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Sample records for black grouper mycteroperca

  1. A new aporocotylid (Digenea) species from blood vascular system of gag grouper, Mycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae), off Alabama, with an emendation of Pearsonellum Overstreet & Køie, 1989.

    PubMed

    Bullard, Stephen A

    2012-04-01

    Pearsonellum lemusi n. sp. (Digenea: Aporocotylidae) infects the blood vascular system of the gag grouper, Mycteroperca microlepis (Perciformes: Serranidae), in the north central Gulf of Mexico, approximately 80 km south of Dauphin Island, Alabama (29°34'09″N, 88°22'16″W). The new species can be most easily differentiated from its only congeners Pearsonellum corventum Overstreet and Køie, 1989 (type species) and Pearsonellum pygmaeus Nolan and Cribb, 2004 , both of which infect Australian serranids, by the combination of having a large adult body (3,237 × 570 µm), a cecal intersection comprising an elongated medial channel, anterior ceca >10% of total body length, ovary narrower than testis, and pre-ovarian uterus not looping between testis and ovary. The embryonated eggs of the new species infect gill epithelium, are spheroid, and measure 25-30 µm in diameter. Sympatric Gulf of Mexico serranids were negative for aporocotylid infections: coney, Cephalopholis fulva (n  =  1); Nassau grouper, Epinephelus striatus (3); red grouper, Epinephelus morio (32); yellowedge grouper, Epinephelus flavolimbatus (1); rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis (1); red hind, Epinephelus guttatus (2); Warsaw grouper, Epinephelus nigritus (3); graysby, Cephalopholis cruentata (1); black grouper, Mycteroperca bonaci (1), and tattler, Serranus phoebe (2). The new species is the first aporocotylid described from a serranid outside of the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The diagnosis of Pearsonellum Overstreet and Køie, 1989 is herein emended to include anterior sucker having concentric rows of spines anterior to mouth, pharynx absent, esophagus length <1/2 total body length, vas deferens connecting with cirrus sac anteromedially, ovary occupying posterior 1/4-1/3 of body, primary vitelline duct dextral, and oviducal seminal receptacle extending posteriad in parallel with lateral body margin, not transverse nor constricted anteriorly or posteriorly by sharp bends or kinks.

  2. First record of a spawning aggregation for the tropical eastern Pacific endemic grouper Mycteroperca olfax in the Galapagos Marine Reserve.

    PubMed

    Salinas-de-León, P; Rastoin, E; Acuña-Marrero, D

    2015-07-01

    This study provides direct and indirect evidence of temporally and spatially consistent spawning aggregations for the grouper Mycteroperca olfax. Recently reported declines in population numbers, probably related to the direct targeting of aggregations by artisanal fishermen, highlight the urgent need for species-specific management actions in the Galapagos Marine Reserve, such as minimum and maximum landing sizes, and the importance of protecting key aggregation sites with the declaration of no-take areas and the establishment of total fishing bans during the reproductive season.

  3. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26–35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20–40 μm) with 10–11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. PMID:25674913

  4. Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra (Teleostei) in the Mediterranean Sea and Eastern Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2015-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus regius n. sp. is described from the gills of the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra caught off Senegal, Tunisia and Libya (type-locality: off Dakar, Senegal). The species is distinguished from its congeners by the structure of its sclerotised vagina (length 26-35 μm), which exhibits a trumpet in continuity with the primary canal, a straight primary canal, and primary and secondary chambers included in a common sclerotised mass along the primary canal. The species is also characterised by small squamodiscs (length 20-40 μm) with 10-11 rows of rodlets. Its closest relatives (based on the structure of the sclerotised vagina) are species mostly found in the Mediterranean Sea and parasites on species of Mycteroperca. A second species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is reported from the same host and localities but not described. A list of diplectanids from groupers in the Mediterranean Sea is provided. We point out that a recent article was not compliant with the new Article 8.5.3 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature; for this reason, three species, P. nhatrangensis Dang, Bristow, Schander & Berland, 2013, P. vietnamensis Dang et al., 2013 and P. brunei Dang et al., 2013, are invalid. © A. Chaabane et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2015.

  5. Age, growth, and natural mortality of yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa) from the southeastern United States

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jennifer C.; Carr, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Ages of yellowfin grouper (n = 306) from the southeastern United States coast from 1979–2014 were determined using sectioned sagittal otoliths. Opaque zones were annular, forming January–June (peaking in February–March). Yellowfin grouper ranged in age from 3 to 31 years; the largest fish measured 1,000 mm fork length (FL). Body size relationships for yellowfin grouper were: W = 1.22 × 10−5 FL3.03 (n = 229, r2 = 0.92); TL = 1.06 FL − 14.53 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99); and FL = 0.93 TL + 18.63 (n = 60, r2 = 0.99), where W = whole weight in grams, FL in mm, and TL = total length in mm. The von Bertalanffy growth equation was: Lt = 958 (1 − e−0.11(t+2.94)) (n = 306). The point estimate of natural mortality for yellowfin grouper was M = 0.14, while age-specific estimates of M ranged from 1.59 to 0.17 for ages 1–31. PMID:26244111

  6. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840)

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; DeMartini, Edward E.; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2–3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = − 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability. PMID:26401463

  7. Improved estimates of age, growth and reproduction for the regionally endemic Galapagos sailfin grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    PubMed

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; DeMartini, Edward E; Schuhbauer, Anna; Schemmel, Eva; Salinas de Léon, Pelayo

    2015-01-01

    The Galapagos Sailfin grouper, Mycteroperca olfax, locally known as bacalao and listed as vulnerable by the IUCN, is culturally, economically, and ecologically important to the Galapagos archipelago and its people. It is regionally endemic to the Eastern Tropical Pacific, and, while an important fishery resource that has shown substantial declines in recent years, to date no effective management regulations are in place to ensure the sustainability of the Galapagos fishery for this species. Previous estimates of longevity and size at maturity for bacalao are inconsistent with estimates for congeners, which brings into question the accuracy of prior estimates. We set out to assess the age, growth, and reproductive biology of bacalao in order to provide more accurate life history information to inform more effective fisheries management for this species. The oldest fish in our sample was 21 years old, which is 2-3 times greater than previously reported estimates of longevity. Parameter estimates for the von Bertalanffy growth function (k = 0.11, L ∞ = 110 cm TL, and to = - 1.7 years) show bacalao to grow much slower and attain substantially larger asymptotic maximum length than previous studies. Mean size at maturity (as female) was estimated at 65.3 cm TL, corresponding to a mean age of 6.5 years. We found that sex ratios were extremely female biased (0.009 M:1F), with a large majority of the individuals in our experimental catch being immature (79%). Our results show that bacalao grow slower, live longer, and mature at a much larger size and greater age than previously thought, with very few mature males in the population. These findings have important implications for the fishery of this valuable species and provide the impetus for a long-overdue species management plan to ensure its long-term sustainability.

  8. Changes in digestive enzyme activities during larval development of leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lagos, R; Tovar-Ramírez, D; Gracia-López, V; Lazo, J P

    2014-06-01

    The leopard grouper is an endemic species of the Mexican Pacific with an important commercial fishery and good aquaculture potential. In order to assess the digestive capacity of this species during the larval period and aid in the formulation of adequate weaning diets, this study aimed to characterize the ontogeny of digestive enzymes during development of the digestive system. Digestive enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, acid protease, leucine-alanine peptidase, alkaline phosphatase, aminopeptidase N, lipase, amylase and maltase were quantified in larvae fed live prey and weaned onto a formulated microdiet at 31 days after hatching (DAH) and compared with fasting larvae. Enzyme activity for trypsin, lipase and amylase were detected before the opening of the mouth and the onset of exogenous feeding, indicating a precocious development of the digestive system that has been described in many fish species. The intracellular enzyme activity of leucine-alanine peptidase was high during the first days of development, with a tendency to decrease as larvae developed, reaching undetectable levels at the end of the experimental period. In contrast, activities of enzymes located in the intestinal brush border (i.e., aminopeptidase and alkaline phosphatase) were low at the start of exogenous feeding but progressively increased with larval development, indicating the gradual maturation of the digestive system. Based on our results, we conclude that leopard grouper larvae possess a functional digestive system at hatching and before the onset of exogenous feeding. The significant increase in the activity of trypsin, lipase, amylase and acid protease between 30 and 40 DAH suggests that larvae of this species can be successfully weaned onto microdiets during this period.

  9. Multiplex PCR method for use in real-time PCR for identification of fish fillets from grouper (Epinephelus and Mycteroperca species) and common substitute species.

    PubMed

    Trotta, Michele; Schönhuth, Susana; Pepe, Tiziana; Cortesi, M Luisa; Puyet, Antonio; Bautista, José M

    2005-03-23

    Mitochondrial 16S rRNA sequences from morphological validated grouper (Epinephelus aeneus, E. caninus, E. costae, and E. marginatus; Mycteroperca fusca and M. rubra), Nile perch (Lates niloticus), and wreck fish (Polyprion americanus) were used to develop an analytical system for group diagnosis based on two alternative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) approaches. The first includes conventional multiplex PCR in which electrophoretic migration of different sizes of bands allowed identification of the fish species. The second approach, involving real-time PCR, produced a single amplicon from each species that showed different Tm values allowing the fish groups to be directly identified. Real-time PCR allows the quick differential diagnosis of the three groups of species and high-throughput screening of multiple samples. Neither PCR system cross-reacted with DNA samples from 41 common marketed fish species, thus conforming to standards for species validation. The use of these two PCR-based methods makes it now possible to discriminate grouper from substitute fish species.

  10. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  11. Pseudorhabdosynochus species (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) parasitizing groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae, Epinephelini) in the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters, with descriptions of 13 new species

    PubMed Central

    Kritsky, Delane C.; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Adams, Douglas H.

    2015-01-01

    Seventeen of twenty-three species of groupers collected from the western Atlantic Ocean and adjacent waters were infected with 19 identified species (13 new) of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Dactylogyridea, Diplectanidae); specimens of the Spanish flag Gonioplectrus hispanus, coney Cephalopholis fulva, marbled grouper Dermatolepis inermis, mutton hamlet Alphestes afer, and misty grouper Hyporthodus mystacinus were not infected; the yellowmouth grouper Mycteroperca interstitialis and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were infected with unidentified species of Pseudorhabdosynochus; the Atlantic creolefish Paranthias furcifer was infected with an unidentified species of Diplectanidae that could not be accommodated in Pseudorhabdosynochus. The following species of Pseudorhabdosynochus are described or redescribed based entirely or in part on new collections: Pseudorhabdosynochus americanus (Price, 1937) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara; Pseudorhabdosynochus yucatanensis Vidal-Martínez, Aguirre-Macedo & Mendoza-Franco, 1997 and Pseudorhabdosynochus justinella n. sp. from red grouper Epinephelus morio; Pseudorhabdosynochus kritskyi Dyer, Williams & Bunkley-Williams, 1995 from gag Mycteroperca microlepis; Pseudorhabdosynochus capurroi Vidal-Martínez & Mendoza-Franco, 1998 from black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci; Pseudorhabdosynochus hyphessometochus n. sp. from Mycteroperca interstitialis; Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000 from snowy grouper Hyporthodus niveatus and Warsaw grouper Hyporthodus nigritus (new host record); Pseudorhabdosynochus firmicoleatus n. sp. from yellowedge grouper Hyporthodus flavolimbatus and snowy grouper H. niveatus; Pseudorhabdosynochus mcmichaeli n. sp., Pseudorhabdosynochus contubernalis n. sp., and Pseudorhabdosynochus vascellum n. sp. from scamp Mycteroperca phenax; Pseudorhabdosynochus meganmarieae n. sp. from graysby Cephalopholis cruentata

  12. So Long and Thanks for All the Fish: Overexploitation of the Regionally Endemic Galapagos Grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840)

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Koike, Haruko; Zimmerhackel, Johanna; Schuhbauer, Anna; Eddy, Tyler; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2016-01-01

    The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch. Over the assessed period, none of the indicators reached values associated with healthy populations, with all indicators declining over time. Furthermore, the most recent landings data show that the vast majority of the bacalao caught (95.7%,) were below Lm, the number of fish within the Lopt interval was extremely low (4.7%), and there were virtually no mega-spawners (0.2%). Bacalao fully recruit to the fishery 15 cm below the size at which 50% of the population matures. The Spawning Potential Ratio is currently 5% of potential unfished fecundity, strongly suggesting severe overfishing. Our results suggest the need for bacalao-specific management regulations that should include minimum (65 cm TL) and maximum (78 cm TL) landing sizes, slot limits (64–78 cm TL), as well as a closed season during spawning from October to January. It is recognized that these regulations are harsh and will certainly have negative impacts on the livelihoods of fishers in the short term, however, continued inaction will likely result in a collapse of this economically and culturally valuable species. Alternative sources of income should be developed in parallel with the establishment of fishing regulations to limit the socio-economic disruption to the fishing community during the transition to a more sustainable management regime. PMID:27780213

  13. So Long and Thanks for All the Fish: Overexploitation of the Regionally Endemic Galapagos Grouper Mycteroperca olfax (Jenyns, 1840).

    PubMed

    Usseglio, Paolo; Friedlander, Alan M; Koike, Haruko; Zimmerhackel, Johanna; Schuhbauer, Anna; Eddy, Tyler; Salinas-de-León, Pelayo

    2016-01-01

    The regionally endemic Galapagos Grouper, locally known as bacalao, is one of the most highly prized finfish species within the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR). Concerns of overfishing, coupled with a lack of fishing regulations aimed at this species raises concerns about the current population health. We assessed changes in population health over a 30-year period using three simple indicators: (1) percentage of fish below reproductive size (Lm); (2) percentage of fish within the optimum length interval (Lopt); and (3) percentage of mega-spawners in the catch. Over the assessed period, none of the indicators reached values associated with healthy populations, with all indicators declining over time. Furthermore, the most recent landings data show that the vast majority of the bacalao caught (95.7%,) were below Lm, the number of fish within the Lopt interval was extremely low (4.7%), and there were virtually no mega-spawners (0.2%). Bacalao fully recruit to the fishery 15 cm below the size at which 50% of the population matures. The Spawning Potential Ratio is currently 5% of potential unfished fecundity, strongly suggesting severe overfishing. Our results suggest the need for bacalao-specific management regulations that should include minimum (65 cm TL) and maximum (78 cm TL) landing sizes, slot limits (64-78 cm TL), as well as a closed season during spawning from October to January. It is recognized that these regulations are harsh and will certainly have negative impacts on the livelihoods of fishers in the short term, however, continued inaction will likely result in a collapse of this economically and culturally valuable species. Alternative sources of income should be developed in parallel with the establishment of fishing regulations to limit the socio-economic disruption to the fishing community during the transition to a more sustainable management regime.

  14. Content of lead and cadmium in barred hogfish, Bodianus scrofa, island grouper, Mycteroperca fusca, and Portuguese dogfish, Centroscymnus coelolepis, from Canary Islands, Spain.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Gonzalo; Brito, Alberto; Hardisson, Arturo; Gutiérrez, Angel; González-Weller, Dailos; Lozano, Ignacio José

    2009-10-01

    Concentration of lead and cadmium has been analyzed in Bodianus scrofa and Mycteroperca fusca captured in the Canary Islands coast. Concentration of Pb ranged from 2.53 to 306.40 and 4.97 to 792.00 microg kg(-1) respectively, while that of Cd ranged from 1.75 to 1854.50 and 6.78 to 656.00 microg kg(-1). The same metals have been analyzed in muscles, liver and skin of Centroscymnus coelolepis from Canary Islands, with contents of Pb and Cd ranged between 24.18-96.12 microg kg(-1) and 32.00-3266.58 microg kg(-1) respectively, and in the Azores Archipelago, with concentrations of Pb and Cd ranged as follow: 18.41-38.99 microg kg(-1) and 5.23-4179.87 microg kg(-1) respectively. Percentage of contribution of both metals to the PTWIs, has also been calculated for both fishes.

  15. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the 'Beverleyburtonae Group' and Description of Two New Species.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a 'beverleyburtonae group' within Pseudorhabdosynochus.

  16. Species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae) from Groupers (Mycteroperca spp., Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean, with Special Reference to the ‘Beverleyburtonae Group’ and Description of Two New Species

    PubMed Central

    Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-01-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 is a species-rich diplectanid genus, mainly restricted to the gills of groupers (Epinephelidae) and especially abundant in warm seas. Species from the Mediterranean are not fully documented. Two new and two previously known species from the gills of Mycteroperca spp. (M. costae, M. rubra, and M. marginata) in the Mediterranean and Eastern Atlantic Ocean are described here from new material and slides kept in collections. Identifications of newly collected fish were ascertained by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Oliver, 1984) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 and P. sosia Neifar & Euzet 2007 are redescribed from type-specimens and new specimens collected off Tunisia and Libya from M. marginata and M. costae, respectively. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri n. sp., from M. marginata (type-host) off the Mediterranean coast of France (type-locality), is described from specimens found among voucher specimens of P. beverleyburtonae deposited by Guy Oliver in the collection of the Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris. Pseudorhabdosynochus oliveri is distinguished by the shape of its sclerotised vagina; it was not found in the other localities investigated. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet n. sp. is described from M. rubra (type host) off Senegal (type-locality) and Tunisia. Pseudorhabdosynochus hayet is morphologically similar to P. sosia (type-host: M. costae) but was distinguished by differences in measurements of the vagina and male copulatory organ, different host, and divergent COI sequences. The four species (P. beverleyburtonae, P. sosia, P. oliveri, and P. hayet) share common characteristics such as squamodiscs with 2 innermost circular rows of rodlets and a similar general structure of the sclerotised vagina; we propose to group them into a ‘beverleyburtonae group’ within Pseudorhabdosynochus. PMID:27532108

  17. Single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei and inulin on growth, non-specific immunity and IgM expression in leopard grouper (Mycteroperca rosacea).

    PubMed

    Reyes-Becerril, Martha; Ascencio, Felipe; Gracia-Lopez, Vicente; Macias, Ma Esther; Roa, Marcos Cadena; Esteban, María Ángeles

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the single or combined effects of Lactobacillus sakei with inulin suitable for immunological in vivo studies in farmed fish. By in vitro assays, L. sakei strain 5-4 showed antibacterial activities against all assayed fish pathogens (except the Vibrio harveyi strain CAIM-1793). L. sakei was able to survive at high fish bile concentrations. Fermentation of the agave inulin resulted in a large increase in number of lactobacilli. For the in vivo study, fish were fed for 8 weeks four practical diets: control diet (control), L. sakei 5-4 (10(7) CFU/g), inulin (1% or 10 g/kg) and L. sakei + inulin (10(7) CFU/g + 10 g/kg). The weight gain showed clearly the synergistic effect of L. sakei 5-4 and inulin at 6 and 8 weeks of treatments. Leopard grouper fed with L. sakei alone or combined with inulin have significantly increased the assayed physiological and humoral immune parameters. By real-time PCR assays, the mRNA transcripts of immunoglobulin M (IgM) were found to be higher expressed in intestine, head kidney, mucus, gill, spleen and skin. Moreover, mRNA expression levels of IgM in head kidney and anterior intestine were measured by real-time PCR. L. sakei 5-4 and L. sakei + inulin supplemented diet up-regulated the expression of IgM at week 4 and 8 in intestine and head kidney, respectively. These results support the idea that the L. sakei 5-4 alone or combined with agave inulin improved growth performance and stimulates the immune system of leopard grouper.

  18. Species Profiles: Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (South Florida): Black, Red and Nassau Groupers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    F .i , erd Ed.i> S. I’:en University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science Division of Biology and Living Resources 4600...1978). were on inshore banks and larger ones were on offshore banks. The species The black grouper lives over may be resistant to changing salini...are generally restricted to lived for several years in water that water deeper than 20 m and small young occasionally became almost fresh and of the

  19. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 622 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... morio Yellowedge grouper, Epinephelus flavolimbatus Misty grouper, Epinephelus mystacinus Tiger grouper... grouper, Mycteroperca interstitialis Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis Scamp, Mycteroperca phenax Tiger grouper...

  20. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 622 - Species Tables

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... morio Yellowedge grouper, Epinephelus flavolimbatus Misty grouper, Epinephelus mystacinus Tiger grouper... grouper, Mycteroperca interstitialis Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis Scamp, Mycteroperca phenax Tiger grouper...

  1. 77 FR 53776 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Accountability Measures and Commercial Closures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... snapper, sand tilefish, black snapper, and blackfin snapper), as well as the porgy complex (including... complex (including yellowedge grouper, blueline tilefish, silk snapper, misty grouper, queen snapper, sand...

  2. Metazoan parasite infracommunities of Mycteroperca bonaci (Poey, 1960) (Pisces: Epinephelidae) in reef and coastal environments off the coast of Yucatán, México.

    PubMed

    Espínola-Novelo, Juan F; González-Salas, Carlos; Guillén-Hernández, Sergio; MacKenzie, Ken

    2015-09-01

    The black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci is a commercially important fish off the coast of Yucatan, Mexico. To investigate possible differences between parasite communities in two different environments, 60 fish were collected from two areas during 2010 and 2011 and examined for parasites. The fish were classified into two age groups, in each of which the parameters of parasitic infection - prevalence, abundance and intensity - were determined. Parasite faunas were further described at the infracommunity level. Using both univariate (PERMANOVA) and multivariate statistical methods, the values of richness, abundance, diversity and Brillouin evenness as well as the Index values of Bray-Curtis and Jaccard for similarity were calculated and compared. The results of these tests and of CAP discriminant analyses at the two sites showed the existence of two distinct parasite communities. The parasite taxa mainly responsible for the differences were the digeneans Dollfustrema sp., Prosorhynchus spp., Lepidapedoides epinepheli and Hamacreadium mutabile, and the nematode Philometra salgadoi. The potential for some of these parasites to be used as biological tags for stock identification of M. bonaci is discussed.

  3. 77 FR 11477 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... red grouper; establish a rebuilding plan; establish red grouper sector annual catch limits (ACLs... measures (AMs); and remove the combined gag, black grouper, and red grouper ACLs and AMs. The intent of... notification. The Magnuson-Stevens Act requires that ACLs and AMs be implemented to prevent overfishing...

  4. 75 FR 49447 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-13

    ... possession of snapper-grouper would be prohibited (except when fishing with black sea bass pots or..., black sea bass, red grouper, scamp, and other snapper-grouper species, there is significant bycatch of... prohibited (except when fishing with black sea bass pots with valid identification tags or spearfishing...

  5. 78 FR 47574 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... biomass without jeopardizing the sustainability of the stock. The Comprehensive ACL Amendment (77 FR 15916... snapper-grouper species, particularly the shallow- water grouper complex and black sea bass. The South...

  6. Diplectanids from Mycteroperca spp. (Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Redescriptions of six species from material collected off Tunisia and Libya, proposal for the 'Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group’, and a taxonomic key

    PubMed Central

    Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-01-01

    Diplectanid monogeneans are gill parasites that can infect fish in huge numbers and thus become harmful, especially in maricultured fish. It is therefore useful to have taxonomic tools, such as keys, to identify species. The following diplectanid species from groupers of the Mediterranean Sea were studied: five species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958, including P. riouxi (Oliver, 1986) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata, P. enitsuji Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. bouaini Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. dolicocolpos Neifar & Euzet, 2007 and P. sinediscus Neifar & Euzet, 2007 from the goldblotch grouper M. costae, and Echinoplectanum echinophallus (Euzet & Oliver, 1965) Justine & Euzet, 2006 from the dusky grouper. New material was obtained from fish collected from off Tunisia and Libya and compared to the type-material and voucher specimens in museum collections. Identifications of fish were confirmed by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. The sclerotized vagina was considered the most important structure for systematics. The three species P. riouxi, P. bouaini, and P. enitsuji share a common general structure of the sclerotized vagina with a conspicuous spherical secondary chamber. We thus propose the ‘Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group’ to accommodate them. Pseudorhabdosynochus dolicocolpos has an elongate vaginal structure that is completely different from all its congeneric species reported from the Mediterranean Sea, and Pseudorhabdosynochus sinediscus has a sclerotized vagina in which the secondary chamber is not visible, and a haptor without squamodiscs. A taxonomic key to diplectanid species on Mycteroperca spp. in the Mediterranean Sea is proposed; it includes ten species of Pseudorhabdosynochus and one species of Echinoplectanum. PMID:28152034

  7. Diplectanids from Mycteroperca spp. (Epinephelidae) in the Mediterranean Sea: Redescriptions of six species from material collected off Tunisia and Libya, proposal for the 'Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group', and a taxonomic key.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2017-01-01

    Diplectanid monogeneans are gill parasites that can infect fish in huge numbers and thus become harmful, especially in maricultured fish. It is therefore useful to have taxonomic tools, such as keys, to identify species. The following diplectanid species from groupers of the Mediterranean Sea were studied: five species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958, including P. riouxi (Oliver, 1986) Kritsky & Beverley-Burton, 1986 from the dusky grouper Mycteroperca marginata, P. enitsuji Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. bouaini Neifar & Euzet, 2007, P. dolicocolpos Neifar & Euzet, 2007 and P. sinediscus Neifar & Euzet, 2007 from the goldblotch grouper M. costae, and Echinoplectanum echinophallus (Euzet & Oliver, 1965) Justine & Euzet, 2006 from the dusky grouper. New material was obtained from fish collected from off Tunisia and Libya and compared to the type-material and voucher specimens in museum collections. Identifications of fish were confirmed by barcoding of cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequences. The sclerotized vagina was considered the most important structure for systematics. The three species P. riouxi, P. bouaini, and P. enitsuji share a common general structure of the sclerotized vagina with a conspicuous spherical secondary chamber. We thus propose the 'Pseudorhabdosynochus riouxi group' to accommodate them. Pseudorhabdosynochus dolicocolpos has an elongate vaginal structure that is completely different from all its congeneric species reported from the Mediterranean Sea, and Pseudorhabdosynochus sinediscus has a sclerotized vagina in which the secondary chamber is not visible, and a haptor without squamodiscs. A taxonomic key to diplectanid species on Mycteroperca spp. in the Mediterranean Sea is proposed; it includes ten species of Pseudorhabdosynochus and one species of Echinoplectanum.

  8. Two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Mycteroperca spp. (Serranidae) in the North-West Atlantic and northern Gulf of Mexico, USA.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Adams, Douglas H

    2016-06-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from two species of Mycteroperca Gill (Serranidae), marine perciform fishes, in coastal waters off Florida, USA: Philometra deburonae n. sp. from the inner side of operculum of the yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa (L.) and P. incognita n. sp. from the ovary of the gag M. microlepis (Goode & Bean). Philometra deburonae n. sp. is mainly characterised by the body length of males (1.90-2.38 mm), the length of the spicules (78-84 µm) and gubernaculum (54 µm) and the presence of small outer cephalic papillae, a pair of fairly large caudal projections and the oesophageal gland extending anteriorly beyond the nerve-ring in subgravid females. Philometra incognita n. sp. is distinguished by the caudal mound consisting of two lateral reniform parts widely separated dorsally from each other, the absence of a pair of large papillae situated posteriorly to the cloaca, the shape and structure of the distal end of the gubernaculum plus the lengths of the spicules (117-141 µm) and gubernaculum (60-81 µm) in the male, the absence of caudal projections and the comparatively large larvae in the uterus (660-675 µm long) of the gravid female, as well as, the body length of both males (2.45-3.11 mm) and gravid females (120-180 mm). The present descriptions of an additional two new philometrids increases the number of recorded nominal species of Philometra parasitising groupers (Serranidae) in the Gulf of Mexico to nine.

  9. Spawning aggregations of three protogynous groupers in the southern Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Tuz-Sulub, A; Brulé, T

    2015-01-01

    Spawning aggregations of red hind Epinephelus guttatus, tiger grouper Mycteroperca tigris and yellowfin grouper Mycteroperca venenosa were identified at two coral-reef systems: Arrecife Alacranes (emergent bank reef) and Bajos del Norte (submerged bank reef) on the continental shelf of the Yucatan Peninsula (Campeche Bank), Mexico. At both reefs, E. guttatus forms large spawning aggregations between February and March. At Bajos del Norte, M. tigris reproduces in a small, low-density aggregation in May, while M. venenosa aggregates at high densities for spawning between March and May. Multi-species use of an aggregation site by E. guttatus and M. venenosa was observed at Bajos del Norte. The identified spawning aggregations are apparently stable in location over time, and all three species were commonly observed to spawn within 1 week following the full moon. Development and survival of the larvae spawned in these aggregations are probably aided by a seasonal (spring-summer) upwelling in the north-east Campeche Bank. A permanent area closure at Bajos del Norte, currently outside any specific fisheries management area or regulations, would provide protection needed for the spawning aggregations of these three species. © 2014 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. Groupers on the edge: Shelf edge spawning habitat in and around marine reserves of the northeastern Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coleman, F.C.; Scanlon, K.M.; Koenig, C.C.

    2011-01-01

    The northeastern Gulf of Mexico contains some of the most diverse and productive marine habitat in the United States. Much of this habitat, located on the shelf edge in depths of 50 to 120 m, supports spawning for many economically important species, including groupers. Here, we couple acoustic surveys with georeferenced videography to describe the primary spatial and geologic features of spawning aggregation sites for four economically important species: gag (Mycteroperca microlepis), scamp (M. phenax), red grouper (Epinephelus morio), and red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), with notes on fish distribution and abundance and spawning activities. We provide information on movement patterns of reef fish determined using acoustic telemetry. Finally, we discuss the possible coupling of geomorphology with hydrographic features to influence the overall productivity of the region and the importance of spatial fishery management in sustaining that productivity. ?? 2011 by Association of American Geographers.

  11. 76 FR 23930 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Snapper... recreational bag limit for black sea bass, establish a split season for the black sea bass commercial quota... overfishing of black sea bass, gag, and vermilion snapper while achieving optimum yield (OY) by reducing...

  12. 77 FR 4754 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BB56 Fisheries of the Caribbean... strategy for black sea bass, modify the current system of accountability measures for black sea bass, limit effort in the black sea bass component of the snapper-grouper fishery, and improve fisheries...

  13. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147-165 μm), the gubernaculum (63-93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97-2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided.

  14. 76 FR 61285 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... reduce overfishing of the South Atlantic black sea bass resource. DATES: This rule is effective October 4... overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. AMs are management controls to prevent ACLs from being... ACLs for eight snapper-grouper species in the FMP that are undergoing overfishing, including black...

  15. 78 FR 22846 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... hogfish; modify the commercial and recreational fishing years for black sea bass; adjust the commercial... for hogfish; modify the commercial and recreational fishing year for black sea bass; adjust the... recreational fishing seasons, which begin on June 1, to coincide with other snapper-grouper species to...

  16. Two gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers (Serranidae) off Tunisia, with a key to Philometra species infecting serranid gonads

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies of nematode specimens (males and mature females) collected from the ovary of groupers (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Tunis and Sfax), two gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda, Philometridae) are reported: Philometra inexpectata n. sp. from the mottled grouper Mycteroperca rubra and P. jordanoi (López-Neyra, 1951) from the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. Identification of both fish species was confirmed by molecular barcoding. The new species is mainly characterized by the length of equally long spicules (147–165 μm), the gubernaculum (63–93 μm long) bearing at the tip two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity, the presence of a pair of large caudal papillae located posterior to the cloaca and by the body length of the males (1.97–2.43 mm). Philometra inexpectata n. sp. is the fifth known gonad-infecting philometrid species parasitizing serranid fishes in the Mediterranean region. The males of P. jordanoi were examined by scanning electron microscopy for the first time; this detailed study revealed some new taxonomically important morphological features, such as the number and arrangement of cephalic and caudal papillae, presence of amphids and phasmids and mainly the lamellate structures at the posterior end of the gubernaculum. A key to gonad-infecting species of Philometra parasitic in serranid fishes is provided. PMID:26956219

  17. Hints to blood groupers, 1950.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Paul J; Greenwalt, Tibor J

    2006-03-01

    Sixty years ago, the premier blood grouping laboratory was that of Robert Race in London. Agglutination tests and blood grouping had provided breakthroughs in immunology, genetics, and the solution of clinical problems. The significance of immunohematology was recognized by the clinical hematology community as a potent force in the expanding field of disorders of the blood and blood-forming organs. The instructions by Race to his London workers entitled Hints to Blood Groupers provide a picture of the immunohematology laboratory even before automation and differed slightly from the American techniques that derived from Landsteiner. Before agglutination is replaced in the near future by the emergence of molecular methods, the detailed method of a superb laboratory is recorded.

  18. A set of 16 consensus primer pairs amplifying the complete mitochondrial genomes of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) and Hong Kong grouper (Epinephelus akaara).

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuan; Ding, Shaoxiong; Wang, Jun; Wang, Ying; Su, Yongquan

    2009-11-01

    Groupers are of considerable economic value; however, their classification and evolutionary relationships have long been hindered by the overwhelming number of species and lack of morphological specializations. Mitochondrial genome is a source of original markers that are potentially useful in the study of phylogeny and population genetics of groupers. We describe a set of 16 new primer pairs that allow PCR amplification of the entire mitochondrial genomes of orange-spotted grouper and Hong Kong grouper. This primer set has been defined for consensus over eight other grouper species, facilitating further studies on the molecular evolution and population genetics of groupers.

  19. Characterization of alpha-2-macroglobulin from groupers.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Wen-Hsiao; Lee, Kuo-Kau; Liu, Ping-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) is a protease inhibitor broadly present in the plasma of vertebrates and invertebrates, and is an important non-specific humoral factor in defence system of the animals. This study conducted the immuno-analysis and mass spectrometric analysis methods to investigate the characteristics of the protease inhibitor, α-2-M, among groupers and related species. Rabbit antiserum to the purified α-2-M of Epinephelus coioides was used in different immunological methods to determine the immune cross-reactions of the α-2-M in samples. Plasma of Epinephelus bruneus, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus lanceolatus, and Epinephelus quoyanus exhibited high protease inhibitory activities by BAPNA-trypsin assay. To purify the α-2-M protein, plasma protein of grouper E. coioides was first precipitated by using PEG 6000, then Blue Sepharose 6 Fast Flow, DEAE Sephacel, Con A Separose 4B and Phenyl Sepharose High Performance columns were used on FPLC system for purification. The molecular mass of grouper plasma α-2-M was determined as a 180 kDa protein on non-reduced SDS-PAGE. In addition, it was determined as 97 and 80 kDa protein on reduced SDS-PAGE. Enzymatic and chemical deglycosylation of glycogen revealed that the contents of glycogen in 97 and 80 kDa subunits were 12.4% and 15%, respectively, and were all belonging to N-linked type. Only one precipitation arc was visualized in all plasma of Epinephelus spp. using the rabbit antiserum to the purified α-2-M of E. coioides, on crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE) gels. The plasma of Epinephelus spp. and seawater fish species showed stronger responses than freshwater fish species while that of other animal species showed no response by dot-blot assay. One single band was detected on Native PAGE-Western blotting assay, one single 180 kDa band was detected on non-reduced SDS-PAGE-Western blotting, and four bands (80, 97, 160, 250 kDa) were detected on reduced SDS-PAGE when various grouper plasma

  20. Grouper as a natural biocontrol of invasive lionfish.

    PubMed

    Mumby, Peter J; Harborne, Alastair R; Brumbaugh, Daniel R

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean.

  1. Grouper as a Natural Biocontrol of Invasive Lionfish

    PubMed Central

    Mumby, Peter J.; Harborne, Alastair R.; Brumbaugh, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    Lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) have invaded the majority of the Caribbean region within five years. As voracious predators of native fishes with a broad habitat distribution, lionfish are poised to cause an unprecedented disruption to coral reef diversity and function. Controls of lionfish densities within its native range are poorly understood, but they have been recorded in the stomachs of large-bodied Caribbean groupers. Whether grouper predation of lionfish is sufficient to act as a biocontrol of the invasive species is unknown, but pest biocontrol by predatory fishes has been reported in other ecosystems. Groupers were surveyed along a chain of Bahamian reefs, including one of the region's most successful marine reserves which supports the top one percentile of Caribbean grouper biomass. Lionfish biomass exhibited a 7-fold and non-linear reduction in relation to the biomass of grouper. While Caribbean grouper appear to be a biocontrol of invasive lionfish, the overexploitation of their populations by fishers, means that their median biomass on Caribbean reefs is an order of magnitude less than in our study. Thus, chronic overfishing will probably prevent natural biocontrol of lionfishes in the Caribbean. PMID:21731769

  2. The historical biogeography of groupers: Clade diversification patterns and processes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ka Yan; Craig, Matthew Thomas; Choat, John Howard; van Herwerden, Lynne

    2016-07-01

    Groupers (family Epinephelidae) are a clade of species-rich, biologically diverse reef fishes. Given their ecological variability and widespread distribution across ocean basins, it is important to scrutinize their evolutionary history that underlies present day distributions. This study investigated the patterns and processes by which grouper biodiversity has been generated and what factors have influenced their present day distributions. We reconstructed a robust, time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of Epinephelidae with comprehensive (∼87%) species sampling, whereby diversification rates were estimated and ancestral ranges were reconstructed. Our results indicate that groupers originated in what is now the East Atlantic during the mid-Eocene and diverged successively to form six strongly supported main clades. These clades differ in age (late Oligocene to mid-Miocene), geographic origin (West Atlantic to West Indo-Pacific) and temporal-spatial diversification pattern, ranging from constant rates of diversification to episodes of rapid radiation. Overall, divergence within certain biogeographic regions was most prevalent in groupers, while vicariant divergences were more common in Tropical Atlantic and East Pacific groupers. Our findings reveal that both biological and geographical factors have driven grouper diversification. They also underscore the importance of scrutinizing group-specific patterns to better understand reef fish evolution.

  3. 50 CFR 622.22 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Reef Fish Resources of the Gulf of Mexico § 622.22... transfer of IFQ groupers and tilefishes. At-sea or dockside transfer of IFQ groupers or tilefishes from...

  4. 50 CFR 622.20 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.20 Individual fishing quota (IFQ...) Restrictions on transfer of IFQ groupers and tilefishes. At-sea or dockside transfer of IFQ groupers...

  5. 50 CFR 622.20 - Individual fishing quota (IFQ) program for Gulf groupers and tilefishes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.20 Individual fishing quota (IFQ...) Restrictions on transfer of IFQ groupers and tilefishes. At-sea or dockside transfer of IFQ groupers...

  6. Susceptibility of juvenile humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis to grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV).

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Ketut; Zafran; Yamamoto, Asami; Miyazaki, Teruo

    2004-04-21

    Susceptibility of juvenile humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis to the grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV) was examined. GSDIV-containing inocula for challenge were obtained using a filtrate of spleen tissues from donor fish (orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides) infected with GSDIV. Groups injected with the primary filtrate showed lower mortalities (30 to 60%) than groups receiving the 10(-4) diluted inoculum (90 to 100% mortality). This result was contrary to the expectation that fish challenged with a higher concentration of virus would show higher mortality. Electron microscopy revealed that moribund fish receiving the 10(-4) diluted inoculum displayed massive formation of typical inclusion body-bearing cells (IBCs) containing an intracytoplasmic inclusion body with many virions in the 180-200 nm size range propagated within a virus assembly site. In contrast, survivors in fish receiving the primary filtrate showed the formation of unusual IBCs containing an abnormal inclusion body that was characterized by the assembly of a small number of deformed virions. This impaired virus assembly appeared to prevent mortality in the challenged fish and was assumed to be due to an interferon-like effect of a previously unknown substance that was passed on to the challenged fish with the tissue filtrate from the donor fish.

  7. Sperm of the giant grouper: cryopreservation, physiological and morphological analysis and application in hybridizations with red-spotted grouper

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, Yongsheng; JIANG, Jing; WANG, Na; QI, Wenshan; ZHAI, Jieming; LI, Bo; LIANG, You; CHEN, Youming; YANG, Chuanjun; CHEN, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    In order to develop excellent germplasm resources for giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus), cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was examined in the present study. Firstly, 13 kinds of sperm dilution (ELS1-3, EM1-2, TS-2, MPRS, ELRS0-6) were prepared with physiological salt, sucrose, glucose and fetal bovine serum. The physiological parameters of ELRS3 (ratio of fast motion, ratio of slow motion, time of fast motion, time of slow motion, lifespan and motility) and ELS3 (sperm ratio of slow motion, time of slow motion and motility) were significantly higher than those of the other dilutions (P < 0.05). Secondly, after adding 15% DMSO and 10% FBS to ELRS3 and ELS3, most physiological parameters of frozen sperm were also significantly higher than the other gradients (P < 0.05), and sperm motility was as high as 63.68 ± 4.16% to74.75 ± 12.71% (fresh sperm motility, 80.70 ± 1.37% to 80.71 ± 1.49%). Mixed with the above dilutions, a final volume of 105 ml semen was cryopreserved. Finally, the sperm of giant grouper cryopreserved with cryoprotectants (ELRS3 + 15% DMSO + 10% FBS) was used for electron-microscopic observation and crossbreeding with red-spotted groupers (Epinephelus akaara). The electron-microscopic observation revealed that part of the frozen-thawed sperm was cryodamaged, e.g., flagellum fracturing and mitochondria falling out, while the ultrastructure of sperm membrane, mitochondria and flagellum remained intact. Also, the fertilization and hatchability rates of giant grouper frozen sperm and red-spotted grouper eggs were as high as 94.56% and 75.56%, respectively. Thus, a technique for cryopreservation of giant grouper sperm was successfully developed and applied to crossbreeding with red-spotted grouper eggs. PMID:25985804

  8. 77 FR 32914 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC025 Snapper-Grouper Fishery of... the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP), (Amendment 17B), the Environmental...: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South...

  9. Molecular mechanisms underlying sex change in hermaphroditic groupers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2010-06-01

    Groupers are widely distributed throughout the tropical and subtropical waters of the world and are regarded as a favourite marine food fish. However, their large-scale aquaculture has been hindered by the rarity of natural males. Being protogynous hermaphrodites, groupers have been considered as study model for development and reproduction, especially for sex determination or sex differentiation, owing to the advantage that grouper gonad development undergoes transition from ovary to intersexual gonad and then to testis, and primordial germ cells and different stages of gametic cells during oogenesis and spermatogenesis are synchronously observed in the transitional gonads. Recently, a series of genes related to the reproduction regulation or sex differentiation have been identified in the groupers, mainly by researchers in China. One important finding was that the grouper gene, doublesex/male abnormal 3-related transcription factor 1 (DMRT1), is not only differentially expressed in gonads at different stages, but that it is also restricted to specific stages and specific cells of spermatogenesis. Grouper DMRT1 protein exists only in spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes, but not in the supporting Sertoli cells. Moreover, no introns were found in the grouper DMRT1, and no duplicated DMRT1 genes were detected. The finding implies that the intronless DMRT1 that is able to undergo rapid transcriptional turnover might be a significant gene for stimulating spermatogenesis in the protogynous hermaphroditic gonad. Additionally, we have found that grouper expression of sex-determining region Y-related high-mobility group-box gene 3 (SOX3) is a significant time point for enterable gametogenesis of primordial germ cells, because SOX3 is obviously expressed and localized in primordial germ cells. As SOX3 continues to express, the SOX3-positive primordial germ cells develop toward oogonia and then oocytes, whereas, when SOX3 expression is ceased

  10. Structure of grouper iridovirus purine nucleoside phosphorylase

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, You-Na; Zhang, Yang; Allan, Paula W.; Parker, William B.; Ting, Jing-Wen; Chang, Chi-Yao; Ealick, Steven E.

    2010-02-01

    The crystal structure of purine nucleoside phosphorylase from grouper iridovirus was solved at 2.38 Å resolution. Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) catalyzes the reversible phosphorolysis of purine ribonucleosides to the corresponding free bases and ribose 1-phosphate. The crystal structure of grouper iridovirus PNP (givPNP), corresponding to the first PNP gene to be found in a virus, was determined at 2.4 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to space group R3, with unit-cell parameters a = 193.0, c = 105.6 Å, and contained four protomers per asymmetric unit. The overall structure of givPNP shows high similarity to mammalian PNPs, having an α/β structure with a nine-stranded mixed β-barrel flanked by a total of nine α-helices. The predicted phosphate-binding and ribose-binding sites are occupied by a phosphate ion and a Tris molecule, respectively. The geometrical arrangement and hydrogen-bonding patterns of the phosphate-binding site are similar to those found in the human and bovine PNP structures. The enzymatic activity assay of givPNP on various substrates revealed that givPNP can only accept 6-oxopurine nucleosides as substrates, which is also suggested by its amino-acid composition and active-site architecture. All these results suggest that givPNP is a homologue of mammalian PNPs in terms of amino-acid sequence, molecular mass, substrate specificity and overall structure, as well as in the composition of the active site.

  11. Grouper: A Compact, Streamable Triangle Mesh Data Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Luffel, Mark; Gurung, Topraj; Lindstrom, Peter; Rossignac, Jarek

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present Grouper: an all-in-one compact file format, random-access data structure, and streamable representation for large triangle meshes. Similarly to the recently published SQuad representation, Grouper represents the geometry and connectivity of a mesh by grouping vertices and triangles into fixed-size records, most of which store two adjacent triangles and a shared vertex. Unlike SQuad, however, Grouper interleaves geometry with connectivity and uses a new connectivity representation to ensure that vertices and triangles can be stored in a coherent order that enables memory-efficient sequential stream processing. We also present a linear-time construction algorithm that allows streaming out Grouper meshes using a small memory footprint while preserving the initial ordering of vertices. In this construction, we show how the problem of assigning vertices and triangles to groups reduces to a well-known NP-hard optimization problem, and present a simple yet effective heuristic solution that performs well in practice. Our array-based Grouper representation also doubles as a triangle mesh data structure that allows direct access to vertices and triangles. Storing only about two integer references per triangle-i.e., less than the three vertex references stored with each triangle in a conventional indexed mesh format-Grouper answers both incidence and adjacency queries in amortized constant time. Our compact representation enables data-parallel processing on multicore computers, instant partitioning and fast transmission for distributed processing, as well as efficient out-of-core access. We demonstrate the versatility and performance benefits of Grouper using a suite of example meshes and processing kernels.

  12. Spatio-temporal segregation of calling behavior at a multispecies fish spawning site in Little Cayman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, K. C.; Sirovic, A.; Jaffe, J. S.; Semmens, B.; Pattengill-Semmens, C.; Gibb, J.

