Fluctuating black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Jianwei
2013-10-01
In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.
Charged black hole horizons and QED effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thompson, Johnathon; Muñoz, Gerardo
2017-09-01
It is well known that the presence of quantum fields alters many of the classical properties of black holes. In this paper we consider the lowest-order QED corrections to the location and temperature of the event horizons of charged black holes. We conjecture that QED effects protect realistic charged black holes from the phenomenon of mass inflation.
Toroidal horizons in binary black hole mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2016-09-01
We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It has been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology. However, such a phase has never been seen in numerical simulations. Instead, in all previous simulations, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We find a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon, thus reconciling the numerical work with theoretical expectations. The demonstration requires extremely high numerical precision, which is made possible by a new event horizon code described in a companion paper. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.
Horizon quantum mechanics of rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Giusti, Andrea; Micu, Octavian
2017-05-01
The horizon quantum mechanics is an approach that was previously introduced in order to analyze the gravitational radius of spherically symmetric systems and compute the probability that a given quantum state is a black hole. In this work, we first extend the formalism to general space-times with asymptotic (ADM) mass and angular momentum. We then apply the extended horizon quantum mechanics to a harmonic model of rotating corpuscular black holes. We find that simple configurations of this model naturally suppress the appearance of the inner horizon and seem to disfavor extremal (macroscopic) geometries.
Horizon dynamics of distorted rotating black holes
Chu, Tony; Cohen, Michael I.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.
2011-05-15
We present numerical simulations of a rotating black hole distorted by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation. For strong pulses, we find up to five concentric marginally outer trapped surfaces. These trapped surfaces appear and disappear in pairs, so that the total number of such surfaces at any given time is odd. The world tubes traced out by the marginally outer trapped surfaces are found to be spacelike during the highly dynamical regime, approaching a null hypersurface at early and late times. We analyze the structure of these marginally trapped tubes in the context of the dynamical horizon formalism, computing the expansion of outgoing and incoming null geodesics, as well as evaluating the dynamical horizon flux law and the angular momentum flux law. Finally, we compute the event horizon. The event horizon is well-behaved and approaches the apparent horizon before and after the highly dynamical regime. No new generators enter the event horizon during the simulation.
Black Hole Observations - Towards the Event Horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britzen, Silke
Black Holes are probably the most elusive solutions of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Despite numerous observations of the direct galactic environment and indirect influence of astrophysical black holes (e.g. jets, variable emission across the wavelength spectrum, feedback processes, etc.) -- a direct proof of their existence is still lacking. This article highlights some aspects deduced from many observations and concentrates on the experimental results with regard to black holes with masses from millions to billions of solar masses. The focus will be on the challenges and remaining questions. The Event Horizon Telescopce (EHT) project to image the photon sphere of Sgr A* and its potential is briefly sketched. This instrumental approach shall lead to highest resolution observations of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*).
New geometries for black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias
2015-07-01
We construct several classes of worldvolume effective actions for black holes by integrating out spatial sections of the worldvolume geometry of asymptotically flat black branes. This provides a generalisation of the blackfold approach for higher-dimensional black holes and yields a map between different effective theories, which we exploit by obtaining new hydrodynamic and elastic transport coefficients via simple integrations. Using Euclidean minimal surfaces in order to decouple the fluid dynamics on different sections of the worldvolume, we obtain local effective theories for ultraspinning Myers-Perry branes and helicoidal black branes, described in terms of a stress-energy tensor, particle currents and non-trivial boost vectors. We then study in detail and present novel compact and non-compact geometries for black hole horizons in higher-dimensional asymptotically flat space-time. These include doubly-spinning black rings, black helicoids and helicoidal p-branes as well as helicoidal black rings and helicoidal black tori in D ≥ 6.
BPS black hole horizons from massive IIA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guarino, Adolfo
2017-08-01
The maximal four-dimensional supergravity with a dyonic ISO(7) gauging that arises from the reduction of massive IIA on a six-sphere has recently been shown to accommodate static BPS black holes with hyperbolic horizons. When restricted to the N=2 subsector that retains one vector multiplet and the universal hypermultiplet, the attractor mechanism was shown to fix both the vector charges and the scalar fields at the horizon to a unique configuration in terms of the gauging parameters. In order to assess the (non-)uniqueness of BPS black hole horizons from massive IIA, we extend the study of the attractor mechanism to other N=2 subsectors including additional matter multiplets. We note that, while extending the hypermultiplet sector does not modify the set of solutions to the attractor equations, the inclusion of additional vector multiplets results in new hyperbolic/spherical horizon configurations containing free parameters. The model with three vector multiplets and the universal hypermultiplet, which is the massive IIA analogue of the STU-model from M-theory, may play a relevant role in massive IIA holography.
Pair production close to black hole horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurent, Philippe; Titarchuk, Lev
2012-07-01
Accreting stellar-mass black holes in Galactic binaries exhibit a ``bi-modal" spectral behavior - namely the so called high-soft and low-hard spectral states. An increase in the soft blackbody luminosity component leads to the appearance of an extended power law. An important observational fact is that this effect is seen as a persistent phenomenon only in BH candidates, and thus it is apparently a unique black hole signature. Although similar power law components are detected in the intermediate stages in neutron star systems, they are of a transient nature, i.e. disappearing with increasing luminosity. It thus seems a reasonable assumption that the unique spectral signature of the soft state of BH binaries is directly tied to the black hole event horizon. This is the primary motivation for the Bulk Motion Comptonization Model, introduced in several previous papers, and recently applied with striking success to a substantial body of observational data. We argued that the BH X-ray spectrum in the high-soft state is formed in the relatively cold accretion flow with a subrelativistic bulk velocity close to c and a temperature of a few keV. In such a flow the effect of the bulk Comptonization is indeed much stronger than the effect of the thermal ones. Another property of these accreted flow, that we will explore during this talk, is that, very close to horizon, X-ray photons may be upscattered by bulk electrons to MeV energy. Most of these photons fall down then in the black hole, but some of them anyway have time to interact with another X-ray photon by the photon-photon process to make an electron-positron pairs. We will then explore in details the consequences of this pair creation process close to horizon and what can be the observational evidences of this effect.
Energy and information near black hole horizons
Freivogel, Ben
2014-07-01
The central challenge in trying to resolve the firewall paradox is to identify excitations in the near-horizon zone of a black hole that can carry information without injuring a freely falling observer. By analyzing the problem from the point of view of a freely falling observer, I arrive at a simple proposal for the degrees of freedom that carry information out of the black hole. An infalling observer experiences the information-carrying modes as ingoing, negative energy excitations of the quantum fields. In these states, freely falling observers who fall in from infinity do not encounter a firewall, but freely falling observers who begin their free fall from a location close to the horizon are ''frozen'' by a flux of negative energy. When the black hole is ''mined,'' the number of information-carrying modes increases, increasing the negative energy flux in the infalling frame without violating the equivalence principle. Finally, I point out a loophole in recent arguments that an infalling observer must detect a violation of unitarity, effective field theory, or free infall.
