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Sample records for black hills domain

  1. Black Hills hydrology study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, D.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota is a valuable resource center. The area has attracted numerous residents and industries because of the availability of mineral, timber, agricultural, recreational, and water resources. The water resources of the area have been stressed locally by increasing population, periodic drought, and development of other resources. In response to residents' concerns about these stresses on the water resources, the Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 as a cooperative effort among the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District. West Dakota represents the various local and county cooperators. This report describes the purpose, scope, approach, and status of the study and presents highlights from the first project data report produced for the study.

  2. Report on the Black Hills Alliance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joe

    1979-01-01

    A rally to save the Black Hills from coal- and uranium-greedy energy companies was held on July 6 and over 2,000 joined in a 15-mile walk on July 7 in Rapid City, South Dakota. The Black Hills Alliance, an Indian coalition concerned about energy development proposals in the Great Plains, sponsored the gathering. (NQ)

  3. Drought in the Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Annotated Color-Coded Map

    Despite good rainfall and record-setting snowstorms in the spring of 2005, most of northeastern Wyoming, the Black Hills, and western South Dakota remain in the midst of a severe drought. This set of images and maps from NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) contrast the appearance of the Black Hills region of northwestern South Dakota on July 12, 2000 (left column), with views acquired four years later, on July 14, 2004 (right column). The natural-color images along the top are from MISR's nadir (downward-looking) camera. The browning that appears in 2004 compared with 2000 indicates that the vigor of green vegetation was significantly diminished in 2004.

    The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the loss of sunlight-absorbing vegetation between the 2000 and 2004 dates. As the vegetation faded with the drought, the albedo at the surface increased. Albedo measures the fraction of incident sunlight that is reflected by a surface, and can vary between zero (if all the incident sunlight is absorbed and none is reflected) and one (if all sunlight is reflected and none is absorbed). Dense forest has a low albedo; bright desert, snow and clouds, have a high albedo. Here, albedo is provided for the wavelengths of sunlight that plants use for photosynthesis (400 - 700 nanometers). This measurement is known as the albedo for Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR). Surfaces with greater absorption of PAR appear here in blue hues, whereas surfaces with lower absorption appear as green, yellow, orange or red. Black pixels indicate areas where albedo could not be derived, usually due to the presence of clouds. In July 2004, low albedo areas (blue pixels) are notably reduced in extent, and higher albedo areas (yellow, orange and red pixels) have increased.

    Because incoming sunlight is

  4. 78 FR 65962 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meeting of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest cancelled the October 16, 2013 meeting of the...

  5. 77 FR 22755 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: USDA Forest Service. ACTION: Notice of cancellation of meetings of the Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board. SUMMARY: The U. S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Black Hills National Forest was required...

  6. 78 FR 21098 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board (Board) will... Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. App. II) (FACA); and the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources...

  7. AmeriFlux US-Blk Black Hills

    DOE Data Explorer

    Meyers, Tilden [NOAA/ARL

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Blk Black Hills. Site Description - The Black Hills tower was established by the Institute for Atmospheric Studies of the South Dakota School of Mines and Technology.

  8. Motivations of female Black Hills deer hunters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gigliotti, Larry M.; Covelli Metcalf, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    State fish and wildlife agencies are particularly interested in attracting female participation because of the potential to offset declining participation in hunting. Understanding female hunters’ motivations will be critical for designing effective recruitment and retention programs for women hunters. Although female participation in hunting is increasing, males still outnumber females by about tenfold. Gender differences in deer hunters were explored by comparing ratings of eight motivations (social, nature, excitement, meat, challenge, trophy, extra hunting opportunity, and solitude). Hunter types were defined by hunters’ selection of the most important motivation for why they like Black Hills deer hunting. Overall, females and males were relatively similar in their ratings of the eight motivations, and we found 85% gender similarity in the selection of the most important motivation. Women were slightly more motivated by the food aspect of the hunt while men placed slightly more value on the hunt as a sporting activity.

  9. Hydrology of the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet; Williamson, Joyce; Putnam, Larry

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills Hydrology Study was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. This report summarizes the hydrology of the Black Hills area and the results of this long-term study.The Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming is an important recharge area for several regional, bedrock aquifer systems and various local aquifers; thus, the study focused on describing the hydrologic significance of selected bedrock aquifers. The major aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. The highest priority was placed on the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, which are used extensively and heavily influence the surface-water resources of the area.Within this report, the hydrogeologic framework of the area, including climate, geology, ground water, and surface water, is discussed. Hydrologic processes and characteristics for ground water and surface water are presented. For ground water, water-level trends and comparisons and water-quality characteristics are presented. For surface water, streamflow characteristics, responses to precipitation, annual yields and yield efficiencies, and water-quality characteristics are presented. Hydrologic budgets are presented for ground water, surface water, and the combined ground-water/surface-water system. A summary of study findings regarding the complex flow systems within the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers also is presented.

  10. GHG PSD Permit: Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power / Black Hills Power, Inc. – Cheyenne Prairie Generating Station

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page contains the final PSD permit for the Cheyenne Light, Fuel & Power / Black Hills Power, Inc. Cheyenne Prairie Generating Station, located in Laramie, Wyoming, and operated by Black Hills Service Company.

  11. Ancient granite gneiss in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zartman, R.E.; Norton, J.J.; Stern, T.W.

    1964-01-01

    Granite gneiss, with an age of approximately 2.5 billion years, in the Black Hills, South Dakota , provides a link betweeen ancient rocks in western Wyoming and Montana and in eastern North and South Dakota and Minnesota. The discovery suggests that early Precambrian rocks covered an extensive area in northcentral United States and were not restricted to several small nuclei.

  12. 77 FR 17402 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-26

    ..., Black Hills National Forest, in the wake of increasingly severe and intense wild fires and mountain pine... forest issues such as forest plan revisions or amendments, forest health including fire management and... Plan, a priority following the major fires including the 86,000 acre Jasper Fire in 2000; 2. A...

  13. 77 FR 8214 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... increasingly severe and intense wild fires and mountain pine beetle epidemics. The purpose of the Board is to... forest issues such as forest plan revisions or amendments, forest health including fire management and... 2004 report on the Black Hills Fuels Reduction Plan, a priority following the major fires including...

  14. Water professionals and water policy in the Black Hills region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fontaine, T.A.; Driscoll, D.G.; Erickson, J.W.; Kenner, S.J.; Sawyer, J.F.; Kendy, Eloise

    1999-01-01

    A case study approach based on examples from the Black Hills region is used to evaluate the role of water professionals in developing feasible and fair public policy involving water resources. Examples presented include a long-term hydrologic investigation in the Black Hills, a local wellhead protection program, issues being addressed by a local flood management commission, coordination of definitions of beneficial stream uses by two state agencies, water-quality problems related to rapid population increase in a rural area, and impacts of potential climate change on water resources. In some of these examples, the hydrologic work was separated from policy making to ensure neutrality. In other examples, involvement of the hydrologists and water resource engineers directly benefited policy development. Opportunities for increased effectiveness were observed in most of the examples.

  15. 40 CFR 81.214 - Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.214 Black Hills-Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Rapid City Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (South Dakota) has been renamed the Black...

  16. Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota...SUBTITLE Selected Hydrologic Data, Through Water Year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...275 ILLUSTRATIONS 1. Map showing area of investigation for the Black Hills Hydrology Study

  17. Stream piracy in the Black Hills: A geomorphology lab exercise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaprowski, B.J.; Evenson, E.B.; Epstein, J.B.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Hills of South Dakota exhibits many fine examples of stream piracy that are very suitable for teaching geomorphology lab exercises. This lab goes beyond standard topographic map interpretation by using geologic maps, well logs, gravel provenance and other types of data to teach students about stream piracy. Using a step-by-step method in which the lab exercises ramp up in difficulty, students hone their skills in deductive reasoning and data assimilation. The first exercises deal with the identification of stream piracy at a variety of spatial scales and the lab culminates with an exercise on landscape evolution and drainage rearrangement.

  18. 76 FR 48120 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-08

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, SD--Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project AGENCY...: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine beetles on approximately 325,000...-rocky-mountain-black-hills@fs.fed.us , with ``MPB Response Project'' in the subject line....

  19. Altitude of the top of the Inyan Kara Group in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  20. Altitude of the Top of the Madison Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study arca arc Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  1. Altitude of the Top of the Minnekahta Limestone in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and groundwater in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoli, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara. Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  2. Altitude of the Top of the Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  3. Altitude of the Top of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota, 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Redden, Jack A.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  4. Streamflow losses in the Black Hills of western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    1998-01-01

    Losses occur in numerous streams that cross outcrops of various sedimentary rocks that are exposed around the periphery of the Black Hills of South Dakota. These streamflow losses are recognized as an important source of local recharge to regional bedrock aquifers. Most streams lose all of their flow up to some threshold rate. Streamflow is maintained through a loss zone when the threshold is exceeded. Streamflow records for 86 measurement sites are used to determine bedrock loss thresholds for 24 area streams, which have individual loss thresholds that range from negligible (no loss) to as much as 50 cubic feet per second. In addition, insights are provided regarding springflow that occurs in the immediate vicinity of selected loss zones. Most losses occur to outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation. Losses to the Deadwood Formation probably are minimal. Losses to the Minnekahta Limestone generally are small; however, they are difficult to quantify because of potential losses to extensive alluvial deposits that commonly are located near Minnekahta outcrops. Loss thresholds for each stream are shown to be relatively constant, without measurable effects from streamflow rates or duration of flow through the loss zones. Calculated losses for measurements made during high-flow conditions generally have larger variability than calculated losses for low-flow conditions; however, consistent relations between losses and streamflow have not been identified. Some of this variability results from the inability to account for tributary inflows and changes in storage. Calculated losses are shown to decrease, in some cases, during periods of extended flow through loss zones. Decreased 'net' losses, however, generally can be attributed to springflow (ground-water discharge) within a loss zone, which may occur during prolonged periods of wet climatic conditions. Losses to unsaturated alluvial deposits located adjacent to the stream channels are found to have

  5. Water quality impacts from mining in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Rahn, P.H.; Davis, A.D.; Webb, C.J.; Nichols, A.D.

    1996-02-01

    The focus of this research was to determine if abandoned mines constitute a major environmental hazard in the Black Hills. Many abandoned gold mines in the Black Hills contribute acid and heavy metals to streams. In some areas of sulfide mineralization local impacts are severe, but in most areas the impacts are small because most ore deposits consist of small quartz veins with few sulfides. Pegmatite mines appear to have negligible effects on water due to the insoluble nature of pegmatite minerals. Uranium mines in the southern Black Hills contribute some radioactivity to surface water, but he impact is limited because of the dry climate and lack of runoff in that area. 26 refs.

  6. Potentiometric surface of the Minnelusa Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  7. Potentiometric surface of the Minnekahta Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  8. Potentiometric surface of the Madison Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory L.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  9. Potentiometric surface of the Inyan Kara Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  10. Distribution of hydrogeologic units in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Sawyer, J. Foster; Schleicher, John R.; Fahrenbach, Mark D.

    1999-01-01

    This report is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. The map in this report is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps that are being produced for the study. Other maps include structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally

  11. Potentiometric surface of the Deadwood Aquifer in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Strobel, Michael L.; Galloway, Joel M.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2000-01-01

    This map is a product of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, which was initiated in 1990 to assess the quantity, quality, and distribution of surface water and ground water in the Black Hills area of South Dakota (Driscoll, 1992). This long-term study is a cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District, which represents various local and county cooperators. This map is part of a series of 1:100,000-scale maps for the study. The maps include a hydrogeologic map, structure-contour maps (altitudes of the tops of formations) for five formations that contain major aquifers in the study area, and potentiometric maps for these five major aquifers (the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers).The study area consists of the topographically defined Black Hills and adjacent areas located in western South Dakota. The Black Hills area is an elongated, dome-shaped feature, about 125 miles long and 60 miles wide, which was uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich, 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous rocks, which are exposed in the central core of the Black Hills. Surrounding the Precambrian core is a layered series of sedimentary rocks including limestones, sandstones, and shales that are exposed in roughly concentric rings around the uplifted flanks of the Black Hills. The bedrock sedimentary units typically dip away from the uplifted Black Hills at angles that approach or exceed 10 degrees near the outcrops, and decrease with distance from the uplift. Many of the sedimentary units contain aquifers, both within and beyond the study area. Recharge to these aquifers occurs from infiltration of precipitation upon the outcrops and, in some cases, from infiltration of streamflow (Hortness and Driscoll, 1998). Artesian conditions generally exist within these

  12. Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Proceedings (Spearfish, South Dakota, April 11, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnopoulos, Cheryl L., Ed.; Ochse, Roger, Ed.; Wolff, Roger, Ed.

    This proceedings contains papers from a symposium conducted to promote the professional sharing of scholarly accomplishments of Black Hills State University faculty and students. The symposium also provided a forum for discussion of current issues related to the presentations. The papers, representing a variety of disciplines, are as follows:…

  13. 77 FR 10717 - Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota-Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, Custer, South Dakota--Mountain Pine... environmental impact statement. SUMMARY: This project proposes to treat areas newly infested by mountain pine... resources on National Forest System (NFS) lands from the ongoing mountain pine beetle epidemic, and to...

  14. 77 FR 9889 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced AGENCY: Forest...) has announced its meeting dates for 2012. These meetings are open to the public, and public comment is... meeting, limited to three (3) minutes per person for oral comments. Meeting dates are the third...

  15. Black Hills State University Research and Scholarly Work Symposium Proceedings (Spearfish, South Dakota, May 2, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anagnopoulos, Cheryl, Ed.; Ochse, Roger, Ed.; Wolff, Roger, Ed.

    This proceedings contains papers from a symposium conducted to promote the professional sharing of scholarly accomplishments of Black Hills State University (South Dakota) faculty and students. The symposium also provided a forum for discussion of current issues related to the presentations. The papers, representing a variety of disciplines, are…

  16. 78 FR 77644 - Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming; Teckla...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota; Thunder Basin National Grassland, Wyoming... Dakota and portions of the Thunder Basin National Grasslands, private lands, BLM lands, and state lands... Grasslands in Douglas, WY at (307) 358- 4690. Individuals who use telecommunication devices for the deaf...

  17. Water-quality characteristics in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the water-quality characteristics of ground-water and surface-water in the Black Hills area. Differences in groundwater quality by aquifer and differences in surfacewater quality by water source are presented. Ground-water characteristics are discussed individually for each of the major aquifers in the Black Hills area, referred to herein as the Precambrian, Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. Characteristics for minor aquifers also are discussed briefly. Surface-water characteristics are discussed for hydrogeologic settings including headwater springs, crystalline core sites, artesian springs, and exterior sites. To characterize the water quality of aquifers and streams in the Black Hills area, data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System water-quality database were examined. This included samples collected as part of the Black Hills Hydrology Study as well as for other studies within the time frame of October 1, 1930, to September 30, 1998. Tables of individual results are not presented in this report, only summaries. Constituents summarized and discussed include physical properties, common ions, nutrients, trace elements, and radionuclides. Comparisons of concentration levels are made to drinking-water standards as well as beneficial-use and aquatic-life criteria. Ground water within the Black Hills and surrounding area generally is fresh and hard to very hard. Concentrations exceeding various Secondary and Maximum Contaminant Levels may affect the use of the water in some areas for many aquifers within the study area. Concentrations that exceed Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels (SMCL's) generally affect the water only aesthetically. Radionuclide concentrations may be especially high in some of the major aquifers used within the study area and preclude the use of water in some areas. The sodiumadsorption ratio and specific conductance may affect irrigation use for some wells. High

  18. Early Tertiary Age of Pitchstone in the Northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redden, Jack A.; Obradovich, John D.; Naeser, Charles W.; Zartman, Robert E.; Norton, James J.

    1983-06-01

    A block of pitchstone in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota, is Paleocene in age, according to potassium-argon dating of biotite and fission-track dating of zircon in the sample. These data invalidate published suggestions that the age is much younger. The pitchstone is not extrusive in its present position but instead is in a volcanic pipe with other fragments that came downward from as much as 1100 meters above the modern surface.

  19. Selected hydrologic data, through water year 1998, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell L.; Moran, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents water-level and water-quality data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1998, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term coop-erative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). This report is the third in a series of project data reports produced for the study. Daily water-level data are presented for 71 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells include a network of observation wells that are maintained in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tables of daily water levels. Annual measurements of water levels collected during water years 1995-98 from a net-work of 18 additional, miscellaneous wells are presented. These wells are part of a statewide network of wells completed in bedrock aquifers that was operated from 1959 through 1989 in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Site descriptions and hydrographs for the entire period of record for each site also are presented. Water-quality data are presented for 9 surface-water sites, 19 ground-water sites, and 30 sites that have been classified as areas of surface- and ground-water interaction in the Black Hills area. The surface- and ground-water interaction sites are further divided into three categories that include 11 loss zone sites, 8 headwater spring sites, and 11 downgradient spring sites.

  20. Spatial analysis of Northern Goshawk Territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klaver, Robert W.; Backlund, Douglas; Bartelt, Paul E.; Erickson, Michael G.; Knowles, Craig J.; Knowles, Pamela R.; Wimberly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The Northern Goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) is the largest of the three North American species ofAccipiter and is more closely associated with older forests than are the other species. Its reliance on older forests has resulted in concerns about its status, extensive research into its habitat relationships, and litigation. Our objective was to model the spatial patterns of goshawk territories in the Black Hills, South Dakota, to make inferences about the underlying processes. We used a modification of Ripley's K function that accounts for inhomogeneous intensity to determine whether territoriality or habitat determined the spacing of goshawks in the Black Hills, finding that habitat conditions rather than territoriality were the determining factor. A spatial model incorporating basal area of trees in a stand of forest, canopy cover, age of trees >23 cm in diameter, number of trees per hectare, and geographic coordinates provided good fit to the spatial patterns of territories. There was no indication of repulsion at close distances that would imply spacing was determined by territoriality. These findings contrast with those for the Kaibab Plateau, Arizona, where territoriality is an important limiting factor. Forest stands where the goshawk nested historically are now younger and have trees of smaller diameter, probably having been modified by logging, fire, and insects. These results have important implications for the goshawk's ecology in the Black Hills with respect to mortality, competition, forest fragmentation, and nest-territory protection.

  1. Results of paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxedler, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; O'Connor, James E.; Harden, Tessa M.

    2012-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are especially important because of severe flooding of June 9–10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and resulted in at least 238 deaths. This paper summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for six study reaches in the central Black Hills. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates. Results indicate that floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches. Results of the paleoflood investigations provide better physically based information on low-probability floods than has been previously available, substantially improving estimates of the magnitude and frequency of large floods in the central Black Hills and reducing associated uncertainties. Collectively, the results provide insights regarding regional flood-generation processes and their spatial controls, enable approaches for extrapolation of results for hazard assessment beyond specific study reaches, and provide a millennial-scale perspective on the 1972 flooding.

  2. Compilation of selected hydrologic data, through water year 1992, Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bradford, Wendell

    1994-01-01

    This report presents water-level, water-quailty, and springflow data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1992, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environmental and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). Water-level data are presented for 32 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tabular data. Water- quality data are presented for 12 surface-water sites and 5 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics, cyanide, phenols, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment. Spring data are presented for 83 springs and 21 stream reaches with significant springflow components. Data presented include site information, discharge, and field water-quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, and pH.

  3. Ground-Water Resources in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Sawyer, J. Foster

    2003-01-01

    The availability of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area is influenced by many factors including location, local recharge and ground-water flow conditions, and structural features. Thus, the availability of ground water can be extremely variable throughout the Black Hills area, and even when water is available, it may not be suitable for various uses depending on the water quality. The major bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills area are the Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers. Minor bedrock aquifers occur in other hydrogeologic units, including confining units, due to fracturing and interbedded permeable layers. Various information and maps are presented in this report that describe availability and quality of ground-water resources in the Black Hills area. However, there is no guarantee of obtaining usable water at any location due to the extreme potential variability in conditions that can affect the availability and quality of ground water in the area. Maps presented in this report include the distribution of hydrogeologic units; depth to the top of the five formations that contain major aquifers; thickness of the five formations that contain major aquifers; potentiometric maps for the five major aquifers; saturated thickness of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers; water temperature in the Madison aquifer; specific conductance in the Madison, Minnelusa, and Inyan Kara aquifers; hardness in the Inyan Kara aquifer; sulfate concentrations in the Minnelusa aquifer; and radon concentrations in the Deadwood aquifer. Water quality of the major aquifers generally is very good in and near outcrop areas but deteriorates progressively with distance from the outcrops. In the Minnelusa aquifer, an abrupt increase in concentrations of dissolved sulfate occurs downgradient from outcrop areas, where a zone of active anhydrite dissolution occurs. Most limitations for the use of ground water are related to aesthetic qualities associated with

  4. 2480 Ma mafic magmatism in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota: A new link connecting the Wyoming and Superior cratons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dahl, P.S.; Hamilton, M.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Foland, K.A.; Frei, R.; McCombs, J.A.; Holm, D.K.

    2006-01-01

    The Laramide Black Hills uplift of southwest South Dakota exposes a Precambrian crystalline core of ???2560-2600 Ma basement granitoids nonconformably overlain by two Paleoproterozoic intracratonic rift successions. In the northern Black Hills, a 1 km thick, layered sill (the Blue Draw metagabbro) that intrudes the older rift succession provides a key constraint on the timing of mafic magmatism and of older rift-basin sedimentation. Ion microprobe spot analyses of megacrysts of magmatic titanite from a horizon of dioritic pegmatite in the uppermost sill portion yield a 207Pb/206Pb upper-intercept age of 2480 ?? 6 Ma (all age errors ??2??), comparable to two-point 207Pb/206Pb errorchron ages obtained by Pb stepwise leaching of the same titanites. Nearly concordant domains in coexisting magmatic zircon yield apparent spot ages ranging from 2458 ?? 16 to 2284 ?? 20 Ma (i.e., differentially reset along U-Pb concordia), and hornblende from an associated metadiorite yields a partially reset date with oldest apparent-age increments ranging between 2076 ?? 16 and 2010 ?? 8 Ma. We interpret these data as indicating that an episode of gabbroic magmatism occurred at 2480 Ma, in response to earlier rifting of the eastern edge of the Wyoming craton. Layered mafic intrusions of similar thickness and identical age occur along a rifted belt in the southern Superior craton (Sudbury region, Ontario). Moreover, these mafic intrusions are spatially aligned using previous supercontinent restorations of the Wyoming and Superior cratons (Kenorland-Superia configurations). This new "piercing point" augments one previously inferred by spatial-temporal correlation of the Paleoproterozoic Huronian (southern Ontario) and Snowy Pass (southeastern Wyoming) supergroups. We propose that layered mafic intrusions extending from Nemo, South Dakota, to Sudbury, Ontario, delineate an axial rift zone along which Wyoming began to separate from Superior during initial fragmentation of the Neoarchean

  5. Black Hills

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... 2004. The color-coded maps (along the bottom) provide a quantitative measurement of the sunlight reflected from these surfaces, and the ... MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center in Hampton, VA. Image ...

  6. Thick domain walls in AdS black hole spacetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek

    2006-08-15

    Equations of motion for a real self-gravitating scalar field in the background of a black hole with negative cosmological constant were solved numerically. We obtain a sequence of static axisymmetric solutions representing thick domain wall cosmological black hole systems, depending on the mass of black hole, cosmological parameter and the parameter binding black hole mass with the width of the domain wall. For the case of extremal cosmological black hole the expulsion of scalar field from the black hole strongly depends on it.

  7. Element partitioning and thermal-compositional patterns in coexisting muscovites and biotites, Black Hills, SD

    SciTech Connect

    Dahl, P.S.; Feldman, S.G.; Wehn, D.C. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-two elements in 50 coexisting muscovites and biotites from pelitic schists of the southern Black Hills have been analyzed by ICP spectrometry. Most elements exhibit highly systematic partitioning between the micas over a wide range of composition. Sillimanite-zone micas are typically enriched in K, Ti, and Li but depleted in Na relative to those from the staurolite zone. Also, sillimanite-zone biotites are relatively depleted in Mg/(Fe+Mg), but enriched in Mn, relative to those of the staurolite zone. Preliminary verification of the muscovite-biotite thermometer (calibration of Hoish (1989)) is indicated from a regional thermal pattern that is strikingly similar to that obtained by Friberg et al. (in prep.) using garnet (rim) - biotite thermometry. The lowest K/(Na+K)[sup mus], X[sub Li] (bio), mica temperatures, and highest X[sub Mg](bio) in the region are observed in staurolite-zone schists between the Grand Junction and Hill City Faults. These regional patterns correlate with: (1) mapped gravity lows (subsurface granitic plutons ), (2) mapped pegmatite density, and (3) proximity to the main mass of Harney Peak Granite. As such, pelitic micas appear to record the T-X signatures of vertically( )-flowing alkali metasomatic fluids that variably overprinted low- to medium-grade regional-metamorphic assemblages during emplacement of the Harney Peak granite-pegmatite complex. The area between the Grand Junction and Hill City faults appears least affected by the metasomatic activity associated with this magmatic event.

  8. Domain structure of black hole space-times

    SciTech Connect

    Harmark, Troels

    2009-07-15

    We introduce the domain structure for stationary black hole space-times. The domain structure lives on the submanifold of fixed points of the Killing vector fields. Depending on which Killing vector field has fixed points the submanifold is naturally divided into domains. The domain structure provides invariants of the space-time, both topological and continuous. It is defined for any space-time dimension and any number of Killing vector fields. We examine the domain structure for asymptotically flat space-times and find a canonical form for the metric of such space-times. The domain structure generalizes the rod structure introduced for space-times with D-2 commuting Killing vector fields. We analyze in detail the domain structure for Minkowski space, the Schwarzschild-Tangherlini black hole and the Myers-Perry black hole in six and seven dimensions. Finally, we consider the possible domain structures for asymptotically flat black holes in six and seven dimensio0008.

  9. Associations between iron concentration and productivity in montane streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayer, Cari Ann; Holcomb, Benjamin M.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Iron is an important micronutrient found in aquatic systems that can influence nutrient availability (e.g., phosphorus) and primary productivity. In streams, high iron concentrations often are associated with low pH as a result of acid mine drainage, which is known to affect fish and invertebrate communities. Streams in the Black Hills of South Dakota are generally circumneutral in pH, yet select streams exhibit high iron concentrations associated with natural iron deposits. In this study, we examined relationships among iron concentration, priphyton biomass, macroinvertebrate abundance, and fish assemblages in four Black Hills streams. The stream with the highest iron concentration (~5 mg Fe/L) had reduced periphyton biomass, invertebrate abundance, and fish biomass compared to the three streams with lower iron levels (0.1 to 0.6 mg Fe/L). Reduced stream productivity was attributed to indirect effects of ferric iron Fe+++), owing to iron-hydroxide precipitation that influenced habitat quality (i.e., substrate and turbidity) and food availability (periphyton and invertebrates) for higher trophic levels (e.g., fish). Additionally, reduced primary and secondary production was associated with reduced standing stocks of salmonid fishes. Our findings suggested that naturally occurring iron deposits may constrain macroinvertebrate and fish production.

  10. Mordenite and montmorillonite alteration of glass structures in a rhyolite pipe, northern Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, J.G. )

    1991-10-01

    Green structures, 0.5 to 1.5 in. across, occur in a Tertiary rhyolite pipe in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota. The structures are of two types: angular to ellipsoidal masses and stretched or smeared structures. Thin section analysis revealed that those of the first type are massive, with no internal structure, and those of the second type are cellular and have classic flame structure characteristics. XRD indicated the composition to be a mixture of secondary mordenite (a zeolite) and montmorillonite. The first type is interpreted to be deuterically altered vitrophyre clasts and the second type to be altered vesicular structures produced by degassing of the magma in the pipe. Chemical analysis of the alteration material indicates a loss of alkalies and silica, with an increase in water, CaO, MgO and ferric iron when compared to the composition of fresh vitrophyre from the same pipe. The changes are in agreement with experimental work on the alteration of rhyolitic glass by a number of researchers. This is the first occurrence of mordenite reported for the Black Hills.

  11. Numerical Simulation of the 9-10 June 1972 Black Hills Storm Using CSU RAMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nair, U. S.; Hjelmfelt, Mark R.; Pielke, Roger A., Sr.

    1997-01-01

    Strong easterly flow of low-level moist air over the eastern slopes of the Black Hills on 9-10 June 1972 generated a storm system that produced a flash flood, devastating the area. Based on observations from this storm event, and also from the similar Big Thompson 1976 storm event, conceptual models have been developed to explain the unusually high precipitation efficiency. In this study, the Black Hills storm is simulated using the Colorado State University Regional Atmospheric Modeling System. Simulations with homogeneous and inhomogeneous initializations and different grid structures are presented. The conceptual models of storm structure proposed by previous studies are examined in light of the present simulations. Both homogeneous and inhomogeneous initialization results capture the intense nature of the storm, but the inhomogeneous simulation produced a precipitation pattern closer to the observed pattern. The simulations point to stationary tilted updrafts, with precipitation falling out to the rear as the preferred storm structure. Experiments with different grid structures point to the importance of removing the lateral boundaries far from the region of activity. Overall, simulation performance in capturing the observed behavior of the storm system was enhanced by use of inhomogeneous initialization.

  12. Gold in the Black Hills, South Dakota, and how new deposits might be found

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1974-01-01

    Of the recorded production of 34,694,552 troy ounces of gold mined in South Dakota through 1971, about 90 percent has come from Precambrian ore bodies in the Homestake mine at Lead in the northern Black Hills. Most of the rest has come from ore deposited in the Deadwood Formation (Cambrian) by hydrothermal replacement during early Tertiary igneous activity. About 99 percent of the total production has been within a radius of 5 miles (8 km) of Lead. Elsewhere, prospecting has been intense, both in the Precambrian rocks, which are exposed over an area 61 by 26 miles (98 by 42 km), and in nearby Paleozoic rocks. All the known ore bodies have been found either at the surface or in subsurface workings of operating mines. Efforts to find totally new deposits have been modest and sporadic; no comprehensive and systematic program has ever been attempted. Obviously, any exploration program should be aimed at finding a new deposit resembling the Homestake in the Precambrian, but discovery in the Deadwood of a new group of ore bodies containing several hundred thousand ounces of gold would certainly be worthwhile. Evidence has long been available that the Deadwood deposits and the Homestake deposit are somehow related. Current opinion is that (1) the Homestake ore is mainly Precambrian, (2) a trivial amount of Homestake ore is Tertiary, (3)gold in Deadwood basal conglomerate is largely of placer origin, and (4) the gold of replacement deposits in the Deadwood and in other rock units came originally from sources similar to the Homestake deposit or its parent materials. Homestake ore is virtually entirely contained in a unit of iron-formation locally known as the Homestake Formation, which seemingly had more gold in the original sediments than similar rocks exposed elsewhere in the Black Hills. Gold, sulfur, and other constituents were subsequently concentrated in ore shoots in zones of dilation caused by cross folds that deformed earlier major folds. These ore shoots are in

  13. Selected hydrologic data, through water year 1994, Black Hills Hydrology Study, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, D.G.; Bradford, W.L.; Neitzert, K.M.

    1996-01-01

    This report presents water-level, water-quality, and spring data that have been collected or compiled, through water year 1994, for the Black Hills Hydrology Study. This study is a long-term cooperative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey, the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and the West Dakota Water Development District (which represents various local and county cooperators). This report is the second in a series of biennial project data reports produced for the study. Daily water-level data are presented for 39 observation wells and 2 cave sites in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The wells are part of a network of observation wells maintained by the Department of Environment and Natural Resources and are completed in various bedrock formations that are utilized as aquifers in the Black Hills area. Both cave sites are located within outcrops of the Madison Limestone. Data presented include site descriptions, hydrographs, and tables of daily water levels. Annual measurements of water levels collected during water years 1993-94 from a network of 20 additional, miscellaneous wells are presented. These wells are part of a Statewide network of wells completed in bedrock aquifers that was operated from 1959 through 1989 in cooperation with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources. Site descriptions and hydrographs for the entire period of record for each site also are presented. Drawdown and recovery data are presented for five wells that were pumped (or flowed) for collection of water-quality samples. These wells are part of the network of observation wells for which daily water-level records are compiled. Water-quality data are presented for 20 surface-water sites and 22 ground-water sites. Data presented include field parameters, bacteria counts, and concentrations of common ions, solids, nutrients, trace elements, radiometrics and isotopes, cyanide, phenols, and suspended sediment. Spring data are

  14. Selected Hydrogeologic Data For the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood Aquifers in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    uplifted during the Laramide orogeny (Feldman and Heimlich , 1980). The oldest geologic units in the study area are Precambrian metamorphic and igneous...Geological Survey Open-File Report 92-84, 10 p. Feldman, R.M., and Heimlich , R.A., 1980, The Black Hills: K/H Geology Field Guide Series, Kendall

  15. Selected hydrogeologic data for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected hydrogeologic data on wells and springs in the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. The data were used to create potentiometric maps for these five aquifers.

  16. 76 FR 53400 - Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid City...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Forest Service Black Hills National Forest, SD; Thunder Basin National Grassland, WY; Teckla-Osage-Rapid... Basin National Grasslands, private lands, BLM lands, and state lands in Wyoming. The line would be... Geri Proctor, Thunder Basin National Grasslands, 2250 East Richards Street, Douglas, WY...

  17. Maps Showing Geology, Structure, and Geophysics of the Central Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redden, Jack A.; DeWitt, Ed

    2008-01-01

    This 1:100,000-scale digital geologic map details the complex Early Proterozoic granitic rocks, Early Proterozoic supracrustal metamorphic rocks, and Archean crystalline basement of the Black Hills. The granitic rocks host pegmatite deposits renowned for their feldspar, mica, spodumene, and beryl. The supracrustal rocks host the Homestake gold mine, which produced more than 40 million ounces of gold over a 125-year lifetime. The map documents the Laramide deformation of Paleozoic and Mesozoic cover rocks; and shows the distribution of Laramide plutonic rocks associated with precious-metals deposits. Four 1:300,000-scale maps summarize Laramide structures; Early Proterozoic structures; aeromagnetic anomalies; and gravity anomalies. Three 1:500,000-scale maps show geophysical interpretations of buried Early Proterozoic to Archean rocks in western South Dakota and eastern Wyoming.

  18. Climate effects on fire regimes and tree recruitment in Black Hills ponderosa pine forests.

    PubMed

    Brown, Peter M

    2006-10-01

    Climate influences forest structure through effects on both species demography (recruitment and mortality) and disturbance regimes. Here, I compare multi-century chronologies of regional fire years and tree recruitment from ponderosa pine forests in the Black Hills of southwestern South Dakota and northeastern Wyoming to reconstructions of precipitation and global circulation indices. Regional fire years were affected by droughts and variations in both Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Fires were synchronous with La Niñas, cool phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and warm phases of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). These quasi-periodic circulation features are associated with drought conditions over much of the western United States. The opposite pattern (El Niño, warm PDO, cool AMO) was associated with fewer fires than expected. Regional tree recruitment largely occurred during wet periods in precipitation reconstructions, with the most abundant recruitment coeval with an extended pluvial from the late 1700s to early 1800s. Widespread even-aged cohorts likely were not the result of large crown fires causing overstory mortality, but rather were caused by optimal climate conditions that contributed to synchronous regional recruitment and longer intervals between surface fires. Synchronous recruitment driven by climate is an example of the Moran effect. The presence of abundant fire-scarred trees in multi-aged stands supports a prevailing historical model for ponderosa pine forests in which recurrent surface fires affected heterogenous forest structure, although the Black Hills apparently had a greater range of fire behavior and resulting forest structure over multi-decadal time scales than ponderosa pine forests of the Southwest that burned more often.

  19. Hydrologic conditions and budgets for the Black Hills of South Dakota, through water year 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    The Black Hills are an important recharge area for aquifers in the northern Great Plains. The surface-water hydrology of the area is highly influenced by interactions with the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, including large springs and streamflow loss zones. Defining responses of ground water and streamflow to a variety of hydrogeologic influences is critical to development of hydrologic budgets for ground- and surface-water systems. Hydrographs for 52 observation wells and 1 cave site are used to show ground-water response to cumulative precipitation departures. Aquifers considered include the Precambrian, Deadwood, Madison, Minnelusa, Minnekahta, and Inyan Kara aquifers, with wells completed in the Inyan Kara aquifer generally showing small response to precipitation patterns. Many wells completed in the other aquifers have large short- and long-term fluctuations in water levels. Madison and Minnelusa wells in the southern Black Hills show a general tendency for smaller water-level fluctuations than in other areas. Streamflow characteristics and relations with precipitation are examined for 33 gaging stations representative of five different hydrogeologic settings that are identified. The ?limestone headwater? setting occurs within outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation along the ?Limestone Plateau,? where direct runoff is uncommon and streamflow consists almost entirely of base flow originating as ground-water discharge from headwater springs. Thus, variability in daily, monthly, and annual flow is small. Annual streamflow correlates poorly with precipitation; however, consideration of ?moving averages? (involving up to 11 years of annual precipitation data for some stations) improves relations substantially. The ?crystalline core? area is encircled by the outcrop band of the Madison and Minnelusa Formations and is dominated by igneous and metamorphic rocks. Base flow ranges from about 41 to 73 percent for representative streams; however

  20. The Black Hills-Rapid City flood of June 9-10, 1972: A description of the storm and flood

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwarz, Francis K.; Hughes, L.A.; Hansen, E.M.; Petersen, M.S.; Kelly, Donovan B.

    1975-01-01

    Almost all the flood peaks occurred between 2230 MDT on June 9 and 0100 MDT on June 10, 1972, in a flood belt about 40 miles long and 20 miles wide along the eastern slopes of the Black Hills. This belt extended from Sturgis, S. Dak., on the north to Hermosa, S. Dak., on the south, with Rapid City near the center. To document the flood, peak discharge determinations were made at 49 sites. Records show that about 13,000 acre-feet of water flowed through Rapid City during the 2 days of flooding. At one point during the night of June 9, the floodwaters rose about 3.5 feet in 15 minutes. Coming off the slopes of the Black Hills, the flood peak traveled the 22 miles between Deer Creek and Rapid City in about 3.5 hours.

  1. Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood

  2. Lakota Formation, southern Black Hills, South Dakota: an Early Cretaceous evolving fluvial system

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlstrom D.J.; Fox, J.E.

