is probably an adaptive process, engaged via epigenetic regulations, to counteract the cognitive deficits induced by ethanol. PMID:26670281

  9. Brain plasticity and cognitive functions after ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Stragier, E; Martin, V; Davenas, E; Poilbout, C; Mongeau, R; Corradetti, R; Lanfumey, L

    2015-12-15

    Acute or chronic administrations of high doses of ethanol in mice are known to produce severe cognitive deficits linked to hippocampal damage. However, we recently reported that chronic and moderate ethanol intake in C57BL/6J mice induced chromatin remodeling within the Bdnf promoters, leading to both enhanced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression and hippocampal neurogenesis under free-choice protocol. We performed here a series of cellular and behavioral studies to analyze the consequences of these modifications. We showed that a 3-week chronic free-choice ethanol consumption in C57BL/6J mice led to a decrease in DNA methylation of the Bdnf gene within the CA1 and CA3 subfields of the hippocampus, and upregulated hippocampal BDNF signaling pathways mediated by ERK, AKT and CREB. However, this activation did not affect long-term potentiation in the CA1. Conversely, ethanol intake impaired learning and memory capacities analyzed in the contextual fear conditioning test and the novel object recognition task. In addition, ethanol increased behavioral perseveration in the Barnes maze test but did not alter the mouse overall spatial capacities. These data suggested that in conditions of chronic and moderate ethanol intake, the chromatin remodeling leading to BDNF signaling upregulation is probably an adaptive process, engaged via epigenetic regulations, to counteract the cognitive deficits induced by ethanol.

  10. Sex differences in novelty- and psychostimulant-induced behaviors of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Van Swearingen, Amanda E D; Walker, Q David; Kuhn, Cynthia M

    2013-02-01

    Women are more sensitive than men to psychostimulants and progress from initial use to drug addiction more quickly. The mouse has been an under-utilized model to study sex differences in psychostimulant action. Mice could serve as an ideal genetically tractable model for mechanistic studies into sex and hormone effects on psychostimulant behavior. The objective of this study was to characterize psychostimulant effects in male and female mice with a combination of automated data collection and behavioral observation. Male and female C57BL/6 mice (Charles River) were given a single dose or sequential ascending binge doses of D-amphetamine (AMPH) or cocaine (COC). Behavior was assessed in open field chambers using both automated photobeam interruptions and behavioral observations. Brain psychostimulant concentrations were determined at the time of maximum behavioral stimulation. Psychostimulants induced behavioral activation in mice including both increased locomotion as detected with an automated system and a sequence of behaviors progressing from stereotyped sniffing at low doses to patterned locomotion and rearing at high doses. Females exhibited more patterned locomotion and a shift towards higher behavior scores after either psychostimulant despite having lower AMPH and equivalent COC brain levels as males. Female C57BL/6 mice exhibit enhanced psychostimulant-induced behavior compared to males, similar to reports in rats. The combination of automated behavioral measures and behavioral observation was essential for verifying the existence of these differences. These results indicate the importance of testing both sexes when characterizing genetically manipulated mice to control for potential sex-specific effects.

  11. Hydrogeologic Characterization of the U-3bl Collapse Zone

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Geotechnical Services

    2006-09-01

    The U-3bl collapse crater was formed by an underground nuclear test in August 1962. This crater and the adjoining U-3ax crater were subsequently developed and used as a bulk low-level radioactive waste disposal cell (U-3ax/bl), which is part of the Area 3 Radioactive Waste Management Site at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). Various investigations have been conducted to assess the hydrogeologic characteristics and properties in the vicinity of the U-3ax/bl waste disposal cell. This report presents data from one of these investigations, conducted in 1996. Also included in this report is a review of pertinent nuclear testing records, which shows that the testing operations and hydrogeologic setting of the U-3ax/bl site were typical for the period and location of testing. Borehole U-3bl-D2 is a 45-degree-angle hole drilled from the edge of the crater under the waste cell to intercept the U-3bl collapse zone, the disturbed alluvium between the crater (surface collapse sink) and the nuclear test cavity. A casing-advance system with an air percussion hammer was used to drill the borehole, and air was used as the drilling fluid. Properties of the U-3bl crater collapse zone were determined from cores collected within the interval, 42.1 to 96.6 meters (138 to 317 feet) below the ground surface. Selected core samples were analyzed for particle density, particle size, bulk density, water retention, hydraulic conductivity, water content, water potential, chloride, carbonate, stable isotopes, and tritium. Physical and hydraulic properties were typical of alluvial valley sediments at the NTS. No visual evidence of preferential pathways for water transport was observed in the core samples. Soil parameters showed no trends with depth. Volumetric water content values ranged from 0.08 to 0.20 cubic meters per cubic meter, and tended to increase with depth. Water-retention relations were typical for soils of similar texture. Water potentials ranged from -1.9 MegaPascals at a depth of 42

  12. A High-Fat Diet Delays Age-Related Hearing Loss Progression in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fujita, Takeshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Uehara, Natsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Hasegawa, Shingo; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Objective Age-related hearing loss (AHL), or presbycusis, is the most common sensory disorder among the elderly. We used C57BL/6J mice as an AHL model to determine a possible association between AHL and a high-fat diet (HFD). Methods Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly assigned to a control or HFD group. Each group was divided into the following subgroups: 1-, 3-, 5- and 12-month groups (HFD, n = 5/subgroup; control, n = 5/subgroup). Nine CBA/N-slc mice were also used as a 12-month control (n = 5) or 12-month HFD (n = 4) group. The mice were fed a HFD or normal (control) diet throughout this study. Hearing function was evaluated at 1, 3, 5 and 12 months using auditory evoked brainstem responses (ABRs). Spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) were also counted. Results The elevation of ABR thresholds (at 4 and 32 kHz) at 3 and 5 months was significantly suppressed in the HFD group compared with the control groups for C57BL/6J mice. After 12 months, the elevation of ABR thresholds was significantly suppressed in the HFD group at all frequencies for C57BL/6J mice. In contrast, CBA/N-slc mice displayed opposite outcomes, as ABR thresholds at all frequencies at 12 months were significantly elevated in the HFD group compared with the control group. For the C57BL/6J mice at 12 months, SGC numbers significantly decreased in all parts of the cochleae in the control group compared with the HFD groups. In contrast, for the CBA/N-slc mice, SGC numbers significantly decreased, particularly in the upper parts of the cochleae in the HFD group compared with the control groups. Conclusions The elevation in ABR thresholds and SGC loss associated with aging in the HFD-fed C57BL/6J mice were significantly suppressed compared with those in the normal diet-fed mice. These results suggest that HFD delays AHL progression in the C57B/6J mice. PMID:25625852

  13. Functional Analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 Sortases

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G.

    2012-01-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent. PMID:23042174

  14. Functional analysis of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 sortases.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, Diego; Rodríguez-Díaz, Jesús; Collado, María Carmen; Langella, Philippe; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Monedero, Vicente

    2012-12-01

    Sortases are a class of enzymes that anchor surface proteins to the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria. Lactobacillus casei BL23 harbors four sortase genes, two belonging to class A (srtA1 and srtA2) and two belonging to class C (srtC1 and srtC2). Class C sortases were clustered with genes encoding their putative substrates that were homologous to the SpaEFG and SpaCBA proteins that encode mucus adhesive pili in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Twenty-three genes encoding putative sortase substrates were identified in the L. casei BL23 genome with unknown (35%), enzymatic (30%), or adhesion-related (35%) functions. Strains disrupted in srtA1, srtA2, srtC1, and srtC2 and an srtA1 srtA2 double mutant were constructed. The transcription of all four sortase encoding genes was detected, but only the mutation of srtA1 resulted in a decrease in bacterial surface hydrophobicity. The β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase and cell wall proteinase activities of whole cells diminished in the srtA1 mutant and, to a greater extent, in the srtA1 srtA2 double mutant. Cell wall anchoring of the staphylococcal NucA reporter protein fused to a cell wall sorting sequence was also affected in the srtA mutants, and the percentages of adhesion to Caco-2 and HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells were reduced for the srtA1 srtA2 strain. Mutations in srtC1 or srtC2 result in an undetectable phenotype. Together, these results suggest that SrtA1 is the housekeeping sortase in L. casei BL23 and SrtA2 would carry out redundant or complementary functions that become evident when SrtA1 activity is absent.

  15. Local environments of SNe Ic and Ic-BL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selsing, Jonatan; Christensen, Lise; Thöne, Christina; Modjaz, Maryam

    2015-08-01

    In this project we have observed the local explosion environments of a sample Type Ic and Type Ic-BL Supernove (SNe) selected from both targeted and non-targeted surveys using VLT/VIMOS in IFU-mode. It is believed that by probing the local surroundings of the parent stellar populations of these types of SNe, valuable information can be gained about the physical conditions, which affect the type of SNe produced. The different kinds of SNe produced are determined by the initial mass and metallicity of the stellar progenitor, as well as by the metallicity-dependent mass loss in the stellar winds at the end phase of their evolution and the interaction with a sufficiently close companion star. At the redshift of the galaxies we have selected, we spatially resolve regions ~250 pc across, comparable to the size of HII regions in local galaxies and using strong nebular emission lines as a proxy for the metal content of the stellar population, we can investigate if the conditions for the two types of SNe differ. The connection between long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and broad-lined SNe Ic and the existence of SNe Ic-bl without observed GRBs raises the question of what distinguishes a GRB progenitor from that of an ordinary SN Ic-bl without a GRB and this project will help with the elucidation of this. Moreover, from the HII region ages and stellar mass estimates, we examine the two suggested progenitor models for stripped SNe: single massive Wolf-Rayet (WR) stars with main-sequence masses of >30M⊙ that have experienced mass loss during the main sequence and WR stages, vs. binaries from lower-mass He stars.

  16. Magnetic compass orientation in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Edgar, Nicole M; Sloan, Kelly A; Phillips, John B

    2006-11-01

    We report evidence for a robust magnetic compass response in C57BL/6J mice. Mice were trained to build their nests in one of four magnetic directions by creating a light gradient along the long axis of a rectangular cage and positioning a nest box at the opposite (dark) end. The mice were then tested overnight in a circular, visually symmetrical arena in one of four magnetic field alignments. The positions of the nests built in the test arena showed strong unimodal orientation in the magnetic direction coinciding with the dark end of the training cage.

  17. A new phytoecdysteroid from the roots of Achyranthes bidentata Bl.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Jiang, Hai; Yan, Mei-Ling; Xing, Xu-Dong; Zhang, Yan-Yan; Wei, Na; Yang, Bing-You; Wang, Qiu-Hong; Kuang, Hai-Xue

    2017-05-01

    A new phytoecdysteroid compound, named Niuxixinsterone D (1), together with two known phytoecdysteroid compounds (2 and 3) were isolated from Achyranthes bidentata Bl.. The structure of the new compound was elucidated by extensive spectral analysis, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR methods. Compounds 1-3 were tested for their inhibitory effects against LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and compound 1 and 3 exhibited anti-neuroinflammatory activity with inhibited 29.7 and 26.0% NO production.

  18. Blueberry and Mulberry Juice Prevent Obesity Development in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Tao; Tang, Qiong; Gao, Zichun; Yu, Zhuoping; Song, Haizhao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Chen, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To establish whether blueberry (Vaccinium ashei) and mulberry (Morus australis Poir) juice, anthocyanin rich fruit juice, may help counteract obesity. Design And Methods: Four-week-old C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without blueberry and mulberry juice for 12 weeks. Body weight, serum and hepatic lipids, liver and adipose tissues morphology, insulin and leptin were assessed. Results Mice fed HFD exhibited increased body weight, insulin resistance, serum and hepatic lipids. In comparison, blueberry and mulberry juice inhibited body weight gain, decreased the serum cholesterol, reduced the resistance to insulin, attenuated lipid accumulation and decreased the leptin secretin. Conclusion These results indicate that blueberry and mulberry juice may help counteract obesity. PMID:24143244

  19. C57BL/6N Mice Are More Resistant to Ehrlich Ascites Tumors Than C57BL/6J Mice: The Role of Macrophage Nitric Oxide.

    PubMed

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Chausova, Svetlana; Kochetova, Lada; Malyshev, Yuri; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Igor

    2015-10-20

    BACKGROUND Effectiveness of the immune defense formed by the genotype often determines the predisposition to cancer. Nitric oxide (NO) produced by macrophages is an important element in this defense. MATERIAL AND METHODS We hypothesized that genetic characteristics of NO generation systems can predetermine the vulnerability to tumor development. The study was conducted on mice of 2 genetic substrains - C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N - with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). NO production in the tumor was changed using ITU, an iNOS inhibitor; c-PTIO, a NO scavenger; and SNP, a NO donor. Macrophage NO production was estimated by nitrite concentration in the culture medium. iNOS content was measured by Western blot analysis. Macrophage phenotype was determined by changes in NO production, iNOS level, and CD markers of the phenotype. RESULTS The lifespan of C57BL/6N mice (n=10) with EAC was 25% longer (p<0.01) than in C57BL/6J mice (n=10). Decreased NO production 23% reduced the survival duration of C57BL/6N mice (p<0.05), which were more resistant to tumors. Elevated NO production 26% increased the survival duration of C57BL/6J mice (p<0.05), which were more susceptible to EAC. Both the NO production and the iNOS level were 1.5 times higher in C57BL/6N than in C57BL/6J mice (p<0.01). CD markers confirmed that C57BL/6N macrophages had the M1 and C57BL/6J macrophages had the M2 phenotype. CONCLUSIONS The vulnerability to the tumor development can be predetermined by genetic characteristics of the NO generation system in macrophages. The important role of NO in anti-EAC immunity should be taken into account in elaboration of new antitumor therapies.

  20. Long-term artificial sweetener acesulfame potassium treatment alters neurometabolic functions in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H; Becker, Kevin G; Moaddel, Ruin; Maudsley, Stuart; Martin, Bronwen

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice.