Energy and information near black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freivogel, Ben
2014-07-01
The central challenge in trying to resolve the firewall paradox is to identify excitations in the near-horizon zone of a black hole that can carry information without injuring a freely falling observer. By analyzing the problem from the point of view of a freely falling observer, I arrive at a simple proposal for the degrees of freedom that carry information out of the black hole. An infalling observer experiences the information-carrying modes as ingoing, negative energy excitations of the quantum fields. In these states, freely falling observers who fall in from infinity do not encounter a firewall, but freely falling observers who begin their free fall from a location close to the horizon are ``frozen'' by a flux of negative energy. When the black hole is ``mined,'' the number of information-carrying modes increases, increasing the negative energy flux in the infalling frame without violating the equivalence principle. Finally, I point out a loophole in recent arguments that an infalling observer must detect a violation of unitarity, effective field theory, or free infall.
Quantum correlations across the black hole horizon
Schuetzhold, Ralf; Unruh, William G.
2010-06-15
Inspired by the condensed-matter analogues of black holes, we study the quantum correlations across the event horizon reflecting the entanglement between the outgoing particles of the Hawking radiation and their in-falling partners. For a perfectly covariant theory, the total correlation is conserved in time and piles up arbitrary close to the horizon in the past, where it merges into the singularity of the vacuum two-point function at the light cone. After modifying the dispersion relation (i.e., breaking Lorentz invariance) for large k, on the other hand, the light cone is smeared out and the entanglement is not conserved but actually created in a given rate per unit time.
Falling through the black hole horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.
2015-06-01
We consider the fate of a small classical object, a "stick", as it falls through the horizon of a large black hole (BH). Classically, the equivalence principle dictates that the stick is affected by small tidal forces, and Hawking's quantum-mechanical model of BH evaporation makes essentially the same prediction. If, on the other hand, the BH horizon is surrounded by a "firewall", the stick will be consumed as it falls through. We have recently extended Hawking's model by taking into account the quantum fluctuations of the geometry and the classical back-reaction of the emitted particles. Here, we calculate the train exerted on the falling stick for our model. The strain depends on the near-horizon state of the Hawking pairs. We find that, after the Page time when the state of the pairs deviates significantly from maximal entanglement (as required by unitarity), the induced strain in our semiclassical model is still parametrically small. This is because the number of the disentangled pairs is parametrically smaller than the BH entropy. A firewall does, however, appear if the number of disentangled pairs near the horizon is of order of the BH entropy, as implicitly assumed in previous discussions in the literature.
Skyrme black holes in the isolated horizons formalism
Nielsen, Alex B.
2006-08-15
We study static, spherically symmetric, Skyrme black holes in the context of the assumption that they can be viewed as bound states between ordinary bare black holes and solitons. This assumption and results stemming from the isolated horizons formalism lead to several conjectures about the static black hole solutions. These conjectures are tested against the Skyrme black hole solutions. It is shown that, while there is in general good agreement with the conjectures, a crucial aspect seems to violate one of the conjectures.
Classification of Near-Horizon Geometries of Extremal Black Holes.
Kunduri, Hari K; Lucietti, James
2013-01-01
Any spacetime containing a degenerate Killing horizon, such as an extremal black hole, possesses a well-defined notion of a near-horizon geometry. We review such near-horizon geometry solutions in a variety of dimensions and theories in a unified manner. We discuss various general results including horizon topology and near-horizon symmetry enhancement. We also discuss the status of the classification of near-horizon geometries in theories ranging from vacuum gravity to Einstein-Maxwell theory and supergravity theories. Finally, we discuss applications to the classification of extremal black holes and various related topics. Several new results are presented and open problems are highlighted throughout.
Horizons of semiclassical black holes are cold
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brustein, Ram; Medved, A. J. M.
2014-06-01
We calculate, using our recently proposed semiclassical framework, the quantum state of the Hawking pairs that are produced during the evaporation of a black hole (BH). Our framework adheres to the standard rules of quantum mechanics and incorporates the quantum fluctuations of the collapsing shell spacetime in Hawking's original calculation, while accounting for back-reaction effects. We argue that the negative-energy Hawking modes need to be regularly integrated out; and so these are effectively subsumed by the BH and, as a result, the number of coherent negative-energy modes N coh at any given time is parametrically smaller than the total number of the Hawking particles N total emitted during the lifetime of the BH. We find that N coh is determined by the width of the BH wavefunction and scales as the square root of the BH entropy. We also find that the coherent negative-energy modes are strongly entangled with their positive-energy partners. Previously, we have found that N coh is also the number of coherent outgoing particles and that information can be continually transferred to the outgoing radiation at a rate set by N coh . Our current results show that, while the BH is semiclassical, information can be released without jeopardizing the nearly maximal inside-out entanglement and imply that the state of matter near the horizon is approximately the vacuum. The BH firewall proposal, on the other hand, is that the state of matter near the horizon deviates substantially from the vacuum, starting at the Page time. We find that, under the usual assumptions for justifying the formation of a firewall, one does indeed form at the Page time. However, the possible loophole lies in the implicit assumption that the number of strongly entangled pairs can be of the same order of N total .
Entanglement, tensor networks and black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Molina-Vilaplana, J.; Prior, J.
2014-11-01
We elaborate on a previous proposal by Hartman and Maldacena on a tensor network which accounts for the scaling of the entanglement entropy in a system at a finite temperature. In this construction, the ordinary entanglement renormalization flow given by the class of tensor networks known as the Multi Scale Entanglement Renormalization Ansatz (MERA), is supplemented by an additional entanglement structure at the length scale fixed by the temperature. The network comprises two copies of a MERA circuit with a fixed number of layers and a pure matrix product state which joins both copies by entangling the infrared degrees of freedom of both MERA networks. The entanglement distribution within this bridge state defines reduced density operators on both sides which cause analogous effects to the presence of a black hole horizon when computing the entanglement entropy at finite temperature in the AdS/CFT correspondence. The entanglement and correlations during the thermalization process of a system after a quantum quench are also analyzed. To this end, a full tensor network representation of the action of local unitary operations on the bridge state is proposed. This amounts to a tensor network which grows in size by adding succesive layers of bridge states. Finally, we discuss on the holographic interpretation of the tensor network through a notion of distance within the network which emerges from its entanglement distribution.