    1986-08-01

    The fluvial, Early Cretaceous Lakota Formation consists of four spatially and temporally distinct sandstone units in the southern Black Hills and southeastern Powder River basin. Three of these units crop out in proximity to an area of uranium roll-front development (Edgemont mining district) where approximately 2300 wells were drilled and logged. Comparison of the resistivity logs of several of these wells with continuous cores of the Lakota Formation confirms their lithologic sensitivity. These logs (utilized to assist in subsurface facies interpretations where cores were not available), cores, and outcrops are the basis for the following facies interpretations. The discharge, sediment load, and resulting sinuosity of this fluvial system varied substantially throughout the time of Lakota deposition. The oldest unit consists of tabular deposits with complex internal architecture comprised of cross-cutting lateral accretion deposits. Upward-fining grain size, upward-decreasing scale of sedimentary structures, and the angular relationship between lateral accretion surfaces and overlying crevasse-splay deposits support this conclusion. The intermediate unit of ephemeral stream sediments is characterized by abundant pebble- and cobble-strewn erosional surfaces with up to 1.5 m relief, very poor clast sorting, and trough and planar cross-bedding with concave-upward foresets. The youngest unit has a predominance of tabular cross-bedding with back flow climbing ripples and low dispersion of paleocurrent directions, suggesting a relatively straight, bed-load-type channel dominated by trains of sand waves.

  3. Evaluating detection probabilities for American marten in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, J.B.; Jenks, J.A.; Klaver, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    Assessing the effectiveness of monitoring techniques designed to determine presence of forest carnivores, such as American marten (Martes americana), is crucial for validation of survey results. Although comparisons between techniques have been made, little attention has been paid to the issue of detection probabilities (p). Thus, the underlying assumption has been that detection probabilities equal 1.0. We used presence-absence data obtained from a track-plate survey in conjunction with results from a saturation-trapping study to derive detection probabilities when marten occurred at high (>2 marten/10.2 km2) and low (???1 marten/10.2 km2) densities within 8 10.2-km2 quadrats. Estimated probability of detecting marten in high-density quadrats was p = 0.952 (SE = 0.047), whereas the detection probability for low-density quadrats was considerably lower (p = 0.333, SE = 0.136). Our results indicated that failure to account for imperfect detection could lead to an underestimation of marten presence in 15-52% of low-density quadrats in the Black Hills, South Dakota, USA. We recommend that repeated site-survey data be analyzed to assess detection probabilities when documenting carnivore survey results.

  4. The Berkeley Low Background Facility and the Black Hills State University Underground Campus at SURF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Keenan; Mount, Brianna; Lesko, Kevin; Norman, Eric; Smith, Alan; Poon, Alan; Chan, Yuen-Dat

    2015-10-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility at LBNL provides a variety of low background gamma spectroscopy services to a variety of projects and experiments. It operates HPGe spectrometers in two unique facilities: a surface low background lab at LBNL and underground (4300 m.w.e.) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD. A large component of the measurements performed by the BLBF are for ultralow background experiments concerned with U, Th, K, and other radioisotopes within candidate construction materials to be used to construct sensitive detectors, such as those studying dark matter or neutrinos. The BLBF also makes a variety of environmental measurements in search of other radioisotopes, such as fallout from the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011 and other radioisotope monitoring activities. A general overview of the services and facilities will be presented. In 2015, the BLBF will be relocating its underground counting stations to a new, dedicated space on the 4850L of SURF. The Black Hills State University Underground Campus will host several low background counting stations and operate in a coordinated manner to provide low background measurements to the scientific community. An overview and description of the BHUC will be presented.

  5. Chemistry of potassium feldspars from three zoned pegmatites, Black Hills, South Dakota: Implications concerning pegmatite evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1985-03-01

    An initial phase of an extensive geochemical study of pegmatites from the Black Hills, South Dakota, indicates potassium feldspar composition is useful in interpreting petrogenetic relationships among pegmatites and among pegmatite zones within a single pegmatite. The K/Rb and Rb/Sr ratios and Li and Cs contents of the feldspars within each zoned pegmatite, to a first approximation, are consistent with the simple fractional crystallization of the potassium feldspar from a silicate melt from the wall zone to the core of the pegmatites. Some trace element characteristics ( i.e. Cs) have been modified by subsolidus reequilibration of the feldspars with late-stage residual fluid. K/Rb ratios of the potassium feldspar appear to be diagnostic of the pegmatite mineral assemblage. The relationship between K/Rb and mineralogy is as follows: Harney Peak Granite (barren pegmatites) > 180; Li-Fe-Mn phosphate-bearing pegmatites = 90-50; spodumene-bearing pegmatites = 60-40; pollucitebearing pegmatites < 30. Although the K/Rb ratios suggest that the pegmatites studied are genetically related by fractional crystallization to each other and the Harney Peak Granite, overlapping Rb/Sr ratios and the general increase in Sr and Ba with decreasing K/Rb indicate the genetic relationship is much more complex and may also be dependent upon slight variations in source (chemistry and mineralogy) material composition and degrees of partial melting.

  6. The influence of light, stream gradient, and iron on Didymosphenia geminata bloom development in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    James, Daniel A.; Mosel, Kyle; Chipps, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    The aquatic nuisance species Didymosphenia geminata was first documented in Rapid Creek of South Dakota’s Black Hills during 2002. Since then, blooms have occurred primarily in a 39-km section of Rapid Creek while blooms were rarely observed in other Black Hills streams. In this study, we evaluated factors related to the presence and development of visible colonies of D. geminata in four streams of the Black Hills. At the watershed scale, stream gradient was negatively associated with the occurrence of D. geminata whereas stream width was positively related to D. geminata presence. At the stream scale, D. geminata coverage was inversely related to canopy coverage and iron concentration. At the local scale, shading by bridges virtually eliminated growth of D. geminata colonies under bridges. At all three scales, proxy measures of light such as stream width, canopy coverage, and bridge shading revealed that light availability was an important factor influencing the presence and coverage of D. geminata colonies. In general, streams that had relatively wide stream reaches (mean = 9.9 m), shallow gradients (mean = 0.22%), and little canopy cover (mean = 13%) were associated with D. geminata blooms. In addition, iron concentrations in streams with D. geminata colonies were lower than in streams without blooms.

  7. Traps and attractants for wood-boring insects in ponderosa pine stands in the Black Hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Costello, Sheryl L; Negrón, José F; Jacobi, William R

    2008-04-01

    Recent large-scale wildfires have increased populations of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Because little is known about possible impacts of wood-boring insects in the Black Hills, land managers are interested in developing monitoring techniques such as flight trapping with semiochemical baits. Two trap designs and four semiochemical attractants were tested in a recently burned ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws., forest in the Black Hills. Modified panel and funnel traps were tested in combination with the attractants, which included a woodborer standard (ethanol and alpha-pinene), standard plus 3-carene, standard plus ipsenol, and standard plus ipsdienol. We found that funnel traps were equally efficient or more efficient in capturing wood-boring insects than modified panel traps. Trap catches of cerambycids increased when we added the Ips spp. pheromone components (ipsenol or ipsdienol) or the host monoterpene (3-carene) to the woodborer standard. During the summers of 2003 and 2004, 18 cerambycid, 14 buprestid, and five siricid species were collected. One species of cerambycid, Monochamus clamator (LeConte), composed 49 and 40% of the 2003 and 2004 trap catches, respectively. Two other cerambycids, Acanthocinus obliquus (LeConte) and Acmaeops proteus (Kirby), also were frequently collected. Flight trap data indicated that some species were present throughout the summer, whereas others were caught only at the beginning or end of the summer.

  8. Episodic sediment-discharge events in Cascade Springs, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Timothy Scott

    1999-01-01

    Cascade Springs is a group of artesian springs in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, with collective flow of about 19.6 cubic feet per second. Beginning on February 28, 1992, a large discharge of red suspended sediment was observed from two of the six known discharge points. Similar events during 1906-07 and 1969 were documented by local residents and newspaper accounts. Mineralogic and grain-size analyses were performed to identify probable subsurface sources of the sediment. Geochemical modeling was performed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of water discharged from Cascade Springs. Interpretations of results provide a perspective on the role of artesian springs in the regional geohydrologic framework. X-ray diffraction mineralogic analyses of the clay fraction of the suspended sediment were compared to analyses of clay-fraction samples taken from nine geologic units at and stratigraphically below the spring-discharge points. Ongoing development of a subsurface breccia pipe(s) in the upper Minnelusa Formation and/or Opeche Shale was identified as a likely source of the suspended sediment; thus, exposed breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon were examined. Upper Minnelusa Formation breccia pipes in lower Hell Canyon occur in clusters similar to the discrete discharge points of Cascade Springs. Grain-size analyses showed that breccia masses lack clay fractions and have coarser distributions than the wall rocks, which indicates that the red, fine-grained fractions have been carried out as suspended sediment. These findings support the hypothesis that many breccia pipes were formed as throats of abandoned artesian springs. Geochemical modeling was used to test whether geochemical evolution of ground water is consistent with this hypothesis. The evolution of water at Cascade Springs could not be suitably simulated using only upgradient water from the Minnelusa aquifer. A suitable model involved dissolution of anhydrite accompanied by dedolomitization in the

  9. Geochemistry of the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naus, Cheryl A.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area because of utilization for water supplies and important influences on surface-water resources resulting from large springs and streamflow- loss zones. Examination of geochemical information provides a better understanding of the complex flow systems within these aquifers and interactions between the aquifers. Major-ion chemistry in both aquifers is dominated by calcium and bicarbonate near outcrop areas, with basinward evolution towards various other water types. The most notable differences in major-ion chemistry between the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are in concentrations of sulfate within the Minnelusa aquifer. Sulfate concentrations increase dramatically near a transition zone where dissolution of anhydrite is actively occurring. Water chemistry for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers is controlled by reactions among calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. Saturation indices for gypsum, calcite, and dolomite for most samples in both the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are indicative of the occurrence of dedolomitization. Because water in the Madison aquifer remains undersaturated with respect to gypsum, even at the highest sulfate concentrations, upward leakage into the overlying Minnelusa aquifer has potential to drive increased dissolution of anhydrite in the Minnelusa Formation. Isotopic information is used to evaluate ground-water flowpaths, ages, and mixing conditions for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers. Distinctive patterns exist in the distribution of stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation for the Black Hills area, with isotopically lighter precipitation generally occurring at higher elevations and latitudes. Distributions of 18O in ground water are consistent with spatial patterns in recharge areas, with isotopically lighter 18O values in the Madison aquifer resulting from generally higher elevation recharge sources, relative to the

  10. A Black Hills-Madison Aquifer origin for Dakota Aquifer groundwater in northeastern Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Stotler, Randy; Harvey, F Edwin; Gosselin, David C

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of the Dakota Aquifer in South Dakota attributed elevated groundwater sulfate concentrations to Madison Aquifer recharge in the Black Hills with subsequent chemical evolution prior to upward migration into the Dakota Aquifer. This study examines the plausibility of a Madison Aquifer origin for groundwater in northeastern Nebraska. Dakota Aquifer water samples were collected for major ion chemistry and isotopic analysis ((18)O, (2)H, (3)H, (14)C, (13)C, (34)S, (18)O-SO(4), (87)Sr, (37)Cl). Results show that groundwater beneath the eastern, unconfined portion of the study area is distinctly different from groundwater sampled beneath the western, confined portion. In the east, groundwater is calcium-bicarbonate type, with delta(18)O values (-9.6 per thousand to -12.4 per thousand) similar to local, modern precipitation (-7.4 per thousand to -10 per thousand), and tritium values reflecting modern recharge. In the west, groundwater is calcium-sulfate type, having depleted delta(18)O values (-16 per thousand to -18 per thousand) relative to local, modern precipitation, and (14)C ages 32,000 to more than 47,000 years before present. Sulfate, delta(18)O, delta(2)H, delta(34)S, and delta(18)O-SO(4) concentrations are similar to those found in Madison Aquifer groundwater in South Dakota. Thus, it is proposed that Madison Aquifer source water is also present within the Dakota Aquifer beneath northeastern Nebraska. A simple Darcy equation estimate of groundwater velocities and travel times using reported physical parameters from the Madison and Dakota Aquifers suggests such a migration is plausible. However, discrepancies between (14)C and Darcy age estimates indicate that (14)C ages may not accurately reflect aquifer residence time, due to mixtures of varying aged water.

  11. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    SciTech Connect

    Norton, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear. 18 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Chemical migration by contact metamorphism between pegmatite/country rocks: natural analogs for radionuclides migration. [Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Laul, J.C.; Walker, R.J.; Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.; Simon, S.B.

    1983-10-01

    Comparison of trace element signatures of country rocks as a function of distance from the contact with two pegmatites, Tin Mountain and Etta, in the Black Hills of South Dakota, suggests that some elements such as K, Li, Rb, Cs, As, Sb, Zn and Pb, have migrated to distances of 4 to 40 meters during contact metamorphism. The relative degree of migration varies depending on the element. On the other hand, there is virtually no migration of rare earth elements (REE), Al, Sc, Cr, Hf, U, and Th. Biotite and muscovite are effective trace element traps for Li, Rb and Cs. Biotite has a greater affinity for Rb, Cs and Li than muscovite.

  13. Lithium anomaly near Pringle, southern Black Hills, South Dakota, possibly caused by unexposed rare-mineral pegmatite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, James Jennings

    1984-01-01

    Six samples of biotite schist from a site near Pringle, South Dakota, contained from 140 to 750 parts per million lithium. These values are far greater than are found in mica schists in most of the rest of the southern Black Hills. The lithium may have emanated from concealed lithium pegmatite, and such pegmatite can be of interest as a possible source of rare minerals, especially tantalite and beryl. Whether making a full test of the anomaly will become economically judicious is much less clear.

  14. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Black Hills, and Manitou, Colorado test sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. C.; Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some current beetle-killed ponderosa pine can be detected on S190-B photography imaged over the Bear Lodge mountains in the Black Hills National Forest. Detections were made on SL-3 imagery (September 13, 1973) using a zoom lens microscope to view the photography. At this time correlations have not been made to all of the known infestation spots in the Bear Lodge mountains; rather, known infestations have been located on the SL-3 imagery. It was determined that the beetle-killed trees were current kills by stereo viewing of SL-3 imagery on one side and SL-2 on the other. A successful technique was developed for mapping current beetle-killed pine using MSS imagery from mission 247 flown by the C-130 over the Black Hills test site in September 1973. Color enhancement processing on the NASA/JSC, DAS system using three MSS channels produced an excellent quality detection map for current kill pine. More importantly it provides a way to inventory the dead trees by relating PCM counts to actual numbers of dead trees.

  15. Hydrologic Effects of the 1988 Galena Fire, Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Carter, Janet M.; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2004-01-01

    The Galena Fire burned about 16,788 acres of primarily ponderosa pine forest during July 5-8, 1988, in the Black Hills area of South Dakota. The fire burned primarily within the Grace Coolidge Creek drainage basin and almost entirely within the boundaries of Custer State Park. A U.S. Geological Survey gaging station with streamflow records dating back to 1977 was located along Grace Coolidge Creek within the burned area. About one-half of the gaging station's 26.8-square-mile drainage area was burned. The drainage basin for Bear Gulch, which is tributary to Grace Coolidge Creek, was burned particularly severely, with complete deforestation occurring in nearly the entirety of the area upstream from a gaging station that was installed in 1989. A study to evaluate effects of the Galena Fire on streamflow, geomorphology, and water quality was initiated in 1988. The geomorphologic and water-quality components of the study were completed by 1990 and are summarized in this report. A data-collection network consisting of streamflow- and precipitation-gaging stations was operated through water year 1998 for evaluation of effects on streamflow characteristics, including both annual-yield and peak-flow characteristics, which are the main focus of this report. Moderately burned areas did not experience a substantial increase in the rate of surface erosion; however, severely burned areas underwent surficial erosion nearly twice that of the unburned areas. The sediment production rate of Bear Gulch estimated 8 to 14 months after the fire was 870 ft3/acre (44 tons/acre). Substantial degradation of stream channels within the severely burned headwater areas of Bear Gulch was documented. Farther downstream, channel aggradation resulted from deposition of sediments transported from the headwater areas. The most notable water-quality effect was on concentrations of suspended sediment, which were orders of magnitude higher for Bear Gulch than for the unburned control area. Effects on

  16. Late Holocene flood probabilities in the Black Hills, South Dakota with emphasis on the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, James E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    A stratigraphic record of 35 large paleofloods and four large historical floods during the last 2000 years for four basins in the Black Hills of South Dakota reveals three long-term flooding episodes, identified using probability distributions, at A.D.: 120–395, 900–1290, and 1410 to present. During the Medieval Climate Anomaly (~ A.D. 900–1300) the four basins collectively experienced 13 large floods compared to nine large floods in the previous 800 years, including the largest floods of the last 2000 years for two of the four basins. This high concentration of extreme floods is likely caused by one or more of the following: 1) instability of air masses caused by stronger than normal westerlies; 2) larger or more frequent hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean; and/or 3) reduced land covering vegetation or increased forest fires caused by persistent regional drought.

  17. Developing management guidelines that balance cattle and timber production with ecological interests in the Black Hills of South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowanski, Kurt M.

    Forested lands contribute to the United States (US) economy by providing livestock and timber production. Livestock grazing of forested lands has been widespread throughout the western US since the settlement era, and currently occurs on 51.4 million hectares (ha) representing 16% of all US grazing land and 22% of all US forested land (Nickerson et al. 2011). While livestock grazing and timber harvest are occurring on a substantial amount of forested land, relationships between management practices, tree stocking, timber production, forage production, livestock grazing, wildlife, aesthetics, and ecological integrity are not well documented. Whether considering timber or cattle, finding a balance between production and resource conservation is a fundamental challenge to agricultural producers, and is often a tradeoff between short term gains and long term sustainability. This dissertation aims to identify livestock and timber management practices that optimize production and are ecologically conservative. Specifically, I focused on three objectives. First, I reviewed the published literature and summarized what is known about best-practices for concurrent management of livestock and timber production in pine forests in the US. I found most studies came from the southeastern and western US where timber and livestock production on the same land unit are common. The relationship between pine cover and forage seemed fairly consistent across the US, and production was optimized when cattle grazed open canopy forests with basal areas between 5 and 14 m2 ha-1 (15-35% tree canopy cover). Second, I developed forest cover maps to estimate forage production in the Black Hills, South Dakota (SD) for the period from 1999 to 2015. I developed a regression model based on Landsat and Ikonos satellite imagery and was able to detect large changes in forest cover over time. I then used these maps in combination with maps of soil type and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) to update

  18. Geologic structure and altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation, northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peter, Kathy D.; Kyllonen, David P.; Mills, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Beginning in 1981, a 3-yr project was conducted to determine the availability and quality of groundwater in the sedimentary bedrock aquifers in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. The project was limited to three bedrock units in order of increasing age: the Cretaceous Inyan kara Group, Permian and Pennsylvanian Minnelusa Formation, and Mississippian Madison (or Pahasapa) Limestone. This map shows the altitude of the top of the Minnelusa Formation in the northern Black Hills, and shows the configuration of the structural features in the northern part of the Black Hills and the eastern part of the Bear Lodge Mountains. In general, the Minnelusa Formation dips away from the Black Hills uplift, either to the northeast and the Williston Basin or, south of the Bear Lodge Mountains, to the southwest and the Powder River basin, which is outside the map area. In the map area, the upper beds of the Minnelusa Formation are an aquifer and the lower beds are a confining or semi-confining unit. The upper part of the Minnelusa Formation has a greater percentage of coarse-grained sandstone beds than the lower part. Furthermore, solution and removal of anhydrite, brecciation, and solution of cement binding the sandstone grains may have increased the permeability of the upper part of the Minnelusa Formation in the Black Hills. Wells completed in the upper part of the Minnelusa have yields that exceed 100 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min in some areas and at least one large diameter well is reported to flow 1,000 gal/min. Flowing wells have been completed in the Minnelusa aquifer in most of the study area in South Dakota and in about the northern one-half of Crook County, Wyoming. (Lantz-PTT)

  19. Microhabitat selection by bobcats in the badlands and Black Hills of South Dakota, USA: a comparison of Prairie and forested habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosby, Cory E.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Schroeder, Greg M.; Schmitz, Lowell E.; Jenks, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of habitat selection is important for management of wildlife species. Although bobcat (Lynx rufus) resource selection has been addressed in many regions of the United States, little work has been conducted in the Northern Great Plains. From 2006–2008 we captured and radiocollared 20 bobcats in the Badlands (n = 10) and Black Hills (n = 10) regions of South Dakota. During the summers of 2008 and 2009 we collected habitat measurements at 349 (176 Badlands, 176 Black Hills) bobcat locations and 321 (148 Badlands, 173 Black Hills) random sites. Microhabitat characteristics at bobcat use sites varied with region (P < 0.001) and sex of bobcat (P < 0.001). Percent slope, shrub, low cover, medium cover, and total cover were greater (P ≤ 0.017) at bobcat locations in the Black Hills than in the Badlands whereas distance to drainage was greater (P < 0.001) at locations in the Badlands than in the Black Hills. In the Badlands, male bobcat locations were closer (P ≤ 0.002) to prairie dog towns and drainages and had greater (P < 0.05) percent forbs and forb height than random sites, whereas females were closer to badland formations (P < 0.001) than random sites. In the Black Hills, male locations were at greater elevation (P < 0.001) and female locations were characterized by greater (P ≤ 0.02) grass height, shrub height, low cover, and total cover than random sites. Logistic regression indicated that microhabitat selection was similar between study areas; odds ratios indicated that odds of bobcat use increased by 0.998 (95% CI = 0.997–0.999) per 1 m increase in distance to drainage, 0.986 (95% CI = 0.978–0.993) per 1.0% increase in grass cover, by 1.024 (95% CI = 1.011–1.036) per 1 cm increase in grass height, by 1.013 (95% CI = 1.003–1.024) per 1% increase in forb cover, and by 1.028 (95% CI = 1.017–1.039) per 1% increase in medium cover. Our results were similar to other bobcat microhabitat selection studies, where bobcat relocations were

  20. The Role of Wildfire, Prescribed Fire, and Mountain Pine Beetle Infestations on the Population Dynamics of Black-Backed Woodpeckers in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    PubMed Central

    Rota, Christopher T.; Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Rumble, Mark A.; Lehman, Chad P.; Kesler, Dylan C.

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire. PMID:24736502

  1. The role of wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations on the population dynamics of black-backed woodpeckers in the black hills, South Dakota.

    PubMed

    Rota, Christopher T; Millspaugh, Joshua J; Rumble, Mark A; Lehman, Chad P; Kesler, Dylan C

    2014-01-01

    Wildfire and mountain pine beetle infestations are naturally occurring disturbances in western North American forests. Black-backed woodpeckers (Picoides arcticus) are emblematic of the role these disturbances play in creating wildlife habitat, since they are strongly associated with recently-killed forests. However, management practices aimed at reducing the economic impact of natural disturbances can result in habitat loss for this species. Although black-backed woodpeckers occupy habitats created by wildfire, prescribed fire, and mountain pine beetle infestations, the relative value of these habitats remains unknown. We studied habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probabilities and reproductive rates between April 2008 and August 2012 in the Black Hills, South Dakota. We estimated habitat-specific adult and juvenile survival probability with Bayesian multi-state models and habitat-specific reproductive success with Bayesian nest survival models. We calculated asymptotic population growth rates from estimated demographic rates with matrix projection models. Adult and juvenile survival and nest success were highest in habitat created by summer wildfire, intermediate in MPB infestations, and lowest in habitat created by fall prescribed fire. Mean posterior distributions of population growth rates indicated growing populations in habitat created by summer wildfire and declining populations in fall prescribed fire and mountain pine beetle infestations. Our finding that population growth rates were positive only in habitat created by summer wildfire underscores the need to maintain early post-wildfire habitat across the landscape. The lower growth rates in fall prescribed fire and MPB infestations may be attributed to differences in predator communities and food resources relative to summer wildfire.

  2. Digital data sets for map products produced as part of the Black Hills Hydrology Study, western South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williamson, Joyce E.; Jarrell, Gregory J.; Clawges, Rick M.; Galloway, Joel M.; Carter, Janet M.

    2000-01-01

    This compact disk contains digital data produced as part of the 1:100,000-scale map products for the Black Hills Hydrology Study conducted in western South Dakota. The digital data include 28 individual Geographic Information System (GIS) data sets: data sets for the hydrogeologic unit map including all mapped hydrogeologic units within the study area (1 data set) and major geologic structure including anticlines and synclines (1 data set); data sets for potentiometric maps including the potentiometric contours for the Inyan Kara, Minnekahta, Minnelusa, Madison, and Deadwood aquifers (5 data sets), wells used as control points for each aquifer (5 data sets), and springs used as control points for the potentiometric contours (1 data set); and data sets for the structure-contour maps including the structure contours for the top of each formation that contains major aquifers (5 data sets), wells and tests holes used as control points for each formation (5 data sets), and surficial deposits (alluvium and terrace deposits) that directly overlie each of the major aquifer outcrops (5 data sets). These data sets were used to produce the maps published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-12-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have T/sub DM/ ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have T/sub DM/ ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga, and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 +/- 0.08 and 2.20 +/- 0.20 Ga, respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 +/- 100 Ma.

  4. Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

  5. Low Background Counting with the Berkeley Low Background Facility and the Black Hills State University Underground Campus at SURF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Alan; Thomas, Keenan; Mount, Brianna; Lesko, Kevin; Smith, Alan; Norman, Eric; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Berkeley Low Background Facility Team; Black Hills State University Underground Campus Team

    2016-09-01

    The Berkeley Low Background Facility provides a variety of low background gamma spectroscopy services to a variety of projects and experiments. It operates HPGe spectrometers in two unique facilities: a surface low background lab at LBNL and 4,850 feet underground (4300 m.w.e.) at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in Lead, SD in a dedicated cleanroom at the Black Hills State University Underground Campus (BHUC). A large component of the measurements performed by the BLBF are for ultralow background experiments concerned with U, Th, K, and other radioisotopes within candidate construction materials to be used to construct sensitive detectors. Experiments utilizing these needs often include those studying dark matter, neutrinos, or neutrinoless double beta decay. A general overview of the services and facilities will be presented. The BHUC will ultimately host several HPGe low background counting stations and other sensitive instruments from several incoming low background groups and projects that will operate in a coordinated manner to provide low background measurements to the scientific community. An overview and description of the BHUC facility, status, and future plans will also be discussed.

  6. [Optimization of shelterbelt distribution for the gully erosion control of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China].

    PubMed

    Su, Zi-Long; Cui, Ming; Fan, Hao-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Shelterbelt system is one of the main components of cultivated slope land in rolling hill black soil region of Northeast China, which plays an important role in the control of gully erosion. Based on the Quickbird high-resolution remote sensing image and the digital elevation model (DEM), and combining with field survey data, this paper analyzed the effects of shelterbelt system in a small watershed of rolling hill black soil region in Heshan Farm of Heilongjiang Province on the control of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land, and put forward an optimized scheme for gully erosion control based on the features of gully erosion in the cultivated slope land and their relations with the distribution of the shelterbelt system. In the study area, the current distribution of the shelterbelt system promoted the occurrence and development of shallow gully and gully directly and indirectly. The proposed scheme for optimizing the distribution of the present shelterbelts included the adjustment of the direction of the shelterbelt perpendicular to the aspect of slope, the enhancement of the maintenance and regeneration of the shelterbelts to reduce the gaps of the shelterbelts, the increase of the shelterbelt number, and the decrease of the distances between shelterbelts. A method for calculating the shelterbelt number and the distances between the shelterbelts was also given. This study could provide scientific basis for the gully erosion control and the shelterbelts programming in the cultivated slope land of rolling hill black soil region.

  7. Knickzone propagation in the Black Hills and northern High Plains: a different perspective on the late Cenozoic exhumation of the Laramide Rocky Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zaprowski, Brent J.; Evenson, Edward B.; Pazzaglia, Frank J.; Epstein, Jack B.

    2001-01-01

    Geomorphic research in the Black Hills and northern High Plains poses an intriguing hypothesis for the Cenozoic evolution of this salient of the Laramide Rockies. Most recently, geologists have appealed to late Cenozoic epeirogenic uplift or climate change to explain the post-Laramide unroofing of the Rockies. On the basis of field mapping and the interpretation of long-valley profiles, we conclude that the propagation of knickzones is the primary mechanism for exhumation in the Black Hills. Long profiles of major drainages show discrete breaks in the slope of the channel gradient that are not coincident with changes in rock type. We use the term knickzones to describe these features because their profiles are broadly convex over tens of kilometers. At and below the knickzone, the channel is incising into bedrock, abandoning a flood plain, and forming a terrace. Above the knickzone, the channel is much less incised, resulting in a broad valley bottom. Numerous examples of stream piracy are documented, and in each case, the capture is recorded in the same terrace level. These observations are consistent with migrating knickzones that have swept through Black Hills streams, rearranging drainages in their wake. We demonstrate there are two knickzone fronts associated with mapped terraces. Preliminary field evidence of soil development shows that these terraces are time transgressive in nature. Our data strongly suggest that knickzone propagation must be considered a viable mechanism driving late Cenozoic fluvial incision and exhumation of the northern High Plains and adjacent northern Rocky Mountains.

  8. Diagrammatic restored section of the Inyan Kara group, Morrison formation, and Unkpapa sandstone of the western side of the Black Hills, Wyoming and South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mapel, W.J.; Gott, G.B.

    1959-01-01

    The Inyan Kara group of Early Creaceous age and the underlying Morrison formation and Unkapa sandstone of Late Jurassic age comprise about 300 to 850 feet of gently dipping predominantly nonmarine rocks that crop out along the flanks of the Black Hills in northeastern Wyoming and western South Dakota. Terailed mapping and stratigraphic studies of these rocks were made from 1952 to 1957 by the U.S. Geological Survey on behalf of the Division of Raw Materials of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. One of the results of the studies is a correlation of formational and informational units along the western side of the Black Hills for a distance of about 140 miles. The generalized section above, which has a greatly exaggerated vertical scale, shoes the main lithologic units that have been traced and correlated, and  the stratigraphic position of uranium deposits in various parts of the Black Hills in relation to these units. Geologists who have this sheet and the areas for which each is responsible are shown on the accompanying map. The brief text below summarizes some of the broad stratigraphic relations within the Inyan Kara group and underlying formations.

  9. Habitat selection of a declining white-tailed deer herd in the central Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deperno, Christopher Shannon

    Habitat selection, survival rates, the Black Hills National Forest Habitat Capability Model (HABCAP), and the USDA Forest Service Geographic Information System (GIS) data base were evaluated for a declining white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus dacotensis) herd in the central Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. From July 1993 through July 1996, 73 adult and yearling female and 12 adult and yearling male white-tailed deer were radiocollared and visually monitored. Habitat information was collected at 4,662 white-tailed deer locations and 1,087 random locations. Natural mortality (71%) was the primary cause of female mortality, followed by harvest (22.5%) and accidental causes (6.5%). More females died in spring (53.2%) than in fall (22.6%), winter (14.5%), or summer (9.7%). Male mortality resulted from hunting in fall (66.7%) and natural causes in spring (33.3%). Survival rates for all deer by year were 62.1% in 1993, 51.1% in 1994, 56.4% in 1995, and 53.9% in 1996 and were similar (P = 0.691) across years. During winter, white-tailed deer selected ponderosa pine- (Pinus ponderosa ) deciduous and burned pine cover types. Overstory-understory habitats selected included pine/grass-forb, pine/bearberry (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), pine/snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), burned pine/grass-forb, and pine/shrub habitats. Structural stages selected included sapling-pole pine stands with >70% canopy cover, burned pine sapling-pole and saw-timber stands with <40% canopy cover. Bedding locations were represented by saw-timber pine structural stages with >40% canopy cover and all sapling-pole pine structural stages; sapling-pole stands with >70% canopy cover received the greatest use. White-tailed deer primarily fed in pine saw-timber structural stage with less than 40% canopy cover. Overall, selected habitats contained lower amounts of grass/forb, shrubs, and litter than random locations. Male and female deer generally bedded in areas that were characterized by greater

  10. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  11. Phonolites and peralkaline rhyolites from a single magma source in the mantle : A new look at some Black Hills rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchner, J.G. . Dept. of Geography-Geology)

    1993-03-01

    A re-evaluation of existing data from the Deer Mountain-Terry Peak-Sugarloaf Mountain area of the Black Hills, plus some new data, suggests the real possibility that both silica-undersaturated and silica-oversaturated alkaline-peralkaline rocks evolved from the same mantle-derived parent magma. Mineralogically, aegirine rhyolites, phonolites, a minette and the mantle are linked by an association of Mg-rich olivine-phlogopite structures, zenocrystic phlogopite and diopside-cored pyroxene phenocrysts. Trends of silica vs. major elements, trace elements (V,Sc,Ni) and MgO/FeOt are continuous and preclude being fortuitous. Peralkalinity also increases with silica in a well-defined trend. Increasing ferric oxide to total iron oxide indicates increasing oxygen fugacity with silica saturation. A mantle origin for the phonolites is supported by Sr-isotope data of Beintema (1986) and Beintema and Montgomery (1986). Higher Sr-isotope ratios for the aegirine rhyolites, suggesting a lower crustal origin, actually may result from magmatic processes, as shown by others for ocean island basalt-phonolite-comendite associations. Early fractionation of mafic phases drives trends away from the Ne-minimum on the residua diagram, indicating that magma evolution took place above residua temperatures, thus avoiding the thermal divide. Later fractionation of alkali feldspars accounts for variation in the aegirine rhyolites. Rising alkalies and oxygen explain variations in peralkalinity and ferric iron content. Pressure-dependent immiscibility possibly may be the cause of a silica gap in rock types, as rocks with low quartz contents are not found, except as phaneritic inclusions. A model is suggested in which either a fractionating minette or trachyte magma could yield the series of rocks under study.

  12. Petrogenetic relationships between pegmatite and granite based on geochemistry of muscovite in pegmatite wall zones, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L. ); Papike, J.J.; Shearer, C.K. )

    1992-05-01

    The compositions of large samples of granitic pegmatite wall zones have been determined for a suite of ten pegmatites of diverse geochemical character and degree of compositional evolution in the Keystone area of the Black Hills. Whole-rock compositions are strongly peraluminous, and they deviate substantially from the granite minimum composition in quartz-albite-orthoclase normalized components, showing considerably more scatter than Harney Peak Granite whole rocks. Wall-zone minerals are commonly coarsely segregated, leading to large modal variability among whole rocks. These features make whole-rock samples of wall zones unsuitable for the determination of initial pegmatite bulk compositions. Trace and minor element compositions of muscovite separates from the wall zones were thus determined to eliminate the effects of modal variability on trace element concentrations so that geochemical differences between pegmatites could be modeled. Estimates of initial pegmatite melt trace element concentrations range from 800-4,000 ppm Rb, 100-1,000 ppm Cs, 200-2,000 ppm Li, and 1-50 ppm Ba. Trace element concentrations of muscovite from a given pegmatite generally cluster together, although several show considerable intra-pegmatite scatter, and there are large overlaps among different pegmatites. The geochemical characteristics of samples from the Etta pegmatite indicate mixing with and assimilation of country rocks. Exceptionally low Rb/Cs ratios of muscovite from the Etta pegmatite and similar to those of muscovite from K-feldspar-rich assemblages of other pegmatites where the Rb concentration of melt may have been buffered by crystallizing assemblages that had bulk Rb distribution coefficients close to 1.

  13. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Galbreath, K.C.; Duke, E.F.; Papike, J.J. ); Laul, J.C. )

    1988-07-01

    Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.

  14. Mineralogical and chemical evolution of a rare-element granite-pegmatite system: Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.

    1987-03-01

    The Harney Peak Granite (1.7 b.y.) in the Black Hills, South Dakota, is a well-exposed granite complex surrounded by a rare-element pegmatite field (barren to Nb-, Ta-, Be, Li-enriched pegmatites). It consists of a multitude of large and small sills and dikes, which exhibit great variation in texture, mineralogy and geochemistry. This granite is moderately to strongly peraluminous with the following mineralogy: plagioclase (An 0-An 21) + potassium feldspar (Or 70-96) + quartz + muscovite ± apatite ± biotite ± garnet ± tourmaline. The granitic intrusions in the interior of the complex have similar K/Rb ratios (> 190), whereas this ratio decreases and is more variable for intrusions which are structurally higher or along the perimeter of the complex. Substitutions of (Fe, Mn)Mg -1 in the ferromagnesian minerals, NaCa -1 in plagioclase and RbK -1 in muscovite and potassium feldspar increase in the perimeter granites and vary systematically with K/Rb. These more evolved intrusions are commonly enriched in incompatible elements such as Nb, Li, Cs, Be, and B and depleted in Ba, Ca, and Sr relative to the interior, primitive granites. Biotite-bearing assemblages are common in the interior granites but are replaced by tourmaline-bearing granites in the more evolved intrusions. A series of discontinuous reactions may explain this assemblage transition. Observations and trace element modeling suggest that: (1) within individual units volatile transfer mechanisms have resulted in mineral and chemical segregation; (2) 75-80% fractional crystallization of a primitive biotite-muscovite granite was the dominant mechanism in producing the more evolved tourmaline-bearing granites; and (3) extreme fractional crystallization aided by high volatile activity produced the associated rare-element pegmatites.

  15. Nd, O and Sr isotopic constraints on the origin of Precambrian rocks, Southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.J.; Hanson, G.N.; Papike, J.J.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The Nd, O and Sr isotopic characteristics of Precambrian metasedimentary, metavolcanic and granitic rocks from the Black Hills of South Dakota are examined. Two late-Archean granites (2.5-2.6 Ga) have Tdm ages of 3.05 and 3.30 Ga, suggesting that at least one of the granites was derived through the melting of significantly older crust. Early-Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks have Tdm ages that range from 2.32 to 2.45 Ga. These model ages, in conjunction with probable stratigraphic ages ranging from 1.9 to 2.2 Ga, indicate that mantle-derived material was added to the continental crust of this region during the early-Proterozoic. Previous studies of the Harney Peak Granite complex have reported U-Pb and Rb-Sr ages of about 1.71 Ga and most granite samples examined in this study have Sr isotopic compositions consistent with that age. Two granite samples taken from the same sill, however, give two-point Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd ages of 2.08 ??0.08 and 2.20 ??0.20 Ga (???2200Nd = -15.5), respectively. In addition, whole-rock and apatite samples of the spatially associated Tin Mountain pegmatite give a Sm-Nd isochron age of 2000 ??100 Ma (???2200Nd = -5.8 ??1.8). The Sm-Nd, O and Rb-Sr isotopic systematics of these granitic rocks have been complicated to some degree by both crystallization and post-crystallization processes, and the age of the pegmatite and parts of the Harney Peak Granite complex remain uncertain. Processes that probably complicated the isotopic systematics of these rocks include derivation from heterogeneous source material, assimilation, mixing of REE between granite and country rock during crystallization via a fluid phase and post-crystallization mobility of Sr. The Nd isotopic compositions of the pegmatite and the Harney Peak Granite indicate that they were not derived primarily from the exposed metasedimentary rocks. ?? 1986.