  1. Long-Term Artificial Sweetener Acesulfame Potassium Treatment Alters Neurometabolic Functions in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Cong, Wei-na; Wang, Rui; Cai, Huan; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Turkin, Rebecca; Wood, William H.; Becker, Kevin G.; Moaddel, Ruin

    2013-01-01

    With the prevalence of obesity, artificial, non-nutritive sweeteners have been widely used as dietary supplements that provide sweet taste without excessive caloric load. In order to better understand the overall actions of artificial sweeteners, especially when they are chronically used, we investigated the peripheral and central nervous system effects of protracted exposure to a widely used artificial sweetener, acesulfame K (ACK). We found that extended ACK exposure (40 weeks) in normal C57BL/6J mice demonstrated a moderate and limited influence on metabolic homeostasis, including altering fasting insulin and leptin levels, pancreatic islet size and lipid levels, without affecting insulin sensitivity and bodyweight. Interestingly, impaired cognitive memory functions (evaluated by Morris Water Maze and Novel Objective Preference tests) were found in ACK-treated C57BL/6J mice, while no differences in motor function and anxiety levels were detected. The generation of an ACK-induced neurological phenotype was associated with metabolic dysregulation (glycolysis inhibition and functional ATP depletion) and neurosynaptic abnormalities (dysregulation of TrkB-mediated BDNF and Akt/Erk-mediated cell growth/survival pathway) in hippocampal neurons. Our data suggest that chronic use of ACK could affect cognitive functions, potentially via altering neuro-metabolic functions in male C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23950916

  2. Effect of Crossing C57BL/6 and FVB Mouse Strains on Basal Cytokine Expression

    PubMed Central

    Szade, Agata; Nowak, Witold N.; Szade, Krzysztof; Gese, Anna; Czypicki, Ryszard; Waś, Halina; Dulak, Józef; Józkowicz, Alicja

    2015-01-01

    C57BL/6 is the most often used laboratory mouse strain. However, sometimes it is beneficial to cross the transgenic mice on the C57BL/6 background to the other strain, such as FVB. Although this is a common strategy, the influence of crossing these different strains on homeostatic expression of cytokines is not known. Here we have investigated the differences in the expression of selected cytokines between C57BL/6J and C57BL/6JxFVB mice in serum and skeletal muscle. We have found that only few cytokines were altered by crossing of the strains. Concentrations of IL5, IL7, LIF, MIP-2, and IP-10 were higher in serum of C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice, whereas concentration of G-CSF was lower in C57BL/6J. In the skeletal muscle only the concentration of VEGF was higher in C57BL/6J mice than in C57BL/6JxFVB mice. Concluding, the differences in cytokine expression upon crossing C57BL/6 and FVB strain in basal conditions are not profound. PMID:25834307

  3. [Influence of temperature on the rate of spermatogenesis, duration of spermatogenic activity and development of secondary sex characteristics in the wall-lizard, Lacerta muralis L. (Reptilia, Lacertidae)].

    PubMed

    Joly, J; Saint Girons, H

    1975-01-01

    A series of experiments was carried out primarily between the 22nd of March and the 27th of June, on 60 Lacerta muralis maintained either under semi-natural conditions in large enclosures or in constant-temperature cabinets maintained at 17.5 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 22.5 degrees C and 27.5 degrees C with a natural photoperiod. Following an injection of tritiated thymidine, the animals were sacrificed at regular intervals and the rate of spermatogenesis was deduced from the progression of the radioactive front in the seminiferous epithelium. The following results were obtained: 1. The rate of spermatogenesis is temperature dependent and increases by a factor of approximately 1.2 per degree centigrade between 17.5 and 27.5 degrees C. The rate is seven times greater at 27.5 degrees C than at 17.5 degrees C. 2. Under semi-natural conditions the interval leptotene-spermatozooid lasts 70 days, slightly less than that found at a constant temperature of 22.5 degrees C. 3. Under semi-natural conditions the rate of spermatogenesis was similar to that in August-September, April-May and May-June which indicates that the lizards were able to maintain their body temperature at an equivalent level by behavioural temperature regulation during the greater part of their activity period. 4. Under semi-natural conditions, or at temperatures in excess of 22 degrees C, spermiogenesis lasts 1.8 times as long as meiosis. 5. At constant temperatures lower than 21 degrees C the development of the cellular lineage is aressted at the young spermatid stage. 6. Constant temperatures between 17.5 and 22.5 degrees C had no effect on the time of involution of the testis at the start of summer. 7. At low constant temperatures, secondary sexual characteristics regress before the usual time: after 4 weeks at 20 degrees C and after 8 weeks at 17.5 degrees C. An expected regression after 8 weeks produced after exposure to a temperature of 22.5 degrees C is probably due to factors other than

  4. BL3: A Next Generation Beam Neutron Lifetime Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wietfeldt, F. E.; Fomin, N.; Greene, G. L.; Snow, W. M.; Liu, C.-Y.; Crawford, C. B.; Korsch, W.; Plaster, B.; Jones, G. L.; Collett, B.; Dewey, M. S.

    2016-09-01

    BL3 (Beam Lifetime 3) is a proposed next generation neutron lifetime experiment using the beam method. It continues a program, spanning more than three decades, of experiments at the ILL (France) and the NIST Center for Neutron Research that achieved the most precise beam method neutron lifetime measurements to date. A collimated cold neutron beam passes through a quasi-Penning trap where recoil protons from neutron decay are trapped. Periodically the trap is opened and these protons follow a bend in the magnetic field to a silicon detector. The same neutron beam passes through a thin-foil neutron counter that measures the neutron density. The ratio of neutron and proton count rates, along with efficiency factors, gives the neutron lifetime. The main goal of BL3 is to thoroughly investigate and test systematic effects in the beam method in an effort to address the current 4 σ discrepancy between the beam and bottle methods. It will employ a much larger, higher flux neutron beam, a large area position-sensitive proton detector, and an improved magnet design, with a proton trapping rate 100 times higher than past experiments. National Science Foundation, U.S. Dept. of Energy Office of Science.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. Results The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and β-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and β-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. Conclusion This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract. PMID:23663691

  6. Transcriptional analysis of oligosaccharide utilization by Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Joakim M; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Abou Hachem, Maher; Lahtinen, Sampo J; Goh, Yong Jun; Svensson, Birte; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2013-05-10

    Probiotic bifidobacteria in combination with prebiotic carbohydrates have documented positive effects on human health regarding gastrointestinal disorders and improved immunity, however the selective routes of uptake remain unknown for most candidate prebiotics. The differential transcriptomes of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04, induced by 11 potential prebiotic oligosaccharides were analyzed to identify the genetic loci involved in the uptake and catabolism of α- and β-linked hexoses, and β-xylosides. The overall transcriptome was modulated dependent on the type of glycoside (galactosides, glucosides or xylosides) utilized. Carbohydrate transporters of the major facilitator superfamily (induced by gentiobiose and β-galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS)) and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters (upregulated by cellobiose, GOS, isomaltose, maltotriose, melibiose, panose, raffinose, stachyose, xylobiose and β-xylo-oligosaccharides) were differentially upregulated, together with glycoside hydrolases from families 1, 2, 13, 36, 42, 43 and 77. Sequence analysis of the identified solute-binding proteins that determine the specificity of ABC transporters revealed similarities in the breadth and selectivity of prebiotic utilization by bifidobacteria. This study identified the differential gene expression for utilization of potential prebiotics highlighting the extensive capabilities of Bifidobacterium lactis Bl-04 to utilize oligosaccharides. Results provide insights into the ability of this probiotic microbe to utilize indigestible carbohydrates in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Exploring the Magnetic Field Configuration in BL Lac Using GMVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Bindu; Krichbaum, Thomas; Hodgson, Jeff; Koyama, Shoko; Zensus, Anton; Fuhramnn, Lars; Marscher, Alan; Jorstad, Svetlana

    2016-09-01

    The high radio frequency polarization imaging of non-thermal emission from active galactic nuclei (AGN) is a direct way to probe the magnetic field strength and structure in the immediate vicinity of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and is crucial in testing the jet-launching scenario. To explore the the magnetic field configuration at the base of jets in blazars, we took advantage of the full polarization capabilities of the Global Millimeter VLBI Array (GMVA). With an angular resolution of $\\sim$50 micro-arcseconds ($\\mu$as) at 86 GHz, one could resolve scales up to $\\sim$450 gravitational radii (for a 10$^9$ solar mass black hole at a redshift of 0.1). We present here the preliminary results of our study on the blazar BL~Lac. Our results suggest that on sub-mas scales the core and the central jet of BL Lac are significantly polarized with two distinct regions of polarized intensity. We also noted a great morphological similarity between the 7mm/3mm VLBI images at very similar angular resolution.

  8. Brain damage resulting from postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is reduced in C57BL/6J mice as compared to C57BL/6N mice.

    PubMed

    Wolf, S; Hainz, N; Beckmann, A; Maack, C; Menger, M D; Tschernig, T; Meier, C

    2016-11-01

    Perinatal hypoxia is a critical complication during delivery and is mostly studied in animal models of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. We here studied the effects of postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in two different sub-strains of C57BL/6 mice, i.e. C57BL/6J and C57BL/6N mice. These two sub-strains show different metabolic properties, for instance an impaired glucose tolerance in C57BL/6J mice. Genetically, this was linked to differences in their nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (Nnt) genes: In C57BL/6J mice, exons 7-11 of the Nnt gene are deleted, resulting in the absence of functional Nnt protein. The mitochondrial Nnt-protein is one of several enzymes that catalyses the generation of NADPH, which in turn is important for the elimination of reactive oxygen species (ROS). As ROS is thought to contribute to the pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischemia, the lack of Nnt might indirectly increase ROS levels and therefore result in increased brain damage. We therefore hypothesize that lesion score and lesion size will increase in C57BL/6J mice as compared to C57BL/6N mice. Surprisingly, the results showed exactly the opposite: C57BL/6J mice showed a decrease in lesion score and size, associated with a reduced number of apoptotic cells and activated microglia. In contrast, the number of cells with ROS-induced DNA modifications (detected by 8OHdG) was higher in C57BL/6J than C57BL/6N mice. In conclusion, C57BL/6J mice showed reduced ischemic consequences after postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury compared to C57BL/6N mice, with the exception of the amount of ROS-induced DNA-damage. These differences might relate to the lack of Nnt, but also to a modified metabolic setting (cardiovascular parameters, oxygen and glucose metabolism, immune function) in C57BL/6J mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Thermoneutral housing is a critical factor for immune function and diet-induced obesity in C57BL/6 nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Stemmer, K; Kotzbeck, P; Zani, F; Bauer, M; Neff, C; Müller, TD; Pfluger, PT; Seeley, RJ; Divanovic, S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Obesity-related cancers represent public health burdens of the first order. Nevertheless, suitable mouse models to unravel molecular mechanisms linking obesity to human cancer are still not available. One translational model is the immunocompromised Foxn1 (winged-helix/forkead transcription factor) nude mouse transplanted with human tumor xenografts. However, most xenograft studies are conducted in nude mice on an in-bred BALB/c background that entails protection from diet-induced obesity. To overcome such resistance to obesity and its sequelae, we here propose the dual strategy of utilizing Foxn1 nude mice on a C57BL/6 background and housing them at their thermoneutral zone. METHODS C57BL/6 nude and corresponding wild-type mice, housed at 23 or 33 °C, were subjected to either low-fat diet or high-fat diet (HFD). Energy expenditure, locomotor activity, body core temperature, respiratory quotient as well as food and water intake were analyzed using indirect calorimetry. Immune function at different housing temperatures was assessed by using an in vivo cytokine capture assay. RESULTS Our data clearly demonstrate that conventional housing protects C57BL/6 nude mice from HFD-induced obesity, potentially via increased energy expenditure. In contrast, HFD-fed C57BL/6 nude mice housed at thermoneutral conditions develop adiposity, increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Moreover, increased circulating levels of lipopolysaccharide-driven cytokines suggest a greatly enhanced immune response in C57BL/6 nude mice housed at thermoneutrality. CONCLUSION Our data reveals mild cold stress as a major modulator for energy and body weight homeostasis as well as immune function in C57BL/6 nude mice. Adjusting housing temperatures to the thermoneutral zone may ultimately be key to successfully study growth and progression of human tumors in a diet-induced obese environment. PMID:25349057

  10. Autoantibodies to RuvBL1 and RuvBL2: a novel systemic sclerosis-related antibody associated with diffuse cutaneous and skeletal muscle involvement.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Kenzou; Fertig, Noreen; Medsger, Thomas A; Satoh, Takashi; Hoshino, Kana; Hamaguchi, Yasuhito; Hasegawa, Minoru; Lucas, Mary; Schnure, Andrew; Ogawa, Fumihide; Sato, Shinichi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Fujimoto, Manabu; Kuwana, Masataka