Action growth of charged black holes with a single horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Rong-Gen; Sasaki, Misao; Wang, Shao-Jiang
2017-06-01
According to the conjecture "complexity equals action," the complexity of a holographic state is equal to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch of black holes in anti-de Sitter space. In this paper we calculate the action growth of charged black holes with a single horizon, paying attention to the contribution from a spacelike singularity inside the horizon. We consider two kinds of such charged black holes: one is a charged dilaton black hole, and the other is a Born-Infeld black hole with β2Q2<1 /4 . In both cases, although an electric charge appears in the black hole solutions, the inner horizon is absent; instead a spacelike singularity appears inside the horizon. We find that the action growth of the WDW patch of the charged black hole is finite and satisfies the Lloyd bound. As a check, we also calculate the action growth of a charged black hole with a phantom Maxwell field. In this case, although the contributions from the bulk integral and the spacelike singularity are individually divergent, these two divergences just cancel each other and a finite action growth is obtained. But in this case, the Lloyd bound is violated as expected.
Breaking an Abelian gauge symmetry near a black hole horizon
Gubser, Steven S.
2008-09-15
I argue that coupling the Abelian Higgs model to gravity plus a negative cosmological constant leads to black holes which spontaneously break the gauge invariance via a charged scalar condensate slightly outside their horizon. This suggests that black holes can superconduct.
Supertranslations and Superrotations at the Black Hole Horizon.
Donnay, Laura; Giribet, Gaston; González, Hernán A; Pino, Miguel
2016-03-04
We show that the asymptotic symmetries close to nonextremal black hole horizons are generated by an extension of supertranslations. This group is generated by a semidirect sum of Virasoro and Abelian currents. The charges associated with the asymptotic Killing symmetries satisfy the same algebra. When considering the special case of a stationary black hole, the zero mode charges correspond to the angular momentum and the entropy at the horizon.
Supertranslations and Superrotations at the Black Hole Horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Donnay, Laura; Giribet, Gaston; González, Hernán A.; Pino, Miguel
2016-03-01
We show that the asymptotic symmetries close to nonextremal black hole horizons are generated by an extension of supertranslations. This group is generated by a semidirect sum of Virasoro and Abelian currents. The charges associated with the asymptotic Killing symmetries satisfy the same algebra. When considering the special case of a stationary black hole, the zero mode charges correspond to the angular momentum and the entropy at the horizon.
Black hole entropy from conformal symmetry on the horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlip, Steven
2017-01-01
The idea that black hole entropy might be governed by a conformal symmetry is an old one, but until now most efforts have focused on either asymptotic symmetries or symmetries on a ``stretched horizon. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, I show the existence of a well-behaved conformal symmetry that is on the horizon, with a central charge that correctly determines the black hole entropy. Supported by Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-91ER40674.
Black Hole Physics with the Event Horizon Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ozel, Feryal
2016-01-01
The Event Horizon Telescope is an experiment that is being performed on a large and ever-increasing array of radio telescopes that span the Earth from Hawaii to Chile and from the South Pole to Arizona. When data will be taken with the full array, it will image the event horizons of the supermassive black hole at the center of our Galaxy, Sagittarius A*, and the black hole at the center of M87, with an unprecedented 10 microarcssecond resolution. This will allow us to take the first ever pictures of black holes at 1.3 and 0.85 mm wavelengths and look for the shadow that is a direct evidence for a black hole predicted by the theory of General Relativity. In addition, the Event Horizon Telescope will also enable us to study the process by which black holes accrete matter and grow in mass. I will discuss the theoretical developments in simulating the properties of the black hole accretion flows and their expected images using state-of-the-art algorithms and high performance computing. Interpreting the upcoming observations within this theoretical framework will open new horizons in black hole astrophysics.
Complete single-horizon quantum corrected black hole spacetime
Peltola, Ari; Kunstatter, Gabor
2009-03-15
We show that a semiclassical polymerization of the interior of Schwarzschild black holes gives rise to a tantalizing candidate for a nonsingular, single-horizon black hole spacetime. The exterior has nonzero quantum stress energy but closely approximates the classical spacetime for macroscopic black holes. The interior exhibits a bounce at a microscopic scale and then expands indefinitely to a Kantowski-Sachs spacetime. Polymerization therefore removes the singularity and produces a scenario reminiscent of past proposals for universe creation via quantum effects inside a black hole.
Near-horizon conformal symmetry and black hole entropy.
Carlip, S
2002-06-17
Near an event horizon, the action of general relativity acquires a new asymptotic conformal symmetry. For two-dimensional dilaton gravity, this symmetry results in a chiral Virasoro algebra, and Cardy's formula for the density of states reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. This lends support to the notion that black hole entropy is controlled universally by conformal symmetry near the horizon.
Redshift of a photon emitted along the black hole horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toporensky, A. V.; Zaslavskii, O. B.
2017-03-01
In this work we derive some general features of the redshift measured by radially moving observers in the black hole background. Let observer 1 cross the black hole horizon emitting a photon, while observer 2 crossing the same horizon later receives it. We show that if (i) the horizon is the outer one (event horizon) and (ii) it is nonextremal, the received frequency is redshifted. This generalizes recent results in the literature. For the inner horizon (like in the Reissner-Nordström metric) the frequency is blueshifted. If the horizon is extremal, the frequency does not change. We derive explicit formulas describing the frequency shift in generalized Kruskal- and Lemaitre-like coordinates.
Horizons of description: Black holes and complementarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokulich, Peter Joshua Martin
Niels Bohr famously argued that a consistent understanding of quantum mechanics requires a new epistemic framework, which he named complementarity . This position asserts that even in the context of quantum theory, classical concepts must be used to understand and communicate measurement results. The apparent conflict between certain classical descriptions is avoided by recognizing that their application now crucially depends on the measurement context. Recently it has been argued that a new form of complementarity can provide a solution to the so-called information loss paradox. Stephen Hawking argues that the evolution of black holes cannot be described by standard unitary quantum evolution, because such evolution always preserves information, while the evaporation of a black hole will imply that any information that fell into it is irrevocably lost---hence a "paradox." Some researchers in quantum gravity have argued that this paradox can be resolved if one interprets certain seemingly incompatible descriptions of events around black holes as instead being complementary. In this dissertation I assess the extent to which this black hole complementarity can be undergirded by Bohr's account of the limitations of classical concepts. I begin by offering an interpretation of Bohr's complementarity and the role that it plays in his philosophy of quantum theory. After clarifying the nature of classical concepts, I offer an account of the limitations these concepts face, and argue that Bohr's appeal to disturbance is best understood as referring to these conceptual limits. Following preparatory chapters on issues in quantum field theory and black hole mechanics, I offer an analysis of the information loss paradox and various responses to it. I consider the three most prominent accounts of black hole complementarity and argue that they fail to offer sufficient justification for the proposed incompatibility between descriptions. The lesson that emerges from this
On the Horizon: Black Hole Experiment Gallery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Steel, Simon J.; Reinfeld, E. L.; Dussault, M. E.; Gould, R. R.