  16. Black Hills Cemetery Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Thune, John [R-SD

    2013-03-05

    06/27/2013 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 117. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.291, which became Public Law 113-131 on 7/25/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Black Hills Cemetery Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Noem, Kristi L. [R-SD-At Large

    2012-02-01

    05/16/2012 Received in the Senate and Read twice and referred to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. The Black Experience: Social, Cultural and Economic Considerations. Proceedings of a Workshop on the Black Experience. (1st, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, March 14, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Audreye E., Ed.

    This publication consists of the proceedings of a workshop on the social, cultural, and economic experiences of Blacks. The workshops' goals were to intensify the interest of social workers in the Black experience; to examine the values which have an impact on services to Black people; to increase the knowledge of social workers about Blacks; and…

  19. Petrogenetic relationships between pegmatite and granite based on geochemistry of muscovite in pegmatite wall zones, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Papike, J. J.; Shearer, C. K.

    1992-05-01

    The compositions of large samples of granitic pegmatite wall zones have been determined for a suite of ten pegmatites of diverse geochemical character and degree of compositional evolution in the Keystone area of the Black Hills. Whole-rock compositions are strongly peraluminous, and they deviate substantially from the granite minimum composition in quartz-albite-orthoclase normalized components, showing considerably more scatter than Harney Peak Granite whole rocks. Wall-zone minerals are commonly coarsely segregated, leading to large modal variability among whole rocks. These features make whole-rock samples of wall zones unsuitable for the determination of initial pegmatite bulk compositions. Trace and minor element compositions of muscovite separates from the wall zones were thus determined to eliminate the effects of modal variability on trace element concentrations so that geochemical differences between pegmatites could be modeled. Estimates of initial pegmatite melt trace element concentrations range from 800-4000 ppm Rb, 100-1000 ppm Cs, 200-2000 ppm Li, and 1-50 ppm Ba. Trace element concentrations of muscovite from a given pegmatite generally cluster together, although several show considerable intra-pegmatite scatter, and there are large overlaps among different pegmatites. The geochemical characteristics of samples from the Etta pegmatite indicate mixing with and assimilation of country rocks. Exceptionally low Rb/Cs ratios of muscovite from the Etta pegmatite are similar to those of muscovite from K-feldspar-rich assemblages of other pegmatites where the Rb concentration of melt may have been buffered by crystallizing assemblages that had bulk Rb distribution coefficients close to 1. The large degree of scatter of geochemical parameters among these pegmatites precludes derivation of the entire suite by either single-stage crystallization or partial melting processes, nor can the pegmatites be satisfactorily related by any fractionation trajectory from

  20. Variation and fractionation of lithium isotope ratios within single tourmaline crystals in the pegmatites of the Black Hills, SD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M.; Nabelek, P. I.

    2012-12-01

    Lithium isotopes are quickly becoming a valuable geochemical tool, providing insight into a broad range of studies. Li isotopes have been utilized in studies with subjects ranging from mantle processes to planetary accretion on stars. Yet, as an emerging technique, a number of uncertainties remain to be resolved. Two basic questions must be answered in order to apply isotope studies in a meaningful way: How do isotopes fractionate from each other and what do the isotope ratios mean? Previous studies on intra-crystal Li isotope signatures in tourmaline are extremely limited. One study showed roughly homogenous isotope profile using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis (Ludwig et al. 2011). If Li isotopes are in fact variable within individual crystals, however, it has implications for previous models of pegmatite formation reached using Li isotopes, as well as the root cause of Li isotope fractionation in tourmaline. For this study, tourmaline samples were collected from several texturally different pegmatite localities in the Black Hills, SD. Lithium concentrations and isotope ratios were measured along numerous points in a tourmaline crystal to discern how they change within a single crystal. The tourmaline was dissolved by an alkali fusion technique. Concentrations were determined at the University of Missouri using a Perkin-Elmer Optima 3300 Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). Isotope measurements were performed at University of Maryland-College Park by a Nu Plasma Multi-collector ICP-MS. The procedure followed the three-column cation exchange chromatography method. Additionally, elemental mapping was performed on one sample using the JEOL JXA-8200 Superprobe at Washington University in St. Louis. Results of this research reveal that extreme fractionation of Li is possible within single tourmaline crystals. The δ7Li values measured are among the highest measured in rocks, though the average for each crystal falls

  1. Stable isotope evidence for the petrogenesis and fluid evolution in the Proterozoic Harney Peak leucogranite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, P. I.; Russ-Nabelek, C.; Haeussler, G. T.

    1992-01-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen isotope systematics of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, were examined in order to constrain its petrogenesis and to examine the role of fluids in a peraluminous granite-pegmatite magmatic system. The leucogranite and its satellite intrusions were emplaced as hundreds of sills and dikes which are texturally heterogeneous, ranging from aplitic to pegmatitic. The dominant ferromagnesian mineral in the core of the granite is biotite while along its perimeter and in satellite intrusions it is tourmaline. Biotite and tourmaline are for the most part mutually exclusive. Oxygen isotopes among minerals in non-pegmatitic rocks from throughout the pluton equilibrated for the most part at magmatic temperatures between >800 to 650°C. In the pegmatitic samples, quartzfeldspar oxygen isotope fractionations point to disequilibrium, probably a result of the sequential crystallization of these minerals. The isotopic composition of most pegmatites suggests local derivation by differentiation of emplaced batches of magma. The whole rock δ 18O values of the granites are heterogeneous, ranging from 10.4 to 14.3‰ However, there is a pronounced difference in the isotopic composition of the biotite-containing granites from the core of the pluton ( 11.5 ± 0.6‰) and the tourmaline-rich granites from its perimeter and the satellite intrusions ( 13.2 ± 0.8‰). The average oxygen isotopic composition of the surrounding schists is identical to that of the latter granites. Biotite-muscovite and tourmaline-muscovite ΔD values vary from -20 to - 10‰ and from 0 to +10‰, respectively. Although these values differ from theoretical values, the narrow ranges suggest that the minerals are in isotopic equilibrium and that their isotopic compositions record the composition of the magmatic fluid. The calculated δD value of the magmatic fluid is -67 to -58‰, well within the magmatic water range. However, somewhat elevated mineral δD values

  2. The generation and crystallization conditions of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Leucogranite, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA: Petrologic and geochemical constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, P. I.; Russ-Nabelek, C.; Denison, J. R.

    1992-04-01

    The mineralogy, petrology and geochemistry of the Proterozoic Harney Peak Granite, Black Hills, South Dakota, were examined in view of experimentally determined phase equilibria applicable to granitic systems in order to place constraints on the progenesis of peraluminous leucogranites and commonly associated rare-element pegmatites. The granite was emplaced at 3 4 kbar as multiple sills and dikes into quartz-mica schists at the culmination of a regional high-temperature, low-pressure metamorphic event. Principally along the periphery of the main pluton and in satellite intrusions, the sills segregated into granite-pegmatite couplets. The major minerals include quartz, K-feldspar, sodic plagioclase and muscovite. Biotite-{Mg No. [Molar MgO/(MgO+FeO)]=0.32-0.38} is the predominant ferromagnesian mineral in the granite's core, whereas at the periphery of the main pluton and in the satellite intrusions tourmaline (Mg No.=0.18 0.48) is the dominant ferromagnesian phase. Almandine-spessartine garnet is also found in the outer intrusions. There is virtually a complete overlap in the wide concentration ranges of SiO2, CaO, MgO, FeO, Sr, Zr, W of the biotite- and tourmaline-bearing granite suites with no discernable differentiation trends on Harker diagrams, precluding the derivation of one suite from the other by differentiation following emplacement. This is consistent with the oxygen isotope compositions which are 11.5 ± 0.6‰ for the biotite granites and 13.2 ± 0.8‰ for the tourmaline granites, suggesting derivation from different sources. The concentrations of TiO2 and possibly Ba are higher and of MnO and B are lower in the biotite granites. The normative Orthoclase/Albite ratio is extremely variable ranging from 0.26 to 1.65 in the biotite granites to 0.01 1.75 in the tourmaline granites. Very few sample compositions fall near the high-pressure, watersaturated haplogranite minima-eutectic trend, indicating that the granites for the most part are not minimum

  3. Geohydrology and water quality of the Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers of the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kyllonen, D.P.; Peter, K.D.

    1987-01-01

    The Inyan Kara, Minnelusa, and Madison aquifers are the principal sources of ground water in the northern Black Hills, South Dakota and Wyoming, and Bear Lodge Mountains, Wyoming. The aquifers are exposed in the Bear Lodge Mountains and the Black Hills and are about 3,000 to 5,000 ft below the land surface in the northeast corner of the study area. The direction of groundwater movement is from the outcrop area toward central South Dakota. Recharge is by infiltration of precipitation and streamflow is by springs and well withdrawals. All three aquifers yield water to flowing wells in some part of the area. Measured and reported well yields in each of the three aquifers exceed 100 gal/min (gpm). A well open to the Minnelusa Formation and the upper part of the Madison Limestone yielded more than 2 ,000 gpm. Water from the Inyan Kara aquifer may require treatment for gross alpha radiation, iron, manganese, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment for sulfate and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Madison aquifer in the northern one-half of the study area may require treatment of fluoride, gross alpha radiation, sulfate, and hardness before use in public water systems. Water from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers in the southern one-half of the study area, though very hard (more than 180 mg/L hardness as calcium carbonate), is suitable for public water systems and irrigation. Flow between the Minnelusa and the Inyan Kara aquifers appears to be insignificant, based on the results of a digital model results. The model indicated there may be significant recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers by leakage between these two aquifers and perhaps deeper aquifers. (Author 's abstract)

  4. Microgravity methods for characterization of groundwater-storage changes and aquifer properties in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota, 2009-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koth, Karl R.; Long, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    A study of groundwater storage in the karstic Madison aquifer in the Black Hills of South Dakota using microgravity methods was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with West Dakota Water Development District, South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and Lawrence County. Microgravity measurements from 2009 to 2012 were used to investigate groundwater-storage changes and effective porosity in unconfined areas of the Madison aquifer. Time-lapse microgravity surveys that use portable high-sensitivity absolute and relative gravimeters indicated temporal-gravity changes as a result of changing groundwater mass. These extremely precise measurements of gravity required characterization and removal of internal instrumental and external environmental effects on gravity from the raw data. The corrected data allowed groundwater-storage volume to be quantified with an accuracy of about plus or minus 0.5 foot of water per unit area of aquifer. Quantification of groundwater-storage change, coupled with water-level data from observation wells located near the focus areas, also was used to calculate the effective porosity at specific altitudes directly beneath gravity stations. Gravity stations were established on bedrock outcrops in three separate focus areas for this study. The first area, the Spring Canyon focus area, is located to the south of Rapid City with one gravity station on the rim of Spring Canyon near the area where Spring Creek sinks into the Madison aquifer. The second area, the Doty focus area, is located on outcrops of the Madison Limestone and Minnelusa Formation to the northwest of Rapid City, and consists of nine gravity stations. The third area, the Limestone Plateau focus area, consists of a single gravity station in the northwestern Black Hills located on an outcrop of the Madison Limestone. An absolute-gravity station, used to tie relative-gravity survey data together, was established on a relatively impermeable

  5. Early Detection of Mountain Pine Beetle Damage in Ponderosa Pine Forests of the Black Hills Using Hyperspectral and WorldView-2 Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Vitaliy Alekseyevich

    A leading cause for mortality in the pine forests of western North America, the mountain pine beetle, has impacted over 400,000 acres of ponderosa pine forest in the Black Hills of South Dakota since 1996. Methods aimed at earlier detection, prior to visual manifestation of a mountain pine beetle damage in the tree crown, have not been successful because of the overlap and variability of spectral response between the initial stages of attack (green-attacked) and non-attacked tree crowns. Needle-level reflectance spectra was measured from green-attack and non-attack ponderosa pine trees in early spring following an infestation and analyzed using a multi-statistical approach to determine which spectral features best discriminate green-attack needles. Green-attack reflectance was significantly higher than non-attack from 424-717 nm and 1151-2400 nm. Bands in the shortwave-infrared had increased measures of separation between classes compared to visible and near-infrared bands. Peaks in separation related to moisture absorption features, from 1451-1540 nm and 1973-2103 nm, and pigment absorption features from 462-520 nm and 663-689 nm, were consistently observed over multiple statistical analyses. While these features show promise for operational canopy-level detection, it is unknown if they can be scaled up due to large within-class variability and spectral overlap between classes. To examine the potential for canopy-level detection, in-situ training data was collected for green-attack and non-attack trees from known locations within the Black Hills at a similar time a WorldView-2 image was acquired of the study area. Along with eight WV-2 bands, all possible normalized two-band indices were calculated to examine the suitability of WV-2 data for detecting green-attack damage. The performance of three different classifiers, logistic regression, linear discriminant analysis, Random Forest, was evaluated. Normalized two-band indices using a combination of a near

  6. Time domain analysis of superradiant instability for the charged stringy black hole-mirror system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ran; Tian, Yu; Zhang, Hongbao; Zhao, Junkun

    2015-11-01

    It has been proved that the charged stringy black holes are stable under the perturbations of massive charged scalar fields. However, superradiant instability can be generated by adding the mirror-like boundary condition to the composed system of charged stringy black hole and scalar field. The unstable boxed quasinormal modes have been calculated by using both analytical and numerical methods. In this paper, we further provide a time domain analysis by performing a long time evolution of charged scalar field configuration in the background of the charged stringy black hole with the mirror-like boundary condition imposed. We have used the ingoing Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates to derive the evolution equation, and adopted Pseudo-spectral method and the forth-order Runge-Kutta method to evolve the scalar field with the initial Gaussian wave packet. It is shown by our numerical scheme that Fourier transforming the evolution data coincides well with the unstable modes computed from frequency domain analysis. The existence of the rapid growth mode makes the charged stringy black hole a good test ground to study the nonlinear development of superradiant instability.

  7. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  8. Selected data for wells and test holes used in structure-contour maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills area, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carter, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota. Altitudes of the top of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation are presented for the wells and test holes presented in this report.

  9. Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-01-01

    Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison...Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation...Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area

  10. Influence of mining-related activities on concentrations of metals in water and sediment from streams of the Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, T.W.; Wiedmeyer, Ray H.; Gober, J.; Larson, S.

    2001-01-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected from streams in Spearfish Creek, Whitewood Creek, and Bear Butte Creek watersheds in the Black Hills, SD, an area impacted by gold mining operations. Arsenic concentrations that exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Maximum Concentration Limit of 50 ??g/L for drinking water were found in water from Annie Creek, a tributary of Spearfish Creek, and from Whitewood Creek. Gold Run, a tributary of Whitewood Creek, and Annie Creek contained Se concentrations in water that exceeded the EPA Ecotox threshold of 5 ??g/L and were classified as a high hazard for Se accumulation from water into the planktonic food chain and for resultant toxicity to fish and aquatic birds. Concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn in sediment exceeded EPA Ecotox thresholds in one or more of the watersheds suggesting potential adverse ecological effects. Sediment from Rubicon Creek, a tributary of Spearfish Creek, contained Se concentrations high enough (4.0 ??g/g) to be a moderate hazard for accumulation from sediments into the benthic food chain, with resultant dietary toxicity to fish and aquatic birds. These results are discussed in light of historical mining activities and recent clean-up and reclamation efforts. Based on the results and comparisons to Ecotox tresholds, further studies of ecological effects are warranted.

  11. Use of multi-temporal Landsat images to monitor forest disturbance (1987-2007) in the Black Hills of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Ohlen, Donald O.

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring forest disturbance is important for studying carbon pools and fluxes. The goal of this study is to observe forest disturbance of different burn severity levels using multi-temporal Landsat images. The Jasper Fire occurred in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, during August and September of 2000. The fire disturbance to ecosystem characteristics has a widespread and long-term impact. We used 18 Landsat images acquired from 1987 to 2007 to monitor the land cover changes due to the fire disturbance. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR), and Integrated Forest Index (IFI) were calculated from the Landsat at-sensor-reflectance data. Based on IFI in 2000 and Composite Burn Index data collected in May 2002, nine field plots were selected and monitored. The results showed that all four spectral indices were capable of detecting and monitoring the forest disturbance caused by thinning and fire. IFI and NBR are more suitable for long-term monitoring while NDVI and EVI are more sensitive to rapid changes within a one-year period.

  12. Excised acoustic black holes: The scattering problem in the time domain

    SciTech Connect

    Cherubini, C.; Federici, F.; Tosi, M.P.; Succi, S.

    2005-10-15

    The scattering process of a dynamic perturbation impinging on a draining-tub model of an acoustic black hole is numerically solved in the time domain. Analogies with real black holes of general relativity are explored by using recently developed mathematical tools involving finite elements methods, excision techniques, and constrained evolution schemes for strongly hyperbolic systems. In particular it is shown that superradiant scattering of a quasimonochromatic wave packet can produce strong amplification of the signal, offering the possibility of a significant extraction of rotational energy at suitable values of the angular frequency of the vortex and of the central frequency of the wave packet. The results show that theoretical tools recently developed for gravitational waves can be brought to fruition in the study of other problems in which strong anisotropies are present.

  13. Thermo-rheological, shear heating model for leucogranite generation, metamorphism, and deformation during the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson orogeny, Black Hills, South Dakota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabelek, Peter I.; Liu, Mian; Sirbescu, Mona-Liza

    2001-12-01

    This paper evaluates thermotectonic models for metamorphism and leucogranite generation during the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson orogeny, as recorded in rocks exposed in the Black Hills, SD. Intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite and associated pegmatites at ˜1715 Ma occurred at the waning stages of regional deformation and staurolite-grade regional metamorphism. Published Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling (COCORP) results indicate that Proterozoic sedimentary rocks were thrust over the Archean Wyoming province during the Trans-Hudson collision. Isotopic compositions of the Harney Peak Granite suggest that the exposed Proterozoic and Archean metasedimentary rocks in the Black Hills represent source rocks of the granites. Numerical simulations of the regional metamorphism and Harney Peak Granite generation, assuming crustal thickening by thrusting coupled with erosion, show the following: (1) Doubling of the crust with normal distribution of radioactive elements does not yield sufficiently high temperatures to cause anatexis anywhere in the crust or growth of garnet in the now exposed part of the crust; (2) a 35-km drop-off length for internal heat production can yield sufficient temperature for garnet growth at the current erosion level; it is, however, insufficient to produce staurolite, and melting can occur only in the deepest parts of the crust; (3) temperatures in crust with stable 70 km thickness for ˜40 Ma and 35 km drop-off length for heat production could become sufficient to produce staurolite at the current erosion level, and subsequent rapid denudation of the crust could potentially trigger decompression-melting of lower crustal rocks. Although this model could potentially explain the observed temporal relationship between regional metamorphism and leucogranite generation, it is inconsistent with melting of upper crustal Proterozoic source rocks that is indicated by isotopic compositions of the granites, with lack of evidence for rapid

  14. Ocean Hill-Brownsville, 40 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahlenberg, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    Forty years ago--on May 9, 1968--the local school board in Brooklyn's black ghetto of Ocean Hill-Brownsville sent telegrams to 19 unionized educators, informing them that their employment in the district was terminated. Eighteen were white. One black teacher was mistakenly included on the list, but reinstated almost immediately after the error was…

  15. Thunderstorms and Flooding of August 17, 2007, with a Context Provided by a History of Other Large Storm and Flood Events in the Black Hills Area of South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Driscoll, Daniel G.; Bunkers, Matthew J.; Carter, Janet M.; Stamm, John F.; Williamson, Joyce E.

    2010-01-01

    The Black Hills area of western South Dakota has a history of damaging flash floods that have resulted primarily from exceptionally strong rain-producing thunderstorms. The best known example is the catastrophic storm system of June 9-10, 1972, which caused severe flooding in several major drainages near Rapid City and resulted in 238 deaths. More recently, severe thunderstorms caused flash flooding near Piedmont and Hermosa on August 17, 2007. Obtaining a thorough understanding of peak-flow characteristics for low-probability floods will require a comprehensive long-term approach involving (1) documentation of scientific information for extreme events such as these; (2) long-term collection of systematic peak-flow records; and (3) regional assessments of a wide variety of peak-flow information. To that end, the U.S. Geological Survey cooperated with the South Dakota Department of Transportation and National Weather Service to produce this report, which provides documentation regarding the August 17, 2007, storm and associated flooding and provides a context through examination of other large storm and flood events in the Black Hills area. The area affected by the August 17, 2007, storms and associated flooding generally was within the area affected by the larger storm of June 9-10, 1972. The maximum observed 2007 precipitation totals of between 10.00 and 10.50 inches occurred within about 2-3 hours in a small area about 5 miles west of Hermosa. The maximum documented precipitation amount in 1972 was 15.0 inches, and precipitation totals of 10.0 inches or more were documented for 34 locations within an area of about 76 square miles. A peak flow of less than 1 cubic foot per second occurred upstream from the 2007 storm extent for streamflow-gaging station 06404000 (Battle Creek near Keystone); whereas, the 1972 peak flow of 26,200 cubic feet per second was large, relative to the drainage area of only 58.6 square miles. Farther downstream along Battle Creek, a 2007

  16. Water-Quality Effects and Characterization of Indicators of Onsite Wastewater Disposal Systems in the East-Central Black Hills Area, South Dakota, 2006-08

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Sawyer, J. Foster

    2008-01-01

    Onsite wastewater disposal systems (OWDS) are used extensively in the Black Hills of South Dakota where many of the watersheds and aquifers are characterized by fractured or solution-enhanced bedrock with thin soil cover. A study was conducted during 2006-08 to characterize water-quality effects and indicators of OWDS. Water samples were collected and analyzed for potential indicators of OWDS, including chloride, bromide, boron, nitrite plus nitrate (NO2+NO3), ammonia, major ions, nutrients, selected trace elements, isotopes of nitrate, microbiological indicators, and organic wastewater compounds (OWCs). The microbiological indicators were fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli (E. coli), enterococci, Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens), and coliphages. Sixty ground-water sampling sites were located either downgradient from areas of dense OWDS or in background areas and included 25 monitoring wells, 34 private wells, and 1 spring. Nine surface-water sampling sites were located on selected streams and tributaries either downstream or upstream from residential development within the Precambrian setting. Sampling results were grouped by their hydrogeologic setting: alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian. Mean downgradient dissolved NO2+NO3 concentrations in ground water for the alluvial, Spearfish, Minnekahta, and Precambrian settings were 0.734, 7.90, 8.62, and 2.25 milligrams per liter (mg/L), respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved chloride concentrations in ground water for these settings were 324, 89.6, 498, and 33.2 mg/L, respectively. Mean downgradient dissolved boron concentrations in ground water for these settings were 736, 53, 64, and 43 micrograms per liter (ug/L), respectively. Mean dissolved surface-water concentrations for NO2+NO3, chloride, and boron for downstream sites were 0.222 mg/L, 32.1 mg/L, and 28 ug/L, respectively. Mean values of delta-15N and delta-18O (isotope ratios of 14N to 15N and 18O to 16O relative to standard ratios) for

  17. Systematic study of terahertz time-domain spectra of historically informed black inks.

    PubMed

    Bardon, Tiphaine; May, Robert K; Taday, Philip F; Strlič, Matija

    2013-09-07

    The potential of terahertz-time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) as a diagnostic tool for studies of inks in historical documents is investigated in this paper. Transmission mode THz-TDS was performed on historically informed model writing and drawing inks. Carbon black, bistre and sepia inks show featureless spectra between 5 and 75 cm(-1) (0.15-2.25 THz); however, their analysis still provided useful information on the interaction of terahertz radiation with amorphous materials. On the other hand, THz-TDS can be used to distinguish different iron gall inks with respect to the amount of iron(II) sulfate contained, as sharp spectral features are observed for inks containing different ratios of iron(II) sulfate to tannic or gallic acid. Additionally, copper sulfate was found to modify the structure of iron(II) precipitate. Furthermore, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to THz-TDS spectra, highlights changes in iron gall inks during thermal degradation, during which a decrease in the sharp spectral bands associated with iron(II) sulfate is observed. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy combined with THz-TDS of dynamically heated ink samples indicate that this phenomenon is due to dehydration of iron(II) sulfate heptahydrate. While this research demonstrates the potential of THz-TDS to improve monitoring of the chemical state of historical documents, the outcomes go beyond the heritage field, as it also helps to develop the theoretical knowledge on interactions between terahertz radiation and matter, particularly in studies of long-range symmetry (polymorphism) in complex molecular structures and the role played by the surrounding matrix, and also indicates the potential of THz-TDS for the optimization of contrast in terahertz imaging.

  18. Active galactic nucleus black hole mass estimates in the era of time domain astronomy

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Pancoast, Anna; Malkan, Matthew; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2013-12-20

    We investigate the dependence of the normalization of the high-frequency part of the X-ray and optical power spectral densities (PSDs) on black hole mass for a sample of 39 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with black hole masses estimated from reverberation mapping or dynamical modeling. We obtained new Swift observations of PG 1426+015, which has the largest estimated black hole mass of the AGNs in our sample. We develop a novel statistical method to estimate the PSD from a light curve of photon counts with arbitrary sampling, eliminating the need to bin a light curve to achieve Gaussian statistics, and we use this technique to estimate the X-ray variability parameters for the faint AGNs in our sample. We find that the normalization of the high-frequency X-ray PSD is inversely proportional to black hole mass. We discuss how to use this scaling relationship to obtain black hole mass estimates from the short timescale X-ray variability amplitude with precision ∼0.38 dex. The amplitude of optical variability on timescales of days is also anticorrelated with black hole mass, but with larger scatter. Instead, the optical variability amplitude exhibits the strongest anticorrelation with luminosity. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our results for estimating black hole mass from the amplitude of AGN variability.

  19. A frequency-domain approach for fast analysis of binary black hole parameter estimation capability of LISA-like instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, John G.; Marsat, Sylvain N.; Graff, Philip

    2015-08-01

    Space-based gravitational-wave instruments such as LISA will provide extraordinary precise information about the central black holes in early galaxies. Fine details about merging black holes are encoded in the gravitational waveforms that these instruments will measure, and sky position information is encoded in the measured signals through the rich structure of the instrumental transfer function. Estimating of our ability to extract this information has so far been an arduous time-consuming process allowing few comprehensive studies and often requiring shortcuts which may impact the accuracy of the results. We report on an effort to speed up the generation of accurate response signals for LISA-type instruments based on Effective-One-Body (EOB) gravitational wave signal models. Our approach begins with reduced order models of the EOB waveforms directly in the Fourier domain. We then apply fast yet accurate techniques for encoding the time-dependent response of LISA-type detectors in Fourier domain and for computing the integrals required in estimating the parameter measurement capability. Our ultimate aim is to provide tools that make it easy for astrophysicists with other expertise to rapidly assess how space-based gravitational wave observations could impact their field.

  20. Map showing locations of mines, prospects, and patented mining claims, and classification of mineral deposits in the Silver City 7 1/2-minute Quadrangle, Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, Ed; Buscher, David; Wilson, A.B.; Johnson, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    This map is one in a set of 26 maps (see index map) at 1:24,000 scale of the Black Hills region of South Dakota and Wyoming om which are shown a geologic classification of mines, a bibliography of mineral deposits, and locations of active and inactive mines, prospects, and patented mining claims. Some of these maps are published as U. S. Geological Survey Miscellaneous Field Studies Maps (MF series) and some as U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Reports (QF series); see index map. An earlier unpublished version of this set of maps was the data base from which plate 4 (scale 1:250,000) of DeWitt and others (1986) was compiled. Subsequent to that publication, the set has been revised and updated, and prospects and patented claims have been added. These revised and more detailed 1:24,000-scale maps should be used for the equivalent areas of plate 4 of DeWitt and others (1986).

  1. Evaluation of ERTS-1 data for inventory of forest and rangeland and detection of forest stress. [Atlanta, Georgia, Manitou, Colorado, and Black Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, R. C. (Principal Investigator); Aldrich, R. C.; Driscoll, R. S.; Francis, R. E.; Weber, F. P.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Results of photointerpretation indicated that ERTS is a good classifier of forest and nonforest lands (90 to 95 percent accurate). Photointerpreters could make this separation as accurately as signature analysis of the computer compatible tapes. Further breakdowns of cover types at each site could not be accurately classified by interpreters (60 percent) or computer analysts (74 percent). Exceptions were water, wet meadow, and coniferous stands. At no time could the large bark beetle infestations (many over 300 meters in size) be detected on ERTS images. The ERTS wavebands are too broad to distinguish the yellow, yellow-red, and red colors of the dying pine foliage from healthy green-yellow foliage. Forest disturbances could be detected on ERTS color composites about 90 percent of the time when compared with six-year-old photo index mosaics. ERTS enlargements (1:125,000 scale, preferably color prints) would be useful to forest managers of large ownerships over 5,000 hectares (12,500 acres) for broad area planning. Black-and-white enlargements can be used effectively as aerial navigation aids for precision aerial photography where maps are old or not available.

  2. Substitution within erythropoietin receptor gene D1 domain associated with litter size in Beijing Black pig, Sus scrofa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Longchao; Wang, Ligang; Li, Yong; Li, Wen; Yan, Hua; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Kebin; Wang, Lixian

    2011-10-01

    Studies of uterine capacity and litter size in swine have suggested that erythropoietin receptor (EPOR) plays an important role in fetal survival through maturation of red blood cells. In this study, we screened the porcine EPOR gene for mutations and identified three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): two missense mutations and one synonymous mutation. We then genotyped 272 Beijing Black sows, Sus scrofa, and compared this data with litter sizes from a total of 1523 parities among the sows. The G allele of the nonsynonymous SNP, EPOR c.434A>G, was associated with greater litter size at both first parity (P < 0.05) and at later parities (P < 0.01). This SNP causes His92Arg adjacent to the fourth conserved cysteine residue in the mature protein and is in the D1 domain of the protein. Additionally, we determined the allele frequencies for this SNP among six Chinese indigenous pig breeds (Bamei, Erhualian, Laiwu Black, Mashen, Meishan and Min) and three Western commercial pig breeds (Duroc, Landrace and Large White). The c.434G allele was significantly more common among the more prolific Chinese breeds than the Western breeds, implying that EPOR c.434A>G could be a useful genetic marker to improve litter size in swine.

  3. Styles of lode gold mineralization contributing to the placers of the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, Yukon Territory, Canada as deduced from microchemical characterization of placer gold grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Robert John; Mortensen, James Keith; Lebarge, William P.

    2011-12-01

    Between 1978 and 2009, approximately 430,000 oz of placer gold were obtained from the Indian River and Black Hills Creek, which equates to roughly 20% of the production for the entire Yukon Territory during that period. The area is unglaciated, exposure is poor, and there are few known lode gold occurrences present. The technique of microchemical characterization of placer gold grains has been applied to illuminate the style(s) of source mineralization and their relationship to placer gold from the Klondike gold district immediately to the north. A total of 2,613 placer gold grains from 22 localities were characterised in terms of the Au, Ag, Cu, and Hg content of their alloy and associated suite of opaque mineral inclusions. A combination of alloy and inclusion mineralogy was used to define gold signatures which augmented the previous classification of orogenic gold in the Klondike. Gold type 3b (8-25% Ag) is the main component of the placers in lower Dominion Creek but is augmented and eventually replaced by type 3a gold (10-40% Ag) in placers in the main Indian River valley, probably through erosion of gold-bearing veins in the valley floor. Type 4 gold exhibits highly variable Ag which may contain Hg to a maximum of 11 wt.%. This gold type also hosts a distinctive inclusion assemblage of complex polymetallic sulphides, tellurides, sulfotellurides, and sulfosalts and has previously been ascribed to local low sulfidation epithermal mineralization. Placer gold in drainages radiating from Eureka Dome exhibits various proportions of types 3 and 4 gold depending on location, but type 3 gold forms the major component in Black Hills Creek and northerly flowing tributaries of the Indian River with the exception of Eureka and Montana creeks. Type 5 gold is found only in placers in the middle and lower Indian River. It is distinguished by slightly elevated (0.05-0.17%) Cu in the gold alloy, together with low (5-9%) Ag contents. Inclusions of Bi minerals, Cr

  4. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  5. David Keynes Hill.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    David Hill followed his father, A.V. Hill FRS, into the study of muscular contraction. Using a wide range of experimental techniques, he made several important advances of which the most important was the discovery of the 'short-range elastic component', a phenomenon which implied that even in the resting state there was an interaction between the thick (myosin) and thin (actin) filaments. He also studied physical changes in nerve when stimulated.

  6. 'Black sheep' that don't leave the double-stranded RNA-binding domain fold.

    PubMed

    Gleghorn, Michael L; Maquat, Lynne E

    2014-07-01

    The canonical double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-binding domain (dsRBD) is composed of an α1-β1-β2-β3-α2 secondary structure that folds in three dimensions to recognize dsRNA. Recently, structural and functional studies of divergent dsRBDs revealed adaptations that include intra- and/or intermolecular protein interactions, sometimes in the absence of detectable dsRNA-binding ability. We describe here how discrete dsRBD components can accommodate pronounced amino-acid sequence changes while maintaining the core fold. We exemplify the growing importance of divergent dsRBDs in mRNA decay by discussing Dicer, Staufen (STAU)1 and 2, trans-activation responsive RNA-binding protein (TARBP)2, protein activator of protein kinase RNA-activated (PKR) (PACT), DiGeorge syndrome critical region (DGCR)8, DEAH box helicase proteins (DHX) 9 and 30, and dsRBD-like fold-containing proteins that have ribosome-related functions. We also elaborate on the computational limitations to discovering yet-to-be-identified divergent dsRBDs.

  7. Nonradiative Electron--Hole Recombination Rate Is Greatly Reduced by Defects in Monolayer Black Phosphorus: Ab Initio Time Domain Study.

    PubMed

    Long, Run; Fang, Weihai; Akimov, Alexey V

    2016-02-18

    We report ab initio time-domain simulations of nonradiative electron-hole recombination and electronic dephasing in ideal and defect-containing monolayer black phosphorus (MBP). Our calculations predict that the presence of phosphorus divacancy in MBP (MBP-DV) substantially reduces the nonradiative recombination rate, with time scales on the order of 1.57 ns. The luminescence line width in ideal MBP of 150 meV is 2.5 times larger than MBP-DV at room temperature, and is in excellent agreement with experiment. We find that the electron-hole recombination in ideal MBP is driven by the 450 cm(-1) vibrational mode, whereas the recombination in the MBP-DV system is driven by a broad range of vibrational modes. The reduced electron-phonon coupling and increased bandgap in MBP-DV rationalize slower recombination in this material, suggesting that electron-phonon energy losses in MBP can be minimized by creating suitable defects in semiconductor device material.

  8. A five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor from black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon and its inhibitory activities.

    PubMed

    Somprasong, Nawarat; Rimphanitchayakit, Vichien; Tassanakajon, Anchalee

    2006-01-01

    A novel five-domain Kazal-type serine proteinase inhibitor, SPIPm2, identified from the hemocyte cDNA library of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was successfully expressed in the Escherichia coli expression system. The expressed recombinant SPIPm2 (rSPIPm2) as inclusion bodies was solubilized with a sodium carbonate buffer, pH10, and purified by gel filtration chromatography. The molecular mass of rSPIPm2 was determined using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to be 29.065 kDa. The inhibitory activities of rSPIPm2 were tested against trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, subtilisin and elastase. The inhibitor exhibited potent inhibitory activities against subtilisin and elastase, weak inhibitory activity against trypsin, and did not inhibit chymotrypsin. Tight-binding inhibition assay suggested that the molar ratios of SPIPm2 to subtilisin and elastase were 1:2 and 1:1, respectively. The inhibition against subtilisin and elastase was a competitive type with inhibition constants (Ki) of 0.52 and 3.27 nM, respectively. The inhibitory activity of SPIPm2 against subtilisin implies that, in shrimp, it may function as a defense component against proteinases from pathogenic bacteria but the elastase inhibitory function is not known.

  9. Bacon Hill Substation. Bacon Hill, Cecil Co., MD. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bacon Hill Substation. Bacon Hill, Cecil Co., MD. Sec. 1201, MP 48.50. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between District of Columbia/Maryland state line & Maryland/Delaware state line, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  10. a Multi-Domain Hybrid Method for Head-On Collision of Black Holes in Particle Limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Debananda; Jung, Jae-Hun; Khanna, Gaurav

    A hybrid method is developed based on the spectral and finite-difference methods for solving the inhomogeneous Zerilli equation in time-domain. The developed hybrid method decomposes the domain into the spectral and finite-difference domains. The singular source term is located in the spectral domain while the solution in the region without the singular term is approximated by the higher-order finite-difference method. The spectral domain is also split into multi-domains and the finite-difference domain is placed as the boundary domain. Due to the global nature of the spectral method, a multi-domain method composed of the spectral domain only does not yield the proper power-law decay unless the range of the computational domain is large. The finite-difference domain helps reduce boundary effects due to the truncation of the computational domain. The multi-domain approach with the finite-difference boundary domain method reduces the computational cost significantly and also yields the proper power-law decay. Stable and accurate interface conditions between the finite-difference and spectral domains and the spectral and spectral domains are derived. For the singular source term, we use both the Gaussian model with various values of full width at half-maximum and a localized discrete δ-function. The discrete δ-function was generalized to adopt the Gauss-Lobatto collocation points of the spectral domain. The gravitational waveforms are measured. Numerical results show that the developed hybrid method accurately yields the quasi-normal modes and the power-law decay profile. The numerical results also show that the power-law decay profile is less sensitive to the shape of the regularized δ-function for the Gaussian model than expected. The Gaussian model also yields better results than the localized discrete δ-function.

  11. Gyroscopes orbiting black holes: A frequency-domain approach to precession and spin-curvature coupling for spinning bodies on generic Kerr orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruangsri, Uchupol; Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.

    2016-08-01

    A small body orbiting a black hole follows a trajectory that, at leading order, is a geodesic of the black hole spacetime. Much effort has gone into computing "self-force" corrections to this motion, arising from the small body's own contributions to the system's spacetime. Another correction to the motion arises from coupling of the small body's spin to the black hole's spacetime curvature. Spin-curvature coupling drives a precession of the small body, and introduces a "force" (relative to the geodesic) which shifts the small body's worldline. These effects scale with the small body's spin at leading order. In this paper, we show that the equations which govern spin-curvature coupling can be analyzed with a frequency-domain decomposition, at least to leading order in the small body's spin. We show how to compute the frequency of precession along generic orbits, and how to describe the small body's precession and motion in the frequency domain. We illustrate this approach with a number of examples. This approach is likely to be useful for understanding spin coupling effects in the extreme mass ratio limit, and may provide insight into modeling spin effects in the strong field for nonextreme mass ratios.