    2014-04-01

    To identify and characterize a novel systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related autoantibody directed against a complex consisting of RuvBL1 and RuvBL2 (RuvBL1/2) and to assess its clinical correlations. We first analyzed 316 consecutive patients with SSc who were evaluated at Kanazawa University Hospital. Controls included 290 patients with other connective tissue diseases, interstitial lung disease alone, or autoimmune hepatitis, and 50 healthy subjects. Autoantibody specificities were analyzed using RNA and protein immunoprecipitation assays. Autoimmune targets were affinity purified using patients' sera and subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. SSc patients in another institution in Japan and the University of Pittsburgh cohort were also included in analysis for evaluating clinical correlations. By protein immunoprecipitation assay, 6 SSc sera (1.9%) reacted with doublets with molecular weights of ∼50 kd. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry of the partially purified autoantigen and additional immunoblot-based analyses revealed that this antibody specificity recognized RuvBL1/2. Anti-RuvBL1/2 antibody was exclusively detected in SSc patients. SSc patients with anti-RuvBL1/2 in both the Japanese and Pittsburgh cohorts consistently had higher frequencies of SSc in overlap with myositis and diffuse skin thickening than those without anti-RuvBL1/2. Compared with other autoantibodies related to SSc/myositis overlap (anti-PM-Scl and anti-Ku), anti-RuvBL1/2 was distinctive in terms of its associations with older age at SSc onset, male sex, and a high frequency of diffuse cutaneous involvement. Anti-RuvBL1/2 antibody is a novel SSc-related autoantibody associated with a unique combination of clinical features, including myositis overlap and diffuse cutaneous involvement. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  11. Different patterns of Epstein-Barr virus latency in endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) lead to distinct variants within the BL-associated gene expression signature.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Gemma L; Stylianou, Julianna; Rasaiyaah, Jane; Wei, Wenbin; Thomas, Wendy; Croom-Carter, Deborah; Kohler, Christian; Spang, Rainer; Woodman, Ciaran; Kellam, Paul; Rickinson, Alan B; Bell, Andrew I

    2013-03-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is present in all cases of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (BL) but in few European/North American sporadic BLs. Gene expression arrays of sporadic tumors have defined a consensus BL profile within which tumors are classifiable as "molecular BL" (mBL). Where endemic BLs fall relative to this profile remains unclear, since they not only carry EBV but also display one of two different forms of virus latency. Here, we use early-passage BL cell lines from different tumors, and BL subclones from a single tumor, to compare EBV-negative cells with EBV-positive cells displaying either classical latency I EBV infection (where EBNA1 is the only EBV antigen expressed from the wild-type EBV genome) or Wp-restricted latency (where an EBNA2 gene-deleted virus genome broadens antigen expression to include the EBNA3A, -3B, and -3C proteins and BHRF1). Expression arrays show that both types of endemic BL fall within the mBL classification. However, while EBV-negative and latency I BLs show overlapping profiles, Wp-restricted BLs form a distinct subgroup, characterized by a detectable downregulation of the germinal center (GC)-associated marker Bcl6 and upregulation of genes marking early plasmacytoid differentiation, notably IRF4 and BLIMP1. Importantly, these same changes can be induced in EBV-negative or latency I BL cells by infection with an EBNA2-knockout virus. Thus, we infer that the distinct gene profile of Wp-restricted BLs does not reflect differences in the identity of the tumor progenitor cell per se but differences imposed on a common progenitor by broadened EBV gene expression.

  12. Dark Matter in Supersymmetric U(1){sub B-L} Model

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, S.; Okada, H.

    2009-04-17

    We analyze the dark matter problem in the context of supersymmetric, U(1){sub B-L} model. In this model, the lightest neutalino can be B-L gaugino Z-tilde{sub B-L} or Higgsinos {chi}-tilde{sub 1,2} dominated. We examine the thermal relic abundance of these particles and discuss the prospects for their direct detection if they form part of our galactic halo.

  13. Effects of Electroacupuncture at BL60 on Formalin-Induced Pain in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Ha; Won, Ran; Shim, Insop; Lee, Hyejung; Lee, Bae Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Acupuncture was used to treat symptoms of pain in the ancient orient. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) at the BL60 acupoint on male Sprague-Dawley rats. Each rat received EA at BL60 acupoint before formalin injection. Behavioral responses were recorded using a video camera and c-Fos immunohistochemistry was performed thereafter. Treatment of EA at BL60 significantly inhibited flinching behavior and c-fos expression induced by formalin injection into the paw, compared to a control group. These results suggest that electroacupuncture at BL60 acupoint may be effective in relieving inflammatory pain. PMID:22550540

  14. Does Black Hole Spin Play a Key Role in the Fsrq/bl Lac Dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that jets emerging from blazars (flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs) are almost aligned to the line-of-sight. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower luminosity and harder power law spectra at gamma-ray energies than FSRQs. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large observed luminosity mismatch between them. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this mismatch is significantly reduced. We show that spin plays an important role to reveal the dichotomy of luminosity distributions between BL Lacs and FSRQs, suggesting BL Lacs to be low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQs.

  15. VLBI survey at 2. 29 GHz

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, R.A.; Morabito, D.D.; Williams, J.G.; Faulkner, J.; Jauncey, D.L.

    1985-09-01

    VLBI observations at 2.29 GHz with fringe spacings of about 3 milliarcsec have been performed on 1398 radio sources spread over the entire sky. 917 sources were detected, including 93 percent of the identified BL Lacertae objects, 86 percent of the quasars, and 36 percent of the galaxies. The resulting catalog of compact radio sources is useful for various astrophysical studies and in the formation of VLBI celestial reference frames. 252 references.

  16. A VLBI survey at 2.29 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preston, R. A.; Morabito, D. D.; Williams, J. G.; Faulkner, J.; Jauncey, D. L.

    1985-01-01

    VLBI observations at 2.29 GHz with fringe spacings of about 3 milliarcsec have been performed on 1398 radio sources spread over the entire sky. 917 sources were detected, including 93 percent of the identified BL Lacertae objects, 86 percent of the quasars, and 36 percent of the galaxies. The resulting catalog of compact radio sources is useful for various astrophysical studies and in the formation of VLBI celestial reference frames.

  17. The 1987 outburst of the BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, J. R.; Smith, A. G.

    1989-08-01

    The violently variable BL Lacertid AO 0235 + 164 displayed a 3.24 magnitude outburst in early 1987. This outburst was observed intensively from Rosemary Hill Observatory in three colors. Long term monitoring observations made at Rosemary Hill are examined in an effort to find any recurring timescales associated with this outburst and previous large amplitude outbursts. The energetics of the 1987 outburst are analyzed in terms of the Shields and Wheeler model of a magnetized accretion disk. The timescales identified in the power spectrum (2.8 and 1.6 yr) are input into the model as the storage timescales. Since the emitted energy calculated from the optical burst cannot be stored in a magnetized disk at an allowable radius, it is concluded that either the storage timescales are longer than those identified in the power spectrum, or relativistic beaming effects must be considered, with a Doppler factor of 1.3 to 1.6.

  18. Sex differences in novelty- and psychostimulant-induced behaviors of C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Van Swearingen, Amanda E. D.; Walker, Q. David; Kuhn, Cynthia M.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Women are more sensitive than men to psychostimulants and progress from initial use to drug addiction more quickly. The mouse has been an under-utilized model to study sex differences in psychostimulant action. Mice could serve as an ideal genetically-tractable model for mechanistic studies into sex and hormone effects on psychostimulant behavior. Objectives To characterize psychostimulant effects in male and female mice with a combination of automated data collection and behavioral observation. Methods Male and female C57BL/6 mice (Charles River) were given a single dose or sequential ascending binge doses of d-amphetamine (AMPH) or cocaine (COC). Behavior was assessed in open field chambers using both automated photobeam interruptions and behavioral observations. Brain psychostimulant concentrations were determined at the time of maximum behavioral stimulation. Results Psychostimulants induced behavioral activation in mice including both increased locomotion as detected with an automated system and a sequence of behaviors progressing from stereotyped sniffing at low doses to patterned locomotion and rearing at high doses. Females exhibited more patterned locomotion and a shift towards higher behavior scores after either psychostimulant despite having lower AMPH and equivalent COC brain levels as males. Conclusions Female C57BL/6 mice exhibit enhanced psychostimulant-induced behavior compared to males, similar to reports in rats. The combination of automated behavioral measures and behavioral observation was essential for verifying the existence of these differences. These results indicate the importance of testing both sexes when characterizing genetically manipulated mice to control for potential sex-specific effects. PMID:22975726

  19. Cornu cervi pantotrichum Pharmacopuncture Solution Facilitate Hair Growth in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seon-Yong; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kwon, Kang; Lee, Chang-Hyun; Shin, Hyun Jong; Kim, Jai Eun; Ha, Ki-Tae; Jeong, Han-Sol

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP) has been widely used in Korean and China, as an anti-fatigue, anti-aging, and tonic agent to enhance the functions of the reproductive and the immune systems. Because CCP has various growth factors that play important roles in the development of hair follicles, we examined whether CCP pharmacopuncture solution (CCPPS) was capable of promoting hair growth in an animal model. Methods: One day after hair depilation, CCPPS were topically applied to the dorsal skin of C57BL/6 mice once a day for 15 days. Hair growth activity was evaluated by using macro- and microscopic observations. Dorsal skin tissues were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Expressions of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-7 were examined by using immunohistochemical staining. A reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis was also conducted to measure the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of FGF-7. Results: CCPPS induced more active hair growth than normal saline. Histologic analysis showed enlargement of the dermal papilla, elongation of the hair shaft, and expansion of hair thickness in CCPPS treated mice, indicating that CCPPS effectively induced the development of anagen. CCPPS treatment markedly increased the expressions of BrdU and PCNA in the hair follicles of C57BL/6 mice. In addition, CCPPS up regulated the expression of FGF-7, which plays an important role in the development of hair follicles. Conclusion: These results reveal that CCPPS facilitates hair re-growth by proliferation of hair follicular cells and up-regulation of FGF-7 and suggest that CCPPS can potentially be applied as an alternative treatment for patients with alopecia. PMID:27386145

  20. Erionite Induces Production of Autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad; Peña, Cecelia; Ng, Kok Whei; Pfau, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in kidneys. Results Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the TH17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGFβ, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. PMID:24518925

  1. THE SPECTRAL INDEX PROPERTIES OF FERMI BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, J. H.; Yang, J. H.; Yuan, Y. H.; Wang, J.; Gao, Y.

    2012-12-20

    In this paper, a sample of 451 blazars (193 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs), 258 BL Lacertae objects) with corresponding X-ray and Fermi {gamma}-ray data is compiled to investigate the correlation both between the X-ray spectral index and the {gamma}-ray spectral index and between the spectral index and the luminosity, and to compare the spectral indexes {alpha}{sub X}, {alpha}{sub {gamma}}, {alpha}{sub X{gamma}}, and {alpha}{sub {gamma}X{gamma}} for different subclasses. We also investigated the correlation between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray luminosity. The following results have been obtained. Our analysis indicates that an anti-correlation exists between the X-ray and the {gamma}-ray spectral indexes for the whole sample. However, when we considered the subclasses of blazars (FSRQs, the low-peaked BL Lacertae objects (LBLs) and the high-peaked BL Lacertae objects (HBLs)) separately, there is not a clear relationship for each subclass. Based on the Fermi-detected sources, we can say that the HBLs are different from FSRQs, while the LBLs are similar to FSRQs.

  2. Distinct Transcriptional Signatures of Bone Marrow-Derived C57BL/6 and DBA/2 Dendritic Leucocytes Hosting Live Leishmania amazonensis Amastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Giraud, Emilie; Lecoeur, Hervé; Soubigou, Guillaume; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Milon, Geneviève; Prina, Eric; Lang, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Background/Objectives The inoculation of a low number (104) of L. amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes into the dermis of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mouse ear pinna results in distinct outcome as assessed by the parasite load values and ear pinna macroscopic features monitored from days 4 to 22-phase 1 and from days 22 to 80/100-phase 2. While in C57BL/6 mice, the amastigote population size was increasing progressively, in DBA/2 mice, it was rapidly controlled. This latter rapid control did not prevent intracellular amastigotes to persist in the ear pinna and in the ear-draining lymph node/ear-DLN. The objectives of the present analysis was to compare the dendritic leukocytes-dependant immune processes that could account for the distinct outcome during the phase 1, namely, when phagocytic dendritic leucocytes of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice have been subverted as live amastigotes-hosting cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Being aware of the very low frequency of the tissues' dendritic leucocytes/DLs, bone marrow-derived C57BL/6 and DBA/2 DLs were first generated and exposed or not to live DsRed2 expressing L. amazonensis amastigotes. Once sorted from the four bone marrow cultures, the DLs were compared by Affymetrix-based transcriptomic analyses and flow cytometry. C57BL/6 and DBA/2 DLs cells hosting live L. amazonensis amastigotes do display distinct transcriptional signatures and markers that could contribute to the distinct features observed in C57BL/6 versus DBA/2 ear pinna and in the ear pinna-DLNs during the first phase post L. amazonensis inoculation. Conclusions/Significance The distinct features captured in vitro from homogenous populations of C57BL/6 and DBA/2 DLs hosting live amastigotes do offer solid resources for further comparing, in vivo, in biologically sound conditions, functions that range from leukocyte mobilization within the ear pinna, the distinct emigration from the ear pinna to the DLN of live amastigotes-hosting DLs, and their unique signalling

  3. Differential Localization of Pain-Related and Pain-Unrelated Neural Responses for Acupuncture at BL60 Using BOLD fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Jahng, Geon-Ho; Ryu, Chang-Woo; Ko, Chang-Nam; Park, Jung-Mi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate between pain-related and pain-unrelated neural responses of acupuncture at BL60 to investigate the specific effects of acupuncture. A total of 19 healthy volunteers were evaluated. fMRI was performed with sham or verum acupuncture stimulation at the left BL60 before and after local anesthesia. To investigate the relative BOLD signal effect for each session, a one-sample t-test was performed for individual contrast maps, and a paired t-test to investigate the differences between the pre- and post-anesthetic signal effects. Regarding verum acupuncture, areas that were more activated before local anesthesia included the superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal gyrus, thalamus, middle temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, culmen, and cerebellar tonsil. The postcentral gyrus was more deactivated before local anesthesia. After local anesthesia, the middle occipital gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, precuneus, superior parietal lobule, and declive were deactivated. Pre-anesthetic verum acupuncture at BL60 activated areas of vision and pain transmission. Post-anesthetic verum acupuncture deactivated brain areas of visual function, which is considered to be a pain-unrelated acupuncture response. It indicates that specific effects of acupoint BL60 are to control vision sense as used in the clinical setting. PMID:23853664

  4. Nlrp12 mutation causes C57BL/6J strain-specific defect in neutrophil recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Ulland, Tyler K.; Jain, Nidhi; Hornick, Emma E.; Elliott, Eric I.; Clay, Gwendolyn M.; Sadler, Jeffrey J.; Mills, Kathleen A. M.; Janowski, Ann M.; Volk, A. Paige Davis; Wang, Kai; Legge, Kevin L.; Gakhar, Lokesh; Bourdi, Mohammed; Ferguson, Polly J.; Wilson, Mary E.; Cassel, Suzanne L.; Sutterwala, Fayyaz S.