    2016-02-01

    Fish spawning aggregation (FSA) sites are extremely vulnerable to over-exploitation. Accurate understanding of the spatial and temporal use of such sites is necessary for effective species management. The size of FSAs can be on the order of kilometers and peak spawning often occurs at night, posing challenges to visual observation. Passive acoustics are an alternative method for dealing with these challenges. An array of passive acoustic recorders and GoPro cameras were deployed during Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus) spawning from February 7th to 12th, 2015 at a multispecies spawning aggregation site in Little Cayman, Cayman Islands. In addition to Nassau grouper, at least 10 other species are known to spawn at this location including tiger grouper (Mycteroperca tigris), red hind (Epinephelus guttatus), black grouper (Mycteroperca bonaci), and yellowfin grouper (Mycteroperca venenosa). During 5 days of continuous recordings, over 21,000 fish calls were detected. These calls were classified into 15 common types. Species identification and behavioral context of unknown common call types were determined by coupling video recordings collected during this time with call localizations. There are distinct temporal patterns in call production of different species. For example, red hind and yellowfin grouper call predominately at night with yellowfin call rates increasing after midnight, and black grouper call primarily during dusk and dawn. In addition, localization methods were used to reveal how the FSA area was divided among species. These findings facilitate a better understanding of the behavior of these important reef fish species allowing policymakers to more effectively manage and protect them.

  13. Visualization of Assembly Intermediates and Budding Vacuoles of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus in Grouper Embryonic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tran, Bich Ngoc; Wang, Fan; Ounjai, Puey; Wu, Jinlu; Hew, Choy L.

    2016-01-01

    Iridovirid infection is associated with the catastrophic loss in aquaculture industry and the population decline of wild amphibians and reptiles, but none of the iridovirid life cycles have been well explored. Here, we report the detailed visualization of the life cycle of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) in grouper cells by cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) and tomography (ET). EM imaging revealed that SGIV viral particles have an outer capsid layer, and the interaction of this layer with cellular plasma membrane initiates viral entry. Subsequent viral replication leads to formation of a viral assembly site (VAS), where membranous structures emerge as precursors to recruit capsid proteins to form an intermediate, double-shell, crescent-shaped structure, which curves to form icosahedral capsids. Knockdown of the major capsid protein eliminates the formation of viral capsids. As capsid formation progresses, electron-dense materials known to be involved in DNA encapsidation accumulate within the capsid until it is fully occupied. Besides the well-known budding mechanism through the cell periphery, we demonstrate a novel budding process in which viral particles bud into a tubular-like structure within vacuoles. This budding process may denote a new strategy used by SGIV to disseminate viral particles into neighbor cells while evading host immune response. PMID:26727547

  14. Identification of groupers based on pyloric caeca differentiation.

    PubMed

    Roy, T S C; Gopalakrishnan, A

    2011-11-01

    The examination of nine species of groupers present in south-east Indian waters has indicated that the pyloric caeca number, pattern and colouration are reliable and useful characters for identification. Three distinct morphotypes of pyloric caeca were observed in this study.

  15. 78 FR 17336 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Snapper-Grouper Management Measures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-21

    ... Southeast Regional Office Web site at http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf/SASnapperGrouperHomepage.htm . FOR... NMFS Office of Science and Technology released MRIP data from 2004-2011. MRFSS data from 2004-2011 were... Proposed Rule This proposed rule would revise ACLs for the following species and species complexes:...

  16. 78 FR 72867 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... grouper, blueline tilefish, yellowedge grouper, misty grouper, queen snapper, and silk snapper. The intent..., queen snapper, and silk snapper) beyond a depth of 240 ft (73 m) (75 FR 82280, December 30, 2010... Hilton Atlantic Beach Oceanfront, 2717 West Fort Macon Road, Atlantic Beach, NC 28512, telephone: 252-240...

  17. 77 FR 61559 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Nassau Grouper as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... a petition from the WildEarth Guardians to list goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara), Nassau... of the WildEarth Guardians' petition, as well as the breadth and extent of the required evaluation... WildEarth Guardians' petition to list Nassau grouper. Negative findings for goliath grouper...

  18. 77 FR 11775 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., email: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the...

  19. 75 FR 18427 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-5308, e-mail Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of...

  20. 75 FR 11068 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY...-mail Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper- Grouper Fishery of the...

  1. 76 FR 12605 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment...-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Amendment 17B), which was published in the Federal Register... rule established annual catch limits and accountability measures for nine snapper-grouper species...

  2. 76 FR 68310 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic...-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP). This rule makes effective the collection-of... number 0648-0603 (South Atlantic snapper- grouper reporting requirements), and on April 12, 2011,...

  3. 75 FR 79309 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the South Atlantic States; Emergency Rule To Delay Effectiveness of the Snapper-Grouper Area Closure; Correction AGENCY: National Marine... the effective date of the area closure for snapper-grouper specified in Amendment 17A to the...

  4. 78 FR 36444 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XC714 Snapper-Grouper Fishery of....Hayslip@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic, which... Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (FMP). The FMP was prepared...

  5. Transcriptome analysis of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) spleen in response to Singapore grouper iridovirus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) is an economically important marine fish cultured in China and Southeast Asian countries. The emergence of infectious viral diseases, including iridovirus and betanodavirus, have severely affected food products based on this species, causing heavy economic losses. Limited available information on the genomics of E. coioides has hampered the understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie host-virus interactions. In this study, we used a 454 pyrosequencing method to investigate differentially-expressed genes in the spleen of the E. coioides infected with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Results Using 454 pyrosequencing, we obtained abundant high-quality ESTs from two spleen-complementary DNA libraries which were constructed from SGIV-infected (V) and PBS-injected fish (used as a control: C). A total of 407,027 and 421,141 ESTs were produced in control and SGIV infected libraries, respectively. Among the assembled ESTs, 9,616 (C) and 10,426 (V) ESTs were successfully matched against known genes in the NCBI non-redundant (nr) database with a cut-off E-value above 10-5. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that "cell part", "cellular process" and "binding" represented the largest category. Among the 25 clusters of orthologous group (COG) categories, the cluster for "translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis" represented the largest group in the control (185 ESTs) and infected (172 ESTs) libraries. Further KEGG analysis revealed that pathways, including cellular metabolism and intracellular immune signaling, existed in the control and infected libraries. Comparative expression analysis indicated that certain genes associated with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), chemokine, toll-like receptor and RIG-I signaling pathway were alternated in response to SGIV infection. Moreover, changes in the pattern of gene expression were validated by qRT-PCR, including cytokines, cytokine receptors, and

  6. 50 CFR 622.18 - South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Effort Limitations § 622.18 South Atlantic snapper-grouper limited access. (a) General. The only...

  7. 78 FR 30779 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2013 Recreational Accountability Measure and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... catch limit (ACL) for snowy grouper. To account for this overage, this rule reduces the length of the..., 2013. During the closure, the bag and possession limit for snowy grouper in or from the South Atlantic... vessel and headboat operations, book trips for clients in advance and, therefore need as much time as...

  8. Advances in the study on nutrient requirements of grouper (Epinephelus sp.): a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhi; Liu, Yongjian; Mai, Kangsen; Tian, Lixia

    2005-04-01

    The paper reviews the recent advances in studying grouper nutrition requirement for the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly artificial diets. It consists of seven parts: protein and amino acid, lipid and essential fatty acid, carbohydrate, vitamin, mineral, alternative protein source, broodstock and larval nutrition. The review provides some basic information for further investigation of nutrient requirements of groupers.

  9. Immunomagnetic reduction assay for nervous necrosis virus extracted from groupers.

    PubMed

    Lu, M W; Yang, S Y; Horng, H E; Yang, C C; Chieh, J J; Hong, Y W; Hong, C Y; Yang, H C; Wu, J L

    2012-04-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the cause of viral nervous disease, which is a serious constraint on production for grouper aquaculture. Real-time PCR is commonly used to detect and quantify NNV, has the disadvantages of being expensive and technically demanding. In this study, an immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) assay was developed as a rapid and cost-effective alternative to real-time PCR. This method used magnetic nanoparticles conjugated with antibodies specific for viral surface antigens to detect NNV in grouper tissue samples. The association of NNV with the antibody-conjugated magnetic particles resulted in a reduction in magnetic signal, which was strongly correlated with the concentration of NNV, as determined by real-time PCR. Grouper larvae were prepared for testing using a viral extraction buffer which provided a rapid, 15-min method of extracting viral antigens and had an extraction efficiency of higher than 80%. In addition, this study proposes using magnetic nanoparticles as labeling markers and as an assaying reagent for NNV. The magnetic nanoparticles are functionalized with antibodies against the viral surface of NNV and are able to associate specifically with NNV. The reduction of the magnetic signals comes from the association between magnetic particles and NNV, and relates to the concentration of NNV. The results show that the detected concentrations of NNV are highly correlated to those detected by real-time PCR.

  10. Edwardsiella piscicida-like pathogen in cultured grouper.

    PubMed

    Ucko, Michal; Colorni, Angelo; Dubytska, Lidiya; Thune, Ronald L

    2016-09-26

    An Edwardsiella sp. was isolated from the kidney of diseased groupers (Epinephelus aeneus and E. marginatus) cultured in Eilat (Israel, Red Sea). Affected fish presented a severe suppurative nephritis with large abscesses occasionally spreading into the surrounding musculature. Biochemical profiles and phenotypic comparisons failed to provide a clear identification to the species level, and genetic analysis of the 16S subunit failed to discriminate between Edwardsiella piscicida, E. tarda and E. ictaluri. Analysis of the gyrB gene, however, placed the grouper isolates into the E. piscicida-like group, a newly recognized taxon which also encompasses the non-motile strains previously classified as atypical E. tarda. Initial genomic analysis revealed the presence of the Edwardsiella type 3 secretion system (T3SS) but also revealed a pathogenicity island encoding a second T3SS with homology to the locus of enterocyte effacement of Escherichia coli. Further analysis revealed 3 different type 6 secretion systems that were also present in all sequenced isolates of Edwardsiella piscicida-like strains. Based on estimated DNA-DNA hybridization values and the average nucleotide index, the grouper strain fits into the E. piscicida-like phylogroup described as E. anguillarum sp. nov. The peculiarities associated with this isolate and the association of other conspecific piscine isolates from multiple marine and brackish water species suggest a link of the entire E. piscicida-like phylogroup to the marine environment.

  11. An indirect ELISA and a PCR technique for the detection of Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) mislabeling.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Pavón, Miguel A; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2008-06-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedure was applied for the detection of Grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) mislabelling in the fish market. An indirect ELISA (microtiter-plate format) using two monoclonal antibodies (3D12 and 1A4) was assayed and multiplex PCR performed using species-specific primers of the 5S rDNA gene for the rapid authentication of grouper. A total of 70 commercial fish fillet samples, collected from local markets and supermarkets, labelled as grouper were analysed: 12 of the 70 samples were confirmed to be Grouper. The PCR technique permitted the detection of Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) in the commercial fillet samples, which was not possible using ELISA. The results suggest that both ELISA and PCR are specific and reliable tools for the detection of Grouper mislabelling/adulteration and the accurate implementation of traceability for successful regulatory food controls.

  12. Monitoring feed amounts in goliath groupers (Epinephelus itajara) using behavioral conditioning in a large mixed species exhibit.

    PubMed

    Kittell, Michele M; Ratte, Magan E

    2008-09-01

    Goliath groupers (Epinephelus itajara) are large charismatic species, which are often residents in public aquaria. This study reports a novel approach to feeding techniques for three resident goliath groupers. Because of the size and depth of their exhibit, the groupers were conditioned to hand feed from aquarists. Daily food logs were recorded including the type and number of species, how often the groupers were fed, and how often they accepted the offered food. Mackerel, herring, and sardine represented the highest percentage of the diet, whereas capelin, squid, and shrimp were the lowest percentage. Over a one-year period, records showed that grouper 1 and grouper 3 ate fairly consistently throughout the year. Grouper 2 had a higher degree of variation in his monthly feeding average with a decrease from May to September and an increase through April. Grouper 1 and grouper 3 took food from the aquarists most consistently with a monthly average of 88.8+/-10.8 and 89.7+/-6.15% of the time, respectively. Grouper 2 was not as consistent, hand feeding at only 74.5+/-16.2% of the time offered. Diet management and behavioral conditioning with the goliath groupers have established consistent husbandry records and therefore better monitoring of the individual fish's long-term health status. Zoo Biol 27:414-419, 2008. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of dorsal aorta cannulation for immunological studies of grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus).

    PubMed

    Lo, Wan-Yu; Chang, Ching-Fong; Song, Yen-Ling

    2003-04-01

    Blood is often withdrawn to study the immune responses of fish. However, netting, handling and anaesthetising the experimental fish, and drawing blood samples cause severe stress that may alter the effects of immune study protocols and treatments. We evaluated the effect of aorta cannulation, for use in immune studies, on grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) plasma cortisol, total red and white blood cell counts and phagocytosis. Plasma cortisol increased from 30 to 88 ng/ml 1 day after insertion of the cannula, to a maximum of 951 ng/ml 3 to 5 days after surgery, indicating the groupers were stressed by cannulation and post-cannulation inflammation. Total RBC count decreased, and total WBC count increased after surgery. Following cannulation, the phagocytic index of peripheral blood leukocytes decreased from 100% to 46%. The adverse effects of cannulation were mitigated by continuously immersing groupers in oxytetracycline (OTC), which decreased the recovery period for treated fish. In contrast, OTC-treatment did not markedly improve the recovery of groupers subjected to caudal vessel puncture. Cortisol levels in OTC-treated grouper with caudal vessel puncture were significantly higher than in OTC-treated, cannulated grouper, and remained at a high level until day 13 of the experiment. From day 7 to 13, total RBC and WBC counts in OTC-treated, cannulated groupers were significantly different from those in OTC-treated groupers with caudal vessel puncture. OTC treatment improved the phagocytic index of groupers subjected to caudal vessel puncture, but the phagocytic index was lower than that of groupers subjected to cannulation. Cannulation minimises visual and handling disturbances, and facilitates standardisation of experimental conditions and quick and easy sampling via the dorsal aorta cannula. Therefore, dorsal aorta cannulation minimises the stress of blood sampling and should prove useful for immune studies in fish.

  14. Immunogenicity and protective effects of inactivated Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) vaccines in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Ou-yang, Zhengliang; Wang, Peiran; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Huang, Youhua; Wei, Shina; Ji, Huasong; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2012-10-01

    Vaccination is one of the best methods against viral diseases. In this study, experimental inactivated Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) vaccines were prepared, and immunogenicity and protection against virus infection of the vaccines were investigated in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Two kinds of vaccines, including β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 h and formalin inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 d, was highly protective against the challenge at 30-day post-vaccination and produced relative percent of survival rates of 91.7% and 100%, respectively. These effective vaccinations induced potent innate immune responses mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). It is noteworthy that ISGs, such as Mx and ISG15, were up-regulated only in the effective vaccine groups, which suggested that type I IFN system may be the functional basis of early anti-viral immunity. Moreover, effective vaccination also significantly up-regulated of the expression of MHC class I gene and produced substantial amount of specific serum antibody at 4 weeks post-vaccination. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrated that effective vaccination in grouper induced an early, nonspecific antiviral immunity, and later, a specific immune response involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

  15. Gag grouper larvae pathways on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Peebles, Ernst

    2014-10-01

    A numerical circulation model, quantitatively assessed against in situ observations, is used to describe the circulation on the West Florida Continental Shelf during spring 2007 when pre-settlement gag (Mycteroperca microlepis) were present in the surf zone near Tampa Bay, Florida. The pre-settlement fish were found to be isotopically distinct from settled juveniles in the area, which is consistent with recent arrival at near shore nursery habitats from offshore spawning grounds. Simulated particle trajectories are employed to test hypotheses relating to either a surface or a near-bottom route of across-shelf transport. The surface-route hypothesis is rejected, whereas the bottom-route hypothesis is found to be consistent with the location of pre-settlement fish and their co-occurrence with macroalgae of offshore, hard-bottom origin. We conclude that gag larvae are transported to the near shore via the bottom Ekman layer and that such transport is facilitated by remote forcing associated with Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope near the Dry Tortugas. Being that such remote forcing occurs inter-annually and not always in phase with the preferred spawning months (late winter through early spring), gag recruitment success should similarly vary with year and location.

  16. From shelf to shelf: assessing historical and contemporary genetic differentiation and connectivity across the Gulf of Mexico in Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis.

    PubMed

    Jue, Nathaniel K; Brulé, Thierry; Coleman, Felicia C; Koenig, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    Describing patterns of connectivity among populations of species with widespread distributions is particularly important in understanding the ecology and evolution of marine species. In this study, we examined patterns of population differentiation, migration, and historical population dynamics using microsatellite and mitochondrial loci to test whether populations of the epinephelid fish, Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, an important fishery species, are genetically connected across the Gulf of Mexico and if so, whether that connectivity is attributable to either contemporary or historical processes. Populations of Gag on the Campeche Bank and the West Florida Shelf show significant, but low magnitude, differentiation. Time since divergence/expansion estimates associated with historical population dynamics indicate that any population or spatial expansions indicated by population genetics would have likely occurred in the late Pleistocene. Using coalescent-based approaches, we find that the best model for explaining observed spatial patterns of contemporary genetic variation is one of asymmetric gene flow, with movement from Campeche Bank to the West Florida Shelf. Both estimated migration rates and ecological data support the hypothesis that Gag populations throughout the Gulf of Mexico are connected via present day larval dispersal. Demonstrating this greatly expanded scale of connectivity for Gag highlights the influence of "ghost" populations (sensu Beerli) on genetic patterns and presents a critical consideration for both fisheries management and conservation of this and other species with similar genetic patterns.

  17. From Shelf to Shelf: Assessing Historical and Contemporary Genetic Differentiation and Connectivity across the Gulf of Mexico in Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Nathaniel K.; Brulé, Thierry; Coleman, Felicia C.; Koenig, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Describing patterns of connectivity among populations of species with widespread distributions is particularly important in understanding the ecology and evolution of marine species. In this study, we examined patterns of population differentiation, migration, and historical population dynamics using microsatellite and mitochondrial loci to test whether populations of the epinephelid fish, Gag, Mycteroperca microlepis, an important fishery species, are genetically connected across the Gulf of Mexico and if so, whether that connectivity is attributable to either contemporary or historical processes. Populations of Gag on the Campeche Bank and the West Florida Shelf show significant, but low magnitude, differentiation. Time since divergence/expansion estimates associated with historical population dynamics indicate that any population or spatial expansions indicated by population genetics would have likely occurred in the late Pleistocene. Using coalescent-based approaches, we find that the best model for explaining observed spatial patterns of contemporary genetic variation is one of asymmetric gene flow, with movement from Campeche Bank to the West Florida Shelf. Both estimated migration rates and ecological data support the hypothesis that Gag populations throughout the Gulf of Mexico are connected via present day larval dispersal. Demonstrating this greatly expanded scale of connectivity for Gag highlights the influence of “ghost” populations (sensu Beerli) on genetic patterns and presents a critical consideration for both fisheries management and conservation of this and other species with similar genetic patterns. PMID:25856095

  18. DNA barcoding of commercially important Grouper species (Perciformes, Serranidae) in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Alcantara, Simon G; Yambot, Apolinario V

    2016-11-01

    Fish identification is generally challenging because of their unpronounced and overlapping morphological characters which is true in grouper species. In the Philippines, an updated, reliable and accurate inventory of this high value commercial groupers has not been carried out previously. Using molecular tools in the identification and inventory of fish species in the country is confined to few laboratories and experts in the country. In this study, 27 species of the Serranidae family were identified from the grouper samples collected from major fish landing sites and markets in the Philippines. The grouper species were molecularly identified using the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) sequences for DNA barcoding. The accuracy of the inferred species-level taxonomy based on COI is supported with high similarity search (98-100%) both in BOLD and BLAST, well-distributed genetic distance values and cohesive clustering in the Neighbor-Joining Tree. Aside from reinforcing the classical methodology of grouper identification in the country, this pioneering study on molecular identification of Philippine groupers constitutes a significant contribution to the DNA barcode library of Philippine marine fishes and to the global barcode entries in general, which can be used when dealing with grouper taxonomy, biodiversity, stock assessment and trade. The results reveal the different localities where the grouper species can be possibly sourced out in the country for trade and aquaculture purposes. Several of the grouper species are included in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. As a tool for conservation ecology, this study signals the implementation of sustainable fisheries management regulation to protect in particular those which are listed under the IUCN.

  19. Decreasing salinity of seawater moderates immune response and increases survival rate of giant groupers post betanodavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tz-Shiang; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2016-10-01

    Giant groupers (Epinephelus lanceolatus), an important aquaculture fish in Asia, are attacked by nervous necrosis virus (NNV), belonging to betanodavirus. Environmental salinity can affect fish immunity and physiology. We examined whether decreasing salinity from 30 to 15 ppt during acclimation of groupers could affect survival with NNV infection and the associated factors. Although NNV infection decreased muscle moisture, up-regulated the gene expression of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter isoform 2, and elevated plasma cortisol level in groupers, these factors were not related to the higher mortality of groupers reared at 30-ppt salinity (S30-groupers), compared to 15-ppt reared groupers (S15-groupers). Infected S30-groupers exhibited high leukocyte count and innate immune gene expression level. Moreover, NNV-infected dead S30-groupers showed high IL-1β gene expression level but low NNV load in the brain. The high or excess IL-1β gene expression levels in the brain of NNV-infected S30-groupers may be the factor in high mortality.

  20. Restricted grouper reproductive migrations support community-based management

    PubMed Central

    Almany, Glenn R.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane H.; Hamilton, Richard J.; Potuku, Tapas; Priest, Mark A.; Rhodes, Kevin L.; Robinson, Jan; Cinner, Joshua E.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Conservation commonly requires trade-offs between social and ecological goals. For tropical small-scale fisheries, spatial scales of socially appropriate management are generally small—the median no-take locally managed marine area (LMMA) area throughout the Pacific is less than 1 km2. This is of particular concern for large coral reef fishes, such as many species of grouper, which migrate to aggregations to spawn. Current data suggest that the catchment areas (i.e. total area from which individuals are drawn) of such aggregations are at spatial scales that preclude effective community-based management with no-take LMMAs. We used acoustic telemetry and tag-returns to examine reproductive migrations and catchment areas of the grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus at a spawning aggregation in Papua New Guinea. Protection of the resultant catchment area of approximately 16 km2 using a no-take LMMA is socially untenable here and throughout much of the Pacific region. However, we found that spawning migrations were skewed towards shorter distances. Consequently, expanding the current 0.2 km2 no-take LMMA to 1–2 km2 would protect approximately 30–50% of the spawning population throughout the non-spawning season. Contrasting with current knowledge, our results demonstrate that species with moderate reproductive migrations can be managed at scales congruous with spatially restricted management tools. PMID:27069662

  1. Large outbreaks of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2014-07-11

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100-200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1-2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness.

  2. Large Outbreaks of Ciguatera after Consumption of Brown Marbled Grouper

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2014-01-01

    Brown marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) is an apex predator from coral reefs of the Indo-Pacific region. All five published case series of ciguatera after consumption of brown marbled grouper were reviewed to characterize the types, severity and chronicity of ciguatera symptoms associated with its consumption. Three of these case series were from large outbreaks affecting over 100–200 subjects who had eaten this reef fish served at banquets. Affected subjects generally developed a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological and, less commonly, cardiovascular symptoms. Gastrointestinal symptoms occurred early and generally subsided in 1–2 days. Some neurological symptoms (e.g., paresthesia of four limbs) could last for weeks or months. Sinus bradycardia and hypotension occurred early, but could be severe and prolonged, necessitating the timely use of intravenous fluids, atropine and dopamine. Other cardiovascular and neurological features included atrial ectopics, ventricular ectopics, dyspnea, chest tightness, PR interval >0.2 s, ST segment changes, polymyositis and coma. Concomitant alcohol consumption was associated with a much higher risk of developing bradycardia, hypotension and altered skin sensation. The public should realize that consumption of the high-risk fish (especially the ciguatoxin-rich parts and together with alcohol use) and repeated ciguatoxin exposures will result in more severe and chronic illness. PMID:25019942

  3. Long-lived groupers require structurally stable reefs in the face of repeated climate change disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkarey, R.; Kelkar, N.; Lobo, A. Savio; Alcoverro, T.; Arthur, R.

    2014-06-01

    Benthic recovery from climate-related disturbances does not always warrant a commensurate functional recovery for reef-associated fish communities. Here, we examine the distribution of benthic groupers (family Serranidae) in coral reef communities from the Lakshadweep archipelago (Arabian Sea) in response to structural complexity and long-term habitat stability. These coral reefs that have been subject to two major El Niño Southern Oscillation-related coral bleaching events in the last decades (1998 and 2010). First, we employ a long-term (12-yr) benthic-monitoring dataset to track habitat structural stability at twelve reef sites in the archipelago. Structural stability of reefs was strongly driven by exposure to monsoon storms and depth, which made deeper and more sheltered reefs on the eastern aspect more stable than the more exposed (western) and shallower reefs. We surveyed groupers (species richness, abundance, biomass) in 60 sites across the entire archipelago, representing both exposures and depths. Sites were selected along a gradient of structural complexity from very low to high. Grouper biomass appeared to vary with habitat stability with significant differences between depth and exposure; sheltered deep reefs had a higher grouper biomass than either sheltered shallow or exposed (deep and shallow) reefs. Species richness and abundance showed similar (though not significant) trends. More interestingly, average grouper biomass increased exponentially with structural complexity, but only at the sheltered deep (high stability) sites, despite the availability of recovered structure at exposed deep and shallow sites (lower-stability sites). This trend was especially pronounced for long-lived groupers (life span >10 yrs). These results suggest that long-lived groupers may prefer temporally stable reefs, independent of the local availability of habitat structure. In reefs subject to repeated disturbances, the presence of structurally stable reefs may be

  4. Development of a specific monoclonal antibody for grouper (Epinephelus guaza) identification by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Mayoral, Belén; Lopez-Calleja, Inés; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2003-05-01

    Identification of fish species adulteration is important for consumer protection and the enforcement of food-labeling laws. A monoclonal antibody (MAb) generated against soluble muscle proteins from grouper (Epinephelus guaza) has been used in two indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats (microtiter plates and immunostick tubes) for the rapid authentication of grouper fillets. The 3D12 MAb was produced with the use of the hybridoma technique and tested against several commonly consumed fish species by ELISA. The 3D12 MAb specifically reacted with grouper samples and could be useful for the discrimination of grouper among other, less-valued, fish species sold in the marketplace.

  5. Susceptibility of cultured juveniles of several marine fish to the sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, S; Kuriyama, I; Nakai, T; Miyazaki, T

    2003-02-01

    Piscine nodaviruses (betanodaviruses) have been tentatively divided into four genotypes (SJNNV, RGNNV, TPNNV and BFNNV) and it is suggested that host specificity is different among these genotypes. In the present study, a betanodavirus [sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus (SGNNV)] belonging to the redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotype, to which most betanodaviruses from warm water fish are identified, was evaluated for its pathogenicity to hatchery-reared juveniles of several marine fish species. When challenged with the virus by a bath method (10(5.1) TCID50 mL(-1)), sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus, and tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes, displayed behavioural abnormalities and mortalities with distinct histopathological signs of viral nervous necrosis and heavily immunostained cells were observed in the central nervous tissues and retina. Bath-challenged rock fish, Sebastiscus marmoratus, and a hybrid of sevenband grouper and kelp grouper, E. moara, did not display any behavioural abnormality or mortality during the experimental period, although many fish showed slight signs of viral infection in nerve cells. Kelp grouper and red sea bream, Pagrus major, showed no behavioural abnormality, mortality or immunohistopathological changes after the virus challenge. These results are, in part, consistent with the natural host range of RGNNV, indicating the complexity in the host specificity of betanodaviruses.

  6. A standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm for grouper fish feed formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai-Juan, Soong; Ramli, Razamin; Rahman, Rosshairy Abdul

    2016-10-01

    Malaysia is one of the major producer countries for fishery production due to its location in the equatorial environment. Grouper fish is one of the potential markets in contributing to the income of the country due to its desirable taste, high demand and high price. However, the demand of grouper fish is still insufficient from the wild catch. Therefore, there is a need to farm grouper fish to cater to the market demand. In order to farm grouper fish, there is a need to have prior knowledge of the proper nutrients needed because there is no exact data available. Therefore, in this study, primary data and secondary data are collected even though there is a limitation of related papers and 30 samples are investigated by using standard deviation selection in Evolutionary algorithm. Thus, this study would unlock frontiers for an extensive research in respect of grouper fish feed formulation. Results shown that the fitness of standard deviation selection in evolutionary algorithm is applicable. The feasible and low fitness, quick solution can be obtained. These fitness can be further predicted to minimize cost in farming grouper fish.

  7. Real-time quantitative PCR assay for monitoring of nervous necrosis virus infection in grouper aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Peng-Peng; Chen, Young-Mao; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2011-03-01

    Viral nervous necrosis caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV) exacts a high mortality and results in huge economic losses in grouper aquaculture in Taiwan. The present study developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for NNV monitoring. The assay showed a strong linear correlation (r(2) = 0.99) between threshold cycle (C(T)) and RNA quantities, which allowed identification of infected groupers by the C(T) value and could be exploited to warn of NNV infection prior to an outbreak in grouper fish farms. Real-time qPCR also confirmed the copious content of NNV in grouper fin, similar to that in primary tissues; the result was verified by using in situ reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). This indicated that grouper fin was a suitable sample for NNV detection, in a manner that could be relatively benign to the fish. The rapid spread of NNV infection to the entire population of affected farms was evident. The developed real-time qPCR method is rapid, highly sensitive, and applicable to routine high-throughput detection of large numbers of samples and has potential as a suitable tool for diagnostic, epidemiological, and genetic studies of grouper aquaculture.

  8. Preparation of Modified Films with Protein from Grouper Fish

    PubMed Central

    Tecante, A.; Granados-Navarrete, S.; Martínez-García, C.

    2016-01-01

    A protein concentrate (PC) was obtained from Grouper fish skin and it was used to prepare films with different amounts of sorbitol and glycerol as plasticizers. The best performing films regarding resistance were then modified with various concentrations of CaCl2, CaSO4 (calcium salts), and glucono-δ-lactone (GDL) with the purpose of improving their mechanical and barrier properties. These films were characterized by determining their mechanical properties and permeability to water vapor and oxygen. Formulations with 5% (w/v) protein and 75% sorbitol and 4% (w/v) protein with a mixture of 15% glycerol and 15% sorbitol produced adequate films. Calcium salts and GDL increased the tensile fracture stress but reduced the fracture strain and decreased water vapor permeability compared with control films. The films prepared represent an attractive alternative for being used as food packaging materials. PMID:27597950

  9. Edge detection of red hind grouper vocalizations in the littorals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron A.; Beaujean, Pierre-Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Littoral regions typically present to passive sensors as a high noise acoustic environment, particularly with respect to port and harbor regions where tidal variation, often characterized as pink, mixes with reverberation from on-shore business and commercial shipping, often characterized as white. Some fish in these regions, in particular epiphenalius Guttatus or more commonly the red hind grouper, emit relatively narrowband tones in low frequencies to communicate with other fish in such regions. The impact of anthropogenic noise sources on the red Hind and other fish is a topical area of interest for wildlife fisheries, private sportsmen and military offices that is not considered here; the fact that fish species continue to populate and communicate in these regions in the presence of high noise content lends some study to the signal content and modeling of a potential biologically inspired receiver structure.

  10. Acoustic Tonal and Vector Properties of Red Hind Grouper Vocalizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Cameron Anthony

    Vertebrates are the most prodigious vocalizing animals in existence, and the most diverse methods of acoustic communication among vertebrates can be found in the ocean. Relatively many teleost fish are gifted with the ability to communicate acoustically, and the family of serranidae often performs this as a function of the swim bladder. Epinephelus Guttatus (E. guttatus), or more commonly the red hind grouper, is equipped with a drum shaped swim bladder acting as a monopole under typical ocean conditions. This configuration allows for what is understood to be omnidirectional projection of tones approximately centered between 40 and 440 Hz and spanning anywhere from 40 to 200 Hz of bandwidth and modulation effects based on observed data provided by researchers. Prior studies on many other fish show correlation in acoustic communication profile with length, size and sexual identity. In the red hind, sexual dimorphism leads to an inherent female identity in all juvenile fish which converts to male according to environmental factors, recommending at least consistent organs across both sexes be assumed even if not in use. Much research has been performed on male fish vocalization in terms of spectral content. Communication in fish is a complex multi-modal process, with acoustic communication being important for many of the species, particularly those in the littoral regions of the worlds' oceans. If identifying characteristics of the red hind vocalization can be isolated based on detection, classification, tracking and localizing methodologies, then these identifying characteristics may indeed lead to passive feature identification that allows for estimation of individual fish mass. Hypotheses based on vector, cyclostationary and classical tonal mechanics are presented for consideration. A battery of test data collection events, applying pre-recorded fish vocalizations to a geolocated undersea sound source were conducted. The results are supplied with the intent of

  11. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    SciTech Connect

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-03

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO{sub 4}) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  12. Temperature effect on gastric emptying time of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus spp.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Moumita; Ghaffar, Mazlan Abd.; Das, Simon K.

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of fish gastric emptying time is a necessary component for understanding the fish feeding rates, energy budgets and commercial production of fishes in aquaculture. The hybrid grouper Epinephelus spp. is getting popular as a culture species in Malaysia for their faster growth rate compared to commonly cultured grouper species (giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus and tiger grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus). There are data suggests that elevated sea water temperature affects gastric emptying time (GET) of fishes. Hence, this study aims to study the GET of hybrid grouper at different temperature (22, 26, 30, 34°C) in laboratory condition with commercial diet pellet. The gastric emptying times (GETs) at different temperatures were determined X-radiographically, using barium sulfate (BaSO4) as a contrast medium food marker. The food marker and X-radiography showed that initial voidance of fecal matter began 4-6 h after feeding at all temperature. The fastest GET (13 h) was obsereved in the 30°C group, whereas the longest (17 h) GET was seen in 22°C group fed with artificial diet pellet. Not much differences in GET were recorded between the 26 and 34°C groups as 34°C groups fed lesser amount compared to 26°C groups. Nevertheless a substantial delay in GET was observed in the 22°C group. The findings of this study suggest to culture hybrid grouper between 26 to 30°C with commercial diet pellet as this temperature ranges proliferate the faster digestion process which may contribute faster growth rate of this commerical important fish species. Overall, these findings may have important consequences for optimization of commercial production of hybrid grouper.

  13. 75 FR 62488 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... (ACLs), and accountability measures (AMs) for eight snapper- grouper species undergoing overfishing.... This proposed rule is intended to address overfishing of eight snapper-grouper species while..., FMPs for the fisheries determined by the Secretary to be subject to overfishing must establish...

  14. 77 FR 27374 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... in relation to MFMT were for the 1999 and 1990 fishing years for speckled hind and warsaw grouper... and warsaw grouper occurs only once in these documents. In the preamble's classification section of... of the Council's Advisory Panels and SSC. The Council will be holding public workshops in 2012 where...

  15. 78 FR 50394 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the South Atlantic States; Amendment 22; Correction... August 2, 2013, regarding the implementation of management measures described in Amendment 22 to the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery in the South Atlantic Region (Amendment 22). The...

  16. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., fax: 727-824-5308, e-mail: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-...

  17. 76 FR 12882 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Closure AGENCY..., fax: 727-824-5308, e-mail: Catherine.Bruger@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery of the South Atlantic is managed under the Fishery Management Plan for the Snapper-...

  18. 78 FR 23858 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment...@noaa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The snapper-grouper fishery off the southern Atlantic states... part 622 for the Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and the Caribbean (78 FR 22950). That interim...

  19. Effects of dietary riboflavin levels on antioxidant defense of the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Junwa; Tian, Lixia; Wu, Xiangyun; Yang, Huijun; Liu, Yongjian

    2010-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary riboflavin on antioxidant defense in the juvenile grouper Epinephelus coioides. Graded levels of riboflavin (0.9, 1.6, 4.4, 6.7, 12.9 and 19.4 mg kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grouper juveniles (mean weight: 14.90 +/- 0.46 g) for 12 weeks. Higher levels of liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content were observed in grouper fed low doses (0.9 and 1.6 mg kg(-1) diet) of riboflavin. Both liver glutathione reductase (GR) activity and its activation coefficient (GR-AC) poorly responded to riboflavin deficiency. In addition, other indices of the glutathione-dependent defense system, including the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the content of glutathione (GSH), were also non-significantly affected by dietary riboflavin levels. However, the activities of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were significantly lower in fish fed 0.9 mg kg(-1) diet, with a positive correlation between the different groups. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the juvenile grouper fed the riboflavin-unsupplemented diet was susceptible to lipid peroxidation (LPO), with lower SOD and CAT activities in the liver. However, the glutathione-dependent defense system of grouper was not affected by dietary riboflavin levels.

  20. Humoral and cytokine responses in giant groupers after vaccination and challenge with betanodavirus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yuan-Kai; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2017-02-01

    Giant groupers were immunized with two dosages (Vhigh and Vlow) of inactivated nervous necrosis virus (NNV) and subsequently challenged with NNV at 4 weeks post vaccination (wpv). Several indicators were used to analyze the protective effects of the NNV vaccine. The neutralizing antibody titer of fish serum mostly corresponded to the survival rate of immunized fish in the NNV challenge test. Extravascular IgM(+) cells were detected in the brains of both NNV-infected and noninfected groupers. After NNV infection, CD8α and IgM gene expression increased in the brains, indicating CD8α(+) and IgM(+) lymphocyte infiltration. Moreover, the NNV load was not the highest in dead grouper brains, suggesting that this load in the brain was not the key factor for the death of groupers. However, the brains of dead fish showed the highest expression of the interleukin (IL)-1β gene, a neurotoxic factor in the brain. Therefore, IL-1β overexpression is likely to be associated with the death of NNV-infected groupers.

  1. Isolation and characterization of Vibrio carchariae, a causative agent of gastroenteritis in the groupers, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Yii, K C; Yang, T I; Lee, K K

    1997-08-01

    An outbreak of serious mortality among the cultured groupers Epinephelus coioides, characterized by a swollen intestine containing yellow fluid, occurred in the summer of 1993 in Taiwan. A motile strain EmI82KL was isolated from the intestinal yellow fluid of the moribund groupers with tryptic soy agar supplemented with 2% NaCl and/or thiosulfate citrate bile salt sucrose agar. This strain was characterized and identified as Vibrio carchariae and was susceptible to chloramphenicol, doxycycline-HCl, nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline, and sulfonamide while resistant to ampicillin and penicillin G. In addition, the strain was neither auto-agglutinating nor hemagglutinating, but it was hemolytic against erythrocytes from sheep, rabbit, tilapia, and grouper. The bacteria could be reisolated from kidney, liver, and the transparent yellow fluid of swollen intestine of moribund groupers after bacterial challenge and re-identified as the same species. The LD50 value was 2.53 x 10(7) colony forming units/g grouper body weight.

  2. Molecular cloning and characterization of a galectin-1 homolog in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiuli; Wei, Jingguang; Xu, Meng; Yang, Min; Li, Pingfei; Wei, Shina; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    As a member of animal lectin family, galectin has the functions of pathogen recognition, anti-bacteria and anti-virus. In the present study, a galectin-1 homolog (EcGel-1) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its possible role in fish immunity was analyzed. The full length cDNA of EcGel-1 is 504 bp, including a 408 bp open reading frame (ORF) which encodes 135 amino acids with a molecular mass of 15.19 kDa. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcGel-1 was constitutively expressed in all analyzed tissues of healthy grouper. The expression of EcGel-1 in the spleen of grouper was differentially up-regulated challenged with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), poly (I:C), and LPS. EcGel-1 was abundantly distributed in the cytoplasm in GS cells. Recombinant EcGel-1(rEcGel-1) protein can make chicken erythrocyte aggregation, and combine with gram negative bacteria and gram positive bacteria in the presence of 2-Mercaptoethanol (β-ME). Taken together, the results showed that EcGel-1 may be an important molecule involved in pathogen recognition and pathogen elimination in the innate immunity of grouper.

  3. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, John F.; Cox, Courtney E.; Hackerott, Serena; Green, Stephanie J.

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion. PMID:24765582

  4. Re-examining the relationship between invasive lionfish and native grouper in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Valdivia, Abel; Bruno, John F; Cox, Courtney E; Hackerott, Serena; Green, Stephanie J

    2014-01-01

    Biotic resistance is the idea that native species negatively affect the invasion success of introduced species, but whether this can occur at large spatial scales is poorly understood. Here we re-evaluated the hypothesis that native large-bodied grouper and other predators are controlling the abundance of exotic lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles) on Caribbean coral reefs. We assessed the relationship between the biomass of lionfish and native predators at 71 reefs in three biogeographic regions while taking into consideration several cofactors that may affect fish abundance, including among others, proxies for fishing pressure and habitat structural complexity. Our results indicate that the abundance of lionfish, large-bodied grouper and other predators were not negatively related. Lionfish abundance was instead controlled by several physical site characteristics, and possibly by culling. Taken together, our results suggest that managers cannot rely on current native grouper populations to control the lionfish invasion.

  5. Molecular cloning, expression and functional analysis of ISG15 in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Cai, Jia; Wei, Shina; Ouyang, Zhengliang; Qin, Qiwei

    2013-05-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is an ubiquitin homolog that is significantly induced by type I interferons or viral infections. Groupers, Epinephelus spp. being maricultured in China and Southeast Asian countries, always suffer from virus infection, including iridovirus and nodavirus. To date, the roles of grouper genes, especially interferon related genes in virus infection remained largely unknown. Here, the ISG15 homolog (EcISG15) was cloned from grouper Epinephelus coioides and its immune response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and grouper nervous necrosis virus (GNNV) was investigated. The full-length EcISG15 cDNA was composed of 948 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 155 amino acids with 37-68% identity with the known ISG15 homologs from other fish species. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcISG15 contained two ubiquitin-like (UBL) domains and an Ub-conjugation domain (LRGG). Expressional analysis showed that EcISG15 was dramatically induced by GNNV infection, poly I:C or poly dA-dT treatment, but no obvious changes were observed during SGIV infection. Immunofluorescence assay showed that EcISG15 localized mainly in the cytoplasm of grouper cells in response to poly I:C stimulation or GNNV infection, but not in mock or SGIV infected cells. Western blot analysis indicated that the ISGylation was absent in SGIV-infected cells, but significantly enhanced in GNNV-infected or poly I:C transfected cells, suggesting that EcISG15 might play different roles in SGIV and GNNV infection. Furthermore, overexpression of EcISG15 in vitro inhibited the transcription of GNNV genes significantly. Taken together, the results indicated that fish ISG15 might exert important roles against RNA virus infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Construction of a Microsatellites-Based Linkage Map for the White Grouper (Epinephelus aeneus)

    PubMed Central

    Dor, Lior; Shirak, Andrey; Gorshkov, Sergei; Band, Mark R.; Korol, Abraham; Ronin, Yefim; Curzon, Arie; Hulata, Gideon; Seroussi, Eyal; Ron, Micha

    2014-01-01

    The white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) is a promising candidate for domestication and aquaculture due to its fast growth, excellent taste, and high market price. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping quantitative trait loci for economic traits and the study of genome evolution. DNA of a single individual was deep-sequenced, and microsatellite markers were identified in 177 of the largest scaffolds of the sequence assembly. The success rate of developing polymorphic homologous markers was 94.9% compared with 63.1% of heterologous markers from other grouper species. Of the 12 adult mature fish present in the broodstock tank, two males and two females were identified as parents of the assigned offspring by parenthood analysis using 34 heterologous markers. A single full-sib family of 48 individuals was established for the construction of first-generation linkage maps based on genotyping data of 222 microsatellites. The markers were assigned to 24 linkage groups in accordance to the 24 chromosomal pairs. The female and male maps consisting of 203 and 202 markers spanned 1053 and 886 cM, with an average intermarker distance of 5.8 and 5.0 cM, respectively. Mapping of markers to linkage groups ends was enriched by using markers originating from scaffolds harboring telomeric repeat-containing RNA. Comparative mapping showed high synteny relationships among the white grouper, kelp grouper (E. bruneus), orange-spotted grouper (E. coioides), and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Thus, it would be useful to integrate the markers that were developed for different groupers, depending on sharing of sequence data, into a comprehensive consensus map. PMID:24902605

  7. Salinity and temperature tolerance of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Sha-Yen; Chen, Chih-Sung; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2013-04-01

    Grouper have to face varied environmental stressors as a result of drastic changes to water conditions during the storm season. We aimed to test the response of brown-marbled grouper to drastic and gradual changes in temperature and salinity to understand the grouper's basic stress response. The results can improve the culture of grouper. Brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (6.2 ± 0.8 g) were examined for temperature and salinity tolerances at nine different environmental regimes (10, 20, and 33 ‰ combined with 20, 26 and 32 °C), in which the fish were subjected to both gradual and sudden changes in temperature and salinity. The critical thermal maximum (50 % CTMAX) and the upper incipient lethal temperature (UILT) were in the ranges of 35.9-38.3 and 32.7-36.5 °C, respectively. The critical thermal minimum (50 % CTMIN) and the lower incipient lethal temperature (LILT) were in the ranges of 9.8-12.2 and 14.9-22.3 °C, respectively. The critical salinity maximum (50 % CSMAX) and the upper incipient lethal salinity (UILS) were in the ranges of 67.0-75.5 and 54.2-64.8 ‰, respectively. Fish at temperature of 20 °C and a salinity of 33 ‰ tolerated temperatures as low as 10 °C when the temperature was gradually decreased. Fish acclimated at salinities of 10-33 ‰ and a temperature of 32 °C tolerated salinities of as high as 75-79 ‰. All fish survived from accumulating salinity after acute transfer to 20, 10, 5, and 3 ‰. But all fish died while transferred to 0 ‰. Relationships among the UILT, LILT, 50 % CTMAX, 50 % CTMIN, UILS, 50 % CSMAX, salinity, and temperature were examined. The grouper's temperature and salinity tolerance elevated by increasing acclimation temperature and salinity. On the contrary, the grouper's temperature and salinity tolerance degraded by decreasing acclimation temperature and salinity. The tolerance of temperature and salinity on grouper in gradual changes were higher than in drastic changes.