2006-09-01
A new project is underway for engaging the museum-going public in the ongoing story of black hole science and the nature of scientific discovery. Following on the success of the Cosmic Questions traveling exhibition, the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory is initiating another museum project aimed at exploring the recent breakthroughs and current mysteries in our scientific understanding of black holes. High-energy astrophysicists and engineers are invited to learn more about this new proposal and to join in the development of a 2,500 square foot traveling exhibition, an associated web site and a supporting suite of educational materials and resources. This poster presents opportunities for scientist involvement, such as brainstorming of scientific priorities, input during the design process, and contributions of materials such as graphics and animations, and interviews with researchers. Following the opening, there will be opportunities for scientist participation in exhibit-related outreach, such as live presentations and content professional development for educators.
Direct Measurements of Black Holes with the Event Horizon Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, S. S.
2011-09-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is an array of existing (sub)millimeter telescopes that uses the technique of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) to achieve angular resolutions measured in tens of microarcseconds. For the super massive black hole in the Galactic Center (Sgr A*) and in the elliptical galaxy M87, the EHT has detected emission on the scale of the event horizon. In this presentation we describe details of measurements already made with the EHT. We also describe future observations that will allow us to probe orbits of the accretion disk around the black hole in Sgr A* in a manner that is complementary to information obtained from X-ray observations. Emission models of Sgr A* that include the strong gravitational lensing near the black hole indicate that future high-frequency VLBI observations may lead to tests of the "no-hair" theorem, which states that a black hole may be completely characterized by its mass and spin.
Black hole thermodynamics from near-horizon conformal quantum mechanics
Camblong, Horacio E.; Ordonez, Carlos R.
2005-05-15
The thermodynamics of black holes is shown to be directly induced by their near-horizon conformal invariance. This behavior is exhibited using a scalar field as a probe of the black hole gravitational background, for a general class of metrics in D spacetime dimensions (with D{>=}4). The ensuing analysis is based on conformal quantum mechanics, within a hierarchical near-horizon expansion. In particular, the leading conformal behavior provides the correct quantum statistical properties for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, with the near-horizon physics governing the thermodynamics from the outset. Most importantly: (i) this treatment reveals the emergence of holographic properties; (ii) the conformal coupling parameter is shown to be related to the Hawking temperature; and (iii) Schwarzschild-like coordinates, despite their 'coordinate singularity', can be used self-consistently to describe the thermodynamics of black holes.
Extended symmetries at black hole horizons in generic dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shi, Changfu; Mei, Jianwei
2017-05-01
Recently it has been shown that there is asymptotic BMS-like symmetry associated with the near-horizon geometry of black holes in three and four dimensions. In this paper, we show that the presence of such BMS-like symmetry is a ubiquitous feature for black holes in generic dimensions. For black holes in D dimensions, the symmetry contains 2 supertranslations and D -2 generalized superrotations. The superrotations are found to generate a generalized Witt-like algebra that was previously noticed in a rather different construction. In the case of stationary and axisymmetric black holes, we calculate the surface charges and show that the zero-mode charges are intimately related to the entropy and angular momenta of the black hole.
Black holes or firewalls: A theory of horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Yasunori; Varela, Jaime; Weinberg, Sean J.
2013-10-01
We present a quantum theory of black hole (and other) horizons, in which the standard assumptions of complementarity are preserved without contradicting information theoretic considerations. After the scrambling time, the quantum mechanical structure of a black hole becomes that of an eternal black hole at the microscopic level. In particular, the stretched horizon degrees of freedom and the states entangled with them can be mapped into the near-horizon modes in the two exterior regions of an eternal black hole, whose mass is taken to be that of the evolving black hole at each moment. Salient features arising from this picture include (i) the number of degrees of freedom needed to describe a black hole is eA/2lP2, where A is the area of the horizon; (ii) black hole states having smooth horizons, however, span only an eA/4lP2-dimensional subspace of the relevant eA/2lP2-dimensional Hilbert space; (iii) internal dynamics of the horizon is such that an infalling observer finds a smooth horizon with a probability of 1 if a state stays in this subspace. We identify the structure of local operators responsible for describing semiclassical physics in the exterior and interior spacetime regions and show that this structure avoids the arguments for firewalls—the horizon can keep being smooth throughout the evolution. We discuss the fate of infalling observers under various circumstances, especially when the observers manipulate degrees of freedom before entering the horizon, and we find that an observer can never see a firewall by making a measurement on early Hawking radiation. We also consider the presented framework from the viewpoint of an infalling reference frame and argue that Minkowski-like vacua are not unique. In particular, the number of true Minkowski vacua is infinite, although the label discriminating these vacua cannot be accessed in usual nongravitational quantum field theory. An application of the framework to de Sitter horizons is also discussed.
From Rindler horizon to mini black holes at LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghaffary, Tooraj
2017-02-01
Recently researchers (A. Sepehri et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 344, 79 (2013)) have considered the signature of superstring balls near mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information loss for these types of strings. Motivated by their work, we consider the evolution of events in high energy experiments from lower energies for which the Rindler horizon is formed to higher energies in which mini black holes and string balls are emerged. Extending the Gottesman and Preskill method to string theory, we find the information loss for excited strings "string balls" in mini black holes at LHC and calculate the information transformation from the collapsing matter to the state of outgoing Hawking radiation for strings. We come to the conclusion that information transformation for high energy strings is complete. Then the thermal distribution of excited strings near mini black holes at LHC is calculated. In order to obtain the total string cross section near black holes produced in proton-proton collision, we multiply the black hole production cross section by the thermal distribution of strings. It is observed that many high energy excited strings are produced near the event horizon of TeV black holes. These excited strings evaporate to standard model particles like Higgs boson and top quark at Hagedorn temperature. We derive the production cross section for these particles due to string ball decay at LHC and consider their decay to light particles like bottom quarks and gluons.
Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark; Owen, Robert; Giesler, Matthew; Katebi, Reza; Szilagyi, Bela; Chu, Tony; Demos, Nicholas; Hemberger, Daniel; Kidder, Lawrence; Pfeiffer, Harald; Afshari, Nousha; SXS Collaboration
2015-04-01
The spin S of a Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area A of its apparent horizon: 8 πS <= A . We present recent results (arXiv:1411.7297) for the extremality of apparent horizons for merging, rapidly rotating black holes with equal masses and equal spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Measuring the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, we find that the inequality 8 πS < A is satisfied but is very close to equality on the common apparent horizon at the instant it first appears--even for initial spins as large as S /M2 = 0 . 994 . We compute the smallest value e0 that Booth and Fairhurst's extremality parameter can take for any scaling of the horizon's null normal vectors, concluding that the common horizons are at least moderately close to extremal just after they appear. We construct binary-black-hole initial data with marginally trapped surfaces with 8 πS > A and e0 > 1 , but these surfaces are always surrounded by apparent horizons with 8 πS < A and e0 < 1 .