  12. Hill In Deuteronilus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    28 December 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an eroded, rounded hill in the Deuteronilus Colles region of Mars, near 40.3oN, 338.8oW. The plains surrounding the hill have been pitted and modified by erosion. Similar pitting is common throughout the middle latitude regions of Mars. Some Mars science investigators have proposed that the pitted materials were ice-rich, and that sublimation of ice has created these textures. However, no similar landforms are found on Earth, thus there is no clear analog that would help scientists better understand the origin of these features. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and is illuminated by sunlight from the left/lower left.

  13. Nose Hill Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Vivian

    2008-01-01

    A Blackfoot woman, caught in the act of adultery, was condemned at this site to have her nose cut off as a penalty for her actions. People do not know her story. The tribe cast it on the ground. And so She, Nose Hill, was named. John Laurie Boulevard holds her mound in a circlet of asphalt, defining the map of her "terra incognita." She…

  14. 'Columbia Hills' from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater was made by draping an image from the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter (image E0300012 from that camera) over a digital elevation model that was derived from two Mars Orbiter Camera images (E0300012 and R0200357).

    This unique view is helpful to the rover team members as they plan the journey of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit to the base of the Columbia Hills and beyond. Spirit successfully completed a three-month primary mission, and so far remains healthy in an extended mission of bonus exploration. As of sol 135 (on May 21, 2004), Spirit sits approximately 680 meters (0.4 miles) away from its first target at the western base of the hills, a spot informally called 'West Spur.' The team estimates that Spirit will reach West Spur by sol 146 (June 1, 2004). Spirit will most likely remain there for about a week to study the outcrops and rocks associated with this location.

    When done there, Spirit will head approximately 620 meters (0.38 miles) to a higher-elevation location informally called 'Lookout Point.' Spirit might reach Lookout Point by around sol 165 (June 20, 2004). On the way, the rover will pass by and study ripple-shaped wind deposits that may reveal more information about wind processes on Mars.

    Lookout Point will provide a great vantage point for scientists to remotely study the inner basin area of the Columbia Hills. This basin contains a broad range of interesting geological targets including the informally named 'Home Plate' and other possible layered outcrops. These features suggest that the hills contain rock layers. Spirit might investigate the layers to determine whether they are water-deposited sedimentary rock.

    Once at Lookout Point, Spirit will acquire 360-degree panoramic images of the entire area to help define the rover's next steps. Assuming the rover stays healthy, Spirit will eventually drive down into the basin to get an up

  15. STUDIES OF THERMALLY UNSTABLE ACCRETION DISKS AROUND BLACK HOLES WITH ADAPTIVE PSEUDOSPECTRAL DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION METHOD. II. LIMIT-CYCLE BEHAVIOR IN ACCRETION DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Xue Li; Lu Jufu; Sadowski, Aleksander; Abramowicz, Marek A. E-mail: lujf@xmu.edu.cn

    2011-07-01

    For the first time ever, we derive equations governing the time evolution of fully relativistic slim accretion disks in the Kerr metric and numerically construct their detailed non-stationary models. We discuss applications of these general results to a possible limit-cycle behavior of thermally unstable disks. Our equations and numerical method are applicable in a wide class of possible viscosity prescriptions, but in this paper we use a diffusive form of the 'standard alpha prescription' that assumes that the viscous torque is proportional to the total pressure. In this particular case, we find that the parameters that dominate the limit-cycle properties are the mass-supply rate and the value of the alpha-viscosity parameter. Although the duration of the cycle (or the outburst) does not exhibit any clear dependence on the black hole spin, the maximal outburst luminosity (in the Eddington units) is positively correlated with the spin value. We suggest a simple method for a rough estimate of the black hole spin based on the maximal luminosity and the ratio of outburst to cycle durations. We also discuss a temperature-luminosity relation for the Kerr black hole accretion disk limit cycle. Based on these results, we discuss the limit-cycle behavior observed in microquasar GRS 1915+105. We also extend this study to several non-standard viscosity prescriptions, including a 'delayed heating' prescription recently addressed by the MHD simulations of accretion disks.

  16. The Potential for Cubesats to Determine Black Holes Masses in Nearby Active Galactic Nuclei and Contribute to Other Time Domain Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorjian, Varoujan; Ardila, David R.; Barth, Aaron J.; Janson, Siegfried; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Peterson, Bradley M.; Rowen, Darren; Seager, Sara; Shkolnik, Evgenya L.

    2016-01-01

    A 3U (30cmx10cmx10cm) CubeSat with a 9cm diameter aperture telescope can deliver unprecedented time domain coverage in the ultraviolet (UV) for the purposes of Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) reverberation mapping to determine supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses. SMBH's reside at the centers of most, if not all, massive galaxies and accretion onto those black holes generates a great deal of emission peaking in the UV. These accretion disks are also surrounded by a nearby, fast moving gas region called the Broad Line Region (BLR). As light pulses generated near the black hole spread out, they first illuminate the accretion disk, and then the BLR. For a sample of bright AGN, a dedicated cubesat can follow these changes in brightness on a daily basis for up to 100 days from low Earth orbit. With such monitoring of changes in the accretion disk and then the BLR, an accurate distance between the two regions can be determined. Combining this UV coverage with optical emission-line spectroscopy from the ground allows for a direct measurement of the mass of the central black hole. This exchange of time resolution for spatial resolution can also be used to determine the structure of the central region of the AGN. Ground-based photometric and spectroscopic measurements will complement the UV by tracing the optically emitting and hence cooler regions of the AGN to provide one of the best measurements of supermassive black hole masses.In addition to the primary science mission, the long observing campaigns and the large field of view required to get comparison stars for relative photometry allow for other competitive science. We have identified UV activity in M dwarfs as ancillary science that can be addressed with such a cubesat. This activity will have a strong impact on the habitability of any possible planet around the star.

  17. KISATCHIE HILLS WILDERNESS, LOUISIANA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haley, Boyd R.; Ryan, George S.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Kisatchie Hills Wilderness, Louisiana indicated little promise for the occurrence of mineral resources. There is insufficient data on oil and gas producing formations that underlie the area to evaluate the oil and gas resource potential. All the oil fields of Wilcox age are less than 40 acres in extent; therefore, closer spaced deeper wells might find additional fields in sediments of Wilcox age. Oil and natural gas have been produced from older reservoirs (Cretaceous age) to the northwest of the wilderness, and deeper wells might find oil and natural gas in sediments of Cretaceous and older age in the vicinity of the wilderness.

  18. Toilets in the hills.

    PubMed

    Rosenfield, P; Holcombe, S J

    1990-04-01

    Population and Community Development Association (PDA) in Chieng Rai province in northern Thailand implemented its Environmental Sanitation for the Hill Tribes Project in March 1988 to reduce parasite infection and generate interest in self help development projects. As of early 1990, the hill tribes population growth rate stood at 4.5% compared to 1.5% in lowland Thailand. Other problems included villagers defecating around dwellings, not drinking safe water (since none was available), and not wearing shoes all of which contributed to a high rate of parasite infection. In fact, an analysis of stool samples revealed that parasites infected a mean of almost 70% of the villagers. PDA staff informed villagers about basic environmental health information which influenced them to improve sanitation conditions. They also demonstrated how to build the 1st model latrine. After that, each villager designed and constructed his own latrine. Each villager took out a Baht 150 (US$6) loan to pay for the construction materials (squat casings and cement) provided by PDA. Over the following 10 months, the staff returned to the villages to collect payments and to provide technical assistance. Those villagers that constructed a latrine persuaded others to also construct a latrine. In fact, villagers, not always PDA staff, have even transferred the knowledge to other villages. As of early 1990, villagers and staff have built 1000 squats and 993 latrines. With the health education and latrine use, PDA hoped to see a subsequent reduction in parasite infections. With the help of volunteer contraceptive distributors, PDA has also been able to expand its family planning program to 250 villages. It has also initiated a parasite control pilot project in the area in which infection rates have steadily decreased.

  19. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  20. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  1. 22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at double doors - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards window - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door to stairwell - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. Antigravity hills are visual illusions.

    PubMed

    Bressan, Paola; Garlaschelli, Luigi; Barracano, Monica

    2003-09-01

    Antigravity hills, also known as spook hills or magnetic hills, are natural places where cars put into neutral are seen to move uphill on a slightly sloping road, apparently defying the law of gravity. We show that these effects, popularly attributed to gravitational anomalies, are in fact visual illusions. We re-created all the known types of antigravity spots in our laboratory using tabletop models; the number of visible stretches of road, their slant, and the height of the visible horizon were systematically varied in four experiments. We conclude that antigravity-hill effects follow from a misperception of the eye level relative to gravity, caused by the presence of either contextual inclines or a false horizon line.

  13. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct.

  14. Acidic Residues Control the Dimerization of the N-terminal Domain of Black Widow Spiders’ Major Ampullate Spidroin 1

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Joschka; Schaal, Daniel; Eisoldt, Lukas; Schweimer, Kristian; Schwarzinger, Stephan; Scheibel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Dragline silk is the most prominent amongst spider silks and comprises two types of major ampullate spidroins (MaSp) differing in their proline content. In the natural spinning process, the conversion of soluble MaSp into a tough fiber is, amongst other factors, triggered by dimerization and conformational switching of their helical amino-terminal domains (NRN). Both processes are induced by protonation of acidic residues upon acidification along the spinning duct. Here, the structure and monomer-dimer-equilibrium of the domain NRN1 of Latrodectus hesperus MaSp1 and variants thereof have been investigated, and the key residues for both could be identified. Changes in ionic composition and strength within the spinning duct enable electrostatic interactions between the acidic and basic pole of two monomers which prearrange into an antiparallel dimer. Upon naturally occurring acidification this dimer is stabilized by protonation of residue E114. A conformational change is independently triggered by protonation of clustered acidic residues (D39, E76, E81). Such step-by-step mechanism allows a controlled spidroin assembly in a pH- and salt sensitive manner, preventing premature aggregation of spider silk proteins in the gland and at the same time ensuring fast and efficient dimer formation and stabilization on demand in the spinning duct. PMID:27681031

  15. The z~4 Quasar Luminosity Function: Implications for supermassive black hole growth, reionization, and future time domain surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSayyad, Yusra; Connolly, Andrew J.; McGreer, Ian D.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Fan, Xiaohui; LSST Data Management

    2017-01-01

    Upcoming time-domain imaging surveys such as the LSST will detect over a million high-redshift (z > 4) quasars, making complete spectroscopic followup unfeasible. Statistical estimates such as luminosity functions and clustering measurements will require purely photometric methods for classifying objects, estimating redshifts and estimating selection functions. We develop these methods and constrain the optical, type I quasar luminosity function (QLF) at 3.75 < z < 4.5 for -27.5 < M1450 < -23.5. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) repeated imaging of the 275 sq. deg. equatorial region of the sky (50 < R.A. < +60; -1.26 < Dec. < +1.26) known as Stripe 82, we extracted 40 million new lightcurves using the LSST data management software and selected a statistical sample of z~4 quasars based on colors and variability metrics. We confirmed these using a spectroscopically complete 55 sq. deg. sub-region augmented with 102 new spectroscopic observations of quasars at z > 3.4 with i < 22.5. We present the first variability-selected QLF measurement at high redshift (z > 3.75) and constraint on the characteristic luminosity M*1450 = -26.7 from a single, uniformly-selected survey at z~4.

  16. A Dancing Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge

    2002-04-01

    Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.

  17. Clarks Hill Lake Water Quality Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    MACROINVERTEBRATE TAXONOMIC LIST CLARKS HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera Class Turbellaria Ablabesmyia parajanta unidentified Planariidae A...HILL LAKE 1981 Phylum Platyhelminthes Order Diptera (continued) Planaria sp.,’ Bezzia sp. 2 unidentified Planariidae Chaoborus punctipennis unidentified

  18. Highlighting XMM-Newton's Role in Time Domain Studies of Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray binaries in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leiter, K.; Kadler, M.; Wilms, J.; Braatz, J.; Grossberger, C.; Krauß, F.; Kreikenbohm, A.; Langejahn, M.; Litzinger, E.; Markowitz, A.

    2015-09-01

    XMM-Newton's combination of large effective area, superior event timing, and wide field imaging have provided a powerful capability for time-domain studies of nearby X-ray binary populations. In its first 15 years XMM has accomplished groundbreaking monitoring surveys for X-ray binaries; complemented by RXTE, Chandra, and Nustar. Over the next decade XMM's capabilities will complement a new generation of missions including Astrosat, Hitomi, and NICER. This paper highlights the role of XMM-Newton in combination with other missions, in exploring the HMXB populations of the Small Magellanic Cloud and IC 10. Both are nearby dwarf starburst galaxies, yet their ages and evolutionary scenarios are very different, the consequences of which have led to contrasting X-ray binary populations. In the SMC the definitive sample of X-ray binary pulsars assembled by RXTE is revealing fundamental accretion physics when probed by XMM. Finding and characterizing IC 10's youthful X-ray binaries required the combination of XMM together with Chandra and Nustar. Key results include the revelatory finding of an X-ray irradiated wind masking the mass-function in the WR+BH binary X-1 and the measurement of the BH's spin. Such studies have wide relevance to stellar/galactic evolution, implications for black hole masses and formation channels for BH+BH binaries.

  19. Highlighting XMM-Newton's Role in Time Domain Studies of Neutron Star and Black Hole X-ray binaries in Nearby Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laycock, S.; Yang, J.; Cappallo, R.; Christodoulou, D.; Steiner, J.

    2016-09-01

    XMM-Newton's combination of large effective area, superior event timing, and wide field imaging have provided a powerful capability for time-domain studies of nearby X-ray binary populations. In its first 15 years XMM has accomplished groundbreaking monitoring surveys for X-ray binaries; complemented by RXTE, Chandra, and Nustar. Over the next decade XMM's capabilities will complement a new generation of missions including Astrosat, Hitomi, and NICER. This paper highlights the role of XMM-Newton in combination with other missions, in exploring the HMXB populations of the Small Magellanic Cloud and IC 10. Both are nearby dwarf starburst galaxies, yet their ages and evolutionary scenarios are very different, the consequences of which have led to contrasting X-ray binary populations. In the SMC the definitive sample of X-ray binary pulsars assembled by RXTE is revealing fundamental accretion physics when probed by XMM. Finding and characterizing IC 10's youthful X-ray binaries required the combination of XMM together with Chandra and Nustar. Key results include the revelatory finding of an X-ray irradiated wind masking the mass-function in the WR+BH binary X-1 and the measurement of the BH's spin. Such studies have wide relevance to stellar/galactic evolution, implications for black hole masses and formation channels for BH+BH binaries.

  20. Hill & Knowlton's Two Ethical Dilemmas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Cornelius B.

    1994-01-01

    Presents arguments for and against the acceptance, in 1990, of two controversial client accounts by the public relations agency Hill & Knowlton. Examines the ethical implications of both accounts and concludes that whatever ethical infractions may have occurred reflect the agency's dominant public relations practices, not necessarily the "greedy…

  1. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  2. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  3. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  4. 27 CFR 9.52 - Chalk Hill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Chalk Hill. 9.52 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.52 Chalk Hill. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Chalk Hill.” (b) Approved...

  5. On the origin of Hill's causal criteria.

    PubMed

    Morabia, A

    1991-09-01

    The rules to assess causation formulated by the eighteenth century Scottish philosopher David Hume are compared to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's causal criteria. The strength of the analogy between Hume's rules and Hill's causal criteria suggests that, irrespective of whether Hume's work was known to Hill or Hill's predecessors, Hume's thinking expresses a point of view still widely shared by contemporary epidemiologists. The lack of systematic experimental proof to causal inferences in epidemiology may explain the analogy of Hume's and Hill's, as opposed to Popper's, logic.

  6. GEOCHEMISTRY OF MAJUBA HILL, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wenrich, Karen J.; Mascarenas, Joseph F.; Silberman, Miles L.

    1984-01-01

    Majuba Hill is the erosional remnant of a mineralized volcanic complex of rhyolite porphyry stocks, dikes, sills and irregular masses of breccia intruded into Triassic(? ) argillites. Majuba Hill is best known for its Cu and Sn ore; in addition, it was mineralized with other metals of possible economic significance, most notably, Mo, Ag, and U. Although this is an intrusive complex with no evidence of any extrusive phases, it was intruded sufficiently near the surface to develop a porphyritic texture. Intense sericitic and argillic alteration affected all stages of intrusion. Fresh rocks were not available for K-Ar analyses. Several samples of feldspars and sericite from altered zones yielded K-Ar ages for the alteration of 24. 7 to 25. 5 m. y. The tight clustering of ages suggests that all stages of the complex were altered within less than 1 m. y.

  7. Rolling Mill Hill, Nashville, TN

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Rolling Mill Hill was the home to Nashville General Hospital from 1890 to the 1990s and encompassed several buildings and structures. These existing buildings of historical significance were re-used in the form of apartments. The original Trolley Barns on the site are now artists’ lofts and are home to several companies and non-profit offices. Nance Place, which entails additional buildings built on-site, is a Tax Credit Workforce Housing Development and is Platinum LEED certified.

  8. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blaney, D.L.; Clark, B. C.; Crumpler, L.; Farrand, W. H.; Gorevan, S.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Hurowitz, J.; Kusack, A.; McSween, H.Y.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Ruff, S.W.; Wang, A.; Yen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-02-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic or impact in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in Martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  10. The man and the hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  11. Keeping pace with Capitol Hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, C.

    2007-01-01

    At the Capitol Hill, the legislative branch of the United States government, the work is always at pace. Working with Congress is a tough job yet, rewarding. The Congress worked hard together to serve the public interest but many big issues are one small part of what Congress does. However, many US news media do not report what the government does instead, the media report what the government argues about. The media reports the conflicts but story is always incomplete. In order for the people know what is happening to the government, contact the congressional representative to know the complete story.

  12. 75 FR 78208 - Black Hills National Forest, Northern Hills Ranger District; South Dakota; Steamboat Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... pine beetle infestations and reduce the risk of high severity wildfire. The proposed action includes... pine beetle infestation, and to reduce the risk of high severity wildfire. All actions are intended to... wildfire by thinning stands and reducing the amount of fuel available to fires. Commercial and...

  13. Spirit Rover on 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Location of Spirit

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. Shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image covering approximately 3 kilometers by 3 kilometers (1.9 miles by 1.9 miles) centered on the rover's location at that time in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    'Husband Hill,' the tallest in the range, is just below the center of the image. The image has a resolution of about 50 centimeters (1.6 feet) per pixel. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude.

    The image was acquired on Nov. 2, 2005. A white box (see Figure 1) indicates the location of an excerpted portion on which the location of Spirit on that date is marked. Dr. Timothy J. Parker of the Mars Exploration Rover team at the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., confirmed the location of the rover in the image. The region toward the bottom of the image shows the area where the rover is currently headed. The large dark patch and other similar dark patches are accumulations of windblown sand and granules.

  14. The Minority Experience at a Predominantly White University--A Report of a 1972 Survey at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinbaum, David G.; Kleinbaum, Anna

    1976-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive questionnaire survey of all phases of black student life at a large predominantly white southern university, the University of North Carolina At Chapel Hill (UNC) in 1972, indicate that direct forms of discrimination as well as open discord between racial groups are essentially absent at UNC, although black students…

  15. 78 FR 73187 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ...://www.fs.usda.gov/main/blackhills/workingtogether/advisorycommittees . Meeting Accommodations: If you are a person requiring reasonable accommodation, please make requests in advance for sign language interpreting, assistive listening devices or other reasonable accommodation for access to the facility...

  16. 77 FR 75120 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... including fire and mountain pine beetle epidemics, travel management, forest monitoring and evaluation, recreation fees, and site-specific projects having forest-wide implications. The meeting is open to the... for the Mountain Pine Beetle Response Project; and (4) to review Travel Management Plan Goals...

  17. 78 FR 59337 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ... revisions or amendments and forest health, including fire and mountain pine beetle epidemics, travel management, forest monitoring and evaluation, recreation fees, and site-specific projects having forest-wide..., motorized travel permit fees, mountain pine beetle management actions; and (2) to provide an update to...

  18. 78 FR 64471 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... and forest health, including fire and mountain pine beetle epidemics, travel management, forest monitoring and evaluation, recreation fees, and site-specific projects having forest-wide implications. The... regarding Cave Management and White Nose Syndrome in Bats; and (3) discuss Motorized Travel Permit...

  19. 78 FR 76100 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Committee Act of 1972 (5 U.S.C. App. II), the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974... can be found by visiting the Board's Web site at: http://www.fs.usda.gov/main/blackhills... summary of the meeting will be posted on the Web site listed above within 45 days after the...

  20. Wishlist: Wilderness Endgame in the Black Hills National Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Robert Wellman

    2010-01-01

    RARE II (Roadless Area Review and Evaluation) was meant to settle the political contest that had been fought over wilderness since 1964, as the endgame to decide once and for all the winners and losers among federal lands. RARE II was a modified version of the process dictated by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1970, which by the time of…

  1. Geologic history of the Black Hills caves, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, Arthur N.; Palmer, Margaret; Paces, James B.

    2016-01-01

    The caves reveal four phases of calcite deposition: eogenetic ferroan calcite (Mississippian replacement of sulfates); white scalenohedra in paleovoids deposited during deep post-Mississippian burial; palisade crusts formed during blockage of springs by Oligocene–Miocene continental sediments; and laminated crusts from late Pleistocene water-table fluctuations. The caves reveal more than 300 m.y. of geologic history and a close relationship to regional geologic events.

  2. 7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail of balcony rail. August 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 FIRST ORIGINAL STORE AND POSTOFFICE, COPY OF AN EARLY PHOTOGRAPH. LENT BY EVELYN S. CRAIG - Jansonist Colony, Colony Store & Post Office, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  4. 6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Detail of pilaster cap. Aug. 10, 1936. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from small photo taken by survey member. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  5. 3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. West and south elevations. Joseph Hill, photographer, copied from photo lent by Evelyn S. Craig. August 1936. - Jansonist Colony, Steeple Building, Main & Bishop Hill Streets, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  6. Glaciated appalachian plateau: till shadows on hills.

    PubMed

    Coates, D R

    1966-06-17

    North slopes are twice as steep as south slopes on the hills of central New York. This asymmetry is caused by unequal till thickness-3.6 meters on north slopes and 27.6 meters on south slopes. Previous workers interpreted the hills as being of bedrock sculptured by glacial erosion, with till 0.9 to 3 meters thick.

  7. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  8. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  9. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  10. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rattlesnake Hills. 9.193... Rattlesnake Hills. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Rattlesnake Hills”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Rattlesnake Hills” is a term of viticultural significance....

  11. Colleges as Shining Cities on a Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kathleen Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes that the notion of America be reintroduced as the "shining city on a hill," that abiding image from American history. The image of the shining city on a hill captures the imagination because it reflects the abiding truth that people become fully human in society, not outside of it. People need one…

  12. Hill Country Teacher: Oral Histories from the One-Room School and Beyond. Twayne's Oral History Series No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Diane

    This book presents the oral histories of one male and seven female retired teachers who began their careers during the 1920s and 1930s in one-room schools in the Texas hill country. These teachers continued to teach until after the desegregation of public schools in the 1960s. The married black couple included began teaching in rural Texas in 1931…

  13. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (QTVR)

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is an approximately true-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. Seams between individual frames have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  14. A SYMPLECTIC INTEGRATOR FOR HILL'S EQUATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Thomas; Barnes, Rory; Perrine, Randall P.; Richardson, Derek C.

    2010-02-15

    Hill's equations are an approximation that is useful in a number of areas of astrophysics including planetary rings and planetesimal disks. We derive a symplectic method for integrating Hill's equations based on a generalized leapfrog. This method is implemented in the parallel N-body code, PKDGRAV, and tested on some simple orbits. The method demonstrates a lack of secular changes in orbital elements, making it a very useful technique for integrating Hill's equations over many dynamical times. Furthermore, the method allows for efficient collision searching using linear extrapolation of particle positions.

  15. Exploring Hill Ciphers with Graphing Calculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. John, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Explains how to code and decode messages using Hill ciphers which combine matrix multiplication and modular arithmetic. Discusses how a graphing calculator can facilitate the matrix and modular arithmetic used in the coding and decoding procedures. (ASK)

  16. Streamlined Hills of Maja Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 16 May 2003

    Classic catastrophic flood morphology (streamlined hills and longitudinal grooves) is captured in this image of Lunae Planum. Similar features (although much smaller in size) are seen in terrestrial catastrophic flood regions such as Channeled Scabland of Washington state and in Iceland.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 14.8, Longitude 301.8East (58.2). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. The Igwisi Hills extrusive 'kimberlites'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, A. M.; Donaldson, C. H.; Dawson, J. B.; Brown, R. W.; Ridley, W. I.

    1975-01-01

    The petrography and mineral chemistry of volcanic rocks from the Igwisi Hills in Tanzania are discussed. There is considerable evidence to suggest that the Igwisi rocks are extrusive kimberlites: a two-component nature with high P-T minerals in a low P-T matrix; the presence of chrome pyrope, Al enstatite, chrome diopside, chromite and olivine; a highly oxidized, volatile-rich matrix with serpentine, calcite, magnetite, perovskite; high Sr, Zr, and Nb contents; occurrence in a narrow isolated vent within a stable shield area. The Igwisi rocks differ from kimberlite in the lack of magnesian ilmenite, the scarcity of matrix phlogopite, and the overall low alkali content. They apparently contain material from phlogopite-bearing garnet peridotites with a primary mineral assemblage indicative of equilibrium at upper mantle temperatures and pressures. This primary assemblage was brought rapidly to the surface in a gas-charged, carbonate-rich fluid. Rapid upward transport, extrusion, and rapid cooling have tended to prevent reaction between inclusions and the carbonate-rich matrix that might otherwise have yielded a more typical kimberlite.

  18. A perspective on Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Carroll Ann

    As the AGU Congressional Science Fellow for 1980-1981, I had a unique opportunity to witness the federal engine in action—a remarkable piece of machinery. The American Association for the Advancement of Science organized an excellent orientation program, introducing our class of science fellows (about 30) to the kinds of options available for a year's tenure on Capitol Hill. These include affiliation with a congressman's or senator's staff or with one of the hundred or so standing, select, or joint committees and subcommittees. I arranged to join the personal staff of Congressman Jim Santini (D, Nev.), largely because of his demonstrated interest in Department of Interior affairs in general and the minerals industry in particular. The position of fellow provides no guarantee of work in one's areas of expertise or inclination, however, and I found that my staff assignments included topics ranging from wild horses to peanut subsidies. My principal task involved evaluation of the Air Force proposal to deploy the MX missile in Nevada and the consequent impact of that incredible scheme on the physical and economic environments of the state and the nation, including effects on minerals exploration. I had not expected to become conversant with missile technology, but the exercise provided quite an education.

  19. Bunker Hill Sediment Characterization Study

    SciTech Connect

    Neal A. Yancey; Debby F. Bruhn

    2009-12-01

    The long history of mineral extraction in the Coeur d’Alene Basin has left a legacy of heavy metal laden mine tailings that have accumulated along the Coeur d’Alene River and its tributaries (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2001; Barton, 2002). Silver, lead and zinc were the primary metals of economic interest in the area, but the ores contained other elements that have become environmental hazards including zinc, cadmium, lead, arsenic, nickel, and copper. The metals have contaminated the water and sediments of Lake Coeur d’Alene, and continue to be transported downstream to Spokane Washington via the Spokane River. In 1983, the EPA listed the Bunker Hill Mining and Metallurgical Complex on the National Priorities List. Since that time, many of the most contaminated areas have been stabilized or isolated, however metal contaminants continue to migrate through the basin. Designation as a Superfund site causes significant problems for the economically depressed communities in the area. Identification of primary sources of contamination can help set priorities for cleanup and cleanup options, which can include source removal, water treatment or no action depending on knowledge about the mobility of contaminants relative to water flow. The mobility of contaminant mobility under natural or engineered conditions depends on multiple factors including the physical and chemical state (or speciation) of metals and the range of processes, some of which can be seasonal, that cause mobilization of metals. As a result, it is particularly important to understand metal speciation (National Research Council, 2005) and the link between speciation and the rates of metal migration and the impact of natural or engineered variations in flow, biological activity or water chemistry.

  20. Engaging Hill-Sachs Defects

    PubMed Central

    Burns, David; Chahal, Jaskarndip; Shahrokhi, Shahram; Henry, Patrick; Wasserstein, David; Whyne, Cari; Theodoropoulos, John S.; Ogilvie-Harris, Darrell; Dwyer, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Anatomic studies have demonstrated that bipolar glenoid and humeral bone loss have a cumulative impact on shoulder instability, and that these defects may engage in functional positions depending on their size, location, and orientation, potentially resulting in failure of stabilization procedures. Determining which lesions pose a risk for engagement remains a challenge, with arthroscopic assessment and Itoi’s 3DCT based glenoid track method being the accepted approaches at this time. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of humeral and glenoid bone defects on shoulder engagement in a cadaveric model. Two alternative approaches to predicting engagement were evaluated; 1) CT scanning the shoulder in abduction and external rotation 2) measurement of Bankart lesion width and a novel parameter, the intact anterior articular angle (IAAA), on conventional 2D multi-plane reformats. The results of these two approaches were compared to the results obtained using Itoi’s glenoid track method for predicting engagement. Methods: Hill-Sachs and Bony Bankart defects of varying size were created in 12 cadaveric upper limbs, producing 45 bipolar defect combinations. The shoulders were assessed for engagement using cone beam CT in various positions of function, from 30 to 90 degrees of both abduction and external rotation. The humeral and glenoid defects were characterized by measurement of their size, location, and orientation. Diagnostic performance measures for predicting engagement were calculated for both the abduction external rotation scan and 2D IAAA approaches using the glenoid track method as reference standard. Results: Engagement was predicted by Itoi’s glenoid track method in 24 of 45 specimens (53%). The abduction external rotation CT scan performed at 60 degrees of glenohumeral abduction (corresponding to 90 degrees of abduction relative to the trunk) and 90 degrees of external rotation predicted engagement accurately in 43 of

  1. Black holes and the multiverse

    SciTech Connect

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  2. Large-Eddy Simulation on Turbulent Flow and Plume Dispersion over A 2-Dimensional Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, H.; Nagai, H.

    2009-09-01

    The dispersion analysis of airborne contaminant including radioactive substances from industrial or nuclear facilities is the important issue for maintenance of air quality or safety assessment. Many studies on the plume dispersion behavior in the simulated atmospheric boundary layer flow over flat plain have been conducted mainly by wind tunnel experiments. However, many nuclear power plants are located at complex coastal terrains in Japan. In this case, topographical effects on the turbulent flow and plume dispersion should be investigated. Therefore, we perform Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) on turbulent flows and plume dispersions. As the first step of this study, we try it for a 2-dimensional hill flow and investigate the characteristics of mean and fluctuation concentrations. In order to produce a realistic turbulent boundary layer flow, we set up two computational domains. One is the driver region for generating the spatially-developing boundary layer flow and the other is the main computational region for plume dispersion over a 2-dimensional hill. Near the inlet of the driver region, roughness blocks for generating a thick turbulent boundary layer are placed. The inflow turbulence data obtained in the driver region are imposed at the inlet of the main computational domain at each time step. The sizes of driver and main computational regions are 46.25H×6.25H×25.0H and 37.5H×6.25H×25.0H (H: the height of a 2-dimensional hill) in x-, y- and z-directions, respectively. Here, x, y and z indicate streamwise, spanwise and vertical directions, respectively. The number of grid points of driver and main computational regions are 400×100×90 and 400×100×90 in x, y and z directions, respectively. A 2-dimensional hill model has 5.45H length and are placed at a distance of 10.4H downstream from the inlet of the main computational region. A release point of a tracer gas is located at a distance of 9.09H upstream from a 2-dimensional hill top and elevated with the

  3. Pesticides, Neurodevelopmental Disagreement, and Bradford Hill's Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin; ChoGlueck, Christopher

    2016-06-27

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism affect one-eighth of all U.S. newborns. Yet scientists, accessing the same data and using Bradford-Hill guidelines, draw different conclusions about the causes of these disorders. They disagree about the pesticide-harm hypothesis, that typical United States prenatal pesticide exposure can cause neurodevelopmental damage. This article aims to discover whether apparent scientific disagreement about this hypothesis might be partly attributable to questionable interpretations of the Bradford-Hill causal guidelines. Key scientists, who claim to employ Bradford-Hill causal guidelines, yet fail to accept the pesticide-harm hypothesis, fall into errors of trimming the guidelines, requiring statistically-significant data, and ignoring semi-experimental evidence. However, the main scientists who accept the hypothesis appear to commit none of these errors. Although settling disagreement over the pesticide-harm hypothesis requires extensive analysis, this article suggests that at least some conflicts may arise because of questionable interpretations of the guidelines.

  4. Elk Hills: still out in front

    SciTech Connect

    Rintoul, B.

    1982-07-01

    The producing history and capacity of the Elk Hills Oil and Gas Fields in California are described. Developments in the field are discussed, including waterflooding. The field presently produces ca. 160,000 bpd of oil and 350 mmcfd of natural gas. Gas liquids production totals ca. 683,000 gal/day. Waterflooding is expected to pay an increasingly important role in the production of crude oil. Steaming techniques also are viewed with favor after analysis of results of pilot projects. Exploratory develoment in Elk Hills also continues.

  5. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  6. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  7. Black holes and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Mathur, Samir D.

    2012-11-15

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.

  8. 3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW DOWN EAST HILLS DRIVE, BUILDING 20 (ONE BEDROOM) AND BUILDING 21 (TWO/THREE BEDROOM); ACTIVITY CENTER IN REAR, FACING NORTHEAST. - Aluminum City Terrace, East Hill Drive, New Kensington, Westmoreland County, PA

  9. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WARM SPRINGS CAMP BUILDINGS, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. THE FUNCTION OF THE FLAT AREA AT CENTER RIGHT IS UNKNOWN. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  10. Chronology of polyphase extension in the Windermere Hills, northeast Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, K.J.; Cerveny, P.K.; Perkins, M.E.; Snee, L.W.

    1999-01-01

    Fission-track and 40Ar/39Ar dating and chemical correlation of volcanic strata exposed in the Windermere Hills and northern Pequop Mountains, northeast Nevada, indicate a protracted, polyphase history of Tertiary (late Eocene-late Miocene) extension along the northern margin of a major Cordilleran metamorphic core complex. Early extension is recorded by a west-tilted half graben filled with early Oligocene (34.79 ?? 0.18-39.18 ?? 0.12 Ma) sedimentary rocks in the eastern Windermere Hills above the low-angle Black Mountain detachment fault. The early Oligocene half graben conformably overlies a widespread suite of late Eocene (39.18 ?? 0.12-40.38 ?? 0.06 Ma) calc-alkaline volcanic rocks, reflecting a temporal link between early extension at a high structural level and the end of the ignimbrite flare-up. These strata are cut by east-west-striking normal faults, which are exposed along, and parallel to, the northern margin of the metamorphic complex. Available age data (e.g., between 14.93 ?? 0.08 and 34.79 ?? 0.18 Ma) permit the interpretation that the east-west-striking faults formed at the same time as, or after, large-magnitude unroofing of high-grade rocks. We interpret the east-west-striking faults to accommodate differential uplift of greenschist-grade metamorphic rocks in the upper crust, above a lateral ramp in a west-northwest-directed mylonitic shear zone. Subsequent extension in the Windermere Hills is defined by deep, rapidly filled half grabens of middle Miocene (<7.42 ?? 2.0 to 14.93 ?? 0.08 Ma) age that unconformably overlie older faults and synextensional deposits. These are the youngest half grabens in the region and are inferred to be initiated by extensional stresses imparted to the base of the lithosphere by a laterally spreading mantle plume (e.g., the Yellowstone hotspot) located in southeastern Oregon at this time.

  11. Segment lengths influence hill walking strategies.

    PubMed

    Sheehan, Riley C; Gottschall, Jinger S

    2014-08-22

    Segment lengths are known to influence walking kinematics and muscle activity patterns. During level walking at the same speed, taller individuals take longer, slower strides than shorter individuals. Based on this, we sought to determine if segment lengths also influenced hill walking strategies. We hypothesized that individuals with longer segments would display more joint flexion going uphill and more extension going downhill as well as greater lateral gastrocnemius and vastus lateralis activity in both directions. Twenty young adults of varying heights (below 155 cm to above 188 cm) walked at 1.25 m/s on a level treadmill as well as 6° and 12° up and downhill slopes while we collected kinematic and muscle activity data. Subsequently, we ran linear regressions for each of the variables with height, leg, thigh, and shank length. Despite our population having twice the anthropometric variability, the level and hill walking patterns matched closely with previous studies. While there were significant differences between level and hill walking, there were few hill walking variables that were correlated with segment length. In support of our hypothesis, taller individuals had greater knee and ankle flexion during uphill walking. However, the majority of the correlations were between tibialis anterior and lateral gastrocnemius activities and shank length. Contrary to our hypothesis, relative step length and muscle activity decreased with segment length, specifically shank length. In summary, it appears that individuals with shorter segments require greater propulsion and toe clearance during uphill walking as well as greater braking and stability during downhill walking.

  12. General Education at UNC-Chapel Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalin, Jay; Robinson, Jenna Ashley

    2013-01-01

    The general education program at UNC-Chapel Hill has abandoned the concept of a core curriculum. Instead, students choose their "required" classes from lists of thousands of courses that may be as narrow and idiosyncratic as Love, Sex and Marriage in Soviet Culture (RUSS 277) or The Gardens, Shrines and Temples of Japan (ASIA 586).…

  13. ENHANCED REMEDIATION DEMONSTRATIONS AT HILL AFB: INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine enhanced aquifer remediation technologies were demonstrated side-by-side at a Hill Air Force Base Chemical Disposal Pit/Fire Training Area site. The demonstrations were performed inside 3 x 5 m cells isolated from the surrounding shallow aquifer by steel piling. The site w...

  14. The House on the Hill Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author suggests a classroom challenge that will engage students in designing a house on the hill. He suggests teachers ask a local builder to come to the school to discuss the kinds of concerns that must be dealt with when building homes in cold environments. The use of dioramas and cardboard scale models would be very useful…

  15. 27 CFR 9.193 - Rattlesnake Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Approved Maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Rattlesnake Hills viticultural area are eight United States Geological Survey 1:24,000 scale topographic maps. They are titled: (1.... The area's boundary is defined as follows: (1) The beginning point is on the Yakima East map at...

  16. Andoyer construction for Hill and Delaunay variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskar, Jacques

    2017-03-01

    Andoyer variables are well known for the study of rotational dynamics. These variables were derived by Andoyer through a procedure that can be also used to obtain the Hill variables of the Kepler problem. Andoyer construction can also forecast the Delaunay variables which canonicity is then obtained without the use of a generating function.