  8. Sperm cryopreservation in different grouper subspecies and application in interspecific hybridization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Q H; Xiao, Z Z; Wang, X Y; Xu, S H; Guan, S G; Xu, C A; Zhang, H S; Li, J

    2016-05-01

    The present study established and confirmed an efficient technology for groupers: giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus, orange-spotted grouper E. coioides, seven-band grouper, E. septemfasciatus, and kelp grouper E. moara sperm cryopreservation and successfully applied the cryopreserved E. lanceolatus sperm into interspecific hybridization with E. coioides. For both E. lanceolatus and E. coioides, the best motility of postthaw sperm were achieved using 6% to 10% DMSO, 6% to 16% propylene glycol, and 6% ethylene glycol as cryoprotectants. Furthermore, we have successfully applied this method into the other two species of E. septemfasciatus (74.56 ± 5.45%) and E. moara (71.67 ± 5.10%) sperm cryopreservation and obtained high motility, respectively. Computer-assisted sperm motion analysis showed that the postthaw sperm of the four species of grouper could keep 30 to 35 minutes motile state in nature seawater. And the freezing-thawing process decreased the sperm motility, speed, and longevity but did not significantly change the sperm movement pattern, and the progressive linear motion still was the dominant movement pattern. For the four species of grouper, the ultrastructural analysis showed 70% to 80% of the spermatozoa had intact morphology with a little of swelling; 20% to 30% were damaged, such as swelling or rupture of head, midpiece, and tail region; and 10% to 20% were severely damaged. Whereas, by the microscopic observation, more than 90% of the postthaw sperm presented normal morphology. In the artificial insemination and hybridization experiment, high fertilization rates and hatching rates were achieved when using 10% DMSO (88.7 ± 5.3%, 85.3 ± 7.4%) and 10% propylene glycol (86.8 ± 3.3%, 83.1 ± 6.6%), with no significant difference in comparison with control (92.2 ± 1.4%, 87.9 ± 4.2%). In addition, we found the embryos from postthaw sperm of E. lanceolatus and E. coioides eggs developed and grew normally as reported in previous

  9. Cryopreservation of sperm from seven-band grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus.

    PubMed

    Koh, Ivan Chong Chu; Yokoi, Ken-Ichi; Tsuji, Masaharu; Tsuchihashi, Yasushi; Ohta, Hiromi

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, we examined methods for the cryopreservation of Epinephelus septemfasciatus spermatozoa. The percent motility, average path velocity, and linearity of movement (LIN) of fresh and corresponding post-thaw sperm were evaluated. Sperm motility was investigated using computer-assisted sperm analysis. Five percent dimethyl sulphoxide (Me₂SO) with 95% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was the most successful cryoprotectant diluent with a comparative post-thaw motility of 77.6±8.5%; 5% dimethyl formamide was also effective. Fetal bovine serum was significantly better as an extender when compared with artificial seminal plasma, glucose, and trehalose solution. Sperm tolerated a wide range of cooling rates (from 27.1 to 94.3 °C min⁻¹); however, the post-thaw motility of sperm cooled to -30 °C was significantly lower than that of other cooled temperatures (-40 to -70 °C). The velocity of post-thaw sperm was significantly lower than that of fresh sperm, although LIN remained the same. For effective cryopreservation of seven-band grouper sperm, samples should be diluted in 5% Me₂SO with 95% FBS and cooled to at least -40 °C before immersion in liquid nitrogen.

  10. The trematodes of groupers (Serranidae: Epinephelinae): knowledge, nature and evolution.

    PubMed

    Cribb, T H; Bray, R A; Wright, T; Pichelin, S

    2002-01-01

    Groupers (Epinephelinae) are prominent marine fishes distributed in the warmer waters of the world. Review of the literature suggests that trematodes are known from only 62 of the 159 species and only 9 of 15 genera; nearly 90% of host-parasite combinations have been reported only once or twice. All 20 families and all but 7 of 76 genera of trematodes found in epinephelines also occur in non-epinephelines. Only 12 genera of trematodes are reported from both the Atlantic-Eastern Pacific and the Indo-West Pacific. Few (perhaps no) species are credibly cosmopolitan but some have wide distributions across the Indo-West Pacific. The hierarchical 'relatedness' of epinephelines as suggested by how they share trematode taxa (families, genera, species) shows little congruence with what is known of their phylogeny. The major determinant of relatedness appears to be geographical proximity. Together these attributes suggest that host-parasite co-evolution has contributed little to the evolution of trematode communities of epinephelines. Instead, they appear to have arisen through localized episodes of host-switching, presumably both into and out of the epinephelines. The Epinephelinae may well be typical of most groups of marine fishes both in the extent to which their trematode parasites are known and in that, apparently, co-evolution has contributed little to the evolution of their communities of trematodes.

  11. Mitochondrial signatures for identification of grouper species from Indian waters.

    PubMed

    Basheer, V S; Vineesh, N; Bineesh, K K; Kumar, Rahul G; Mohitha, C; Venu, S; Kathirvelpandian, A; Gopalakrishnan, A; Jena, J K

    2016-02-09

    Groupers are important commercial fish in many parts of the world. Accurate identification is critical for effective conservation assessment and fisheries management. Genetic barcodes provide a simple and reproducible method for the identification of species even in the absence of taxonomic expertise. The generation of reference barcodes from properly identified specimens is an important first step in this direction. Here, 36 species belonging to the subfamily Epinephelinae (Family: Serranidae) were collected from landings on the west coast of India and Port Blair, Andaman, and partial nucleotide sequence data of the mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit I (COI) gene was generated. Barcodes for 13 species were developed from Indian waters for the first time. Analysis using the COI gene produced phylogenetic trees in concurrence with other multi-gene studies. Epinephelus fasciatus and E. areolatus were found to be a species complex, as hypothesized in other studies. The DNA barcodes developed in the study can be used for identifying species within Epinehelinae, where taxonomic ambiguity still exists.

  12. Transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular mechanisms underlying growth superiority in a novel grouper hybrid (Epinephelus fuscogutatus♀ × E. lanceolatus♂).

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Guo, Chuan-Yu; Wang, Deng-Dong; Li, Xiao Feng; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Xinhui; You, Xinxin; Shi, Qiong; Hu, Guo-Jun; Fang, Chao; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong

    2016-01-19

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) have been widely cultivated in China and South-East Asian countries. As a novel hybrid offspring crossed between E. fuscogutatus♀ and E. lanceolatus♂, Hulong grouper exhibits significant growth superiority over its female parent, which made it a promising farmed species in grouper aquaculture industry in China. Hulong grouper present a good combination of beneficial traits from both parent species, but the molecular mechanisms of its heterosis still remain poorly understood. Based on RNA sequencing and gene expression profiling, we conducted comparative transcriptome analyses between Hulong grouper and its parents E. fuscoguttatus & E. lanceolatus. Six hundred sixty-two and 5239 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the brains and livers, respectively. GO enrichment analysis of these DEGs revealed that metabolic process and catalytic activity were the most enriched GO terms. Further analysis showed the expressions of GnRH1 and GnRH3 in the brain, and GH/IGF axis related genes such as IGF-1, IGF-2b, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-5a in the liver of the hybrid F1 were significantly up-regulated, which is in accordance with the growth superiority of hybrid grouper. Meanwhile, expressions of genes related to the protein and glycogen synthesis pathway, such as PI3KC, PI3KR, Raptor, EIF4E3, and PP1 were up-regulated, while PYG expression was down-regulated. These changes might contribute to increased protein and glycogen synthesis in the hybrid grouper. We identified a number of differentially expressed genes such as GnRH1 and GnRH3, and genes involved in GH/IGF axis and its downstream signaling pathways for protein and glycogen synthesis in Hulong Grouper. These findings provided molecular basis underlying growth superiority of hybrid grouper, and comprehensive insights into better understanding the molecular mechanisms and regulative pathways regulating heterosis in fish.

  13. Spatiotemporal & Ecological Processes Associated With Goliath Grouper Aggregations in Southeastern Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, B. M.; Boswell, K. M.

    2016-02-01

    The formation of Fish Spawning Aggregations (FSAs) is vital to the life history of many reef fishes, representing the only reproductive opportunity for many species. Unfortunately FSAs present a lucrative target for exploitation which has led to cases of decline and regional extirpation. However, the integration of stakeholders into the design of fisheries management strategies has led to the protection of several species throughout the Greater Caribbean; including the goliath grouper, which has shown evidence of recovery since the moratorium on harvest in 1990. Since the closure, user based and researcher driven initiatives have investigated the recovery, biology, and life history of goliath grouper, but fine scale spatiotemporal and community level aspects of aggregation formation have not been specifically addressed. Thus, we developed a novel two-tiered survey approach using scientific echosounders and diver visual surveys to characterize the spatiotemporal aspects of goliath grouper aggregations, along with the community response to aggregations at six aggregation sites near Jupiter, Florida. Acoustic transects and diver surveys were performed near peak lunar phases throughout the spawning season to quantify fluctuations in goliath grouper density and abundance during the season; and to characterize changes in local community structure in response to aggregation formation. The results from this study are being used to inform the development of resource management plans in South Florida; and addressing these questions will generate a framework to apply a novel research technique in other regions where knowledge of reproductive behavior is absent from the peer-reviewed literature.

  14. Ecology and ethnoecology of dusky grouper [garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834)] along the coast of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina; Silvano, Renato AM

    2008-01-01

    Dusky grouper (garoupa, Epinephelus marginatus) is an important catch for several artisanal small-scale fisheries along the Brazilian coast. It is a sedentary, monandric, and late maturing protogynous species, which makes it vulnerable to overharvesting even though it is mainly caught through hook and line or spear fishing through free diving. Lack of information on the ecology and biology of this species in Brazil is astonishing. Much of the information found in the literature concerns Mediterranean dusky groupers. Studies compiling local knowledge (ethnoecology) about fish species complement biological data, and have been fundamental for effective fisheries management. In this study, our objectives are to obtain data about dusky grouper through fish catches and analysis of stomach contents and gonad maturation (macroscopic analyses), along with interviews from fishermen from six small-scales communities from the southern (Pântano do Sul, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina State) to the northern Brazilian coast (Porto Sauípe, Bahia State). We conclude that precautionary approaches and 'data-less' management approaches are needed in the coast of Brazil. Research on this species and on the potential of aquaculture for its cultivation, are urgent, due to the apparent vulnerability and decrease of dusky grouper along the coast of Brazil. PMID:18793394

  15. Spatial and temporal characteristics of grouper spawning aggregations in marine protected areas in Palau, western Micronesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golbuu, Y.; Friedlander, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Palau, Ngerumekaol and Ebiil Channels are spawning aggregation sites that have been protected from fishing since 1976 and 2000, respectively. Groupers and other targeted fisheries species were monitored monthly over a 1.5 year period at these two spawning aggregations and two nearby exploited reference sites where grouper formerly aggregated to spawn. At the protected aggregation sites, three grouper species (Plectropomus areolatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) accounted for 78% of the abundance and 85% of the biomass of all resource species surveyed but comprised <1% of the total abundance and biomass at reference sites not protected from fishing that formally harbored spawning aggregations. Abundance and biomass of grouper species pooled were 54% and 72% higher, respectively, at Ngerumekaol compared to Ebiil. Comparisons with data from the same locations in 1995-1996 showed order of magnitude declines in abundance of E. polyphekadion at both locations. The lower numbers of E. fuscoguttatus and the near absence of E. polyphekadion at Ebiil may reflect the effects of previous and current overexploitation. ?? 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 78 FR 36113 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Regulatory Amendment 13

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... statement, may be obtained from the Southeast Regional Office Web site at http://sero.nmfs.noaa.gov/sf... species and species complexes: Deep-water complex species (yellowedge grouper, blueline tilefish, silk... landings for the deep-water complex, as estimated by the SRD, reach or are projected to reach the...

  17. Spatial and temporal characteristics of grouper spawning aggregations in marine protected areas in Palau, western Micronesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golbuu, Yimnang; Friedlander, Alan M.

    2011-04-01

    In Palau, Ngerumekaol and Ebiil Channels are spawning aggregation sites that have been protected from fishing since 1976 and 2000, respectively. Groupers and other targeted fisheries species were monitored monthly over a 1.5 year period at these two spawning aggregations and two nearby exploited reference sites where grouper formerly aggregated to spawn. At the protected aggregation sites, three grouper species ( Plectropomus areolatus, Epinephelus polyphekadion, and Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) accounted for 78% of the abundance and 85% of the biomass of all resource species surveyed but comprised <1% of the total abundance and biomass at reference sites not protected from fishing that formally harbored spawning aggregations. Abundance and biomass of grouper species pooled were 54% and 72% higher, respectively, at Ngerumekaol compared to Ebiil. Comparisons with data from the same locations in 1995-1996 showed order of magnitude declines in abundance of E. polyphekadion at both locations. The lower numbers of E. fuscoguttatus and the near absence of E. polyphekadion at Ebiil may reflect the effects of previous and current overexploitation.

  18. Diel and seasonal movement pattern of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus inside a marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Koeck, Barbara; Pastor, Jérémy; Saragoni, Gilles; Dalias, Nicolas; Payrot, Jérôme; Lenfant, Philippe

    2014-03-01

    Temporal movement patterns and spawning behaviour of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus were investigated using depth and temperature sensors combined to acoustic telemetry. Results showed that these fish are year-round resident, remaining inside the fully protected area of the marine reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls (65 ha) and display a diurnal activity pattern. Records from depth sensors revealed that groupers range inside small, distinct, and individual territories. Individual variations in habitat depth are only visible on a seasonal scale, i.e., between the spawning season and the rest of the year. In fact, during summer months when the seawater temperature exceeded 20 °C, tagged groupers made vertical spawning migrations of 4-8 m in amplitude. These vertical migrations are characteristic of the reproductive behaviour of dusky groupers, during which they release their gametes. The results are notable for the implementation of management rules in marine protected areas, such as reduced navigation speed, boating or attendance during spawning season.

  19. Histological assessments of intestinal immuno-morphology of tiger grouper juvenile, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus.

    PubMed

    Firdaus-Nawi, Mohd; Zamri-Saad, Mohd; Nik-Haiha, Nik Yusoff; Zuki, Md Abu Bakar; Effendy, Abd Wahid Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Histological assessments on the intestinal morphology and immunity of tiger grouper juveniles, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus help in determining the earliest age to start an oral vaccination. This study describes the morphological development of the intestinal immunity of tiger grouper of various ages. Clinically healthy tiger groupers were selected and divided into 4 groups of 20 fish per group. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 consisted of juveniles of 30, 60, 90 and 120 days old, respectively. The whole intestine was collected and divided into three regions, the anterior, mid and posterior intestine and fixed in 10% buffered formalin before slides were prepared for microscopic examinations. It was found that the histological structures of the anterior intestine were for absorption of nutrient from digested food particles. The significantly (p < 0.05) higher number and length of the intestinal villi and smaller gap between villi were observed in the anterior intestine, which were structures for absorption. Structures of the posterior intestine were for immunity especially the adaptive immunity with included significantly (p < 0.05) higher numbers of the lymphoid and goblet cells, and significantly (p < 0.05) thicker lamina propria, which were structures for immunity. The mid intestine was the transition structure that involved in both absorption and innate immunity. The results also revealed that leukocytes existed in the lamina propria of 30-days old tiger groupers, an indication that the immune system was present at that particular age.

  20. Establishment and characterization of a new cell line derived from kidney of grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Temminck & Schlegel), susceptible to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV).

    PubMed

    Gong, J; Huang, Y; Huang, X; Ouyang, Z; Guo, M; Qin, Q

    2011-09-01

    A marine fish cell line derived from the kidney of red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, designated as EAGK was established and characterized. The EAGK cells multiplied well in Leibovitz's L-15 medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum at 25 °C and have been subcultured for more than 90 passages. Karyotyping, chromosomal typing and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genotyping analysis revealed that EAGK had a modal diploid chromosome number of 82 and was a fibroblast cell line originated from grouper. A severe cytopathic effect was observed in EAGK cells incubated with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), but not with soft-shelled turtle iridovirus, viral nervous necrosis virus or spring viraemia of carp virus. SGIV replication was further confirmed by immunofluorescence, electron microscopy and virus titre determination. Bright fluorescence was observed after transfection with fluorescent protein reporter plasmids, indicating that EAGK cells can be used to identify gene functions in vitro. In addition, the cell organelles including mitochondria and endoplasm reticulum changed and aggregated around virus factories after SGIV infection, suggested that the EAGK cell line could be an important tool for investigation of iridovirus-host interactions.

  1. 75 FR 51001 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... prohibition of conducting research within marine protected areas, marine sanctuaries, or special management..., and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the Southern Atlantic States AGENCY: National Marine... marine resources, where possession and retention is otherwise restricted or prohibited by regulations...

  2. 76 FR 78879 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... production and recreational opportunities, and protecting marine ecosystems. To further this goal, the...- Grouper Management Measures AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and.... Rauch III, Deputy Assistant Administrator for Regulatory Programs, National Marine Fisheries...

  3. 76 FR 66273 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... Atlantic States and Coral and Coral Reefs Fishery in the South Atlantic; Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region and the FMP for Coral,...

  4. Real-Time Quantitative PCR Assay for Monitoring of Nervous Necrosis Virus Infection in Grouper Aquaculture▿†

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Peng-Peng; Chen, Young-Mao; Chuang, Hui-Ching; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2011-01-01

    Viral nervous necrosis caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV) exacts a high mortality and results in huge economic losses in grouper aquaculture in Taiwan. The present study developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for NNV monitoring. The assay showed a strong linear correlation (r2 = 0.99) between threshold cycle (CT) and RNA quantities, which allowed identification of infected groupers by the CT value and could be exploited to warn of NNV infection prior to an outbreak in grouper fish farms. Real-time qPCR also confirmed the copious content of NNV in grouper fin, similar to that in primary tissues; the result was verified by using in situ reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). This indicated that grouper fin was a suitable sample for NNV detection, in a manner that could be relatively benign to the fish. The rapid spread of NNV infection to the entire population of affected farms was evident. The developed real-time qPCR method is rapid, highly sensitive, and applicable to routine high-throughput detection of large numbers of samples and has potential as a suitable tool for diagnostic, epidemiological, and genetic studies of grouper aquaculture. PMID:21233077

  5. Characterization of the Transcriptome and Gene Expression of Brain Tissue in Sevenband Grouper (Hyporthodus septemfasciatus) in Response to NNV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Jae-Ok; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2017-01-01

    Grouper is one of the favorite sea food resources in Southeast Asia. However, the outbreaks of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease due to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection have caused mass mortality of grouper larvae. Many aqua-farms have suffered substantial financial loss due to the occurrence of VNN. To better understand the infection mechanism of NNV, we performed the transcriptome analysis of sevenband grouper brain tissue, the main target of NNV infection. After artificial NNV challenge, transcriptome of brain tissues of sevenband grouper was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) using an Illumina Hi-seq 2500 system. Both mRNAs from pooled samples of mock and NNV-infected sevenband grouper brains were sequenced. Clean reads of mock and NNV-infected samples were de novo assembled and obtained 104,348 unigenes. In addition, 628 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to NNV infection were identified. This result could provide critical information not only for the identification of genes involved in NNV infection, but for the understanding of the response of sevenband groupers to NNV infection. PMID:28098800

  6. Characterization of the Transcriptome and Gene Expression of Brain Tissue in Sevenband Grouper (Hyporthodus septemfasciatus) in Response to NNV Infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Jae-Ok; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2017-01-13

    Grouper is one of the favorite sea food resources in Southeast Asia. However, the outbreaks of the viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease due to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection have caused mass mortality of grouper larvae. Many aqua-farms have suffered substantial financial loss due to the occurrence of VNN. To better understand the infection mechanism of NNV, we performed the transcriptome analysis of sevenband grouper brain tissue, the main target of NNV infection. After artificial NNV challenge, transcriptome of brain tissues of sevenband grouper was subjected to next generation sequencing (NGS) using an Illumina Hi-seq 2500 system. Both mRNAs from pooled samples of mock and NNV-infected sevenband grouper brains were sequenced. Clean reads of mock and NNV-infected samples were de novo assembled and obtained 104,348 unigenes. In addition, 628 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to NNV infection were identified. This result could provide critical information not only for the identification of genes involved in NNV infection, but for the understanding of the response of sevenband groupers to NNV infection.

  7. Differential and spermatogenic cell-specific expression of DMRT1 during sex reversal in protogynous hermaphroditic groupers.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Zhou, Li; Yao, Bo; Li, Chuang-Ju; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2007-01-15

    DMRT1 has been suggested to play different roles in sex determination and gonad differentiation, because different expression patterns have been reported among different vertebrates. The groupers, since their gonads first develop as ovary and then reverse into testis, have been thought as good models to study sex differentiation and determination. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNAs of DMRT1 gene from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), and prepared corresponding anti-EcDMRT1 antiserum to study the relationship of DMRT1 to sex reversal. One important finding is that the grouper DMRT1 is not only differentially expressed in different stage gonads, but also restricted to specific stages and specific cells of spermatogenesis. Grouper DMRT1 protein exists only in spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes, but not in the supporting Sertoli cells. Moreover, we confirmed that EcSox3 is expressed not only in oogonia and different stage oocytes, but also in Sertoli cells and spermatogonia, and EcSox9 is expressed only in Sertoli cells. The data suggested that grouper DMRT1 might be a more specific sex differentiation gene for spermatogenesis, and play its role at the specific stages from spermatogonia to spermatocytes. In addition, no introns were found in the grouper DMRT1, and no duplicated DMRT1 genes were detected. The finding implicates that the intronless DMRT1 that is able to undergo rapid transcriptional turnover might be a significant gene for stimulating spermatogenesis in the protogynous hermaphroditic gonad.

  8. Stimulatory effects of chitinase on growth and immune defense of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanhong; Feng, Shaozhen; Chen, Jun; Qin, Chaobin; Lin, Haoran; Li, Wensheng

    2012-05-01

    Chitinase, belonging to either family 18 or family 19 of the glycosylhydrolases, hydrolyze chitin into oligosaccharides. In the present study, the cDNA fragment encoding orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) chitinase1 was subcloned into pPIC3.5K vector and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The results showed that a band with the size of about 53 kDa could be detected by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The recombinant protein of grouper chitinase1 (rgChi1) was added into the fish diet containing shrimp shell chitin for feeding experiment lasting 8 weeks. The weight of orange-spotted grouper, fed with diets containing rgChi1 at 0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/g was calculated on the 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th weeks, and difference in growth rates was first observed in the 6th week of the feeding period and it kept until the end of the feeding experiment. At the end of 8 weeks feeding trial, the percent weight gain (PWG), growth rate (GR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish fed with 10 and 20 μg rgChi1/g feed were significantly higher compared to the control group. The neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), growth-hormone (GH), interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (Cu/Zn) and SOD (Mn) mRNA expression of fish fed with diet containing 10 μg/g or/and 20 μg/g rgChi1 were obviously higher than the control group. The lysozyme (LZM) and total SOD activity of fish fed with diet containing rgChi1 at 10 and 20 μg/g were significantly higher than that of the control. The aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/glutamic oxalacetic transaminases (GOT) activity in 20 μg/g group decreased compared to the control group. These results indicated that the grouper chitinase1 was successfully produced using the P. pastoris expression system and the recombinant protein had obvious effects on growth and immune defense. The mRNA expression and protein secretion of grouper chitinase1 and chitinase2 were significantly stimulated in

  9. Estimating natural mortality rates and simulating fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico red grouper (Epinephelus morio) using the ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüss, Arnaud; Schirripa, Michael J.; Chagaris, David; Velez, Laure; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Verley, Philippe; Oliveros-Ramos, Ricardo; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2016-02-01

    The ecosystem model OSMOSE-WFS was employed to evaluate natural mortality rates and fishing scenarios for Gulf of Mexico (GOM) red grouper (Epinephelus morio). OSMOSE-WFS represents major high trophic level (HTL) groups of species of the West Florida Shelf, is forced by the biomass of plankton and benthos groups, and has a monthly time step. The present application of the model uses a recently developed 'stochastic mortality algorithm' to resolve the mortality processes of HTL groups. OSMOSE-WFS predictions suggest that the natural mortality rate of juveniles of GOM red grouper is high and essentially due to predation, while the bulk of the natural mortality of adult red grouper results from causes not represented in OSMOSE-WFS such as, presumably, red tides. These results were communicated to GOM red grouper stock assessments. Moreover, OSMOSE-WFS indicate that altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have no global impact on the biomass of the major prey of red grouper, due to the high complexity and high redundancy of the modeled system. By contrast, altering the fishing mortality of GOM red grouper may have a large impact on the biomass of its major competitors. Increasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would increase the biomass of major competitors, due to reduced competition for food. Conversely, decreasing the fishing mortality of red grouper would diminish the biomass of major competitors, due to increased predation pressure on the juveniles of the major competitors by red grouper. The fishing scenarios that we evaluated may have slightly different impacts in the real world, due to some discrepancies between the diets of red grouper and its major competitors predicted by OSMOSE-WFS and the observed ones. Modifications in OSMOSE-WFS are suggested to reduce these discrepancies.

  10. The complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid grouper Epinephelus coioides♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus♂.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Chen, Huimin; Xu, Wen; He, Jianan; Xie, Zhenzhen; Tang, Lin; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Yu; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid grouper (Epinephelus coioides♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus♂) was presented in this study. The mitochondrial genome is 16,743 bp long and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The gene order and the composition of the hybrid grouper mitochondrial genome were similar to that of most other vertebrates. The nucleotide compositions of the light strand are 26.56% of A, 15.79% of C, 28.74% of T, and 28.91% of G. With the exception of the NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and eight tRNA genes, all other mitochondrial genes are encoded on the heavy strand.

  11. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Thomas Y. K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases. PMID:26324735

  12. Ciguatoxic Potential of Brown-Marbled Grouper in Relation to Fish Size and Geographical Origin.

    PubMed

    Chan, Thomas Y K

    2015-11-01

    To determine the ciguatoxic potential of brown-marbled grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) in relation to fish size and geographical origin, this review systematically analyzed: 1) reports of large ciguatera outbreaks and outbreaks with description of the fish size; 2) Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX) profiles and levels and mouse bioassay results in fish samples from ciguatera incidents; 3) P-CTX profiles and levels and risk of toxicity in relation to fish size and origin; 4) regulatory measures restricting fish trade and fish size preference of the consumers. P-CTX levels in flesh and size dependency of toxicity indicate that the risk of ciguatera after eating E. fuscoguttatus varies with its geographical origin. For a large-sized grouper, it is necessary to establish legal size limits and control measures to protect public health and prevent overfishing. More risk assessment studies are required for E. fuscoguttatus to determine the size threshold above which the risk of ciguatera significantly increases.

  13. Distinct functions of neuromedin u and neuromedin s in orange-spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuisheng; Xiao, Ling; Liu, Qiongyu; Zheng, Binbin; Chen, Huapu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2015-10-01

    Neuromedin U (NMU) and neuromedin S (NMS) play inhibitory roles in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in mammals. However, their functions are not clearly established in teleost fish. In the present study, nmu and nms homologs were identified in several fish species. Subsequently, their cDNA sequences were cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Sequence analysis showed that the orange-spotted grouper Nmu proprotein contains a 21-amino acid mature Nmu peptide (Nmu-21). The Nms proprotein lost the typical mature Nms peptide, but it retains a putative 34-amino acid peptide (Nmsrp). In situ hybridization revealed that nmu- and nms-expressing cells are mainly localized in the hypothalamic regions associated with appetite regulation. Food deprivation decreased the hypothalamic nmu mRNA levels but induced an increase of nms mRNA levels. Periprandial expression analysis showed that hypothalamic expression of nmu increased significantly at 3 h post-feeding, while nms expression was elevated at the normal feeding time. I.p. injection of synthetic Nmu-21 peptide suppressed the hypothalamic neuropeptide y (npy) expression, while Nmsrp administration significantly increased the expression of npy and orexin in orange-spotted grouper. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of LH beta subunit (lhβ) and gh in the pituitary were significantly down-regulated after Nmu-21 peptide administration, while Nmsrp was able to significantly stimulate the expression of FSH beta subunit (fshβ), prolactin (prl), and somatolaction (sl). Our results indicate that nmu and nms possess distinct neuroendocrine functions and pituitary functions in the orange spotted grouper. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  14. Molecular and expression characterization of three gonadotropin subunits common alpha, FSHbeta and LHbeta in groupers.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuang-Ju; Zhou, Li; Wang, Yang; Hong, Yun-Han; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2005-04-15

    A SMART cDNA plasmid library was constructed from protogyous greasy grouper (Epinephelus coioides) pituitary, and the full-length cDNAs of three gonadotropin (GTH) subunits common alpha, FSHbeta and LHbeta were cloned and sequenced from the library. The nucleotide sequences of common alpha, FSHbeta and LHbeta subunit cDNAs are 647, 594 and 574 bp in length, and encode for mature peptides of 94, 99 and 115 aa, respectively. High homology was observed by amino acid sequence alignment and identity comparison of the grouper mature peptides of common alpha, FSHbeta and LHbeta with that of other fishes. Phylogenetic tree analyses of the three GTH mature subunits revealed similar phylogeny relationships among the studied fish species. Three polyclonal antibodies were prepared from the in vitro expressed common alpha, FSHbeta and LHbeta mature proteins, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunofluoresence localization were performed on two typical stages of ovarian development stages in red-spotted grouper. Significant differences in protein expression levels of three gonadotropin subunits were revealed between the two ovarian development stages. In the individuals with resting ovary, common alpha was almost not detected in pituitaries, and FSHbeta and LHbeta expression levels were very low. While in the individuals with developing ovary, the expression of all three gonadotropin subunits reached to a high level. Immunofluoresence localization indicated that the grouper FSHbeta cells mainly distributed in the middle area of PPD, while the LHbeta cells distributed more widely, including in the area similar to the FSHbeta cells and at the external periphery of pituitary near to the PI side. The common alpha might be expressed in both FSHbeta and LHbeta cells. Double immunofluoresence localization further demonstrated FSHbeta and LHbeta expression in distinct cells in the PPD area, although the FSHbeta and LHbeta cells were detected in the identical area of PPD.

  15. Artificial Spawning Behavior and Development of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Cho, Jae Kwon; Son, Maeng Hyun; Kim, Kyong Min; Han, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Min

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the egg development in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaaraand the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles, and to obtain data for taxonomic research. This study was conducted in June 2013, and 50 male and female fish were used for the study. One hundred μg/kg of LHRHa was injected into the body of the fish for inducing spawning, and the fish were kept in a small-sized fish holder (2×2×2 m). Eggs were colorless transparent free pelagic eggs, 0.71–0.77 mm large (mean 0.74±0.02 mm, n=30), and had an oil globule. Hatching started within 27 h after fertilization. Pre-larvae that emerged just after hatching were 2.02–2.17 mm in total length (mean 2.10±0.11 mm), their mouth and anus were not opened yet, and the whole body was covered with a membrane fin. Post-larvae that emerged 15 days post hatching were 3.88–4.07 mm in total length (mean 3.98±0.13 mm), and had a ventral fin with two rays and a caudal fin with eight rays. Juveniles that were formed at 55 d post hatching, were 31.9–35.2 mm in total length (mean 33.6±2.33 mm), with red color deposited over the entire body, and black chromophores deposited in a spotted pattern. The number of fin rays, body color, and shape were the same as that in the adult fish. PMID:27294209

  16. Artificial Spawning Behavior and Development of Eggs, Larvae and Juveniles of the Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Youn; Cho, Jae Kwon; Son, Maeng Hyun; Kim, Kyong Min; Han, Kyeong Ho; Park, Jae Min

    2016-03-01

    This study was conducted in order to examine the egg development in red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaaraand the morphological development of its larvae and juveniles, and to obtain data for taxonomic research. This study was conducted in June 2013, and 50 male and female fish were used for the study. One hundred μg/kg of LHRHa was injected into the body of the fish for inducing spawning, and the fish were kept in a small-sized fish holder (2×2×2 m). Eggs were colorless transparent free pelagic eggs, 0.71-0.77 mm large (mean 0.74±0.02 mm, n=30), and had an oil globule. Hatching started within 27 h after fertilization. Pre-larvae that emerged just after hatching were 2.02-2.17 mm in total length (mean 2.10±0.11 mm), their mouth and anus were not opened yet, and the whole body was covered with a membrane fin. Post-larvae that emerged 15 days post hatching were 3.88-4.07 mm in total length (mean 3.98±0.13 mm), and had a ventral fin with two rays and a caudal fin with eight rays. Juveniles that were formed at 55 d post hatching, were 31.9-35.2 mm in total length (mean 33.6±2.33 mm), with red color deposited over the entire body, and black chromophores deposited in a spotted pattern. The number of fin rays, body color, and shape were the same as that in the adult fish.

  17. Isolation and function analysis of apolipoprotein A-I gene response to virus infection in grouper.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jingguang; Gao, Pin; Zhang, Ping; Guo, Minglan; Xu, Meng; Wei, Shina; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2015-04-01

    Apolipoproteins, synthesized mainly in liver and intestine and bounded to lipids, play important roles in lipid transport and uptake through the circulation system. In this study, an apolipoprotein A-I gene homologue was cloned from orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides (designed as Ec-ApoA-I) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) PCR. The full-length cDNA of Ec-ApoA-I was comprised of 1278 bp with a 792 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 264 amino acids. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that Ec-ApoA-I was abundant in liver and intestine, and the expression in liver was significantly (P < 0.01) up-regulated after the stimulation of LPS, Poly(I:C), Vibrio alginolyticus, and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). Recombinant Ec-ApoA-I (rEc-ApoA-I) was produced in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) expression system exhibited bacteriolyticactivity against Microcococcus lysodeikticus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Intracellular localization revealed that Ec-ApoA-I distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus, and predominantly in the cytoplasm. Overexpression of Ec-ApoA-I in grouper Brain (GB) cells could inhibit the replication of SGIV. These results together indicated that Ec-ApoA-I perhaps is involved in the responses to bacterial and viral challenge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Population Structure and Phylogeography in Nassau Grouper (Epinephelus striatus), a Mass-Aggregating Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Alexis M.; Semmens, Brice X.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Nemeth, Richard S.; Heppell, Scott A.; Bush, Phillippe G.; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Claydon, John A. B.; Calosso, Marta C.; Sealey, Kathleen S.; Schärer, Michelle T.; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    To address patterns of genetic connectivity in a mass-aggregating marine fish, we analyzed genetic variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), microsatellites, and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for Nassau grouper (Epinephelus striatus). We expected Nassau grouper to exhibit genetic differentiation among its subpopulations due to its reproductive behavior and retentive oceanographic conditions experienced across the Caribbean basin. All samples were genotyped for two mitochondrial markers and 9 microsatellite loci, and a subset of samples were genotyped for 4,234 SNPs. We found evidence of genetic differentiation in a Caribbean-wide study of this mass-aggregating marine fish using mtDNA (FST = 0.206, p<0.001), microsatellites (FST = 0.002, p = 0.004) and SNPs (FST = 0.002, p = 0.014), and identified three potential barriers to larval dispersal. Genetically isolated regions identified in our work mirror those seen for other invertebrate and fish species in the Caribbean basin. Oceanographic regimes in the Caribbean may largely explain patterns of genetic differentiation among Nassau grouper subpopulations. Regional patterns observed warrant standardization of fisheries management and conservation initiatives among countries within genetically isolated regions. PMID:24830641

  19. Vaccination of grouper broodfish (Epinephelus tukula) reduces the risk of vertical transmission by nervous necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Kai, Yu-Hsuan; Su, Huei-Meei; Tai, Kun-Tsai; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2010-01-22

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) has caused mass mortality in many species of cultured fish at larval stage. Strong evidence of vertical transmission of NNV has been reported in the carrier broodstock of striped jack and sea bass. An effective immunization program was developed and monitored in adult groupers (Epinephelus coioides) with average body weight of 1.35kg. The highest neutralizing antibody titers were found in the fish intramuscularly injected with adjuvanted NNV vaccine at 10(9)TCID(50)kg(-1), and the enhanced 2-fold neutralization activity could sustain up to 17 months post-vaccination (mpv). An immunization program was applied in the broodstocks of grouper (Epinephelus tukula) with body weight of 35-60kg. The levels of NNV-specific antibodies detected, from 1 to 5 mpi, in the homogenates of the eggs from the vaccinated broodfish were elevated than that from non-vaccinated fish. By nested RT-PCR, NNV was detectable in the eggs from the non-vaccinated fish at Month 5, but not in the eggs from vaccinated fish. It is therefore suggested that vaccination will be a potentially practical measure to reduce the risk of vertical transmission of NNV of grouper broodfish under stress of repeated spawning.

  20. Interspecific communicative and coordinated hunting between groupers and giant moray eels in the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Bshary, Redouan; Hohner, Andrea; Ait-el-Djoudi, Karim; Fricke, Hans

    2006-12-01

    Intraspecific group hunting has received considerable attention because of the close links between cooperative behaviour and its cognitive demands. Accordingly, comparisons between species have focused on behaviours that can potentially distinguish between the different levels of cognitive complexity involved, such as "intentional" communication between partners in order to initiate a joint hunt, the adoption of different roles during a joint hunt (whether consistently or alternately), and the level of food sharing following a successful hunt. Here we report field observations from the Red Sea on the highly coordinated and communicative interspecific hunting between the grouper, Plectropomus pessuliferus, and the giant moray eel, Gymnothorax javanicus. We provide evidence of the following: (1) associations are nonrandom, (2) groupers signal to moray eels in order to initiate joint searching and recruit moray eels to prey hiding places, (3) signalling is dependent on grouper hunger level, and (4) both partners benefit from the association. The benefits of joint hunting appear to be due to complementary hunting skills, reflecting the evolved strategies of each species, rather than individual role specialisation during joint hunts. In addition, the partner species that catches a prey item swallows it whole immediately, making aggressive monopolisation of a carcass impossible. We propose that the potential for monopolisation of carcasses by one partner species represents the main constraint on the evolution of interspecific cooperative hunting for most potentially suitable predator combinations.

  1. Molecular phylogenetic relationships of China Seas groupers based on cytochrome b gene fragment sequences.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shaoxiong; Zhuang, Xuan; Guo, Feng; Wang, Jun; Su, Yongquan; Zhang, Qiyong; Li, Qifu

    2006-06-01

    The classification and evolutionary relationships are important issues in the study of the groupers. Cytochrome b gene fragment of twenty-eight grouper species within six genera of subfamily Epinephelinae was amplified using PCR techniques and the sequences were analyzed to derive the phylogenetic relationships of the groupers from the China Seas. Genetic information indexes, including Kimura-2 parameter genetic distance and Ts/Tv ratios, were generated by using a variety of biology softwares. With Niphon spinosus, Pagrus major and Pagrus auriga as the designated outgroups, phylogenetic trees, which invoke additional homologous sequences of other Epinephelus fishes from GenBank, were constructed based on the neighbor-joining (NJ), maximum-parsimony (MP), maximum-likelihood (ML) and minimum-evolution (ME) methods. Several conclusions were drawn from the DNA sequences analysis: (1) genus Plectropomus, which was early diverged, is the most primitive group in the subfamily Epinephelinae; (2) genus Variola is more closely related to genus Cephalopolis than the other four genera; (3) genus Cephalopolis is a monophyletic group and more primitive than genus Epinephelus; (4) Promicrops lanceolatus and Cromileptes altivelis should be included in genus Epinephelus; (5) there exist two sister groups in genus Epinephelus.

  2. Spatial Distribution and Conservation of Speckled Hind and Warsaw Grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the Southeastern U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28–33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25–27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3–8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14–29% of

  3. Spatial distribution and conservation of speckled hind and warsaw grouper in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Karnauskas, Mandy

    2013-01-01

    There is broad interest in the development of efficient marine protected areas (MPAs) to reduce bycatch and end overfishing of speckled hind (Epinephelus drummondhayi) and warsaw grouper (Hyporthodus nigritus) in the Atlantic Ocean off the southeastern U.S. We assimilated decades of data from many fishery-dependent, fishery-independent, and anecdotal sources to describe the spatial distribution of these data limited stocks. A spatial classification model was developed to categorize depth-grids based on the distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper point observations and identified benthic habitats. Logistic regression analysis was used to develop a quantitative model to predict the spatial distribution of speckled hind and warsaw grouper as a function of depth, latitude, and habitat. Models, controlling for sampling gear effects, were selected based on AIC and 10-fold cross validation. The best-fitting model for warsaw grouper included latitude and depth to explain 10.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 28-33%. The best-fitting model for speckled hind, per cross-validation, included latitude and depth to explain 36.8% of the variability in probability of detection, with a false prediction rate of 25-27%. The best-fitting speckled hind model, per AIC, also included habitat, but had false prediction rates up to 36%. Speckled hind and warsaw grouper habitats followed a shelf-edge hardbottom ridge from North Carolina to southeast Florida, with speckled hind more common to the north and warsaw grouper more common to the south. The proportion of habitat classifications and model-estimated stock contained within established and proposed MPAs was computed. Existing MPAs covered 10% of probable shelf-edge habitats for speckled hind and warsaw grouper, protecting 3-8% of speckled hind and 8% of warsaw grouper stocks. Proposed MPAs could add 24% more probable shelf-edge habitat, and protect an additional 14-29% of speckled

  4. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes. PMID:28005961

  5. Comparative Transcriptomic Study of Muscle Provides New Insights into the Growth Superiority of a Novel Grouper Hybrid.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying; Huang, Yu; Hu, Guojun; Zhang, Xinhui; Ruan, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Xiaomeng; Guo, Chuanyu; Tang, Zhujing; Li, Xiaofeng; You, Xinxin; Lin, Haoran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Grouper (Epinephelus spp.) is a group of fish species with great economic importance in Asian countries. A novel hybrid grouper, generated by us and called the Hulong grouper (Hyb), has better growth performance than its parents, E. fuscoguttatus (Efu, ♀) and E. lanceolatus (Ela, ♂). We previously reported that the GH/IGF (growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor) system in the brain and liver contributed to the superior growth of the Hyb. In this study, using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), we analyzed RNA expression levels of comprehensive genes in the muscle of the hybrid and its parents. Our data showed that genes involved in glycolysis and calcium signaling in addition to troponins are up-regulated in the Hyb. The results suggested that the activity of the upstream GH/IGF system in the brain and liver, along with the up-regulated glycolytic genes as well as ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and troponins related to the calcium signaling pathway in muscle, led to enhanced growth in the hybrid grouper. Muscle contraction inducing growth could be the major contributor to the growth superiority in our novel hybrid grouper, which may be a common mechanism for hybrid superiority in fishes.

  6. Development of pedigree classification using microsatellite and mitochondrial markers for Giant grouper broodstock (Epinephelus lanceolatus) management in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Hsiao-Che; Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Chua, Chee Shin; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2014-04-30

    Most giant groupers in the market are derived from inbred stock. Inbreeding can cause trait depression, compromising the animals' fitness and disease resistance, obligating farmers to apply increased amounts of drugs. In order to solve this problem, a pedigree classification method is needed. Here, microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA were used as genetic markers to analyze the genetic relationships among giant grouper broodstocks. The 776-bp fragment of high polymorphic mitochondrial D-loop sequence was selected for measuring sibling relatedness. In a sample of 118 giant groupers, 42 haplotypes were categorized, with nucleotide diversity (π) of 0.00773 and haplotype diversity (HD) of 0.983. Furthermore, microsatellites were used for investigation of parentage. Six out of 33 microsatellite loci were selected as markers based on having a high number of alleles and compliance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Microsatellite profiles based on these loci provide high variability with low combined non-exclusion probability, permitting practical use in aquaculture. The method described here could be used to improve grouper broodstock management and lower the chances of inbreeding. This approach is expected to lead to production of higher quality groupers with higher disease resistance, thereby reducing the need for drug application.

  7. Induction of Primary Male in Juvenile Red Spotted Grouper Epinephelus akaara by Immersion of 17α-Methyltestosterone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Hoon; Hur, Sang-Woo; Na, Oh-Soo; Baek, Hae-Ja; Noh, Choong-Hwan; Han, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Young-Don

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the androgenic effects of 17α- methyltestosterone (MT) on gonadal sex reversal in juvenile red spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara. The fish were immersed in 17α-MT at 1 and 5 mg/L. Treatment method of 17α-MT was once weekly for 4 and 8 weeks. Fish were sampled at 12 months after end of the treatment period in order to histological analysis. At the initiation of an experiment (70 day after hatching), juvenile red spotted grouper have the paired primordial gonads with somatic cells bellow kidney in the posterior portion of the body cavity. Formation of ovarian cavity indicates that the ovarian differentiation beginning at 70 DAH in red spotted grouper. At 12 months after end of the treatment period, control group, 17α-MT 1 mg/L treatment group for 4 and 8 weeks, and 17α-MT 5 mg/L treatment group for 4 weeks were all female. However, sex-changed males without ovarian cavity were observed in the 17α-MT 5 mg/L treatment group for 8 weeks. In grouper, we firstly reported that the red spotted grouper be able to induce the primary males by hormone treatment prior to gonadal sex differentiation. PMID:25949180

  8. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid and sensitive detection of nervous necrosis virus in groupers.

    PubMed

    Sung, Chia-Hsuan; Lu, Jenn-Kan

    2009-08-01

    The reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) method is a sensitive nucleic acid diagnostic method that can amplify rapidly a target template; it can be applied for the diagnosis of viral disease in grouper aquaculture. In this study, two outer and two inner primers were designed from nervous necrosis virus (NNV) coat protein gene sequence. The reaction temperature and time for the detection of NNV were optimized at 65 degrees C for 60min. The detection limit of RT-LAMP is 10(-6) NNV-RNA from infected groupers, and more sensitive than the one-step RT-PCR and nested RT-PCR. The combination of RNA rapid extraction and RT-LAMP, the process can be completed within 2h. Thus, the RT-LMAP is a rapid, sensitive, specific and efficient method for detection of NNV in groupers.

  9. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) adiponectin receptors: molecular characterization, mRNA expression, and subcellular location.

    PubMed

    Qin, Chaobin; Wang, Bin; Sun, Caiyun; Jia, Jirong; Li, Wensheng

    2014-03-01

    Adiponectin is an abundantly secreted adipokine from adipose tissue in mammals, which plays important roles in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. The biological function of adiponectin is mediated by at least two receptors (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Although both of them were identified in mammals, there are few researches about adiponectin and its receptors in teleosts. In this study, two types of adiponectin receptors have been isolated and characterized in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of grouper AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 are 1444 and 2034 bp in length, encoding proteins of 376 amino acids and 375 amino acids, respectively. Multiple alignment results showed that there was a variable region at the N-terminal of AdipoR1/R2, which has never been reported. Both AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 were found to be widely expressed in various tissues of grouper. Compared to AdipoR2, AdipoR1 expressed at higher levels in the nervous system and pituitary gland, but at lower levels in some peripheral tissues, including heart, liver, adipose tissue, stomach, intestine and especially gonad. Fasting and refeeding experiments showed that the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 were up-regulated by fasting in the muscle and adipose tissue of grouper, and restored rapidly to normal levels after refeeding. However, the mRNA expressions of AdipoR1/R2 in the hypothalamus and liver of grouper were insensitive to fasting. By indirect immunofluorescence, we demonstrated that grouper AdipoR1/R2 were integral membrane proteins; the C-terminals were extracellular, while the N-terminals were intracellular. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, orange-spotted grouper novel immune gene EcVig, is induced by immune stimulants and type I interferon.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ying-Chun; Wang, Ting-Yu; Chou, Hsin-Yiu; Lin, Han-You; Chen, Tzong-Yueh; Aoki, Takashi; Wang, Han-Ching

    2016-11-01

    A novel grouper immune gene, EcVig was identified in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). We recently determined that EcVig expression can be induced by infection with nervous necrosis virus (NNV, an RNA virus), whereas NNV replication may be suppressed when EcVig was overexpressed. Although EcVig appeared to be involved in grouper antiviral activity, its immune effects have not been well characterized. In the present study, two PAMPs (pathogen-associated molecular patterns; lipopolysaccharides [LPS] and synthetic double-stranded RNA polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidylic acid [poly(I:C)]), as well as fish DNA virus (red sea bream iridovirus, RSIV; grouper iridovirus, GIV), were used to study EcVig responses in orange-spotted grouper. In addition, groupers were given recombinant type I interferon to determine whether EcVig expression was induced. Poly(I:C) rapidly induced substantial expression of EcVig, whereas LPS stimulation did not appear to have any effect in grouper intestine. Expression levels of total EcVig and other IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) were all significantly increased after RSIV and GIV infection. Furthermore, stimulation of recombinant type I IFN also increased EcVig expression. We conclude that EcVig may be a novel IFN-stimulated gene that demonstrates an antiviral immune response.