Universality in chaos of particle motion near black hole horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hashimoto, Koji; Tanahashi, Norihiro
2017-01-01
The motion of a particle near a horizon of a spherically symmetric static black hole is shown to possess a universal Lyapunov exponent of chaos bounded by its surface gravity. To probe the horizon, we introduce an electromagnetic or scalar force to the particle so that it does not fall into the horizon. There appears an unstable maximum of the total potential where the evaluated maximal Lyapunov exponent is found to be to the surface gravity of the black hole. This value is independent of the external forces, the particle mass and background geometry, and in this sense this Lyapunov exponent is universal. Unless there are other sources of chaos, the Lyapunov exponent is subject to an inequality λ ≤2 π TBH/ℏ, which is identical to the bound recently discovered by Maldacena, Shenker, and Stanford.
Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
The work supported in part by this grant is part of a larger program on the detection of black hole event horizons, which is also partially supported by NASA grant GO0-1105A. This work has been carried out primarily in collaboration with Dr. M. Garcia and Prof. R. Narayan at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and with D. Barret and J. Hameury at Centre d'Etude Spoliate des Rayonnements, France. Our purpose is to confirm the existence of black-hole event horizons by comparing accreting black holes to secreting neutron stars in quiescent X-ray novae. Such a comparison is feasible because black holes and neutron stars are both present in similar environments in X-ray novae. Our second purpose is to assess the nature of accretion flows onto black holes at very low mass transfer rates. Observations of some XMM targets are still pending, whereas most of the Chandra observations have been completed. We anticipate further publications on this work in the future.
Gauss-Bonnet black holes with nonconstant curvature horizons
Maeda, Hideki
2010-06-15
We investigate static and dynamical n({>=}6)-dimensional black holes in Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity of which horizons have the isometries of an (n-2)-dimensional Einstein space with a condition on its Weyl tensor originally given by Dotti and Gleiser. Defining a generalized Misner-Sharp quasilocal mass that satisfies the unified first law, we show that most of the properties of the quasilocal mass and the trapping horizon are shared with the case with horizons of constant curvature. It is shown that the Dotti-Gleiser solution is the unique vacuum solution if the warp factor on the (n-2)-dimensional Einstein space is nonconstant. The quasilocal mass becomes constant for the Dotti-Gleiser black hole and satisfies the first law of the black-hole thermodynamics with its Wald entropy. In the non-negative curvature case with positive Gauss-Bonnet constant and zero cosmological constant, it is shown that the Dotti-Gleiser black hole is thermodynamically unstable. Even if it becomes locally stable for the nonzero cosmological constant, it cannot be globally stable for the positive cosmological constant.
Chandra Uncovers New Evidence For Event Horizons Surrounding Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2001-01-01
SAN DIEGO -- Astronomers have used NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to study some of the darkest black holes yet observed. Their work strongly confirms the reality of the "event horizon," the one-way membrane around black holes predicted by Einstein's theory of relativity. The findings were presented today at the American Astronomical Society meeting by Drs. Michael Garcia, Jeffrey McClintock, Ramesh Narayan, and Stephen Murray of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics and Dr. Paul Callanan of University College, Cork, Ireland. With results that fundamentally differ from earlier black hole studies, Garcia and his colleagues have shown that some recently discovered black holes are not only ultra-dense, but actually possess event horizons that "vacuum up" energy from their surroundings. "It is a bit odd to say we've discovered something by seeing almost nothing at all -- less than the smile of the Cheshire cat, so to speak," said Garcia, lead author on a paper submitted to the Astrophysical Journal, "but, in essence, this is what we have done." Using data from Chandra and previous X-ray satellites like ROSAT, the Chandra team studied a dozen "X-ray novas," so named because they occasionally erupt as brilliant X-ray sources then settle into decades of dormancy. The great outpouring of X rays is due to a stream of gas that is pulled from the surface of a Sun-like companion star onto a compact object, either a black hole or a neutron star. By comparing the energy output from the dormant X-ray novas, the team discovered that the sources with black holes emitted only one percent as much energy while dormant as did the X-ray novae with neutron stars. "The most straightforward explanation of these observations is that the black hole candidates we have studied have event horizons that swallow just about all of the energy that surrounds them," said Murray. "Indeed, one could even say that this work shows why black holes deserve to be called ‘black.’" "The event
Black-hole horizons as probes of black-hole dynamics. II. Geometrical insights
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaramillo, José Luis; Macedo, Rodrigo P.; Moesta, Philipp; Rezzolla, Luciano
2012-04-01
In a companion paper [J. L. Jaramillo, R. P. Macedo, P. Moesta, and L. Rezzolla, preceding Article, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 85, 084030 (2012).], we have presented a cross-correlation approach to near-horizon physics in which bulk dynamics is probed through the correlation of quantities defined at inner and outer spacetime hypersurfaces acting as test screens. More specifically, dynamical horizons provide appropriate inner screens in a 3+1 setting and, in this context, we have shown that an effective-curvature vector measured at the common horizon produced in a head-on collision merger can be correlated with the flux of linear Bondi momentum at null infinity. In this paper we provide a more sound geometric basis to this picture. First, we show that a rigidity property of dynamical horizons, namely, foliation uniqueness, leads to a preferred class of null tetrads and Weyl scalars on these hypersurfaces. Second, we identify a heuristic horizon newslike function, depending only on the geometry of spatial sections of the horizon. Fluxes constructed from this function offer refined geometric quantities to be correlated with Bondi fluxes at infinity, as well as a contact with the discussion of quasilocal 4-momentum on dynamical horizons. Third, we highlight the importance of tracking the internal horizon dual to the apparent horizon in spatial 3-slices when integrating fluxes along the horizon. Finally, we discuss the link between the dissipation of the nonstationary part of the horizon’s geometry with the viscous-fluid analogy for black holes, introducing a geometric prescription for a “slowness parameter” in black-hole recoil dynamics.
Horizon of quantum black holes in various dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Cavalcanti, Rogerio T.; Giugno, Andrea; Mureika, Jonas
2016-09-01
We adapt the horizon wave-function formalism to describe massive static spherically symmetric sources in a general (1 + D)-dimensional space-time, for D > 3 and including the D = 1 case. We find that the probability PBH that such objects are (quantum) black holes behaves similarly to the probability in the (3 + 1) framework for D > 3. In fact, for D ≥ 3, the probability increases towards unity as the mass grows above the relevant D-dimensional Planck scale mD. At fixed mass, however, PBH decreases with increasing D, so that a particle with mass m ≃mD has just about 10% probability to be a black hole in D = 5, and smaller for larger D. This result has a potentially strong impact on estimates of black hole production in colliders. In contrast, for D = 1, we find the probability is comparably larger for smaller masses, but PBH < 0.5, suggesting that such lower dimensional black holes are purely quantum and not classical objects. This result is consistent with recent observations that sub-Planckian black holes are governed by an effective two-dimensional gravitation theory. Lastly, we derive Generalised Uncertainty Principle relations for the black holes under consideration, and find a minimum length corresponding to a characteristic energy scale of the order of the fundamental gravitational mass mD in D > 3. For D = 1 we instead find the uncertainty due to the horizon fluctuations has the same form as the usual Heisenberg contribution, and therefore no fundamental scale exists.