    2016-01-01

    The inbred mouse strain C57BL/6J is widely used in models of immunological and infectious diseases. Here we show that C57BL/6J mice have a defect in neutrophil recruitment to a range of inflammatory stimuli compared with the related C57BL/6N substrain. This immune perturbation is associated with a missense mutation in Nlrp12 in C57BL/6J mice. Both C57BL/6J and NLRP12-deficient mice have increased susceptibility to bacterial infection that correlates with defective neutrophil migration. C57BL/6J and NLRP12-deficient macrophages have impaired CXCL1 production and the neutrophil defect observed in C57BL/6J and NLRP12-deficient mice is rescued by restoration of macrophage NLRP12. These results demonstrate that C57BL/6J mice have a functional defect in NLRP12 and that macrophages require NLRP12 expression for effective recruitment of neutrophils to inflammatory sites. PMID:27779193

  5. Gene expression profiling in response to the histone deacetylase inhibitor BL1521 in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ruijter, Annemieke J.M. de; Kemp, Stephan . E-mail: a.b.vankuilenburg@amc.uva.nl

    2005-10-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumor with a poor survival in advanced stage disease despite intensive chemotherapeutic regimes. The new histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor BL1521 has shown promising results in neuroblastoma. Inhibition of HDAC resulted in a decrease in proliferation and metabolic activity, induction of apoptosis and differentiation of neuroblastoma cells. In order to elucidate the mechanism mediating the effects of BL1521 on neuroblastoma cells, we investigated the gene expression profile of an MYCN single copy (SKNAS) and an MYCN amplified (IMR32) neuroblastoma cell line after treatment with BL1521 using the Affymetrix oligonucleotide array U133A. An altered expression of 255 genes was observed in both neuroblastoma cell lines. The majority of these genes were involved in gene expression, cellular metabolism, and cell signaling. We observed changes in the expression of vital genes belonging to the cell cycle (cyclin D1 and CDK4) and apoptosis (BNIP3, BID, and BCL2) pathway in response to BL1521. The expression of 37 genes was altered by both BL1521 and Trichostatin A, which could indicate a common gene set regulated by different HDAC inhibitors. BL1521 treatment changed the expression of a number of MYCN-associated genes. Several genes in the Wnt and the Delta/Notch pathways were changed in response to BL1521 treatment, suggesting that BL1521 is able to induce the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells into a more mature phenotype.

  6. Electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang (BL35) for post-stroke detrusor overactivity★

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Liu, Luran; Wang, Xiaomin

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is used extensively in China for the treatment of stroke and other neurological disorders. The National Institutes of Health recommends acupuncture as an adjunctive therapy for stroke recovery. This study included patients with post-stroke detrusor overactivity who were treated in the Department of Neurology, Fourth Hospital of Harbin Medical University, China. Subjects received either electroacupuncture or sham electroacupuncture at points Baliao [including bilateral Shangliao (BL31), bilateral Ciliao (BL32), bilateral Zhongliao (BL33), and bilateral Xialiao (BL34)] and Huiyang (BL35). Our results showed that electroacupuncture significantly improved cystometric capacity and bladder compliance, decreased detrusor leak point pressure, ameliorated lower urinary tract symptoms, and decreased the risk of upper urinary tract damage. These findings indicate that electroacupuncture at points Baliao and Huiyang is an effective treatment for post-stroke detrusor overactivity. PMID:25206463

  7. Infants' Knowledge of Objects: Beyond Object Files and Object Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Xu, Fei

    2001-01-01

    Examines evidence that the research community studying infants' object concept and the community concerned with adult object-based attention have been studying the same natural kind. Maintains that the discovery that the object representations of young infants are the same as the object files of mid-level visual cognition has implications for both…

  8. Current status of BL-2B at photon factory

    SciTech Connect

    Nambu, Akira Ueda, Kazuhiro; Horiba, Koji; Tsuchiya, Kimichika; Kumigashira, Hiroshi; Amemiya, Kenta

    2016-07-27

    A new soft x-ray beamline BL-2B at Photon Factory of High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK-PF) covers energy range from vacuum ultraviolet (30 eV) to soft x-ray (4000 eV). This wide energy range could be achieved by employing two undulators and two monochromators. Two different energy range undulators were installed tandem to a 9-meter straight section of PF storage ring. The 1{sup st} undulator is for VUV (30 eV) to SX (280 eV), while the other one is for SX (280 eV) to HX (4000 eV). It is also necessary to be equipped with two different monochrometors for energy above and under 2000 eV; grating monochrometor and double crystal monochrometor. One of the main purposes of this bemaline is spectroscopic study of light elements contained in several functional materials. The beamline is designed for photoemission spectroscopy (PES), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and other types of experiments. The performance of the new beamline is reported and typical examples of its application to material science are demonstrated.

  9. The effect of omeprazole on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6J and SJL/J mice.

    PubMed

    Sands, Scott A; Tsau, Sheila; Yankee, Thomas M; Parker, Brooks L; Ericsson, Aaron C; LeVine, Steven M

    2014-09-04

    Gastric disturbances such as dyspepsia are routinely encountered by multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, and these conditions are often treated with gastric acid suppressors such as proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2 receptor antagonists, or antacids. The proton pump inhibitor omeprazole can alter the gut flora and immune responses, both of which can influence the course of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. The objective of the current study was to examine the effect of omeprazole treatment on the development of EAE. Bacterial microbiome analysis of mouse fecal pellets was determined in C57BL/6J EAE mice chronically treated with omeprazole, and spleen immune cell content, clinical scores, weight, rotarod latency, and histopathology were used as outcome measures in C57BL/6J and SJL/J mice with EAE. Omeprazole treatment resulted in decreases in Akkermansia muciniphila and Coprococcus sp. and an increase in unidentified bacteria in the family S24-7 (order Bacteroidales) in C57BL/6J mice with EAE. Omeprazole did not alter spleen immune cell content compared to vehicle in EAE mice, but differences independent of treatment were observed in subsets of T cells between early and advanced disease in C57BL/6J mice as well as between the two strains of mice at an advanced disease stage. Omeprazole caused no difference in clinical scores in either strain, but significantly lowered weight gain compared to vehicle in the C57BL/6J mice with EAE. Omeprazole also did not alter rotarod behavior or hindbrain inflammatory cell infiltration compared to vehicle in both strains of mice with EAE. Rotarod latency did reveal a negative correlation with clinical scores during active disease in both mouse strains, but not during clinical remission in SJL/J mice, suggesting that rotarod can detect disability not reflected in the clinical scores. Despite alterations in the gut microbiota and weight gain in the C57BL/6J EAE model, omeprazole had no effect on

  10. [Study on identification of Gastrodia elata Bl. by Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ze-Feng; Xu, Rui; Cheng, Cun-Gui

    2007-09-01

    In the present article the FTIR spectra of the wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl. from different habitats and its confusable varieties such as Canna edulis Ker-Gawl, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott and Solanum tuberosum L. were obtained by horizontal attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR), and were all transformed by Fourier self-deconvolution. The authors investigated the discrepancy extent of Fourier self-deconvolution of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties under various bandwidth and enhancement, and found that the discrepancy extent of Gastrodia elata Bl and confusable varieties was the most obvious when the bandwidth was between 75.0 and 76.0 and enhancement was 3.2. By adopting Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy (FSD-IR) analytical method the samples were studied in detail. The results showed that we could find out the difference among them by means of Fourier self-deconvolution infrared spectroscopy, although it was very difficult to find out the difference in FSD-IR spectra of wild and planting Gastrodia elata Bl., and asexual reproduction and sexual reproduction Gastrodia elata Bl. The difference in FSD-IR spectra between Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties is also very great. Therefore, this method can be used to recognize different Gastrodia elata Bl. and its confusable varieties simply, rapidly and accurately.

  11. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  12. DEVELOPMENTAL TOXICITY OF METHANOL: PATHOGENESIS IN CD-1 AND C57BL/6J MICE EXPOSED IN WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol causes axial skeleton and craniofacial defects in both CD-1 and C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation, but C57BL/6J embryos are more severely affected. We evaluated methanol-induced pathogenesis in CD-1 and C57BL/6J embryos exposed during gastrulation in whole em...

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: The HRX-BL Lac sample (Beckmann+, 2003)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckmann, V.; Engels, D.; Bade, N.; Wucknitz, O.

    2003-04-01

    The BL Lac subsample was selected on an area of 1687deg^2 with a counter-rate limit of hcps>=0.075s-1 and on additional 1150deg2 with a limit of hcps>=0.15s-1. This sample was analyzed by Bade et al. (1998A&A...334..459) and is referred here as the HRX-BL Lac core sample. It consists of 39 BL Lacs, 34 of which are also part of the present sample. (2 data files).

  14. SPring-8 BL36XU: Catalytic Reaction Dynamics for Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekizawa, O.; Uruga, T.; Takagi, Y.; Nitta, K.; Kato, K.; Tanida, H.; Uesugi, K.; Hoshino, M.; Ikenaga, E.; Takeshita, K.; Takahashi, S.; Sano, M.; Aoyagi, H.; Watanabe, A.; Nariyama, N.; Ohashi, H.; Yumoto, H.; Koyama, T.; Senba, Y.; Takeuchi, T.; Furukawa, Y.; Ohata, T.; Matsushita, T.; Ishizawa, Y.; Kudo, T.; Kimura, H.; Yamazaki, H.; Tanaka, T.; Bizen, T.; Seike, T.; Goto, S.; Ohno, H.; Takata, M.; Kitamura, H.; Ishikawa, T.; Tada, M.; Yokoyama, T.; Iwasawa, Y.

    2016-05-01

    A tapered undulator beamline BL36XU was constructed at SPring-8 to conduct structural and electronic analysis of dynamic events on polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) cathode catalysts for the development of next-generation PEFCs. BL36XU provides various time and spatially resolved XAFS techniques in an energy range from 4.5 to 35 keV for investigating PEFCs under the operating conditions. In addition, we developed in-situ complementary measurement systems, such as in-situ time-resolved XAFS/XRD and ambient pressure HAXPES systems. This report describes the performance and present status of the BL36XU.

  15. Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8

    SciTech Connect

    Nonaka, T. Dohmae, K.; Hayashi, Y.; Yamaguchi, S.; Nagai, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Araki, T.; Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H.; Uruga, T.; Yamazaki, H.; Yumoto, H.; Ohashi, H.; Goto, S.

    2016-07-27

    The Toyota beamline (BL33XU) at SPring-8 is an undulator beamline developed to assist in the study of various automotive-related materials. The light source is a tapered in-vacuum undulator that provides a variable energy band width as well as a high brilliance X-ray beam. Two different optical arrangements are available: Optics 1 and Optics 2. Optics 1 is dedicated to time-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAFS), and consists of two channel-cut crystal monochromators and four water-cooled flat Si mirrors. The Si(111) and Si(220) monochromator crystals cover an energy range of 4.0–46.0 keV and are driven by high-speed AC servo motors. These monochromators, in conjunction with the tapered undulator, enable high-quality XAFS data acquisition with a temporal resolution of 10 ms. Optics 2 is optimized for X-ray diffraction, scattering and imaging and includes a recently installed double crystal monochromator, two water-cooled flat Si mirrors and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) focusing mirrors. The monochromator incorporates parallel mounted Si(111) and Si(311) crystals and covers an energy range of 4.5–70 keV. The beamline provides two experimental stations: Exp. Hutch 2 and Exp. Hutch 3. The gas supply system and mass spectrometers installed in Exp. Hutch 2 allow in-operando measurements under various atmospheres. The scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (scanning 3DXRD) microscopy instrumentation developed and installed in Exp. Hutch 3 enables non-destructive orientation and stress mapping of 1 mm-thick steel specimens using a high energy microbeam.

  16. Respiratory toxicity of diacetyl in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel L; Flake, Gordon P; Kirby, Patrick J; Palmer, Scott M

    2008-05-01

    Diacetyl, a component of artificial butter flavoring, is a potential etiological agent of obliterative bronchiolitis (OB); however, the toxic dose and mechanisms of toxicity remain controversial. We evaluated the respiratory toxicity of diacetyl in a murine model using several exposure profiles relevant to workplace conditions at microwave popcorn packaging plants. Male C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to inhaled diacetyl across several concentrations and duration profiles, or by direct oropharyngeal aspiration. Effects of diacetyl on the respiratory tract were evaluated by histopathology and BALF analyses. Subacute exposure to 200 or 400 ppm diacetyl for 5 days caused deaths, necrotizing rhinitis, necrotizing laryngitis and bronchitis. Reducing the exposure to 1 h/day (100, 200, 400 ppm) for 4 weeks resulted in less nasal and laryngeal toxicity, but led to peribronchial and peribronchiolar lymphocytic inflammation. A similar pattern was observed with intermittent high-dose exposures at 1200 ppm (15 min, twice a day, 4 weeks). Subchronic exposures to 100 ppm (6 h/day, 12 weeks) caused moderate nasal injury, and peribronchial lymphocytic inflammation accompanied by epithelial atrophy, denudation, and regeneration. Treatment with 400 mg/kg by oropharyngeal aspiration to bypass the nose caused foci of fibrohistiocytic proliferation with little or no inflammation at the junction of the terminal bronchiole and alveolar duct. Depending on the route and duration of exposure, diacetyl causes significant epithelial injury, peribronchial lymphocytic inflammation, or fibrohistiocytic lesions in the terminal bronchioles. Collectively these results indicate that clinically relevant diacetyl exposures result in a pattern of injury that replicates features of human OB.