  17. An Unlikely Student Hits Capitol Hill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Todd Sollar, a laid-off autoworker from Ohio who is studying for an associate degree in engineering at Sinclair Community College, in Dayton, OH, went to Capitol Hill to help educate lawmakers about the importance of including support for community colleges in the economic-stimulus bill. Mr. Sollar came to Washington with Sinclair's president, and…

  18. 3. HYDE STREET HILL: View to north looking down the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. HYDE STREET HILL: View to north looking down the Hyde Street hill from Lombard Street. The steepest hill on the present cable railway system, this grade exceeds 20%. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...). (3) “Los Alamos, Calif.,” edition of 1959. (4) “Santa Rosa Hills, Calif.,” edition of 1959... Hills viticultural area is located in Santa Barbara County, California. The boundary is as follows: (1... the heart of the Santa Rosa Land Grant, T.7N., R. 32W, on the Santa Rosa Hills, Calif., Quadrangle...

  20. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site, former right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Note reconstructed Easter Hill Building No. 6 at rear. Looking east - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  1. Paleotopography of Husband Hill and the West Spur of the Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Aron, F. A.; Squyres, S.

    2012-12-01

    From June 2004 through March 2010, Spirit conducted a detailed campaign examining the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater. The Hills are an irregular, nearly-triangular edifice of uncertain origin, spanning ~8.4 km in the northerly direction by ~4.5 km in the easterly direction, and are embayed by the basaltic plains that fill the floor of Gusev Crater. The topography is as irregular as the perimeter, cut by numerous valleys of varying lengths, widths, and directional trends. Along its traverse, Spirit examined several rock classes as defined by elemental abundances from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS). Unlike the Gusev Plains, the rocks of the Columbia Hills show extensive evidence of aqueous alteration. In addition to mineralogical and chemical investigations, Spirit's stereo panoramic (Pancam) and navigation (Navcam) cameras obtained over 7,000 images of the West Spur of the Columbia Hills and Husband Hill, the highest peak. This dataset includes stereo coverage of several outcrop exposures with apparent bedding. In this analysis, we reconstruct a paleo-Digital Elevation Model (paleo-DEM) of the West Spur and Husband Hill based on stereo image data from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit. We have performed detailed structural and stratigraphic measurements of the outcrops Spirit observed on its traverse across the West Spur and Husband Hill, using digital terrain models derived from Pancam and Navcam data. We compare outcrop bedding orientations to local topography as determined by the HiRISE DEM. While bedding orientations do not conform to the current topography, outcrops within local geographic regions exhibit conformable bedding orientations both within and across the rock classes defined by composition. Assuming that the bedding planes are in-place and were conformable to the local topography at the time of deposition, we reconstruct the ancient topography of the West Spur and Husband Hill.

  2. Structure, stratigraphy, and origin of Husband Hill, Columbia Hills, Gusev Crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCoy, T.J.; Sims, M.; Schmidt, M.E.; Edwards, L.; Tornabene, L.L.; Crumpler, L.S.; Cohen, B. A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Blaney, D.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Rica, J.W.; Treguier, E.; d'Uston, C.; Grant, J. A.; McSween, H.Y.; Golombek, M.P.; Haldemann, A.F.C.; de Souza, P.A.

    2008-01-01

    The strike and dip of lithologic units imaged in stereo by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills using three-dimensional imaging software shows that measured dips (15-32??) for bedding on the main edifice of the Columbia Hill are steeper than local topography (???8-10??). Outcrops measured on West Spur are conformable in strike with shallower dips (7-15??) than observed on Husband Hill. Dips are consistent with observed strata draping the Columbia Hills. Initial uplift was likely related either to the formation of the Gusev Crater central peak or ring or through mutual interference of overlapping crater rims. Uplift was followed by subsequent draping by a series of impact and volcaniclastic materials that experienced temporally and spatially variable aqueous infiltration, cementation, and alteration episodically during or after deposition. West Spur likely represents a spatially isolated depositional event. Erosion by a variety of processes, including mass wasting, removed tens of meters of materials and formed the Tennessee Valley primarily after deposition. This was followed by eruption of the Adirondack-class plains basalt lava flows which embayed the Columbia Hills. Minor erosion, impact, and aeolian processes have subsequently modified the Columbia Hills. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  3. The Strengths of High-Achieving Black High School Students in a Racially Diverse Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Kris; Chaney, Cassandra; Jones, Derrick

    2012-01-01

    Robert Hill (1972) identified strengths of Black families: strong kinship bonds, strong work orientation, adaptability of family roles, high achievement orientation, and religious orientation. Some suggest these strengths sustain the physical, emotional, social, and spiritual needs of Blacks. This study used narratives and survey data from a…

  4. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  5. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  6. Uranium series dating of Allan Hills ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.

    1986-01-01

    Uranium-238 decay series nuclides dissolved in Antarctic ice samples were measured in areas of both high and low concentrations of volcanic glass shards. Ice from the Allan Hills site (high shard content) had high Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 activities but similarly low U-238 activities in comparison with Antarctic ice samples without shards. The Ra-226, Th-230 and U-234 excesses were found to be proportional to the shard content, while the U-238 decay series results were consistent with the assumption that alpha decay products recoiled into the ice from the shards. Through this method of uranium series dating, it was learned that the Allen Hills Cul de Sac ice is approximately 325,000 years old.

  7. Morgan Hill, California Earthquake, April 1984

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spall, Henry

    1987-01-01

    The Morgan Hill earthquake, a moderate-size (Mg=6.1, ML =6.2, M=6.2) event, was felt throughout central California on April 24, 1984. The epicenter of the earthquake was located near Halls Valley southwest of Mount Hamilton, and the event is presumed to have occurred on the Calaveras fault. Damage, however, was concentrated near the south end of the Anderson Reservoir and in the town of Morgan Hill. A preliminary assessment by the California Office of Emergency Services estimated damage to private property at \\$7.0 million and to local-government facilities at \\$0.5 million, for a total of \\$7.5 million in damage. 

  8. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this approximately true-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 600 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 480 nanometers.

  9. Hill Ciphers over Near-Fields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farag, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Hill ciphers are linear codes that use as input a "plaintext" vector [p-right arrow above] of size n, which is encrypted with an invertible n x n matrix E to produce a "ciphertext" vector [c-right arrow above] = E [middle dot] [p-right arrow above]. Informally, a near-field is a triple [left angle bracket]N; +, *[right angle bracket] that…

  10. Autonomous Legged Hill and Stairwell Ascent

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    environments with little burden to a human operator. Keywords: autonomous robot, hill climbing, stair climbing, sequential composition, hexapod, self...simulation studies [11], with almost all empirical work confined to the traversal of a single flight and yaw control on the stairs (summarized in [4]). The...only prior report we have found documenting empirical work over multiple flights of stairs assumed a very specific, simple landing geometry [12]; we

  11. The Rocks of the Columbia Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Blaney, Diana L.; Clark, Benton C.; Crumpler, Larry; Farrand, William H.; Gorevan, Stephen; Herkenhoff, Kenneth; Hurowitz, Joel; Kusack, Alastair; McSween, Harry Y.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Ruff, Steven W.; Wang, Alian; Yen, Albert

    2006-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has identified five distinct rock types in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. Clovis Class rock is a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has undergone substantial aqueous alteration. We interpret it to be aqueously-altered ejecta deposits formed by impacts into basaltic materials. Wishstone Class rock is also a poorly-sorted clastic rock that has a distinctive chemical composition that is high in Ti and P and low in Cr. Wishstone Class rock may be pyroclastic in origin. Peace Class rock is a sedimentary material composed of ultramafic sand grains cemented by significant quantities of Mg- and Ca-sulfates. Peace Class rock may have formed when water briefly saturated the ultramafic sands, and evaporated to allow precipitation of the sulfates. Watchtower Class rocks are similar chemically to Wishstone Class rocks, and have undergone widely varying degrees of near-isochemical aqueous alteration. They may also be ejecta deposits, formed by impacts into Wishstone-rich materials and altered by small amounts of water. Backstay Class rocks are basalt/trachybasalt lavas that were emplaced in the Columbia Hills after the other rock classes were, either as impact ejecta or by localized volcanic activity. The geologic record preserved in the rocks of the Columbia Hills reveals a period very early in martian history in which volcanic materials were widespread, impact was a dominant process, and water was commonly present.

  12. Miocene cercopithecoidea from the Tugen Hills, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C; Goble, Emily D; Hill, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    Miocene to Pleistocene fossiliferous sediments in the Tugen Hills span the time period from at least 15.5 Ma to 0.25 Ma, including time periods unknown or little known elsewhere in Africa. Consequently, the Tugen Hills deposits hold the potential to inform us about crucial phylogenetic events in African faunal evolution and about long-term environmental change. Among the specimens collected from this region are a number of discoveries already important to the understanding of primate evolution. Here, we describe additional cercopithecoid material from the Miocene deposits in the Tugen Hills sequence, including those from securely dated sites in the Muruyur Beds (16-13.4 Ma), the Mpesida Beds (7-6.2 Ma) and the Lukeino Formation (∼ 6.2-5.7 Ma). We also evaluate previously described material from the Ngorora Formation (13-8.8 Ma). Identified taxa include Victoriapithecidae gen. et sp. indet., cf. Parapapio lothagamensis, and at least two colobines. Specimens attributed to cf. Pp. lothagamensis would extend the species' geographic range beyond its type locality. In addition, we describe specimens sharing derived characters with modern African colobines (Tribe: Colobina), a finding that is congruent with previous molecular estimates of colobine divergence dates. These colobine specimens represent some of the earliest known members of the modern African colobine radiation and, in contrast to previous hypotheses, suggest that early African colobines were mainly arboreal and that semi-terrestrial Late Miocene and Plio-Pleistocene colobine taxa were secondarily derived in their locomotor adaptations.

  13. From Carver to Hill, and On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massie, Samuel P.

    The story of blacks in chemistry is one of determination, expectation, participation and contribution. Between 1910 and 1945, despite George Washington Carver's significant agricultural contributions and St. Elmo Brady's scholarship, white graduate schools and industry had little interest in accepting blacks. There was slow progress, despite these…

  14. Polluting Black space.

    PubMed

    Bonam, Courtney M; Bergsieker, Hilary B; Eberhardt, Jennifer L

    2016-11-01

    Social psychologists have long demonstrated that people are stereotyped on the basis of race. Researchers have conducted extensive experimental studies on the negative stereotypes associated with Black Americans in particular. Across 4 studies, we demonstrate that the physical spaces associated with Black Americans are also subject to negative racial stereotypes. Such spaces, for example, are perceived as impoverished, crime-ridden, and dirty (Study 1). Moreover, these space-focused stereotypes can powerfully influence how connected people feel to a space (Studies 2a, 2b, and 3), how they evaluate that space (Studies 2a and 2b), and how they protect that space from harm (Study 3). Indeed, processes related to space-focused stereotypes may contribute to social problems across a range of domains-from racial disparities in wealth to the overexposure of Blacks to environmental pollution. Together, the present studies broaden the scope of traditional stereotyping research and highlight promising new directions. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Morrison, S. M.; Fendrich, K. V.; Yen, A. S.; Grotzinger, J.; Crisp, J. A.; Bristow, T. F.; Sarrazin, P. C.; Farmer, J. D.; Des Marais, D. J.; Stolper, E. M.; Morookian, J. M.; Wilson, M. A.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teukolsky, Saul

    2003-04-01

    Einstein's equations of general relativity are prime candidates for numerical solution on supercomputers. There is some urgency in being able to carry out such simulations: Large-scale gravitational wave detectors are now coming on line, and the most important expected signals cannot be predicted except numerically. Problems involving black holes are perhaps the most interesting, yet also particularly challenging computationally. One difficulty is that inside a black hole there is a physical singularity that cannot be part of the computational domain. A second difficulty is the disparity in length scales between the size of the black hole and the wavelength of the gravitational radiation emitted. A third difficulty is that all existing methods of evolving black holes in three spatial dimensions are plagued by instabilities that prohibit long-term evolution. I will describe the ideas that are being introduced in numerical relativity to deal with these problems, and discuss the results of recent calculations of black hole collisions.

  17. Three-dimensional potential flow over hills and oval mounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, R.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was made of the potential flow behavior for an initially uniform flow passing over a single axisymmetric hill, an oval mound, and a combination of two hills. Small perturbation theory was used, and the resulting Laplace equation for the perturbation velocity potential was solved by using either a product solution or a Green's function. The three dimensional solution is of interest in calculating the pressure distribution around obstacles, the flow of pollutants carried by the wind, and the augmentation of wind velocity for windmill siting. The augmentation in velocity at the top of a hill was found to be proportional to the hill height relative to a characteristic width dimension of the hill. An axisymmetric hill produced about 20 percent less velocity increase than a two dimensional ridge having the same cross-sectional profile.

  18. PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL STA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PLANS AND SECTIONS. WEIR SPILLWAY. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+82.15. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3200, dated February 7, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  19. Correlates of simulated hill climb cycling performance.

    PubMed

    Davison, R C; Swan, D; Coleman, D; Bird, S

    2000-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between several commonly used aerobic and anaerobic cycle ergometer tests and performance during a treadmill cycling hill climb. Eight competitive cyclists (age 27+/-7 years; body mass 73.2+/-5.2 kg; height 177+/-6 cm; mean +/- s) completed six tests in random order: a lactate minimum test; a Wingate anaerobic power test; and two 6-km climbs at 6% and two 1-km climbs at 12% gradient performed on a motorized treadmill. The mean times and power outputs for the 6-km and 1-km climbs were 16:30+/-1:08 min: s and 330+/-17.8 W, and 4:19+/-0:27 min: s and 411+/-24.4 W, respectively. The best individual predictor of 6-km and 1-km performance times was the time for the corresponding climb at the other distance (r = 0.97). The next strongest predictor of both hill climb performances was the average power produced during the Wingate test divided by body mass. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the two variables contributing most to the prediction equation for both climbs were the Wingate average power per unit of body mass and maximal aerobic power divided by total mass (rider + bike), which together accounted for 92 and 96% of the variability in the 6-km and 1-km climbs. In conclusion, among competitive cyclists, the Wingate average power per unit of body mass was the best single predictor of simulated cycling hill climb performance at the distance and gradient used.

  20. Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.

    PubMed

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen

    2011-04-15

    We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.

  1. Boson shells harboring charged black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike

    2010-11-15

    We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.

  2. New type of hill-top inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barvinsky, A. O.; Kamenshchik, A. Yu.; Nesterov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters epsilon and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R2-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  3. The Goodwin model: behind the Hill function.

    PubMed

    Gonze, Didier; Abou-Jaoudé, Wassim

    2013-01-01

    The Goodwin model is a 3-variable model demonstrating the emergence of oscillations in a delayed negative feedback-based system at the molecular level. This prototypical model and its variants have been commonly used to model circadian and other genetic oscillators in biology. The only source of non-linearity in this model is a Hill function, characterizing the repression process. It was mathematically shown that to obtain limit-cycle oscillations, the Hill coefficient must be larger than 8, a value often considered unrealistic. It is indeed difficult to explain such a high coefficient with simple cooperative dynamics. We present here molecular models of the standard Goodwin model, based on single or multisite phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes of a transcription factor, which have been previously shown to generate switch-like responses. We show that when the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation processes are fast enough, the limit-cycle obtained with a multisite phosphorylation-based mechanism is in very good quantitative agreement with the oscillations observed in the Goodwin model. Conditions in which the detailed mechanism is well approximated by the Goodwin model are given. A variant of the Goodwin model which displays sharp thresholds and relaxation oscillations is also explained by a double phosphorylation/dephosphorylation-based mechanism through a bistable behavior. These results not only provide rational support for the Goodwin model but also highlight the crucial role of the speed of post-translational processes, whose response curve are usually established at a steady state, in biochemical oscillators.

  4. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates warmth; blue indicates coolness. Areas with higher temperatures are more likely to be rocky, as rocks absorb heat. Lower temperatures denote small particles and fewer rocks. During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these temperature variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  5. Spirit's Express Route to 'Columbia Hills'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This map illustrates the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's position as of sol 112 (April 26, 2004), near the crater called 'Missoula.' Like a train on a tight schedule, Spirit will make regular stops along the way to its ultimate destination, the 'Columbia Hills.' At each stop, or 'station,' the rover will briefly analyze the area's rocks and soils. Each tick mark on the rover's route represents one sol's worth of travel, or about 60 to 70 meters (200 to 230 feet). Rover planners estimate that Spirit will reach the hills around mid-June. Presently, the rover is stopped at a site called 'Plains Station.'

    The color thermal data show how well different surface features hold onto heat. Red indicates a higher thermal inertia associated with rocky terrain (cooler in the day, warmer at night); blue indicates a lower thermal inertia associated with smaller particles and fewer rocks (warmer at night, cooler in the day). During its traverse, Spirit will document the causes of these thermal variations.

    The map comprises data from the camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter and the thermal emission imaging system on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter.

  6. New type of hill-top inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu.; Nesterov, D.V.

    2016-01-20

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ϵ and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  7. New type of hill-top inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A.O.; Nesterov, D.V.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu. E-mail: Alexander.Kamenshchik@bo.infn.it

    2016-01-01

    We suggest a new type of hill-top inflation originating from the initial conditions in the form of the microcanonical density matrix for the cosmological model with a large number of quantum fields conformally coupled to gravity. Initial conditions for inflation are set up by cosmological instantons describing underbarrier oscillations in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum. These periodic oscillations of the inflaton field and cosmological scale factor are obtained within the approximation of two coupled oscillators subject to the slow roll regime in the Euclidean time. This regime is characterized by rapid oscillations of the scale factor on the background of a slowly varying inflaton, which guarantees smallness of slow roll parameters ε and η of the following inflation stage. A hill-like shape of the inflaton potential is shown to be generated by logarithmic loop corrections to the tree-level asymptotically shift-invariant potential in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and R{sup 2}-gravity. The solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale is discussed within the concept of conformal higher spin fields, which also suggests the mechanism bringing the model below the gravitational cutoff and, thus, protecting it from large graviton loop corrections.

  8. Spirit on 'Husband Hill,' with 2004 Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. On Nov. 2, 2005, shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image centered on the rover's location in the 'Columbia Hills.' The location of Spirit on that date is circled on the image on the right. On the left, for comparison, is an image from Jan. 10, 2004, when few dreamed that the Spirit would ever reach the hills from its landing site about three kilometers (two miles) away.

    The newer image has a resolution of about 50 centimeters (1.6 feet) per pixel. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude. Dr. Timothy J. Parker of the Mars Exploration Rover team at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., confirmed the location of the rover in the 2005 image. The scale bar is 50 meters (164 feet).

  9. Spirit's Neighborhood in 'Columbia Hills,' in Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Two Earth years ago, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit touched down in Gusev Crater. The rover marked its first Mars-year (687 Earth days) anniversary in November 2005. On Nov. 2, 2005, shortly before Spirit's Martian anniversary, the Mars Orbiter Camera on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor acquired an image covering approximately 3 kilometers by 3 kilometers (1.9 miles by 1.9 miles) centered on the rover's location in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    The tinted portion of this image gives a stereo, three-dimensional view when observed through 3-D glasses with a red left eye and blue right eye. The tallest peak is 'Husband Hill,' which was climbed by Spirit during much of 2005. The region south (toward the bottom) of these images shows the area where the rover is currently headed. The large dark patch and other similar dark patches in these images are accumulations of windblown sand and granules. North is up; illumination is from the left. The location is near 14.8 degrees south latitude, 184.6 degrees west longitude.

  10. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  11. 83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. GENERAL VIEW FROM NORTH END OF GUN HILL PLATFORM OF 3RD AVENUE EL SHOWING THE SOUTHBOUND TRACK APPROACH INTO GUN HILL STATION. 7TH AVENUE EXPRESS EL ABOVE. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  12. Abyssal hills: Influence of topography on benthic foraminiferal assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefanoudis, Paris V.; Bett, Brian J.; Gooday, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Abyssal plains, often thought of as vast flat areas, encompass a variety of terrains including abyssal hills, features that constitute the single largest landscape type on Earth. The potential influence on deep-sea benthic faunas of mesoscale habitat complexity arising from the presence of abyssal hills is still poorly understood. To address this issue we focus on benthic foraminifera (testate protists) in the >150-μm fraction of Megacorer samples (0-1 cm layer) collected at five different sites in the area of the Porcupine Abyssal Plain Sustained Observatory (NE Atlantic, 4850 m water depth). Three sites are located on the tops of small abyssal hills (200-500 m elevation) and two on the adjacent abyssal plain. We examined benthic foraminiferal assemblage characteristics (standing stock, diversity, composition) in relation to seafloor topography (hills vs. plain). Density and rarefied diversity were not significantly different between the hills and the plain. Nevertheless, hills do support a higher species density (i.e. species per unit area), a distinct fauna, and act to increase the regional species pool. Topographically enhanced bottom-water flows that influence food availability and sediment type are suggested as the most likely mechanisms responsible for these differences. Our findings highlight the potential importance of mesoscale heterogeneity introduced by relatively modest topography in regulating abyssal foraminiferal diversity. Given the predominance of abyssal hill terrain in the global ocean, we suggest the need to include faunal data from abyssal hills in assessments of abyssal ecology.

  13. Accounting for imperfect detection in Hill numbers for biodiversity studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Broms, Kristin M.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Fitzpatrick, Ryan M.

    2015-01-01

    The occupancy-based Hill number estimators are always at their asymptotic values (i.e. as if an infinite number of samples have been taken for the study region), therefore making it easy to compare biodiversity between different assemblages. In addition, the Hill numbers are computed as derived quantities within a Bayesian hierarchical model, allowing for straightforward inference.

  14. "This Delightfull Garden": "Rabbit Hill" and the Pastoral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Contends that Robert Lawson's children's book "Rabbit Hill" (1944) falls within the genre of pastoral literature, in the tradition of Edmund Spenser's "Faerie Queen." Examines the history of the genre and finds reasons for classifying Lawson's book as pastoral. Cites classic elements in "Rabbit Hill." Gives five…

  15. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking southwest - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  16. View of sports field from Easter Hill looking at intersection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field from Easter Hill looking at intersection of South Twenty-Sixth Street and Foothill Avenue at left center rear. Buildings No. 36, 35, 25, 27, and 29, from left to right. Looking northeast - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  17. View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of sports field and Easter Hill at west side of project site. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  18. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARD QUARTERMASTER BUILDINGS GROUP AND RESERVOIR HILL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW TO SOUTHEAST TOWARD QUARTERMASTER BUILDINGS GROUP AND RESERVOIR HILL, FROM AMMUNITION (IGLOO) HILL. (Part 2 of a 3 view panorama; see also CA-2398-J-1 and CA-2398-16.) - Hamilton Field, East of Nave Drive, Novato, Marin County, CA

  19. 1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CENTRAL IMPOUNDMENT AREA LOOKING SOUTH. PLANT DRY IS IN CENTER FOREGROUND, SLAG FUMING PLANT IS IN RIGHT FOREGROUND, AND BAG HOUSE IS IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. VARIOUS PLANT STACKS ARE ALSO VISIBLE. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  20. Spectral parameter power series representation for Hill's discriminant

    SciTech Connect

    Khmelnytskaya, K.V.; Rosu, H.C.

    2010-11-15

    We establish a series representation of the Hill discriminant based on the spectral parameter power series (SPPS) recently introduced by Kravchenko. We also show the invariance of the Hill discriminant under a Darboux transformation and employing the Mathieu case the feasibility of this type of series for numerical calculations of the eigenspectrum.

  1. View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of south boundary of Easter Hill project site for right of way for Hoffman Boulevard. Buildings No. 11 and 14 at right in trees. Looking west - Easter Hill Village, Bordered by South Twenty-sixth Street, South Twenty-eighth Street, Hinkley Avenue, Foothill Avenue & Corto Square, Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  2. VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING WEST TOWARD RESERVOIR HILL. THE SPRR HOTEL WAS LOCATED IN THE STRIPED AREA AT THE BOTTOM OF THE IMAGE, AND THE TRACK RAN BETWEEN THE HILL AND THE HOTEL. - Southern Pacific Railroad Water Settling Reservoir, Yuma Crossing, south bank of Colorado River at foot of Madison Avenue, Yuma, Yuma County, AZ

  3. Drawing entitled "Sketch of proposed site for Pine Hills Patrol ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Drawing entitled "Sketch of proposed site for Pine Hills Patrol Station, Cleveland National Forest, San Diego County, California. Surveyed by Norman McClean, U.S.F.S., January, 1934. - Pine Hills Station, Barracks, West Side of Boulder Creek Road at Engineers Road, Julian, San Diego County, CA

  4. 3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTHWEST. BUILDINGS NOTED IN ID-29-2 APPEAR, IN ADDITION TO DRY ORE PLANT AND BONNOT COAL PULVERIZING EQUIPMENT BUILDING ON THE RIGHT. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  5. 2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM CIA TO THE SOUTH. IN FOREGROUND, PLANT DRY, SLAG FUMING PLANT, BLAST FURNACE, SMELTER OFFICE, LEAD AND SILVER REFINERIES ARE VISIBLE, L. TO R. HIGH VELOCITY FLUE LEADS FROM LOWER PLANT TO BAG HOUSE AND STACKS AT TOP OF SMELTING FACILITY. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  6. Axillary shoulder with exaggerated rotation: the Hill-Sachs defect.

    PubMed

    Rafert, J A; Long, B W; Hernandez, E M; Kreipke, D L

    1990-01-01

    One of the most common fractures of the humeral head resulting from an anterior dislocation is the Hill-Sachs defect. Other special radiographic positions to demonstrate this injury may prove difficult for the patient to assume and maintain. An axillary shoulder projection with exaggerated external rotation is easy to position and clearly demonstrates the Hill-Sachs defect.

  7. OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF GOLD HILL MILL, ROAD, AND WHITE PINE TALC MINE LOOKING EAST. THE OPENING TO THE TALC MINE IS IN THE DARK AREA AT CENTER LEFT EDGE. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS OUT OF FRAME TO THE RIGHT. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  8. Decay of isolated hills and saddles on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Pierre; Brendel, Lothar; Roos, Kelly R.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Heringdorf, Frank-J. Meyer zu

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the high temperature decay of isolated hills and saddle points on Si(001). Using in situ dark-field imaging in low energy electron microscopy, we track the movement of individual steps during high temperature annealing. We find different temperature dependent decay rates for the top of the hill compared to a saddle point with low step density that is present in the vicinity of the hill. The decay rate of the hill is always higher than the decay rate at the saddle. The two rates converge with increasing temperature and become equal at temperatures above 1060 °C. We also report an alternating fast and low decay rate for the layer-by-layer decay of the hills. This surprising finding is independent of temperature and is explained by macroscopic strain in the sample.

  9. Comparisons of calculated and measured helicopter noise near instrument hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bass, Henry E.; You, Chulsoo

    1993-01-01

    The polar parabolic equation (POPE) method solves for the diffraction of sound by a curved surface including a realistic sound speed profile. POPE is outlined briefly to describe diffraction which propagates the field over a hill. Experimental data are compared with POPE predictions using the measured sound speed profile and ground impedance. Two trial cases are considered for the comparisons: the helicopter located at the base of the hill and far away from the base of the hill, respectively. The physical mechanisms for sound propagation over a hill are examined with and of POPE calculations and experimental data. The shedding of rays from the hillside gives an interference effect with a wave along the flat surface beyond the base of a hill.

  10. Operational teledermatology in Broken Hill, rural Australia.

    PubMed

    See, Adrian; Lim, Adrian C; Le, Katie; See, Jo-Ann; Shumack, Stephen P

    2005-08-01

    From January 2001 to January 2002, Broken Hill, New South Wales, served as a trial site for teledermatology as one method of access to dermatologists. Fourteen participating general practitioners referred 46 patients making up 48 teledermatology cases. The mean diagnostic agreement between general practitioners and dermatologists was 35% and 50% for primary and differential diagnoses, respectively. Teledermatology patients formed 12% of the collectively referred dermatology patients (outpatients and teledermatology). In this project, high patient and general practitioner acceptability and positive medical outcomes confirm the value of rural teledermatology. However, this project also revealed unexpected barriers and pitfalls in the effective operation of rural teledermatology. Lack of education of participants, inertia among potential users and patient inconvenience are issues that may adversely affect the effective implementation of rural teledermatology.

  11. Seeing sodomy: Fanny Hill's blinding vision.

    PubMed

    Kopelson, K

    1992-01-01

    One of the oddest and most erotic moments in Cleland's Fanny Hill occurs when Fanny is knocked "senseless" by a voyeuristic vision of two young men having anal intercourse. This sodomitical passage demonstrates a dominant culture's strong phobic attraction to a socially peripheral Other against which it defines itself. The passage also represents two types of transgression. On one level, it records an inversion of sex, gender, and class paradigms that structure bourgeois subjectivity. On another level, the passage also transgresses signification itself, exploding as well as inverting those paradigms, in a movement that recalls Barthes's distinction between the coded "studium" of the pornographic and the uncoded "punctum" of the erotic. This transgressive exemption from meaning might well be read, in a Barthesian sense, as true sexual enfranchisement in that, for Barthes, the liberation of sexuality requires the release of sexuality from meaning, and from transgression as meaning.

  12. The 1984 Morgan Hill, California, earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bakun, W.H.; Clark, M.M.; Cockerham, R.S.; Ellsworth, W.L.; Lindh, A.G.; Prescott, W.H.; Shakal, A.F.; Spudich, P.

    1984-01-01

    The Morgan Hill, California, earthquake (magnitude 6.1) of 24 April 1984 ruptured a 30-kilometer-long segment of the Calaveras fault zone to the east of San Jose. Although it was recognized in 1980 that an earthquake of magnitude 6 occurred on this segment in 1911 and that a repeat of this event might reasonably be expected, no short-term precursors were noted and so the time of the 1984 earthquake was not predicted. Unilateral rupture propagation toward the south-southeast and an energetic late source of seismic radiation located near the southeast end of the rupture zone contributed to the highly focused pattern of strong motion, including an exceptionally large horizontal acceleration of 1.29g at a site on a dam abutment near the southeast end of the rupture zone.

  13. AGU climate scientists visit Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hankin, Erik

    2012-02-01

    On 1 February 2012, AGU teamed with 11 other scientific societies to bring 29 scientists researching various aspects of climate change to Washington, D. C., for the second annual Climate Science Day on Capitol Hill. The participants represented a wide range of expertise, from meteorology to agriculture, paleoclimatology to statistics, but all spoke to the reality of climate change as demonstrated in their scientific research. With Congress debating environmental regulations and energy policy amid tight fiscal pressures, it is critical that lawmakers have access to the best climate science to help guide policy decisions. The scientists met with legislators and their staff to discuss the importance of climate science for their districts and the nation and offered their expertise as an ongoing resource to the legislators.

  14. After Conquering 'Husband Hill,' Spirit Moves On

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The first explorer ever to scale a summit on another planet, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has begun a long trek downward from the top of 'Husband Hill' to new destinations. As shown in this 180-degree panorama from east of the summit, Spirit's earlier tracks are no longer visible. They are off to the west (to the left in this view). Spirit's next destination is 'Haskin Ridge,' straight ahead along the edge of the steep cliff on the right side of this panorama.

    The scene is a mosaic of images that Spirit took with the navigation camera on the rover's 635th Martian day, or sol, (Oct. 16, 2005) of exploration of Gusev Crater on Mars. This view is presented in a cylindrical projection with geometric seam correction.

  15. Ash and Steam, Soufriere Hills Volcano, Monserrat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    International Space Station crew members are regularly alerted to dynamic events on the Earth's surface. On request from scientists on the ground, the ISS crew observed and recorded activity from the summit of Soufriere Hills on March 20, 2002. These two images provide a context view of the island (bottom) and a detailed view of the summit plume (top). When the images were taken, the eastern side of the summit region experienced continued lava growth, and reports posted on the Smithsonian Institution's Weekly Volcanic Activity Report indicate that 'large (50-70 m high), fast-growing, spines developed on the dome's summit. These spines periodically collapsed, producing pyroclastic flows down the volcano's east flank that sometimes reached the Tar River fan. Small ash clouds produced from these events reached roughly 1 km above the volcano and drifted westward over Plymouth and Richmond Hill. Ash predominately fell into the sea. Sulfur dioxide emission rates remained high. Theodolite measurements of the dome taken on March 20 yielded a dome height of 1,039 m.' Other photographs by astronauts of Montserrat have been posted on the Earth Observatory: digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001; and a recolored and reprojected version of the same image. Digital photograph numbers ISS004-E-8972 and 8973 were taken 20 March, 2002 from Space Station Alpha and were provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  16. Descent from the Summit of 'Husband Hill' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    In late November 2005 while descending 'Husband Hill,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took the most detailed panorama so far of the 'Inner Basin,' the rover's next target destination. Spirit acquired the 405 individual images that make up this 360-degree view of the surrounding terrain using five different filters on the panoramic camera. The rover took the images on Martian days, or sols, 672 to 677 (Nov. 23 to 28, 2005 -- the Thanksgiving holiday weekend).

    This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters, emphasizing some colors more than others to enhance striking but subtle color differences among rocks, soils, hills, and plains.

    'Home Plate,' a bright, semi-circular feature scientists hope to investigate, is harder to discern in this image than in earlier views taken from higher up the hill. Spirit acquired this more oblique view, known as the 'Seminole panorama,' from about halfway down the south flank of Husband Hill, 50 meters (164 feet) or so below the summit. Near the center of the panorama, on the horizon, are 'McCool Hill' and 'Ramon Hill,' named, like Husband Hill, in honor of the fallen astronauts of the space shuttle Columbia. Husband Hill is visible behind the rover, on the right and left sides of the panorama. An arc of rover tracks made while avoiding obstacles and getting into position to examine rock outcrops can be traced over a long distance by zooming in to explore the panorama in greater detail.

    Spirit is now significantly farther downhill toward the center of this panorama, en route to Home Plate and other enigmatic soils and outcrop rocks in the quest to uncover the history of Gusev Crater and the 'Columbia Hills.'

  17. Evolution of the Puente Hills Thrust Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, K. J.; Shaw, J. H.; Dolan, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    This study aims to assess the evolution of the blind Puente Hills thrust fault system (PHT) by determining its age of initiation, lateral propagation history, and changes in slip rate over time. The PHT presents one of the largest seismic hazards in the United States, given its location beneath downtown Los Angeles. The PHT is comprised of three fault segments: the Los Angeles (LA), Santa Fe Springs (SFS), and Coyote Hills (CH). The LA and SFS segments are characterized by growth stratigraphy where folds formed by uplift on the fault segments have been continually buried by sediment from the Los Angeles and San Gabriel rivers. The CH segment has developed topography and is characterized by onlapping growth stratigraphy. This depositional setting gives us the unique opportunity to measure uplift on the LA and SFS fault segments, and minimum uplift on the CH fault segment, as the difference in sediment thicknesses across the buried folds. We utilize depth converted oil industry seismic reflection data to image the fold geometries. Identifying time-correlative stratigraphic markers for slip rate determination in the basin has been a problem for researchers in the past, however, as the faunal assemblages observed in wells are time-transgressive by nature. To overcome this, we utilize the sequence stratigraphic model and well picks of Ponti et al. (2007) as a basis for mapping time-correlative sequence boundaries throughout our industry seismic reflection data from the present to the Pleistocene. From the Pleistocene to Miocene we identify additional sequence boundaries in our seismic reflection data from imaged sequence geometries and by correlating industry well formation tops. The sequence and formation top picks are then used to build 3-dimensional surfaces in the modeling program Gocad. From these surfaces we measure the change in thicknesses across the folds to obtain uplift rates between each sequence boundary. Our results show three distinct phases of

  18. The Gas Hills uranium district and some probable controls for ore deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeller, Howard Davis

    1957-01-01

    Uranium deposits occur in the upper coarse-grained facies of the Wind River formation of Eocene age in the Gas Hills district of the southern part of the Wind River Basin. Some of the principal deposits lie below the water table in the unoxidized zone and consist of uraninite and coffinite occurring as interstitial fillings in irregular blanket-like bodies. In the near-surface deposits that lie above the water table, the common yellow uranium minerals consist of uranium phosphates, silicates, and hydrous oxides. The black unoxidized uraninite -coffinite ores show enrichment of molybdenum, arsenic, and selenium when compared to the barren sandstone. Probable geologic controls for ore deposits include: 1) permeable sediments that allowed passage of ore-bearing solutions; 2) numerous faults that acted as impermeable barriers impounding the ore -bearing solutions; 3) locally abundant pyrite, carbonaceous material, and natuial gas containing hydrogen sulfide that might provide a favorable environment for precipitation of uranium. Field and laboratory evidence indicate that the uranium deposits in the Gas Hills district are very young and related to the post-Miocene to Pleistocene regional tilting to the south associated with the collapse of the Granite Mountains fault block. This may have stopped or reversed ground water movement from a northward (basinward) direction and alkaline ground water rich in carbonate could have carried the uranium into the favorable environment that induced precipitation.

  19. 18. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 26, 1936 FIREPLACE IN DINING ROOM, The Davenport House, Rock Island Arsenal - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  20. 258. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    258. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS ANCHOR ARM AT PIERS E- AND E-2, SOUTH SIDE, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. VIEW NORTH ON WEST SIDE OF GUN HILL PLATFORM SHOWING LAMP STANDARDS FOR NIGHT LIGHTNING. - Interborough Rapid Transit Company, Third Avenue Elevated Line, Borough of the Bronx, New York County, NY

  2. 28. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CREST OF HILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CREST OF HILL ABOVE EAST TOWER. NOTE SWAY CABLES ON EACH SIDE OF THE WALKWAY. March 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  3. 184. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    184. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER DECK EXPANSION JOINT AT PIER W-2, FACING WEST-SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 10, 1936 CAST IRON GATE AT 1352 W. Washington Blvd., Chicago - Chicago Ironwork, William M. Strong Estate (Cast Iron House & Gate), 1352 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 FENCE RAILING 1133 WEST WASHINGTON BLVD. - Chicago Ironwork, 1133 West Washington Boulevard (Cast Iron Fence & Railing), 1133 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July, 1936 PORCH RAILING, 1149 W. WASHINGTON Blvd. - Chicago Ironwork, 1149 West Washington Boulevard (Cast Iron Stair Railing), 1149 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  7. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer April 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer April 1, 1936 MANTEL 1352 W. Washington Blvd., Chicago - Chicago Ironwork, William M. Strong Estate (Cast Iron House & Gate), 1352 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Context view looking west from hill with tree in foreground. Entist Mountains are in distance. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  9. Modal comparison of Yamato and Allan Hills polymict eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delaney, J. S.; Prinz, M.; Takeda, H.