Foliation dependence of black hole apparent horizons in spherical symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Faraoni, Valerio; Ellis, George F. R.; Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Helou, Alexis; Musco, Ilia
2017-01-01
Numerical studies of gravitational collapse to black holes make use of apparent horizons, which are intrinsically foliation dependent. We expose the problem and discuss possible solutions using the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal mass. In spherical symmetry, we present a physically sensible approach to the problem by restricting to spherically symmetric spacetime slicings. In spherical symmetry, the apparent horizons enjoy a restricted gauge independence in any spherically symmetric foliation, but physical quantities associated with them, such as surface gravity and temperature, are fully gauge dependent. The widely used comoving and Kodama foliations, which are of particular interest, are discussed in detail as examples.
Black Hole Event Horizons and Advection-Dominated Accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McClintock, Jeffrey; Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
The XMM data on black-hole X-ray novae are only now becoming available and they have so far not been included in any publications. This work is part of a larger project that makes use of both XMM and Chandra data. Our first publication on the Chandra results is the following: "New Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons from Chandra" by M.R. Garcia, J.E. McClintock, R. Narayan, P. Callanan, D. Barret and S. Murray (2001, ApJ, 553, L47). Therein we present the luminosities of the two black-hole X-ray novae, GRO J0422+22 and 4U1 543-47, which were observed by Chandra. These results are combined with the luminosities of four additional black-hole X-ray novae, which were observed as part of a Chandra GTO program (PI: S. Murray). The very low, but nonzero, quiescent X-ray luminosities of these black hole binaries is very difficult to understand in the context of standard viscous accretion disk theory. The principal result of this work is that X-ray novae that contain black hole primaries are about 100 times fainter that X-ray novae that contain neutron star primaries. This result had been suggested in earlier work, but the present work very firmly establishes this large luminosity difference. The result is remarkable because the black-hole and the neutron-star systems are believed to be similar in many respects. Most importantly, the mass transfer rate from the secondary star is believed to be very comparable for the two kinds of systems for similar orbital periods. The advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model provides a natural framework for understanding the extraordinarily low luminosities of the black hole systems and the hundred-fold greater luminosities of the neutron star systems. The chief feature of an ADAF is that the heat energy in the accreting gas is trapped in the gas and travels with it, rather than being radiated promptly. Thus the accreting gas reaches the central object with a huge amount of thermal energy. If the accretor is a black hole, the
Zhang Jingyi; Zhao Zheng
2011-03-15
In this paper, with the Parikh-Wilczek tunnelling framework the positions of the event horizon of the Vaidya black hole and the Vaidya-Bonner black hole are calculated, respectively. We find that the event horizon and the apparent horizon of these two black holes correspond, respectively, to the two turning points of the Hawking radiation tunnelling barrier. That is, the quantum ergosphere coincides with the tunnelling barrier. Our calculation also implies that the Hawking radiation comes from the apparent horizon.
Gravitational black hole hair from event horizon supertranslations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Averin, Artem; Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar; Lüst, Dieter
2016-06-01
We discuss BMS supertranslations both at null-infinity BMS- and on the horizon {BMS}^{mathscr{H}} for the case of the Schwarzschild black hole. We show that both kinds of supertranslations lead to infinetly many gapless physical excitations. On this basis we construct a quotient algebra mathcal{A}equiv {BMS}^{mathscr{H}}/{BMS}- using suited superpositions of both kinds of transformations which cannot be compensated by an ordinary BMS-supertranslation and therefore are intrinsically due to the presence of an event horizon. We show that transformations in mathcal{A} are physical and generate gapless excitations on the horizon that can account for the gravitational hair as well as for the black hole entropy. We identify the physics of these modes as associated with Bogolioubov-Goldstone modes due to quantum criticality. Classically the number of these gapless modes is infinite. However, we show that due to quantum criticality the actual amount of information-carriers becomes finite and consistent with Bekenstein entropy. Although we only consider the case of Schwarzschild geometry, the arguments are extendable to arbitrary space-times containing event horizons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.; Graber, Jessica; McGinley, Matthew; Nichols-Barrer, Joshua; Staecker, Christopher
2007-08-01
We show that it is possible for the information paradox in black hole evaporation to be resolved classically. Using standard junction conditions, we attach the general closed spherically symmetric dust metric to a space-time satisfying all standard energy conditions but with a single point future c-boundary. The resulting Omega Point space-time, which has NO event horizons, nevertheless has black hole type trapped surfaces and hence black holes. However, since there are no event horizons, information eventually escapes from the black holes. We show that a scalar quintessence field with an appropriate exponential potential near the final singularity would give rise to an Omega Point final singularity.
Imaging Black Hole Magnetic Fields with the Event Horizon Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chael, Andrew; Doeleman, Sheperd; Johnson, Michael D.
2015-08-01
The Event Horizon Telescope is a global mm-wavelength Very Long Baseline Interferometry array which, when completed, will achieve a nominal resolution of 20 microarcseconds. Initial observations with three stations have detected Schwarzschild-radius-scale structure around the supermassive black holes in SgrA* and M87. Future, fully polarimetric EHT images of the synchrotron emission near supermassive black holes will reveal fine magnetic field structure, potentially illuminating the role of magnetic fields in driving black hole accretion and the connection between magnetic fields, black hole spin, and relativistic jets. I will review techniques for polarimetric VLBI imaging and present new image reconstruction techniques tailored for polarimetric EHT data. Application to synthetic data from simulations shows that the EHT will be able to image changing magnetic field structure on microarcsecond scales. I will also discuss applications to the variable magnetic fields that could power flares in Sgr A*. Finally, I will present initial results from application of these techniques to data from the 2013 EHT observing run.
Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski black hole
Debnath, Ujjal
2016-09-15
We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr–Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.
Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski-Demianski black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Debnath, Ujjal
2016-09-01
We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski-Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr-Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou-Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.
N = 2 superparticle near horizon of a magnetized Kerr black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Orekhov, Kirill
2016-06-01
The Melvin-Kerr black hole represents a generalization of the Kerr black hole to the case of a non-vanishing external magnetic field via the Harrison transformation. Conformal mechanics related to the near-horizon limit of such a black hole configuration is studied and its unique N = 2 supersymmetric extension is constructed.
Schrodinger formalism, black hole horizons, and singularity behavior
Wang, John E.; Greenwood, Eric; Stojkovic, Dejan
2009-12-15
The Gauss-Codazzi method is used to discuss the gravitational collapse of a charged Reisner-Nordstroem domain wall. We solve the classical equations of motion of a thin charged shell moving under the influence of its own gravitational field and show that a form of cosmic censorship applies. If the charge of the collapsing shell is greater than its mass, then the collapse does not form a black hole. Instead, after reaching some minimal radius, the shell bounces back. The Schroedinger canonical formalism is used to quantize the motion of the charged shell. The limits near the horizon and near the singularity are explored. Near the horizon, the Schroedinger equation describing evolution of the collapsing shell takes the form of the massive wave equation with a position dependent mass. The outgoing and incoming modes of the solution are related by the Bogolubov transformation which precisely gives the Hawking temperature. Near the classical singularity, the Schroedinger equation becomes nonlocal, but the wave function describing the system is nonsingular. This indicates that while quantum effects may be able to remove the classical singularity, it may also introduce some new effects.