  17. The broadband spectral energy distributions of SDSS blazars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huai-Zhen; Chen, Luo-En; Jiang, Yun-Guo; Yi, Ting-Feng

    2015-07-01

    We compiled the radio, optical and X-ray data of blazars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey database, and presented the distribution of luminosities and broadband spectral indices. The distribution of luminosities shows that the averaged luminosity of flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) is larger than that of BL Lacertae (BL Lac) objects. On the other hand, the broadband spectral energy distribution reveals that FSRQs and low energy peaked BL Lac objects have similar spectral properties, but high energy peaked BL Lac objects have a distinct spectral property. This may be due to the fact that different subclasses of blazars have different intrinsic environments and are at different cooling levels. Even so, a unified scheme is also revealed from the color-color diagram, which hints that there are similar physical processes operating in all objects under a range of intrinsic physical conditions or beaming parameters. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  18. Lipidomic analysis and electron transport chain activities in C57BL/6J mouse brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kiebish, Michael A; Han, Xianlin; Cheng, Hua; Lunceford, Adam; Clarke, Catherine F; Moon, Hwi; Chuang, Jeffrey H; Seyfried, Thomas N

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the lipidome and electron transport chain activities in purified non-synaptic (NS) and synaptic (Syn) mitochondria from C57BL/6J mouse cerebral cortex. Contamination from subcellular membranes, especially myelin, has hindered past attempts to accurately characterize the lipid composition of brain mitochondria. An improved Ficoll and sucrose discontinuous gradient method was employed that yielded highly enriched mitochondrial populations free of myelin contamination. The activities of Complexes I, II, III, and II/III were lower in Syn than in NS mitochondria, while Complexes I/III and IV activities were similar in both populations. Shotgun lipidomics showed that levels of cardiolipin (Ptd(2)Gro) were lower, whereas levels of ceramide and phosphatidylserine were higher in Syn than in NS mitochondria. Coenzyme Q(9) and Q(10) was also lower in Syn than in NS mitochondria. Gangliosides, phosphatidic acid, sulfatides, and cerebrosides were undetectable in brain mitochondria. The distribution of Ptd(2)Gro molecular species was similar in both populations and formed a unique pattern, consisting of seven major molecular species groups, when arranged according to mass to charge ratios. Remodeling involving choline and ethanolamine phosphoglycerides could explain Ptd(2)Gro heterogeneity. NS and Syn mitochondrial lipidomic heterogeneity could influence energy metabolism, which may contribute to metabolic compartmentation of the brain.

  19. Effect of a neurotoxic dose regimen of (+)-methamphetamine on behavior, plasma corticosterone, and brain monoamines in adult C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Curtis E.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Herring, Nicole R.; Graham, Devon L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Gudelsky, Gary A.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale In rats, neurotoxic doses of methamphetamine (MA) induce astrogliosis, long lasting monoamine reductions, reuptake transporter down-regulation, and learning impairments. Objective We tested whether comparable effects occur in C57BL/6 mice. Method C57BL/6 mice were treated with 10 mg/kg s.c. × 4 MA on a single day and evaluated at various intervals thereafter. Results The neurotoxic dose regimen of MA caused the predicted acute hyperthermia and increased striatal glial fibrillary acidic protein and reduced neostriatal dopamine. The MA-treated mice were hypoactive 24 h later but not 48 h later. MA-treated mice also showed exaggerated initial hyperactivity after a pharmacological dose of MA used to stimulate locomotion followed by a later phase of hypoactivity compared to saline-treated mice. No differences were observed on learning or memory tests (novel object recognition, egocentric, or spatial learning/memory). MA-treated mice showed a trend toward increased prepulse inhibition but not baseline acoustic startle reactivity. After testing, MA-treated mice showed reduced neostriatal dopamine and increased basal plasma corticosterone. Conclusions A neurotoxic/binge regimen of MA in mice that produces the typical pattern of neurotoxic changes to those seen in rats, results in few behavioral changes. This may limit the utility of C57BL/6 mice for modeling the cognitive and behavioral effects described in human MA users who show such changes even after prolonged abstinence. PMID:20096350

  20. Erionite induces production of autoantibodies and IL-17 in C57BL/6 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Zebedeo, Christian Nash; Davis, Chad; Peña, Cecelia; Ng, Kok Wei; Pfau, Jean C.

    2014-03-15

    Background: Erionite has similar chemical and physical properties to amphibole asbestos, which induces autoantibodies in mice. Current exposures are occurring in North Dakota due to the use of erionite-contaminated gravel. While erionite is known to cause mesothelioma and other diseases associated with asbestos, there is little known about its effects on the immune system. Objectives: We performed this study to determine whether erionite evokes autoimmune reactions in mice. Methods: Bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) were used to measure toxicity induced by erionite. Cytokine production by BMDM and splenocytes of C57BL/6 mice was examined by bead arrays and ELISA following exposure to erionite, amphiboles and chrysotile. Wild type C57BL/6 mice were exposed to saline, erionite, amphibole asbestos (Libby 6-Mix) or chrysotile through intratracheal instillations at equal mass (60 μg/mouse). Seven months after exposure, sera were examined for anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) and IL-17. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect immune complex deposition in the kidneys. Results: Erionite and tremolite caused increased cytokine production belonging to the T{sub H}17 profile including IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and TNF-α. The frequency of ANA was increased in mice treated with erionite or amphibole compared to saline-treated mice. IL-17 and TNF-α were elevated in the sera of mice treated with erionite. The frequency of immune complex deposition in the kidneys increased from 33% in saline-treated mice to 90% with erionite. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that both erionite and amphibole asbestos induce autoimmune responses in mice, suggesting a potential for adverse effects in exposed communities. - Highlights: • Erionite, a fibrous mineral, is a current public health concern in the western USA. • Erionite exposure induces antinuclear autoantibodies in exposed mice. • Erionite induces a clear Th17 cytokine response in vitro and in vivo. • These responses were

  1. [Functional asymmetry of the brain hemispheres: the role in pathogenesis of ectromelia and melanoma in (CBAxC57BL/6)F1 mice].

    PubMed

    Abramov, V V; Gontova, I A; Ignat'ev, I M; Gel'fgat, E L; Kozlov, V A

    2009-07-01

    The object of the research was to identify role of functional nervous asymmetry in formation of pathology in experimental animals. The role of functional asymmetry of the brain hemispheres in development of ectromelia and melanoma at (CBAxC57BL/6)F1 mice was investigated. It has been established, that mice with domination of motor functions in the left hemisphere ("right-handed") are more resistant against infection with ectromelia virus, and melanoma B-16 grows more slowly in these mice as compated with animals with domination of motor functions of the right hemisphere ("left-handed"). Hence, for the first time the role of functional nervous asymmetry in pathogenesis of ectromelia and melanoma (B-16) in mice (CBAxC57BL/6)F1 is established.

  2. The effect of calmodulin antagonists on scoliosis: bipedal C57BL/6 mice model.

    PubMed

    Akel, Ibrahim; Demirkiran, Gokhan; Alanay, Ahmet; Karahan, Sevilay; Marcucio, Ralph; Acaroglu, Emre

    2009-04-01

    C57BL6 mice are melatonin deficient from birth and have been shown to develop scoliosis when rendered bipedal. Our previous work suggested that tamoxifen and trifluoperozine may change the natural course of scoliosis in a chicken model. The objective of this study was to analyze whether the incidence of scoliosis or the magnitude of curves may be decreased by the administration of pharmacological agents tamoxifen or trifluoperozine in a mice scoliosis model. Sixty female 3-week-old C57BL6 mice underwent amputations of forelimbs and tails. Available 57 mice were divided into three groups, Group-I received no medications whereas Groups II and III received 10 mg TMX and 10 mg TMX + 10 mg TFP per liter of daily water supply, respectively. PA scoliosis X-rays were obtained at 20th and 40th weeks. Deformities were compared for incidence and the severity of the curves as well as disease progression or regression. At 20th week, overall, upper thoracic (UT), lower thoracic (T), and lumbar (L) scoliosis rates were similar (P = 0.531; P = 0.209; P = 0.926; P = 0.215, respectively) but thoraco-lumbar (TL) scoliosis rate was higher inTMX group (P = 0.036). However, at 40th week, although TL and L rates were similar (P = 0.628, P = 0.080), overall rate as well as the rates of UT and T scoliosis of TMX group were significantly lower (P = 0.001, P = 0.011, P = 0.001, respectively). As for curve magnitudes, T mean Cobb angle at 20th week was significantly higher in the C group (14 +/- 2.55) compared to TMX + TFP group (9 +/- 2.708; P = 0.033); at 40th week, TL mean Cobb angle was lower in the TMX + TFP group (17.50 +/- 3.45) compared to C (29.40 +/- 5.98; P = 0.031); and TMX group had lower TL Cobb angles compared to C (8.67 +/- 11.72) although not significant (P = 0.109). Double curve incidence at 40th week was significantly lower in TMX group compared to other groups (P = 0.001), triple curve incidence was lower in TMX + TFP and TMX groups, albeit not significant (P = 0

  3. A discussion of Bl conservation on a two dimensional magnetic field plane in watt balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shisong; Zhao, Wei; Huang, Songling

    2016-05-01

    The watt balance is an experiment being pursued in national metrology institutes for precision determination of the Planck constant h. In watt balances, the 1/r magnetic field, expected to generate a geometrical factor Bl independent to any coil horizontal displacement, can be created by a strict two dimensional, symmetric (horizontal r and vertical z) construction of the magnet system. In this paper, we present an analytical understanding of magnetic field distribution when the r symmetry of the magnet is broken and the establishment of the Bl conservation is shown. By using either Gauss’s law on magnetism with monopoles or conformal transformations, we extend the Bl conservation to arbitrary two dimensional magnetic planes where the vertical magnetic field component equals zero. The generalized Bl conservation allows a relaxed physical alignment criteria for watt balance magnet systems.

  4. PATHOGENESIS OF METHANOL-INDUCED CRANIOFACIAL DEFECTS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol administered to C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation causes severe craniofacial dysmorphology. We describe dysmorphogenesis, cell death, cell cycle assessment, and effects on development of cranial ganglia and nerves observed following administration of methanol...

  5. PATHOGENESIS OF METHANOL-INDUCED CRANIOFACIAL DEFECTS IN C57BL/6J MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: Methanol administered to C57BL/6J mice during gastrulation causes severe craniofacial dysmorphology. We describe dysmorphogenesis, cell death, cell cycle assessment, and effects on development of cranial ganglia and nerves observed following administration of methanol...

  6. Shifting Weights: Adapting Object Detectors from Image to Video (Author’s Manuscript)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-08

    Skateboard Sewing Machine Sandwich Figure 1: Images of the “ Skateboard ”, “Sewing machine”, and “Sandwich” classes taken from (top row) ImageNet [7...InitialBL VideoPosBL Our method(nt) Our method(full) Gopalan et al. [18] (PLS) Gopalan et al. [18] (SVM) Skateboard 4.29% 2.89% 10.44% 10.44% 0.04% 0.94...belongs to no event class. We select 6 object classes to learn object detectors for because they are commonly present in selected events: “ Skateboard

  7. In vivo administration of BL-3050: highly stable engineered PON1-HDL complexes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Serum paraoxonase (PON1) is a high density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated enzyme involved in organophosphate (OP) degradation and prevention of atherosclerosis. PON1 comprises a potential candidate for in vivo therapeutics, as an anti-atherogenic agent, and for detoxification of pesticides and nerve agents. Because human PON1 exhibits limited stability, engineered, recombinant PON1 (rePON1) variants that were designed for higher reactivity, solubility, stability, and bacterial expression, are candidates for treatment. This work addresses the feasibility of in vivo administration of rePON1, and its HDL complex, as a potentially therapeutic agent dubbed BL-3050. Methods For stability studies we applied different challenges related to the in vivo disfunctionalization of HDL and PON1 and tested for inactivation of PON1's activity. We applied acute, repetitive administrations of BL-3050 in mice to assess its toxicity and adverse immune responses. The in vivo efficacy of recombinant PON1 and BL-3050 were tested with an animal model of chlorpyrifos-oxon poisoning. Results Inactivation studies show significantly improved in vitro lifespan of the engineered rePON1 relative to human PON1. Significant sequence changes relative to human PON1 might hamper the in vivo applicability of BL-3050 due to adverse immune responses. However, we observed no toxic effects in mice subjected to repetitive administration of BL-3050, suggesting that BL-3050 could be safely used. To further evaluate the activity of BL-3050 in vivo, we applied an animal model that mimics human organophosphate poisoning. In these studies, a significant advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 (>87.5% survival versus <37.5% in the control groups) was observed. Furthermore, BL-3050 and rePON1 were superior to the conventional treatment of atropine-2-PAM as a prophylactic treatment for OP poisoning. Conclusion In vitro and in vivo data described here demonstrate the potential advantages of rePON1 and BL-3050 for

  8. Celestial Objects for Common Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Thomas William

    2010-06-01

    Introduction; Part I. The Instrument and the Observer: 1. The telescope; 2. The mode of observation; Part II. The Solar System: 1. The Sun; 2. Mercury; 3. Venus; 4. The Moon; 5. Index to the map of the moon; 6. Mars; 7. Jupiter; 8. Saturn; 9. Uranus and Neptune; 10. Comets; Part III. The Starry Heavens: 1. Double stars, clusters, and nebulae; 2. Andromeda; 3. Anser; 4. Antinous; 5. Aquarius; 6. Aquila; 7. Argo Navis; 8. Aries; 9. Auriga; 10. Boötes; 11. Camelopardus; 12. Cancer; 13. Canes Venatici; 14. Canis Major; 15. Canis Minor; 16. Capricornus; 17. Cassiopea; 18. Cepheus; 19. Cetus; 20. Clypeus Sobieskii; 21. Coma Berenices; 22. Corona Borealis; 23. Corvus; 24. Crater; 25. Cygnus; 26. Delphinus; 27. Draco; 28. Equuleus; 29. Eridanus; 30. Gemini; 31. Hercules; 32. Hydra; 33. Lacerta; 34. Leo; 35. Leo Minor; 36. Lepus; 37. Libra; 38. Lynx; 39. Lyra; 40. Monoceros; 41. Ophiuchus; 42. Orion; 43. Pegasus; 44. Perseus; 45. Pisces; 46. Sagitta; 47. Sagittarius; 48. Scorpio; Scutum, see Clypeus, Sobieskii; 49. Serpens; 50. Sextans; 51. Taurus; 52. Taurus Poniatowskii; 53. Triangulum; 54. Ursa Major; 55. Ursa Minor; 56. Virgo; 57. Vulpecula.