    1983-01-01

    Seven Yamato and six Allan Hills polymict eucrite specimens were compared by modal analysis. The analyses reveal differences of plagioclase and pyroxene content between the two groups. The Yamato suite has more 'pigeonitic' pyroxene and less plagioclase and low-calcium pyroxene than the Allan Hills suite. Variations within each suite are small and three sections of Allan Hills A78040 are more variable than the Allen Hills suite considered as a group. Modal data provides a basis for pairing polymict eucrite specimens when used together with mineralogical and petrographic criteria. Modal data furthermore confirms the presence of several rock types previously identified using pyroxene crystallography and hints at the presence of an augite-rich component.

  10. 12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ARROYO SECO PARKWAY SEEN FROM RADIO TOWER HILL. NOTE PARALLEL SURFACE STREET AT LEFT AND AVENUE 43 BRIDGE AT RIGHT. LOOKING 342° NNW. - Arroyo Seco Parkway, Los Angeles to Pasadena, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  11. View looking east over coal tipple toward Friendship Hill, home ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking east over coal tipple toward Friendship Hill, home of Albert Gallatin, in right background behine bridge. - Monongahela Railroad, New Geneva Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River, South of Lock & Dam No. 7, New Geneva, Fayette County, PA

  12. 117. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW UP ESSEX STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    117. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW UP ESSEX STREET AT UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 132. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    132. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP FROM NATOMA STREET BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND STREETS, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 122. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    122. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, SOUTHWEST OF FIRST STREET, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 139. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF TRANSBAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    139. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP CROSSING OVER HARRISON STREET, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 127. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TRANSBAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    127. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP CROSSING OVER HOWARD STREET NORTHEAST OF BEALE STREET, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 124. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    124. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP CROSSING OVER FREMONT STREET, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 137. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    137. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP AT SPLIT, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 129. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    129. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP FROM HOWARD STREET NORTHEAST OF BEALE STREET, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 136. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    136. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP AT SPLIT (FROM GROUND LEVEL), FACING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. 135. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    135. Dennis Hill, Photographer December 1997 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP AT SPLIT, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 134. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    134. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP NEAR SPLIT, WITH SUSPENSION BRIDGE IN DISTANT BACKGROUND, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    234. Dennis Hill, Photographer July 1998 VIEW OF BUS STOP, UPPER DECK OF YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 125. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    125. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP CROSSING OVER BEALE STREET BETWEEN FOLSOM AND HOWARD STREETS, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 119. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    119. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP NEAR FOLSOM STREET, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    123. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP DESCENDING TO FREMONT STREET, WITH TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP BEHIND, FACING NORTH. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 133. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    133. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP FROM HOWARD STREET BETWEEN FIRST AND SECOND STREETS, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 128. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    128. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UNDERSIDE OF TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP CROSSING OVER HOWARD STREET NORTHEAST OF BEALE STREET, FACING NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EXTERIOR, A view looking northwest from far hill toward the Mounds complex and the HH Building - Department of Energy, Mound Facility, Hydrolysis House Building (HH Building), One Mound Road, Miamisburg, Montgomery County, OH

  10. 233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    233. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF LOWER DECK AND KEY SYSTEM STATION CANOPY, YERBA BUENA EAST VIADUCT, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 215. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF STRAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    215. Dennis Hill, Photographer May 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF STRAND SHOES AND STORM CABLE EYE BARS IN YERBA BUENA ANCHORAGE, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 266. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    266. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION EYE BARS AND COMPRESSION MEMBERS ABOVE UPPER DECK, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 265. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    265. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF TENSION EYE BARS AT CANTILEVER TRUSS, FACING SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. TRANSMISSION MAIN, PLAN AND PROFILE, INDEX SHEET. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no date, no number. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  15. 23. CUESTA TUNNEL, PORTAL STRUCTURES. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. CUESTA TUNNEL, PORTAL STRUCTURES. Leeds, Hill, Barnard & Jewett drawing, no number, revised 10/10/41. - Salinas River Project, Cuesta Tunnel, Southeast of U.S. 101, San Luis Obispo, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  16. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer Spring 1937 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer Spring 1937 DETAIL OF CORNICE AND SECOND FLOOR WINDOW TRIM. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  17. 170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    170. Credit SHS. Northern California Power Company substation, Bully Hill Mine area. Note lack of vegetation, caused by nearby copper smelting works. - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  18. 24. VIEW FORM NORTHWEST, WHERE HOUSE RECEDES INTO HILL, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. VIEW FORM NORTHWEST, WHERE HOUSE RECEDES INTO HILL, SHOWING ROOF, CHIMNEY AND OCTAGONAL SKYLIGHT TO KITCHEN IN CENTER - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 STAIR RAILING, 66 WEST OAK STREET - Chicago Ironwork, 66 West Oak Street (Cast Iron Stair Railing), 66 West Oak Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  20. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer October 1936 #12 EARLY RED BRICK HOUSE, Elk and Prospect Sts., Galena, Illinois - Galena Doorways, Red Brick House, Elk & Prospect Streets, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  1. 46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. LINED SECTION OF AQUEDUCT LOOKING NORTH TO ALABAMA HILLS - Los Angeles Aqueduct, From Lee Vining Intake (Mammoth Lakes) to Van Norman Reservoir Complex (San Fernando Valley), Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT, EARLY PHOTO OF HOUSE DATE UNKNOWN. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  3. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 COPIED FROM AN OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY MRS. NELLY MUNRO - Old Baptist Parsonage, Snyder & Virginia Streets, Sublette, Lee County, IL

  4. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Joseph Hill from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Joseph Hill from an old photograph loaned by Alice Snyder, Galena, Illinois. SOUTH EAST ELEVATION - Grace Episcopal Church, South Prospect Street, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  5. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Joseph Hill from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Copied by Joseph Hill from photograph loaned by the Illinois Bell Telephone Co. SOUTH EAST ELEVATION - Grace Episcopal Church, South Prospect Street, Galena, Jo Daviess County, IL

  6. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF AN OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT, ARSENAL ISLAND 1870 - Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT, FORT ARMSTRONG 1819 FROM A MODEL IN ARSENAL MUSEUM - Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer COL. DAVENPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer COL. DAVENPORT Copy of an old photograph loaned by the commandant. - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  9. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT, FORT ARMSTRONG ARSENAL ISLAND 1819 - Fort Armstrong, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  10. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT. DATE UNKNOWN - Rock Island Arsenal, Building No. 346, Davenport Drive, Arsenal Grounds, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  11. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer May 1936 COPY OF AN OLD PHOTOGRAPH LOANED BY THE COMMANDANT, EARLY BRIDGE ACROSS MISSISSIPPI RIVER, DATE UNKNOWN. - Bridge Spanning Mississippi River, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  12. 12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW FROM PARKWAY MEDIAN TO SPORT HILL ROAD BRIDGE, Copy of photograph ca. 1940. Collection Connecticut Department of Transportation. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  13. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 1936 BRONZE TABLET HISTORICAL MARKER - Hobson Grist Mill (Monument & Millstones), DuPage County Pioneer Park, Naperville, Du Page County, IL

  14. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 1936 BALCONY RAILING, 945 NO. DEARBORN ST. JUDGE CARPENTER'S HOME - Chicago Ironwork, Judge Carpenter House (Cast Iron Balcony Railing), 945 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer June, 1936 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer June, 1936 DETAIL OF BALCONY RAILING, 945 NO. DEARBORN ST. JUDGE CARPENTER'S HOME - Chicago Ironwork, Judge Carpenter House (Cast Iron Balcony Railing), 945 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  16. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer July 10, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (Copied from student's drawing, Dept. of Architecture, Armour Institute of Technology. Chicago) - Keating House, U.S. Highway 430, Fayville, Alexander County, IL

  17. 126. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF SUPPORT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    126. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP CROSSING OVER BEALE STREET, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 154. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    154. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF ENTRY DOOR TO SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE AT BEALE STREET, FACING SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  19. 158. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 VIEW DOWN BEALE STREET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    158. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 VIEW DOWN BEALE STREET TOWARD HARRISON STREET BRIDGE, WITH SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE AND CONTINUOUS SPAN IN BACKGROUND, FACING SOUTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 305. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    305. Dennis Hill, Photographer June 1998 DETAIL VIEW OF UPPER DECK GUARDRAIL AT DECK TRUSS SPANS, FACING WEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. SRTM Anaglyph: Haro and Kas Hills

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    On January 26, 2001 the Kachchh region in western India suffered the most deadly earthquake in India's history. This three-dimensional view of landforms northeast of the city of Bhuj depicts geologic structures that are of interest in the study the tectonic processes that may have led to that earthquake. However, preliminary field studies indicate that these structures are composed of Mesozoic rocks that are overlain by younger rocks showing little deformation. Thus these structures may be old, not actively growing, and not directly related to the recent earthquake.

    The Haro Hills are on the left and the Kas Hills are on the right. The Haro Hills are an 'anticline,' which is an upwardly convex elongated fold of layered rocks. The anticline is distinctly ringed by an erosion resistant layer of sandstone. The east-west orientation of the anticline may relate to the crustal compression that has occurred during India's northward movement toward, and collision with, Asia. In contrast, the largest of the Kas Hills appears to be a tilted (to the south) and faulted (on the north) block of layered rocks. Also seen here, the curvilinear ridge trending toward the southwest from the image center is an erosion resistant 'dike,' which is an igneous intrusion into older 'host' rocks along a fault plane or other crack. The dike also appears to extend northeast from the image center as a dark line having very little topography. Its location between the tilted block and a smaller anticline to the north (directly east of the larger anticline) probably indicates that the dike fills the fault that separates these contrasting geologic structures. These features are simple examples of how digital elevation data can stereoscopically enhance satellite imagery to provide a direct input to geologic studies.

    The stereoscopic effect of this anaglyph was created by first draping a Landsat satellite image (taken just two weeks after the earthquake) over preliminary digital elevation

  2. Steamboat Hills exploratory slimhole: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, F.D.; Hickox, C.E.; Eaton, R.R.

    1994-10-01

    During July-September, 1993, Sandia National Laboratories, in cooperation with Far West Capital, drilled a 4000 feet exploratory slimhole (3.9 inch diameter) in the Steamboat Hills geothermal field near Reno, Nevada. This well was part of Sandia`s program to evaluate slimholes as a geothermal exploration tool. During and after drilling the authors performed four series of production and injection tests while taking downhole (pressure-temperature-spinner) and surface (wellhead pressure and temperature, flow rate) data. In addition to these measurements, the well`s data set includes: continuous core (with detailed log); borehole televiewer images of the wellbore`s upper 500 feet; daily drilling reports from Sandia and from drilling contractor personnel; daily drilling fluid record; numerous temperature logs; and comparative data from production and injection wells in the same field. This report contains: (1) a narrative account of the drilling and testing, (2) a description of equipment used, (3) a brief geologic description of the formation drilled, (4) a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data, and (5) recommendations for future work.

  3. Bunker Hill Superfund site: Ecological restoration program

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.; Chaney, R.; Henry, C.L.; Compton, H.

    1998-12-31

    Bunker Hill ID was the site of mining and smelting activities for many decades. As a result of these activities, soils on the hillsides adjacent to the site became contaminated with Pb, Zn, and Cd. In addition to metal contamination, pH of the soils became highly acidic. Native vegetation has died off and the soils have become highly erosive. An application of municipal biosolids in combination with wood ash and log yard wood waste was made to test the potential of this remediation mixture to reduce erosion, correct soil pH, and support a self sustaining vegetative cover. Biosolids improve soil physical properties and provide macro and micro nutrients. Wood ash serves as a lime substitute and a source of nutrients. Log yard waste improves physical properties and has a high C:N ratio that reduces the potential for N leaching. Initial results are promising. A healthy stand of grasses and legumes has been established. In addition, the application mixture has proven itself to be highly resistant to erosion.

  4. After runaway: The trans-Hill stage of planetesimal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lithwick, Yoram

    2014-01-01

    When planetesimals begin to grow by coagulation, they first enter an epoch of runaway, during which the biggest bodies grow faster than all the others. The questions of how runaway ends and what comes next have not been answered satisfactorily. We show that runaway is followed by a new stage—the 'trans-Hill stage'—that commences when the bodies that dominate viscous stirring ('big bodies') become trans-Hill, i.e., when their Hill velocity matches the random speed of the small bodies they accrete. Subsequently, the small bodies' random speed grows in lockstep with the big bodies' sizes, such that the system remains in the trans-Hill state. Trans-Hill growth is crucial for determining the efficiency of growing big bodies, as well as their growth timescale and size spectrum. Trans-Hill growth has two sub-stages. In the earlier one, which occurs while the stirring bodies remain sufficiently small, the evolution is collisionless, i.e., collisional cooling among all bodies is irrelevant. The efficiency of forming big bodies in this collisionless sub-stage is very low, ∼10α << 1, where α ∼ 0.005(a/AU){sup –1} is the ratio between the physical size of a body and its Hill radius. Furthermore, the size spectrum is flat (equal mass per size decade, i.e., q = 4). This collisionless trans-Hill solution explains results from previous coagulation simulations for both the Kuiper Belt and the asteroid belt. The second trans-Hill sub-stage commences once the stirring bodies grow big enough (>α{sup –1} × the size of the accreted small bodies). After that time, collisional cooling among small bodies controls the evolution. The efficiency of forming big bodies rises and the size spectrum becomes more top heavy. Trans-Hill growth can terminate in one of two ways, depending on the sizes of the small bodies. First, mutual accretion of big bodies can become significant and conglomeration proceeds until half of the total mass is converted into big bodies. This mode of growth

  5. Stormwater Management Plan for the Arden Hills Army Training Site, Arden Hills, Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, Adrianne E.; Wuthrich, Kelsey K.; Ziech, Angela M.; Bowen, Esther E.; Quinn, John

    2013-03-01

    This stormwater management plan focuses on the cantonment and training areas of the Arden Hills Army Training Site (AHATS). The plan relates the site stormwater to the regulatory framework, and it summarizes best management practices to aide site managers in promoting clean site runoff. It includes documentation for a newly developed, detailed model of stormwater flow retention for the entire AHATS property and adjacent upgradient areas. The model relies on established modeling codes integrated in a U.S. Department of Defense-sponsored software tool, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS), and it can be updated with data on changes in land use or with monitoring data.

  6. 27 CFR 9.162 - Sta. Rita Hills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). (3) “Los Alamos, Calif.,” edition of 1959. (4) “Santa Rosa Hills, Calif.,” edition of 1959... the heart of the Santa Rosa Land Grant, T.7N., R. 32W, on the Santa Rosa Hills, Calif., Quadrangle U.S... the northeastern part of the Santa Rosa Land Grant, T.7N, R. 32W, on the Los Alamos,...

  7. 1. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking southsoutheast. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking south-southeast. From left to right, buildings visible are (B) two-story hall-and-parlor house; (k) small barn; (A) mansion' (G( shed; (H) shed; (I) log tobacco barn; (H and D) shed and center chimney four-room cabin; (E and (A) one-room cabin in front of mansion; (J) hay barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  8. 2. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking north from (F) two-room cabin. From left to right, buildings visible are (I) log tobacco barn; (H and D) shed and center chimney four-room cabin; (E and (A) one-room cabin in front of mansion; (J) hay barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  9. 3. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view of Fort Hill Farm, view looking west from (B) two-story hall-and-parlor house. Buildings visible, from left to right, are (B) parlor house porch; (E) one-room cabin; (D) center chimney four-room cabin; (J) hay barn; (I) log tobacco barn; (A) mansion, obscured by trees; (M) stable; (K) small barn. - Fort Hill Farm, West of Staunton (Roanoke) River between Turkey & Caesar's Runs, Clover, Halifax County, VA

  10. 4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. BUNKER HILL LEAD SMELTER. VIEW IS FROM RIDGE ABOVE GOVERNMENT GULCH LOOKING TO THE EAST. IN THE RIGHT MID GROUND, CARPENTER SHOP BUILDINGS AND FRAMING SHEDS ARE VISIBLE. THE BACKGROUND FACILITIES VISIBLE FROM L. TO R. ARE: SMELTER OFFICE, REFINERIES, SLAG FUMING STACKS, HIGH VELOCITY FLUE, BAG HOUSE, 200-FOOT STACK, AND 715-FOOT STACK. - Bunker Hill Lead Smelter, Bradley Rail Siding, Kellogg, Shoshone County, ID

  11. Water Quality Studies: Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill Lakes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    studies at Richard B. Russell and Clarks Hill lakes , Georgia and South Carolina. The study objectives were to document water quality conditions in each...Monitoring Program - Richard B. Russell Dam and Lake , Georgia and South Carolina" (Intra-Army Order No. PD-EI-84-07). Portions of these studies were...by the U. S. Army Corps of Engi- neers, is situated between Hartwell and Clarks Hill Lakes . 7. Concerns over the potential environmental and water

  12. SOUTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. THE PRIMARY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING NORTH. THE PRIMARY ORE BIN IS A CENTER, WITH A JAW CRUSHER JUST TO THE RIGHT. A CONVEYOR (MISSING) WAS USED TO CARRY CRUSHED ORE UP AND INTO THE SECONDARY ORE BIN. THE STONE RAMP TO THE LEFT OF THE ORE BIN WAS USED TO DRIVE TRUCKS UP TO DUMPING LEVEL. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  13. Geologic and paleoecologic studies of the Nebraska Sand Hills

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ahlbrandt, Thomas S.; Fryberger, S.G.; Hanley, John H.; Bradbury, J. Platt

    1980-01-01

    PART A: The Nebraska Sand Hills are an inactive, late Quaternary, most probably Holocene, dune field (covering 57,000 km 2 ) that have been eroded along streams and in blowouts, resulting in excellent lateral and vertical exposures of the stratification of dune and interdune sediments. This paper presents new data on the geometry, primary sedimentary structures, modification of sedimentary structures, direction of sand movement, and petrography of these eolian deposits. Eolian deposits of the Sand Hills occur as relatively thin (9-24 m) 'blanket' sands, composed of a complex of dune and discontinuous, diachronous interdune deposits unconformably overlying fluviolacustrine sediments. The internal stratification of large dunes in the Sand Hills (as high as 100 m), is similar to the internal stratification of smaller dunes of the same type in the Sand Hills, differing only in scale. Studies of laminae orientation in the Sand Hills indicate that transverse, barchan, and blowout dunes can be differentiated in rocks of eolian origin using both the mean dip angle of laminae and the mean angular deviation of dip direction. A variety of secondary structures modify or replace primary eolian stratification in the Sand Hills, the more common of which are dissipation structures and bioturbation. Dissipation structures in the Sand Hills may develop when infiltrating water deposits clay adjacent to less permeable layers in the sand, or along the upper margins of frozen layers that form in the sands during winter. Cross-bed measurements from dunes of the Nebraska Sand Hills necessitate a new interpretation of the past sand transport directions. The data from these measurements indicate a general northwest-to-southeast drift of sand, with a more southerly drift in the southeast part of the Sand Hills. A large area of small dunes < 100 m high) described by Smith (1965) as linear or seif in the central part of the Sand Hills was interpreted by him on the basis of morphology only. We

  14. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  15. Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…

  16. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  17. Young Children as Activists: Celebrating Black History Month and Marian Wright Edelman's Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Brigitte Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the life of Marian Wright Edelman, a kindergarten class from Capitol Hill Day School conducted a demonstration for the needs and rights of children and marched across the brick paths of Lafayette Park in Washington, DC, directly across the street from the White House. Marian Wright Edelman was the subject of a school-wide Black History…

  18. Stargazing at 'Husband Hill Observatory' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit continues to take advantage of extra solar energy by occasionally turning its cameras upward for night sky observations. Most recently, Spirit made a series of observations of bright star fields from the summit of 'Husband Hill' in Gusev Crater on Mars. Scientists use the images to assess the cameras' sensitivity and to search for evidence of nighttime clouds or haze. The image on the left is a computer simulation of the stars in the constellation Orion. The next three images are actual views of Orion captured with Spirit's panoramic camera during exposures of 10, 30, and 60 seconds.

    Because Spirit is in the southern hemisphere of Mars, Orion appears upside down compared to how it would appear to viewers in the Northern Hemisphere of Earth. 'Star trails' in the longer exposures are a result of the planet's rotation. The faintest stars visible in the 60-second exposure are about as bright as the faintest stars visible with the naked eye from Earth (about magnitude 6 in astronomical terms). The Orion Nebula, famous as a nursery of newly forming stars, is also visible in these images. Bright streaks in some parts of the images aren't stars or meteors or unidentified flying objects, but are caused by solar and galactic cosmic rays striking the camera's detector. Spirit acquired these images with the panoramic camera on Martian day, or sol, 632 (Oct. 13, 2005) at around 45 minutes past midnight local time, using the camera's broadband filter (wavelengths of 739 nanometers plus or minus 338 nanometers).

  19. Styles of deformation in zones of oblique convergence: An example from the Mecca Hills, southern San Andreas Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damte, Alula Bereded

    The Mecca Hills area, located along the Coachella Valley segment of the San Andreas fault was characterized by a period of basin formation and sediment accumulation between ˜2.3 Ma and 0.8 Ma. Transpression and basin inversion in the last 700 ka, which resulted from an 8sp° angular difference between the orientation of the Mecca Hills segment of the San Andreas fault and the Pacific-North American plate motion vector, is accommodated by two end member and contrasting styles of deformation. The Mecca anticline, Mecca syncline, and numerous small scale folds along the Painted Canyon and San Andreas faults, in the Painted Canyon domain, are on average oriented 30sp° counter-clockwise from the San Andreas fault, typical of distributed style of deformation. On the other hand, the Skeleton Canyon syncline, Chuckawalla syncline and Skeleton Canyon reverse/thrust fault, in Skeleton Canyon domain, have formed parallel to the San Andreas fault, in partitioned style of deformation. Gravity modeling in the Mecca Hills area shows that the morphology of the basement surface follows large scale structures in the overlying sedimentary units, indicating that part of the basement and the overlying sedimentary unit deformed as one. However, it is postulated that no more than the upper 3-4 km of the basement has been shortened during transpression based on a volume balance calculation in laterally confined deformation. In the absence of shallow level detachment, basement involved deformation in the Painted Canyon domain is accommodated by distributed style of deformation. The intensely deformed, silt-dominated Box Canyon sub-member of the upper Palm Spring Formation provides the mechanically weak layer that is required to partition oblique strain into its respective components in the Skeleton Canyon domain. Therefore, local anisotropy, expressed as mechanical layering between competent and incompetent units, has been found to be sufficient to produce contrasting styles of

  20. Black Talk and Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book…

  1. Building on Decades of Research on the McMurdo Volcanic Group, Antarctica: A Geologic Field Guide to Observation Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, K. S.; Panter, K. S.

    2008-12-01

    Based on more than four decades of research on the rocks of the Erebus Volcanic Province of the McMurdo Volcanic Group, a geologic field guide to the Observation Hill walking tracks near McMurdo Station, Antarctica has been developed. The geologic field guide was an outcome of questions generated by: (1) Teachers participating in the Andrill Research Immersion for Science Educators (ARISE) program; (2) McMurdo Station support staff, as well as (3) Geoscientists with specialties outside volcanology and petrology. Whilst these individuals are acutely aware of the more than a century of references to Observation Hill in exploration literature, there was little in the way of easily-accessible information about the geologic history of Hut Point and Observation Hill, as well as other nearby volcanoes (e.g. Mt. Erebus, White and Black Islands) and larger scale geologic features (e.g. Transantarctic Mountains) that can be seen from the vantage point of Observation Hill. Questions also focused on smaller scale features of the landscape (e.g. patterned ground) and textures and minerals observed in volcanic rocks exposed on the trails. In order to encompass the wide-ranging background of the audience and facilitate access, the field guide will be available in three formats: (1) A downloadable MP3 file, which includes the general information and stop-by- stop information; (2) A double-sided paper brochure that provides a relatively simple, easier-to-digest guide to views and geologic features; (3) A Google Earth Layer that includes access to the MP3 files and the paper brochure, as well as additional geologic information. Links to the field guide can be found at http://www.andrill.org/education.

  2. Variations on Black Themes: English, Black Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gloria D.

    Variations on Black Themes, an introductory course in the study of black literature, permits students to make cursory examination of representative works of many black writers for the purpose of identifying major writers and recurring themes. The course content includes: introduction to some works of major Black American authors; identification of…

  3. Incubational domain characterization in lightly doped ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Li Zhipeng; Mori, Toshiyuki; John Auchterlonie, Graeme; Zou Jin; Drennan, John

    2012-08-15

    Microstructures of both Gd- and Y-doped ceria with different doping level (i.e., 10 at% and 25 at%) have been comprehensively characterized by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction. Coherent nano-sized domains can be widely observed in heavily doped ceria. Nevertheless, it was found that a large amount of dislocations actually exist in lightly doped ceria instead of heavily doped ones. Furthermore, incubational domains can be detected in lightly doped ceria, with dislocations located at the interfaces. The interactions between such linear dislocations and dopant defects have been simulated accordingly. As a consequence, the formation mechanism of incubational domains is rationalized in terms of the interaction between intrinsic dislocations of doped ceria and dopant defects. This study offers the insights into the initial state and related mechanism of the formation of nano-sized domains, which have been widely observed in heavily rare-earth-doped ceria in recent years. - Graphical abstract: Interactions between dislocations and dopants lead to incubational domain formation in lightly doped ceria. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Microstructures were characterized in both heavily and light Gd-/Y-doped ceria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dislocations are existed in lightly doped ceria rather than heavily doped one. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interactions between dislocations and dopant defects were simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Formation of dislocation associated incubational domain is rationalized.

  4. Reinforcement Learning in Distributed Domains: Beyond Team Games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.; Sill, Joseph; Turner, Kagan

    2000-01-01

    Distributed search algorithms are crucial in dealing with large optimization problems, particularly when a centralized approach is not only impractical but infeasible. Many machine learning concepts have been applied to search algorithms in order to improve their effectiveness. In this article we present an algorithm that blends Reinforcement Learning (RL) and hill climbing directly, by using the RL signal to guide the exploration step of a hill climbing algorithm. We apply this algorithm to the domain of a constellations of communication satellites where the goal is to minimize the loss of importance weighted data. We introduce the concept of 'ghost' traffic, where correctly setting this traffic induces the satellites to act to optimize the world utility. Our results indicated that the bi-utility search introduced in this paper outperforms both traditional hill climbing algorithms and distributed RL approaches such as team games.

  5. Water quality in the vicinity of Fenton Hill, 1987 and 1988. [Fenton Hill site

    SciTech Connect

    Purtymun, W.D.; Ferenbaugh, R.W.; Maes, M.N.; Williams, M.C.

    1991-03-01

    Water-quality data have been collected since 1974 from established surface- and ground-water stations at, and in the vicinity of, Fenton Hill (site of the Laboratory's Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project). The site is located on the southwest edge of the Valles Caldera in the Jemez Mountains. To determine the chemical quality of water, data were collected in 1987 and 1988 from 13 surface-water stations and 19 ground-water stations. The classification of the water quality is made on the basis of predominated ions and total dissolved solids. There are four classifications of surface water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, calcium and sulfate, and sodium and bicarbonate) and three classifications of ground water (sodium and chloride, calcium and bicarbonate, and sodium and bicarbonate). Variations in the chemical quality of the surface and ground water in 1987 and 1988 are apparent when data are compared with each other and with previous analyses. These variations are not considered significant, as they are in the range of normal seasonal changes. Cumulative production since 1976 from the supply well at Fenton Hill has been about 63 {times} 10{sup 6} gal, with a decline in the water level of the well of about 14 ft, or about 1.4 ft/yr. The aquifer penetrated by the well is still capable of reliable supply to the site for a number of years, based on past production. The quality of water from the well has deteriorated slightly; however, the water quality is in compliance with drinking water standards. The effects of discharge from the storage ponds into an adjacent canyon have been monitored by trace metal analyses of vegetation and soil. The study indicates minimal effects, which will be undetectable in a few years if there are no further releases of effluents into the canyon. 19 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  7. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  8. Mars Exploration Rover APXS Results from Matijevic Hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, B. A.; Clark, B. C.; Gellert, R.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Ming, D. W.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Schrader, C. M.; Schroeder, C.; Yen, A. S.; Economou, T.; deSouza, P.; Jolliff, B. L.; Arvidson, R. A.; Squyres, S. W.

    2013-01-01

    Correlation analysis of APXS results on the eastern slope rocks indicate that the Matijevic Hill rocks are overall compositionally distinct from the Shoemaker Formation rocks [6]. Compared to the Shoemaker impactites, Matijevic Hill rocks are higher in Al, Si, and Ni, and lower in Ti, Fe, and Zn. No significant variation is evident in the APXS analyses that indicate the presence of a smectite or other phyllosilicate, as opposed to basaltic rocks. However, APXS data cannot in themselves rule out phyllosilicates. If indeed this material contains smectite, as seen from orbit, it implies that the rock has been isochemically altered to create the phyllosilicate content. The Cl content of the Cape York rocks is relatively high, and whereas the S/Cl ratio in the Burns Formation is 4x higher than in soil, in the Cape York rocks it is lower than in soil. These trends indicate that the alteration processes and types of aqueous salt loads were different between Cape York and Meridiani. In addition, significant deviations from the Martian Mn/Fe ratio are observed in Whitewater Lake coatings and the altered Grasford/Deadwood rocks (Fig. 3). These variations indicate that the redox/pH conditions during alteration of the Shoemaker Formation rocks and the Matijevic Hill rocks were similar, but that the Deadwood/Grasberg unit may have undergone alteration under different conditions, possibly at a later time. The Matijevic Hill outcrops appear to share a common genetic origin. It is not yet clear whether both the Shoemaker impactites and Matijevic Hill rocks are related to the formation of Endeavour Crater, or whether the Matijevic Hill suite represents a prior episode of Martian impact or volcanism. Opportunity continues to investigate both hypotheses.

  9. The Allan Hills icefield and its relationship to meteorite concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annexstad, J. O.

    1982-01-01

    The Allan Hills icefield is described by as a limited icefield that has large concentrations of meteorites. The meteorites appear to be concentrated on the lower limb of an ice monocline with other finds scattered throughout the field. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms of meteorite concentration, a triangulation chain was established across the icefield. This chain is composed of 20 stations, two of which are on bedrock, and extends westward from the Allan Hills a distance of 15 kilometers. The triangulation chain and its relationship to the meteorite concentrations is shown.

  10. Allan Hills 77005 - A new meteorite type found in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, H. Y., Jr.; Taylor, L. A.; Stolper, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    A unique 482.5 g meteorite found in Antarctica appears to be related by igneous differentiation to shergottite achondrites, which have close similarities with terrestrial basaltic rocks. Zoned maskelynite with similar compositional ranges and plagioclase of such intermediate compositions as are unknown in other achondrites occur in both shergottites and the Allan Hills meteorite. The degree of silica saturation, however, strongly distinguishes the two meteorite types. It is suggested that the Allan Hills meteorite may represent a cumulate rock formed earlier than the shergottites from the same or a similar parent magma.

  11. Center Hill Reservoir Fishery Study--Water Level Effects.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    The pH and the range of its variations are dependent upon the buffering capacity within a lake . In water containing a bicarbonate in solution, for...WORDS (Continue on reverse aide It noc.esr anidmt ntby block mbi’) Center Hill Lake , TN, Water Levels, Fisheries, Water Quality, Trends. 12A4, C -gvr...water level fluctuation is not a&p~ropriate at Center Hill Lake The graphical analysis of the relationship between the rate of water level change in feet

  12. 2013 strategic petroleum reserve big hill well integrity grading report.

    SciTech Connect

    Lord, David L.; Roberts, Barry L.; Lord, Anna C. Snider; Bettin, Giorgia; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Park, Byoung Yoon; Rudeen, David Keith; Eldredge, Lisa; Wynn, Karen; Checkai, Dean; Perry, James Thomas

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed in developing a framework for the prioritization of cavern access wells for remediation and monitoring at the Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve site. This framework was then applied to all 28 wells at the Big Hill site with each well receiving a grade for remediation and monitoring. Numerous factors affecting well integrity were incorporated into the grading framework including casing survey results, cavern pressure history, results from geomechanical simulations, and site geologic factors. The framework was developed in a way as to be applicable to all four of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites.

  13. Analysis of Subsidence Data for the Big Hill Site, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, Stephen J.

    1999-06-01

    The elevation change data measured at the Big Hill SPR site over the last 10 years has been studied and a model utilized to project elevation changes into the future. The subsidence rate at Big Hill is low in comparison with other Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites and has decreased with time due to the maintenance of higher operating pressures and the normal decrease in creep closure rate of caverns with time. However, the subsidence at the site is projected to continue. A model was developed to project subsidence values 20 years into the future; no subsidence related issues are apparent from these projections.

  14. NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT EDGE IS THE SINGLE CYLINDER “HOT SHOT” ENGINE THAT PROVIDED POWER FOR THE MILL. JUST IN FRONT OF IT IS AN ARRASTRA. AT CENTER IS THE BALL MILL AND SECONDARY ORE BIN. JUST TO THE RIGHT OF THE BALL MILL IS A RAKE CLASSIFIER, AND TO THE RIGHT ARE THE CONCENTRATION TABLES. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-292-17 (CT) FOR IDENTICAL COLOR TRANSPARENCY. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  15. NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ELEVATION OF GOLD HILL MILL, LOOKING SOUTH. AT LEFT EDGE IS THE SINGLE CYLINDER “HOT SHOT” ENGINE THAT PROVIDED POWER FOR THE MILL. JUST IN FRONT OF IT IS AN ARRASTRA. AT CENTER IS THE BALL MILL AND SECONDARY ORE BIN. JUST TO THE RIGHT OF THE BALL MILL IS A RAKE CLASSIFIER, AND TO THE RIGHT ARE THE CONCENTRATION TABLES. WARM SPRINGS CAMP IS IN THE DISTANCE. SEE CA-292-4 FOR IDENTICAL B&W NEGATIVE. - Gold Hill Mill, Warm Spring Canyon Road, Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  17. Reconstructed Paleo-topography of the Columbia Hills, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, S. B.; Watters, W. A.; Aron, F.; Squyres, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    From June 2004 through March 2010, the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit conducted a detailed campaign examining the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater. In addition to mineralogical and chemical investigations, Spirit's stereo panoramic (Pancam) and navigation (Navcam) cameras obtained over 7,000 images of geologic targets along the West Spur of the Columbia Hills and Husband Hill, the highest peak. We have analyzed the entirety of this dataset, which includes stereo coverage of several outcrop exposures with apparent bedding. We have measured the bedding plane orientations of hundreds of fine-scale (~1-100cm) features on all of the potentially in-place outcrops using Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) derived from the rover's Pancam stereo image data, and mapped these orientations on a regional HiRISE image and DTM. Assuming that the bedding material was deposited conformably on the topography at the time of emplacement, we reconstruct the paleo-topography of the Columbia Hills. Our reconstructed paleo-topography is similar to the modern shape of Husband Hill, but with steeper slopes, consistent with a substantial amount of erosion since deposition. The Columbia Hills are an irregular, nearly-triangular edifice of uncertain origin, situated near the center of the 160km-diameter crater and hypothesized to be either the remnant of a central peak structure, or overlapping crater rims. They span ~6.6 km in the northerly direction by ~3.6 km in the easterly direction, and rise 90m above the basaltic plains that fill the floor of Gusev Crater and embay the Hills. The topography is as irregular as the perimeter, and is cut by numerous valleys of varying lengths, widths, and directional trends. Along the traverse, Spirit examined several rock classes as defined by elemental abundances from the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and identified remotely by the Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES). Unlike the Gusev Plains, the rocks of the Columbia Hills show

  18. Black widow spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider has a shiny black body with a red ...

  19. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer August 10th, 1936 (Copied from small photo taken by survey members) OLD APARTMENT HOUSE - Jansonist Colony, Old Apartment House, Main Street, Bishop Hill, Henry County, IL

  20. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  1. Lost Hills Field Trial - incorporating new technology for resevoir management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Brink, J. L.; Patzek, T. W.; Silin, D. B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper will discuss how Chevron U.S.A. Production Company is implementing a field trial that will use Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA)on injection wells, in conjunction with satellite images to measure ground elevation changes, to perform real-time resevoir management in the Lost Hills Field.

  2. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill's Photograph Copy of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill's Photograph Copy of Original Photograph May5, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION 1352 W.WASHINGTON BLVD. -1362 CHICAGO, ILLINOIS. - Chicago Ironwork, William M. Strong Estate (Cast Iron House & Gate), 1352 West Washington Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. Ten Tips for Higher Education Leaders: The Capitol Hill Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, William D.

    1990-01-01

    Suggestions to college administrators include realize that the essential lubricant of politics on Capitol Hill is relations of trust, confidence, and familiarity; bring solutions as well as problems to legislators; talk to members on the committee handling the issue of concern; help friends get reelected. (MLW)

  4. CH2M Hill cleared in tunnel explosion case

    SciTech Connect

    Krizan, W.G.; Bradford, H.; Schriener, J.

    1993-09-06

    One of the most critical issues in industry is whether architects and engineers should be held responsible for construction safety on jobsites. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration says yes under certain conditions. But the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission has overturned one application of that view on appeal in a controversial case. It involves a unit of Denver-based CH2M Hill Cos.'s role as program manager for the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) on its $2.2-billion water pollution abatement program. On May 5, 1989, OSHA cited CH2M Hill Central Inc. for 46 willful safety violations in connection with a 1988 methane tunnel explosion that killed three supervisors of contractor S.A. Healy Co., Chicago, Healy was charged with 68 violations. Healy encountered methane while boring CT-7, a two-mile crosstown tunnel. It evacuated the site, but didn't follow the evacuation plan. It failed to shut down all nonessential equipment and the supervisors returned after waiting only 17 minutes instead of the one hour minimum. CH2M Hill's citations and proposed $460,000 fine for violating OSHA's construction standards were for having 45 pieces of unapproved electrical equipment in the tunnel and improper ventilation equipment. CH2M Hill claimed the standards did not apply to it because the firm did not engage in construction work, exercise substantial supervision over the construction work performed by the contractor or create or control the hazardous condition.

  5. Mineralogy of the Pahrump Hills Region, Gale Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Cavanagh, P. D.; Achilles, C. N.; Bristow, T. F.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Crisp, J. A.; Fendrich, K.; Morookian, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The Pahrump Hills region of Gale crater is a approximately 12 millimeter thick section of sedimentary rocks in the Murray formation, interpreted as the basal geological unit of Mount Sharp. The Mars Science Laboratory, Curiosity, arrived at the Pahrump Hills in September, 2014, and performed a detailed six-month investigation of the sedimentary structures, geochemistry, and mineralogy of the area. During the campaign, Curiosity drilled and delivered three rock samples to its internal instruments, including the CheMin XRD/XRF. The three targets, Confidence Hills, Mojave 2, and Telegraph Peak, contain variable amounts of plagioclase, pyroxene, iron oxides, jarosite, phyllosilicates, and X-ray amorphous material. Hematite was predicted at the base of Mount Sharp from orbital visible/near-IR spectroscopy, and CheMin confirmed this detection. The presence of jarosite throughout Pahrump Hills suggests the sediments experienced acid-sulfate alteration, either in-situ or within the source region of the sediments. This acidic leaching environment is in stark contrast to the environment preserved within the Sheepbed mudstone on the plains of Gale crater. The minerals within Sheepbed, including Fe-saponite, indicate these sediments were deposited in a shallow lake with circumneutral pH that may have been habitable.