Density matrix of radiation of a black hole with a fluctuating horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iofa, Mikhail Z.
2016-09-01
The density matrix of Hawking radiation is calculated in the model of a black hole with a fluctuating horizon. Quantum fluctuations smear the classical horizon of a black hole and modify the density matrix of radiation producing the off-diagonal elements. The off-diagonal elements may store information on correlations between the radiation and the black hole. The smeared density matrix was constructed by convolution of the density matrix calculated with the instantaneous horizon with the Gaussian distribution over the instantaneous horizons. The distribution has the extremum at the classical radius of the black hole and the width of order of the Planck length. Calculations were performed in the model of a black hole formed by the thin collapsing shell which follows a trajectory that is a solution of the matching equations connecting the interior and exterior geometries.
Near horizon soft hairs as microstates of generic AdS3 black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Yavartanoo, H.
2017-02-01
In [1] the horizon fluffs proposal is put forward to identify microstates of generic nonextremal three-dimensional Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. The proposal is that black hole microstates, the horizon fluffs, are certain near horizon soft hairs which are not in the coadjoint orbits of the asymptotic Virasoro algebra associated with the BTZ black holes. It is also known that AdS3 Einstein gravity has more general black hole solutions than the BTZ family which are generically described by two periodic, but otherwise arbitrary, holomorphic and antiholomorphic functions. We show that these general AdS3 black holes which are typically conformal descendants of the BTZ black holes and are characterized by the associated Virasoro coadjoint orbits, appear as coherent states in the asymptotic symmetry algebra corresponding to the black hole family. We apply the horizon fluffs proposal to these generic AdS3 black holes and identify the corresponding microstates. We then perform microstate counting and compute the entropy. The entropy appears to be an orbit invariant quantity, providing an important check for the horizon fluffs proposal.
The absence of horizon in black-hole formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Pei-Ming
2016-08-01
With the back-reaction of Hawking radiation taken into consideration, the work of Kawai, Matsuo and Yokokura [1] has shown that, under a few assumptions, the collapse of matter does not lead to event horizon nor apparent horizon. In this paper, we relax their assumptions and elaborate on the space-time geometry of a generic collapsing body with spherical symmetry. The geometry outside the collapsing sphere is found to be approximated by the geometry outside the white-hole horizon, hence the collapsing matter remains outside the Schwarzschild radius. As particles in Hawking radiation are created in the vicinity of the collapsing matter, the information loss paradox is alleviated. Assuming that the collapsing body evaporates within finite time, there is no event horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellis, George F. R.; Goswami, Rituparno; Hamid, Aymen I. M.; Maharaj, Sunil D.
2014-10-01
This paper considers the nature of apparent horizons for astrophysical black holes situated in a realistic cosmological context. Using semitetrad covariant methods we study the local evolution of the boundaries of the trapped region in the spacetime. For a collapsing massive star immersed in a cosmology with cosmic background radiation (CBR), we show that the initial two-dimensional marginally trapped surface bifurcates into inner and outer horizons. The inner horizon is timelike while the continuous CBR influx into the black hole makes the outer horizon spacelike. We discuss the possible consequences of these features for Hawking radiation in realistic astrophysical contexts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramowicz, Marek A.
Three advanced instruments planned for a near future ( LOFT, GRAVITY, THE EVENT HORIZON TELESCOPE) provide unprecedented angular and time resolutions, which allow to probe regions in the immediate vicinity of black holes. We may soon be able to search for the signatures of the super-strong gravity that is characteristic to black holes: the event horizon, the ergosphere, the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO), and the photon circle. This review discusses a few fundamental problems concerning these theoretical concepts.
Beyond the Event Horizon: Education with Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Sarah; Plait, P.; Cominsky, L.
2006-12-01
The Sonoma State University (SSU) NASA Education and Public Outreach group (E/PO), in collaboration with several other groups, has created “The Black Hole Suite”: a series of formal and informal education and outreach products based on the science of black holes. The formal (in-class) products which include an educator’s guide with activities and an online resource -are closely tied to the informal (museum and television) products, which include the nationally distributed planetarium show “Black Holes: The Other Side of Infinity,” the PBS NOVA television program “Monster of the Milky Way,” and a black holes fact sheet. All of these products were developed with integrated evaluation and assessment. To disseminate these materials, the SSU E/PO group has created an educator workshop designed specifically to go along with the planetarium program. When a museum or planetarium leases the program, SSU E/PO staff will travel to that venue and provide a workshop for local educators on the use of the Black Hole Suite. Part of the goal of the workshop is for museum and planetarium staff to participate so that they can hold future workshops for local educators.
Tortoise Coordinate Transformation on Apparent Horizon of a Dynamical Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xianming; Zhao, Zheng; Liu, Wenbiao
Thinking of Hawking radiation calculation from a Schwarzschild black hole using Damour-Ruffini method, some key requirements of the tortoise coordinate transformation are pointed out. Extending these requirements to a dynamical black hole, a dynamical tortoise coordinate transformation is proposed. Under this new dynamical tortoise coordinate transformation, Hawking radiation from a Vaidya black hole can be got successfully using Damour-Ruffini method. Moreover, we also find that the radiation should be regarded as originating from the apparent horizon rather than the event horizon at least from the viewpoint of the first law of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamics Properties of the Inner Horizon of a Kerr-Newman Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jun
2009-07-01
In this paper, we study the thermal properties of the inner horizon of a Kerr-Newman black hole. By adopting Damour-Ruffini method and the thin film model which is developed on the base of brick wall model suggested by ’t Hooft, we calculate the temperature and the entropy of the inner horizon of a Kerr-Newman black hole. We conclude that the temperature of inner horizon is positive and the entropy of the inner horizon is proportional to the area of the inner horizon. The cut-off factor is same as it in calculation of the entropy of the outer horizon, 90 β. In addition, we write the integral and differential Bekenstein-Smarr formula as the parameters of the inner horizon. Then, we discuss that if the contribution of the inner horizon is taken into account to the total entropy of the black hole, the Nernst theorem can be satisfied. At last, We calculate the tunneling rate of the outer horizon Γ+ and the inner horizon Γ-. The total tunneling rate Γ should be the product of the rates of the outer and inner horizon, Γ=Γ+ṡΓ-. We find that the total tunneling rate is in agreement with the Parikh’s standard result, Γ→exp (Δ S BH ), and there is no information loss.