  9. High fat feeding unmasks variable insulin responses in male C57BL/6 mouse substrains.

    PubMed

    Hull, Rebecca L; Willard, Joshua R; Struck, Matthias D; Barrow, Breanne M; Brar, Gurkirat S; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Zraika, Sakeneh

    2017-04-01

    Mouse models are widely used for elucidating mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes. Genetic background profoundly affects metabolic phenotype; therefore, selecting the appropriate model is critical. Although variability in metabolic responses between mouse strains is now well recognized, it also occurs within C57BL/6 mice, of which several substrains exist. This within-strain variability is poorly understood and could emanate from genetic and/or environmental differences. To better define the within-strain variability, we performed the first comprehensive comparison of insulin secretion from C57BL/6 substrains 6J, 6JWehi, 6NJ, 6NHsd, 6NTac and 6NCrl. In vitro, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion correlated with Nnt mutation status, wherein responses were uniformly lower in islets from C57BL/6J vs C57BL/6N mice. In contrast, in vivo insulin responses after 18 weeks of low fat feeding showed no differences among any of the six substrains. When challenged with a high-fat diet for 18 weeks, C57BL/6J substrains responded with a similar increase in insulin release. However, variability was evident among C57BL/6N substrains. Strikingly, 6NJ mice showed no increase in insulin release after high fat feeding, contributing to the ensuing hyperglycemia. The variability in insulin responses among high-fat-fed C57BL/6N mice could not be explained by differences in insulin sensitivity, body weight, food intake or beta-cell area. Rather, as yet unidentified genetic and/or environmental factor(s) are likely contributors. Together, our findings emphasize that caution should be exercised in extrapolating data from in vitro studies to the in vivo situation and inform on selecting the appropriate C57BL/6 substrain for metabolic studies. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  10. Clinical Chemistry Reference Intervals for C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, and C3HeB/FeJ Mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains.

  11. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, J.L.; Petterson, B.

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object`s effect on electric fields. The object`s effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions. 12 figs.

  12. Object locating system

    DOEpatents

    Novak, James L.; Petterson, Ben

    1998-06-09

    A sensing system locates an object by sensing the object's effect on electric fields. The object's effect on the mutual capacitance of electrode pairs varies according to the distance between the object and the electrodes. A single electrode pair can sense the distance from the object to the electrodes. Multiple electrode pairs can more precisely locate the object in one or more dimensions.

  13. WHAT IS THE REDSHIFT OF THE GAMMA-RAY BL LAC SOURCE S4 0954+65?

    SciTech Connect

    Landoni, M.; Falomo, R.; Treves, A.; Scarpa, R.; Payá, D. Reverte

    2015-12-15

    High signal-to-noise ratio spectroscopic observations of the BL Lac object S4 0954+65 at the alleged redshift z = 0.367 are presented. This source was detected at gamma frequencies by the MAGIC (TeV) and FERMI (GeV) telescopes during a remarkable outburst that occurred in 2015 February, making the determination of its distance particularly relevant for our understanding of the properties of the extragalactic background light. Contrary to previous reports on the redshift, we found that the optical spectrum is featureless at an equivalent width limit of ∼0.1 Å. A critical analysis of the existing observations indicates that the redshift is still unknown. Based on the new data we estimate a lower limit to the redshift at z ≥ 0.45.

  14. Electroweak vacuum stability in classically conformal B-L extension of the standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Arindam; Okada, Nobuchika; Papapietro, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    We consider the minimal U(1)_{B-L} extension of the standard model (SM) with the classically conformal invariance, where an anomaly-free U(1)_{B-L} gauge symmetry is introduced along with three generations of right-handed neutrinos and a U(1)_{B-L} Higgs field. Because of the classically conformal symmetry, all dimensional parameters are forbidden. The B-L gauge symmetry is radiatively broken through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism, generating the mass for the U(1)_{B-L} gauge boson (Z^' boson) and the right-handed neutrinos. Through a small negative coupling between the SM Higgs doublet and the B-L Higgs field, the negative mass term for the SM Higgs doublet is generated and the electroweak symmetry is broken. In this model context, we investigate the electroweak vacuum instability problem in the SM. It is well known that in the classically conformal U(1)_{B-L} extension of the SM, the electroweak vacuum remains unstable in the renormalization group analysis at the one-loop level. In this paper, we extend the analysis to the two-loop level, and perform parameter scans. We identify a parameter region which not only solve the vacuum instability problem, but also satisfy the recent ATLAS and CMS bounds from search for Z^' boson resonance at the LHC Run-2. Considering self-energy corrections to the SM Higgs doublet through the right-handed neutrinos and the Z^' boson, we derive the naturalness bound on the model parameters to realize the electroweak scale without fine-tunings.

  15. Post Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 110: Area 3 Waste Management Division U-3ax/bl Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. F. Emer

    2002-08-01

    This inspection and monitoring report has been prepared for the Area 3 Waste Management Division (WMD) U-3ax/bl Crater Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 110 in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. This inspection and monitoring report provides an analysis and summary for site inspections, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data obtained at CAU 110, located in Area 3 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. This report is the first post-closure report on the Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater, and covers the period January 2001 to June 2002. Inspections of the Area 3 WMD U-3ax/bl Crater cover area are conducted to determine and document the physical condition of the cover, facilities, and any unusual conditions that could impact the proper operation of the waste unit cover. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 2.4 meters (m) (8 feet [ft]) of the cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the design's performance expectations.

  16. Intermittent Hypoxia Impairs Glucose Homeostasis in C57BL6/J Mice: Partial Improvement with Cessation of the Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Polak, Jan; Shimoda, Larissa A.; Drager, Luciano F.; Undem, Clark; McHugh, Holly; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.; Punjabi, Naresh M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Although several studies have suggested that intermittent hypoxia in obstructive sleep apnea may induce abnormalities in glucose homeostasis, it remains to be determined whether these abnormalities improve after discontinuation of the exposure. The objective of this study was to delineate the effects of intermittent hypoxia on glucose homeostasis, beta cell function, and liver glucose metabolism and to investigate whether the impairments improve after the hypoxic exposure is discontinued. Interventions: C57BL6/J mice were exposed to 14 days of intermittent hypoxia, 14 days of intermittent air, or 7 days of intermittent hypoxia followed by 7 days of intermittent air (recovery paradigm). Glucose and insulin tolerance tests were performed to estimate whole-body insulin sensitivity and calculate measures of beta cell function. Oxidative stress in pancreatic tissue and glucose output from isolated hepatocytes were also assessed. Results: Intermittent hypoxia increased fasting glucose levels and worsened glucose tolerance by 67% and 27%, respectively. Furthermore, intermittent hypoxia exposure was associated with impairments in insulin sensitivity and beta cell function, an increase in liver glycogen, higher hepatocyte glucose output, and an increase in oxidative stress in the pancreas. While fasting glucose levels and hepatic glucose output normalized after discontinuation of the hypoxic exposure, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, and impairments in beta cell function persisted. Conclusions: Intermittent hypoxia induces insulin resistance, impairs beta cell function, enhances hepatocyte glucose output, and increases oxidative stress in the pancreas. Cessation of the hypoxic exposure does not fully reverse the observed changes in glucose metabolism. Citation: Polak J; Shimoda LA; Drager LF; Undem C; McHugh H; Polotsky VY; Punjabi NM

  17. Early Effects of Whole-Body 56Fe Irradiation on Hippocampal Function in C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Gwendolen E.; Yeiser, Lauren; Olsen, Reid H. J.; Davis, Matthew J.; Johnson, Lance A.; Raber, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Relatively little is known about early irradiation effects on hippocampal function in wild-type mice. In this study, the effects of 56Fe irradiation on hippocampal function were assessed starting 2 weeks after whole-body irradiation. Compared to sham irradiation, radiation impaired novel object recognition in female and male C57BL/6J wild-type mice. There were no effects of irradiation on contextual fear conditioning or spatial memory retention in the water maze. It is possible that oxidative damage might contribute to radiation-induced cognitive changes. Therefore, hippocampal and cortical levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT) and lipid peroxidation, measures of oxidative damage were assessed. There were no effects of irradiation on these measures of oxidative damage. As 56Fe irradiation can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, which may contribute to the impairments in novel object recognition, the effects of the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) on cognition following sham irradiation and irradiation were also assessed. ALA did not prevent radiation-induced impairments in novel object recognition and impaired spatial memory retention of sham-irradiated and irradiated mice in the probe trial after the first day of hidden platform training in the water maze. Thus, the novel object recognition test is particularly sensitive to detect early cognitive effects of 56Fe irradiation through a mechanism unlikely involving ROS or oxidative damage. PMID:23510274

  18. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  19. Role of whiskers in sensorimotor development of C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Erzurumlu, Reha S.

    2015-01-01

    The mystacial vibrissae (whiskers) of nocturnal rodents play a major role in their sensorimotor behaviors. Relatively little information exists on the role of whiskers during early development. We characterized the contribution of whiskers to sensorimotor development in postnatal C57BL/6 mice. A comparison between intact and whisker-clipped mice in a battery of behavioral tests from postnatal day (P) 4 to 17 revealed that both male and female pups develop reflexive motor behavior even when the whiskers are clipped. Daily whisker trimming from P3 onwards results in diminished weight gain by P17, and impairment in whisker sensorimotor coordination behaviors, such as cliff avoidance and littermate huddling from P4 through P17, while facilitation of righting reflex at P4 and grasp response at P12. Since active whisker palpation does not start until 2 weeks of age, passive whisker touch during early neonatal stage must play a role in regulating these behaviors. Around the onset of exploratory behaviors (P12) neonatal whisker-clipped pups also display persistent searching movements when they encounter cage walls as a compensatory mechanism of sensorimotor development. Spontaneous whisker motion (whisking) is distinct from respiratory fluttering of whiskers. It is a symmetrical vibration of whiskers at a rate of approximately ∼8 Hz, and begins around P10. Oriented, bundled movements of whiskers at higher frequencies of ∼12 Hz during scanning object surfaces, i.e., palpation whisking, emerges at P14. The establishment of locomotive body coordination before eyes open accompanies palpation whisking, indicating an important role in the guidance of exploratory motor behaviors. PMID:25823761

  20. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice.

    PubMed

    Cettour-Rose, Philippe; Bezençon, Carole; Darimont, Christian; le Coutre, Johannes; Damak, Sami

    2013-02-08

    Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested.

  1. Role of whiskers in sensorimotor development of C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Hiroyuki; Erzurumlu, Reha S

    2015-01-01

    The mystacial vibrissae (whiskers) of nocturnal rodents play a major role in their sensorimotor behaviors. Relatively little information exists on the role of whiskers during early development. We characterized the contribution of whiskers to sensorimotor development in postnatal C57BL/6 mice. A comparison between intact and whisker-clipped mice in a battery of behavioral tests from postnatal day (P) 4-17 revealed that both male and female pups develop reflexive motor behavior even when the whiskers are clipped. Daily whisker trimming from P3 onwards results in diminished weight gain by P17, and impairment in whisker sensorimotor coordination behaviors, such as cliff avoidance and littermate huddling from P4 to P17, while facilitation of righting reflex at P4 and grasp response at P12. Since active whisker palpation does not start until 2 weeks of age, passive whisker touch during early neonatal stage must play a role in regulating these behaviors. Around the onset of exploratory behaviors (P12) neonatal whisker-clipped pups also display persistent searching movements when they encounter cage walls as a compensatory mechanism of sensorimotor development. Spontaneous whisker motion (whisking) is distinct from respiratory fluttering of whiskers. It is a symmetrical vibration of whiskers at a rate of approximately ∼8 Hz and begins around P10. Oriented, bundled movements of whiskers at higher frequencies of ∼12 Hz during scanning object surfaces, i.e., palpation whisking, emerges at P14. The establishment of locomotive body coordination before eyes open accompanies palpation whisking, indicating an important role in the guidance of exploratory motor behaviors.