  11. Development of novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers for giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus using 454 pyrosequencing.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun-Sik; Noh, Choong Hwan; Moon, Shin-Joo; Han, Seung-Hee; Bang, In-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a commercially important species, but its wild population has recently been classified as vulnerable. This species has significant potential for use in aquaculture, though a greater understanding of population genetics is necessary for selective breeding programs to minimize kinship for genetically healthy individuals. High-throughput pyrosequencing of genomic DNA was used to identify and characterize novel tetra- and trinucleotide microsatellite markers in giant grouper from Sabah, Malaysia. In total, of 62,763 sequences containing simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were obtained, and 78 SSR loci were selected to possibly contain tetra- and trinucleotide repeats. Of these loci, 16 had tetra- and 8 had trinucleotide repeats, all of which exhibited polymorphisms within easily genotyped regions. A total of 143 alleles were identified with an average of 5.94 alleles per locus, with mean observed and expected heterozygosities of 0.648 and 0.620, respectively. Among of them, 15 microsatellite markers were identified without null alleles and with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These alleles showed a combined non-exclusion probability of 0.01138. The probability of individual identification (PID) value combined with in descending order 12 microsatellite markers was 0.00008, which strongly suggests that the use of the microsatellite markers developed in this study in various combinations would result in a high resolution method for parentage analysis and individual identification. These markers could be used to establish a broodstock management program for giant grouper and to provide a foundation for genetic studies such as population structure, parentage analysis, and kinship selection.

  12. JNK1 Derived from Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, Involving in the Evasion and Infection of Singapore Grouper Iridovirus (SGIV)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Minglan; Wei, Jingguang; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhou, Yongcan; Yan, Yang; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) regulates cellular responses to various extracellular stimuli, environmental stresses, pathogen infections, and apoptotic agents. Here, a JNK1, Ec-JNK1, was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ec-JNK1 has been found involving in the immune response to pathogen challenges in vivo, and the infection of Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) and SGIV-induced apoptosis in vitro. SGIV infection activated Ec-JNK1, of which phosphorylation of motif TPY is crucial for its activity. Over-expressing Ec-JNK1 phosphorylated transcription factors c-Jun and promoted the infection and replication of SGIV, while partial inhibition of the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 showed the opposite effects by over-expressing the dominant-negative EcJNK1-Δ183-185 mutant. Interestingly, SGIV enhanced the viral infectivity by activating Ec-JNK1 which in turn drastically inhibited the antiviral responses of type 1 IFN, indicating that Ec-JNK1 could be involved in blocking IFN signaling during SGIV infection. In addition, Ec-JNK1 enhanced the activation of AP-1, p53, and NF-κB, and resulted in increasing the levels of SGIV-induced cell death. The caspase 3-dependent activation correlated with the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 and contributed to SGIV-induced apoptosis. Taken together, SGIV modulated the phosphorylation of Ec-JNK1 to inactivate the antiviral signaling, enhance the SGIV-induced apoptosis and activate transcription factors for efficient infection and replication. The “positive cooperativity” molecular mechanism mediated by Ec-JNK1 contributes to the successful evasion and infection of iridovirus pathogenesis. PMID:26903999

  13. Hydroacoustics for the discovery and quantification of Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) spawning aggregations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egerton, J. P.; Johnson, A. F.; Le Vay, L.; McCoy, C. M.; Semmens, B. X.; Heppell, S. A.; Turner, J. R.

    2017-06-01

    Fish spawning aggregations (FSAs) are vital life-history events that need to be monitored to determine the health of aggregating populations; this is especially true of the endangered Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus). Hydroacoustics were used to locate Nassau grouper FSAs at sites on the west end of Little Cayman (LCW), and east ends of Grand Cayman (GCE) and Cayman Brac (CBE). Fish abundance and biomass at each FSA were estimated via echo integration and FSA extent. Acoustic mean fish abundance estimates (±SE) on the FSA at LCW (893 ± 459) did not differ significantly from concurrent SCUBA estimates (1150 ± 75). Mean fish densities (number 1000 m-3) were significantly higher at LCW (33.13 ± 5.62) than at the other sites (GCE: 7.01 ± 2.1, CBE: 4.61 ± 1.16). We investigate different acoustic post-processing options to obtain target strength (TS), and we examine the different TS to total length (TL) formulas available. The SCUBA surveys also provided measures of TL through the use of laser callipers allowing development of an in situ TS to TL formula for Nassau grouper at the LCW FSA. Application of this formula revealed mean fish TL was significantly higher at LCW (65.4 ± 0.7 cm) than GCE (60.7 ± 0.4 cm), but not CBE (61.1 ± 2.5 cm). Use of the empirical TS to TL formula resulted in underestimation of fish length in comparison with diver measurements, highlighting the benefits of secondary length data and deriving specific TS to TL formulas for each population. FSA location examined with reference to seasonal marine protected areas (Designated Grouper Spawning Areas) showed FSAs were partially outside these areas at GCE and very close to the boundary at CBE. As FSAs often occur at the limits of safe diving operations, hydroacoustic technology provides an alternative method to monitor and inform future management of aggregating fish species.

  14. 77 FR 74119 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; 2012 Commercial Accountability Measure and Closure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... necessary to prevent overfishing of the South Atlantic snowy grouper resource. DATES: This rule is effective... implemented new requirements that ACLs and AMs be established to end overfishing and prevent overfishing from occurring. ACLs are levels of annual catch of a stock or stock complex that are set to prevent...

  15. 76 FR 23728 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... snapper-grouper fishermen, without subjecting the red snapper resource to overfishing. DATES: This final... overfishing. The stock status was determined through a Southeast Data Assessment and Review (SEDAR) benchmark... assessment, Amendment 17A to the FMP was developed to end the overfishing of red snapper and rebuild...

  16. 75 FR 57734 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...-grouper species, eight of which are undergoing overfishing; specify recreational and commercial... procedure. The actions contained in Amendment 17B are intended to address overfishing of eight snapper... stock or stock complex in an FMP is undergoing overfishing, the FMP must establish by 2010 a...

  17. 78 FR 46923 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ... limits (ACLs), not just red snapper, in a harvest tag program. The intent of Amendment 22 is to closely control recreational harvest of snapper-grouper species with low ACLs. DATES: Written comments on the... recreational ACLs. Based on these modifications, NMFS is publishing this supplemental NOI to provide notice...

  18. 76 FR 23205 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... Commercial Sector for Vermilion Snapper in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS.... The operator of a vessel with a valid commercial vessel permit for South Atlantic snapper-grouper may... cold storage by a dealer or processor. For a person on board a vessel for which a Federal commercial...

  19. 77 FR 8749 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ...: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce..., 2012, until 12:01 a.m., local time, January 1, 2013. The operator of a vessel with a valid commercial vessel permit for South Atlantic snapper-grouper having golden tilefish onboard must have landed...

  20. 78 FR 61939 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-07

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; trip limit reduction. SUMMARY: NMFS reduces the commercial trip limit for vermilion snapper in or from the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South Atlantic to...

  1. 75 FR 10693 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; trip limit reduction. SUMMARY: NMFS reduces the commercial trip limit for golden tilefish in the South Atlantic to 300 lb (136 kg) per trip in or from the...

  2. 78 FR 10102 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Resources of the South Atlantic; Trip Limit... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule; trip limit reduction. SUMMARY: NMFS reduces the commercial trip limit for golden tilefish in the South Atlantic to 300 lb (136 kg), gutted weight, per trip in or...

  3. 75 FR 82280 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... (injuries sustained in response to the sudden pressure change when brought to the surface from depth), in... often caught with speckled hind and warsaw grouper in deeper waters would reduce the incentive to target... deeper waters is common in the southern area of the Council's jurisdiction i.e., southeast Florida...

  4. 77 FR 56563 - Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic; Reopening of the 2012 Commercial Sector for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-13

    ... and at the same time protect the yellowtail snapper resource. DATES: The reopening is effective 12:02... Management Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region. The FMP was prepared by the South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) and is implemented under the authority of the...

  5. 77 FR 1908 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... South Atlantic Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendment 20A to the Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the South Atlantic Region (Amendment 20A) for review... quota shares. The actions contained in Amendment 20A are intended to help achieve the optimum yield (OY...

  6. 78 FR 78770 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... Council). Amendment 27 and this final rule extend the South Atlantic Council's management responsibility for Nassau grouper into the Gulf of Mexico (Gulf) exclusive economic zone (EEZ); increase the number... scientific information becomes available, and minimize socio- economic impacts to fishermen who harvest and...

  7. 76 FR 12883 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-AY10 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States;...

  8. 77 FR 19165 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... states of 250,000 lb (113,389 kg), round weight. The proposed rule for the South Atlantic Comprehensive... NMFS' logbooks. If NMFS' logbooks are not available, the RA could use state landings...

  9. 77 FR 59129 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-26

    ..., Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the Southern Atlantic States; Amendment... and Amendment 20A state that 5 percent of the wreckfish quota shares will be set-aside, to resolve any... NMFS logbooks or state landings data if NMFS logbooks are not available. Hardship appeals will not...

  10. 75 FR 5950 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ... states, the Gulf of Mexico and South Atlantic Fishery Management Councils, and the U.S. Coast Guard, and... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XT84 Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper and Grouper Off the Southern Atlantic States AGENCY: National...

  11. 76 FR 5325 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-31

    ...-grouper fishery operating in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the South Atlantic. If changes to the management regime are developed and implemented under the Magnuson- Stevens Fishery Conservation and....regulations.gov without change. All Personal Identifying Information (for example, name, address,...

  12. 77 FR 28305 - Temporary Rule To Delay Start Date of 2012-2013 South Atlantic Black Sea Bass Commercial Fishing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... profitability for snapper-grouper fishermen and create unstable market conditions for dealers. Management... profitability for snapper-grouper fishermen and create unstable market conditions for dealers. NMFS...

  13. Sound production by dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus at spawning aggregation sites.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, F; Lejeune, P; Payrot, J; Parmentier, E

    2015-08-01

    Sound production by the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus was monitored both in captivity and at two Mediterranean spawning sites during the summers of 2012 and 2013. The results of long-term passive acoustic recordings provide for the first time a description of the sounds produced by E. marginatus. Two types of sounds were mainly recorded and consisted of low-frequency booms that can be produced singly or in series with dominant frequencies below 100 Hz. Recordings in captivity validated these sounds as belonging to E. marginatus and suggested that they may be associated with reproductive displays usually performed during early stages of courtship behaviour. This study also allowed the identification of a third, low-frequency growl-like type of sound typically found in other grouper species. These growls were, however, not recorded in tanks and it is cautiously proposed that they are produced by E. marginatus. Acoustic signals attributed to E. marginatus were produced throughout the spawning season, with a diel pattern showing an increase before dusk, i.e., from 1900 to 2200 hours, before decreasing until the morning. The occurrence of sounds during the spawning season of this species suggests that they are probably involved in social activity occurring close to aggregation sites. Passive acoustics offer a helpful tool to monitor aggregation sites of this emblematic species in order to improve conservation efforts. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. Early Gonadal Differentiation of the Protogynous Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Woo Sik; Baek, Hea Ja; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2015-01-01

    Red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara is a popular aquaculture species in many Asian countries. This species is a protogynous hermaphrodite that first differentiates into female and changes to male later. Due to this reproductive characteristic, stable supply of male and female gametes is a key to the success of seed production in this species. Thus, understanding early gonadal differentiation is required to develop effective sex control techniques. Red spotted grouper were reared in indoor tanks and sampled every 5 days from 40 days post-hatch (DPH) to 130 DPH. Changes of gonadal tissues were examined and analyzed by means of histology. A pair of gonadal primordium has already existed underneath the kidney in the posterior part of the body cavity at 38 DPH when this study began. Gonadal primordia of 38, 40 DPH consisted of germ cells surrounded by a few somatic cells. The blood vessel was observed in the gonadal primordium at 45 DPH. The number of somatic cells and size of gonadal primordium increased age-dependently up to 60 DPH. Formation of ovarian cavity was obvious by two protuberant aggregations of somatic cells at 65 DPH. Completed ovarian cavity and oogonia were first observed in the gonad of one fish sample at 105 DPH. Based on these histological observations, it can be suggested that induction of primary male differentiation could be more successfully applied at around 60 DPH in this species. PMID:26973972

  15. Mercury and histopathology of the vulnerable goliath grouper, Epinephelus itajara, in U.S. waters: a multi-tissue approach.

    PubMed

    Adams, Douglas H; Sonne, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Goliath grouper have undergone significant global population declines with potential biological extinction for some subpopulations. Although overfishing and habitat loss are important drivers of these declines, the negative effects of contaminants may also play a role. The life history patterns of goliath grouper may make this species especially prone to exposure to contaminants and may exacerbate bioaccumulation of toxic substances, including mercury, which has documented detrimental health effects. Therefore, we analyzed mercury (in muscle, liver, kidney, gonad, and brain tissue) and the histology of key organs (liver, kidney and gill tissue) in 56 goliath groupers from U.S. waters. Total mercury concentration was greatest in liver tissue, followed by kidney, muscle, gonad, and brain. Maximum mercury concentration ranged from 22.68 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.89 μg/g in brain tissue. Mean mercury concentration ranged from 2.87 μg/g in liver tissue to 0.37 μg/g in brain tissue with a mean of 0.63 μg/g in muscle. Mean mercury concentrations observed in goliath grouper from U.S. waters were within the range known to cause direct health effects in fish after long-term exposure. The lesions and histological changes observed in the liver, kidney, and gills of goliath groupers were similar to those found in other fish following laboratory mercury-exposure trials and to those found in mercury-contaminated fish in wild populations carrying similar or even lower concentrations. We suggest that exposure to mercury and other environmental influences such as pathogens and reduced temperatures could be co-factors in the histological effects or anomalies observed in the present study, and resulting stresses may be involved in the observed population declines in the species.

  16. Black Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Jr., Martin J.

    1969-01-01

    "A television show by blacks for blacks--coupled with a program of training for black television technicians--was the basic concept of the Black Voices" series aired over KTCA-TV and KTCI-TV in Minneapolis and St. Paul during the 1968-1969 television season. The series was designed to provide understanding among blacks of the Twin…

  17. Dietary supplementation of Pediococcus pentosaceus enhances innate immunity, physiological health and resistance to Vibrio anguillarum in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Bin; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2014-08-01

    Groupers (Epinephelus spp.) are economically important fish species in Southeast Asian aquaculture. Vibriosis caused by Vibro spp. is one of the severe bacterial diseases that devastate the grouper aquaculture industry. Probiotics have been reported to show the potential to enhance fish immunity and to antagonize pathogens. In our previous study, a lactic acid bacterium Pediococcus pentosaceus strain 4012 (LAB4012), isolated from cobia intestine, protects cobia from photobacteriosis after a 2-week feeding. In this study, we examined the potential of LAB4012 to be a probiotic for the orange-spotted grouper through feeding, thus to guard against vibriosis. In vitro, LAB4012 culture supernatant with low pH suppressed the growth of Vibrio anguillarum, and lactic acid in the metabolite of LAB4012 appeared to be the major factor to the growth inhibition of V. anguillarum. In vivo, the challenge test showed that the cumulative mortality of the LAB4012-fed groupers was significantly lower than that of the control fish after V. anguillarum infection. Supplementation of LAB4012 in commercial diet not only enhanced the growth rate and erythrocyte numbers of the groupers, but also regulated the gene expression of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines. One day post-infection of V. anguillarum, the leukocyte numbers in the peripheral blood and the phagocytic activity of the head-kidney phagocytes in the LAB4012-fed groupers were found significantly increased, when compared with those without LAB4012-feeding. These results suggested that LAB4012 can be a dietary probiotic for groupers in modulating the immunity and protecting the groupers from V. anguillarum infection.

  18. Development of a Recombinant Protein Vaccine Based on Cell-Free Protein Synthesis for Sevenband Grouper Epinephelus septemfasciatus Against Viral Nervous Necrosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong-Oh; Kim, Jae-Ok; Kim, Wi-Sik; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2015-10-01

    Sevenband grouper, Epinephelus septemfasciatus, is becoming an important aquaculture species in Korea. However, viral nervous necrosis disease is a large problem causing mass mortality in sevenband grouper aquaculture. Recombinant protein vaccines are one of the best methods to reduce these economic losses. However, the cell-based expression method mainly produces inclusion bodies and requires additional procedures. In this study, we expressed a recombinant viral coat protein of sevenband grouper nervous necrosis virus (NNV) using a cell-free protein synthesis system. The purified recombinant NNV coat protein (rNNV-CP) was injected into sevenband grouper at different doses followed by a NNV challenge. Nonimmunized fish in the first trial (20 μg/fish) began to die 5 days post-challenge and reached 70% cumulative mortality. In contrast, immunized fish also starting dying 5 days postchallenge but lower cumulative mortality (10%) was observed. Cumulative morality in the second trial with different doses (20, 4, and 0.8 μg/fish) was 10%, 40%, and 50%, respectively. These results suggest that rNNV-CP can effectively immunize sevenband grouper depending on the dose administered. This study provides a new approach to develop a recombinant vaccine against NNV infection for sevenband grouper.

  19. Dietary administration of sodium alginate ameliorated stress and promoted immune resistance of grouper Epinephelus coioides under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pai-Po; Lin, Yu-Hung; Chen, Min-Chieh; Cheng, Winton

    2017-06-01

    Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 0 (control, named C) and 1.0 g kg(-1) (named S) at a temperature of 28 °C for 12 days, were then further individually transferred to 28 (two groups named C-28 and S-28) or 20 °C (two groups named C-20 and S-20), and immune parameters and stress indexes were measured at the beginning and after 6, 12, 24 and 48 h of exposure. Examination of immune parameters revealed that the alternative complement activity (ACH50), lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity, superoxide dismutase, and respiratory bursts significantly increased in groupers fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the S-28 than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the C-20 group from 6 to 48 h except for ACH50 at 48 h, respiratory bursts at 48 h, and lysozymes at 6 h. For the assessment of stress indicators, cortisol, glucose, and lactate levels of serum significantly decreased in grouper fed the sodium alginate-containing diet for 12 days, and were higher in the C-20 group than those of the C-28 and S-20 groups, which were higher than those of the S-20 group at 6-48 h. In another experiment, grouper fed the test diet for 12 days at a temperature of 28 °C were challenged with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida at a dose of 5 × 10(3) colony-forming units (cfu) (g fish)(-1), and then individually transferred to 28 or 20 °C. The survival rate of challenged fish of the C-28 group was significantly lower than those of challenged fish of the C-20 and S-28 groups, which were significantly lower than that of challenged fish of the S-20 group. All challenged fish of the S-20 group survived. Survival rates over 144 h were 30.0%, 70.0%, and 56.7% for the C-28, C-20, and S-28 groups, respectively. Our results indicated that dietary sodium alginate administration downregulated stress response indicators, enhanced immune responses, and prevented impacts of

  20. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  1. Black Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  2. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  3. Black Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  4. Complete mitochondrial genome of the sixbar grouper Epinephelus sexfasciatus (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Du, Fei-Yan; Ye, Le; Wang, Xue-Hui

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we presented the complete mitogenome for the sixbar grouper Epinephelus sexfasciatus. The complete mitogenome of E. sexfasciatus is 16,786 bp in length with the typical mitochondrial gene order and composition in vertebrates. Overall base composition was 28.40% A, 27.93% C, 27.21% T and 16.45% G. The COI gene used GTG and the ATP6 gene used CTG as the start codon. The tRNA-Ser2 lost the dihydrouridine arm and replaced with a simple loop. Both the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods yielded the same tree topology using available mitogenomes of the genus Epinephelus. Epinephelus sexfasciatus was nested to E. akaara. E. awoara and E. fasciatomaculosus, and then combined with E. stictus formed a clade.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome of the hybrid grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (♀)×Epinephelus lanceolatus (♂).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kecheng; Zhang, Dongling; Wei, Jinfen; Huang, Guiju; Guo, Yihui; Jiang, Song; Yu, Dahui

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we reported the complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the hybrid grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (♀)×Epinephelus lanceolatus (♂). The full-length of the mitochondrial genome consisted of a 16,644 bp fragment, with the base composition of A (29.21%), C (26.84%), G (15.65%) and T (28.29%). It contained 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a major non-coding control region (D-loop region). The composition and order of these genes were identical to most other vertebrates. All the protein initiation codons were ATG, except that COX1 began with GTG and ATP-6 was not determined. The complete mitogenome of the hybrid E. fuscoguttatus (♀)×E. lanceolatus (♂) provided an important data set for the study in genetic mechanism of the hybridization.

  6. Evidence for spawning aggregations of the endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bueno, L S; Bertoncini, A A; Koenig, C C; Coleman, F C; Freitas, M O; Leite, J R; De Souza, T F; Hostim-Silva, M

    2016-07-01

    In this study, seasonal numerical abundance of the critically endangered Atlantic goliath grouper Epinephelus itajara was estimated by conducting scuba dive surveys and calculating sightings-per-unit-effort (SPUE) at three sites in southern Brazil. Seasonal differences in size and reproductive condition of captured or confiscated specimens were compared. The SPUE differed significantly with season, increasing in late spring and peaking during the austral summer months. A significant effect was observed in the number of fish relative to the lunar cycle. All females sampled during the summer were spawning capable, while all those sampled during other seasons were either regressing or regenerating. What these data strongly infer is that the E. itajara spawning aggregation sites have been located in the southern state of Paraná and the northern state of Santa Catarina and summer is the most likely spawning season. Size frequency distributions, abundance and reproductive state were estimated and correlated with environmental variables.

  7. Disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C on grouper, Epinephelus awoara

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Qi-Wei; Wu, Zao-He; Pan, Jin-Pei

    2000-09-01

    The disease resistance and humoral immunomodulatory effects of vitamin C administered orally to grouper, Epinephelus awoara maintained on a frozen fish diet supplemented with vitamin C at 500, 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg were investigated. After 20 weeks, the growth rates of the groups with high level of vitamin C apparently increased. The untreated fish had symptoms of vitamin C deficiency. The endogenous liver tissue vitamin C levels were found to reflect well the dietary treatments. After intraperitoneal injection or bath challenge with a virulent strain of Vibrio vulnificus, fish fed with high level vitamin C showed significantly higher survival rate compared with the normal control group. Vaccination with formalin inactivated V. vulnificus significantly enhanced the specific antibody production in fish treated with vitamin C, and completely protected from strong bacterial challenge the groups fed on fish with vitamin C 1500 and 2000 mg/kg diet.

  8. A phylogenetic re-analysis of groupers with applications for ciguatera fish poisoning.

    PubMed

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in controlling CFP since meal remnants in

  9. A Phylogenetic Re-Analysis of Groupers with Applications for Ciguatera Fish Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Hinsinger, Damien D.; Dettaï, Agnès; Cruaud, Corinne; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    Background Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is a significant public health problem due to dinoflagellates. It is responsible for one of the highest reported incidence of seafood-borne illness and Groupers are commonly reported as a source of CFP due to their position in the food chain. With the role of recent climate change on harmful algal blooms, CFP cases might become more frequent and more geographically widespread. Since there is no appropriate treatment for CFP, the most efficient solution is to regulate fish consumption. Such a strategy can only work if the fish sold are correctly identified, and it has been repeatedly shown that misidentifications and species substitutions occur in fish markets. Methods We provide here both a DNA-barcoding reference for groupers, and a new phylogenetic reconstruction based on five genes and a comprehensive taxonomical sampling. We analyse the correlation between geographic range of species and their susceptibility to ciguatera accumulation, and the co-occurrence of ciguatoxins in closely related species, using both character mapping and statistical methods. Results Misidentifications were encountered in public databases, precluding accurate species identifications. Epinephelinae now includes only twelve genera (vs. 15 previously). Comparisons with the ciguatera incidences show that in some genera most species are ciguateric, but statistical tests display only a moderate correlation with the phylogeny. Atlantic species were rarely contaminated, with ciguatera occurrences being restricted to the South Pacific. Conclusions The recent changes in classification based on the reanalyses of the relationships within Epinephelidae have an impact on the interpretation of the ciguatera distribution in the genera. In this context and to improve the monitoring of fish trade and safety, we need to obtain extensive data on contamination at the species level. Accurate species identifications through DNA barcoding are thus an essential tool in

  10. Behavior, Color Change and Time for Sexual Inversion in the Protogynous Grouper (Epinephelus adscensionis)

    PubMed Central

    Kline, Richard J.; Khan, Izhar A.; Holt, G. Joan

    2011-01-01

    Hermaphroditism, associated with territoriality and dominance behavior, is common in the marine environment. While male sex-specific coloration patterns have been documented in groupers, particularly during the spawning season, few data regarding social structure and the context for these color displays are available. In the present study, we define the social structure and male typical behavior of rock hind (Epinephelus adscensionis) in the wild. In addition, we detail the captive conditions and time period necessary to induce the onset of the sex-specific coloration and sexual change. At six oil production platform locations in the Gulf of Mexico, rock hind social group size and typical male rock hind social behavior were documented. We observed a rapid temporary color display in rock hind that could be turned on and off within three seconds and was used for confronting territory intruders and displays of aggression towards females. The male-specific “tuxedo” pattern consists of a bright yellow tail, a body with alternating dark brown and white patches and a dark bar extending from the upper mandible to the operculum. Identification and size ranges of male, female and intersex fish collected from oil platforms were determined in conjunction with gonadal histology. Rock hind social order is haremic with one dominant male defending a territory and a linear dominance hierarchy among individuals. In five captive experiments, the largest remaining female rock hind displayed the male specific color pattern within 32d after dominant male removal from the social group. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence in a grouper species of color patterning used to display territoriality and dominance outside of spawning aggregations. The behavioral paradigm described here is a key advance that will enable mechanistic studies of this complex sex change process. PMID:21647429

  11. Immunomodulatory effect of sodium alginate enriched diet in kelp grouper Epinephelus brneus against Streptococcus iniae.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Han, Yong-Jae; Jang, Ik-Soo; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-02-01

    The effect of diets containing sodium alginate at 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ following challenge with Streptococcus iniae in kelp grouper Epinephelus bruneus were assessed with reference to survival rate and innate immune parameters such as alternative complement, lysozyme, natural haemagglutination, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, and phagocytic activities on week 1, 2, and 4. Fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ after being challenged with S. iniae had higher survival rates of 75% and 60%, respectively than those fed with control diet (0 g kg⁻¹). With any enriched diet the percentage of macrophages significantly decreased from week 1-4, while the percentage of neutrophils and lymphocytes significantly increased. The alternate complement activity, natural haemagglutination, and phagocytic activities of infected fish fed with sodium alginate containing diet at 1.0 g kg⁻¹ on week 2 and 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ diets on week 4 were significantly higher when compared to the control. The lysozyme, respiratory bursts, and superoxide dismutase activities of fish fed with enriched diets at 1.0 and 2.0 g kg⁻¹ were significantly increased on week 2 and 4. We therefore recommend that at 1.0 or 2.0 g kg⁻¹ dietary administration of sodium alginate can enhance innate immunity and disease resistance in kelp grouper against S. iniae. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine disruption of phenanthrene in the protogynous dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae: Perciformes).

    PubMed

    de Campos, Mariana Frias; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L; Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2017-06-23

    The dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus is a protogynous hermaphrodite fish, that maintains high levels of plasma steroids as juveniles, as substrates for sex inversion. These fish are exposed to marine pollution from oil spills during cargo handling. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as phenanthrene (Phe), are the main crude oil components and are toxic to fish, acting as endocrine disruptors (ED). This is the first study that investigated impacts of Phe as an ED in E. marginatus juveniles. An in vivo sublethal exposure (96h) to Phe was carried out at two concentrations (0.1mg/L and 1mg/L); exposure to the vehicle (ethanol; ETOH) was also performed. Plasma levels of 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) were measured by ELISA. Gonads, liver and spleen were processed for histological analysis. In an in vitro bioassay, gonad fragments were incubated with Phe (8.91mg/L) or ETOH. Steroid levels in the culture media were measured by ELISA. The in vivo exposure to Phe triggered an increase of the area of the hepatocytes, increased number of melanomacrophagic centers and hemosiderosis in the spleen; ETOH induced similar effects on spleen. E2 and T levels did not change in plasma or in vitro media. In plasma, ETOH decreased 11-KT levels. Phenanthrene sharply reduced 11-KT levels in vitro. Although in vivo bioassay results were not unequivocal owing to ethanol effects, Phe might disrupt steroidogenesis in juvenile grouper, possibly causing dysfunctions during sex change and gonadal maturity, considering the importance of 11-KT in developing ovaries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Transmission of fish parasites into grouper mariculture (Serranidae: Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822)) in Lampung Bay, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rückert, Sonja; Klimpel, Sven; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Palm, Harry W

    2009-02-01

    Differently fed groupers Epinephelus coioides from an Indonesian finfish mariculture farm were studied for ecto- and endohelminth parasites. Pellet-fed E. coioides were infested with 13 parasite species/taxa of which six had a monoxenous and seven a heteroxenous life cycle. A total of 14 parasite species/taxa were found in the fish that were fed with different trash fish species, four of them with a monoxenous and ten with a heteroxenous life cycle. The use of pellet food significantly reduced the transfer of endohelminths and the number of parasites with a heteroxenous life cycle. Out of ten studied trash fish species, 62 parasite species were isolated (39% ectoparasitic and 61% endoparasitic), four of them also occurring in the cultured E. coioides and 14 in different groupers from Balai Budidaya Laut Lampung. The trash fish is held responsible for the transmission of these parasites into the mariculture fish. Endohelminth infestation of pellet fed fish demonstrates that parasite transfer also occurs via organisms that naturally live in, on, and in the surroundings of the net cages. Seventeen recorded invertebrates from the net cages might play an important role as intermediate hosts and hence parasite transmitters. The risk of parasite transfer can be considerably reduced by feeding selected trash fish species with a lower parasite burden, using only trash fish musculature or minimizing the abundance of invertebrates (fouling) on the net cages. These methods can control the endoparasite burden of cultivated fish without medication. The control of ectoparasites requires more elaborate techniques. Once they have succeeded in entering a mariculture farm, it is almost impossible to eliminate them from the system.

  14. Mercury concentrations in dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Condini, Mario V; Hoeinghaus, David J; Roberts, Aaron P; Soulen, Brianne K; Garcia, Alexandre M

    2017-02-15

    Our study incorporated a comprehensive suite of parameters (i.e., body size, age, diet and trophic position) to investigate mercury concentration in dusky groupers Epinephelus marginatus. This study was carried out in rocky bottoms in littoral and neritic habitats along the Southern Brazilian coast. We also determined spatial variation in mercury concentrations in individuals inhabiting both zones, which may provide insights into how dietary differences or potential pollution sources affect bioaccumulation. A total of 244 dusky groupers was analyzed to determine total mercury concentrations. Our study revealed that when considering similar body sizes, individuals inhabiting littoral rocky habitats had higher concentrations of mercury probably due to proximity to pollution sources associated with human activities in the estuary and its drainage basin. Furthermore, large individuals (>650mm and >8years old) showed mercury contamination levels that are potentially harmful for this endangered fish species and above the acceptable limits for human consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Histopathological and ultrastructural features of enlarged cells of humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis challenged with Megalocytivirus (family Iridoviridae) after vaccination.

    PubMed

    Mahardika, Ketut; Haryanti; Muzaki, Ahmad; Miyazaki, Teruo

    2008-04-01

    The genus Megalocytivirus in the family Iridoviridae encompasses isolates of red sea bream iridovirus (RSIV) and grouper sleepy disease iridovirus (GSDIV). In the present study, humpback grouper Cromileptes altivelis juveniles were challenged with GSDIV after vaccination with a commercial RSIV vaccine. The unvaccinated group (in duplicate) showed higher mortalities (59.3 to 66.7%) than the vaccination group (0% mortalitiy, in duplicate). Surviving fish in the vaccinated group displayed masses of enlarged cells in the spleen. Electron microscopy revealed that they contained hemosiderin granules within the cytoplasm. In contrast, moribund fish from the unvaccinated group exhibited large numbers of inclusion body-bearing cells (IBCs) in the spleen, while surviving fish displayed masses of enlarged cells in which a small number of GSDIV virions were assembled.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome and the phylogenetic position of the brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Chen, Hao; Yang, Weidi; Lin, Lingling; Liu, Min

    2016-11-01

    The complete mitogenome of the brown-spotted grouper Epinephelus chlorostigma was determined in this study. It is 16,894 bp in length, containing 37 genes with the typical order and transcriptional direction in the vertebrates. The overall nucleotide composition is: 28.7% A; 28.0% C; 16.3% G and 27.0% T. The lengths of 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes range from 67 (tRNA-Cys) to 76 (tRNA-Leu1) bp. Two start codons (GTG and ATG) and two stop codons (TAG and TAA/T) were found in the protein-coding genes. The nodes of phylogenetic tree were strongly supported based on the complete mitogenomes of available groupers. The phylogenetic results suggested E. chlorostigma is the closest to E. areolatus within the genus Epinephelus.

  17. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) orexin: molecular cloning, tissue expression, ontogeny, daily rhythm and regulation of NPY gene expression.

    PubMed

    Yan, Aifen; Zhang, Lingjuang; Tang, Zhiguo; Zhang, Yanhong; Qin, Chaobin; Li, Bo; Li, Wensheng; Lin, Haoran

    2011-07-01

    Orexin-A and -B, collectively called orexins, are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the regulation of food intake, sleep and energy balance. In this study, the full-length cDNA of prepro-orexin was isolated from the hypothalamus of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using RT-PCR and RACE. The grouper prepro-orexin cDNA is 711 bp in length and encodes a 149-amino acid precursor protein that contains a 46-amino acid signal peptide, a 43-amino acid mature orexin-A peptide, a 27-amino acid mature orexin-B peptide and a 33-amino acid C terminus of unknown function. The tissue distribution and ontogeny of prepro-orexin were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. We found that the prepro-orexin mRNA is widely expressed in brain and peripheral tissues, with abundant expression in the hypothalamus. During the embryonic development, prepro-orexin mRNA was first detected in neurula stage embryos, and its expression gradually increased during the remainder of embryogenesis. Our analysis of grouper hypothalamic prepro-orexin expression showed that prepro-orexin mRNA levels were greater in the light phase than in the dark phase and increased significantly at meal-time. Intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A caused a dose-related increase in hypothalamus NPY mRNA expression level after 4h. Orexin-A also increased NPY mRNA expression level from static hypothalamic fragments incubation. Our results imply that orexin may be involved in feeding in the orange-spotted grouper and orexin-A is a stimulator of NPY mRNA expression in vivo and in vitro. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of a formalin-inactivated vaccine against Streptococcus iniae infection in the farmed grouper Epinephelus coioides by intraperitoneal immunization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsing-Yen; Chen, Yan-Chun; Wang, Pei-Chi; Tsai, Ming-An; Yeh, Shih-Chun; Liang, Hong-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chu

    2014-12-05

    Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing infectious diseases; however, few vaccines are effective against Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) in grouper. This work presents an efficacious and safe vaccine against S. iniae infections in the grouper Epinephelus coioides. The vaccine candidate was the S. iniae GSI-310 strain. The vaccination was administered by intraperitoneal injection, and consisted of formalin-inactivated antigens combined with an AS-F or ISA763A adjuvant. Peripheral blood samples were collected for RT-qPCR and phagocytosis and agglutination assays. Our results indicated that immunoglobulin M (igm) was maximally expressed in the two vaccinated groups at 3 months post-secondary vaccination (PSV). A significant upregulation of mRNA expression for interleukin-1β (il-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) was also observed in fish treated with antigens combined with ISA763A, which peaked at 3 months PSV. In fish treated with antigens combined with AS-F, il-1β and tnf-α expression peaked at 14 days post-primary vaccination (PPV). Phagocytic activity and index increased significantly in the two vaccinated groups. Furthermore, fish in the two vaccinated groups exhibited significantly elevated agglutination titers compared to fish in the control group, in which almost no agglutination reaction was detected. In the efficacy test, the vaccinated and control groupers were treated with S. iniae at 1, 3, and 6 months PSV. The relative percentage survival (RPS) values of antigens with AS-F and antigens with ISA763A were both 100% at 1 and 3 months PSV; at 6 months PSV, the RPS values for these groups were 100% and 97.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the level of protection observed in the field trial closely resembled that achieved on a laboratory scale. Therefore, the proposed vaccine mixed with AS-F or ISA763A improved immune responses and provided safe and long-lasting protection in farmed groupers.

  19. Isolation and characterization of a new class of DNA aptamers specific binding to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) with antiviral activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Yan, Yang; Wei, Shina; Wei, Jingguang; Gao, Ren; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Jiang, Guohua; Qin, Qiwei

    2014-08-08

    The Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), a member of the genus Ranavirus, is a major viral pathogen that has caused heavy economic losses to the grouper aquaculture industry in China and Southeast Asia. No efficient method of controlling SGIV outbreaks is currently available. Systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) is now widely used for the in vitro selection of artificial ssDNA or RNA ligands, known as aptamers, which bind to targets through their stable three-dimensional structures. In our current study, we generated ssDNA aptamers against the SGIV, and evaluated their ability to block SGIV infection in cultured fish cells and cultured fish in vivo. The anti-SGIV DNA aptamers, LMB-761, LMB-764, LMB-748, LMB-439, LMB-755, and LMB-767, were selected from a pool of oligonucleotides randomly generated using a SELEX iterative method. The analysis of the secondary structure of the aptamers revealed that they all formed similar stem-loop structures. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the aptamers bound SGIV specifically, as evidenced by a lack cross-reactivity with the soft shell turtle iridovirus. The aptamers produced no cytotoxic effects in cultured grouper spleen cells (GS). Assessment of cytopathic effects (CPE) and viral titer assays showed that LMB-761, LMB-764, LMB-748, LMB-755, and LMB-767 significantly inhibited SGIV infection in GS cells. The in vivo experiments showed that LMB-761 and LMB-764 reduced SGIV-related mortality, and no negative effects were observed in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, indicating that these DNA aptamers may be suitable antiviral candidates for controlling SGIV infections in fish reared in marine aquaculture facilities.

  20. Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps for orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides using multiplexed shotgun genotyping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, is one of the most valuable fish species in China. Commercial production of orange-spotted grouper could be increased by developing higher growth rates and improving commercially important traits. Information on genetic markers associated with quantitative trait loci (QTL) can be used in breeding programs to identify and select individuals carrying desired traits. A high-density genetic linkage map is the basis for QTL study, and multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) facilitates the development of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genotyping. In this study, the first high-density genetic linkage maps for groupers were generated on the basis of the MSG method. Results The sex-averaged map contained a total of 4,608 SNPs, which spanned 1581.7 cM, with a mean distance between SNPs of 0.34 cM. The 4,608 SNPs were located in 2,849 unique locations on the linkage map, with an average inter-location space at 0.56 cM. There were 2,516 SNPs on the female map, and the number of unique locus was 1,902. However, the male map contained more numbers of SNP (2,939) and unique locations (2,005). The total length of the female and male maps was 1,370.9 and 1,335.5 cM, respectively. Conclusions The high-resolution genetic linkage maps will be very useful for QTL analyses and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for economically important traits in molecular breeding of the orange-spotted grouper. PMID:24289265

  1. Interferon regulatory factor 10 (IRF10): Cloning in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and evolutionary analysis in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Bei; Jia, Qin Qin; Liang, Ying; Huang, Wen Shu; Nie, P

    2015-10-01

    IRF10 gene was cloned in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its expression was examined following poly(I:C) stimulation and bacterial infection. The cDNA sequence of grouper IRF10 contains an open reading frame of 1197 bp, flanked by 99 bp 5'-untranslated region and 480 bp 3'- untranslated region. Multiple alignments showed that the grouper IRF10 has a highly conserved DNA binding domain in the N terminus with characteristic motif containing five tryptophan residues. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression of IRF10 was responsive to both poly(I:C) stimulation and Vibrio parahemolyticus infection, with a higher increase to poly(I:C), indicating an important role of IRF10 in host immune response during infection. A phyletic distribution of IRF members was also examined in vertebrates, and IRF10 was found in most lineages of vertebrates, not in modern primates and rodents. It is suggested that the first divergence of IRF members might have occurred before the evolutionary split of vertebrate and cephalochordates, producing ancestors of IRF (1/2/11) and IRF (4/8/9/10)[(3/7) (5/6)], and that the second and/or third divergence of IRF members occurred following the split, thus leading to the subsets of the IRF family in vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microsatellite analysis of the genetic relationships between wild and cultivated giant grouper in the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Xiang; Xie, ZhenZhen; Li, Yiqi; Xiao, Ling; Peng, Cheng; Zhang, Haifa; Li, Shuisheng; Zhang, Yong; Lin, Haoran

    2016-06-01

    The giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) is a coral fish with high commercial value in Southeast Asia. In the present study, we isolated 11 microsatellite DNA markers, and analysed the genetic diversity and differentiation between cultured stocks and wild populations of the giant grouper originating from the South China Sea. A total of 390 alleles at 11 microsatellite loci were detected in 130 individuals from five different populations. The expected heterozygosity varied from 0.131 to 0.855 with a mean value of 0.623 and the observed heterozygosity varied from 0.145 to 0.869 with a mean value of 0.379. The allelic richness and heterozygosity studies revealed that the genetic diversity of the cultured population was significantly reduced when compared with that of the wild population. The Fis, pairwise Fst values, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), threedimensional factorial correspondence analysis and structure analysis revealed significant population differentiation between the cultured stocks and the wild populations, among the three cultured populations and between the two wild populations. These differences may be caused by random genetic drift, the effects of artificial selection and founder effects. Our results will be useful in the management of cultured stocks and conservation of wild populations of the giant grouper.

  3. Gonad-infecting species of Philometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from groupers Epinephelus spp. (Osteichthyes: Serranidae) in the Bay of Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Manoharan, Jayaraman

    2014-10-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, two new and one specifically not identified gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of marine fishes of the genus Epinephelus Bloch (Serranidae, Perciformes) in the Bay of Bengal, off the eastern coast of India: P. indica sp. nov. (male and females) from the honeycomb grouper E. merra Bloch, P. tropica sp. nov. (males and females) from the duskytail grouper E. bleekeri (Vaillant) and Philometra sp. (only females) from the cloudy grouper E. erythrurus (Valenciennes). Philometra indica is mainly characterized by the length of spicules 192-195 μm and the gubernaculum 84 μm, the distal tip of the gubernaculum without a dorsal protuberance, and by the presence of five pairs of caudal papillae. Philometra tropica is mainly characterized by the spicules conspicuously ventrally distended at their posterior halves, the distal tip of the gubernaculum with a dorsal protuberance, and the presence of three pairs of caudal papillae.

  4. Interleukin-1β secreted from betanodavirus-infected microglia caused the death of neurons in giant grouper brains.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Yu-Hui; Wu, Yu-Chi; Chi, Shau-Chi

    2017-05-01

    High interleukin (IL)-1β gene expression was observed in dead giant grouper brains after nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection. To investigate the neuronal death caused by NNV infection, primary tissue culture of giant grouper brains (pGB) was performed. In NNV-infected pGB cells, the viral capsid protein was detected in both neurons and microglia; furthermore, microglial proliferation and neuronal death were observed. The culture supernatant (CS) of NNV-infected pGB cells contained IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, which were mainly released from the microglia. A new batch of pGB cells was treated with CS, resulting in neuronal death, which could be prevented by blocking the IL-1β in the CS by using anti-IL-1β polyclonal antibodies. Moreover, pGB cells treated with recombinant IL-1β showed microglial proliferation and neuronal death. Thus, NNV infection may activate microglial proliferation and stimulate microglial secretion of IL-1β, which is a critical cytokine responsible for neuronal death in NNV-infected grouper brains.

  5. Parasite fauna of wild and cultured dusky-grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834) from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Roumbedakis, K; Marchiori, N C; Paseto, Á; Gonçalves, E L T; Luque, J L; Cepeda, P B; Sanches, E G; Martins, M L

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed at identifying and quantifying the parasites of wild and cultured dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus. During a year and thereby all four seasons, 20 wild and 20 cultured groupers were examined for the presence of parasites, except in the last season, in which 19 wild and 20 cultured fish were examined, totalling 159 groupers analysed from Ubatuba, southeastern Brazil. Prevalence, mean intensity of infection, mean abundance and mean relative dominance were calculated. Five species of parasites were identified in fish from both origins: Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae (Monogenea), Neobenedenia melleni (Monogenea), Pseudempleurosoma sp. (Monogenea), Helicometrina nimia (Digenea) and larvae of Contracaecum sp. (Nematoda). The prevalence of ectoparasites, in most cases, was higher than endoparasites. The most abundant parasite was the monogenea Pseudorhabdosynochus beverleyburtonae in both wild and cultured fish, along all seasons. Neobenedenia melleni was observed in wild and cultured fish in all seasons, with a gradual increase in the number of parasites from the coldest to the hottest seasons, with the highest prevalence and mean intensity in the summer. Helicometrina nimia was found in all seasons in both wild and cultured fish, except for summer, where its presence was detected only in wild fish. Pseudempleurosoma sp. and larvae of Contracaecum sp. showed low prevalence occurring in wild and cultured fish in the autumn and spring, respectively. This study revealed high intensities of potentially pathogenic parasites that could favour disease outbreaks in culture conditions.