  6. Hills for the Head. Art across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartorius, Tara Cady

    2000-01-01

    Provides information on Maltby Sykes, the painter, addressing issues such as his assignment during World War II, being an apprentice to Diego Rivera, and his relationship with George C. Miller. Discusses both the painting and the sketch titled "Hills." Includes activities in geography, visual art, history, and mathematics. (CMK)

  7. Dynamics of liquefaction during the 1987 superstition hills, california, earthquake.

    PubMed

    Holzer, T L; Hanks, T C; Youd, T L

    1989-04-07

    Simultaneous measurements of seismically induced pore-water pressure changes and surface and subsurface accelerations at a site undergoing liquefaction caused by the Superstition Hills, California, earthquake (24 November 1987; M = 6.6) reveal that total pore pressures approached lithostatic conditions, but, unexpectedly, after most of the strong motion ceased. Excess pore pressures were generated once horizontal acceleration exceeded a threshold value.

  8. The Lawn Hill Impact Structure: A Unique Terrestrial Crater?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darlington, V. J.; Blenkinsop, T. G.; Orchiston, W.; Tomkins, A.

    2012-09-01

    The Lawn Hill Impact Structure (LHIS) is located 250 km North of Mt Isa in Queensland. The structure consists of a central area ca. 8 km diameter enclosed by a ca. 5 km annulus of Cambrian limestone, a unique structure for terrestrial impacts.

  9. 112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    112. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT (RIGHT), UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP (LEFT), AND LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, FACING NORTHEAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 121. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF UPPER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    121. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 ELEVATION VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP AND TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, CROSSING OVER FOLSOM STREET AT RIGHT, FACING SOUTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 114. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP AND LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP, WITH SAN FRANCISCO VIADUCT IN BACKGROUND AT RIGHT, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 113. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    113. Dennis Hill, Photographer January 1998 VIEW OF UPPER DECK OFF-RAMP WITH LOWER DECK ON-RAMP FROM TRANSBAY TERMINAL BUS LOOP IN FOREGROUND, FACING WEST-NORTHWEST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GRADE SEPARATION. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  14. Possible Late Quaternary faulting in the Benton Hills, southeastern Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, J.R.; Hoffman, D. . Dept. of Natural Resources)

    1993-03-01

    Geologic mapping in the 1930's by Dan Stewart and Lyle McManamy identified numerous faults in the Thebes Gap area of the Benton Hills, including two post-late Quaternary faults (max. of 10 m displacement) along the southeastern escarpment. Recent geologic mapping (Richard Harrison, pers. comm.) suggests dextral strike-slip displacement on most of these faults; some deformation post-dates the Pliocene-Pleistocene Mounds gravel. Small historical earthquake epicenters have been recorded in the Benton Hills area. Review of these data and analysis of the geologic and structural relationships to small- and large-scale drainage and alluvial features suggest tectonic control of the southeastern escarpment of the Benton Hills. The authors propose the coincidence of geologic structures and landforms resembles tectonically active alluvial basin margins, with the Benton Hills southeastern margin representing a fault block uplift escarpment. Future seismic reflection, drilling and trenching studies are planned to determine if the escarpment is fault controlled and of recent origin.

  15. Adjusting the Focus: Padua Hills Theatre and Latino History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Matt

    1996-01-01

    Reveals an interesting and overlooked chapter in Hispanic cultural history. The Claremont, California, Padua Hills Theater presented Spanish-language, Mexican-theme musicals to a mostly white audience from 1931 to 1974. Although it presented romantic, and occasionally stereotypical views of Mexican American life, the theater deserves recognition.…

  16. SummerHill Homes, San Francisco Bay Area, Fremont, California

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-01

    Building America fact sheet on SummerHill Homes of Northern California. The Villa Savona Homes in Fremont, California were built using 15% fly ash in concrete, engineered lumber for floors, high efficiency windows with Low-emissivity (Low-E) glass, and fi

  17. SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SMITH FARM FROM CEMETERY HILL, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. (This image shows the Smith Farm in the center of Ebey’s Prairie. Ebey’s Landing and the Puget Sound can be seen on the right. Farmers from the Sherman-Bishop Dairy are visible at the bottom left, cutting hay.) - Smith Farm, 399 Ebey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  18. Project Hill-Climb: Drafting and Design in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowl, William F.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the Hill-Climb project of a second level Computer-Aided Drafting and Design (CADD) class. The author primarily designed the activity to increase student understanding of the assembly drawing process and its components. The emphasis on problem solving adds a dimension that can aid students in their other classes as well. By…

  19. Blue Hills Regional Grad Fulfills Dream, Becomes Astronaut

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Judy

    2012-01-01

    This article features Scott D. Tingle, a former career and technical education (CTE) student who always aimed high. November 4, 2011 marked the official culmination of a cherished, virtually lifelong dream of his--becoming an astronaut. It was a goal he had in mind even when he was a high school student in the 1980s at Blue Hills Regional…

  20. Geology of the Limestone Hills, Broadwater County, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppel, Edward Thompson

    1950-01-01

    The Limestone Hills, a natural topographic unit having an area of about 16 square miles, are situated a few miles west and southwest of Townsend, Broadwater County, Montana. They are composed of pre-Cambrian, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic sedimentary rocks i

  1. 15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FRAME AND WING WALL DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  2. 13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, GENERAL PLAN. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  3. 14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, FOOTING PLAN AND LEG DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  4. 16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. MERRITT PARKWAY UNDER SPORT HILL ROAD, RAILING AND PYLON DETAILS. Photocopy of drawing (original in Connecticut Department of Transportation, Wethersfield); Connecticut State Highway Department, Approved February 1936. - Merritt Parkway, Bridge No. 744, Spanning Merritt Parkway at Route 59, Fairfield, Fairfield County, CT

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer March 10, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Joseph Hill, Photographer March 10, 1936 CAST IRON BALCONY RAIL AND WROUGHT IRON WINDOW RAILING 945 NORTH DEARBORN STREET, CHICAGO - Chicago Ironwork, Judge Carpenter House (Cast Iron Balcony Railing), 945 North Dearborn Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  6. Rock Hill Business, Education, and Community Online Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broyles, Alan

    The Business, Education & Community On-line Network (BEACON) is designed to support development and implementation of demonstration applications operating in an asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) fiber optic network environment. Initial origination and destination sites include high schools and universities around Rock Hill (South Carolina). The…

  7. FOLKLORE REMEDIES FOR DANDRUFF FROM TIRUMALA HILLS OF ANDHRA PRADESH

    PubMed Central

    Balaji Rao, N.S; Rajasekhar, D.; Raju, D. Chengal

    1996-01-01

    The report gives an account of the use of 25 plant species by local herbalists of tirumala hills, chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh for dandruff (seborheic). The paper discusses the methods of preparation and dose of administration of curde drugs as suggested by them. PMID:22556761

  8. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Consolidated Warehouse, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    Utah FA8201-09-D-0006 Klein, Randal Johnson, Sam Streamline Consulting, LLC 1713 N. Sweetwater Lane Farmington, Utah 84025 Hill Air Force Base 7274... Air Force Base (AFB) proposes to adequate warehouse facilities in which to store equipment for worldwide United States Air Force (USAF) operations

  9. 222. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    222. Dennis Hill, Photographer April 1998 VIEW OF YERBA BUENA LOWER DECK OFF-RAMP WITH UPPER DECK ON-RAMP AND WEST PORTAL IN BACKGROUND, FACING EAST. - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. Using the Hill Cipher to Teach Cryptographic Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    The Hill cipher is the simplest example of a "block cipher," which takes a block of plaintext as input, and returns a block of ciphertext as output. Although it is insecure by modern standards, its simplicity means that it is well suited for the teaching of such concepts as encryption modes, and properties of cryptographic hash functions. Although…

  11. EDIBLE FRUIT YIELDING PLANTS OF SHEVAROY HILLS IN TAMIL NADU

    PubMed Central

    Alagesaboopathi, C.; Balu, S.; Dwarakan, P.

    1996-01-01

    The paper deals with the common edible fruit yielding plants, During the course of medicinal plant survey of shevaroy hills of Eastern ghats. Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Thirty species belonging to 23 genera and 21 families yield edible fruits. They are listed in alphabetical order followed by family, common name and Tamil names. PMID:22556784

  12. 27. Photocopy of engineering drawing by Leeds, Hill, Barnard, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photocopy of engineering drawing by Leeds, Hill, Barnard, and Jewitt, Architect-Engineer (original drawing located at County of San Luis Obispo). STRUT LAYOUT -- RIGHT ABUTMENT. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  13. 26. Photocopy of engineering drawing by Leeds, Hill, Barnard, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photocopy of engineering drawing by Leeds, Hill, Barnard, and Jewitt, Architect-Engineer (original drawing located at County of San Luis Obispo) SALINAS DAM ROOFING PLAN. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  14. 25. Photocopy of engineering drawing by Leeds, Hill, Barnard, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of engineering drawing by Leeds, Hill, Barnard, and Jewitt, Architect-Engineer (original drawing located at County of San Luis Obispo). SALINAS DAM PLAN AND SECTIONS. - Salinas Dam, Salinas River near Pozo Road, Santa Margarita, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  15. Wildlife and Wildlife Habitat Loss Assessment at Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project, Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, 1985 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Noyes, J.H.

    1985-09-01

    A habitat based assessment was conducted of the US Army Corps of Engineers' Hills Creek Dam and Reservoir Project on the Middle Fork Willamette River, Oregon, to determine losses or gains resulting from the development and operation of the hydroelectric related components of the project. Preconstruction, postconstruction, and recent vegetation cover types of the project site were mapped based on aerial photographs from 1944, 1964, and 1979, respectively. Vegetation cover types were identified within the affected area and acreages of each type at each period were determined. Fifteen wildlife target species were selected to represent a cross-section of species groups affected by the project. An interagency team evaluated the suitability of the habitat to support the target species at each time period. An evaluation procedure which accounted for both the quantity and quality of habitat was used to aid in assessing impacts resulting from the project. The Hills Creek Project extensively altered or affected 4662 acres of land and river in the Middle Fork Willamette River drainage. Impacts to wildlife centered around the loss of 2694 acres of old-growth forest and 207 acres of riparian habitat. Impacts resulting from the Hills Creek Project included the loss of winter range for Roosevelt elk, and the loss of year-round habitat for black-tailed deer, black bear, cougar, river otter, beaver, ruffed grouse, spotted owl, and other nongame species. Bald eagle and osprey were benefited by an increase in foraging habitat. The potential of the affected area to support wildlife was greatly altered as a result of the Hills Creek Project, losses or gains in the potential of the habitat to support wildlife will exist over the life of the project.

  16. 76 FR 65681 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Calumet Project Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... an existing insect and disease epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a landscape condition more... to ecosystem components including forest resources, from the existing insect and disease (mountain... focused on reducing insects or disease on public and adjacent private lands, and reducing the...

  17. 75 FR 47755 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Pactola Project Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... including forest resources from an existing insect and disease epidemic (mountain pine beetle), creating a... forest resources, from the existing insect and disease (mountain pine beetle) epidemic. Restore resource... focused on reducing insects or disease on public and adjacent private lands, and reducing the...

  18. Inventory of forest and rangeland resources, including forest stress. [Black Hills, Manitou, Colorado, and Atlanta, Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldrich, R. C.; Weber, F. P.; Driscoll, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Road systems being developed within the Manitou, Colorado area for human habitation are readily discernible on the S192 normal-color photographs. These are dirt roads, some of which are about 20 feet wide. These data should provide the District Ranger of the Pike National Forest required information on the size and extent of these developing areas, information which he does not now have but is required for total management of the District.

  19. Hepatic minerals of white-tailed and mule deer in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zimmerman, T.J.; Jenks, J.A.; Leslie, David M.; Neiger, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    Because there is a paucity of information on the mineral requirements of free-ranging deer, data are needed from clinically healthy deer to provide a basis for the diagnosis of mineral deficiencies. To our knowledge, no reports are available on baseline hepatic mineral concentrations from sympatric white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) using different habitats in the Northern Great Plains. We assessed variation in hepatic minerals of female white-tailed deer (n=42) and mule deer (n=41). Deer were collected in February and August 2002 and 2003 from study areas in Custer and Pennington Counties, South Dakota, in and adjacent to a wildfire burn. Hepatic samples were tested for levels (parts per million; ppm) of aluminum (Al), antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), boron (B), cadmium (Cd), calcium (Ca), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), lead (Pb), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), mercury (Hg), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), selenium (Se), sodium (Na), sulfur (S), thalium (T1), and zinc (Zn). We predicted that variability in element concentrations would occur between burned and unburned habitat due to changes in plant communities and thereby forage availability. We determined that Zn, Cu, and Ba values differed (P???0.05) between habitats. Because of the nutritional demands of gestation and lactation, we hypothesized that elemental concentrations would vary depending on reproductive status; Cd, Cu, Ca, P, Mn, Mo, Na, and Zn values differed (P???0.05) by reproductive status. We also hypothesized that, due to variation in feeding strategies and morphology between deer species, hepatic elemental concentrations would reflect dietary differences; Ca, Cu, K, Co, Mo, Se, and Zn differed (P???0.05) between species. Further research is needed to determine causes of variation in hepatic mineral levels due to habitat, reproductive status, and species. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2008.

  20. 76 FR 22670 - Black Hills National Forest, Hell Canyon Ranger District, South Dakota, Vestal Project

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... potential for high severity wildfire adjacent to the at-risk community of Custer, SD. The proposal is being... large-scale wildfire. This action is needed because the project area is located within and surrounding... convert pine stands to aspen on 126 acres to provide additional wildfire protection by enhancing...

  1. Geologic map of the Black Hills area, South Dakota and Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    DeWitt, E.; Redden, J.A.; Buscher, D.; Wilson, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Restricted outcrops of Archean (2.5 Ga) rock, primarily granite, are the basement for a thick sequence of early Proterozoic (2.4-1.8 Ga) metasedimentary units (fanglomerate, conglomerate, quartzite, iron-formation, graywacke, and shale) containing minor basaltic metavolcanic rocks and associated gabbroic sills. The map shows the complex lithologic sequence developed in an early Proterozoic rift basin or passive margin. Two major periods of folding have created a complex map pattern of the stratified rocks. Early Proterozoic (1.7 Ga) granite and pegmatite emplacement is the last recognized Precambrian event.

  2. Distribution of boron in the Tip Top pegmatite, Black Hills, South Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, C.K.; Papike, J.J.

    1986-02-01

    Experimental evidence has shown the importance of boron on the crystallization behavior of granitic systems; however, the intercrystalline and intracrystalline distribution of boron in mineral phases crystallizing from granitic systems is not well documented. The distribution of boron between coexisting phases in the Tip Top pegmatite, South Dakota, is as follows: beryl ca = quartz ca = triphylite ca = montebrasite ca = potassium feldspar < biotite < albite < muscovite < spodumene << tourmaline. The bulk boron content of the Tip Top pegmatite decreases significantly with the termination of tourmaline crystallization. The significant decrease in boron in the inner zones of the pegmatite is consistent with the depletion of boron in the granite melt by either the crystallization of tourmaline from the granitic melt or the partitioning of boron into an exsolved aqueous solutions. 35 references.

  3. Evolution of mantle sources in the Black Hills region of the central Arizona Transition Zone

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, S. . Dept. of Geology); Wittke, J.H. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-04-01

    Two principal Tertiary basaltic units occur in the central Arizona Transition Zone: [1] the Hickey Formation (10--15 Ma) and [2] the Perkinsville and Verde Formations (3--8 Ma). Lavas in these units were extruded before and after local Basin and Range extensional faulting. Middle Miocene Hickey volcanic centers are spaced across the Transition Zone, in a line roughly perpendicular to the edge of the Colorado Plateau. Early Hickey flows are commonly alkaline and include both potassic (shoshonite, trachybasalt, tephrite) and sodic lavas (basanite, alkali olivine basalt, hawaiite). Production of alkaline lavas was followed by the extrusion of subalkaline lavas (tholeite, basaltic andesite). Early Pliocene Perkinsville and Verde lavas are mostly subalkaline with subordinate alkaline flows that are less alkalic than the Hickey flow. Detailed trace-element and isotopic data reveal a systematic transition from lithospheric to mixed, to asthenospheric lavas. These data suggest that the size of the lithospheric component in Transition Zone magmas decreased with time as asthenospheric liquids stripped the lithosphere of its easily fusible components. Basin and Range extension of the thermally-worked lithosphere permitted eruption of essentially unmodified asthenospheric melts. The transition from lithosphere-dominated magmas to asthenosphere-dominated magmas took about 10 Ma in this area.

  4. 75 FR 78209 - Black Hills National Forest Advisory Board Public Meeting Dates Announced

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... resource management plan. The Board will consider such topics as integrated vegetation management (wild and prescribed fire, fuels reduction, controlling insect epidemics, invasive species), travel management...

  5. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Mining Project AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Corrected Notice of intent to prepare an... the purpose of mining for chemical grade limestone within mining claims on National Forest System land... publication dates. A Notice of Availability for the Section 30 Limestone Mining Project Draft EIS...

  6. Lead isotopic evidence for mixed sources of Proterozoic granites and pegmatites, Black Hills, South Dakota, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krogstad, Eirik J.; Walker, Richard J.; Nabelek, Peter I.; Russ-Nabelek, Carol

    1993-10-01

    The lead isotopic compositions of K-feldspars separated from the ca. 1700 Ma Harney Peak Granite complex and spatially associated granitic pegmatites indicate that these rocks were derived from at least two sources. It has been reported previously that the core of the Harney Peak Granite complex is dominated by relatively lower/ gd18O (avg. 11.5 %.) granites, whereas higher / gd18O (avg. 13.2%.) granites occur around the periphery of the complex. The higher δ 18O granites and one simple pegmatite have low values of 207Pb /204Pb for their 206Pb /204Pb Thus, they likely were derived from a source with a short crustal residence time. This source may have been the pelitic schists into which the Harney Peak Granite complex and pegmatites were intruded. Feldspars from granites with lower / gd18O values have significantly higher 207Pb /204Pb for their 206Pb /204Pb . The data define a linear array with a slope equivalent to an age of ca. 2.6 Ga with t 2 defined to be 1.7 Ga. Such a slope could represent a mixing array or a secondary isochron for the source. These low δ18O granites could have been derived from a source with a high U/ Pb and with a crustal residence beginning before the Proterozoic. The source (s) of these granites may have been a sediment derived from late Archean continental crust. The highly evolved Tin Mountain pegmatite has lead isotopic systematics intermediate between those of the two granite groups, suggesting either a mixed source or contamination. Two late Archean granites, the Little Elk Granite and the Bear Mountain Granite, had precursors with high U/Pb and low Th/U histories. The Th/U history of the Bear Mountain Granite is too low for this rock to have been an important component of the source of the Proterozoic granites. However, crustal rocks with lead isotopic compositions similar to those of the Little Elk Granite were an important source of lead for some of the Proterozoic granitic rocks.

  7. 76 FR 28766 - Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (18 CFR 385.207(a)(2)(2010)), Flint Hills Resources Alaska, LLC (Flint Hills) filed a petition for an order declaring that an as- yet unfiled,...

  8. Teachers Guide to the Shakers at Pleasant Hill. A Resource Unit for Elementary Teachers. Intermediate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakertown at Pleasant Hill, Kentucky, Inc., Harrodsburg.

    The guide provides activities for use with children in grades four through six before and after a field trip to Shakertown at Pleasant Hill. Established as a Shaker community in 1805, Pleasant Hill now has 27 buildings restored and open for public use. The study of Pleasant Hill can be used as an example of rural or village life in nineteenth…

  9. 75 FR 63465 - Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC; Notice of Filing October 7, 2010. Take notice that on September 30, 2010, Hill-Lake Gas Storage, LLC (Hill-Lake) filed a revised Statement of Operating Conditions (SOC) for its Storage Services, proposing substantive revisions to its tariff...

  10. 78 FR 48466 - Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California; Notice of Negative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California... workers of Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California (subject firm). The... eligibility of Comcast Cable, West Division Customer Care, Morgan Hill, California, to apply for...

  11. True 3-D View of 'Columbia Hills' from an Angle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic of images from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a panorama of the 'Columbia Hills' without any adjustment for rover tilt. When viewed through 3-D glasses, depth is much more dramatic and easier to see, compared with a tilt-adjusted version. This is because stereo views are created by producing two images, one corresponding to the view from the panoramic camera's left-eye camera, the other corresponding to the view from the panoramic camera's right-eye camera. The brain processes the visual input more accurately when the two images do not have any vertical offset. In this view, the vertical alignment is nearly perfect, but the horizon appears to curve because of the rover's tilt (because the rover was parked on a steep slope, it was tilted approximately 22 degrees to the west-northwest). Spirit took the images for this 360-degree panorama while en route to higher ground in the 'Columbia Hills.'

    The highest point visible in the hills is 'Husband Hill,' named for space shuttle Columbia Commander Rick Husband. To the right are the rover's tracks through the soil, where it stopped to perform maintenance on its right front wheel in July. In the distance, below the hills, is the floor of Gusev Crater, where Spirit landed Jan. 3, 2004, before traveling more than 3 kilometers (1.8 miles) to reach this point. This vista comprises 188 images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera from its 213th day, or sol, on Mars to its 223rd sol (Aug. 9 to 19, 2004). Team members at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Cornell University spent several weeks processing images and producing geometric maps to stitch all the images together in this mosaic. The 360-degree view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective map projection with geometric seam correction.

  12. Preliminary Results from the AIDP-2 and AIDP-3 Drill Cores Hint at Systematic Mo Enrichments in the ~2.65 Ga Roy Hill Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M.; Ostrander, C. M.; Lyons, T. W.; Olson, S. L.; Buick, R.; Anbar, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    In order to better understand the timing of the earliest oxygenation of Earth's surface environment, we are pursuing a multi-proxy investigation of paleoredox conditions in diamond drill cores through sedimentary rocks of the Archean Fortescue & Hamersley Groups. These cores were recovered in 2012 by the Agouron Institute from the Pilbara Craton of Western Australia. The AIDP-2 core samples a stratigraphic succession of carbonate and sulfidic, organic-rich shale in the Carawine Dolomite and Jeerinah Formation representing a shallow near-shore depositional setting. Core AIDP-3 samples a transition from BIF in the Marra Mamba Formation to organic-rich shales in the underlying Jeerinah Formation representing a deeper offshore depositional setting. We have analyzed 322 black shale samples from the Roy Hill Member of the Jeerinah Formation deposited just before the transition from the Fortescue to Hamersley Group. Roy Hill black shale units are mostly pyritic in AIDP-3, but are less so in AIDP-2. The Roy Hill Member of AIDP-3 extends from 2.629 Ga to2.676 Ga and contains the 2.632Ga Jeerinah impact layer, whereas the Roy Hill member of AIDP-2 is slightly older, lying beneath the Jeerinah impact layer, and has been dated to 2.636 Ga to >2.643 Ga [1]. Our initial findings reveal that Mo concentrations range between 0.7 and 7 ppm in the Roy Hill black shale member of AIDP-2 and AIDP-3. Corresponding Mo/Al ratios range between 1-9×10-5 ppm/ppm, indicating slight Mo enrichment relative to average continental crust. These results are consistent with a previous study by Scott et al. [2], which suggested little or no Mo enrichment. However, the higher resolution sampling in this study allows us to clearly resolve the Mo/Al depth profiles in these late Archean cores. These data suggest that the variations we see are not due to analytical scatter or sample variability, but instead represent real variations in Mo scavenged into these sediments. Ongoing work is focused on

  13. Interior of a charged distorted black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.

    2009-07-15

    We study the interior of a charged, nonrotating distorted black hole. We consider static and axisymmetric black holes, and focus on a special case when an electrically charged distorted solution is obtained by the Harrison-Ernst transformation from an uncharged one. We demonstrate that the Cauchy horizon of such a black hole remains regular, provided the distortion is regular at the event horizon. The shape and the inner geometry of both the outer and inner (Cauchy) horizons are studied. We demonstrate that there exists a duality between the properties of the horizons. Proper time of a free fall of a test particle moving in the interior of the distorted black hole along the symmetry axis is calculated. We also study the property of the curvature in the inner domain between the horizons. Simple relations between the 4D curvature invariants and the Gaussian curvature of the outer and inner horizon surfaces are found.

  14. [Creative work of Greene Vardiman Black].

    PubMed

    Ilić, Dragan V; Zagradjanin, Danica

    2011-01-01

    Over hundred years has elapsed since the publication of "Operative Dentistry" (1908), a book by the famous odontologist and scientist Greene Vardiman Black. Throughout all his life Black worked hard on education, research, lecturing, publishing and teaching others. The innovator in many fields of dental medicine, particularly conservative therapy, he patented numerous inventions, implemented the standardization of instruments and procedures, constructed stomatological drills, gnathodynamometer, material hardness testing moulds, micrometer and microtome. Black is the author of more than 500 articles and innovations, as well as several exceptional books that are considered as classic within the domain of the dental literature, and which many generations were educated on. One can certainly say that Black occupies the honorary position among the eminent personalities of dental scientist as one of the founders of contemporary stomatology. If we take into consideration Black as to his merits in operative dentistry and wider, it could be confirmed that the epoch of contemporary dentistry could be divided into the era before Black, when many dental procedures were performed without scientific foundation, the time during Black when many dilemmas were resolved in operative dentistry branches backed up by laboratory investigations, and finally the homage period of the 20th century when the application of his postulates, instruments and conclusions were gradually being abandoned giving way to modern doctrines and materials due to the rapid advancement of industry of dental materials and operative techniques in modern stomatology all of which should be credited to the development of basic sciences.

  15. Exploring Lithologic Controls on Solute Transport at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singha, K.; Kuntz, B. W.; Toran, L.

    2009-12-01

    tests, observed transport behavior appears inconsistent with the standard advective-dispersive model. Results from a conservative NaBr tracer test conducted in 10-cm undisturbed soil columns from the SHCZO include concentration histories that show long tailing behavior and non-Gaussian breakthrough, indicative perhaps of dual-domain solute transport between preferential pathways and a less permeable matrix. A numerical model of the soil column indicates than a mass transfer rate of approximately 1/hr with a mobile-domain porosity of 0.3 and an immobile-domain porosity of 0.35 can explain the data. The total porosity is consistent with previously published estimates of total porosity. At the field scale, a NaBr tracer test conducted within the Rose Hill Shale shows similar behavior, and mass transfer is needed to explain those concentration histories. These data indicate that solutes transfer between the highly permeable macropores and fractures and into the soil/shale matrix, and that diffusion is a transport property of concern in predicting solute transport behavior over the long term at the SHCZO. Both soils and shale material at this site show preferential pathways that may be indicative of dual-domain solute transport behavior.

  16. Exposure and terrestrial ages of four Allan Hills Antarctic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirsten, T.; Ries, D.; Fireman, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Terrestrial ages of meteorites are based on the amount of cosmic-ray-produced radioactivity in the sample and the number of observed falls that have similar cosmic-ray exposure histories. The cosmic-ray exposures are obtained from the stable noble gas isotopes. Noble gas isotopes are measured by high-sensitivity mass spectrometry. In the present study, the noble gas contents were measured in four Allan Hill meteorites (No. 5, No. 6, No. 7, and No. 8), whose C-14, Al-26, and Mn-53 radioactivities are known. These meteorites are of particular interest because they belong to a large assemblage of distinct meteorites that lie exposed on a small (110 sq km) area of ice near the Allan Hills.

  17. Carbon-14 ages of Allan Hills meteorites and ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fireman, E. L.; Norris, T.

    1982-01-01

    Allan Hills is a blue ice region of approximately 100 sq km area in Antarctica where many meteorites have been found exposed on the ice. The terrestrial ages of the Allan Hills meteorites, which are obtained from their cosmogenic nuclide abundances are important time markers which can reflect the history of ice movement to the site. The principal purpose in studying the terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites is to locate samples of ancient ice and analyze their trapped gas contents. Attention is given to the C-14 and Ar-39 terrestrial ages of ALHA meteorites, and C-14 ages and trapped gas compositions in ice samples. On the basis of the obtained C-14 terrestrial ages, and Cl-36 and Al-26 results reported by others, it is concluded that most ALHA meteorites fell between 20,000 and 200,000 years ago.

  18. SILL HILL, HAUSER, AND CALIENTE ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Victoria R.; Peters, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    Probable resource potential for metallic minerals and gemstones was identified during mineral-resource surveys in the Sill Hill, Hauser, and Caliente Roadless Areas, California. Parts of the Sill Hill Roadless Area have a probable potential for gold, tungsten, and nickel and by-product copper. Part of the Caliente Roadless Area has a probable potential for tourmaline, beryl, quartz, and possibly other specimen minerals and gemstones. No mineral-resource potential was identified in the Hauser Roadless Area, although potash feldspar is abundant as a rock-forming constituent in two parts of the area. The Caliente Roadless Area lies less than 1 mi from an area of hot springs activity which may be part of a low-grade geothermal resource area, but no geothermal resource potential was identified in this or any of the other areas. No resource potential for nuclear energy was identified in this study and the geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of hydrocarbon resources.

  19. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H. ); Donahoe, R.L. ); Kato, T.T. ); Ordway, H.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  20. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance at the Elk Hills Field

    SciTech Connect

    Chappelle, H.H.; Donahoe, R.L.; Kato, T.T.; Ordway, H.E.

    1991-12-31

    Environmental protection has played an integral role in the development and operation of the Elk Hills field since production at the maximum efficient rate was authorized in 1976. The field is located in a non-attainment area for California and National Ambient Air Quality Standards for two criteria pollutants and their associated precursors, is home to four endangered species, and operates within the California regulatory framework. Environmental protection and regulatory compliance is a multi-faceted program carried out through a substantial commitment of resources and workforce involvement. This paper describes the actions taken and resources employed to protect the environment, specific technologies and projects implement, and the ongoing nature of these efforts at Elk Hills.

  1. Light-toned Rocks First, 'Columbia Hills' Later

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover's panoramic camera on sol 91 (April 5, 2004) shows the rover's ultimate destination - the eastern-lying 'Columbia Hills.' The rover will head toward the hills in coming sols, while stopping to investigate rocks and soils along the way. Of particular interest is the light-toned coating seen here on the low-lying rocks. Scientists intend to find out if this coating is the same as that observed on the well-studied rock dubbed 'Mazatzal.' They believe Mazatzal's coating may have formed by cementation of airborne dust, perhaps in a slightly wetter, past environment. The scientists also plan to determine if the soil here is the same as the somewhat cohesive soil seen near the rover's lander. Like the coatings, this soil may have formed in past moist environments. This image was taken with the panoramic camera's infrared (750 nanometer) filter.

  2. The Central Executive as a Search Process: Priming Exploration and Exploitation across Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Todd, Peter M.; Goldstone, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The trade-off between exploration and exploitation is common to a wide variety of problems involving search in space and mind. The prevalence of this trade-off and its neurological underpinnings led us to propose domain-general cognitive search processes (Hills, Todd, & Goldstone, 2008). We propose further that these are consistent with the…

  3. 78 FR 35951 - Proposed Low-Effect Habitat Conservation Plan for the City of Santa Cruz Graham Hill Water...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, Santa Cruz County, California AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... existing Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant, construction of new facilities, which have the potential for... system, the applicant operates the Graham Hill Water Treatment Plant. The Graham Hill Water...

  4. The 1980 Archeological Investigations at the Big Hill Lake, Kansas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    rodents and other mammals such as coyotes, raccoons, bobcats, opossums, etc. The bottomland forests are also represented on a small scale in the Big... forests are adjacent to Big Hill creek and its feeder tributaries. These streams, some intermittent, provide suitable habitation for many groups of...points recovered from the areas near the hearths have suggested Preceramic cultural affiliations and have been identified as Afton , Ellis, Lange

  5. The Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A

    1994-09-01

    On August 3, 1968, the Joint Resolution of the Congress established the program and construction of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications. The facility dedicated in 1980 contains the latest in computer and communications technologies. The history, program requirements, construction management, and general planning are discussed including technical issues regarding cabling, systems functions, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system (HVAC), fire suppression, research and development laboratories, among others.

  6. Amateur and professional astronomers meet at Mill Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyner, G.

    2000-12-01

    Nearly forty professional and amateur astronomers from around the UK converged on the Mill Hill Observatory of University College, London, on Saturday September 16, for a meeting set up by the Royal Astronomical Society and The Astronomer to promote and exchange ideas on professional?amateur collaboration in astronomy. Fields discussed included variable star research, gamma ray bursters, supernova searching, spectroscopy and minor planet and meteor work.

  7. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Training Facilities, Hill Air Force Base, Utah

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-08

    connected to the Hill AFB central steam heating system . The calculated air emissions for those buildings (based on data in CH2M 2013) are shown in...months would be provided by an on-site natural gas fired heating system . Calculated air emissions for space heating are shown in Table 8. These...foundations, concrete floor slabs, mechanical and electrical systems , water and fire protection systems , and communications networks; • one USN

  8. The Black Black Woman and the Black Middle Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Trellie

    1981-01-01

    Reprint of a 1973 article that describes the discrimination that particularly dark-skinned Black women suffer, especially at the hands of a color-conscious Black middle class. Calls for dark women to look to the African appearance and working-class roots as sources of pride and strength. (GC)

  9. Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Menneken, Martina; Nemchin, Alexander A; Geisler, Thorsten; Pidgeon, Robert T; Wilde, Simon A

    2007-08-23

    Detrital zircons more than 4 billion years old from the Jack Hills metasedimentary belt, Yilgarn craton, Western Australia, are the oldest identified fragments of the Earth's crust and are unique in preserving information on the earliest evolution of the Earth. Inclusions of quartz, K-feldspar and monazite in the zircons, in combination with an enrichment of light rare-earth elements and an estimated low zircon crystallization temperature, have previously been used as evidence for early recycling of continental crust, leading to the production of granitic melts in the Hadean era. Here we present the discovery of microdiamond inclusions in Jack Hills zircons with an age range from 3,058 +/- 7 to 4,252 +/- 7 million years. These include the oldest known diamonds found in terrestrial rocks, and introduce a new dimension to the debate on the origin of these zircons and the evolution of the early Earth. The spread of ages indicates that either conditions required for diamond formation were repeated several times during early Earth history or that there was significant recycling of ancient diamond. Mineralogical features of the Jack Hills diamonds-such as their occurrence in zircon, their association with graphite and their Raman spectroscopic characteristics-resemble those of diamonds formed during ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism and, unless conditions on the early Earth were unique, imply a relatively thick continental lithosphere and crust-mantle interaction at least 4,250 million years ago.

  10. Does Zika Virus Cause Microcephaly - Applying the Bradford Hill Viewpoints

    PubMed Central

    Awadh, Asma; Chughtai, Abrar Ahmad; Dyda, Amalie; Sheikh, Mohamud; Heslop, David J.; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Zika virus has been documented since 1952, but been associated with mild, self-limiting disease. Zika virus is classified as an arbovirus from a family of Flaviviridae and primarily spread by Aedes Aegypti mosquitos. However, in a large outbreak in Brazil in 2015, Zika virus has been associated with microcephaly. Methods: In this review we applied the Bradford-Hill viewpoints  to investigate the association between Zika virus and microcephaly. We examined historical studies, available data and also compared historical rates of microcephaly prior to the Zika virus outbreak. The available evidence was reviewed against the Bradford Hill viewpoints. Results: All  the nine criteria were met to varying degrees: strength of association, consistency of the association, specificity, temporality, plausibility, coherence, experimental evidence, biological gradient and analogy. Conclusion: Using the Bradford Hill Viewpoints as an evaluation framework for causation is highly suggestive that the association between Zika virus and microcephaly is causal. Further studies using animal models on the viewpoints which were not as strongly fulfilled would be helpful. PMID:28357156

  11. Three dimensional simulation for Big Hill Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR).

    SciTech Connect

    Ehgartner, Brian L.; Park, Byoung Yoon; Sobolik, Steven Ronald; Lee, Moo Yul

    2005-07-01

    3-D finite element analyses were performed to evaluate the structural integrity of caverns located at the Strategic Petroleum Reserve's Big Hill site. State-of-art analyses simulated the current site configuration and considered additional caverns. The addition of 5 caverns to account for a full site and a full dome containing 31 caverns were modeled. Operations including both normal and cavern workover pressures and cavern enlargement due to leaching were modeled to account for as many as 5 future oil drawdowns. Under the modeled conditions, caverns were placed very close to the edge of the salt dome. The web of salt separating the caverns and the web of salt between the caverns and edge of the salt dome were reduced due to leaching. The impacts on cavern stability, underground creep closure, surface subsidence and infrastructure, and well integrity were quantified. The analyses included recently derived damage criterion obtained from testing of Big Hill salt cores. The results show that from a structural view point, many additional caverns can be safely added to Big Hill.

  12. DOE to accept bids for Elk Hills crude

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-04

    This paper reports that the Department of Energy will accept bids in a reoffering sale covering 53,400 b/d of Elk Hills field oil but later may exercise an option to cut sales volumes and ship 20,000 b/d to Strategic Petroleum Reserve sites in Texas. DOE rejected all 19 bids submitted in an earlier semiannual sale of crude oil from the California naval petroleum reserve, saying they were too low. DOE the, The unique combination of federal and state government policies affecting the movement of oil into and out of the California market has contributed to a situation in which it apparently is very difficult for the government to receive a price for Elk Hills oil that satisfies the minimum price tests that govern the sale of Elk Hills oil. The 12 winning bids in the reoffering sale averaged $13.58/bbl, with bids for the higher quality Stevens zone crude averaging $13.92/bbl, about 67 cents/bbl higher than bids rejected last month. DOE the 20,000 b/d is all local pipelines can ship to the interstate All-American pipeline for transfer to Texas beginning in June.