  2. Early deprivation induces competitive subordinance in C57BL/6 male mice.

    PubMed

    Benner, Seico; Endo, Toshihiro; Endo, Nozomi; Kakeyama, Masaki; Tohyama, Chiharu

    2014-10-01

    Rodent models have been widely used to investigate the impact of early life stress on adult health and behavior. However, the social dimension has rarely been incorporated into the analysis due to methodological limitations. This study characterized the effects of neonatal social isolation (early deprivation, ED) on adult C57BL/6 mouse behavior in a social context using our recently developed behavioral test protocols for group-housed mice. During the first two postnatal weeks, half of the pups per dam were separated from their dam and littermates for 3h per day (ED group). Post weaning, ED and control pups were electronically tagged and co-housed. At 12weeks, the mixed cohorts were transferred to IntelliCages, equipped with computer-controlled operant chambers. Access to the chambers was used as an index to analyze novel object response, behavioral flexibility, and competitive dominance with minimal experimenter intervention. In general, ED had greater effects on males; ED males exhibited reduced body weight, increased novelty response, and were subordinate to control littermates when competing for reward access. Male ED mice also demonstrated mildly impaired reversal learning. Analyzing gene expression changes in brain regions controlling emotion, stress, spatial memory, and executive function revealed reduced BDNF and c-Fos in hippocampal CA1, enhanced c-Fos in the basolateral amygdala, reduced Map2 while enhanced HSD11β2 in prefrontal cortex of ED males. In male mice, it was suggested that neonatal social isolation results in sustained changes in social behavior with altered function of limbic and frontal cortices. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Quinine controls body weight gain without affecting food intake in male C57BL6 mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quinine is a natural molecule commonly used as a flavouring agent in tonic water. Diet supplementation with quinine leads to decreased body weight and food intake in rats. Quinine is an in vitro inhibitor of Trpm5, a cation channel expressed in taste bud cells, the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. The objective of this work is to determine the effect of diet supplementation with quinine on body weight and body composition in male mice, to investigate its mechanism of action, and whether the effect is mediated through Trpm5. Results Compared with mice consuming AIN, a regular balanced diet, mice consuming AIN diet supplemented with 0.1% quinine gained less weight (2.89 ± 0.30 g vs 5.39 ± 0.50 g) and less fat mass (2.22 ± 0.26 g vs 4.33 ± 0.43 g) after 13 weeks of diet, and had lower blood glucose and plasma triglycerides. There was no difference in food intake between the mice consuming quinine supplemented diet and those consuming control diet. Trpm5 knockout mice gained less fat mass than wild-type mice. There was a trend for a diet-genotype interaction for body weight and body weight gain, with the effect of quinine less pronounced in the Trpm5 KO than in the WT background. Faecal weight, energy and lipid contents were higher in quinine fed mice compared to regular AIN fed mice and in Trpm5 KO mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusion Quinine contributes to weight control in male C57BL6 mice without affecting food intake. A partial contribution of Trpm5 to quinine dependent body weight control is suggested. PMID:23394313

  4. Mechanistic platform knowledge of concomitant sugar uptake in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) strains

    PubMed Central

    Wurm, David J.; Hausjell, Johanna; Ulonska, Sophia; Herwig, Christoph; Spadiut, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    When producing recombinant proteins, the use of Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) in combination with the T7-based pET-expression system is often the method of choice. In a recent study we introduced a mechanistic model describing the correlation of the specific glucose uptake rate (qs,glu) and the corresponding maximum specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac,max) for a pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strain producing a single chain variable fragment (scFv). We showed the effect of qs,lac,max on productivity and product location underlining its importance for recombinant protein production. In the present study we investigated the mechanistic qs,glu/qs,lac,max correlation for four pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains producing different recombinant products and thereby proved the mechanistic model to be platform knowledge for E. coli BL21(DE3). However, we found that the model parameters strongly depended on the recombinant product. Driven by this observation we tested different dynamic bioprocess strategies to allow a faster investigation of this mechanistic correlation. In fact, we succeeded and propose an experimental strategy comprising only one batch cultivation, one fed-batch cultivation as well as one dynamic experiment, to reliably determine the mechanistic model for qs,glu/qs,lac,max and get trustworthy model parameters for pET-based E. coli BL21(DE3) strains which are the basis for bioprocess development. PMID:28332595

  5. Hypolipidemic effect of young persimmon fruit in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kenji; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Gato, Nobuki

    2008-10-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of young persimmon fruit (YP) on apolipoprotein E-deficient C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. These mice exhibited higher plasma cholesterols, except for high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and lower plasma HDL cholesterol than C57BL/6.Cr mice that had the same genetic background as the C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice. Male C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice (n=5) were fed a diet supplemented with dry YP, Hachiya-kaki, at a concentration of 5% (w/w) for 10 weeks. YP treatment significantly lowered plasma chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterols, and triglyceride, and this response was accompanied by an elevation of fecal bile acid excretion. In the liver, sterol regulatory element binding protein-2 gene expression was significantly higher in mice fed YP, while the mRNA and protein levels of the LDL receptor did not change. These results indicate that acceleration of fecal bile acid excretion is a major mechanism of the hypolipidemic effect induced by YP in C57BL/6.KOR-ApoEshl mice.

  6. Characterization of a fibronectin-binding protein from Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Provencio, D; Pérez-Martínez, G; Monedero, V

    2010-03-01

    To characterize the functionality of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 fbpA gene encoding a putative fibronectin-binding protein. Adhesion tests showed that L. casei BL23 binds immobilized and soluble fibronectin in a protease-sensitive manner. A mutant with inactivated fbpA showed a decrease in binding to immobilized fibronectin and a strong reduction in the surface hydrophobicity as reflected by microbial adhesion to solvents test. However, minor effects were seen on adhesion to the human Caco-2 or HT-29 cell lines. Purified 6X(His)FbpA bound to immobilized fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot experiments with FbpA-specific antibodies showed that FbpA could be extracted from the cell surface by LiCl treatment and that protease digestion of the cells reduced the amount of extracted FbpA. Furthermore, surface exposition of FbpA was detected in other L. casei strains by LiCl extraction and whole-cell ELISA. FbpA can be found at the L. casei BL23 surface and participates in cell attachment to immobilized fibronectin. We showed that FbpA is an important, but not the only, factor contributing to fibronectin binding in BL23 strain. This is the first report showing the involvement of FbpA in fibronectin binding in L. casei BL23 and represents a new contribution to the study of attachment factors in probiotic bacteria.

  7. Does black hole spin play a key role in the FSRQ/BL Lac dichotomy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Debbijoy; Sreekumar, Parameswaran; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Tomar, Ishan

    2016-04-01

    Blazars are characterized by large intensity and spectral variations across the electromagnetic spectrum It is believed that jets emerging from them are almost aligned with the line-of-sight. The majority of identified extragalactic sources in γ-ray catalogs of EGRET and Fermi are blazars. Observationally, blazars can be divided into two classes: flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and BL Lacs. BL Lacs usually exhibit lower γ-ray luminosity and harder power law spectra at γ-ray energies than FSRQs. We attempt to explain the high energy properties of FSRQs and BL Lacs from Fermi γ-ray space telescope observations. It was argued previously that the difference in accretion rates is mainly responsible for the large mismatch in observed luminosity in γ-ray. However, when intrinsic luminosities are derived by correcting for beaming effects, this difference in γ-ray luminosity between the two classes is significantly reduced. In order to explain this difference in intrinsic luminosities, we propose that spin plays an important role in the luminosity distribution dichotomy of BL Lacs and FSRQs. As the outflow power of a blazar increases with increasing spin of a central black hole, we suggest that the spin plays a crucial role in making BL Lac sources low luminous and slow rotators compared to FSRQ sources.

  8. Behavioural and neuroanatomical divergence between two sublines of C57BL/6J inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Crusio, W E; Schwegler, H; van Abeelen, J H

    1991-01-31

    Male mice of strains C57BL/6J and DBA/2J differ reproducibly in a number of behaviours displayed in an open-field. In particular, C57BL/6J mice show a higher rearing-up frequency than do DBA/2J animals. Recently, a marked drop occurred in the frequency with which this behaviour is displayed by the C57BL/6J//Nmg (N) subline, that has been separated from the original C57BL/6J line over 62 generations. Comparison of our animals with the C57BL/6J//Kun(K) subline, separated from the Jackson parent over at least 40 generations, showed a significant strain difference for rearing. Since both a positive additive-genetic correlation between rearing and the size of the intra- and infrapyramidal mossy fibre terminal field (iipMF) and a correlated response in the size of the iipMF to selection for rearing have been found previously, we expected to find smaller iipMF in N, as compared with K. After processing for Timm's stain, this predicted difference was indeed found. Skin grafting demonstrated that the two sublines were still completely histocompatible, excluding a possible genetic contamination of N. This provides very strong support for the hypothesis that both the behavioural and the neuroanatomical differences between these sublines are caused by a single spontaneous mutation in the N line and strengthens the idea of a functional relationship between the structural and the behavioural variable.

  9. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  10. Selecting a Reference Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jared E.; Carlson, Laura A.; Hill, Patrick L.

    2011-01-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected.…

  11. Picturing Objects in Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinskey, Jeanne L.; Jachens, Liza J.

    2014-01-01

    Infants' transfer of information from pictures to objects was tested by familiarizing 9-month-olds (N = 31) with either a color or black-and-white photograph of an object and observing their preferential reaching for the real target object versus a distractor. One condition tested object recognition by keeping both objects visible, and the…

  12. Dyadic social interaction of C57BL/6 mice versus interaction with a toy mouse: conditioned place preference/aversion, substrain differences, and no development of a hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Barbara S; Seidl, Simon S; Habazettl, Eva; Gruber, Bernadette E; Bregolin, Tanja; Zernig, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric diseases, including dependence syndromes (substance use disorders). Helping the addict reorient her/his behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would be of considerable therapeutic benefit. To study the neural basis of such a reorientation, we have developed several animal models in which the attractiveness of a dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction (DSI) can be compared directly with that of cocaine as a prototypical drug of abuse. Our models are based on the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. In an ongoing effort to validate our experimental paradigms in C57BL/6 mice to make use of the plethora of transgenic models available in this genus, we found the following: (a) DSI with a live mouse produced CPP, whereas an interaction with an inanimate mouse-like object (i.e. a 'toy mouse'; toy mouse interaction) led to conditioned place aversion - but only in the Jackson substrain (C57BL/6J). (b) In the NIH substrain (C57BL/6N), both DSI and toy mouse interaction produced individual aversion in more than 50% of the tested mice. (c) Four 15 min DSI episodes did not result in the development of an observable hierarchy, that is, dominance/subordination behavior in the overwhelming majority (i.e. 30 of 32) of the tested Jackson mouse pairs. Therefore, dominance/subordination does not seem to be a confounding variable in our paradigm, at least not in C57BL/6J mice. Respective data for NIH mice were too limited to allow any conclusion. The present findings indicate that (a) DSI with a live mouse produces CPP to a greater degree than an interaction with an inanimate object resembling a mouse and that (b) certain substrain differences with respect to CPP/aversion to DSI do exist between the Jax and NIH substrain of C57BL/6 mice. These differences have to be considered when choosing a proper mouse substrain model for investigating the neural basis of DSI reward versus

  13. Behavioral Objectives?-No!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Bill L.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses his reasons for objecting to the use of behavioral objectives in education. Article is in response to Robert Blake's article on Behavioral Objectives and the Teaching of English" in English Education, Winter 1971. (RB)

  14. Postnatal Hematopoiesis and Gut Microbiota in NOD Mice Deviate from C57BL/6 Mice

    PubMed Central

    Damlund, Dina Silke Malling; Metzdorff, Stine Broeng; Hasselby, Jane Preuss; Wiese, Maria; Lundsager, Mia; Buschard, Karsten Stig; Hansen, Axel Kornerup; Frøkiær, Hanne

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal studies in different mouse strains reveal that early life colonization affects the development of adaptive immunity in mice. The nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse spontaneously develops autoimmune diabetes, but neonatal studies of NOD mice are lacking. We hypothesized that NOD mice deviate from another much used mouse strain, C57BL/6, with respect to postnatal microbiota and/or hematopoiesis and compared this in newborn mice of dams housed under the same conditions. A distinct bacteria profile rich in staphylococci was found at postnatal days (PND) 1–4 in NOD mice. Furthermore, a distinct splenic cell profile high in a granulocytic phenotype was evident in the neonatal NOD mice whereas neonatal C57BL/6 mice showed a profile rich in monocytes. Neonatal expression of Reg3g and Muc2 in the gut was deviating in NOD mice and coincided with fewer bacteria attaching to the Mucosal surface in NOD compared to C57BL/6 mice. PMID:26783537

  15. Effect of ketamine on exploratory behaviour in BALB/C and C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Akillioglu, Kubra; Melik, Emine Babar; Melik, Enver; Boga, Ayper

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the effect of ketamine on exploratory locomotion behaviours in the Balb/c and C57BL/6 strains of mice, which differ in their locomotion behaviours. Intraperitoneal administration of ketamine at three different doses (1, 5 or 10 mg/kg, 0.1 ml/10 gr body weight) was performed on adult male Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice. The same volume of saline was applied to the control group. The open-field and elevated plus maze apparatus were used to evaluate exploratory locomotion. In the open-field test, Balb/c mice less spend time in the centre of the field and was decreased locomotor activity compared to C57BL/6 mice (p<0.01). Ketamine treatment of Balb/c mice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in locomotor activity and an increase in the amount of time spent in the centre in the open-field test, compared to the control group (p<0.05). In C57BL/6 mice, ketamine treatment (1 and 10 mg/kg) decreased locomotor activity (p<0.05). In C57BL/6 mice, the three different doses of ketamine application each caused a decrease in the frequency of centre crossing (p<0.001) and the spent time in the centre (p<0.05). In the elevated plus maze, the number of open-arm entries, the percentage of open-arm time and total arm entries were decreased in Balb/c mice compared to C57BL/6 mice (p<0.001). Ketamine treatment of Balb/c mice at 10 mg/kg dose caused an increase in the open-arm activity (p<0.001). Ketamine application (10 mg/kg) decreased the open-arm activity in C57BL/6 mice (p<0.05). A subanaesthetic dose of ketamine increased exploratory locomotion in Balb/c mice. In contrast, a subanaesthetic dose of ketamine decreased exploratory locomotion in C57BL/6 mice. In conclusion, hereditary factors may play an important role in ketamine-induced responses. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, M. K. Singh, A. K. Das, Gangadhar Chowdhury, Anupam Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-24

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  17. Synchrotron total reflection X-ray fluorescence at BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, M. K.; Singh, A. K.; Das, Gangadhar; Chowdhury, Anupam; Lodha, G. S.