  6. A novel use of social media to evaluate the occurrence of skin lesions affecting wild dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in Libyan coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Rizgalla, J; Shinn, A P; Ferguson, H W; Paladini, G; Jayasuriya, N S; Bron, J E

    2017-05-01

    The social media network Facebook(™) was used to gather information on the occurrence and geographical distribution of dusky grouper dermatitis, a skin lesion affecting the dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus. Dusky grouper are common targets for spear fishermen in the Mediterranean and by monitoring spearfishing activity in Libyan waters, it was possible to document skin lesions from their entries on Facebook. Thirty-two Facebook accounts and 8 Facebook groups posting from 23 Libyan coastal cities provided a retrospective observational data set comprising a total of 382 images of dusky grouper caught by spearfishing between December 2011 and December 2015. Skin lesions were observable on 57/362 fish, for which images were of sufficient quality for analysis, giving a minimal prevalence for lesions of 15.75%. Only dusky grouper exceeding an estimated 40 cm total length exhibited lesions. The ability to collect useful data about the occurrence and geographical distribution of pathological conditions affecting wild fish using social media networks demonstrates their potential utility as a tool to support epidemiological studies and monitor the health of populations of aquatic animals. To our knowledge, this represents the first time that such an approach has been applied for assessing health in a wild population of fish. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  8. Natural outbreak of Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) infection in wild giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and other wild fish in northern Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Bowater, R O; Forbes-Faulkner, J; Anderson, I G; Condon, K; Robinson, B; Kong, F; Gilbert, G L; Reynolds, A; Hyland, S; McPherson, G; Brien, J O'; Blyde, D

    2012-03-01

    Ninety-three giant Queensland grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), were found dead in Queensland, Australia, from 2007 to 2011. Most dead fish occurred in northern Queensland, with a peak of mortalities in Cairns in June 2008. In 2009, sick wild fish including giant sea catfish, Arius thalassinus (Rüppell), and javelin grunter, Pomadasys kaakan (Cuvier), also occurred in Cairns. In 2009 and 2010, two disease epizootics involving wild stingrays occurred at Sea World marine aquarium. Necropsy, histopathology, bacteriology and PCR determined that the cause of deaths of 12 giant Queensland grouper, three wild fish, six estuary rays, Dasyatis fluviorum (Ogilby), one mangrove whipray, Himantura granulata (Macleay), and one eastern shovelnose ray, Aptychotrema rostrata (Shaw), was Streptococcus agalactiae septicaemia. Biochemical testing of 34 S. agalactiae isolates from giant Queensland grouper, wild fish and stingrays showed all had identical biochemical profiles. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of isolates confirmed all isolates were S. agalactiae; genotyping of selected S. agalactiae isolates showed the isolates from giant Queensland grouper were serotype Ib, whereas isolates from wild fish and stingrays closely resembled serotype II. This is the first report of S. agalactiae from wild giant Queensland grouper and other wild tropical fish and stingray species in Queensland, Australia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and State of Queensland.

  9. Construction of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) DNA vaccine and its protective efficiency on the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) challenged with Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haiyang; Zhu, Fan; Huang, Yucong; Ding, Yu; Jian, Jichang; Wu, Zaohe

    2017-01-01

    The main aims of this study were to construct glutathione peroxidase (GPx) DNA vaccine of Vibrio harveyi ZJ0603 and to investigate its immune protective efficiency as a vaccine candidate on the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) treated with V. harveyi. Base on the cloning of ZJ0603 GPx gene, a DNA vaccine, named as pcDNA-GPx, was constructed by inserting GPx gene into pcDNA3.1 (+) plasmid. Orange-spotted groupers were immunized with the pcDNA-GPx plasmid by injection intramuscularly. The relative percent of survival (RPS) of fish vaccinated with the DNA vaccine against pathogenic V. harveyi infection was 77.5%. The expression of DNA vaccine was analyzed in the tissues of orange-spotted grouper by PCR and RT-PCR. The results indicated that pcDNA-GPx distributed and expressed in the head kidney, liver, spleen, gill and injected muscle at 7 and 28 days after vaccination. Significant specific antibody responses were also detected in the vaccinated orange-spotted groupers by indirect ELISA method. In a conclusion, DNA vaccine pcDNA-GPx showed an effective immune protection to the orange-spotted grouper treated with V. harveyi. The GPx can be used as a candidate DNA vaccine for the control of vibriosis.

  10. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) genes from grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Xu, Meng; Wei, Jingguang; Chen, Xiuli; Gao, Pin; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is a group of proteins binding to lysine residues of target proteins and thereby modifying their stability, activity and subcellular localization. In the present study, two SUMO homolog genes (EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2) from grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were cloned and characterized. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO1 was 749 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 306 bp encoding 101 amino acids with a molecular mass of 11.34 kDa. The full-length sequence of EcSUMO2 was 822 bp in length and contained a predicted open reading frame of 291 bp encoding 96 amino acids with a molecular mass of 10.88 kDa EcSUMO1 shares 44.55% identity with EcSUMO2. EcSUMO1 shares 99%, 90%, and 88% identity with those from Oreochromis niloticus, Danio rerio, and Homo sapiens, respectively. EcSUMO2 shares 98%, 93%, and 96% identity with those from Anoplopoma fimbria, D.rerio, and H. sapiens, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis indicated that EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were constitutively expressed in all of the analyzed tissues in healthy grouper, but the expression of EcSUMO2 was higher than that of EcSUMO1. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were identified as a remarkably (P < 0.01) up-regulated responding to poly(I:C) and Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) stimulation in head kidney of groupers. EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 were distributed in both cytoplasm and nucleus in GS cells. Over-expressed EcSUMO1 and EcSUMO2 enhanced SGIV and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) replication during viral infection in vitro. Our study was an important attempt to understand the SUMO pathway in fish, which may provide insights into the regulatory mechanism of viral infection in E.coioides under farmed conditions.

  11. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  12. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  13. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  14. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  15. Nucleotide degradation and biogenic amine formation of wild white grouper (Epinephelus aeneus) stored in ice and at chill temperature (4°C).

    PubMed

    Özogul, Fatih; Özogul, Yesim; Kuley, Esmeray

    2008-06-01

    Sensory (cooked and uncooked), chemical (proximate composition, TVB-N, nucleotide degradation products and biogenic amines) and microbiological quality (TVC and total coliform) changes were investigated during storage of ungutted white grouper kept in ice and at chill temperature (4°C). According to the sensory assessment, the shelf life of white grouper was 16 days in ice and 4 days for fish stored at chill temperature. TVB-N values increased with storage time. Amines found in white grouper stored in ice were TMA, putrescine, cadaverine, 2-phenylethylamine, dopamine, agmatine, tryptamine and serotonin. Histamine, spermine, spermidine were never detected with either storage condition. The acceptability limit in terms of microbial count was exceeded at 8 days in ice and at 4 days for fish stored at chill temperature. Total coliform count was 2.8log10cfu/ml at 1 day and reached 10(5)cfu/ml for both storage conditions.

  16. Cloning of the Major Capsid Protein (MCP) of Grouper Iridovirus of Taiwan (TGIV) and Preliminary Evaluation of a Recombinant MCP Vaccine against TGIV

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hsin-I; Chiou, Pinwen Peter; Gong, Hong-Yi; Chou, Hsin-Yiu

    2015-01-01

    Fish iridoviruses cause systemic diseases with high mortality in various species of wild and farm-raised fish, resulting in severe economic losses. In 1998, we isolated a new epizootic iridovirus in cultured grouper (Epinephelus sp.) in Taiwan, thus named as grouper iridovirus of Taiwan (TGIV). We report here the cloning of TGIV major capsid protein (MCP). Phylogenetic analysis of the iridoviral MCPs confirmed the classification of TGIV into the Megalocytivirus genus. Recombinant TGIV MCP and GIV MCP were then generated to produce polyclonal antibodies. Western blot analysis revealed that the two antisera were species-specific, indicating no common epitope shared by the MCPs of the two viruses. We further assayed the potency of a subunit vaccine containing recombinant TGIV MCP. The vaccine effectively protected grouper from TGIV infection. The result demonstrated that MCP is a suitable antigen for anti-TGIV vaccines. PMID:26633384

  17. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  18. Primary male development of two sequentially hermaphroditic groupers, Epinephelus akaara and Epinephelus awoara (Perciformes: Epinephelidae).

    PubMed

    Liu, M; Wang, Y-Y; Shan, X-J; Kang, B; Ding, S-X

    2016-04-01

    Gonad ontogeny of the Hong Kong grouper Epinephelus akaara (a bi-directional sex changer) and the yellow grouper Epinephelus awoara (a protogynous hermaphrodite) was examined for the first time from post-larval phase until first sexual maturation, by histology. Approximately 20 specimens of each species were collected randomly every 2-7 weeks from rearing tanks with natural sea water and temperature between June 2013 and June 2014. The paired gonadal primordia (GP) were observed at 6 weeks after hatching (wah) for both species; however, gonia were first observed in GP at 16 wah for E. akaara and at 8 wah for E. awoara. The timings for the appearance of primary-growth stage oocytes (O1) and the completion of ovarian lumen (OL) varied; both at 27 wah for E. akaara, and at 18 and 23 wah for E. awoara respectively. A bisexual-phase gonad with an OL, O1 and scattered spermatogenic cysts (SC) was observed at 27-29 wah for both E. akaara and E. awoara. Sexual differentiation was subsequently observed from the bisexual-phase gonad at 34 wah for E. akaara, and 41 wah for E. awoara, with the appearance of cortical-alveolus stage oocytes (O2) for developing female and the proliferation of SC for developing primary male (i.e. from juvenile directly). Ovaries of mature females contained the vitellogenic stage oocytes (O3) and scattered SC; testes of mature primary males had sperm in sperm sinuses within the gonadal wall and remained O1. Minimum age of first sexual maturation for both female and primary male of E. akaara was at 41 wah; minimum total length (LT ) of female (143 mm) was larger than that of primary male (137 mm L(T)). Minimum age and size of first sexual maturation for female of E. awoara (47 wah and 149 mm L(T), respectively) were larger than those of E. akaara. Developing primary males of E. awoara were found at 41-58 wah, however, mature males were not observed, indicating inconsistency in first sexual maturation for E. awoara. This

  19. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) BCR signaling pathway was involved in response against Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ze-Quan; Yang, Man; Wang, Hai-Qing; Xu, Yang; Huang, Mian-Zhi; Lao, Guo-Feng; Li, Yan-Wei; Li, An-Xing; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-10-01

    B cell antigen receptor (BCR) plays a crucial role in B cell development and antibody production. It comprises membrane immunoglobulin non-covalently associated with CD79a/CD79b heterodimer. After B cell activation, initial extracellular signals are transduced by BCR complex and amplified by two protein tyrosine kinases, LYN and SYK, which then trigger various pathways. In the present study, we cloned grouper genes for BCR accessory molecules, EcCD79a (669 bp) and EcCD79b (639 bp), as well as two protein tyrosine kinases, EcLYN (1482 bp) and EcSYK (1854 bp). Homology analysis showed that all four molecules had a relatively high amino acid identity compared with those in other animals. Among them, they all shared the highest identity with Takifugu rubripes (EcCD79a 49%, EcCD79b 52%, EcLYN 82% and EcSYK 77%). The conserved features and important functional residues were analyzed. Together with IgM and IgT, tissue distribution analysis showed that all six molecules were mainly expressed in immune organs, particularly systematic immune organs. In groupers infected with Cryptocaryon irritans, up-regulation of EcCD79a and b, EcIgM and EcIgT were not seen in the early stage skin and gill until 14-21 days. Up-regulation of EcCD79a was seen in head kidney at most time points, while EcCD79a and b were only significantly up-regulated in day 14 spleen. Significant up-regulation of EcIgT were seen in day 21 head kidney and day 1, day14 spleen. Significant up-regulation of EcIgM were seen in day 1 head kidney and 12 h spleen. In addition, two protein kinase genes, EcLYN and EcSYK, were up-regulated in the skin at most time points, which suggested that B cells may be activated at the skin local infection site.

  20. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TCR signaling pathway was involved in response against Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    PubMed

    Li, Ze-Xiang; Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Shun; Xu, Yang; Mo, Ze-Quan; Dan, Xue-Ming; Luo, Xiao-Chun

    2017-03-07

    T cell activation is a complicated process accompanying with the activation of T cell receptor (TCR) signaling pathway, which is not well described in teleost fish. The initiation of this pathway depends on the interaction of membrane TCR co-receptors (e.g. CD4/8, CD3 and CD45) and a series of cytoplasmic protein tyrosine kinases (e.g. Lck, Fyn and ZAP70). Cyptocaryon irritans is a ciliate pathogen of marine fish white spot disease causing huge economic lost in marine aquaculture. This parasite can infect fish gill and skin and is considered to be a good pathogen model for fish gill and skin mucosal immunity. Our previous studies showed the locally mucosal antibody response was important for fish defense against this parasite. While how TCR signaling pathway involved in T cell activation to help B cell activation in C. irritans infected fish is still not known. In the present study, we cloned a grouper TCR co-receptor gene EcCD3ε (537 bp) and its three kinase genes, including EcLck (1512 bp), EcFyn (1605 bp) and EcZAP70 (1893 bp). Homology analysis showed that they all shared the highest identity with corresponding genes from Takifugu rubripes (EcCD3ε 41%, EcLck 88%, EcFyn 98% and EcZAP70 93%), and their conserved motifs involved in the signaling transduction were analyzed. The tissue distribution analysis showed these four genes were high expressed in thymus, and it is interesting to find their comparative high expression in skin, gill and midgut mucosal immune tissues. In C. irritans infected grouper, the expression of three TCR co-receptors (EcCD4-1, EcCD3ε and EcCD45) and three kinases (EcLck, EcFyn and EcZAP70) was tested in skin, gill, head kidney and spleen at 0, 12 h, 24 h, 2 d, 3 d, 5 d and 7 d. All six genes were significantly up-regulated in skin at most tested time points, which indicate the possibility of skin local T cell activation to support the local antibody response. Compared to three TCR co-receptors, significantly up-regulation of three

  1. Modeling the potential spread of the recently identified non-native panther grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic using a cellular automaton approach.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew W; Purkis, Sam J

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species.

  2. Modeling the Potential Spread of the Recently Identified Non-Native Panther Grouper (Chromileptes altivelis) in the Atlantic Using a Cellular Automaton Approach

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Matthew W.; Purkis, Sam J.

    2013-01-01

    The Indo-pacific panther grouper (Chromileptes altiveli) is a predatory fish species and popular imported aquarium fish in the United States which has been recently documented residing in western Atlantic waters. To date, the most successful marine invasive species in the Atlantic is the lionfish (Pterois volitans/miles), which, as for the panther grouper, is assumed to have been introduced to the wild through aquarium releases. However, unlike lionfish, the panther grouper is not yet thought to have an established breeding population in the Atlantic. Using a proven modeling technique developed to track the lionfish invasion, presented is the first known estimation of the potential spread of panther grouper in the Atlantic. The employed cellular automaton-based computer model examines the life history of the subject species including fecundity, mortality, and reproductive potential and combines this with habitat preferences and physical oceanic parameters to forecast the distribution and periodicity of spread of this potential new invasive species. Simulations were examined for origination points within one degree of capture locations of panther grouper from the United States Geological Survey Nonindigenous Aquatic Species Database to eliminate introduction location bias, and two detailed case studies were scrutinized. The model indicates three primary locations where settlement is likely given the inputs and limits of the model; Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach, the Cape Hatteras Tropical Limit/Myrtle Beach South Carolina, and Florida Keys/Ten Thousand Islands locations. Of these locations, Jupiter Florida/Vero Beach has the highest settlement rate in the model and is indicated as the area in which the panther grouper is most likely to become established. This insight is valuable if attempts are to be made to halt this potential marine invasive species. PMID:24009726

  3. Differential expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone beta subunit in gonads during sex reversal of orange-spotted and red-spotted groupers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Li; Yao, Bo; Li, Chuang-Ju; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2004-05-31

    We have cloned and characterized the full-length cDNA encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone beta-subunit (TSHbeta) from orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides. It contains 913 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 146 amino acids with a 20 amino acid signal peptide. The grouper mature TSHbeta has 75, 70, 61, 59, 41, 42 and 40% identities to that of rainbow trout, Atlantic salmon, zebrafish, European eel, chicken, mouse and human, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the TSHbeta mRNA was expressed abundantly not only in pituitary but also in gonads. A more interesting finding is to reveal the differential TSHbeta expressions between the ovaries and the transitional gonads or testes in natural individuals of orange-spotted grouper and red-spotted grouper Epinephelus akaara, and in artificial sex reversal individuals of red-spotted grouper induced by MT feeding. In situ hybridization localization provided direct evidence that the TSHbeta was transcribed in the germ cells. In the growing oocytes, the TSHbeta transcripts were concentrated on the ooplasm periphery. In testicular tissues, the intensively expressed TSHbeta cells were found to be spermatogonia and spermatocytes in the spermatogenic cysts. This is the first report of a TSHbeta expressed in the gonads of any vertebrates in addition to the expected expression in the pituitary, and it expresses more transcripts in the gonads during sex reversal or testis than in the ovaries both in E. coioides and E. akaara. Importantly, the TSHbeta identification in germ cells allows us to further investigate the functional roles and the molecular mechanisms in gametogenesis of groupers, especially in sex reversal and in spermatogenesis.

  4. Temporal and spatial mapping of red grouper Epinephelus morio sound production.

    PubMed

    Wall, C C; Simard, P; Lindemuth, M; Lembke, C; Naar, D F; Hu, C; Barnes, B B; Muller-Karger, F E; Mann, D A

    2014-11-01

    The goals of this project were to determine the daily, seasonal and spatial patterns of red grouper Epinephelus morio sound production on the West Florida Shelf (WFS) using passive acoustics. An 11 month time series of acoustic data from fixed recorders deployed at a known E. morio aggregation site showed that E. morio produce sounds throughout the day and during all months of the year. Increased calling (number of files containing E. morio sound) was correlated to sunrise and sunset, and peaked in late summer (July and August) and early winter (November and December). Due to the ubiquitous production of sound, large-scale spatial mapping across the WFS of E. morio sound production was feasible using recordings from shorter duration-fixed location recorders and autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). Epinephelus morio were primarily recorded in waters 15-93 m deep, with increased sound production detected in hard bottom areas and within the Steamboat Lumps Marine Protected Area (Steamboat Lumps). AUV tracks through Steamboat Lumps, an offshore marine reserve where E. morio hole excavations have been previously mapped, showed that hydrophone-integrated AUVs could accurately map the location of soniferous fish over spatial scales of <1 km. The results show that passive acoustics is an effective, non-invasive tool to map the distribution of this species over large spatial scales.

  5. MS2Grouper: group assessment and synthetic replacement of duplicate proteomic tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Tabb, David L; Thompson, Melissa R; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; McDonald, W Hayes

    2005-08-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments require the collection of thousands of tandem mass spectra; these sets of data will continue to grow as new instruments become available that can scan at even higher rates. Such data contain substantial amounts of redundancy with spectra from a particular peptide being acquired many times during a single LC-MS/MS experiment. In this article, we present MS2Grouper, an algorithm that detects spectral duplication, assesses groups of related spectra, and replaces these groups with synthetic representative spectra. Errors in detecting spectral similarity are corrected using a paraclique criterion-spectra are only assessed as groups if they are part of a clique of at least three completely interrelated spectra or are subsequently added to such cliques by being similar to all but one of the clique members. A greedy algorithm constructs a representative spectrum for each group by iteratively removing the tallest peaks from the spectral collection and matching to peaks in the other spectra. This strategy is shown to be effective in reducing spectral counts by up to 20% in LC-MS/MS datasets from protein standard mixtures and proteomes, reducing database search times without a concomitant reduction in identified peptides.

  6. Singapore grouper iridovirus protein VP088 is essential for viral infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yongming; Wang, Yunzhi; Liu, Qizhi; Zhu, Feng; Hong, Yunhan

    2016-01-01

    Viral infection is a great challenge in healthcare and agriculture. The Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) is highly infectious to numerous marine fishes and increasingly threatens mariculture and wildlife conservation. SGIV intervention is not available because little is known about key players and their precise roles in SGVI infection. Here we report the precise role of VP088 as a key player in SGIV infection. VP088 was verified as an envelope protein encoded by late gene orf088. We show that SGIV could be neutralized with an antibody against VP088. Depletion or deletion of VP088 significantly suppresses SGIV infection without altering viral gene expression and host responses. By precisely quantifying the genome copy numbers of host cells and virions, we reveal that VP088 deletion dramatically reduces SGIV infectivity through inhibiting virus entry without altering viral pathogenicity, genome stability and replication and progeny virus release. These results pinpoint that VP088 is a key player in SGIV entry and represents an ideal target for SGIV intervention. PMID:27498856

  7. Taxonomic relationship among seven species of groupers (genus Epinephelus; family Serranidae) as revealed by RAPD fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Govindaraju, G S; Jayasankar, P

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic identification of groupers of the genus Epinephelus is based on color patterns and a suite of morphologic characters. However, these characters often show intraspecific variations and differences between juveniles and adults of the same species. The present work is an attempt to study and ratify the status of Epinephelus spp. using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis based on samples drawn from southeast and southwest coasts of India. The RAPD fingerprints generated in Epinephelus diacanthus, E. areolatus, E. chlorostigma, E. bleekeri, E. coioides, E. tauvina, and E. malabaricus with 4 primers (OPA 01, OPA 07, OPF 08, and OPF 10) were consistent, reproducible, and yielded species-specific diagnostic markers in all the species. A total of 59 RAPD loci in the size range of 70 to 4500 bp were produced from all 4 arbitrary primers. An unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendogram was constructed based on genetic distance values to show the genetic relationships among the 7 species. All the individuals of each species formed monophyletic species clusters. The mean intraspecies genetic distance value (0.305) was significantly lower than the interspecies value (0.365). Epinephelus malabaricus was most distantly related to E. diacanthus and E. bleekeri. The genetic relationship was very close among E. coioides, E. tauvina, and E. malabaricus and also between E. chlorostigma and E. bleekeri. Within-species genetic polymorphism was highest in E. chlorostigma (49.15%) and lowest in E. tauvina (25.42%).

  8. Dynamic camouflage by Nassau groupers Epinephelus striatus on a Caribbean coral reef.

    PubMed

    Watson, A C; Siemann, L A; Hanlon, R T

    2014-11-01

    This field study describes the camouflage pattern repertoire, associated behaviours and speed of pattern change of Nassau groupers Epinephelus striatus at Little Cayman Island, British West Indies. Three basic camouflaged body patterns were observed under natural conditions and characterized quantitatively. The mean speed of pattern change across the entire body was 4.44 s (range = 0.97-9.87 s); the fastest pattern change as well as contrast change within a fixed pattern occurred within 1 s. Aside from apparent defensive camouflage, E. striatus used camouflage offensively to approach crustacean or fish prey, and three successful predation events were recorded. Although animal camouflage is a widespread tactic, dynamic camouflage is relatively uncommon and has been studied rarely in marine teleosts under natural conditions. The rapid changes observed in E. striatus suggest direct neural control of some skin colouration elements, and comparative studies of functional morphology and behaviour of colour change in other coral-reef teleosts are likely to reveal new mechanisms and adaptations of dynamic colouration.

  9. Fate of redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) in experimentally challenged Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum.

    PubMed

    Volpe, E; Pagnini, N; Serratore, P; Ciulli, S

    2017-06-19

    Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), genus Betanodavirus, family Nodaviridae, is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (otherwise known as viral nervous necrosis) and can infect several fish species worldwide. Betanodaviruses, including RGNNV, are very resilient in the aquatic environment, and their presence has already been reported in several wild marine species including invertebrates. In order to investigate the interaction between a bivalve mollusc (Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum) and RGNNV, we optimised a culture-based method. The bioaccumulation of the pathogenic RGNNV by R. philippinarum and the potential shedding of viable RGNNV from RGNNV-exposed clams were evaluated through a culture-based method. R. philippinarum clearly accumulated viable RGNNV in their hepatopancreatic tissue and were able to release viable RGNNV via faecal matter and filtered water into the surrounding environment. The role of clams as bioaccumulators and shedders of viable RGGNV could put susceptible cohabiting cultured fish at risk. RGNNV-contaminated molluscs could behave as reservoirs for this virus and may modify the virus epidemiology.

  10. Parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? An example from tropical grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palm, H W; Kleinertz, S; Rückert, S

    2011-11-01

    Fish parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in Indonesia. A total of 210 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. The fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. The fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. The ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the monogeneans Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (83-100% prevalence, Berger-Parker Index of 0·82-0·97) being the predominant taxon. Tetraphyllidean larvae Scolex pleuronectis and the nematodes Terranova sp. and Raphidascaris sp. 1 were highly abundant in 2003/04-2005/06 (max. prevalence S. pleuronectis 40%, Terranova sp. 57%, Raphidascaris sp. 1 100%), and drastically reduced until 2008/09. These parasites together with the prevalence of Trichodina spp., ecto-/endoparasite ratio and endoparasite diversity illustrate a significant change in holding conditions over the years. This can be either referred to a definite change in management methods such as feed use and fish treatment, or a possible transition of a relatively undisturbed marine environment into a more affected habitat. By visualizing all parameters within a single diagram, we demonstrate that fish parasites are useful bioindicators to monitor long-term change in Indonesian grouper mariculture. This also indicates that groupers can be used to monitor environmental change in the wild. Further taxonomic and systematic efforts in less sampled regions significantly contributes to this new application, supporting fish culture and environmental impact monitoring also in other tropical marine habitats.

  11. Pseudorhabdosynochus quadratus n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus (Bloch) (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-05-01

    Pseudorhabdosynochus quadratus n. sp. is described from three specimens collected from the gills of a rarely examined fish, the white-streaked grouper Epinephelus ongus (Bloch), caught off Nouméa, New Caledonia. The description is based on Berlese slides and observations of live specimens; the soft parts are not described in detail. The species is characterised by a compact, sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, short primary canal, two closely associated chambers linked by a very short secondary canal and small accessory structure.

  12. Identification and characterization of three TLR1 subfamily members from the orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan-Wei; Xu, Dong-Dong; Li, Xia; Mo, Ze-Quan; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Li, An-Xing; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2016-08-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which play important roles in host defense against pathogen infection, are the most intensively studied pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). In this study, we identified three novel TLR1 subfamily members, including TLR1 (EcTLR1b), TLR2 (EcTLR2b) and TLR14 (EcTLR14), from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b displayed low sequence identity with the previously reported grouper TLR1 (EcTLR1a) and TLR2 (EcTLR2a), respectively. The open reading frames (ORFs) of EcTLR1b, EcTLR2b and EcTLR14 contain 2484 bp, 2394 bp and 2640 bp, which encode the corresponding 827 amino acids (aa), 797 aa and 879 aa, respectively. All three TLRs have leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains (including an LRR-NT (except for EcTLR1b), several LRR motifs and an LRR-CT), a trans-membrane region and a Toll/interleukin-1 receptor (TIR) domain. The TIR domains of the three TLRs exhibited conserved boxes, namely box1, box2 and box3, and their 3D models were similar to those of human TLR1 or TLR2. Sequence alignment demonstrated that the TIR domains of the three TLRs shared higher sequence identity with those of other species than the full-length receptors. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that EcTLR1s and EcTLR2s are characterized by their differing evolutionary status, whereas EcTLR14 was found to be in the same group as other piscine TLR14/18s. The three TLRs were ubiquitously expressed in seven tested tissues of healthy groupers, although their expression profiles were different. Post Cryptocaryon irritans infection, TLR1s expression was up-regulated in the gills. The expression of TLR2b was mainly increased in the spleen, but decreased in the gills, which was similar to the expression pattern of TLR2a post C. irritans infection. Unlike EcTLR1b and EcTLR2b, however, the grouper TLR14 transcript was substantially induced in both tissues post challenge. These findings may be helpful in understanding the innate immune mechanism of host

  13. Acoustic telemetry survey of the dusky grouper (Epinephelus marginatus) in the Marine Reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls: informations on the territoriality of this emblematic species.

    PubMed

    Pastor, Jérémy; Verdoit-Jarraya, Marion; Astruch, Patrick; Dalias, Nicolas; Nelva Pasqual, Jean-Sébastien; Saragoni, Gilles; Lenfant, Philippe

    2009-08-01

    The Marine Reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls represents a refuge for dusky grouper populations (Epinephelus marginatus). Density survey and observation of the reproductive behavior of this species have been conducted there for the last 30 years. However, information on the behavior or habitat utilization for this species during winter time is limited. We conducted acoustic telemetry surveys from September 2005 to June 2006 in the Marine Reserve of Cerbère-Banyuls for a dusky grouper population. Six groupers were tagged and followed within the integral reserve and in the adjacent partial reserve. The results from the tracking of these individuals indicated that the largest dusky groupers are sedentary fishes with a high degree of site fidelity and a high sensitivity to variations of environmental conditions such as storms. This together with the life history characteristics of this species encourages the conservation and the protection of essential habitats of this species. Acoustic tracking coupled to the use of a fixed Kernel can be proposed to follow fish populations.

  14. Innate immune responses and efficacy of using mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) on orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Sheng; Huang, Shih-Ling; Chen, Sherwin; Chen, Shiu-Nan

    2013-07-01

    This study attempts to describe the effects of innate immunity responses and field application of mushroom beta-glucan mixture (MBG) in cultured orange-sported grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Chemical analysis for MBG showed that the mixture contains 34.06% of macro-molecular polymers with bio-active linkage such as 3-; 3,4- and 4,6-glucopyranosyl and 6-linked galactopyranosyl residues. Study performed on the innate immunity showed that oral ingestion of MBG at 1.0 g and 2.0 g per kilogram of feed levels may significantly enhance the lysozyme activity, alternative complement activity, phagocytic activity and respiration burst of the experimental groupers. Observation on the experimental challenge of pathogen showed that uses of MBG at 0.1% and 0.2% levels in feed might significantly enhance the protection of grouper against Vibrio alginolyticus. Field trials performed on short and long-term culture showed that feeding of diet containing 0.1% or 0.2% of MBG may significantly enhance the survival of cultured groupers up to 16% when compared with those obtained from controls.

  15. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  16. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  17. Modeling Coral Reef Fish Home Range Movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Nicholas A.; Ault, Jerald S.

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28 ± 0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60 ± 0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06 ± 0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93 ± 1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72 ± 2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16 ± 1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods. PMID:24558320

  18. Modeling coral reef fish home range movements in Dry Tortugas, Florida.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Nicholas A; Ault, Jerald S

    2014-01-01

    Underestimation of reef fish space use may result in marine reserves that are too small to effectively buffer a portion of the stock from fishing mortality. Commonly used statistical home range models, such as minimum convex polygon (MCP) or 95% kernel density (95% KD) methods, require the exclusion of individuals who move beyond the bounds of the tracking study. Spatially explicit individual-based models of fish home range movements parameterized from multiple years of acoustic tracking data were developed for three exploited coral reef fishes (red grouper Epinephelus morio, black grouper Mycteroperca bonaci, and mutton snapper Lutjanus analis) in Dry Tortugas, Florida. Movements were characterized as a combination of probability of movement, distance moved, and turning angle. Simulations suggested that the limited temporal and geographic scope of most movement studies may underestimate home range size, especially for fish with home range centers near the edges of the array. Simulations provided useful upper bounds for home range size (red grouper: 2.28±0.81 km2 MCP, 3.60±0.89 km2 KD; black grouper: 2.06±0.84 km2 MCP, 3.93±1.22 km2 KD; mutton snapper: 7.72±2.23 km2 MCP, 6.16±1.11 km2 KD). Simulations also suggested that MCP home ranges are more robust to artifacts of passive array acoustic detection patterns than 95% KD methods.

  19. Hybridisation among groupers (genus Cephalopholis) at the eastern Indian Ocean suture zone: taxonomic and evolutionary implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payet, Samuel D.; Hobbs, Jean-Paul A.; DiBattista, Joseph D.; Newman, Stephen J.; Sinclair-Taylor, Tane; Berumen, Michael L.; McIlwain, Jennifer L.

    2016-12-01

    Hybridisation is a significant evolutionary process that until recently was considered rare in the marine environment. A suture zone in the eastern Indian Ocean is home to numerous hybridising sister species, providing an ideal opportunity to determine how hybridisation affects speciation and biodiversity in coral reef fishes. At this location, hybridisation between two grouper (Epinephelidae) species: Cephalopholis urodeta (Pacific Ocean) and C. nigripinnis (Indian Ocean) was investigated to determine the genetic basis of hybridisation and to compare the ecology and life history of hybrids and their parent species. This approach aimed to provide insights into the taxonomic and evolutionary consequences of hybridisation. Despite clear phenotypic differences, multiple molecular markers revealed hybrids, and their parent species were genetically homogenous within and (thousands of kilometres) outside of the hybrid zone. Hybrids were at least as fit as their parent species (in terms of growth, reproduction, and abundance) and were observed in a broad range of intermediate phenotypes. The two species appear to be interbreeding at Christmas Island due to inherent biological and ecological compatibilities, and the lack of genetic structure may be explained by three potential scenarios: (1) hybridisation and introgression; (2) discordance between morphology and genetics; and (3) incomplete lineage sorting. Further molecular analyses are necessary to discriminate these scenarios. Regardless of which applies, C. urodeta and C. nigripinnis are unlikely to evolve in reproductive isolation as they cohabit where they are common (Christmas Island) and will source congeneric mates where they are rare (Cocos Keeling Islands). Our results add to the growing body of evidence that hybridisation among coral reef fishes is a dynamic evolutionary factor.

  20. Parasites of the grouper fish Epinephelus coioides (Serranidae) as potential environmental indicators in Indonesian coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Kleinertz, S; Palm, H W

    2015-01-01

    A total of 195 Epinephelus coioides (Hamilton, 1822) were studied for fish parasites from Javanese (Segara Anakan lagoon) and Balinese waters. Up to 25 different parasite species belonging to the following taxa: one Ciliata, one Microsporea, five Digenea, one Monogenea, four Cestoda, four Nematoda, one Acanthocephala, one Hirudinea and seven Crustacea were identified with four new host and locality records. The dominant parasites included the monogenean Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis (53.3-97.1%), the nematode Spirophilometra endangae (23.3-42.9%), the digenean Didymodiclinus sp. (2.9-40.0%), the nematodes Philometra sp. (22.6-34.3%) and Raphidascaris sp. (2.9-28.6%), and the isopod Alcirona sp. (6.7-31.4%). Regional differences for E. coioides were found in terms of endoparasite diversity, total diversity according to Shannon-Wiener, Simpson index and Evenness. A comparison with published data from Sumatera revealed highest endoparasite diversity (Shannon-Wiener: 1.86/1.67-2.04) and lowest ectoparasite/endoparasite ratio (0.73/0.57-0.88) off the Balinese coast, followed by Lampung Bay, Sumatera (1.84; 0.67), off the coast of Segara Anakan lagoon (1.71; 0.71), and in the lagoon (0.30/0.19-0.66; 0.85/0.67-1.00). The presented data demonstrate the natural range of these parameters and parasite prevalences according to habitat and region, allowing adjustment of the scale that has been used in the visual integration of the parasite parameters into a star graph. The parasite fauna of E. coioides in Segara Anakan lagoon 'improved' from 2004 until 2008/09, possibly related to earlier oil spill events in 2002 and 2004. The use of grouper fish parasites as an early warning system for environmental change in Indonesian coastal ecosystems is discussed.

  1. Optimum temperature for the growth performance of juvenile orange-spotted grouper ( Epinephelus coioides H.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Xiangzhi; Xie, Shouqi; Su, Yongquan; Cui, Yibo

    2008-02-01

    Effects of water temperature (17, 21, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body size (14.75-281.41 g initial body weight) on food consumption, growth, feed conversion, and dry matter content in orange-spotted grouper fed to satiation were investigated. The combined effect of temperature ( T, °C) and body weight ( W, g) on maximum food consumption ( C max, g/day) was described as: ln C max=-7.411+0.828 ln W+0.317 T-0.004 7 T 2, and the optimum feeding temperature was 33.9°C. The combined effect of temperature and body weight on growth ( G) was described as: ln G=-4.461-0.208ln W+0.394 T-0.006 3 T 2. The optimum growth temperature was 31.4°C, whereas overall growth rates were high at 25, 30 and 35 °C. Feed conversion efficiencies ( FCE, %), increasing first and then decreasing with increasing temperature, averaged from 1.8 to 2.1 in terms of dry weight of food fish. The optimum temperature for FCE tended to be lower than that for growth or feeding. Dry matter content increased with both increasing water temperature (17, 25, 30 and 35°C) and body weight, and the combined effect of temperature and body weight on dry matter content ( DM, %) was described as: ln DM=3.232+0.01 4 ln W-0.004 4 T+0.001 2 Tln W.

  2. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-01-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development. PMID:27660824

  3. Early Osteological Development of Larvae and Juveniles in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara (Pisces: Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Myeong, Jeong In; Park, Jae Min

    2016-06-01

    We observed the osteological development of larval and juvenile red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) in order to generate data for the assessment of skeletal deformities and to inform phylogenetic systematics research. Larvae and juveniles were obtained from a aquafarm in Muan-gun, Jeolla-namdo Province, Korea. The average water temperature at the time of breeding was 23.0°C and average water salinity was 33.0 psu. Freshly hatched fish larvae had not undergone any ossification, but ossification of the parasphenoid bone, which forms the base of the cranium, occurred as the juveniles reached an average body length (BL) of 2.49 mm. At the same time, ossification of the preopercle and opercle occurred in the operculum, and ossification of the maxilla, which forms the upper jaw, and the dentary bones, which form the lower jaw, began. In addition, ossification of the vertebra occurred by formation of 7 vertebral centra and the neural spine in the abdominal vertebra. When the juveniles reached an average (BL) of 5.22 mm, ossification of the nasal, lateral ethmoid, and alisphenoid bones occurred in the cranium; ossification of the endopterygoid and metapterygoid bones began in the palatine region; and ossification of the hypohyal and interhyal bones occurred in the hyoid arch. At an average (BL) of 20.9 mm, ossification of the basisphenoid bone in the cranium and the suborbital bone in the orbital region occurred. Ossification of the vertebra then occurred by the formation of long pairs of ribs from the third to the ninth abdominal vertebrae, completing osteological development.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of PTEN in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Xie, Ren-Chong; Xie, Fu-Xing; Kong, Jing-Rong; Xiao, Yu-Chao; Huang, Di; Sun, Zuo-Ming; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Cong

    2016-11-01

    PTEN is a key tumor suppressor gene that can play a regulatory role in the cellular proliferation, survival and apoptosis. In this study, the full-length PTEN (EcPTEN) was obtained, containing a 5'UTR of 745 bp, an ORF of 1269 bp and a 3'UTR of 106 bp. The EcPTEN gene encoded a polypeptide of 422 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 49.14 KDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.34. The deduced amino acid sequence analysis showed that EcPTEN comprised the conserved residues and the characteristic domains known to the critical functionality of PTEN. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that EcPTEN mRNA was broadly expressed in all the examined tissues, while the highest expression level was observed in liver, followed by the expression in blood, kidney, spleen, heart, gill, muscle and intestine. The groupers challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus showed a sharp increase of EcPTEN mRNA expression in immune tissues. In addition, western blotting analysis confirmed that the up-regulation of EcPTEN protein expression was steadily induced in liver. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that EcPTEN was localized in both nucleus and cytoplasm. Overexpression of EcPTEN can activate the apoptotic cascade and abrogate NF-kB, AP-1, Stat3 and Myc promoter activity in Hela cells. These results indicated that EcPTEN harboring highly-conserved domains with a close sequence similarity to those of PTP superfamily may disrupt the mammalian signalings and play a regulatory role in the apoptotic process.

  5. Reproductive movement, residency and fisheries vulnerability of brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (Forsskål, 1775)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, K. L.; McIlwain, J.; Joseph, E.; Nemeth, R. S.

    2012-06-01

    The brown-marbled grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, is a long-lived, late-maturing protogynous species listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. In Pohnpei, Micronesia, reproductively active brown-marbled grouper were tagged with acoustic and spaghetti-type tags at a multi-species fish spawning aggregation (FSA) site to establish patterns of movement, residency and seasonality. Telemetry confirmed the use of common reproductive migratory corridors and significant sex-specific variations in residency at the FSA. Combined underwater visual census and telemetry data verified a 3-month peak aggregation period, with aggregations forming and persisting over ca . 12 days prior to full moon between January and May. FSA formation coincided with seasonally low and relatively stable seawater temperatures. Some males frequented the FSA site during each aggregation month over two consecutive years. Conversely, most females were present at the FSA during only a single aggregation period, with the month of visitation consistent among years. Nearly two-thirds of tagged fish were relocated or recaptured within 11 km of the aggregation site, with a maximum detected distance of 26 km and a minimum estimated catchment area of 100-175 km2. Findings highlight the need for a combined approach to management that prohibits the capture and sale of reproductive adults and protects both spawning sites and common reproductive migratory corridors during aggregation periods.

  6. cDNA cloning and mRNA expression of neuropeptide Y in orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rong; Li, Wensheng; Lin, Haoran

    2005-09-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding the neuropeptide Y (NPY) was cloned from the hypothalamus of orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) by rapid amplification of cDNA ends approaches. The NPY cDNA sequence is 688 bp long and has an open reading frame of 300 bp encoding prepro-NPY with 99 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences contain a 28-amino-acids signal peptide followed by a 36-amino-acids mature NPY peptide. mRNA expression of NPY was determined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR followed by Southern blot analysis. NPY mRNA was expressed in olfactory bulb, telencephalon, pituitary, hypothalamus, optic tectum-thalamus, medulla oblongata, cerebellum and spinal cord. Low levels of NPY mRNA expression were found in retina, ovary and stomach, while much lower levels of expression were detected in liver, heart, gill, skin, anterior intestine, thymus and blood. No NPY mRNA expression was observed in unfertilized eggs, newly fertilized eggs, 16-cells stage and morula stage of the embryo and lower levels of expression were detected in the blastula, gastrula and neurula stages. It was highly expressed from lens formation stage to 52-day-old larval stage. NPY might be involved in the late embryonic and larval development of the orange spotted grouper.

  7. Nucleic acids digestion by enzymes in the stomach of snakehead (Channa argus) and banded grouper (Epinephelus awoara).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu; Zhang, Yanfang; Jiang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Pan, Xiaoming; Wu, Wei; Cao, Minjie; Dong, Ping; Liang, Xingguo

    2017-02-01

    Dietary nucleic acids (NAs) were important nutrients. However, the digestion of NAs in stomach has not been studied. In this study, the digestion of NAs by enzymes from fish stomach was investigated. The snakehead pepsins (SP) which were the main enzymes in stomach were extracted and purified. The purity of SP was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and HPLC. The snakehead pepsin 2 (SP2) which was the main component in the extracts was used for investigating the protein and NAs digestion activity. SP2 could digest NAs, including λ DNA and salmon sperm DNA. Interestingly, the digestion could be inhibited by treatment of alkaline solution at pH 8.0 and pepstatin A, and the digestion could happen either in the presence or absence of hemoglobin (Hb) and BSA as the protein substrates. Similarly, the stomach enzymes of banded grouper also showed the NAs digestion activity. NAs could be digested by the stomach enzymes of snakehead and banded grouper. It may be helpful for understanding both animal nutrition and NAs metabolic pathway.

  8. Investigating the origin of vagrant dusky groupers, Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834), in coastal waters of Réunion Island.

    PubMed

    Reid, Kerry; Crochelet, Estelle; Bloomer, Paulette; Hoareau, Thierry B

    2016-10-01

    Due to their geographic isolation, biotas of oceanic islands are likely influenced by episodic long distance dispersal events, but such observations are scarce. In June 2012, fishermen from Réunion Island caught an unknown specimen of grouper, identified as dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus (Lowe, 1834). This was highly unexpected considering the large distance of its closest verified occurrence (South Africa, ∼2500km). To identify the origin of this specimen and the mechanisms driving this potential long distance colonization, we combined genetic analyses and hydrodynamic connectivity modeling approaches. Molecular markers and samples from various locations across the distribution range resulted in the identification of three putative source populations. The Réunion specimen clustered genetically with South Africa. The estimated spawning period in relation to the connectivity modeling of larvae showed no possible direct connection between South Africa and Réunion. However, connectivity was predicted through intermediate stepping stone populations likely located around the southern tip of Madagascar, where the occurrence of the species has yet to be verified. The results further highlight the potential role of the cyclone Bingiza (February 2011) in the connection between Madagascar and Réunion. This shows that cyclones may be an important driver in long distance colonization of oceanic islands.

  9. Application of biomarkers in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) to assess chromium pollution in the Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Parvin; Kazerouni, Faranak; Savari, Ahmad; Movahedinia, Abdolali; Safahieh, Alireza; Ajdari, Daniel

    2015-06-15

    In the present study plasma levels of erythropoietin (EPO) hormone and kidney histological changes were assessed as biomarkers to evaluate the chromium pollution in Epaulet grouper (Epinephelus stoliczkae) obtained from different areas in Chabahar Bay and Gulf of Oman. Chemical analyses included the evaluation of chromium in the fish kidney tissue and sediment. The highest and lowest concentrations of chromium were measured in the kidney of fish and sediment collected from Konarak (47.53±1.23 and 110±1.4 μg g(-1)) and the mouth of Chabahar Bay (3.43±1.31 and 13.5±3.23 μg g(-1)), respectively. There was significant difference (P<0.05) of EPO plasma levels between Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations with the mouth of Chabahar Bay as the cleanest station. Reduction of Bowman's space, occlusion of the tubule lumen, leukocytes infiltration, melanomacrophage centers aggregation, nuclear vacuolation, nuclei hypertrophy of tubule cells, necrosis of the tubules, lifting of the tubular basement membrane and dilatation of glomerular capillaries were the most alterations observed in the kidney. The HAI values of Epaulet grouper from Konarak, Beris and Ramin stations were significantly higher than other stations (P<0.05). It was concluded that selected biomarkers as a first investigation could be useful tools to environmental biomonitoring programs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Outbreak of enteric microsporidiosis of hatchery-bred juvenile groupers, Epinephelus spp., associated with a new intranuclear microporidian in China.

    PubMed

    Xu, L-W; Liu, X-H; Zhang, J-Y; Liu, G-F; Feng, J

    2017-02-01

    A new enteric microsporidian was found to be associated with the mass mortality of hatchery-bred juvenile groupers, Epinephelus spp., in China. The outbreak usually occurred during the rainy season between May and November when water temperature ranged from 26 to 30 °C and salinity from 28 to 34 ppt, although this microsporidian can be detected year round. External clinical signs included severe emaciation, white faeces syndrome, anorexia, sinking to the bottom of culture ponds and mass mortality (up to 90%). Upon necropsy, severe intestinal oedema and thin and transparent intestinal wall could be observed. The mature spores are tiny, measuring 1.3-1.5 (1.35 ± 0.13) × 1.6-2.4 (2.16 ± 0.31) μm and can be found in the cytoplasm and the nucleoplasm of most enteric epithelial cells of host. Epidemiological investigation showed that this species was distributed throughout most of the culture area of grouper fingerlings in Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan and Guangxi provinces in China, with maximum prevalence of 95%. Molecular analysis based on the partial small subunit rRNA sequence (1045 bp) placed this species within the Enterocytozoonidae, but sequence identities to other species were below 90%. The exact taxonomic position warrants study of the ultrastructural characteristics of the developmental stages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. An Automated Microfluidic Chip System for Detection of Piscine Nodavirus and Characterization of Its Potential Carrier in Grouper Farms

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Hao-Hsuan; Lee, Szu-Hsien; Chen, Young-Mao; Tsai, Tieh-Jung; Ou, Ming-Chang; Ku, Hsiao-Tung; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2012-01-01

    Groupers of the Epinephelus spp. are an important aquaculture species of high economic value in the Asia Pacific region. They are susceptible to piscine nodavirus infection, which results in viral nervous necrosis disease. In this study, a rapid and sensitive automated microfluidic chip system was implemented for the detection of piscine nodavirus; this technology has the advantage of requiring small amounts of sample and has been developed and applied for managing grouper fish farms. Epidemiological investigations revealed an extremely high detection rate of piscine nodavirus (89% of fish samples) from 5 different locations in southern Taiwan. In addition, positive samples from the feces of fish-feeding birds indicated that the birds could be carrying the virus between fish farms. In the present study, we successfully introduced this advanced technology that combines engineering and biological approaches to aquaculture. In the future, we believe that this approach will improve fish farm management and aid in reducing the economic loss experienced by fish farmers due to widespread disease outbreaks. PMID:22912690

  12. The ups and downs of coral reef fishes: the genetic characteristics of a formerly severely overfished but currently recovering Nassau grouper fish spawning aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, A. M.; Feldheim, K. A.; Nemeth, R.; Kadison, E.; Blondeau, J.; Semmens, B. X.; Shivji, M. S.