  13. Surface ozone characterization at Larsemann Hills and Maitri, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ali, Kaushar; Trivedi, D K; Sahu, S K

    2017-04-15

    Data are analyzed in terms of daily average ozone, its diurnal variation and its relation with meteorological parameters like dry bulb temperature (T), wet bulb temperature (Tw), atmospheric pressure and wind speed based on measurement of these parameters at two Indian Antarctic stations (Larsemann Hills, and Maitri) during 28th Indian Scientific Expedition of Antarctica (ISEA) organized during Antarctic summer of the year 2008-09. The work has been carried out to investigate summer time ozone level and its day-to-day and diurnal variability at these coastal locations and to highlight possible mechanism of ozone production and destruction. The result of the analysis indicates that daily average ozone concentration at Larsemann Hills varied from ~13 and ~20ppb with overall average value of ~16ppb and at Maitri, it varied from ~16 and ~21ppb with overall average value of ~18ppb. Photochemistry is found to partially contribute occasionally to the surface layer ozone at both the stations. Lower concentration of ozone at Maitri during beginning of the observational days may be due to destruction of ozone through activated halogens, whereas higher ozone on latter days may be due to photochemistry and advective transport from east to south-east areas. Ozone concentration during blizzard episodes at both the stations is reduced due to slow photochemical production of ozone, its photochemical removal and removal through deposition of ozone molecules on precipitation particles. Diurnal variation of ozone at Larsemann Hills and Maitri has been found to be absent.

  14. Violin bridge-hill to radiation: The energy trail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissinger, George

    2005-09-01

    Simultaneous experimental modal and acoustical analysis in an anechoic chamber was used to track energy flow through quality-rated violins to clarify the link between the mechanical motions at a driving point on the G-corner of the bridge, and subsequent radiation from the violin. The 0-4-kHz range covered included a broad hump near 2.4 kHz in driving point mobility generally labeled the bridge-hill and thought to be related to violin quality and radiativity (and sound). The bridge-hill enhancement showed up successively in the averaged mobility of the bridge, at the bridge feet, and over the corpus; a corresponding peak was also seen in the radiativity, indicating that enhanced radiation accompanied enhanced bridge motion. All bridge motions except low-frequency rigid-body motions were complex, and generally showed some semblance of rocking motion at higher frequencies. No evidence was observed for any bridge resonance separate from string or corpus resonances, although most bridges showed a complex squat mode near 0.8 kHz (not accompanied by enhanced radiation) that is likely an out-of-plane bending mode falling far below the rocking mode. Bridge-hill magnitude was not found to correlate well with violin quality, or averaged corpus mobility, or averaged radiativity.

  15. Geologic map of the Bodie Hills, California and Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Box, Stephen E.; Vikre, Peter G.; Rytuba, James J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Moring, Barry C.

    2015-01-01

    The Bodie Hills covers about 1,200 km2 straddling the California-Nevada state boundary just north of Mono Lake in the western part of the Basin and Range Province, about 20 km east of the central Sierra Nevada. The area is mostly underlain by the partly overlapping, middle to late Miocene Bodie Hills volcanic field and Pliocene to late Pleistocene Aurora volcanic field (John and others, 2012). Upper Miocene to Pliocene sedimentary deposits, mostly basin-filling sediments, gravel deposits, and fanglomerates, lap onto the west, north, and east sides of the Bodie Hills, where they cover older Miocene volcanic rocks. Quaternary surficial deposits, including extensive colluvial, fluvial, glacial, and lacustrine deposits, locally cover all older rocks. Miocene and younger rocks are tilted ≤30° in variable directions. These rocks are cut by several sets of high-angle faults that exhibit a temporal change from conjugate northeast-striking left-lateral and north-striking right-lateral oblique-slip faults in rocks older than about 9 Ma to north- and northwest-striking dip-slip faults in late Miocene rocks. The youngest faults are north-striking normal and northeast-striking left-lateral oblique-slip faults that cut Pliocene-Pleistocene rocks. Numerous hydrothermal systems were active during Miocene magmatism and formed extensive zones of hydrothermally altered rocks and several large mineral deposits, including gold- and silver-rich veins in the Bodie and Aurora mining districts (Vikre and others, in press).

  16. Boron isotopes at the Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillardet, J.; Noireaux, J.; Sullivan, P. L.; Steinhoefel, G.; Louvat, P.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    The Shale Hills Critical Zone Observatory is a Northern Appalachian catchment site where a series of geochemical tracers have been applied in order to build a multi-isotope integrative model (referred to as "CZ-tope"). The catchment is small (8ha) and relief is about 30 m. It receives about 107 cm of precipitation per year. Mean annual temperature is 10°C. Shales Hills observatory has a relatively simple lithology consisting of organic-poor shales rich in illite and relatively infrequent interbedded carbonates and sandstones. Vegetation consists mainly of deciduous trees. Soil thickness ranges from 0.3 m at the ridgetop to 3 m in the valley floor. Following the CZ-tope concept, boron isotopes were analysed in the main geochemical reservoirs of the SH catchment (stream, vegetation, soil pore waters, solid phases, groundwaters). Measurements were conducted using MC-ICPMS and a direct injection system after a chemical procedure aiming at isolating boron from geological matrix. Results are expressed as δ11B. Error bars are better than 0.5‰ Boron isotopes in Shale Hills catchment show a large range of variation. While bedrock values are within a narrow range around -5‰, stream waters range between 10‰ and 15‰, and exhibit temporal variations. This very strong 11B enrichment is also observed in the vegetation, groundwater and rainwater reservoirs but with a much larger range of variation. The input of 11B-enriched water by precipitation is contributing to the B budget at the catchment outlet but cannot explain all the 11B enrichment with respect to parent bedrock. The solid phases collected along two different soil profiles and as suspended sediments in the stream are close to the bedrock value or slightly 10B-enriched. The most important conclusion from boron isotope investigation at Shale Hills CZO is that a simple mass budget is not able to reconcile the strong 11B-enrichment measured in the water phases and vegetation with the isotopic signature of the

  17. The Black Charter School Effect: Black Students in American Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Monica R.

    2012-01-01

    This literature analysis examines the experiences of Black students in public charter schools in the United States by analyzing the current literature and enrollment data in this domain. Through the investigation of multiple empirical studies that examine the effects of charter schools on the academic achievement and enrollment trends of Black…

  18. Evolution of perturbations of squashed Kaluza-Klein black holes: Escape from instability

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Hideki; Kimura, Masashi; Konoplya, Roman A.; Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro; Zhidenko, Alexander

    2008-04-15

    The squashed Kaluza-Klien (KK) black holes differ from the Schwarzschild black holes with asymptotic flatness or the black strings even at energies for which the KK modes are not excited yet, so that squashed KK black holes open a window in higher dimensions. Another important feature is that the squashed KK black holes are apparently stable and, thereby, let us avoid the Gregory-Laflamme instability. In the present paper, the evolution of scalar and gravitational perturbations in time and frequency domains is considered for these squashed KK black holes. The scalar field perturbations are analyzed for general rotating squashed KK black holes. Gravitational perturbations for the so-called zero mode are shown to be decayed for nonrotating black holes, in concordance with the stability of the squashed KK black holes. The correlation of quasinormal frequencies with the size of extra dimension is discussed.

  19. Geological evolution of the Coombs Allan Hills area, Ferrar large igneous province, Antarctica: Debris avalanches, mafic pyroclastic density currents, phreatocauldrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Pierre-Simon; White, James D. L.; McClintock, Murray

    2008-05-01

    The Jurassic Ferrar large igneous province of Antarctica comprises igneous intrusions, flood lavas, and mafic volcaniclastic deposits (now lithified). The latter rocks are particularly diverse and well-exposed in the Coombs-Allan Hills area of South Victoria Land, where they are assigned to the Mawson Formation. In this paper we use these rocks in conjunction with the pre-Ferrar sedimentary rocks (Beacon Supergroup) and the lavas themselves (Kirkpatrick Basalt) to reconstruct the geomorphological and geological evolution of the landscape. In the Early Jurassic, the surface of the region was an alluvial plain, with perhaps 1 km of mostly continental siliciclastic sediments underlying it. After the fall of silicic ash from an unknown but probably distal source, mafic magmatism of the Ferrar province began. The oldest record of this event at Allan Hills is a ≤ 180 m-thick debris-avalanche deposit (member m1 of the Mawson Formation) which contains globular domains of mafic igneous rock. These domains are inferred to represent dismembered Ferrar intrusions emplaced in the source area of the debris avalanche; shallow emplacement of Ferrar magmas caused a slope failure that mobilized the uppermost Beacon Supergroup, and the silicic ash deposits, into a pre-existing valley or basin. The period which followed ('Mawson time') was the main stage for explosive eruptions in the Ferrar province, and several cubic kilometres of both new magma and sedimentary rock were fragmented over many years. Phreatomagmatic explosions were the dominant fragmentation mechanism, with magma-water interaction taking place in both sedimentary aquifers and existing vents filled by volcaniclastic debris. At Coombs Hills, a vent complex or 'phreatocauldron' was formed by coalescence of diatreme-like structures; at Allan Hills, member m2 of the Mawson Formation consists mostly of thick, coarse-grained, poorly sorted layers inferred to represent the lithified deposits of pyroclastic density currents

  20. NASA Now: Black Holes

    NASA Video Gallery

    In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...

  1. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  2. Black nightshade poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... when someone eats pieces of the black nightshade plant. This article is for information only. DO NOT ... Found Poisons are found in the black nightshade plant, especially in the unripened fruit and leaves. Symptoms ...

  3. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  4. Accelerating black diholes and static black dirings

    SciTech Connect

    Teo, Edward

    2006-01-15

    We show how a recently discovered black-ring solution with a rotating 2-sphere can be turned into two new solutions of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The first is a four-dimensional solution describing a pair of oppositely charged, extremal black holes--known as a black dihole--undergoing uniform acceleration. The second is a five-dimensional solution describing a pair of concentric, static extremal black rings carrying opposite dipole charges--a so-called black diring. The properties of both solutions, which turn out to be formally very similar, are analyzed in detail. We also present, in an appendix, an accelerating version of the Zipoy-Voorhees solution in four-dimensional Einstein gravity.

  5. Black Veterans Return

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fendrich, James; Pearson, Michael

    1970-01-01

    This is a survey study of black veterans' attitudes toward white authorities, the "law and order controversy, racial separatism, violence, and black identification. Results of the survey are held to suggest that alienation will move a substantial proportion of these veterans into the black radical movement. (KG)

  6. Black Studies Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Russell L.

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the proposition that the black studies movement is but a continuing aspect of our general battle for survival and liberation in a fluctuatingly hostile environment, and that a part of what is seen today in the black studies movement is but a fluctuation in a fight and an expression of black collective awareness dating back to the…

  7. The Black Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Juanita M.

    The Black woman has been the transmitter of culture in the black community. Two of the important roles of African women were perpetuated during slavery and continue until today. They are her role in economic endeavor and her close bond with her children. The woman in African society was additionally politically significant. The black woman has…

  8. Asymmetric Black Diholes

    SciTech Connect

    Manko, V. S.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.; Ruiz, E.

    2009-05-01

    In the present paper we enlarge the list of black dihole spacetimes by introducing the notion of asymmetric black diholes which describe configurations composed of two static charged black holes endowed with unequal masses and equal but opposite charges. The asymmetric dihole solutions are considered both in the Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories.

  9. On the covering of a Hill's region by solutions in the restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery; Polekhin, Ivan

    2016-09-01

    We consider two classical celestial-mechanical systems: the planar restricted circular three-body problem and its simplification, the Hill's problem. Numerical and analytical analyses of the covering of a Hill's region by solutions starting with zero velocity at its boundary are presented. We show that, in all considered cases, there always exists an area inside a Hill's region that is uncovered by the solutions.

  10. On the covering of a Hill's region by solutions in the restricted three-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Valery; Polekhin, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    We consider two classical celestial-mechanical systems: the planar restricted circular three-body problem and its simplification, the Hill's problem. Numerical and analytical analyses of the covering of a Hill's region by solutions starting with zero velocity at its boundary are presented. We show that, in all considered cases, there always exists an area inside a Hill's region that is uncovered by the solutions.

  11. LOCATION PLAN. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOCATION PLAN. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3186, dated January 25, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  12. GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND OUTLINE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL ARRANGEMENT AND OUTLINE. T.H. 2.5 PUMPING PLANT. TEXAS HILL CANAL - STA. 132+00. TEXAS HILL CANAL AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM. United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation; Gila Project, Arizona, Wellton-Mohawk Division. Drawing No. 50-D-3187, dated January 10, 1955, Denver, Colorado - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Relift Station, Texas Hill Canal 2.5, Northern Terminus of Avenue 51 East, approximately .5 mile south of Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Limits of Applicability of the Barber and Hill T-Matrix Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    CHEMICALP RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT , ENGINEERING Q417 CENTER 00•--- N__ LIMITS OF APPLICABILITY OF THE BARBER AND HILL T - Matrix CODE Jerold R. Bottiger...Applicability of the Barber and PR-10162622AS52 Hill T - Matrix Code 6. AUTHOR(S) Bottiger, Jerold R. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS(ES) 5...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Documentation accompanying the Barber and Hill T - matrix codes for

  14. Marius Hills: Surface Roughness from LROC and Mini-RF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, S.; Hawke, B. R.; Bussey, B.; Stopar, J. D.; Denevi, B.; Robinson, M.; Tran, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Team is collecting hundreds of high-resolution (0.5 m/pixel) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images of lunar volcanic constructs (domes, “cones”, and associated features) [1,2]. Marius Hills represents the largest concentration of volcanic features on the Moon and is a high-priority target for future exploration [3,4]. NAC images of this region provide new insights into the morphology and geology of specific features at the meter scale, including lava flow fronts, tectonic features, layers, and topography (using LROC stereo imagery) [2]. Here, we report initial results from Mini-RF and LROC collaborative studies of the Marius Hills. Mini-RF uses a hybrid polarimetric architecture to measure surface backscatter characteristics and can acquire data in one of two radar bands, S (12 cm) or X (4 cm) [5]. The spatial resolution of Mini-RF (15 m/pixel) enables correlation of features observed in NAC images to Mini-RF data. Mini-RF S-Band zoom-mode data and daughter products, such as circular polarization ratio (CPR), were directly compared to NAC images. Mini-RF S-Band radar images reveal enhanced radar backscatter associated with volcanic constructs in the Marius Hills region. Mini-RF data show that Marius Hills volcanic constructs have enhanced average CPR values (0.5-0.7) compared to the CPR values of the surrounding mare (~0.4). This result is consistent with the conclusions of [6], and implies that the lava flows comprising the domes in this region are blocky. To quantify the surface roughness [e.g., 6,7] block populations associated with specific geologic features in the Marius Hills region are being digitized from NAC images. Only blocks that can be unambiguously identified (>1 m diameter) are included in the digitization process, producing counts and size estimates of the block population. High block abundances occur mainly at the distal ends of lava flows. The average size of these blocks is 9 m, and 50% of observed

  15. Post-Hadean transitions in Jack Hills zircon provenance: A signal of the Late Heavy Bombardment?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Elizabeth A.; Harrison, T. Mark

    2013-02-01

    Hadean Jack Hills (Western Australia) detrital zircons represent the best documented terrestrial resource with which to observe the pre-4 Ga Earth. The >4 Ga component of this semi-continuous 4.38 to 3.0 Ga zircon record has been investigated in detail for age, δ18O, Lu-Hf systematics, and Ti thermometry. The more abundant post-Hadean population is less well-characterized, but a previous study (Bell et al., 2011) suggests a more restricted range of δ18O source materials together with a ca. 4.0-3.6 Ga discontinuity in Lu-Hf evolution. These differences could reflect a transformation in the character of the older zircon source region or their sourcing from different terranes entirely. The relative scarcity of 4.0-3.6 Ga zircons corresponds to a discontinuity in Lu-Hf evolution after which 176Hf/177Hf in zircon reverts to more radiogenic values relative to the >4 Ga population. We present new oxygen isotope, titanium, and trace element results for 4.0-3.6 Ga Jack Hills zircons in a search for apparent transitions in petrological conditions. Post-3.8 Ga zircons show a marked decrease in the occurrence of heavy oxygen (>6.5‰), but remain close to the average of the Hadean distribution despite their restricted range. This may point to the decreased importance of sedimentary materials in post-3.8 Ga magmas. Ca. 3.9 Ga zircons fall into two categories: “Group I” displays temperatures and compositions similar to the Hadean zircons whereas “Group II” zircons have higher U and Hf, and lower (Th/U), Ce and P. Group II zircons also have anomalously low Ti, and are remarkably concordant in the U-Pb system. Group II's geochemical characteristics are consistent with formation by transgressive recrystallization (Hoskin and Black, 2000), in which non-essential structural constituents are purged during high-grade thermal metamorphism. The restricted age range of Group II occurrence (3.91-3.84) and its coincidence with the postulated intense bolide flux in the inner solar

  16. Glacial History of the Pirrit Hills, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, P. E.; Stone, J. O.

    2014-12-01

    We present new ice-thickness constraints from the Pirrit Hills, a small, far-flung group of nunataks located in the Weddell Sector. At the Pirrit Hills, fresh glacial erratics indicate ice levels ~350-450 m above present during the last ice age. The highest erratics have preliminary 10Be exposure ages of ~16 ka, and the ages generally decrease with decreasing elevation, recording the thinning of the ice in the region. Despite the evidence of thicker ice, weathered bedrock extends down to the present ice level, implying prolonged subaerial weathering prior to the last ice age. These features, and the lack of evidence for wet-based glacial erosion, indicate cold-based and non-erosive ice cover. Over the elevation range in which we found glacial erratics, bedrock 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne concentrations are consistent with modest ice cover, and have exposure ages ranging from ~0.3-1.5 Myr. Around 450 m above the present ice level, bedrock 10Be, 26Al, and 21Ne concentrations increase by a factor of ~4-5 and do not indicate past ice cover. This height coincides with a break in the otherwise steep slopes of the Pirrit Hills, and the bedrock above is more weathered than the bedrock below. This transition marks the height above which ice cover, if it has occurred in the past few million years, has been very rare, brief, and cold-based. This feature may relate to the trimline imprinted on ridges in the Ellsworth Mountains. In both cases, alpine landscapes have been preserved by a polar climate and glacial highstands rising only partway up the mountain flanks.

  17. Orthogonal polynomial projection quantization: a new Hill determinant method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handy, C. R.; Vrinceanu, D.

    2013-04-01

    Accurate energy eigenvalues are obtained by simply projecting the unknown bound state wave function on, essentially, arbitrary sets of orthogonal polynomials, and setting a subset of these to zero. The projection integrals are represented in terms of the power moments of the wave function, obtained recursively by transforming Schrödinger’s equation into a moment equation. Because unbounded wave functions do not have power moments, all solutions are guaranteed to be L2, resulting in a more robust, rapidly converging and stable method when compared with configuration space Hill determinant methods. More importantly, our approach permits the use of arbitrary, nonanalytic, positive reference functions, including those that manifest the true asymptotic behavior of the discrete states. These advantages are not usually possible with the standard Hill approach. The formulation presented here can be applied to any problem for which Schrödinger’s equation can be transformed into a moment equation. In this regard it is related to the L2 quantization prescription developed by Tymczak et al (1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 80 3674; 1998 Phys. Rev. A 58 2708) corresponding to the Hill determinant method in momentum space, and to the eigenvalue moment method (Handy and Bessis 1985 Phys. Rev. Lett. 55 931; Handy et al 1988 Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 253), the first use of semidefinite programming related analysis in quantum physics. The latter method can be used to generate the ground state, whose orthogonal polynomials can serve to generate even more rapidly converging estimates for the excited discrete state energies. We demonstrate the power of this new approach on the sextic and quartic anharmonic oscillators, as well as on recently studied one- and two-dimensional pseudo-Hermitian Hamiltonians.

  18. Hill stability of the satellites in coplanar four-body problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Shengping; Liu, Chao

    2016-10-01

    We consider a four-body system, where three bodies, constituting a subsystem, orbit around a larger body. This paper is devoted to study the Hill stability of the subsystem using a coplanar four-body problem. Starting from the equation of zero-velocity surface for the general coplanar four-body problem, we derive two criteria of Hill stability, one of which is similar to the criterion of Hill stability in the three-body problem. These criteria are used to judge the Hill stability of the Sun-Jupiter-Ganymede-Callisto system.

  19. AmeriFlux US-LPH Little Prospect Hill

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hadley, Julian [Ecovative Design, LLC

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-LPH Little Prospect Hill. Site Description - The site was cleared for pasture, but not deeply plowed or planted, in the 18th and 19th centuries. Agriculture on the site was abandoned near the end of the 19th century. The forest within 200 to 300 m of the eddy covariance tower to the NW, W, SW, and S burned in an intense fire in 1957, which left few or no surviving trees.

  20. AGU/AGI Showcase ODP on Capitol Hill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    On Wednesday, June 13, lawmakers and their staffs jammed a Capitol Hill exhibit of research programs supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Sponsored by the Coalition for National Science Funding (CNSF), the exhibit is intended to demonstrate to members of Congress—who often wonder where the money they appropriate goes—the exciting research programs funded by NSF and their results.AGU joined with the American Geological Institute (AGI) in sponsoring an exhibit highlighting the Ocean Drilling Project (ODP). Frank Rack and Brecht Donoghue of the Joint Oceanographic Institutions (JOI) explained to interested legislators and congressional staff members that ODP is an international partnership of scientists and research institutions.

  1. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this false-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers. The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among

  2. Chirality induced tilted-hill giant Nernst signal.

    PubMed

    Kotetes, P; Varelogiannis, G

    2010-03-12

    We reveal a novel source of a giant Nernst response exhibiting strong nonlinear temperature and magnetic field dependence, including the mysterious tilted-hill temperature profile observed in a pleiad of materials. The phenomenon results directly from the formation of a chiral ground state, e.g., a chiral d-density wave, which is compatible with the eventual observation of diamagnetism and is distinctly different from the usual quasiparticle and vortex Nernst mechanisms. Our picture provides a unified understanding of the anomalous thermoelectricity observed in materials as diverse as the hole-doped cuprates and heavy-fermion compounds like URu(2)Si(2).

  3. Early cercopithecid monkeys from the Tugen Hills, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Rossie, James B.; Gilbert, Christopher C.; Hill, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The modern Old World Monkeys (Superfamily Cercopithecoidea, Family Cercopithecidae) can be traced back into the late Miocene, but their origin and subsequent diversification is obscured by the scarcity of terrestrial fossil sites in Africa between 15 and 6 Ma. Here, we document the presence of cercopithecids at 12.5 Ma in the Tugen Hills of Kenya. These fossils add 3 My to the known antiquity of crown Cercopithecidae. The two specimens represent one or possibly two species of early colobine, and their morphology suggests that they were less folivorous than their modern relatives. PMID:23509250

  4. Surface water and groundwater interaction on a hill island

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumph Frederiksen, Rasmus; Rømer Rasmussen, Keld; Christensen, Steen

    2014-05-01

    A number of recent studies have indicated that the hydrological system in stream valleys is often complex and exchange of water takes place through semi-permeable contacts and flow paths may be quite diverse. Yet, surface water and groundwater interaction in one of the major Danish landscapes - the hill islands - is relatively unknown. This study aims at providing new information about the rainfall-runoff processes in hill island landscapes where surface water and groundwater interaction is expected to have a dominant role and hill-slope processes not. Through stream flow measurements, field observations, and existing geological and geophysical data, we have investigated the surface water and groundwater interaction in the Abild Stream catchment (<70 km2) on Skovbjerg hill island in the western part of Denmark. Existing discharge data are limited but the hydrographs downstream Abild Stream appear to be strongly influenced by event flow indicating that shallow control by low permeable sediments is important. Nevertheless irrigation is intensive which indicates that the soil and shallow sediments are permeable. Since July 2014 we have measured stream flow during quarterly campaigns at 11 stations along the stream representing different spatial scales and using Acoustic Doppler techniques (ADCP) as well as current-meters. Furthermore we have mapped topography, soil types, geomorphology, ditches, drains and land use through field observations and digital maps. The shallow subsurface geology has been mapped using abundant well described geological data (boreholes) and geophysical data (airborne TEM). Our stream flow measurements show that the tributaries from west and north dry out during the summer period. Significant drained areas in the NW- and SW-part of the catchment have been observed from old topographical maps as well as in the field. The geological data indicate shallow low permeable sediments primarily on the western side of Abild stream, and the geophysical

  5. Rosemary Hill Observatory lunar occultation summary for 1983-1984

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Glenn; Anderson, Chris

    1993-04-01

    The results from photometric observations of 21 previously unreported occultation disappearances obtained during the period from March 24, 1983 through March 12, 1984, with the University of Florida's Rosemary Hill Observatory 76-cm reflecting telescope are presented. Statistically significant determinations of stellar diameters are indicated for two stars: 32 Librae (12.2 mas) and BD + 22 deg 1032 (5.45 mas). Diameter measurements of marginal statistical significance are noted for two other stars (9 Cancri and 37 Capricorni). New duplicity determinations are reported for five stellar systems in this sample.

  6. Hydrocarbons in benthic marine algae of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    1987-02-01

    Recently, Antarctic continent has been the center for diverse research activities. This has resulted in a large number of research and supply vessels visiting Antarctica, which may lead to the contamination of Antarctic environment due to unintentional release of petroleum products. It is, therefore, essential to monitor the concentration of various pollutants in water, sediment, flora and fauna of this region which may also serve as a baseline data for future comparison. With this in view, total hydrocarbon concentration in some marine benthic algae collected from the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica was studied using fluorescence spectroscopy.

  7. Black Hole Battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.

  8. IMAGES OF BLACK AMERICANS

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.; Bergsieker, Hilary B.; Russell, Ann Marie; Williams, Lyle

    2013-01-01

    Images of Black Americans are becoming remarkably diverse, enabling Barack Obama to defy simple-minded stereotypes and succeed. Understood through the Stereotype Content Model’s demonstrably fundamental trait dimensions of perceived warmth and competence, images of Black Americans show three relevant patterns. Stereotyping by omission allows non-Blacks to accentuate the positive, excluding any lingering negativity but implying it by its absence; specifically, describing Black Americans as gregarious and passionate suggests warmth but ignores competence and implies its lack. Obama’s credentials prevented him from being cast as incompetent, though the experience debate continued. His legendary calm and passionate charisma saved him on the warmth dimension. Social class subtypes for Black Americans differentiate dramatically between low-income Blacks and Black professionals, among both non-Black and Black samples. Obama clearly fit the moderately warm, highly competent Black-professional subtype. Finally, the campaign’s events (and nonevents) allowed voter habituation to overcome non-Blacks’ automatic emotional vigilance to Black Americans. PMID:24235974

  9. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McSween, H.Y.; Ruff, S.W.; Morris, R.V.; Bell, J.F.; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, Ralf; Stockstill, K.R.; Tornabene, L.L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J.A.; Christensen, P.R.; McCoy, T.J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-01-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Impact craters as biospheric microenvironments, Lawn Hill Structure, Northern Australia.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, John; Brasier, Martin

    2006-04-01

    Impact craters on Mars act as traps for eolian sediment and in the past may have provided suitable microenvironments that could have supported and preserved a stressed biosphere. If this is so, terrestrial impact structures such as the 18-km-diameter Lawn Hill Structure, in northern Australia, may prove useful as martian analogs. We sampled outcrop and drill core from the carbonate fill of the Lawn Hill Structure and recorded its gamma-log signature. Facies data along with whole rock geochemistry and stable isotope signatures show that the crater fill is an outlier of the Georgina Basin and was formed by impact at, or shortly before, approximately 509-506 million years ago. Subsequently, it was rapidly engulfed by the Middle Cambrian marine transgression, which filled it with shallow marine carbonates and evaporites. The crater formed a protected but restricted microenvironment in which sediments four times the thickness of the nearby basinal succession accumulated. Similar structures, common on the martian surface, may well have acted as biospheric refuges as the planet's water resources declined. Low-pH aqueous environments on Earth similar to those on Mars, while extreme, support diverse ecologies. The architecture of the eolian crater fill would have been defined by long-term ground water cycles resulting from intermittent precipitation in an extremely arid climate. Nutrient recycling, critical to a closed lacustrine sub-ice biosphere, could be provided by eolian transport onto the frozen water surface.

  11. Observations and Modelling of Convective Rolls Over Low Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Parker, D. J.; Kilburn, C. A. D.

    Radar and satellite images provide observations of convective rolls and other struc- tures in the convective boundary layer (CBL), but numerical modelling is a neces- sary complement to the observations, to investigate the temporal and spatial evolu- tion of convective rolls. Numerical simulations have been performed to investigate observed convective rolls over the south of England, using BLASIUS, a relatively simple boundary layer code for flow over topography. The principal features of the convective structures can be successfully reproduced by the model, notably the roll orientation and spacing and the basic features of the cloud field. These features are in good agreement for two case studies, one with distinct rolls and the other with more dispersed convective structures and a time-dependent basic state. The presence of low topography (with maximum height of order 30% of the CBL depth) does not significantly change the orientation and spacing, nor the time of initial occurrence of modelled rolls, but local flow anomalies can be related to the hills. These anomalies are related to coherent patterns in the diagnosed cloud fields, with a tendency for more cloud cover upstream and over hills, and cloud clearing in the lee as a result of descent suppressing convective eddies. This kind of control of the shallow convection by the topography is evident in the satellite imagery.

  12. Millstone Hill radar: Capabilities for S/T observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loriot, G. B.

    1984-01-01

    During the past several years, the 440-MHz radar at Millstone Hill has been modified to detect coherent echoes from clear-air turbulence in the stratosphere/troposphere (S/T) over the altitude range 4-25 km. Two distinct modes of data acquisition have been developed, and data reduction programs have been completed for one of these modes. This mode (I-mode) transmits a 10 microsec (1.5 km) pulse on the fully steerable antenna. Typically, the antenna is set at a low elevation angle (e.g., 15 deg.) to reduce the altitude resolution to approximately 1 km., and power spectra are collected at some 40 range gates. The antenna may be scanned in azimuth to obtain the total wind vector, held fixed to monitor wave motion, or scanned in elevation to monitor the horizontal extent of the turbulent activity. This steerability gives Millstone a flexible system to focus on localized events, such as lee waves or convective storms. An additional advantage at low elevations is the relatively large Doppler shift of the signal, since the LOS velocity contains a large component of the horizontal velocity. This shift separates the turbulence signal sufficiently far from the ground clutter to allow the spectral moments to be readily inferred. Some 500 hours of S/T I-mode data have been reduced to geophysical parameters, and reside on a data base at Millstone Hill.

  13. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics

    PubMed Central

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-01-01

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:20535761

  14. Observations of Enhanced Radar Backscatter (ERB) from Millstone Hill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.

    1991-01-01

    Intense enhancements of the incoherent radar backscatter spectrum from the topside ionosphere were observed with the Millstone Hill UHF radar. Enhancements occurring at the local ion acoustic frequency causing large asymmetries in the measured ion line may be produced by current driven instabilities. These enhancements pose a practical problem for space surveillance systems because their cross section and spectral width are characteristic of satellites. Conversely, their hard target signature complicates the study of naturally occurring ERB events; it is nearly impossible to distinguish them from satellites based on a single measurement. Statistical comparisons of observed coherent echo distributions with predictions from a satellite catalog were used to broadly identify periods of ERB activity. A series of experiments using multiple diagnostics, including satellite instruments, for simultaneous observations have established the association of ERB with large fluxes of soft suprathermal electrons carrying field aligned currents. Zenith data are also presented which show the asymmetric growth of ion acoustic waves directly above Millstone Hill. Details of these results are presented.

  15. Sand-Strewn Summit of 'Husband Hill' on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Undulating bands of dark and light sand, sloping dunes, and scattered cobbles form an apron around a ridge of light-colored rock that stands in bold relief against distant plains, as viewed by NASA's 'Spirit' rover from the top of 'Husband Hill' on Mars. 'The view of the summit is spectacular where we are right now,' said geologist Larry Crumpler, with the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque.

    From here, Spirit is looking north-northeast en route to examining more of the local geology of the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater. A few days after taking this picture, Spirit investigated the small, sinuous drifts on the left, located north-northeast of the rover's position in this image. The last previous time Spirit examined a drift was on the rim of 'Bonneville Crater' almost 500 martian days, or sols, ago, in March 2004.

    The largest light-colored rock in the foreground is nicknamed 'Whittaker.' The cliff beyond it and slightly to the left is nicknamed 'Tenzing.' The highest rock on the ridge ahead has been dubbed 'Hillary.' Science team members selected the nicknames in honor of the earliest climbers to scale Mount Everest on Earth. This view covers approximately 50 degrees of the compass from left to right. It is a mosaic assembled from frames Spirit took with the panoramic camera on sol 603 (Sept. 13, 2005). It was taken through a blue (430-nanometer) filter and is presented as a cylindrical projection.

  16. Alkaline volcanic rocks from the Columbia Hills, Gusev crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McSween, H. Y.; Ruff, S. W.; Morris, R. V.; Bell, J. F.; Herkenhoff, K.; Gellert, R.; Stockstill, K. R.; Tornabene, L. L.; Squyres, S. W.; Crisp, J. A.; Christensen, P. R.; McCoy, T. J.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Schmidt, M.

    2006-09-01

    Irvine, Backstay, and Wishstone are the type specimens for three classes of fine-grained or fragmental, relatively unaltered rocks with distinctive thermal emission spectra, found as float on the flanks of the Columbia Hills. Chemical analyses indicate that these rocks are mildly alkaline basalt, trachybasalt, and tephrite, respectively. Their mineralogy consists of Na- and K-rich feldspar(s), low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, ferroan olivine, Fe-Ti (and possibly Cr) oxides, phosphate, and possibly glass. The texture of Wishstone is consistent with a pyroclastic origin, whereas Irvine and Backstay are lavas or possibly dike rocks. Chemical compositions of these rocks plot on or near liquid lines of descent for most elements calculated for Adirondack class rocks (olivine-rich basalts from the Gusev plains) at various pressures from 0.1 to 1.0 GPa. We infer that Wishstone-, Backstay-, and Irvine-class magmas may have formed by fractionation of primitive, oxidized basaltic magma similar to Adirondack-class rocks. The compositions of all these rocks reveal that the Gusev magmatic province is alkaline, distinct from the subalkaline volcanic rocks thought to dominate most of the planet's surface. The fact that differentiated volcanic rocks were not encountered on the plains prior to ascending Husband Hill may suggest a local magma source for volcanism beneath Gusev crater.

  17. Observations on Cretaceous abyssal hills in the northeast Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eittreim, S.L.; Piper, D.Z.; Chezar, H.; Jones, D.R.; Kaneps, A.

    1984-01-01

    An abyssal hills area of 50 ?? 60 km in the northeast Pacific was studied using bottom transponder navigation, closely spaced survey lines, and long-traverse oblique photography. The block-faulted north-south hills are bounded by scarps, commonly with 40?? slopes. On these steep scarps sedimentation is inhibited and pillow basalts often crop out. An ash layer of high acoustic reflectivity at about 7 m subbottom depth blankets the area. This ash occurs in multiple beds altered to phillipsite and is highly consolidated. A 24 m.y. age for the ash is based on ichthyolith dates from samples in the overlying sediments. Acoustically transparent Neogene sediments above the ash are thickest in trough bottoms and are absent or thin on steep slopes. These Neogene sediments are composed of pale-brown pelagic clays of illite, quartz, smectite, chlorite and kaolinite. Dark-brown pelagic clays, rich in smectite and amorphous iron oxides, underlie the Neogene surficial sediments. Manganese nodules cover the bottom in varying percentages. The nodules are most abundant near basement outcrops and where the subbottom ash layer is absent. ?? 1984.

  18. Woods and Russell, Hill, and the emergence of medical statistics.

    PubMed

    Farewell, Vern; Johnson, Tony

    2010-06-30

    In 1937, Austin Bradford Hill wrote Principles of Medical Statistics (Lancet: London, 1937) that became renowned throughout the world and is widely associated with the birth of modern medical statistics. Some 6 years earlier Hilda Mary Woods and William Thomas Russell, colleagues of Hill at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, wrote a similar book An Introduction to Medical Statistics (PS King and Son: London, 1931) that is little known today. We trace the origins of these two books from the foundations of early demography and vital statistics, and make a detailed examination of some of their chapters. It is clear that these texts mark a watershed in the history of medical statistics that demarcates the vital statistics of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries from the modern discipline. Moreover, we consider that the book by Woods and Russell is of some importance in the development of medical statistics and we describe and acknowledge their place in the history of this discipline.

  19. Black Holes (With 16 figures)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Igor

    Astrophysics of Black Holes Introduction The Origin of Stellar Black Holes A Nonrotating Black Hole Introduction Schwarzschild Gravitational Field Motion of Photons Along the Radial Direction Radial Motion of Nonrelativistic Particles The Puzzle of the Gravitational Radius R and T Regions Two Types of T-Regions Gravitational Collapse and White Holes Eternal Black Hole? Black Hole Celestial Mechanics Circular Motion Around a Black Hole Gravitational Capture of Particles by a Black Hole Corrections for Gravitational Radiation A Rotating Black Hole Introduction Gravitational Field of a Rotating Black Hole Specific Reference Frames General Properties of the Spacetime of a Rotating Black Hole; - Spacetime Inside the Horizon Celestial Mechanics of a Rotating Black Hole Motion of Particle in the Equatorial Plane Motion of Particles off the Equatorial Plane Peculiarities of the Gravitational Capture of Bodies by a Rotating - Black Hole Electromagnetic Fields Near a Black Hole Introduction Maxwell's Equations in the Neighborhood of a Rotating Black Hole Stationary Electrodynamics Boundary Conditions at the Event Horizon Electromagnetic Fields in Vacuum Magnetosphere of a Black Hole Some Aspects of Physics of Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Machines Observational Appearence of the Black Holes in the Universe Black Holes in the Interstellar Medium Disk Accretion Black Holes in Stellar Binary Systems Black Holes in Galactic Centers Dynamical Evidence for Black Holes in Galaxy Nuclei Primordial Black Holes Acknowledgements References

  20. Assessing the association between homocysteine and cognition: reflections on Bradford Hill, meta-analyses, and causality.

    PubMed

    McCaddon, Andrew; Miller, Joshua W

    2015-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a recognized risk factor for cognitive decline and incident dementia in older adults. Two recent reports addressed the cumulative epidemiological evidence for this association but expressed conflicting opinions. Here, the evidence is reviewed in relation to Sir Austin Bradford Hill's criteria for assessing "causality," and the latest meta-analysis of the effects of homocysteine-lowering on cognitive function is critically examined. The meta-analysis included 11 trials, collectively assessing 22,000 individuals, that examined the effects of B vitamin supplements (folic acid, vitamin B12, vitamin B6) on global or domain-specific cognitive decline. It concluded that homocysteine-lowering with B vitamin supplements has no significant effect on cognitive function. However, careful examination of the trials in the meta-analysis indicates that no conclusion can be made regarding the effects of homocysteine-lowering on cognitive decline, since the trials typically did not include individuals who were experiencing such decline. Further definitive trials in older adults experiencing cognitive decline are still urgently needed.