    2014-04-01

    Determination of ultra trace elements is important in many disciplines both in basic and applied sciences. Numerous applications show their importance in medical science, environmental science, materials science, food processing and semiconductor industries and in maintaining the quality control of ultra pure chemicals and reagents. We report commissioning of a synchrotron based total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) facility on the BL-16 microfocus beamline of Indus-2. This paper describes the performance of the BL-16 TXRF spectrometer and the detailed description of its capabilities through examples of measured results.

  18. SSC Model Fits to Simultaneous Fermi and CAO observations of Bl Lac's

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Tyler; Macomb, Daryl J.; Hand, Jared; Norris, Jay P.; Long, Min

    2016-01-01

    The Challis Astronomical Observatory (CAO) has been surveying a sample of blazar-type AGN since 2010. The CAO blazar sample includes4 3 sources - comprising 30 FSRQs, 15 BL Lacs, one radio galaxy and four unclassified sources - covering a redshift range 0.02 < z < 2. Observations are carried out in BVRI filters. Here we describe photometric results on a small sample emphasizing BL Lacs. We combine the CAO data with Fermi/LAT data and explore the suitability of fits to the data using the uniform conical jet model of Potter and Cotter (MNRAS, 2012, 423, 756-765).

  19. Environmental Enrichment Reduces the Likelihood of Alopecia in Adult C57BL/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bechard, Allison; Meagher, Rebecca; Mason, Georgia

    2011-01-01

    Barbering (incessant grooming) is an abnormal behavior causing alopecia and commonly affects various strains of laboratory mice, including C57BL/6J. Barbering-induced alopecia is a potential symptom of brain impairment and can indicate a stressful environment. We compared alopecia prevalence and severity in mice housed in enriched or standard cages. Providing an enriched environment delayed the onset and reduced the prevalence and overall severity of alopecia in C57BL/6J mice. Husbandry methods that reduce adult alopecia are likely to promote the wellbeing of the animals. We suggest that environmental enrichment is a simple and economic way to reduce alopecia in mouse colonies. PMID:21439209

  20. TeV-scale gauged B-L symmetry with inverse seesaw mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Shaaban

    2010-10-01

    We propose a modified version of the TeV-scale B-L extension of the standard model, where neutrino masses are generated through the inverse seesaw mechanism. We show that heavy neutrinos in this model can be accessible via clean signals at the LHC. The search for the extra gauge boson Z{sub B-L}{sup '} through the decay into dileptons or two dileptons plus missing energy is studied. We also show that the B-L extra Higgs boson can be directly probed at the LHC via a clean dilepton and missing energy signal.

  1. (M, N)-Soft Intersection BL-Algebras and Their Congruences

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xueling

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give a foundation for providing a new soft algebraic tool in considering many problems containing uncertainties. In order to provide these new soft algebraic structures, we discuss a new soft set-(M, N)-soft intersection set, which is a generalization of soft intersection sets. We introduce the concepts of (M, N)-SI filters of BL-algebras and establish some characterizations. Especially, (M, N)-soft congruences in BL-algebras are concerned. PMID:24977197

  2. Combined Effects of in Utero and Adolescent Tobacco Smoke Exposure on Lung Function in C57Bl/6J Mice

    PubMed Central

    Drummond, David; Baravalle-Einaudi, Mélissa; Lezmi, Guillaume; Vibhushan, Shamila; Franco-Montoya, Marie-Laure; Hadchouel, Alice; Boczkowski, Jorge; Delacourt, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fetal determinants of airway function, such as in utero exposure to maternal cigarette smoke (CS), may create a predisposition to adult airflow obstruction and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adulthood. It has been suggested that active smoking in adolescence and preexisting airflow obstruction have synergistic deleterious effects. Objective: We used a mouse model to investigate whether there is a synergistic effect of exposure to CS in utero and during adolescence on lung function. Methods: Female C57Bl/6J mice were exposed to CS or to filtered room air during pregnancy. Exposure to CS began 2 weeks before mating and continued until delivery. After birth, the pups were not exposed to CS until day 21 (D21). Between D21 and D49, corresponding to “adolescence,” litters were randomized for an additional 4 weeks of exposure to CS. Lung morphometry, lung mechanics, and the expression of genes involved in senescence were evaluated in different subsets of mice on D21 and D49. Results: In utero exposure to CS induced significant lung function impairment by D21. CS exposure between D21 and D49 induced significant functional impairment only in mice exposed to CS prenatally. On D49, no difference was observed between subgroups in terms of lung p53, p16, p21, and Bax mRNA levels. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that prenatal and adolescent CS exposure have a synergistic effect on lung function in mice. The combined effect did not appear to be a consequence of early pulmonary senescence. Citation: Drummond D, Baravalle-Einaudi M, Lezmi G, Vibhushan S, Franco-Montoya ML, Hadchouel A, Boczkowski J, Delacourt C. 2017. Combined effects of in utero and adolescent tobacco smoke exposure on lung function in C57Bl/6J mice. Environ Health Perspect 125:392–399; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP54 PMID:27814244

  3. Effect of aqueous extract of Achillea millefolium on the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice

    PubMed Central

    Vazirinejad, Reza; Ayoobi, Fateme; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Eftekharian, Mohammad M.; Darekordi, Ali; Goudarzvand, Mahdi; Hassanshahi, Gholamhossein; Taghavi, Mohammad Mohsen; Ahmadabadi, Behzad Nasiri; Kennedy, Derek; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Achillea millefolium (A. millefolium) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory remedy in traditional and herbal medicine. In this study, we investigated the effect of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and on the serum cytokine levels in C57BL/6 mice. Materials and Methods: EAE was induced in 63 C57BL/6 mice weighing 20-25 g (8 weeks old). Following immunization, the treatment protocol was initiated by using different doses of an aqueous extract from A. millefolium (1, 5, and 10 mg/mouse/day). Histopathologic assessments were performed by hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and luxol fast blue (LFB) staining. Behavioral disabilities were recorded by a camera. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: On average, mice developed classical behavioral disabilities of EAE, 13.2 ± 1.9 days following immunization. Treatment of mice with A. millefolium led to delay the appearance of behavioral disabilities along with reduced severity of the behavioral disabilities. Treatment with A. millefolium prevented weight loss and increased serum levels of TGF-β in immunized mice with MOG35-55. EAE-induced mice, which were treated with A. millefolium, had less cerebral infiltration of inflammatory cells. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that treatment with aqueous extract of A. millefolium may attenuate disease severity, inflammatory responses, and demyelinating lesions in EAE-induced mice. In addition, following treatment with A. millefolium, serum levels of TGF-βwere increased in EAE-induced mice. PMID:24987178

  4. Automatic object recognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ranganath, H. S.; Mcingvale, Pat; Sage, Heinz

    1988-01-01

    Geometric and intensity features are very useful in object recognition. An intensity feature is a measure of contrast between object pixels and background pixels. Geometric features provide shape and size information. A model based approach is presented for computing geometric features. Knowledge about objects and imaging system is used to estimate orientation of objects with respect to the line of sight.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Bright southern sub-mm sources (Adraou+, 2001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adraou, A.; Chini, R.; Albrecht, M.; Lemke, R.; Shaver, P. A.; Nyman, L.-A.; Booth, R. S.

    2001-07-01

    Table1 contains the 130 brightest sources of a 230GHz survey of quasars and BL Lacertae objects performed at the SEST. The objects which showed a 230GHz flux density above500 mJy most of the time were selected as pointing sources. Name, coordinates (B1950) and type are given in the table. Due to the variability of many objects the minimum and maximum flux density at 230GHz is given as well. A few values are taken from literature. These data are marked with an asterisk. (1 data file).

  6. Selecting a reference object.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jared E; Carlson, Laura A; Hill, Patrick L

    2011-07-01

    One way to describe the location of an object is to relate it to another object. Often there are many nearby objects, each of which could serve as a candidate to be the reference object. A common theoretical assumption is that features that make a given object salient relative to the candidate set are instrumental in determining which is selected. The current research tests this assumption, assessing the relative importance of spatial, perceptual, and functional-interactive features. Three experiments demonstrated that spatial features have the strongest influence on reference object selection, with the perceptual feature of color playing no significant role. Functional-interactive features were shown to be spatially dependent, having an influence only when the spatial configuration enabled an interaction between the located object and the reference object. These findings challenge the common perspective that salience in and of itself dictates reference object selection and argue for a reliance on spatial features.

  7. Comparison of adrenocortical zonation in C57BL/6J and DDD mice.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Matsuzawa, A

    1995-10-01

    Adrenal weights and adrenocortical zonation were compared in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and DDD, which are different in both origin and genetic background. Clear strain and sex differences were observed in the adrenal weight and the morphology of the zona fasciculata, z. reticularis and X zone. DDD adrenals were larger than C57BL/6J ones regardless of sex. The z. fasciculata was thicker in female than male DDD mice. The z. reticularis of DDD males developed nodules at 70 days of age, followed by an increase in size with age, while that of C57BL/6J males did not. Parous females experiencing pregnancy, gestation and lactation also developed similar nodules, but virgins did not. The X zone degeneration occurred earlier in males than in females. This zone disappeared before 5 weeks of age in males but gradually decreased in thickness with age in DDD virgins. The female X zone was thicker and degenerated with vacuolation in DDD, while it was thinner and degenerated without vacuolation in C57BL/6J. Such clear strain differences in the inner cortices, z. reticularis and X zone, suggested that their morphology might be regulated primarily by genetics and modified by endocrinology.

  8. Unification and mass spectrum in a B-L extended MSSM

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Pinto, R. J.; Perez-Lorenzana, A.

    2009-04-20

    The simplest B-L extension of the minimum supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) may change some of the conceptions about the path for gauge unification as well as to affect the predicted spectrum of the supersymmetric particles at low energy. We present our results for the running of gauge coupling constants and mass parameter in this context.

  9. CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENITE IN DRINKING WATER IMPAIRS GLUCOSE TOLERANCE IN C57BL/6 MICE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic exposures to inorganic arsenic (iAs) have been associated with increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examines in vivo diabetogenic effects of iAs in an animal model. Here, weanling male C57BL/6 mice received deionized water containing iAs(III) (25 ...

  10. Mechanistic study of bleach-imaged plasmon propagation (BlIPP).

    PubMed

    Solis, David; Paul, Aniruddha; Chang, Wei-Shun; Link, Stephan

    2013-04-25

    Bleach-imaged plasmon propagation, BlIPP, is a far-field microscopy technique developed to characterize the propagation length of surface plasmon polaritons in metallic waveguides. To correctly extract the propagation length from the measured photobleach intensity, it is necessary to understand the mechanism by which dye photobleaching occurs. In particular, 1- vs 2-photon bleaching reactions yield different propagation lengths based on a kinetic model for BlIPP. Because a number of studies have reported on the importance of 2-photon processes for dye photobleaching, we investigate here the nature of the photobleaching step in BlIPP. We are able to demonstrate that only 1-photon absorption is relevant for typical BlIPP conditions as tested here for a thin film of indocyanine green fluorescent dye molecules coated over gold nanowires and excited at a wavelength of 785 nm. These results are obtained by directly measuring the excitation intensity dependence of the photobleaching rate constant of the dye in the presence of the metallic waveguide.

  11. A remarkable new Awas Löbl from southern China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Pselaphinae)

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Zi-Wei; Shen, Jia-Wei; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new distinctive species of the rare Oriental goniacerine genus Awas Löbl, Awas gigas sp. n., is described and illustrated, based on three males and fourteen females taken at the Daoyao Shan Natural Reserve in the southern Chinese province of Guangxi. All specimens were collected from colonies of the ant genus Pachycondyla F. Smith nesting in decomposing woods. PMID:26448721

  12. Spectroscopy of the Largest Ever γ-Ray-selected BL Lac Sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Michael S.; Romani, Roger W.; Cotter, Garret; Healey, Stephen E.; Michelson, Peter F.; Readhead, Anthony C. S.; Richards, Joseph L.; Max-Moerbeck, Walter; King, Oliver G.; Potter, William J.

    2013-02-01

    We report on spectroscopic observations covering most of the 475 BL Lacs in the second Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) catalog of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Including archival measurements (correcting several erroneous literature values) we now have spectroscopic redshifts for 44% of the BL Lacs. We establish firm lower redshift limits via intervening absorption systems and statistical lower limits via searches for host galaxies for an additional 51% of the sample leaving only 5% of the BL Lacs unconstrained. The new redshifts raise the median spectroscopic \\tilde{z} from 0.23 to 0.33 and include redshifts as large as z = 2.471. Spectroscopic redshift minima from intervening absorbers have \\tilde{z}= 0.70, showing a substantial fraction at large z and arguing against strong negative evolution. We find that detected BL Lac hosts are bright ellipticals with black hole masses M • ~ 108.5 - 109, substantially larger than the mean of optical AGNs and LAT Flat Spectrum Radio Quasar samples. A slow increase in M • with z may be due to selection bias. We find that the power-law dominance of the optical spectrum extends to extreme values, but this does not strongly correlate with the γ-ray properties, suggesting that strong beaming is the primary cause of the range in continuum dominance.

  13. SPring-8 BL44XU, beamline designed for structure analysis of large biological macromolecular assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Higashiura, Akifumi Yamashita, Eiki; Yoshimura, Masato; Hasegawa, Kazuya; Furukawa, Yukito; Kumasaka, Takashi; Tsukihara, Tomitake; Nakagawa, Atsushi

    2016-07-27

    Beamline BL44XU at SPring-8 is operated by the Institute for Protein Research of Osaka University. The beamline is designed for X-ray crystallography of large biological macromolecular assemblies. Here we show its detailed performances, results, and the ongoing upgrade plans.

  14. X-ray Crystal Structure of the B Component of Hemolysin BL from Bacillus cereus

    SciTech Connect

    Madegowda,M.; Eswaramoorthy, S.; Burley, S.; Swaminathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Bacillus cereus Hemolysin BL enterotoxin, a ternary complex of three proteins, is the causat