    2016-03-01

    The Nassau grouper ( Epinephelus striatus) has sustained large declines across its distribution, including extirpation of many of its fish spawning aggregations (FSAs). Within US Virgin Islands (USVI) waters, Nassau grouper FSAs were overfished until their disappearance in the 1970s and 1980s. In the early 2000s, however, Nassau grouper were found gathering at Grammanik Bank, USVI, a mesophotic coral reef adjacent to one of the extinct aggregation sites, and regulatory protective measures were implemented to protect this fledgling FSA. The population genetic dynamics of this rapid FSA deterioration followed by protection-facilitated, incipient recovery are unknown. We addressed two objectives: (1) we explored which factors (i.e., local vs. external recruitment) might be key in shaping the USVI FSA recovery; and (2) we examined the consequences of severe past overfishing on this FSA's current genetic status. We genotyped individuals (15 microsatellites) from the USVI FSA comprising three successive spawning years (2008-2010), as well as individuals from a much larger, presumably less impacted, Nassau grouper FSA in the Cayman Islands, to assess their comparative population dynamics. No population structure was detected between the USVI and Cayman FSAs ( F ST = -0.0004); however, a temporally waning, genetic bottleneck signal was detected in the USVI FSA. Parentage analysis failed to identify any parent-offspring matches between USVI FSA adults and nearby juveniles, and relatedness analysis showed low levels of genetic relatedness among USVI FSA individuals. Genetic diversity across USVI FSA temporal collections was relatively high, and no marked differences were found between the USVI and Cayman FSAs. These collective results suggest that external recruitment is an important driver of the USVI FSA recovery. Furthermore, despite an apparent genetic bottleneck, the genetic diversity of USVI Nassau grouper has not been severely compromised. Our findings also provide a

  13. Molecular cloning, expression of orange-spotted grouper goose-type lysozyme cDNA, and lytic activity of its recombinant protein.

    PubMed

    Yin, Zhi-Xin; He, Jian-Guo; Deng, Wei-Xin; Chan, Siu-Ming

    2003-07-08

    Lysozyme acts as a non-specific innate-immunity molecule against the invasion of bacteria pathogens. A leukocyte cDNA library of orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides was constructed and the goose-type (g-type) lysozyme cDNA was isolated. The complete cDNA consists of an open reading frame of 585 bp encoding a protein of 194 amino acids. This protein shows a 72.2% amino acid sequence identity with the flounder g-type lysozyme. Similar to most other species, the glu catalytic residue in g-type lysozymes of the grouper is conserved. Furthermore, like the flounder and carp, the 4 conserved cysteine residues identified in avian and mammalian g-type lysozymes were also absent from the grouper. Northern blot analysis indicated that the g-type lysozyme was expressed in intestine, liver, spleen, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, heart, gill, muscle and leukocytes. In addition, RT-PCR analysis detected the g-type lysozyme transcripts in the stomach, brain and ovary. When an orange-spotted grouper was injected with Vibrio alginolyticus, the number of lysozyme mRNA transcripts detected in the stomach, spleen, anterior kidney, posterior kidney, heart, brain and leucocytes increased 72 h after injection. Recombinant grouper g-type lysozyme produced in the Escherichia coli expression system showed lytic activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus, V. alginolyticus from Epinephelus fario, V. vulnificus from culture water, Aeromonas hydrophila from soft-shell turtle, A. hydrophila from goldfish and V. parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas fluorescens and V. fluvialis from culture water.

  14. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... But this does not seem to occur in humans.Flutamide (Eulexin)The body breaks down flutamide (Eulexin) ... much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 ...

  15. Species profiles: Life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (south Florida)

    SciTech Connect

    Jory, D.E.; Iversen, E.S. . Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences)

    1989-08-01

    Black, red, and Nassau groupers (Mycteroperca bonaci, Epinephelus morio, and E. striatus, respectively) are widely distributed on rocky bottoms and reefs along the south Florida coast. They are the most valuable marine finfish group in Florida, comprising about 25% of the total value of landings in 1984. The three species can be distinguished by morphometric, meristic, and body color characteristics. Younger fish are typically found in shallow, inshore grass beds, and larger, older fish are generally restricted to deep waters. The three species are protogynous hermaphrodites. Sexual transition can occur at any length over about 300 mm SL. An offshore movement apparently coincides with the onset of sexual maturity. Spawning aggregations have been observed throughout the year, but occur mostly between late spring and early summer. Fecundity estimates range from about 800,000 to 5,000,000 eggs per female. Both the eggs and the larvae are planktonic. Their early life history is poorly known. Larvae probably leave the plankton and become benthic at around 20--30 mm SL. Growth rates range from about 2 to 10 mm/month. The three species are unspecialized carnivores, feeding on a variety of fishes, crustaceans, and mollusks. Interspecific competition for food and shelter may be common because of the overlap in distribution, habitat, size, and food habitats. For the three species, a number of predators and parasites have been reported. Both the black and red groupers have been implicated in ciguatera poisonings in south Florida. 70 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) IL-34/MCSF2 and MCSFR1/MCSFR2 were involved in mononuclear phagocytes activation against Cryptocaryon irritans infection.

    PubMed

    Mo, Ze-Quan; Li, Yan-Wei; Zhou, Ling; Li, An-Xing; Luo, Xiao-Chun; Dan, Xue-Ming

    2015-03-01

    MCSF and its well-known receptor MCSFR had been well studied in humans, regulating the differentiation, proliferation, and survival of the mononuclear phagocyte system. IL-34, which is an alternative ligand of MCSF receptor, was recently identified as a novel cytokine and functionally overlaps with MCSF. However, the functional study of these receptors and their ligands in fish are largely unknown. In the present study, the cDNA of two potential grouper MCSFR ligands have been cloned, EcIL-34 (657 bp) and EcMCSF2 (804 bp), as well as an additional copy of grouper MCSFR, EcMCSFR2 (3141 bp). Sequence analysis showed that these three molecules had higher identities with other fish counterparts compared to mammals and their conserved structures and important functional residues were also analyzed. Tissue distribution analysis showed that EcIL-34 is dominant in brain, gill and spleen compared to EcMCSF2, which is dominant in head kidney, trunk kidney, skin, heart and muscle. EcMCSFR1 was dominant in the most tissues except head kidney and liver compared to EcMCSFR2. The different tissue distribution patterns of these two grouper MCSF receptors and their two ligands indicate the different mononuclear phagocyte differentiation and activation modes in different tissues. In Cryptocaryon irritans infected grouper, EcIL-34 and EcMCSFR2 were the most strongly up-regulated ligand and receptor in the infected sites, gill and skin. Their up-regulation confirmed the proliferation and activation of phagocytes in C. irritans infected sites, which would improve the antigen presentation and elicit the host local specific immune response. In C. irritans infected grouper head kidney, both ligands EcIL-34 and EcMCSF2 (especially EcMCSF2) were up-regulated, but both receptors EcMCSFR1 and EcMCSFR2 were down-regulated, which indicated that the phagocytes differentiation and proliferation may have occurred in this hemopoietic organ, and after that they migrated to the infected cites. The

  17. A new genus and species of hatschekiid copepod (Siphonostomatoida) from groupers (Actinopterygii: Serranidae) collected off the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke

    2013-01-01

    A new genus and species of copepod, Mihbaicola sakamakii n. g., n. sp., belonging to the siphonostomatoid family Hatschekiidae, is described based on the females collected from inside the tissue of the branchiostegal membrane in three species of the groupers, Epinephelus fasciatus (Forsskål) (type-host), E. merra Bloch and Cephalopholis leopardus (Lacépède), collected off Okinawa-jima Island and Iriomote-jima Island, Ryukyu Archipelago, North Pacific Ocean. The new genus can be distinguished from other hatschekiid genera by a combination of the following characters in the female: the head is composed of the cephalosome and the pedigerous somite; the cephalothorax is expanded into a pair of posteroventral lobes carrying leg 1; legs 1 and 2 are biramous and composed of the protopod and both rami are 2-segmented; leg 3 is absent; and leg 4 is represented by a rounded lobe with a chitinous pointed apical process.

  18. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future. PMID:27213348

  19. Roe Protein Hydrolysates of Giant Grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) Inhibit Cell Proliferation of Oral Cancer Cells Involving Apoptosis and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing-Iong; Tang, Jen-Yang; Liu, Ya-Sin; Wang, Hui-Ru; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Roe protein hydrolysates were reported to have antioxidant property but the anticancer effects were less addressed, especially for oral cancer. In this study, we firstly used the ultrafiltrated roe hydrolysates (URH) derived from giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) to evaluate the impact of URH on proliferation against oral cancer cells. We found that URH dose-responsively reduced cell viability of two oral cancer cells (Ca9-22 and CAL 27) in terms of ATP assay. Using flow cytometry, URH-induced apoptosis of Ca9-22 cells was validated by morphological features of apoptosis, sub-G1 accumulation, and annexin V staining in dose-responsive manners. URH also induced oxidative stress in Ca9-22 cells in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/superoxide generations and mitochondrial depolarization. Taken together, these data suggest that URH is a potential natural product for antioral cancer therapy. PMID:27195297

  20. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    PubMed

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-05-19

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  1. Fish and fisher behaviour influence the vulnerability of groupers (Epinephelidae) to fishing at a multispecies spawning aggregation site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Graham, N. A. J.; Cinner, J. E.; Almany, G. R.; Waldie, P.

    2015-06-01

    Targeted fishing of spawning aggregations is a major contributor to extinction risk in numerous species of grouper (Epinephelidae). Marine reserves are often used to protect spawning aggregation sites, including multispecies sites shared by several species of grouper. However, marine reserves may be biologically, socioeconomically or culturally unviable in some fisheries, and alternative management actions must be explored. Implementing effective management actions that control rather than prohibit fishing requires an improved understanding of how species vary in their vulnerability to fishing gears and respond to changes in fishing effort. To estimate sources of variability in vulnerability to fishing (i.e. catchability), catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) and other fisheries data were collected in parallel with underwater visual census-derived estimates of aggregation size at a multispecies spawning site of Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and E. polyphekadion. Despite having similar abundances, E. polyphekadion was eightfold more vulnerable to capture by hook-and-line gear, clearly outcompeting its congener for bait. Contrasting with the common assumption of a proportional relationship, the CPUE of both species was unrelated to the size of their respective aggregations. Moreover, the CPUE of each species was unrelated to hook size and depth fished. However, E. polyphekadion CPUE declined as the density of fishing effort increased at the site, with gear saturation identified as the likely mechanism for this effect. E. fuscoguttatus CPUE was negatively related to the size of aggregations formed by its congener, stemming from the superior competitiveness and therefore higher selectivity of the gear for E. polyphekadion. Our findings demonstrate that CPUE is an unreliable indicator of spawning aggregation status. The other sources of variation in CPUE that we identify have implications for gear-based management, which must be based on understanding of gear selectivity for

  2. The Black Books Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Scholar, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Lists "Black and Black related" books available from American and some British publishing companies. Also provides lists of publishers and bookstores that carry works relevant to Blacks and Black studies. (GC)

  3. Monogeneans of the grouper Epinephelus tauvina (Perciformes, Serranidae) off Moorea, French Polynesia, with a description of Pseudorhabdosynochus pai n. sp. (Monogenea: Diplectanidae).

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Vignon, Matthias

    2009-02-01

    Specimens of the greasy grouper Epinephelus tauvina (Forsskål), caught off Moorea, French Polynesia, harboured four species of gill monogeneans. The diplectanid Pseudorhabdosynochus pai n. sp. is characterised by an extremely big male quadriloculate organ (inner length 77 mum, cone length 15, tube length 47), the largest of all members of the genus, and a sclerotised vagina with a very complex structure, including three secondary chambers instead of one as in most species. Pseudorhabdosynochus sp. is a species of the 'cupatus group'; this species is not formally described but various measurements are provided. The ancyrocephalid Haliotrema sp. and the capsalid Benedenia sp. were rare; they are both mentioned but not described. The diplectanid fauna of E. tauvina corresponds to the pattern already found in a clade of grouper species, the members of which often harbour both a species of the 'cupatus group' and another species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958.

  4. Identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets by polyclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Mayoral, Belén; López-Calleja, Inés; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2003-02-26

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the species identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. The assay was performed in two different formats, microtiter plates and immunostick tubes, and uses polyclonal antibodies raised in rabbits against muscle-soluble proteins of grouper (anti-GSP), wreck fish (anti-WSP), and Nile perch (anti-PSP). The antibodies were made species-specific by blocking them with the heterologous soluble muscle proteins. Immunorecognition of polyclonal antibodies adsorbed to their specific fish samples was made with swine antirabbit immunoglobulins conjugated to the enzyme horseradish peroxidase. Subsequent enzymatic conversion of the substrate allowed unequivocal identification of the species studied.

  5. Lactobacillus sakei BK19 enriched diet enhances the immunity status and disease resistance to streptococcosis infection in kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2010-12-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus sakei BK19 (10(8) cells g(-1)) supplemented diet fed to kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against streptococcosis caused by Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus parauberis with reference to the innate immune response and disease resistance was evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks. Maximum reduction in mortalities was observed in kelper feeding the probiotic diet for two weeks after challenged with the pathogens when compared to the infected group fed with basal diet; similarly the cellular and humoral immune responses such as head kidney macrophage phagocytic and peroxidase activities, serum lysozyme activity, and total protein levels increased significantly. The results reveal that, in streptococcosis infected kelp grouper feeding L. sakei BK19 enriched diet affords a higher level of disease protection due to stimulation of immune system.

  6. A new host record of Sphaerospora epinepheli (Myxosporea: Bivalvulida) occurring on orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides from Thailand: epidemiology, histopathology and phylogenetic position.

    PubMed

    U-taynapun, Kittichon; Chirapongsatonkul, Nion; Maneesaay, Phudit; Itami, Toshiaki; Tantikitti, Chutima

    2012-09-10

    In 1991, the first record of Sphaerospora epinepheli was described as a kidney parasite of wild and cultured malabar grouper, Epinephelus malabaricus, along coastlines of Thailand, the Gulf of Thailand and the Andaman Sea. However, the present study detected high infection of this parasite in kidney renal tubes of orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, collected from Andaman Sea. The highest infection rate of 36.82% was observed during the rainy season in 2009 in Phang-Nga Bay, in the north of Andaman Sea, which is an important grouper production site in Thailand. The biological and histopathological data of the parasite in this new host record are presented. Species classification is described based on morphological data of mature spore and molecular analysis of myxosporean 18S rDNA phylogeny including that of S. epinepheli which infected E. malabaricus. The genetic position of this parasite found in two host species was also studied. The phylogenetic tree analysis of small-subunit rDNA sequences of S. epinepheli from both infected hosts was constructed using two algorithms, maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI). They were placed in the clustered basal sphaerosporid clade that contain four long SSU rDNA sphaerosporid species including Sphaerospora truttae, Sphaerospora elegans, Sphaerospora ranae, Sphaerospora fugu and Bipteria formosa with strong bootstrap supports. Histopathologically, renal intratubular myxosporean spores were associated with tubulonephosis, tubular necrosis, chronic interstitial nephritis and mimic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. This myxosporean parasite appears to be a significant pathogen on the basis of pathological changes in the renal tubules and is highly distributed in orange-spotted grouper.

  7. Application of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis for identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Luis; González, Isabel; Fernández, Alicia; Rodríguez, Miguel A; Lobo, Esther; Hernández, Pablo E; García, Teresa; Martín, Rosario

    2002-02-01

    A random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) method was developed for the specific identification of grouper (Epinephelus guaza), wreck fish (Polyprion americanus), and Nile perch (Lates niloticus) fillets. Using two different reaction primers (S1 and L1), RAPD analysis produced clear fingerprints from which the three fish species could be easily identified. This approach is rapid and reliable and offers the potential to detect fraudulent or unintentional mislabeling of these species in routine seafood authentication analysis.

  8. Developmental expression of genes involved in neural estrogen biosynthesis and signaling in the brain of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides during gonadal sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Ganesan; Tsai, Ya-Ju; Chen, Chia-Yung; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2011-11-01

    In the brain, the synthesis of neurosteroids and receptor activation during gonadal sex differentiation in teleosts are poorly understood. In the present study, the protogynous orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was selected as a model fish, and we hypothesized that de novo synthesis of neural estrogen may play a role in the female grouper brain during gonadal sex differentiation. We investigated the temporal expression of the genes StAR, cyp19a1b and pcna and the sex steroid nuclear receptors for estrogen (ERα, ERβ1 and ERβ2), androgen (AR) and the plasma membrane-associated estrogen receptor (GPR30) in the brain during early developmental ages from 90 days after hatching (dah) to 180dah after gonadal sex differentiation. Our results revealed that mRNA for ERs and GPR30 but not AR was significantly increased at 110dah (a time close to gonadal sex differentiation) in the forebrain and midbrain and for cyp19a1b at 110dah in the forebrain. Brain aromatase activity and estradiol (E2) levels, but not testosterone (T), were increased in the forebrain at 110 and 120dah, respectively. Furthermore, exogenous E2 stimulated cyp19a1b transcripts in the forebrain and hypothalamus and immunoreactive (ir)Cyp19a1b (aromatase enzyme) in the forebrain. irCyp19a1b localized in the glial cells of the forebrain regions. Therefore, we identified a peak of functional aromatase activity and estrogen signaling in the early grouper brain during gonadal sex differentiation. Moreover, pcna transcripts (a marker for cell proliferation activity) were higher in the early brain at 110-150dah. Thus, a peak time of development in the brain is suggested to occur during gonadal sex differentiation in the grouper.

  9. Characterization and expression analysis of Calmodulin (CaM) in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) in response to Vibrio alginolyticus challenge.

    PubMed

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Xie, Fu-Xing; Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei-Na

    2015-10-01

    Vibrio alginolyticus containing the highly toxic extracellular product is one of the most serious threats to grouper survival and its minimum lethal dose is approximately 500 CFU/g fish body weight in grouper. To study the toxic effects of V. alginolyticus on the immune system in teleost, Calmodulin (CaM), an important molecular indicator gene, was cloned from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The full-length Ec-CaM consisted of a 5'-UTR of 103 bp, an ORF of 450 bp and a 3'-UTR of 104 bp. The Ec-CaM gene encoded a protein of 149 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 16.4 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point of 3.93. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that Ec-CaM contained four highly conserved EF-hand domains known to be critical for the function of CaM. Ec-CaM was widely expressed and the highest expression level was observed in liver. Following V. alginolyticus challenge, a sharp increase level of respiratory burst activity and apoptosis ratio were observed. Further analyses of CaM expression and p53 expression in liver, kidney and spleen by qRT-PCR demonstrated that the up-regulated expression of CaM and p53 were observed in the vibrio challenge group. Western blotting analysis confirmed that the Ec-CaM protein was strongly induced in liver at 12 h post-injection, while a sharp increase of p53 protein expression was observed at 24 h post-injection. These results showed CaM expression serving as a potential molecular indicator may help to assess the toxicological effects of V. alginolyticus on the ROS generation and apoptotic process in grouper.

  10. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  11. Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…

  12. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  13. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  14. Black Willow

    Treesearch

    R. M. Krinard

    1980-01-01

    Black willow and other species of Salix together comprise a majority of the stocking. Cottonwood is the chief associate, particularly in the early stages, but green ash, sycamore, pecan, persimmon, waterlocust, American elm, baldcypress, red maple, sugarberry, box-elder, and in some areas, silver maple are invaders preceding the next successional stage.

  15. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Drought in the Black Hills     View ... and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging ... the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the  albedo  at the surface increased. Albedo measures the ...

  16. Sexual dimorphic expression of dnd in germ cells during sex reversal and its requirement for primordial germ cell survival in protogynous hermaphroditic grouper.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhi-Hui; Zhou, Li; Li, Zhi; Liu, Xiao-Chun; Li, Shui-Sheng; Wang, Yang; Gui, Jian-Fang

    2017-06-01

    Dead end (dnd), vertebrate-specific germ cell marker, had been demonstrated to be essential for primordial germ cell (PGC) migration and survival, and the link between PGC number and sex change had been revealed in some teleost species, but little is known about dnd in hermaphroditic vertebrates. In the present study, a protogynous hermaphroditic orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) dnd homologue (Ecdnd) was identified and characterized. Quantitative real-time PCR and in situ hybridization analysis revealed a dynamic and sexually dimorphic expression pattern in PGCs and germ cells of gonads. During sex changing, the Ecdnd transcript sharply increased in early transitional gonad, reached the highest level at late transitional gonad stage, and decreased after testis maturation. Visualization of zebrafish PGCs by injecting with RFP-Ecdnd-3'UTR RNA and GFP-zfnanos3-3'UTR RNA confirmed importance of Ecdnd 3'UTR for the PGC distribution. In addition, knockdown of EcDnd by using antisense morpholinos (MO) caused the ablation of PGCs in orange-spotted grouper. Therefore, the current data indicate that Ecdnd is essential for PGCs survival and may serve as a useful germ cell marker during gametogenesis in hermaphroditic grouper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-lethal approach identifies variability of δ15N values in the fin rays of Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara

    PubMed Central

    Goddard, Ethan A.; Hollander, David J.; Koenig, Christopher C.; Stallings, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    The Atlantic Goliath Grouper, Epinephelus itajara, is critically endangered throughout its range but has begun to show initial signs of recovery in Florida state waters. As the population continues to rebound, researchers face a pressing need to fill the knowledge gaps about this iconic species. Here, we examined the δ15N isotopic records in fin rays collected from Atlantic Goliath Grouper, and related changes of isotopic ratios over time to life history characteristics. Fin-ray analysis was used as a non-lethal technique to sample individuals from two locations at similar latitudes from the west and east coasts of Florida, USA. δ15N data were acquired by mechanically separating the annuli of each fin ray and then analyzing the material in an Irradiance Elemental Analyzer Mass Spectrometer. The δ15N values were consistent among individuals within populations from each coast of Florida, and mirrored the expected changes over the lives of the fish. Overall, differences were found between δ15N values at juvenile life history phases versus adult phases, but the patterns associated with these differences were unique to each coastal group. We demonstrated, for the first time, that δ15N values from fin rays can be used to assess the life histories of Atlantic Goliath Grouper. The non-lethal strategies outlined here can be used to acquire information essential to the management of species of concern, such as those that are threatened or endangered. PMID:26082864

  18. Isolation, identification and pathogenicity of Vibrio harveyi, the causal agent of skin ulcer disease in juvenile hybrid groupers Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × Epinephelus lanceolatus.

    PubMed

    Shen, G M; Shi, C Y; Fan, C; Jia, D; Wang, S Q; Xie, G S; Li, G Y; Mo, Z L; Huang, J

    2017-03-02

    The hybrid grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus (♀) × Epinephelus lanceolatus (♂), is a newly bred cultivated marine fish species of high economic value. However, a skin ulcer disease with high mortality has occurred, and the responsible pathogen remains unknown. In this study, we summarized the epidemic status and external signs of this disease. We screened potential pathogens and finally isolated one bacterial strain ML01 from affected fish. We subjected healthy juvenile hybrid groupers to bacterial challenge tests with the isolate by immersion, immersion after dermal abrasion and intraperitoneal injection, respectively. Within 14 days post-infection, the isolate ML01 caused mass mortality of juveniles infected via immersion after dermal abrasion or intraperitoneal injection. Diseased juveniles displayed obvious signs of skin ulcers. The median lethal dose of ML01 by intraperitoneal injection was 1.10 × 10(5) colony-forming units. ML01 was identified as Vibrio harveyi by bacterial morphology, analytical profile index identification, 16S rDNA sequencing and multilocus sequence analysis. Antibiotic susceptibility tests showed that ML01 was sensitive to ceftriaxone, doxycycline and minocycline. The results of this study suggest that V. harveyi is the causal agent of skin ulcer disease in juvenile hybrid groupers, thus providing a basis for effective control and prevention of this disease.

  19. Establishment of a new cell line from the heart of giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), and its application in toxicology and virus susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Guo, C Y; Huang, Y H; Wei, S N; Ouyang, Z L; Yan, Y; Huang, X H; Qin, Q W

    2015-02-01

    A new marine fish cell line, derived from the heart of giant grouper, Epinephelus lanceolatus (Bloch), was established and characterized. The cell line was designated as ELGH and subcultured with more than 60 passages. The ELGH cells were mainly composed of fibroblast-like cells and multiplied well in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) at 28 °C. Chromosome analysis indicated that the modal chromosome number was 48. The fluorescent signals were detected in ELGH when transfected with green fluorescent protein reporter plasmids. The 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50 ) of the extracellular products (ECPs) from Streptococcus iniae and Vibrio alginolyticus E333 on ELGH cells was 60.02 and 12.49 μg mL(-1), respectively. Moreover, the ELGH cells showed susceptibility to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), but not to soft-shelled turtle iridovirus (STIV), red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) and spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV), which was demonstrated by the presence of a severe cytopathic effect (CPE) and increased viral titres. In addition, electron microscopy observation showed that abundant virus particles were present in the infected cells. Taken together, our data above provided the potential utility of ELGH cells for transgenic and genetic manipulation, as well as cytotoxicity testing and virus pathogenesis.

  20. Black Talk and Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book…

  1. Variations on Black Themes: English, Black Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gloria D.

    Variations on Black Themes, an introductory course in the study of black literature, permits students to make cursory examination of representative works of many black writers for the purpose of identifying major writers and recurring themes. The course content includes: introduction to some works of major Black American authors; identification of…

  2. Black oesophagus.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Olga; Figueira-Coelho, João; Picado, Bárbara; Costa, José Neves

    2013-01-29

    Acute oesophageal necrosis, also known as 'Black Oesophagus', is a rare endoscopic finding since its first description by Goldenberg in 1990. In endoscopic studies, the frequency ranged from 0.01% to 0.2%. The aetiology is undefined and is probably multifactorial. A 62-year-old woman, with chronic alcoholism, was admitted to the internal medicine department for dehydration and marked malnutrition problems. Melaena was detected, and oesophagogastroduodenoscopy showed black mucosa of the lower two-thirds of the oesophagus and candidiasis. The patient gradually recovered after conservative treatments (intravenous proton pump inhibitor and total parental nutrition) and fluconazole. Oesophagus stricture was developed after 1 month, and balloon dilatation was performed successfully.

  3. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  4. Black Eye: First Aid

    MedlinePlus

    First aid Black eye: First aid Black eye: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A black eye is caused by bleeding under the skin around the eye. Most injuries that cause a black eye aren't serious. But a black eye ...

  5. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  6. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  7. 78 FR 72868 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ... will consider alternatives to the prohibition on the use of black sea bass pots in the South Atlantic....gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The black sea bass stock in the South Atlantic was assessed through...). The SEDAR 25 Update indicated that the black sea bass ] commercial and recreational sector...

  8. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  9. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  10. Black widow spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider has a shiny black body with a red ...

  11. Four species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Schoelinck, Charlotte; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2011-05-01

    Gill diplectanid monogeneans from the camouflage grouper Epinephelus polyphekadion (Bleeker) collected in the coral reef lagoon of New Caledonia, South Pacific, comprise four species. Very few monogeneans were found in most fish examined. Pseudorhabdosynochus dionysos n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, a robust primary canal and two chambers of similar size; it is close to P. bacchus Sigura, Chauvet & Justine, 2007. P. viscosus n. sp. has a sclerotised vagina with a robust trumpet, long primary canal with an extremely thin wall and two small chambers, and a male quadriloculate organ with a characteristic thickening at the extremity of its cone. P. crassus n. sp., the most abundant species, has a sclerotised vagina with a thin-walled trumpet, thin-walled primary canal which is always coiled anteriorly and two small chambers. P. huitoe Justine, 2007, P. manifestus Justine & Sigura, 2007 and P. crassus have very similar sclerotised vaginae; however, species of this 'huitoe complex' can be distinguished by measurements of the haptoral hard parts. A few diplectanid specimens found in a single specimen of E. polyphekadion were attributed to P. huitoe, a species originally described from E. maculatus (Bloch) and also rarely found in E. cyanopodus Richardson in New Caledonia; specimens from these three fish species are morphologically indistinguishable.

  12. Complete Genome Sequence of the Grouper Iridovirus and Comparison of Genomic Organization with Those of Other Iridoviruses

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Chih-Tung; Ting, Jing-Wen; Wu, Ming-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Feng; Guo, Ing-Cherng; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2005-01-01

    The complete DNA sequence of grouper iridovirus (GIV) was determined using a whole-genome shotgun approach on virion DNA. The circular form genome was 139,793 bp in length with a 49% G+C content. It contained 120 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) with coding capacities ranging from 62 to 1,268 amino acids. A total of 21% (25 of 120) of GIV ORFs are conserved in the other five sequenced iridovirus genomes, including DNA replication, transcription, nucleotide metabolism, protein modification, viral structure, and virus-host interaction genes. The whole-genome nucleotide pairwise comparison showed that GIV virus was partially colinear with counterparts of previously sequenced ranaviruses (ATV and TFV). Besides, sequence analysis revealed that GIV possesses several unique features which are different from those of other complete sequenced iridovirus genomes: (i) GIV is the first ranavirus-like virus which has been sequenced completely and which infects fish other than amphibians, (ii) GIV is the only vertebrate iridovirus without CpG sequence methylation and lacking DNA methyltransferase, (iii) GIV contains a purine nucleoside phosphorylase gene which is not found in other iridoviruses or in any other viruses, (iv) GIV contains 17 sets of repeat sequence, with basic unit sizes ranging from 9 to 63 bp, dispersed throughout the whole genome. These distinctive features of GIV further extend our understanding of molecular events taking place between ranavirus and its hosts and the iridovirus evolution. PMID:15681403

  13. A novel heart-cell line from brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its susceptibility to iridovirus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Y-B; Fan, T-J; Jiang, G-J; Xu, X-H; Sun, A

    2010-04-01

    A novel cell line (bmGH) was established from the heart of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its viral susceptibility was evaluated. The bmGH cells have been subcultured to passage 65 in Dulbecco's modified eagle medium:Ham's nutrient mixture F-12 (1:1) medium (DMEM/F12) which was further supplemented with foetal bovine serum (FBS), carboxymethyl-chitosan, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) at 24 degrees C. The heart cells have a fibroblastic morphology and proliferated to confluence 14 days later. The cells grew at a steady rate during subsequent subculture and had a population doubling time of 40.3 h at passage 60. Karyotype analysis showed that these cells exhibited chromosomal aneuploidy with a modal chromosome number of 48. The results of viral susceptibility characterization revealed that cytopathic effects (CPE) of bmGH cells appeared after infection by two iridoviruses, turbot reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) and lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV). A large number of TRBIV and LCDV particles were also observed in the infected bmGH cells by electron microscope examination. All of these facts indicate that the bmGH cell line established here may serve as a valuable tool for studies of cell-virus interactions and has potential applications in fish virus isolation, propagation and vaccine development.

  14. Survival Rate and Hematological Responses with Temperature Changes of Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jong Youn; Han, Kyeong Ho; Cho, Jae Kwon; Kim, Kyong Min; Son, Maeng Hyun; Park, Jae Min; Kang, Hee Woong

    2016-01-01

    The effect of sudden changes of water temperature (WT) on the survival rate and physiological responses of the red spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara) were examined by manipulating WT control system for 9 days. Experimental condition was divided in two different regimes at low (from 10°C to 4°C, decreased 1℃/d) and high (from 28°C to 34°C, increased 1°C/d) WT. Survival rate of experimental fishes were observed, and determined the changes of hematological characteristics by analyzing plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, total protein, and electrolytes (Na+, Cl–, K+). No mortality was observed until low WT 6°C (144 h) and high WT 32°C (96 h), and 100% mortality was observed at low WT 4°C (216 h) and high WT 35°C (171 h). Plasma levels of cortisol and glucose increased rapidly as decreasing WT, and the loss of swimming ability and respiration response was observed at low WT 7°C and high WT 34°C conditions. PMID:27660825

  15. Grouper spawning aggregations: Be careful what you measure and how you measure it: A rebuttal of Golbuu and Friedlander (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colin, Patrick L.; Sadovy de Mitcheson, Yvonne; Donaldson, Terry J.

    2013-05-01

    Golbuu and Friedlander (2011, Estuar. Coast. Shelf Sci. 92:223) used faulty methods, improper interpretation of historical data, and assumptions of little or no validity to conclude that despite protected status spawning aggregations of three groupers in Palau, western Caroline Islands declined between 1995-96 and 2005-06. Alternate survey methods indicated no drastic declines in these aggregations over the same period. Golbuu and Friedlander (2011) failed to document the overall distribution of fishes in their aggregations, used poorly-located inadequate transects to sample the overall aggregation area, and did not identify and sample peak aggregations days. The use of visual length estimates as the basis for biomass values may introduce errors. Comparison of aggregation persistence between reference ("fished out") and protected sites is not possible because equivalent protected and exploited sites are not available. Different species at multi-species spawning aggregation sites commonly occupy somewhat discrete locations, with the densest concentrations (core areas) of one often being separated from those for another. There is usually a single peak day each month of a lunar-based aggregation, but it requires multiple days data collection to determine that peak. The shortcomings identified provide important lessons for the study of fish spawning aggregations and signal caution about the incomplete documentation of sampling methodology. Overly simplistic aggregation sampling methodologies may be superficially credible, but are not reflective of a complicated reality. Monitoring needs to produce a definitive repeatable baseline against which data can be gathered authoritatively in the future.

  16. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  17. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  18. Involvement of pituitary gonadotropins, gonadal steroids and breeding season in sex change of protogynous dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Teleostei: Serranidae), induced by a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carlos Eduardo de O; Araújo, Bruno C; Mello, Paulo H; Narcizo, Amanda de M; Rodrigues-Filho, Jandyr A; Medrado, Andreone T; Zampieri, Ricardo A; Floeter-Winter, Lucile M; Moreira, Renata Guimarães

    2013-10-01

    Two experiments were performed using the aromatase inhibitor (AI) letrozole (100mg/kg) to promote sex change, from female-to-male, in protogynous dusky grouper. One experiment was performed during the breeding season (spring) and the other at the end of the breeding season (summer). During the spring, AI promoted sex change after 9 weeks and the sperm produced was able to fertilize grouper oocytes. During the summer, the sex change was incomplete; intersex individuals were present and sperm was not released by any of the animals. Sex changed gonads had a lamellar architecture; cysts of spermatocytes and spermatozoa in the lumen of the germinal compartment. In the spring, after 4 weeks, 11ketotestosterone (11KT) levels were higher in the AI than in control fish, and after 9 weeks, coincident with semen release, testosterone levels increased in the AI group, while 11KT returned to the initial levels. Estradiol (E2) levels remained unchanged during the experimental period. Instead of decreasing throughout the period, as in control group, 17 α-OH progesterone levels did not change in the AI-treated fish, resulting in higher values after 9 weeks when compared with control fish. fshβ and lhβ gene expression in the AI animals were lower compared with control fish after 9 weeks. The use of AI was effective to obtain functional males during the breeding season. The increase in androgens, modulated by gonadotropins, triggered the sex change, enabling the development of male germ cells, whereas a decrease in E2 levels was not required to change sex in dusky grouper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The bioactivity of teleost IL-6: IL-6 protein in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) induces Th2 cell differentiation pathway and antibody production.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Hung; Lin, Han-Tso; Foung, Yi-Fan; Han-You Lin, John

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a protein secreted by T cells and macrophages and plays an important role in immune response. IL-6 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of T cells, and elicits immunoglobulin production in B cells. In this study, the cDNA il-6 (gil-6) sequence of the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was obtained. The deduced IL-6 (gIL-6) protein comprised 223 amino acids, the sequence shared approximately 30% similarity with mammalian IL-6, and between 47% and 69% similarity with other available teleost IL-6. The protein comprises the signal peptide, the IL-6 family signature, and conserved amino acid residues found in IL-6 sequences of other teleost. In order to understand the bioactivity and influence of gIL-6 on humoral immune response, recombinant gIL-6 (rgIL-6) synthesized by prokaryotes was injected into orange spotted groupers, and the immune-related gene expression at various times in various organs was observed. Our results revealed that the Th1 specific transcription factor t-bet was down-regulated and Th2 specific transcription factors gata3, and c-maf were up-regulated in immune organs, following IL-6 stimulation. Additionally, higher levels of igm mRNA and translated protein were detected in rgIL-6 stimulated fish. These results indicate that IL-6 in groupers regulates the differentiation of naїve T helper cells into Th2 cells and elicits the production of antibodies.

  20. Entry of a Novel Marine DNA Virus, Singapore Grouper Iridovirus, into Host Cells Occurs via Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Macropinocytosis in a pH-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaowen; Huang, Xiaohong; Huang, Youhua; Hao, Xian; Xu, Haijiao; Cai, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Iridoviruses are nucleocytoplasmic DNA viruses which cause great economic losses in the aquaculture industry but also show significant threat to global biodiversity. However, a lack of host cells has resulted in poor progress in clarifying iridovirus behavior. We investigated the crucial events during virus entry using a combination of single-virus tracking and biochemical assays, based on the established virus-cell infection model for Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV). SGIV infection in host cells was strongly inhibited when cells were pretreated with drugs blocking clathrin-mediated endocytosis, including sucrose and chlorpromazine. Inhibition of key regulators of macropinocytosis, including Na+/H+ exchanger, Rac1 GTPase, p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1), protein kinase C (PKC), and myosin II, significantly reduced SGIV uptake. Cy5-labeled SGIV particles were observed to colocalize with clathrin and macropinosomes. In contrast, disruption of cellular cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin and nystatin had no effect on virus infection, suggesting that SGIV entered grouper cells via the clathrin-mediated endocytic pathway and macropinocytosis but not via caveola-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, inhibitors of endosome acidification such as chloroquine and bafilomycin A1 blocked virus infection, indicating that SGIV entered cells in a pH-dependent manner. In addition, SGIV particles were observed to be transported along both microtubules and actin filaments, and intracellular SGIV motility was remarkably impaired by depolymerization of microtubules or actin filaments. The results of this study for the first time demonstrate that not only the clathrin-dependent pathway but also macropinocytosis are involved in fish DNA enveloped virus entry, thus providing a convenient tactic for exploring the life cycle of DNA viruses. IMPORTANCE Virus entry into host cells is critically important for initiating infections and is usually recognized as an ideal target for

  1. Dissonant black droplets and black funnels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischetti, Sebastian; Santos, Jorge E.; Way, Benson

    2017-08-01

    A holographic field theory on a fixed black hole background has a gravitational dual represented by a black funnel or a black droplet. These states are ‘detuned’ when the temperature of the field theory near the horizon does not match the temperature of the background black hole. In particular, the gravitational dual to the Boulware state must be a detuned solution. We construct detuned droplets and funnels dual to a Schwarzschild background and show that the Boulware phase is represented by a droplet. We also construct hairy black droplets associated to a low-temperature scalar condensation instability and show that they are thermodynamically preferred to their hairless counterparts.

  2. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  3. Low Connectivity between Mediterranean Marine Protected Areas: A Biophysical Modeling Approach for the Dusky Grouper Epinephelus marginatus

    PubMed Central

    Andrello, Marco; Mouillot, David; Beuvier, Jonathan; Albouy, Camille; Thuiller, Wilfried; Manel, Stéphanie

    2013-01-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are major tools to protect biodiversity and sustain fisheries. For species with a sedentary adult phase and a dispersive larval phase, the effectiveness of MPA networks for population persistence depends on connectivity through larval dispersal. However, connectivity patterns between MPAs remain largely unknown at large spatial scales. Here, we used a biophysical model to evaluate connectivity between MPAs in the Mediterranean Sea, a region of extremely rich biodiversity that is currently protected by a system of approximately a hundred MPAs. The model was parameterized according to the dispersal capacity of the dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, an archetypal conservation-dependent species, with high economic importance and emblematic in the Mediterranean. Using various connectivity metrics and graph theory, we showed that Mediterranean MPAs are far from constituting a true, well-connected network. On average, each MPA was directly connected to four others and MPAs were clustered into several groups. Two MPAs (one in the Balearic Islands and one in Sardinia) emerged as crucial nodes for ensuring multi-generational connectivity. The high heterogeneity of MPA distribution, with low density in the South-Eastern Mediterranean, coupled with a mean dispersal distance of 120 km, leaves about 20% of the continental shelf without any larval supply. This low connectivity, here demonstrated for a major Mediterranean species, poses new challenges for the creation of a future Mediterranean network of well-connected MPAs providing recruitment to the whole continental shelf. This issue is even more critical given that the expected reduction of pelagic larval duration following sea temperature rise will likely decrease connectivity even more. PMID:23861917

  4. Does mating behaviour affect connectivity in marine fishes? Comparative population genetics of two protogynous groupers (Family Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Portnoy, D S; Hollenbeck, C M; Renshaw, M A; Cummings, N J; Gold, J R

    2013-01-01

    Pelagic larval duration (PLD) has been hypothesized to be the primary predictor of connectivity in marine fishes; however, few studies have examined the effects that adult reproductive behaviour may have on realized dispersal. We assessed gene flow (connectivity) by documenting variation in microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA sequences in two protogynous species of groupers, the aggregate spawning red hind, Epinephelus guttatus, and the single-male, harem-spawning coney, Cephalopholis fulva, to ask whether reproductive strategy affects connectivity. Samples of both species were obtained from waters off three islands (Puerto Rico, St. Thomas and St. Croix) in the Caribbean Sea. Despite the notion that aggregate spawning of red hind may facilitate larval retention, stronger signals of population structure were detected in the harem-spawning coney. Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on microsatellites, involved St. Croix (red hind and coney) and the west coast of Puerto Rico (coney). Heterogeneity and/or inferred barriers, based on mitochondrial DNA, involved St. Croix (coney only). Genetic divergence in both species was stronger for microsatellites than for mitochondrial DNA, suggesting sex-biased dispersal in both species. Long-term migration rates, based on microsatellites, indicated asymmetric gene flow for both species in the same direction as mean surface currents in the region. Red hind had higher levels of variation in microsatellites and lower levels of variation in mitochondrial DNA. Long-term effective size and effective number of breeders were greater for red hind; estimates of θ(f) , a proxy for long-term effective female size, were the same in both species. Patterns of gene flow in both species appear to stem in part from shared aspects of larval and adult biology, local bathymetry and surface current patterns. Differences in connectivity and levels of genetic variation between the species, however, likely stem from differences in behaviour

  5. Medaka haploid embryonic stem cells are susceptible to Singapore grouper iridovirus as well as to other viruses of aquaculture fish species.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yongming; Huang, Xiaohong; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Yi; Huang, Youhua; Qin, Qiwei; Hong, Yunhan

    2013-10-01

    Viral infection is a challenge in high-density aquaculture, as it leads to various diseases and causes massive or even complete loss. The identification and disruption of host factors that viruses utilize for infection offer a novel approach to generate viral-resistant seed stocks for cost-efficient and sustainable aquaculture. Genetic screening in haploid cell cultures represents an ideal tool for host factor identification. We have recently generated haploid embryonic stem (ES) cells in the laboratory fish medaka. Here, we report that HX1, one of the three established medaka haploid ES cell lines, was susceptible to the viruses tested and is thus suitable for genetic screening to identify host factors. HX1 cells displayed a cytopathic effect and massive death upon inoculation with three highly infectious and notifiable fish viruses, namely Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV). Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analyses revealed the expression of virus genes. SGIV infection in HX1 cells elicited a host immune response and apoptosis. Viral replication kinetics were determined from a virus growth curve, and electron microscopy revealed propagation, assembly and release of infectious SGIV particles in HX1 cells. Our results demonstrate that medaka haploid ES cells are susceptible to SGIV, as well as to SVCV and RGNNV, offering a unique opportunity for the identification of host factors by genetic screening.

  6. Administration of recombinant Reishi immunomodulatory protein (rLZ-8) diet enhances innate immune responses and elicits protection against nervous necrosis virus in grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Sheu, Fuu; Lee, Guo-Chi; Tsai, Ming-Wei; Hung, Chih-Liang; Nan, Fan-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) infection during larvae and juvenile stage in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) has caused severe economic losses in the aquaculture industry in Asia. The aims of this study were to evaluate the influence of recombinant Reishi protein, rLZ-8, on the innate immune responses and the viral resisting ability in fish. Groupers were fed with rLZ-8 supplemented diet (1.25-37.5 mg (rLZ-8)/kg(diet)), and the cytokine gene expression, innate immune responses, and survival rate after NNV challenge were examined. The fish fed with rLZ-8 diet showed 6- to 11-fold upregulated TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression, along with significant increased respiratory burst and phagocytic activity. Moreover, feeding the fish with 37.5 mg/kg rLZ-8 diet elicited significant improvement in post viral challenge survival rate (85.7%). These discoveries indicated that rLZ-8 could be utilized as an ant-pathogen immunostimulant, and provided a new candidate to fight against NNV infection in fish.

  7. Rapid and sensitive detection of redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) infection by aptamer-coat protein-aptamer sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA).

    PubMed

    Zhou, L; Li, P; Ni, S; Yu, Y; Yang, M; Wei, S; Qin, Q

    2017-07-26

    Redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) is one of the most devastating pathogens in the aquaculture of the grouper, Epinephlus sp., worldwide. The early and rapid diagnosis of RGNNV is important for the prevention of RGNNV infection. In this study, an aptamer (A10)-based sandwich enzyme-linked apta-sorbent assay (ELASA) was developed for RGNNV diagnosis. This sandwich ELASA showed high specificity for the RGNNV coat protein (CP) and virions in virus-infected cells and tissues. At the optimized working concentration of 200 nM of aptamer, the ELASA could detect RGNNV in the lysates of as few as 4 × 10(3) RGNNV-infected GB cells. Incubation for 10 min was sufficient to produce accurate results. The sandwich ELASA was most stable at incubation temperatures of 4-25°C, but could still distinguish RGNNV-infected samples from the controls at 37°C. It could detect RGNNV infection in brain lysates diluted 1/10, with results consistent with those of reverse transcription PCR, although with 10% less sensitivity. The main equipment required includes dissection tools, a water bath, Pierce™ Streptavidin Coated Plates and a microplate reader. The sandwich ELASA has great potential utility for the rapid and sensitive diagnosis of RGNNV in its early stages by fish farmers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The effects of fishing, climate change, and other anthropogenic disturbances on red grouper and other reef fishes in the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Felicia C; Koenig, Christopher C

    2010-08-01

    In this article, we consider the potential effects of anthropogenic disturbances on marine fish species known or suspected to be habitat engineers. The three species of interest inhabit different marine habitats at different life stages, and therefore can have significant influences across the sea floor at broad spatial scales. The primary species include the shallow-water Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara), which inhabits mangrove root systems as juveniles, and caves, shipwrecks, and rocky reefs as adults; red grouper (E. morio), which excavates habitat throughout its benthic life in Karst regions of the Gulf of Mexico and western Atlantic, from the coast to the shelf-edge; and tilefish (Lopholatilus chamaeleonticeps), a species that lives on the continental slope and constructs elaborate, pueblo-esque burrows. The anthropogenic disturbances of greatest interest in the Gulf of Mexico include fishing, hypoxia, red tide, oil and gas exploration, and climatic change. We suggest that to understand the broader effects of both natural and anthropogenic disturbances on biomass and productivity in these species requires that we first understand the strength of interactions between them and the other species residing within their communities (e.g., predators, prey, commensals, and mutualists).

  9. Diet enriched with mushroom Phellinus linteus extract enhances the growth, innate immune response, and disease resistance of kelp grouper, Epinephelus bruneus against vibriosis.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2011-01-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with Phellinus linteus fed for 30 days was investigated in grouper Epinephelus bruneus challenged with Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, and Vibrio carchariae; infected and treated fish had a significantly higher percent weight gain and feed efficiency. In groups fed with enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum and V. harveyi the mortality rate declined with a consequent rise in survival rate than with other pathogens. On the other hand, in groups fed with P. linteus enriched diet and challenged with V. anguillarum, V. harveyi, and V. alginolyticus the cellular and humoral immune responses, such as the alternative complement activity (ACH(50)), serum lysozyme activity, phagocytic activity (PA), phagocytic index (PI) significantly higher than in the control group. The respiratory bursts (RB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were found significantly enhanced when the groups fed with enriched diet against V. anguillarum and V. harveyi. The results reveal that kelp grouper fed for 30 days with P. linteus enriched diet had higher cellular and humoral immune response and disease protection from vibriosis than the group fed on basal diet with the protection linked to stimulation of immune system. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Orexin-A stimulates the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in the liver of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Sun, Caiyun; Wang, Bin; Yan, Peipei; Wu, Amin; Yang, Guokun; Li, Wensheng

    2016-09-01

    Orexins are hypothalamic neuropeptides involved in the central regulation of feeding behavior, sleep-wake cycle and other physiological functions. Orexin-A can regulate energy metabolism and increase glucose uptake, suggesting a role in glucose metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of orexin-A on GLUT4 mRNA and protein levels and the intracellular signaling mechanisms mediating orexin-A activity in the hepatocytes of grouper. Our results demonstrate that intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A increased the expression of GLUT4 in the liver, and this effect was significantly enhanced by co-injection of glucose. Treatment of primary cultured hepatocytes with either orexin-A or glucose alone had no effect on the expression of GLUT4, while co-treatment with orexin-A and glucose significantly increased the expression of GLUT4. This stimulatory effect was partially blocked by inhibitors to ERK1/2, JNK or p38 MAPK and was further blocked by an orexin receptor antagonist, which indicates that orexin-A could stimulate the expression of GLUT4 in a glucose dependent manner in primary hepatocytes via ERK1/2, JNK and p38 signaling. Our results suggest that orexin-A could play a pivotal role in stimulating glucose utilization in grouper, for a long-term goal, which might be useful in reducing costs in the aquaculture industry.

  11. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  12. 77 FR 52261 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; South Atlantic Snapper-Grouper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... sea bass from Cape Hatteras Light, North Carolina, through to the boundary between the South Atlantic... Measure and Closure for Recreational Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS implements an accountability measure (AM) for the black sea...

  13. 75 FR 60008 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XY48 Fisheries of the Caribbean...-2011 Commercial Sector for Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the commercial sector for black sea bass in the exclusive economic zone...

  14. 77 FR 72991 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BC30 Fisheries of the Caribbean...; Transferability of Black Sea Bass Pot Endorsements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... allows black sea bass pot endorsements to be transferred under specific conditions. The intent of...

  15. 77 FR 50672 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BC30 Fisheries of the Caribbean...; Transferability of Black Sea Bass Pot Endorsements AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National..., approval, and implementation by NMFS. The Resubmittal would allow black sea bass pot endorsements to...

  16. 76 FR 5717 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-XA154 Fisheries of the Caribbean...-2011 Recreational Sector for Black Sea Bass in the South Atlantic AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries...; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS closes the recreational sector for black sea bass in the portion of the...

  17. 78 FR 58249 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery Off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 RIN 0648-BD16 Fisheries of the Caribbean... measures for black sea bass described in Regulatory Amendment 19 to the Fishery Management Plan for the... annual catch limits (ACLs), and the recreational annual catch target (ACT) for black sea bass...

  18. 50 CFR 622.33 - Caribbean EEZ seasonal and/or area closures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., black, tiger, yellowfin, or yellowedge grouper. From February 1 through April 30, each year, no person may fish for or possess red, black, tiger, yellowfin, or yellowedge grouper in or from the Caribbean...

  19. 50 CFR 622.39 - Quotas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Commercial quota for red snapper—5.610 million lb (1.957 million kg), round weight. (ii) Deep-water groupers... million lb (0.464 million kg). (iii) Shallow-water groupers (SWG) have separate quotas for gag and red grouper and a combined quota for other shallow-water grouper (Other SWG) species (including black...

  20. "We, the Black Americans"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aid Planner, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Information gathered during the 1970 census reports on the changing economic and social conditions of U. S. blacks. Comparative data for blacks and whites is provided covering income, education, voter participation, housing, life style, and residence location. (Author/DN)

  1. Counseling Black Adolescent Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Gwendolyn C.

    1974-01-01

    Black adolescent parents need counsel from social workers who are able to intervene with a discerning knowledge of concepts, such as neocolonialism, survival, and liberation, that are important to them and to the black community. (Author)

  2. Black widow spider (image)

    MedlinePlus

    This is a black widow spider. Note the red "hour glass" on the abdomen. The bite of the black widow can produce severe symptoms but is seldom fatal, except in young children and older adults. (Image courtesy ...

  3. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  4. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  5. Empowering Rhetoric: Black Students Writing Black Panthers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pough, Gwendolyn D.

    2002-01-01

    Examines Black student responses to Black Panther Party documents and how those documents moved the students toward change. Maintains that by allowing the classroom to function as a public space which students can discuss the issues that matter to them, teachers can help to foster and encourage student activism and ultimately their empowerment.…

  6. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  7. Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Edward

    2006-01-15

    We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.

  8. Black Studies Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Russell L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the proposition that the black studies movement is but a continuing aspect of our general battle for survival and liberation in a fluctuatingly hostile environment, and that a part of what is seen today in the black studies movement is but a fluctuation in a fight and an expression of black collective awareness dating back to the…

  9. To Liberate Black Actors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Three things will help to change American theater's unsatisfactory climate for Blacks and its growing mediocrity: (1) an end to the cultural dependence on British theater; (2) an examination of America's racial history in "White" as well as "Black" productions; and (3) abandonment of the notion that Blacks and Whites can flourish in isolation from…

  10. The Black Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Lee E., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    This issue of "The Leaflet" focuses on the black experience. Included are four poems by Lawrence Johnson, "Little Girl Black,""Be's That Way Sometime,""My Blackness," and "Three Songs of Freedom"; two papers originally presented at the 1973 New England Association of Teachers of English Conference, "Teaching English to the Disadvantaged in Large…

  11. Genocide and Black Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnette, Calvin H.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that the survival of black people is in serious jeopardy as is evidenced in contemporary discussions on the worldwide plight of black people, and that an exhaustive study of the problem in its many dimensions is seriously lacking; the moral and ethical issues of genocide require examination from a black perspective. (JW)

  12. Asymmetric Black Diholes

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. S.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Ruiz, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the present paper we enlarge the list of black dihole spacetimes by introducing the notion of asymmetric black diholes which describe configurations composed of two static charged black holes endowed with unequal masses and equal but opposite charges. The asymmetric dihole solutions are considered both in the Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories.

  13. The Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Juanita M.

    The Black woman has been the transmitter of culture in the black community. Two of the important roles of African women were perpetuated during slavery and continue until today. They are her role in economic endeavor and her close bond with her children. The woman in African society was additionally politically significant. The black woman has…

  14. Black Veterans Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, James; Pearson, Michael

    1970-01-01

    This is a survey study of black veterans' attitudes toward white authorities, the "law and order controversy, racial separatism, violence, and black identification. Results of the survey are held to suggest that alienation will move a substantial proportion of these veterans into the black radical movement. (KG)

  15. 77 FR 55448 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery off the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... profitability of those owning the endorsement because of the increased value of an endorsement once it becomes transferable. Also, industry profitability is expected to increase as more efficient operators enter the black...

  16. 76 FR 41141 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Snapper-Grouper Fishery of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... this notice are applicable to those vessels harvesting or possessing black sea bass from Key West... Federal waters, as specified in 50 CFR 622.43(a)(5)(ii). Classification This action responds to the best...

  17. Effects of cysteamine on mRNA levels of growth hormone and its receptors and growth in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Yong; Ma, Xilan; Lin, Haoran

    2013-06-01

    Effects of cysteamine (CS) on growth hormone (GH) mRNA, two types of growth hormone receptor (GHR) mRNAs and growth rate in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) were investigated. CS could cause a modification in the structure of somatostatin, which is the most important neuroendocrine inhibitor of basal and stimulated growth hormone synthesis and release, and renders it nonimmunoreactive probably through interaction with the disulfide bonds. In the present study, cysteamine hydrochloride (CSH) enhanced the level of pituitary GH mRNA in a dose-dependent manner through attenuating or deleting the inhibiting action of somatostatin on GH mRNA expression. CSH at relatively low doses (from 1 to 3 mg/g diet) enhanced the levels of two types of GHR mRNAs in dose-dependent manner, whereas the stimulation induced by CSH declined from the peak at higher dose of CSH (4 mg/g diet). It might be attributed to the variation in GH-induced up-regulation of GHRs at different doses of GH. Feeding of CSH could induce remarkable enhancement of growth rate in orange-spotted grouper. In addition, the stimulatory effect of CSH could be potentiated by the additive effect of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analog (LHRH-A). Compared with individual treatments, combined feeding of CSH and LHRH-A caused more efficient elevation of growth rate after 8 weeks of feeding. CSH and LHRH-A individually and in combination remarkably increased the levels of GH and GHR mRNAs compared with the control. The combined administration of CSH and LHRH-A in diet was most effective to enhance the level of GH and GHR1 mRNA. The morphological characteristics of the experimental fish were evaluated. Compared with control, the ratios of muscle RNA/DNA, condition factors (CF) and feed conversion efficiency (FCE) were significantly enhanced in the treated groups, while the highest values were observed in the combined treatment. All the results suggested that CSH (1-3 mg/g diet) is an effective

  18. A Comprehensive Description and Evolutionary Analysis of 22 Grouper (Perciformes, Epinephelidae) Mitochondrial Genomes with Emphasis on Two Novel Genome Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes’ control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus

  19. A comprehensive description and evolutionary analysis of 22 grouper (perciformes, epinephelidae) mitochondrial genomes with emphasis on two novel genome organizations.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuan; Qu, Meng; Zhang, Xiang; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2013-01-01

    Groupers of the family Epinephelidae are a diverse and economically valuable group of reef fishes. To investigate the evolution of their mitochondrial genomes we characterized and compared these genomes among 22 species, 17 newly sequenced. Among these fishes we identified three distinct genome organizations, two of them never previously reported in vertebrates. In 19 of these species, mitochondrial genomes followed the typical vertebrate canonical organization with 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNAs, two rRNAs, and a non-coding control region. Differing from this, members of genus Variola have an extra tRNA-Ile between tRNA-Val and 16S rRNA. Evidence suggests that this evolved from tRNA-Val via a duplication event due to slipped strand mispairing during replication. Additionally, Cephalopholisargus has an extra tRNA-Asp in the midst of the control region, likely resulting from long-range duplication of the canonical tRNA-Asp through illicit priming of mitochondrial replication by tRNAs. Along with their gene contents, we characterized the regulatory elements of these mitochondrial genomes' control regions, including putative termination-associated sequences and conserved sequence blocks. Looking at the mitochondrial genomic constituents, rRNA and tRNA are the most conserved, followed by protein-coding genes, and non-coding regions are the most divergent. Divergence rates vary among the protein-coding genes, and the three cytochrome oxidase subunits (COI, II, III) are the most conserved, while NADH dehydrogenase subunit 6 (ND6) and the ATP synthase subunit 8 (ATP8) are the most divergent. We then tested the phylogenetic utility of this new mt genome data using 12 protein-coding genes of 48 species from the suborder Percoidei. From this, we provide further support for the elevation of the subfamily Epinephelinae to family Epinephelidae, the resurrection of the genus Hyporthodus, and the combination of the monotypic genera Anyperodon and Cromileptes to genus

  20. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  1. Black Male-Black Female Relationships: The Perceptions of 155 Middle-Class Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed middle-class Black men (N=155) concerning their perceptions of Black male-female relationships. A majority reported that Black women had more opportunity than Black men; a large minority felt that Black women were partly responsible for the relative low status of Black men. Most preferred traditional gender roles. (WAS)

  2. IMAGES OF BLACK AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974

  3. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a new intestinal parasite of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) off New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède) from coral reefs off New Caledonia. The new species, belonging to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987, differs from other congeneric species of this subgenus from marine fishes mainly in the length (168–186 μm), shape and structure of the spicule. It is characterized, in the male, by the presence of two well-developed dorsolateral caudal lobes, a pair of lateral papillae, a heavily sclerotized spicule with many rough transverse grooves in the middle part, a spinose spicular sheath, and in the female, by eggs measuring 60–66 × 27 μm without protruding polar plugs. The buccal cavity contains a small finger-shaped stylet. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. is the first known species of this genus parasitizing fishes of the perciform family Serranidae. PMID:25531932

  4. Gene Expression of Aromatases, Steroid Receptor, GnRH and GTHs in the Brain during the Formation of Ovarian Cavity in Red Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus akaara

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Baek, Hea Ja; Kwon, Joon Yeong

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, is a popular aquaculture species and a protogynous hermaphrodite. Induction of artificial sex change at the time of primary sex differentiation is of interest but has not been successful due to the lack of necessary basic information. To find out the potential neuroendocrine influence on the primary sex differentiation, the expression of key genes in the brain was investigated during the formation of ovarian cavity. Expression of cyp19a1b, esr1, gnrhr1, fsh, lh and cga in the brain was positively associated with the formation of ovarian cavity, showing gradual increase as the formation proceeds. However, the expression of gnrh1 was suppressed during the early part of the ovarian cavity formation, signifying potential hypothalamic influence on the primary sex differentiation in this species. PMID:28144641

  5. Increased 21-hydroxylase and shutdown of C(17,20) lyase activities in testicular tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced sex inversion.

    PubMed

    Lee, S T; Lam, T J; Tan, C H

    2002-05-01

    The metabolism in vitro of [(3)H]17-hydroxyprogesterone by gonadal tissues of the grouper (Epinephelus coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced female-to-male sex inversion was examined. In the female phase, C(17,20) lyase, 5beta-reductase, 3alpha/beta-HSD, 20beta-HSD, and 17beta-HSD activities resulted in the biosynthesis of 5beta-pregnans and 5beta-androstanes (including 5beta-androstane-3alpha/beta, 17beta-diol, 3alpha/beta, 17alpha-dihydroxy-5beta-pregnen-20-one, and 5beta-androstane-3,17-dione). In the MT-induced male phase, however, the abrogation of C(17,20) lyase activity and the concomitant activation of 21alpha-hydroxylase/11beta-hydroxylase resulted in the preferential synthesis of polar 21alpha-hydroxlyated 5beta-pregnans (5beta-pregnan-3beta,17alpha,20beta,21alpha-tetrol and 3beta,20beta,21alpha-trihydroxy-5beta-pregnan-3-one) and corticosteroids (11-deoxycortisol and cortisol). Interestingly, synthesis of these 21alpha-hydroxylated 5beta-pregnans and corticosteroids was uniquely compartmentalized in only testicular tissues of the MT-induced males. This study shows that there is selective activation of specific steroidogenic enzymes in the different sexual phases leading to the synthesis of metabolites that may be involved in regulating sex inversion of the grouper. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  6. Recognition of Linear B-Cell Epitope of Betanodavirus Coat Protein by RG-M18 Neutralizing mAB Inhibits Giant Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (GGNNV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Wu, Ming-Shan; Huang, Yi-Jen; Cheng, Chao-An; Chang, Chi-Yao

    2015-01-01

    Betanodavirus is a causative agent of viral nervous necrosis syndrome in many important aquaculture marine fish larvae, resulting in high global mortality. The coat protein of Betanodavirus is the sole structural protein, and it can assemble the virion particle by itself. In this study, we used a high-titer neutralizing mAB, RG-M18, to identify the linear B-cell epitope on the viral coat protein. By mapping a series of recombinant proteins generated using the E. coli PET expression system, we demonstrated that the linear epitope recognized by RG-M18 is located at the C-terminus of the coat protein, between amino acid residues 195 and 338. To define the minimal epitope region, a set of overlapping peptides were synthesized and evaluated for RG-M18 binding. Such analysis identified the 195VNVSVLCR202 motif as the minimal epitope. Comparative analysis of Alanine scanning mutagenesis with dot-blotting and ELISA revealed that Valine197, Valine199, and Cysteine201 are critical for antibody binding. Substitution of Leucine200 in the RGNNV, BFNNV, and TPNNV genotypes with Methionine200 (thereby simulating the SJNNV genotype) did not affect binding affinity, implying that RG-M18 can recognize all genotypes of Betanodaviruses. In competition experiments, synthetic multiple antigen peptides of this epitope dramatically suppressed giant grouper nervous necrosis virus (GGNNV) propagation in grouper brain cells. The data provide new insights into the protective mechanism of this neutralizing mAB, with broader implications for Betanodavirus vaccinology and antiviral peptide drug development. PMID:25938761

  7. Expression profiles of gonadotropins and their receptors during 17α-methyltestosterone implantation-induced sex change in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Hu, Xuesong; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Haifa; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Sang, Qing; Wang, Qian; Luo, Wenna; Liu, Qizhi; Lu, Danqi; Meng, Zining; Lin, Haoran

    2011-06-01

    It is known that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis participates in the sex change of hermaphrodite teleosts, and gonadal steroid hormones mediate this physiological process. The secretion of gonadal steroids is directly regulated by signaling pathways involving gonadotropins (GtHs) and gonadotropin receptors (GtHRs) in teleosts. To gain insight into the involvement of GtH/GtHR systems in the sex change process, cDNAs encoding follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) and luteinizing hormone receptor (LHR) were firstly isolated from gonads of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides), a protogynous hermaphrodite fish. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of the FSHR was confined to the brain, pituitary gland, ovary, and testis, while the LHR was expressed only in the brain, ovary, and testis. Furthermore, the expression profiles of GtH subunits (FSHβ and LHβ) and their receptors were analyzed in parallel with the serum levels of estradiol-17β (E(2) ), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) during 17α-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced sex change. Quantitative real-time PCR determined that the abundances of FSHβ and FSHR were significantly inhibited after MT treatment for 2 and 4 weeks, but subsequently returned to the control level after 6 weeks. In contrast, the mRNA levels of LHβ and LHR were significantly elevated throughout the sex change process. During MT-induced sex change, serum concentrations of E(2) remained constant while T and 11-KT levels were significantly increased. Taken together, our results suggest that GtH/GtHR systems are involved in MT-induced sex change, and two signaling pathways may have distinct roles in modulating the variations of the corresponding steroid hormones in the orange-spotted grouper.

  8. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall.

  9. A shared antigen among Vibrio species: outer membrane protein-OmpK as a versatile Vibriosis vaccine candidate in Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Li, Ningqiu; Yang, Zhihui; Bai, Junjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Liu, Lihui; Shi, Cunbin; Wu, Shuqin

    2010-01-01

    The outer membrane protein-OmpK has been considered as a vaccine candidate for the prevention of infections due to Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in fish. Interestingly, the polyclonal antibody raised against the recombinant OmpK from V. harveyi strain EcGs020802 recognized the OmpK homologues from other strains of Vibrio species by immunoblotting. The ompK genes from 19 Vibrio strains including V. harveyi (11), V. alginolyticus (6) and V. parahaemolyticus (2) were then cloned and sequenced. Alignment analysis based on the amino acid sequences indicated that the OmpK from V. harveyi strain EcGs020802 had 71.7-99.2% of identities with those from V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus. Western blot analysis revealed that the corresponding native proteins ranged between 28 and 31 kDa, consistent with predicated molecular weight of OmpK in Vibrio strains. Furthermore, the cross-protective property of recombinant OmpK was evaluated through challenge with heterogeneous virulent Vibrio strains in Orange-spotted groupers (Epinephelus coioides). Orange-spotted groupers vaccinated with recombinant OmpK were more tolerant of the infection by virulent Vibrio strains and their relative percentage survival (RPS) was correlative with the degree of the identity of deduced amino acid sequences of their OmpK. Taken together, the OmpK is a conserved protective antigen among tested Vibrio species and might be a potentially versatile vaccine candidate for the prevention of infections due to V. harveyi, V. alginolyticus and V. parahaemolyticus.

  10. Effects of small peptides, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics on growth performance, digestive enzymes, and oxidative stress in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides, juveniles reared in artificial seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Cheng, Yongzhou; Chen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Zhaopu; Long, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Aquaculture production efficiency may increase by using feed additives. This study investigated the effects of different dietary additives [w/w: 2% small peptides, 0.01% probiotics ( Bacillus licheniformis) and 0.2% prebiotics (inulin)] on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities, and oxidative stress in juvenile Epinephelus coioides reared in artificial seawater of two salt concentrations (13.5 vs. 28.5). Weight gain rate was significantly higher in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides, B. licheniformis, inulin, or synbiotics than that in fish fed the basal diet; the greatest weight gain rate was found in fish fed the small peptide treatment [56.0% higher than basal diet]. Higher feed efficiency was detected in fish fed the diet supplemented with small peptides than that of fish in the other dietary treatments. Total protease activity in the stomach and intestines was highest in fish fed the small peptide-treated diet, whereas lipase activity was highest in those fed synbiotics (combination of Bacillus licheniformis and inulin) than that in fish fed the other treatments. Antioxidant enzyme (total superoxide dismutase and catalase) activities and hepatic malondialdehyde content were higher in fish receiving the dietary supplements and maintained in artificial seawater containing 13.5 salinity compared with those in the control (28.5). Hepatic catalase activity in grouper fed the diets with small peptides or synbiotics decreased significantly compared with that in control fish. Overall, the three types of additives improved growth rate of juvenile grouper and digestive enzymes activities to varying degrees but did not effectively improve antioxidant capacity under low-salinity stress conditions.

  11. Molecular cloning of glucose transporter 1 in grouper Epinephelus coioides and effects of an acute hyperglycemia stress on its expression and glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongyu; Dong, Xiaohui; Chi, Shuyan; Yang, Qihui; Zhang, Shuang; Chen, Liqiao; Tan, Beiping

    2017-02-01

    The glucose transporter family proteins play pivotal roles in glucose metabolism. In this study, we successfully cloned the orange spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) glucose transporter 1 (EcGlut1) gene (GenBank accession: JQ623903). The full-length EcGlut1 cDNA was 2126 bp with a 1476 bp ORF, a 437bp5'-UTR and 223bp3'-UTR. EcGlut1 is predicted to encode a 491 amino acid protein with a MW of 53.9 kDa, a pI of 8.66 and a Pfam domain. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that EcGlut1 was evolutionally conserved between fishes with 80-89 % amino acid identities. EcGlut1 was expressed predominantly in heart and liver and at lower levels in muscle, intestine, stomach and brain. We also investigated the effect of acute hyperglycemia stress on EcGlut1 expression. In glucose tolerance test, changes in EcGlut1 mRNA expression in response to glucose injection and glucose metabolism-related indictors were assessed at the same time. Glucose injection significantly suppressed EcGlut1 mRNA expression in liver at 12 h and in brain at 24 h postinjection (P < 0.05). EcGlut1 mRNA levels in heart were increased at 6 h (P < 0.05). Plasma glucose level increased significantly and reached its maximum at 3 h postinjection (P < 0.05). The spatiotemporal expression of EcGlut1 and glucose metabolism suggested that orange spotted grouper might rely on fat anabolism to reduce acute hyperglycemia stress and the delayed transcription of EcGlut1 gene might be one reason for glucose intolerance in E. coioides.

  12. Black Holes (With 16 figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Igor

    Astrophysics of Black Holes Introduction The Origin of Stellar Black Holes A Nonrotating Black Hole Introduction Schwarzschild Gravitational Field Motion of Photons Along the Radial Direction Radial Motion of Nonrelativistic Particles The Puzzle of the Gravitational Radius R and T Regions Two Types of T-Regions Gravitational Collapse and White Holes Eternal Black Hole? Black Hole Celestial Mechanics Circular Motion Around a Black Hole Gravitational Capture of Particles by a Black Hole Corrections for Gravitational Radiation A Rotating Black Hole Introduction Gravitational Field of a Rotating Black Hole Specific Reference Frames General Properties of the Spacetime of a Rotating Black Hole; - Spacetime Inside the Horizon Celestial Mechanics of a Rotating Black Hole Motion of Particle in the Equatorial Plane Motion of Particles off the Equatorial Plane Peculiarities of the Gravitational Capture of Bodies by a Rotating - Black Hole Electromagnetic Fields Near a Black Hole Introduction Maxwell's Equations in the Neighborhood of a Rotating Black Hole Stationary Electrodynamics Boundary Conditions at the Event Horizon Electromagnetic Fields in Vacuum Magnetosphere of a Black Hole Some Aspects of Physics of Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Machines Observational Appearence of the Black Holes in the Universe Black Holes in the Interstellar Medium Disk Accretion Black Holes in Stellar Binary Systems Black Holes in Galactic Centers Dynamical Evidence for Black Holes in Galaxy Nuclei Primordial Black Holes Acknowledgements References

  13. Ten shades of black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-09-01

    The holographic principle has taught us that, as far as their entropy content is concerned, black holes in (3 + 1)-dimensional curved spacetimes behave as ordinary thermodynamic systems in flat (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes. In this paper, we point out that the opposite behavior can also be observed in black-hole physics. To show this we study the quantum Hawking evaporation of near-extremal Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes. We first point out that the black-hole radiation spectrum departs from the familiar radiation spectrum of genuine (3 + 1)-dimensional perfect black-body emitters. In particular, the would be black-body thermal spectrum is distorted by the curvature potential which surrounds the black-hole and effectively blocks the emission of low-energy quanta. Taking into account the energy-dependent gray-body factors which quantify the imprint of passage of the emitted radiation quanta through the black-hole curvature potential, we reveal that the (3 + 1)-dimensional black holes effectively behave as perfect black-body emitters in a flat (9 + 1)-dimensional spacetime.

  14. Descriptions of Philometra aenei n. sp. and P. tunisiensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) from Epinephelus spp. off Tunisia confirm a high degree of host specificity of gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 in groupers (Serranidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Chaabane, Amira; Neifar, Lassad; Gey, Delphine; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2016-02-01

    Based on light and electron microscopical studies of males and mature females, two new gonad-infecting species of Philometra Costa, 1845 (Nematoda: Philometridae) are described from the ovary of groupers, Epinephelus spp. (Perciformes; Serranidae), in the Mediterranean Sea off Tunisia (near Sfax): Philometra aenei n. sp. from the white grouper E. aeneus (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire) and P. tunisiensis n. sp. from the goldblotch grouper E. costae (Steindachner). Identification of both fish hosts was confirmed by barcoding of the infected fish specimens. Philometra aenei is mainly characterised by the length of conspicuously distended spicules (108-123 µm), the presence of a distinct dorsal barb at the middle region of the gubernaculum and a distinct protuberance consisting of two dorsolateral lamellar parts separated from each other by a smooth median field at its distal tip, a V-shaped mound on the male caudal extremity and by the body length of the males (2.34-3.05 mm). The male of this species was found to possess minute deirids in the cervical region, which is quite exceptional within the Philometridae. Philometra tunisiensis is distinguished from other gonad-infecting congeneric species parasitising serranids by the length of the needle-like spicules and gubernaculum (201-219 and 78-87 µm, respectively), spicule length representing 9-11% of body length, the gubernaculum/spicules length ratio of 1:2.52-2.77, the length of oesophagus in the male comprising 15-16% of the body length, the absence of a dorsal protuberance on the distal lamellar part of the gubernaculum and a pair of large papillae posterior to the cloaca, a dorsally interrupted mound on the male caudal extremity and the body length of the male (2.01-2.42 mm). The presence of three morphologically very different species of Philometra in congeneric hosts in the Mediterranean Sea confirms a high degree of host specificity of these gonad-infecting nematodes parasitising groupers.

  15. Genes involved in fatty acid metabolism: molecular characterization and hypothalamic mRNA response to energy status and neuropeptide Y treatment in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhiguo; Sun, Caiyun; Yan, Aifen; Wu, Shuge; Qin, Chaobin; Zhang, Yanhong; Li, Wensheng

    2013-08-25

    As in mammals, fatty acid (FA) metabolism plays diverse and vital roles in regulating food intake in fish. Multiple lines of evidence suggest that the effect of FA metabolism on food intake is linked to changes in the level of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the hypothalamus of the rainbow trout. In mammals, the evidence suggests that FA metabolism regulates feeding via hypothalamic NPY. NPY is therefore considered an important factor that mediates the modulation of food intake by FA metabolism in vertebrates. The stimulatory effect of NPY on food intake is well known. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of NPY on FA metabolism in the hypothalamus has not been examined. In this study, we cloned the cDNA of four key enzymes involved in FA metabolism and assessed the effect of energy status and NPY on their mRNA expression in the hypothalamus of grouper. The full-length cDNAs of UCP2 and CPT1a and the partial coding sequence (CDS) of ACC1 and FAS were isolated from the grouper hypothalamus. These genes are expressed in the hypothalamus and during the organogenetic stage of embryogenesis. A feeding rhythm study showed that the hypothalamic expression level of NPY and CPT1a was highly correlated with feeding rhythm. Long-term fasting was found to significantly induce the hypothalamic mRNA expression of NPY, CPT1a and UCP2. An in vitro study demonstrated that NPY strongly stimulated CPT1a and UCP2 mRNA expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Collectively, these results suggest that these four genes related to FA metabolism may play a role in regulating food intake in grouper and, that NPY modulates FA metabolism in the grouper hypothalamus. This study showed, for the first time in vertebrates, the effect of NPY on the gene expression of FA metabolism-related enzymes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Uniformly accelerated black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    2001-09-01

    The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.

  17. Exploring Black Hole Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Hyeyoun

    2015-10-01

    This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If

  18. Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    Recent data indicates that almost all galaxies possess a supermassive black hole at their center. When gas accretes onto the black hole it heats-up and shines, resulting in the appearance of a bright quasar. The earliest quasars are found to exist only a billion years after the big-bang. I will describe recent observations of both the nearest and the most distant supermassive black holes in the universe. The formation and evolution of the black hole population can be described in the context of popular models for galaxy formation. I will describe the key questions that drive current research on supermassive black holes and present theoretical work on the radiative and hydrodynamic effects that quasars have on their cosmic habitat. Within the coming decade it would be possible to test general relativity by monitoring over time, and possibly even imaging, the polarized emission from hot spots around the black hole in the center of our Galaxy (SgrA*).

  19. Black branes as piezoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Armas, Jay; Gath, Jakob; Obers, Niels A

    2012-12-14

    We find a realization of linear electroelasticity theory in gravitational physics by uncovering a new response coefficient of charged black branes, exhibiting their piezoelectric behavior. Taking charged dilatonic black strings as an example and using the blackfold approach we measure their elastic and piezolectric moduli. We also use our results to draw predictions about the equilibrium condition of charged dilatonic black rings in dimensions higher than six.

  20. The Nearest Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Garcia, M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitates this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.

  1. The Nearest Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitate this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.

  2. What Black Educators are Saying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nathan, Jr., Ed.

    Contents of this book are comprised of five groups of articles: Part I. The Black Educator: "Education for black humanism; a way of approaching it," Preston Wilcox; "The new black dimension in our society," Olivia Pearl Stokes; "The black teacher and black Power," Leslie Campbell; and, "The difference," Leslie Campbell. Part II. The White…

  3. What Black Educators are Saying.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nathan, Jr., Ed.

    Contents of this book are comprised of five groups of articles: Part I. The Black Educator: "Education for black humanism; a way of approaching it," Preston Wilcox; "The new black dimension in our society," Olivia Pearl Stokes; "The black teacher and black Power," Leslie Campbell; and, "The difference," Leslie Campbell. Part II. The White…

  4. Asymptotic black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  5. Evidence for black holes.

    PubMed

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity.

  6. Response of rocky reef top predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and around marine protected areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Hackradt, Carlos Werner; García-Charton, José Antonio; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pérez-Ruzafa, Ángel; Le Diréach, Laurence; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Charbonnel, Eric; Ody, Denis; Reñones, Olga; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Valle, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process.

  7. Response of Rocky Reef Top Predators (Serranidae: Epinephelinae) in and Around Marine Protected Areas in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Hackradt, Carlos Werner; García-Charton, José Antonio; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Pérez-Ruzafa, Ángel; Le Diréach, Laurence; Bayle-Sempere, Just; Charbonnel, Eric; Ody, Denis; Reñones, Olga; Sanchez-Jerez, Pablo; Valle, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Groupers species are extremely vulnerable to overfishing and many species are threatened worldwide. In recent decades, Mediterranean groupers experienced dramatic population declines. Marine protected areas (MPAs) can protect populations inside their boundaries and provide individuals to adjacent fishing areas through the process of spillover and larval export. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of six marine reserves in the Western Mediterranean Sea to protect the populations of three species of grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, Epinephelus costae and Mycteroperca rubra, and to understand in which circumstances MPAs are able to export biomass to neighbouring areas. All the studied MPAs, except one where no grouper was observed, were able to maintain high abundance, biomass and mean weight of groupers. Size classes were more evenly distributed inside than outside MPAs. In two reserves, biomass gradients could be detected through the boundaries of the reserve as an indication of spillover. In some cases, habitat structure appeared to exert a great influence on grouper abundance, biomass and mean individual weight, influencing the gradient shape. Because groupers are generally sedentary animals with a small home range, we suggest that biomass gradients could only occur where groupers attain sufficient abundance inside MPA limits, indicating a strongly density-dependent process. PMID:24905331

  8. Why Black Officers Still Fail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    White youth is smaller than it once was. They all pointed to the fact that today’s youth, both white and black, tend to be attracted to rap music and...papers touching on the experiences of black officers as they relate to representation, promotions, influence , and culture. They can best be...they relate to Black officer representation in the Army, Black officer promotion rates, Black officer influence on policy and decision making, black

  9. Protecting Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  10. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males…

  11. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  12. Protecting Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Monique W.

    2016-01-01

    Statistics show that black girls in U.S. K-12 public schools are overrepresented among students who face disciplinary approaches (such as suspensions) that exclude or even criminalize them. Morris explains how black girls face conditions that make them vulnerable to a phenomenon she calls "school to confinement pathways"--conditions like…

  13. Black Families. Interdisciplinary Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheatham, Harold E., Ed.; Stewart, James B., Ed.

    Since the early 1960s, the black family has been characterized as pathological. This six-part collection of 18 research studies presents alternative approaches to understanding the special characteristics of black families. Part I, "Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives," comprises a comparison of the pioneering work of W. E. B. Du…

  14. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications.

  15. Lexicon of Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, J. L.

    The purpose of this volume is to demonstrate that the fields of linguistics, dialectology, language education, and early reading would be well served by a word book of the Black English vernacular. Chapters are devoted to discussion of the social significance of a lexicon of Black English vernacular, the terminology of sex and lovemaking, religion…

  16. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  17. Cultural Vignette: Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ida; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of an eight-member research team about various elements of Black American culture and history. The booklet begins with a brief history of Black Americans from the time of the arrival of the first slaves to…

  18. Reconstructing the Black Image.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mothe, Gordon de la

    This books aims to develop curriculum approaches and material appropriate to black students that can enhance their personal development, self-esteem, competence, and understanding of society, while it helps young whites develop a greater understanding of the contributions made by black people to history and social development. The context is that…

  19. Recruiting Blacks into Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tipton, Leonard; And Others

    Despite significant progress in the recruitment of black journalists, adequate representation of blacks in newsrooms remains an acute concern. The results of (1) statistical monitoring by organizations such as the Newspaper Fund, (2) searching of trade press and academic journal articles for insights into the problem, (3) an open-ended…

  20. Rotating hairy black holes.

    PubMed

    Kleihaus, B; Kunz, J

    2001-04-23

    We construct stationary black-hole solutions in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing nontrivial non-Abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent nonperturbative rotating hairy black holes.

  1. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  2. The Black College Mystique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V.; Reddick, Richard J.; Brown, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the culture of black colleges and universities a generation ago with those that exist today, and makes projections into the future, based on a comprehensive review of professional literature and an analysis of the management skills of contemporary black college leaders. The book considers the assets and liabilities of…

  3. Fifty shades of black

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartwright, Jon

    2015-11-01

    Creating dark materials that prevent reflections has become hot competition recently, with Guinness World Records having to keep revising the darkest substance yet created. But depending on who's asking, the best black may not be the blackest black, as Jon Cartwright discovers.

  4. Black Studies Year One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Richard A.

    Though Dubois tried to begin a series of scientific studies on the Negro problem in America more than 70 years ago, only recently have attempts been made to present a true history of the Black man in institutions of higher learning. Until that time, the experience of the Black man was defined in Euro-American terms, or in most cases was completely…

  5. Neoliberalism and Black Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin

    1986-01-01

    In contrast to traditional liberals, neoliberals share a commitment to greater economic risk-taking, support for entrepreneurism, a new industrial policy, and a different Federal Role. While New Deal and Great Society liberalism may have been more favorable to blacks, perhaps more balanced and equitable policies for blacks could be developed if…

  6. Cultural Vignette: Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Ida; And Others

    Developed as part of a multicultural research project conducted in the San Diego Community College District, this booklet presents the findings of an eight-member research team about various elements of Black American culture and history. The booklet begins with a brief history of Black Americans from the time of the arrival of the first slaves to…

  7. Black Craftsmen Through History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Robin

    This report traces the evolution of the black craftsmen from ancient Egypt to the present. Special attention is given to the restricted use of black craftsmen under slavery, and the added problems they faced after being freed. Business and union discimination is described, along with recent government and private efforts to achieve equal…

  8. Alienation among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfstetter-Kausch, Heidi; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1981-01-01

    A study of alienation among 32 Black high school students of both sexes indicated that the students were alienated from both society and school. The hypothesis that females are less alienated than males was not supported. A reconsideration of the concept of matriarchy, as applied to the Black lower class adolescent is proposed. (Author/CM)

  9. Notable Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellin, Nancy

    Readings, activities, and teaching strategies for a secondary unit on black women are included in this teacher handbook. Instructional material is divided into four sections. Following a note on the use of the booklet, section 1 consists of 24 two-page biographies of black women, including Selma Burke, Lena Horne, Leontyne Price, Charlayne…

  10. Observing Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-01

    Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.

  11. Fluctuating black hole horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mei, Jianwei

    2013-10-01

    In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.

  12. American Black Duck

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, Jerry R.; Clugston, David A.; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    The American black duck, with its brownish-black plumage and iridescent violet speculum, is one of the wariest of all the large dabbling ducks (Kortright 1942; Fig. 1). The black duck’s distribution is confined to eastern North America but extends into Manitoba. The black duck breeds in a variety of habitat types, from the brackish coastal marshes of North Carolina to the open boreal forests of northern Quebec and Labrador (Bellrose 1976). In acidic bogs, beaver streams, and sluggish riverine and floodplain habitats of the boreal forest, the black duck’s dark plumage (males and females have similar plumage) blends with the dark organic-stained waters of forested wetlands (Fig. 2).

  13. Black phosphorous optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Xia, Fengnian

    2017-05-01

    Black phosphorus recently emerged as a promising two-dimensional material due to its widely tunable and direct bandgap, high carrier mobility and remarkable in-plane anisotropic electrical, optical and phonon properties. It serendipitously bridges the zero-gap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). In this brief review manuscript, we will first cover the basic properties of few-layer and thin-film black phosphorus. Then we will present a few potential applications of black phosphorus such as radiofrequency transistors and wideband photodetectors. Finally we will discuss the recent observation of efficient bandgap tuning in black phosphorus thin films in a dual-gate transistor, and conclude with the discussion of synthesis of large area and high quality black phosphorus thin films.

  14. Black holes and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2012-11-15

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  15. Characterization of RAG1 and IgM (mu chain) marking development of the immune system in red-spotted grouper (Epinephelus akaara).

    PubMed

    Mao, Ming-Guang; Lei, Ji-Lin; Alex, Perálvarez-Marín; Hong, Wan-Shu; Wang, Ke-Jian

    2012-10-01

    In vertebrates, lymphoid-specific recombinase protein encoded by recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) plays a key role in V(D)J recombination of the T-cell receptor and B-cell receptor. In this study, both RAG1 and the immunoglobulin M (IgM) mu chain were cloned to characterize their potential role in the immune defense at developmental stages of red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara. The open reading frame (ORF) of E. akaara RAG1 included 2778 nucleotide residues encoding a putative protein of 925 amino acids, while the ORF of the IgM mu chain had 1734 nucleotide residues encoding 578 amino acids including variable (VH) and constant (CH1-CH2-CH3-CH4) regions. E. akaara RAG1 was composed of a zinc-binding dimerization domain (ZDD) with a RING finger and zinc finger A (ZFA) in the non-core region and a nonamer-binding region (NBR), with a zinc finger B (ZFB), the central and C-terminal domains in the core region. Tridimensional models of the ZDD and NBR of E. akaara RAG1 were constructed for the first time in fishes, while a 3D model of the E. akaara IgM mu chain was also clarified. The RAG1 mRNA was only detected in the thymus and kidney of 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers using qPCR, and the RAG1 protein was confirmed using western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The IgM mu mRNA was examined in most tissues except the gonad. RAG1 and IgM mu gene expression were observed at 15 dph (days post-hatching) and 23 dph respectively, and increased to a higher level at 37 dph. In addition, this was the first time that the morphology of the E. akaara thymus was characterized. The oval-shaped thymus of 4-month old fish was clearly seen and there were amounts of T lymphocytes present. The results suggested that the immune action of E. akaara was likely to start to develop around 15 dph to 29 dph. The transcript level of the RAG1 gene and the number of lymphocytes in the thymus between 4-month and 1.5-year old groupers indicated that age-related thymic

  16. Extreme black hole holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Thomas Edward

    The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the

  17. 50 CFR 622.185 - Size limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Blackfin, cubera, dog, gray, mahogany, queen, silk, and yellowtail snappers—12 inches (30.5 cm), TL. (4..., yellowfin, and yellowmouth grouper; and scamp—20 inches (50.8 cm), TL. (2) Black grouper and gag—24 inches (61.0 cm), TL. (c) Other snapper-grouper species—(1) Black sea bass. (i) For a fish taken by a person...

  18. Molecular identification of StAR and 3βHSD1 and characterization in response to GnIH stimulation in protogynous hermaphroditic grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingqing; Qi, Xin; Tang, Haipei; Guo, Yin; Li, Shuisheng; Li, Gaofei; Yang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Haifa; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2017-04-01

    Gonadal steroids are critical factors in reproduction and sex reverse process. StAR (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein), transferring the cholesterol from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the inner membrane, is the rate-limiting factor of steroidogenesis. 3βHSD (3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Δ5-Δ4 isomerase), converting Δ5-steroids into Δ4-steroids, is an important oxidoreductase in steroidogenesis. In the present study, StAR and 3βHSD1 were cloned and characterized from protogynous orange-spotted grouper. StAR cDNA contains an 861bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding a predicted protein of 286 amino acids, and the ORF of 3βHSD1 was 1125bp, encoding a predicted protein of 374 amino acids. The transcript of StAR was mainly expressed in gonad, while 3βHSD1 mRNA was predominantly detected in brain and gonad. In the previous study, we found the expression of GnIH mRNA level in male, as well as in 17 alpha-methyltestosterone (MT)-induced male fish was significantly higher than in female fish, this indicating that GnIH/GnIHR signaling might be involved in the regulation of sex reversal and male maintenance. In order to figure out the function of GnIH in steroidogenesis, the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 regulated by GnIH was examined. In vitro study showed that treatment of cultured ovary fragments with gGnIH peptides significantly stimulated the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1. In addition, the mRNA levels of StAR and 3βHSD1 were significantly increased after intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) with gGnIH peptides. Moreover, during MT-induced sex change from female to male, the levels of StAR mRNA significantly increased by 5.2, 24.8 and 353.5 folds, and that of 3βHSD1 mRNA by 3.5, 32.5 and 55.4 folds at the 2nd, 4th and 6th week after MT implantation, respectively. Collectively, our results indicate that GnIH may be involved in the regulation of sex reversal or male maintenance by stimulating the expression of StAR and 3βHSD1 in protogynous grouper

  19. Temporal changes in innate immunity parameters, epinecidin gene expression, and mortality in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides experimentally infected with a fish pathogen, Vibrio harveyi JML1.

    PubMed

    Amar, Edgar C; Faisan, Joseph P; Apines-Amar, Mary Jane S; Pakingking, Rolando V

    2017-08-07

    Changes in innate immunity parameters and epinecidin mRNA transcript levels were examined to characterize the non-specific immune response of E. coioides to pathogenic V. harveyi JML1 isolated from affected cage-cultured fish. After fish had been injected with bacteria at a dose causing 30% mortality, blood and tissue samples were collected at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 240 h post-infection (hpi) for assessment of indices such as the oxidative burst (OB) and phagocytic index (PI) of head kidney cells, and lysozyme activity (LYS) and total immunoglobulin (Total Ig) levels of the plasma. The epinecidin mRNA transcript levels (EGE) from skin, gills, liver, kidney, and spleen tissues were also determined by gel-based RT-PCR. Lastly, daily mortality (DM), liver total bacterial load (TBC), and presumptive Vibrio count (TVC) were monitored up to 240 hpi. The results revealed that bacteria proliferated rapidly in fish tissue, reaching peak densities at 24 hpi for both TBC and TVC but was on a downward trend thereafter. The pattern in fish mortality closely correlated with TBC and TVC. Total Ig, OB, and PI in E. coioides were suppressed in the early part of infection when V. harveyi load was high but recovered and later increased as bacterial density declined. LYS and EGE were consistently high and their activities were not hampered by bacterial infection. The study demonstrated that V. harveyi JML1 interacts with E. coioides by transiently inhibiting some immune parameters resulting in mortalities. However, consistently high LYS, upregulated EGE, and resurgent PI, OB and Total Ig conferred resistance and subsequent recovery in the fish. The study provides new insights on the interaction between E. coioides and V. harveyi JML1 that can aid in formulating health management strategies for groupers. Further studies on prophylactic interventions to enhance the innate immune response in grouper during infection with V. harveyi JML1 are suggested. Copyright

  20. Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of multiple leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huixian; Chen, Huapu; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shuisheng; Lu, Danqi; Zhang, Haifa; Meng, Zining; Liu, Xiaochun; Lin, Haoran

    2013-01-15

    Leptin plays key roles in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its function in teleosts is still unclear. In the present study, two leptin genes (gLepA and gLepB) and one leptin receptor gene (gLepR) were cloned and characterized in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of gLepA and gLepB were 671 bp and 684 bp in length, encoding for proteins of 161 amino acid (aa) and 158 aa, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) structures modeling of gLepA and gLepB showed strong conservation of tertiary structure with that of other vertebrates. The total length of gLepR cDNA was 4242 bp, encoding a protein of 1169 aa which contained all functionally important domains conserved among vertebrate LEPR. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gLepA was highly expressed in cerebellum, liver and ovary, while gLepB mRNA abundantly in the brain regions, as well as in the ovary with some extend. The gLepR was mainly expressed in kidney, head kidney and most of brain regions. Analysis of expression profiles of gLep and gLepR genes during the embryonic stages showed that high expression of gLepR was observed in the brain vesicle stage, while neither gLepA nor gLepB mRNA was detected during different embryonic stages. Finally, fasting and refeeding experiments were carried out to investigate the possible function of leptin genes in food intake and energy metabolism, and the results showed that a significant increase of gLepA expression in the liver was induced by food deprivation in both short-term (7 days) and long-term (3 weeks) fasting and gLepA mRNA upregulation was eliminated after refeeding, while gLepB wasn't detected in the liver of grouper during fasting. No significant differences in hypothalamic leptin and leptin receptor expression were found during short-term fasting and refeeding. Hepatic expression of gLepA mRNA increased significantly 9h after a single meal. These results suggested g

  1. Sexual Fate Reprogramming in the Steroid-Induced Bi-Directional Sex Change in the Protogynous Orange-Spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guan-Chung; Tey, Wei-Guan; Li, Hau-Wen; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Androgen administration has been widely used for masculinization in fish. The mechanism of the sex change in sexual fate regulation is not clear. Oral administration or pellet implantation was applied. We orally applied an aromatase inhibitor (AI, to decrease estrogen levels) and 17α-methyltestosterone (MT, to increase androgen levels) to induce masculinization to clarify the mechanism of the sex change in the protogynous orange-spotted grouper. After 3 mo of AI/MT administration, male characteristics were observed in the female-to-male sex change fish. These male characteristics included increased plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), decreased estradiol (E2) levels, increased male-related gene (dmrt1, sox9, and cyp11b2) expression, and decreased female-related gene (figla, foxl2, and cyp19a1a) expression. However, the reduced male characteristics and male-to-female sex change occurred after AI/MT-termination in the AI- and MT-induced maleness. Furthermore, the MT-induced oocyte-depleted follicle cells (from MT-implantation) had increased proliferating activity, and the sexual fate in a portion of female gonadal soma cells was altered to male function during the female-to-male sex change. In contrast, the gonadal soma cells were not proliferative during the early process of the male-to-female sex change. Additionally, the male gonadal soma cells did not alter to female function during the male-to-female sex change in the AI/MT-terminated fish. After MT termination in the male-to-female sex-changed fish, the differentiated male germ cells showed increased proliferating activities together with dormancy and did not show characteristics of both sexes in the early germ cells. In conclusion, these findings indicate for the first time in a single species that the mechanism involved in the replacement of soma cells is different between the female-to-male and male-to-female sex change processes in grouper. These results also demonstrate that sexual fate determination

  2. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  3. Untapped Resources: "Styling" in Black Students' Writing for Black Audiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redd, Teresa M.

    Two studies compared the impact of black and white audiences on black students' writing style. In the first study, eight students in an all-black intermediate composition class completed one argumentative draft addressed to black opponents and one addressed to white opponents on two different topics. The essays were examined for stylistic features…

  4. On the Charter Question: Black Marxism and Black Nationalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Mark; Hussain, Khuram

    2015-01-01

    This article brings two black intellectual traditions to bear on the question of charter schools: black Marxism and black nationalism. The authors examine the theoretical and rhetorical devices used to talk about charters schools by focusing on how notions of "black liberation" are deployed by the charter movement, and to what end. The…

  5. The next Black America: Obstacles amidst opportunities for Black families.

    PubMed

    Armah, Tichianaa

    2015-09-01

    In this article, the author offers personal accounts on how she feels about the current Black America and obstacles that people face reaching for opportunities for Black families. Focus relies on the current state of Black America, poverty, schools, academic achievement, raising children in the next Black America and much more. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Black Studies and Black People in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James B.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that the demise of Black Studies would foreshadow the future deterioration of the material conditions of black people, a situation which all elements of the black community want to preclude as a possible future for black people. (Author/AM)

  7. ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu

    2015-01-10

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.

  8. Measuring Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Gordon

    1999-09-01

    WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.

  9. Stationary black diholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manko, V. S.; Rabadán, R. I.; Sanabria-Gómez, J. D.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we present and analyze the simplest physically meaningful model for stationary black diholes—a binary configuration of counterrotating Kerr-Newman black holes endowed with opposite electric charges—elaborated in a physical parametrization on the basis of one of the Ernst-Manko-Ruiz equatorially antisymmetric solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations. The model saturates the Gabach-Clement inequality for interacting black holes with struts, and in the absence of rotation, it reduces to the Emparan-Teo electric dihole solution. The physical characteristics of each dihole constituent satisfy identically the well-known Smarr's mass formula.

  10. 50 CFR 622.185 - Size limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF OF MEXICO, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Snapper-Grouper Fishery... (61.0 cm), TL. (c) Other snapper-grouper species—(1) Black sea bass. (i) For a fish taken by a person...

  11. 77 FR 33159 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... dealers who process greater amberjack, red porgy, gag, black grouper, red grouper, scamp, red hind, rock..., Departmental Paperwork Clearance Officer, (202) 482-0336, Department of Commerce, Room 6616, 14th and...

  12. Guide to the Black Novel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Richard

    1969-01-01

    The nature of black literature raises questions about a black aesthetic and the universality of black expression. Central in the writings of Richard Wright and Ralph Ellison are the black man's confusion of identity, stemming from his invisibility in a white America, and the crimes of ignorance and blindness perpetrated on him by whites and by…

  13. Black Writers' Views of America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    1979-01-01

    Contrary to their portrayal in "Black Macho and the Myth of the Superwoman," Black women were not passive in the Black liberation movement of the 1960s. Wallace does not acknowledge the organizing efforts of both Black men and women to challenge racism and sexism within the larger capitalist system. (Author/EB)

  14. The Price of "Black Dominance."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoberman, John

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the harmful effects of stereotyping black males as athletes, noting that over-identification with athletes and the world of physical performance limits black children's development by discouraging academic achievement. Examines the negative influence of mass media focus on black athletes, rappers, and stylized ghetto blackness. Discusses…

  15. Black Hole in 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-11-30

    This three-dimensional illustration shows how the rotating space around a black hole twists up the magnetic field in the plasma falling toward the black hole. The black sphere at the center of the figure is the black hole itself. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04207

  16. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  17. Black Poverty: Past and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.

    The current debate over cutbacks in social programs for the black poor tends to overlook two fundamental realities. First, there has been a significant, long-term reduction in the number of black poor. Although black poverty remains at unacceptably high levels, a majority of blacks are now members of the middle class. Several factors have…

  18. Janus black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  19. Introducing the Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  20. Black Hole Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science.

  1. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  2. Blacks in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Fayetta A.

    1974-01-01

    More than 1.3 million blacks live in Appalachian region reaching from Mississippi to New York State. Their existence and plight are ignored; they are colonized, exploited, and have few or no outlets for redress. (Author)

  3. Introducing the Black Hole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.

    1971-01-01

    discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)

  4. A Black Hole Choir.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-28

    The blue dots in this field of galaxies, known as the COSMOS field, show galaxies that contain supermassive black holes emitting high-energy X-rays. The black holes were detected by NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Array, or NuSTAR, which spotted 32 such black holes in this field and has observed hundreds across the whole sky so far. The other colored dots are galaxies that host black holes emitting lower-energy X-rays, and were spotted by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra data show X-rays with energies between 0.5 to 7 kiloelectron volts, while NuSTAR data show X-rays between 8 to 24 kiloelectron volts. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20865

  5. Missing Black Holes Found!

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-25

    NASA Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes have uncovered a long-lost population of active supermassive black holes, or quasars located deep in the bellies of distant, massive galaxies circled in blue.

  6. Topsy Turvy Black Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-26

    The magenta spots in this image from NASA NuSTAR show two black holes in the spiral galaxy called NGC 1313, or the Topsy Turvy galaxy, located about 13 million light-years away in the Reticulum constellation.

  7. Blacks in Appalachia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Fayetta A.

    1974-01-01

    More than 1.3 million blacks live in Appalachian region reaching from Mississippi to New York State. Their existence and plight are ignored; they are colonized, exploited, and have few or no outlets for redress. (Author)

  8. Black Hole Simulation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-11-30

    This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04206

  9. Black hole geometrothermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-03-01

    We review the main aspects of geometrothermodynamics which is a geometric formalism to describe thermodynamic systems, taking into account the invariance of classical thermodynamics with respect to Legendre transformations. We focus on the particular case of black holes, and present a Riemannian metric which describes the corresponding space of equilibrium states. We show that this metric can be used to describe the stability properties and phase transition structure of black holes in different gravity theories.

  10. Two new species of Pseudorhabdosynochus Yamaguti, 1958 (Monogenea: Diplectanidae) from the deep-sea grouper Epinephelus morrhua (Val.) (Perciformes: Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou

    2008-10-01

    Three species of monogeneans were collected from Epinephelus morrhua, a deep-sea grouper from the external slope of the coral reef, off New Caledonia, South Pacific, and are the first parasites recorded from this fish species. Pseudorhabdosynochus morrhua n. sp. is characterised by: a sclerotised vagina with small sclerotised chambers and a short secondary canal; squamodiscs with central rows of rodlets which form closed ovals; and a scaly tegument. P. variabilis n. sp. has: a male quadriloculate organ with a characteristic structure; a sclerotised vagina in which the primary canal, secondary canal and accessory structure are very long and the different parts have various arrangements in different specimens; its squamodiscs have central rows of rodlets which form closed circles; and a smooth tegument. A prominent vaginal structure, comparable to that of P. variabilis, has been found only in P. dolicocolpos Neifar & Euzet, 2007, but the species can be distinguished by details of the vagina and other structures. A species of Haliotrema Johnson & Tiegs, 1922 (Ancyrocephalidae) is reported but not described. Specimens of each of the three species were present in similar numbers.

  11. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Nematoda: Capillariidae), a new intestinal parasite of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Serranidae) off New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Moravec, František; Justine, Jean-Lou

    2014-01-01

    A new nematode species, Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. (Capillariidae), is described from the intestine of the leopard coral grouper Plectropomus leopardus (Lacepède) from coral reefs off New Caledonia. The new species, belonging to the subgenus Neocapillaria Moravec, 1987, differs from other congeneric species of this subgenus from marine fishes mainly in the length (168-186 μm), shape and structure of the spicule. It is characterized, in the male, by the presence of two well-developed dorsolateral caudal lobes, a pair of lateral papillae, a heavily sclerotized spicule with many rough transverse grooves in the middle part, a spinose spicular sheath, and in the female, by eggs measuring 60-66 × 27 μm without protruding polar plugs. The buccal cavity contains a small finger-shaped stylet. Capillaria plectropomi n. sp. is the first known species of this genus parasitizing fishes of the perciform family Serranidae. © F. Moravec and J-L. Justine, published by EDP Sciences, 2014.

  12. Molecular cloning of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) heat shock transcription factor 1 isoforms and characterization of their expressions in response to nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting-Yu; Chen, Young-Mao; Chen, Tzong-Yueh

    2016-12-01

    Heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) regulates heat shock proteins (HSPs), which assist in protein folding and inhibit protein denaturation following stress. HSF1 was firstly cloned from orange-spotted grouper and exists as two isoforms, one with (osgHSF1a) and one without (osgHSF1b) exon 11. Heat exposure increased the expression of osgHSF1b while cold exposure increased that of osgHSF1a. Both isoforms were mainly expressed in the brains, eyes, and fins. Expression of osgHSF1b was higher than osgHSF1a during development. Poly I:C and LPS could also induce osgHSF1 isoforms expression differentially. Exposure to nervous necrosis virus (NNV) increased the level of both osgHSF1 isoforms at 12 h. GF-1 cells with overexpression of osgHSF1 isoforms enhanced viral loads within 24 h, whereas both pharmacological inhibition and RNA interference of HSF1 reduced virus infection. This study shows that osgHSF1 can support the early stage of virus infection and provides a new insight into the molecular regulation of osgHSF1 between the influence of temperatures and immunity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Seasonal dynamics of Diplectanum grouperi parasitism on wild versus cultured groupers, Epinephelus spp., and the linkage between infestation and host species phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yufa; Brown, Christopher L; Yang, Tingbao

    2010-06-01

    In this article, we examined the influences of the polycultured potential hosts on monogenean seasonality and the possible linkage between the infestations on different species of hosts and host phylogeny. The seasonality of Diplectanum grouperi , the dominant species, on wild versus cultured groupers, Epinephelus spp., was analyzed in Daya Bay, South China Sea, between April 2008 and January 2009. The prevalence, mean intensity, abundance, and variance/mean ratio were calculated for each species of host under polycultured and wild conditions. Except for the overall prevalence, which was slightly higher in autumn than that in summer under wild conditions, the mean intensity and variance were highest in summer, decreasing slightly in autumn to lowest levels in winter or spring. The infection level (prevalence, mean intensity, and abundance) was correlated with changes in water temperature during the sampling period, with a peak in summer, with the exception of E. awoara in autumn under wild conditions. The prevalence, intensity, and mean intensity of D. grouperi on Epinephelus spp. in the wild were much lower than those in experimental (mixed species) culture ponds. The correlation between the molecular phylogeny of 5 species of Epinephelus and the dendrogram based on the susceptibility to D. grouperi was not significant, which infers that variable susceptibilities of these Epinephelus species cannot be revealed by phylogenetic relationships determined from mitochondrial 16S rDNA and Cyt b gene sequences.

  14. Searching for Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M.

    1998-01-01

    Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.

  15. Charged Galileon black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  16. Can Blacks Be Racists? Black-on-Black Principal Abuse in an Urban School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Black student and parental perceptions of exclusionary practices of Black school principals. I ask why students and parents viewed two Black principals as contributing to abusive and exclusionary school environments that marginalized Black students. After a two-year ethnographic study, it was revealed that exclusionary…

  17. Can Blacks Be Racists? Black-on-Black Principal Abuse in an Urban School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khalifa, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study examines Black student and parental perceptions of exclusionary practices of Black school principals. I ask why students and parents viewed two Black principals as contributing to abusive and exclusionary school environments that marginalized Black students. After a two-year ethnographic study, it was revealed that exclusionary…

  18. Perceived Attractiveness and the Black Personality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azibo, Daudi Ajani Ya

    1984-01-01

    Black subjects--classified as having "strong Black" or "weak Black" personalities--were asked to evaluate photos of Black and White women. As hypothesized, strong Black personality individuals judged the attractive Black female photo more favorably than the White counterpart; weak Black personality individuals judged the White female more…

  19. Black Sea Becomes Turquoise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of color variance. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably due to sediments carried in from high waters and snowmelt from upstream. This scene was acquired by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite, on May 14, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is ?one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.? The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated'supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  20. Black Sea in Bloom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image shows bright, turquoise-colored swirls across the surface of the Black Sea, signifying the presence of a large phytoplankton bloom. Scientists have observed similar blooms recurring annually, roughly this same time of year. The Sea of Azov, which is the smaller body of water located just north of the Black Sea in this image, also shows a high level of biological activity currently ongoing. The brownish pixels in the Azov are probably sediments carried in from high waters upstream. This scene was acquired by the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), flying aboard the OrbView-2 satellite, on May 4, 2002. According to the Black Sea Environment Programme's Marine Hydrophysical Institute, the Black Sea is 'one of the marine areas of the world most damaged by human activities.' The coastal zone around these Eastern European inland water bodies is densely populated-supporting a permanent population of roughly 16 million people and another 4 million tourists each year. Six countries border with the Black Sea, including Ukraine to the north, Russia and Georgia to the east, Turkey to the south, and Bulgaria and Romania to the west. Because it is isolated from the world's oceans, and because there is an extensive drainage network of rivers that empty into it, the Black Sea has a unique and delicate water balance which is very important for supporting its marine ecosystem. Of particular concern to scientists is the salinity, water level, and nutrient levels of the Black Sea's waters, all of which are, unfortunately, being impacted by human activities. Within the last three decades the combination of increased nutrient loads from human sources together with pollution and over-harvesting of fisheries has resulted in a sharp decline in water quality. Scientists from each of the Black Sea's bordering nations are currently working together to study the issues and formulate a joint, international strategy for saving this unique marine ecosystem

  1. Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae), a parasite of deep-sea groupers (Serranidae) occurs transatlantically on three congeneric hosts (Hyporthodus spp.), one from the Mediterranean Sea and two from the western Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Gey, Delphine; Bakenhaster, Micah D.; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the diversity of the monogenean parasites infesting deep-sea groupers, and there is even less information available about their geographic distributions within the ranges of their hosts. To improve our understanding of these host-parasite relationships we conducted parasitological evaluations of the deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis from the southern Mediterranean off Tunisia and Libya. We collected more than one species of diplectanid monogeneans from this host, but among these only one dominant species was abundant. This proved to be morphologically very similar to Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000, a species originally described from the congeneric host H. niveatus off Brazil and also recorded from H. niveatus and H. nigritus off Florida. Here, we conducted a morphological comparison between newly collected specimens and those previously deposited in museum collections by other authors. Further, we used COI barcoding to ascertain the specific identity of the three host species to better elucidate the circumstances that might explain the unexpectedly broad distribution of P. sulamericanus. We assigned our specimens from H. haifensis to P. sulamericanus primarily on the basis of morphological characteristics of the sclerotized vagina. We also noted morphological characteristics of eastern and western Atlantic specimens that are not clearly described or not given in previous descriptions and so prepared a redescription of the species. We confirmed, by COI barcoding, that no sister-species relationships were evident among the three hosts of P. sulamericanus. Our observation that P. sulamericanus infects unrelated host species with putatively allopatric distributions was unexpected given the very limited dispersive capabilities and the high degree of host specificity common to members of Pseudorhabdosynochus. This transatlantic distribution raises questions with regard to phylogeography and assumptions

  2. Molecular identification of an androgen receptor and its changes in mRNA levels during 17α-methyltestosterone-induced sex reversal in the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Haifa; Zhang, Yong; Lu, Danqi; Lin, Haoran

    2012-09-01

    Androgens play a crucial role in sex differentiation, sexual maturation, and spermatogenesis in vertebrates. The action of androgens is mediated via androgen receptors (ARs). The present study reports the cloning of the cDNA sequence of the ar in the orange-spotted grouper, with high expression in testis and relatively low in subdivision of brain areas. The cDNA sequence of ar was 2358 bp, encoding a protein of 759 amino acids (aa). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the ar cDNA sequence was closely related to that of threespot wrasse (Halichoeres trimaculatus) and medaka (Oryzias latipes) arβ. As deduced from the phylogenetic tree and the high amino acid identity with the ARβ subtype of other teleosts, grouper ar seems to be more closely related to the beta than the alpha subtype cloned to date. In the first week after 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) implantation, the transcript levels of ar in the hypothalamus declined significantly, and consistently stayed at low level expression to the second week, but increased back to the control levels in the third and fourth week. In the gonad, the mRNA expression of ar was not changed in the first week compared with the control, but increased significantly in the second week, consistently reached the highest level in the third week, dropped slightly but still higher than that of the control in the fourth week. The expression pattern of ar in hypothalamus and gonad during MT-induced sex reversal suggests the involvement of ar in regulating this process in the orange-spotted grouper. The present study provides the data of the changes in the mRNA levels of ar during MT-induced sex reversal in detail to help understand the complicated signals under sex reversal.

  3. The mRNA expression of P450 aromatase, gonadotropin beta-subunits and FTZ-F1 in the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus Coioides) during 17alpha-methyltestosterone-induced precocious sex change.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Yong; Zhang, Lihong; Zhao, Huihong; Li, Xin; Huang, He; Lin, Haoran

    2007-06-01

    The orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides is a protogynous hermaphroditic fish, but the physiological basis of its sex change remains largely unknown. In the present study, the 2-year-old orange-spotted grouper was induced to change sex precociously by oral administration of 17alpha-methyltestosterone (MT, 50 mg/Kg diet, twice a day at daily ration of 5% bodyweight) for 60 days. The serum testosterone levels were significantly elevated after MT treatment for 20 and 40 days as compared to control, but the levels of serum estradiol (E(2)) remained unchanged. The expression of P450aromA in the gonad significantly decreased after MT treatment for 20, 40, and 60 days. Accordingly, the enzyme activity of gonadal aromatase was also lower. The expression of FSHbeta subunit in the pituitary was significantly decreased after MT treatment for 20 days, but returned to the control levels after 40 and 60 days; however, the expression of LHbeta subunit was not altered significantly by MT treatment. The expression of FTZ-F1 in the gonad also decreased significantly in response to MT treatment for 40 and 60 days, but its expression in the pituitary was not altered significantly. Interestingly, when tested in vitro on ovarian fragments, MT had no direct effect on the expression of P450aromA and FTZ-F1 as well as the activity of gonadal aromatase, suggesting that the inhibition of gonadal P450aromatase and FTZ-F1 by MT may be mediated at upper levels of the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis. Taken together, these results indicated that FSH, P450aromA, FTZ-F1, and serum testosterone are associated with the MT-induced sex change of the orange-spotted grouper, but the cause-effect relationship between these factors and sex change in this species remains to be characterized.

  4. Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus (Monogenea, Diplectanidae), a parasite of deep-sea groupers (Serranidae) occurs transatlantically on three congeneric hosts (Hyporthodus spp.), one from the Mediterranean Sea and two from the western Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Chaabane, Amira; Justine, Jean-Lou; Gey, Delphine; Bakenhaster, Micah D; Neifar, Lassad

    2016-01-01

    Little is known of the diversity of the monogenean parasites infesting deep-sea groupers, and there is even less information available about their geographic distributions within the ranges of their hosts. To improve our understanding of these host-parasite relationships we conducted parasitological evaluations of the deep-water Haifa grouper Hyporthodus haifensis from the southern Mediterranean off Tunisia and Libya. We collected more than one species of diplectanid monogeneans from this host, but among these only one dominant species was abundant. This proved to be morphologically very similar to Pseudorhabdosynochus sulamericanus Santos, Buchmann & Gibson, 2000, a species originally described from the congeneric host H. niveatus off Brazil and also recorded from H. niveatus and H. nigritus off Florida. Here, we conducted a morphological comparison between newly collected specimens and those previously deposited in museum collections by other authors. Further, we used COI barcoding to ascertain the specific identity of the three host species to better elucidate the circumstances that might explain the unexpectedly broad distribution of P. sulamericanus. We assigned our specimens from H. haifensis to P. sulamericanus primarily on the basis of morphological characteristics of the sclerotized vagina. We also noted morphological characteristics of eastern and western Atlantic specimens that are not clearly described or not given in previous descriptions and so prepared a redescription of the species. We confirmed, by COI barcoding, that no sister-species relationships were evident among the three hosts of P. sulamericanus. Our observation that P. sulamericanus infects unrelated host species with putatively allopatric distributions was unexpected given the very limited dispersive capabilities and the high degree of host specificity common to members of Pseudorhabdosynochus. This transatlantic distribution raises questions with regard to phylogeography and assumptions

  5. Black rings at large D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, Kentaro

    2016-02-01

    We study the effective theory of slowly rotating black holes at the infinite limit of the spacetime dimension D. This large D effective theory is obtained by integrating the Einstein equation with respect to the radial direction. The effective theory gives equations for non-linear dynamical deformations of a slowly rotating black hole by effective equations. The effective equations contain the slowly rotating Myers-Perry black hole, slowly boosted black string, non-uniform black string and black ring as stationary solutions. We obtain the analytic solution of the black ring by solving effective equations. Furthermore, by perturbation analysis of effective equations, we find a quasinormal mode condition of the black ring in analytic way. As a result we confirm that thin black ring is unstable against non-axisymmetric perturbations. We also include 1 /D corrections to the effective equations and discuss the effects by 1 /D corrections.

  6. Thermodynamic black di-rings

    SciTech Connect

    Iguchi, Hideo; Mishima, Takashi

    2010-10-15

    Previously the five dimensional S{sup 1}-rotating black rings have been superposed in a concentric way by some solitonic methods, and regular systems of two S{sup 1}-rotating black rings were constructed by the authors and then Evslin and Krishnan (we called these solutions 'black di-rings'). In this place we show some characteristics of the solutions of five dimensional black di-rings, especially in thermodynamic equilibrium. After the summary of the di-ring expressions and their physical quantities, first we comment on the equivalence of the two different solution sets of the black di-rings. Then the existence of thermodynamic black di-rings is shown, in which both isothermality and isorotation between the inner black ring and the outer black ring are realized. We also give detailed analysis of peculiar properties of the thermodynamic black di-ring including discussion about a certain kind of thermodynamic stability (instability) of the system.

  7. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  8. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, John

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  9. Bringing Black Holes Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  10. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  11. Black ring deconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Gimon, Eric; Gimon, Eric G.; Levi, Thomas S.

    2007-06-22

    We present a sample microstate for a black ring in four and five dimensional language. The microstate consists of a black string microstate with an additional D6-brane. We show that with an appropriate choice of parameters the piece involving the black string microstate falls down a long AdS throat, whose M-theory lift is AdS_3 x S2. We wrap a spinning dipole M2-brane on the S2 in the probe approximation. In IIA, this corresponds to a dielectric D2-brane carrying only D0-charge. We conjecture this is the firstapproximation to a cloud of D0-branes blowing up due to their non-abelian degrees of freedom and the Myers effect.

  12. Black hole entropy quantization.

    PubMed

    Corichi, Alejandro; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique

    2007-05-04

    Ever since the pioneering works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that the black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps, can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show consistency with the Bekenstein framework when an oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation is properly interpreted.

  13. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  14. Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2008-06-15

    We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation T{sub h}=(K/2{pi}) connecting the black hole temperature (T{sub h}) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one.

  15. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  16. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  17. Turbulent black holes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  18. Black Hole Paradoxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh

    2016-10-01

    We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals.

  19. Mobilizing Black America: Solutions to Black Health Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, some cancers, diabetes, and obesity is to eat foods that are low in saturated-fat and sodium. Blacks consume...the most obese ethnic group in America. Too many black children are overweight because black adults feed them a steady diet of fatty and salty foods ...strikes, they receive less than adequate or no medical treatment. Black unhealthy life-styles and heavy "soul" food diet are also major causes of health

  20. Slowly balding black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-15

    The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  1. Slowly balding black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2011-10-01

    The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.

  2. 2011 Black History Month

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-02-16

    Victoria Webb (center) discusses African-American history during a Black History Month program for John C. Stennis Space Center employees on Feb. 16. Webb, a 103-year-old native of Pass Christian, was guest speaker for the program, sponsored by the Stennis Diversity Council and the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. She was joined in her presentation by Valli Battle (left), a NAVOCEANO employee at Stennis, and friend Jeanell Barnes. Black History Month was first observed in 1976 and is celebrated each February. The 2011 theme was African-Americans and the Civil War.

  3. Superfluid Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigar, Robie A.; Mann, Robert B.; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ -line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid 4He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  4. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.

  5. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  6. Black Holes Collide

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    When two black holes collide, they release massive amounts of energy in the form of gravitational waves that last a fraction of a second and can be "heard" throughout the universe - if you have the right instruments. Today we learned that the #LIGO project heard the telltale chirp of black holes colliding, fulfilling Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. NASA's LISA mission will look for direct evidence of gravitational waves. go.nasa.gov/23ZbqoE This video illustrates what that collision might look like.

  7. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  8. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.

  9. Superfluid Black Holes.

    PubMed

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  10. Are black holes springlike?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  11. Euclidean black hole vortices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie

    1991-01-01

    We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.

  12. The Myth of the Black Matriarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staples, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1970 article that describes the oppression of Blacks and the distortion of Black family life throughout United States history. Holds that the myth of Black matriarchy sets back the struggle for Black liberation. (GC)

  13. Conquering the Black Girl Blues.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lani Valencia; Guy-Sheftall, Beverly

    2015-10-01

    An examination of the literature on epidemiology, etiology, and use of services for this population reveals an insufficient application of culturally congruent approaches to intervening with black women. An exploration of the social work practice literature and other relevant fields indicate that black feminist perspectives offer the opportunity to gain a clearer understanding of the intersection and influence of oppression among black women struggling with psychiatric issues and provide a useful framework for mental health practice with this population. This article discusses the evolving black feminist thought and summarizes the scholarship on black women's mental health services needs and utilization issues. The article includes a discussion of black feminisms as an emerging mental health perspective, arguing that black feminist perspectives in therapy provide an ideal framework for services that are responsive to the values and health needs of black women. The article concludes with a case vignette that illustrates some of its points.

  14. Black Television: Avenue of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Pamela

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes a few of the prominent issues in black television, examining public television, commercial television, black ownership of stations, cable television, and some projections for the future. (Author/JM)

  15. Black Television: Avenue of Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Pamela

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes a few of the prominent issues in black television, examining public television, commercial television, black ownership of stations, cable television, and some projections for the future. (Author/JM)

  16. Flaring Black Hole Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-09-20

    This artist concept illustrates what the flaring black hole called GX 339-4 might look like. Infrared observations from NASA WISE reveal the best information yet on the chaotic and extreme environments of this black hole jets.

  17. Different Flavors of Black Holes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-09

    A range of supermassive black holes lights up this new image from NASA NuSTAR. All of the dots are active black holes tucked inside the hearts of galaxies, with colors representing different energies of X-ray light.

  18. Aspects of hairy black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru

    2015-03-26

    We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.

  19. Towards noncommutative quantum black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Sabido, M.; Ramirez, C.

    2006-10-15

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  20. An annotated list of parasites (Isopoda, Copepoda, Monogenea, Digenea, Cestoda and Nematoda) collected in groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in New Caledonia emphasizes parasite biodiversity in coral reef fish.

    PubMed

    Justine, Jean-Lou; Beveridge, Ian; Boxshall, Geoffrey A; Bray, Rod A; Moravec, Frantisek; Trilles, Jean-Paul; Whittington, Ian D

    2010-11-01

    Abstract: Over a 7-year period, parasites have been collected from 28 species of groupers (Serranidae, Epinephelinae) in the waters off New Caledonia. Host-parasite and parasite-host lists are provided, with a total of 337 host-parasite combinations, including 146 parasite identifications at the species level. Results are included for isopods (5 species), copepods (19), monogeneans (56), digeneans (28), cestodes (12), and nematodes (12). When results are restricted to those 14 fish species for which more than five specimens were examined and to parasites identified at the species level, 109 host-parasite combinations were recorded, with 63 different species, of which monogeneans account for half (32 species), and an average of 4.5 parasite species per fish species. Digenean records were compared for 16 fish species shared with the study of Cribb et al. (2002); based on a total of 90 parasite records identified at the species level, New Caledonia has 17 new records and only seven species were already known from other locations. We hypothesize that the present results represent only a small part of the actual biodiversity, and we predict a biodiversity of 10 different parasite species and 30 host-parasite combinations per serranid. A comparison with a study on Heron Island (Queensland, Australia) by Lester and Sewell (1989) was attempted: of the four species of fish in common and in a total of 91 host-parasite combinations, only six parasites identified at the species level were shared. This suggests strongly that insufficient sampling impairs proper biogeographical or ecological comparisons. Probably only 3% of the parasite species of coral reef fish are already known in New Caledonia.

  1. Formation of diploid and triploid hybrid groupers (hybridization of Epinephelus coioides ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) and their 5S gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Qin, Qinbo; Yang, Huirong; Li, Shuisheng; Hu, Chaoqun; Wang, Yude; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Shaojun; Lin, Haoran

    2016-10-07

    Interspecies hybridization is widely used to achieve heterosis or hybrid vigor, which has been observed and harnessed by breeders for centuries. Natural allopolyploid hybrids generally exhibit more superior heterosis than both the diploid progenies and their parental species. However, polyploid formation processes have been long ignored, the genetic basis of heterosis in polyploids remains elusive. In the present study, triploid hybrids had been demonstrated to contain two sets of chromosomes from mother species and one set from father species. Cellular polyploidization process in the embryos had been traced. The triploid hybrids might be formed by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the second meiosis stage. Four spindle centers were observed in anaphase stage of the first cell division. Three spindle centers were observed in side of cell plate after the first cell division. The 5S rDNA genes of four types of groupers were cloned and analyzed. The diploid and triploid hybrids had been proved to contain the tandem chimera structures which were recombined by maternal and paternal monomer units. The results indicated that genome re-fusion had occurred in the hybrid progenies. To further elucidate the genetic patterns of diploid and triploid hybrids, fluorescence chromosome location had been carried out, maternal 5S gene (M-386) were used as the probe. The triploid hybrids contained fewer fluorescence loci numbers than the maternal species. The results indicated that participation of paternal 5S gene in the triploid hybrid genome had degraded the match rates of M-386 probe. Our study is the first to investigate the cellular formation processes of natural allopolyploids in hybrid fish, the cellular polyploidization process may be caused by failure formation of the second polarized genome during the meiosis, and our results will provide the molecular basis of hybrid vigor in interspecies hybridization.

  2. Real-time isothermal detection of Abalone herpes-like virus and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus using recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fang; Jiang, Jing-Zhe; Wang, Jiang-Yong; Wei, Hong-Ying

    2017-09-26

    Abalone herpes-like virus (AbHV) and Red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) are two serious viruses that infect animal populations in aquaculture. Both viruses cause diseases associated with high mortality rates, resulting in dramatic economic losses in the aquaculture industry. There are currently no effective treatments for either of these two viral diseases. Thus, early, rapid, and accurate diagnosis plays a fundamental role in disease prevention and control in aquaculture. Traditional methods of diagnosis, such as virus culture, enzyme-linked immunoassay, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), are either time consuming or require sophisticated temperature control devices. In this study, one sets of specific primers and probes were designed for the real-time quantitative recombinase polymerase amplification (qRPA) detection of AbHV and RGNNV separately. The sensitivity and specificity of detection were evaluated by comparison with detection by conventional PCR and quantitative PCR. The optimal reaction temperature and time for virus detection is 37°C for 20min. The detection limit is 100 copies per reaction, making this approach faster and more sensitive than qPCR in this study. In a field application, the detection percentage of qRPA was higher than that of qPCR for both AbHV and NNV. Additionally, good correlation was found between qRPA and qPCR detection (R(2)>0.8). The methods presented here can be used as alternatives to qPCR for quick and quantitative detection of pathogens infecting aquaculture species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Probiotic applications of two dominant gut Bacillus strains with antagonistic activity improved the growth performance and immune responses of grouper Epinephelus coioides.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yun-Zhang; Yang, Hong-Ling; Ma, Ru-Long; Lin, Wen-Yan

    2010-11-01

    The effect of dietary administration of Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus clausii, the dominant bacteria with antagonistic activity in the gut of fast growing fish, on the growth performance and immune responses of grouper Epinephelus coioides were assessed. The fish were fed for 60 days with three different diets: control (without probiotics), diet T1 supplemented with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) B. pumilus, diet T2 with 1.0x10(8) cells g(-1) B. clausii. No significant improvements of weight gain or specific growth rate were observed in the probiotic fed groups, but a significant improvement of feed conversion ratio was observed after 60 days of feeding. Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index of fish fed probiotic diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the control diet for 60 days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentrations showed no significant difference between the treatments and the control during the whole experiment period, but which increased by 11.4% and 18.5% after 60 days of fed with diets T1 and T2, respectively. The serum lysozyme activities of fish fed diets T1 and T2 were significantly higher than that of fish fed control diet, and had respectively increased by 34.7% and 17.4% compared to the control after 60 days of feeding. Serum complement C3 levels of the treatments were significantly higher than that of control after 30 days of feeding, but no significant difference in serum complement C3 and C4 levels were observed between the treatments and the control after 60 days of feeding. The serum IgM levels of fish fed diet T1 and diet T2 were higher than that of fish fed control diet, and significant increase was observed in fish fed diet T2 for 30 days. The results demonstrated potential for B. pumilus and B. clausii to improve growth performance and immune responses of E. coioides.

  4. Recombinant production of biologically active giant grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus) growth hormone from inclusion bodies of Escherichia coli by fed-batch culture.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wen-Jen; Huang, Chi-Lung; Gong, Hong-Yi; Ou, Tsung-Yin; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Hu, Shao-Yang

    2015-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) performs important roles in regulating somatic growth, reproduction, osmoregulation, metabolism and immunity in teleosts, and thus, it has attracted substantial attention in the field of aquaculture application. Herein, giant grouper GH (ggGH) cDNA was cloned into the pET28a vector and expressed in Shuffle® T7 Competent Escherichia coli. Recombinant N-terminal 6× His-tagged ggGH was produced mainly in insoluble inclusion bodies; the recombinant ggGH content reached 20% of total protein. For large-scale ggGH production, high-cell density E. coli culture was achieved via fed-batch culture with pH-stat. After 30h of cultivation, a cell concentration of 41.1g/l dry cell weight with over 95% plasmid stability was reached. Maximal ggGH production (4.0g/l; 22% total protein) was achieved via mid-log phase induction. Various centrifugal forces, buffer pHs and urea concentrations were optimized for isolation and solubilization of ggGH from inclusion bodies. Hydrophobic interactions and ionic interactions were the major forces in ggGH inclusion body formation. Complete ggGH inclusion body solubilization was obtained in PBS buffer at pH 12 containing 3M urea. Through a simple purification process including Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and refolding, 5.7mg of ggGH was obtained from 10ml of fed-batch culture (45% recovery). The sequence and secondary structure of the purified ggGH were confirmed by LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and circular dichroism analysis. The cell proliferation-promoting activity was confirmed in HepG2, ZFL and GF-1 cells with the WST-1 colorimetric bioassay. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary administration of sodium alginate and kappa-carrageenan enhances the innate immune response of brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ann-Chang; Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2008-02-15

    Brown-marbled grouper Epinephelus fuscoguttatus which had been fed diets containing sodium alginate and kappa (kappa)-carrageenan at 5, 10 and 20gkg(-1), respectively after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 14 weeks were examined for survival, growth, innate cellular and humoral responses as compared to the fish that fed control non-supplemented diet. Survival was 100% for the fish that fed all diets after 14 weeks and no significant difference in growth was observed among seven diets. The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased leucocyte count, respiratory burst, phagocytic activity and phagocytic index, The fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 5gkg(-1), and fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) over 2-8 weeks showed significantly increased alternative complement activity (ACH50) and lysozyme activity. In another experiment, E. fuscoguttatus, which had been fed control diet, and all diets containing sodium alginate, and kappa-carrageenan after 14 weeks were challenged with Vibrio alginolyticus at 5.0x10(9) colony-forming units (cfu) fish(-1) and then placed in seawater of 34 per thousand. The survival of fish that fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) and kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) was significantly higher than that of fish which fed the control diet over 96-168h. It was concluded that E. fuscoguttatus which fed a diet containing sodium alginate at 10gkg(-1) or less, or fed a diet containing kappa-carrageenan at 5gkg(-1) enhance the innate immunity, and increase the resistance from V. alginolyticus infection.

  6. Genotype-specific real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting analysis for rapid identification of red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus.

    PubMed

    Toubanaki, Dimitra K; Karagouni, Evdokia

    2017-08-01

    A real-time genotype-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed to assess the most common genotypes of nervous necrosis viruses or nodaviruses. Nodaviruses are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis infections, which have been wreaking havoc in the aquaculture industry worldwide, with fish mortality up to 100%. The four different genotypes of nodaviruses correlate with differences in viral pathogenicity. Therefore, rational development of effective vaccines and diagnostics requires analysis of genetic variation among viruses. The aim of the present study was to develop a real-time tetra-primer genotype-specific PCR assay for genotype identification. Four primers were utilized for simultaneous amplification of nodavirus genotype-specific products in a single closed-tube PCR after a reverse-transcription reaction using RNA isolated from fish samples. For high-throughput sample analysis, SYBR Green-based real-time PCR was used in combination with HRM analysis. The assay was evaluated in terms of specificity and sensitivity. The analysis resulted in melting curves that were indicative of each genotype. The detection limit when using reference plasmids was 100 ag/µL for both genotypes, while the sensitivity of the assays when testing a complex mixture was 10 fg/µL for red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) and 100 fg/µL for striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV). To test the capability of this method under real-world conditions, 58 samples were examined. All samples belonged to the RGNNV genotype, which was fully validated. The results were in full agreement with genotyping by reference methods. The proposed methodology provides a rapid, sensitive, specific, robust and automatable assay for nodavirus genotyping, making it a useful tool for diagnosis and screening for epidemiological studies.

  7. Arginine vasotocin V1a2 receptor and GnRH-I co-localize in preoptic neurons of the sex changing grouper, Epinephelus adscensionis.

    PubMed

    Kline, Richard J; Holt, G Joan; Khan, Izhar A

    2016-01-01

    The arginine vasotocin/vasopressin (AVT/AVP) and gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) systems are known to control sexual behaviors and reproduction, respectively, in different vertebrate groups. However, a direct functional connection between these two neuroendocrine systems has not been demonstrated for any vertebrate species. Therefore, the objective of this research was to test the hypothesis that AVT acts on the GnRH system via an AVT V1a receptor in a sex changing grouper species, the rock hind, Epinephelus adscensionis. AVT V1a2 receptors were co-localized with GnRH-I on neurons in the preoptic anterior hypothalamus identifying a structural linkage between the AVT system and GnRH-I. Transcripts for avt, gnrh-I, and two AVT receptor subtypes (v1a1 and v1a2) were isolated and characterized for E. adscensionis and their expression was measured in males and females by q-RT-PCR. Translation of V1a-type cDNA sequences revealed two distinct forms of the AVT V1a receptor in E. adscensionis brain similar to those reported for other species. The observation of significantly higher gnrh-I mRNA in the POA+H of rock hind males as compared to females suggests differential regulation of the gnrh-I transcripts in the two sexes of this protogynous species. In male E. adscensionis, but not in females, a negative relationship was seen between plasma 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and the v1a1 receptor mRNA levels in the POA+H, while a positive trend was observed between 11-KT and v1a2 receptor mRNA levels, indicating that these receptor forms may be differentially regulated.

  8. Genome-Wide Mapping of Growth-Related Quantitative Trait Loci in Orange-Spotted Grouper (Epinephelus coioides) Using Double Digest Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing (ddRADseq)

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hui; You, Xinxin; Li, Jia; Liu, Hankui; Meng, Zining; Xiao, Ling; Zhang, Haifa; Lin, Hao-Ran; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) is essential for the discovery of genetic structures that related to complex quantitative traits. In this study, we identified 264,072 raw SNPs (single-nucleotide polymorphisms) by double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq), and utilized 3029 of these SNPs to construct a genetic linkage map in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) using a regression mapping algorithm. The genetic map contained 24 linkage groups (LGs) spanning a total genetic distance of 1231.98 cM. Twenty-seven significant growth-related QTLs were identified. Furthermore, we identified 17 genes (fez2, alg3, ece2, arvcf, sla27a4, sgk223, camk2, prrc2b, mchr1, sardh, pappa, syk, tert, wdrcp91, ftz-f1, mate1 and notch1) including three (tert, ftz-f1 and notch1) that have been reported to be involved in fish growth. To summarize, we mapped growth-related QTLs in the orange-spotted grouper. These QTLs will be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) efforts to improve growth-related traits in this economically important fish. PMID:27058532

  9. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  10. Uncovering Black Womanhood in Engineering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sheree L.; Espino, Michelle M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the growing research that outlines the experiences of Blacks and women undergraduates in engineering, little is known about Black women in this field. The purpose of this qualitative study was to uncover how eight Black undergraduate women in engineering understood their race and gender identities in a culture that can be oppressive to…

  11. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  12. Reading Black Literature With Understanding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jean A.

    This paper is a broad study of the field of black American Literature which outlines the important movements, stereotypes, and trends that have had significant influence upon the literature. The changing stereotypes and archetypes of blacks depicted in American literature from the early concept of blacks as "chattels" to the contemporary concept…

  13. Black Responses to Environmental Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Peter

    1978-01-01

    There is general agreement that various types of environmental forces have resulted in the victimization of Black Americans. Victimization implies a condition of passivity. This article challenges that perspective by demonstrating the distinctive role of the Black churches in helping Blacks maintain self-respect and act on their environment.…

  14. Black Athletes at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, C. Keith

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes Harry Edwards' theories and solutions regarding black male athletes, discussing the single-minded pursuit of sports glory by black males to the exclusion of cultural, educational, and social needs. Examines the systemic channeling of black males by American institutions, noting that though this system promotes opportunity for all,…

  15. Black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  16. Watchable Wildlife: The Black Bear

    Treesearch

    Lynn L. Rogers

    1992-01-01

    Black bears are the bears people most often encounter. Black bears live in forests over much of North America, unlike grizzlies that live only in Alaska, northern and western Canada, and the northern Rocky Mountains. This brochure presents the latest information on black bear life and how this species responds to an ever-increasing number of campers, hikers, and...

  17. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  18. Black Students in White Skins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Joel C.

    2008-01-01

    Of the 281 million Americans, "Scientific American" estimates that White Africans (21% of White Caucasians) have Black heritage. This article discusses the present state of black elite and the transformation of black students in the United States. Some strategies to become a "white" student are also discussed.

  19. Black Responses to Environmental Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paris, Peter

    1978-01-01

    There is general agreement that various types of environmental forces have resulted in the victimization of Black Americans. Victimization implies a condition of passivity. This article challenges that perspective by demonstrating the distinctive role of the Black churches in helping Blacks maintain self-respect and act on their environment.…

  20. Africanizing Our Historically Black Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela Safisha Nzingha

    2004-01-01

    "The Blacker the College the Sweeter the Knowledge," is a common saying heard among students who attend Black institutions, as well as many proud alumni. These institutions have, from their inception, served a unique mission in educating the masses of Black folk, thus creating the Black middle class. They have done much with little and have…