Entropy and temperature from black-hole/near-horizon-CFT duality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Leo; Yildirim, Tuna
2010-08-01
We construct a two-dimensional CFT, in the form of a Liouville theory, in the near-horizon limit of four- and three-dimensional black holes. The near-horizon CFT assumes two-dimensional black hole solutions first introduced by Christensen and Fulling (1977 Phys. Rev. D 15 2088-104) and expanded to a greater class of black holes via Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303). The two-dimensional black holes admit a Diff(S1) subalgebra, which upon quantization in the horizon limit becomes Virasoro with calculable central charge. This charge and the lowest Virasoro eigen-mode reproduce the correct Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the four- and three-dimensional black holes via the known Cardy formula (Blöte et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 742; Cardy 1986 Nucl. Phys. B 270 186). Furthermore, the two-dimensional CFT's energy-momentum tensor is anomalous. However, in the horizon limit the energy-momentum tensor becomes holomorphic equaling the Hawking flux of the four- and three-dimensional black holes. This encoding of both entropy and temperature provides a uniformity in the calculation of black hole thermodynamic and statistical quantities for the non-local effective action approach.
Scalar hairy black holes and scalarons in the isolated horizons formalism
Corichi, Alejandro; Nucamendi, Ulises; Salgado, Marcelo
2006-04-15
The Isolated Horizons (IH) formalism, together with a simple phenomenological model for colored black holes has been used to predict nontrivial formulas that relate the ADM mass of the solitons and hairy Black Holes of Gravity-Matter system on the one hand, and several horizon properties of the black holes in the other. In this article, the IH formalism is tested numerically for spherically symmetric solutions to an Einstein-Higgs system where hairy black holes were recently found to exist. It is shown that the mass formulas still hold and that, by appropriately extending the current model, one can account for the behavior of the horizon properties of these new solutions. An empirical formula that approximates the ADM mass of hairy solutions is put forward, and some of its properties are analyzed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshar, H.; Grumiller, D.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Yavartanoo, H.
2017-08-01
According to the horizon fluff proposal microstates of a generic black hole belong to a certain subset of near horizon soft hairs that cannot be extended beyond the near horizon region. In [1, 2] it was shown how the horizon fluff proposal works for AdS3 black holes. In this work we clarify further this picture by showing that BTZ black hole microstates are in general among the coherent states in the Hilbert space associated with conic spaces or their Virasoro descendants, provided we impose a (Bohr-type) quantization condition on the angular deficit. Thus BTZ black holes may be viewed as condensates (or solitonic states) of AdS3 particles. We provide canonical and microcanonical descriptions of the statistical mechanical system associated with BTZ black holes and their microstates, and relate them. As a further non-trivial check we show the horizon fluff proposal correctly reproduces the expected logarithmic corrections to the BTZ entropy.
Near-horizon circular orbits and extremal limit for dirty rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaslavskii, O. B.
2015-08-01
We consider generic rotating axially symmetric "dirty" (surrounded by matter) black holes. Near-horizon circular equatorial orbits are examined in two different cases of near-extremal (small surface gravity κ ) and exactly extremal black holes. This has a number of qualitative distinctions. In the first case, it is shown that such orbits can lie as close to the horizon as one wishes on suitably chosen slices of space-time when κ →0 . This generalizes the observation of T. Jacobson [Classical Quantum Gravity 28, 187001 (2011), 10.1088/0264-9381/28/18/187001] made for the Kerr metric. If a black hole is extremal (κ =0 ), circular on-horizon orbits are impossible for massive particles but, in general, are possible in its vicinity. The corresponding black hole parameters determine also the rate with which a fine-tuned particle on the noncircular near-horizon orbit asymptotically approaches the horizon. Properties of orbits under discussion are also related to the Bañados-Silk-West effect of high energy collisions near black holes. Impossibility of the on-horizon orbits in question is manifestation of kinematic censorship that forbids infinite energies in collisions.
Horizon structure and shadow of rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atamurotov, Farruh
2016-07-01
We investigate the horizon structure of the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution which goes over to the Einstein-Maxwell's Kerr-Newman solution as the Born-Infeld parameter goes to innity ( ! 1). We nd that for a given , mass M and charge Q, there exist critical spinning parameter aE and rEH, which corresponds to an extremal Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole with degenerate horizons, and aE decreases and rEH increases with increase in the Born-Infeld parameter . While a < aE describe a non-extremal Einstein-Born- Infeld black hole with outer and inner horizons. Similarly, the effect of on innite redshift surface and in turn on ergoregion is also included. It is well known that a black hole can cast a shadow as an optical appearance due to its strong gravitational eld. We also investigate the shadow cast by the rotating Einstein- Born-Infeld black hole and demonstrate that the null geodesic equations can be integrated that allows us to investigate the shadow cast by a black hole which is found to be a dark zone covered by a circle. Interestingly, the shadows of Einstein-Born-Infeld black hole is slightly smaller than for the Reissner-Nordstrom black hole which are concentric circles, for different values of the Born-Infeld parameter , whose radius decreases with increase in the value of parameter . The shadows for the rotating Einstein-Born-Infeld solution are also included.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luminet, Jean-Pierre
1992-09-01
Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.
Beyond the Event Horizon: Education with Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Silva, Sarah; Cominsky, L.; Plait, P.; SSU E/PO Group
2006-09-01
The Sonoma State University NASA Education and Public Outreach Program (SSU E/PO), in collaboration with the Denver Museum of Nature & Science (DMNS), NOVA, Thomas Lucas Productions (TLP), the National Science Foundation and E/PO groups across NASA's Astrophysics Division, is creating a series of educational and outreach products for both formal and informal educational settings. The formal (in-class) products are closely tied with the informal (museum and television) products. An NSF-funded digital planetarium show titled "Black Holes: The Other Side of Infinity" was created by DMNS and TLP and is currently showing at several venues, with more planned. Through funding from the Swift and GLAST missions, SSU has developed an accompanying educator workshop and guide to train museum personnel in the use of black hole educational materials so that they can give professional development workshops to local teachers. In addition, SSU E/PO has worked with TLP and NOVA to create a television program ("Monster of the Milky Way") will premiere in the fall of 2006 with accompanying online educational materials. The educator guide materials include activities from NASA Astrophysics missions such as GLAST, Swift, XMM-Newton, and Gravity Probe-B, as well as from the Center for Science Education at Space Sciences Laboratory and the HEASARC education programs. We are also creating an online educational resource for use by anyone who wants to find information about black holes. It will have interactive features, including a possible museum kiosk where visitors can explore black holes. All products that are developed as a part of this program include integrated evaluation and assessment. The planetarium show has already had formative evaluation and is in the process of summative evaluation. The workshops include evaluation and follow-up work with the participating educators.
Bousso, Raphael
2014-01-31
If information escapes from an evaporating black hole, then field modes just outside the horizon must be thermally entangled with distant Hawking radiation. But for an infalling observer to find empty space at the horizon, the same modes would have to be entangled with the black hole interior. Thus, unitarity appears to require a "firewall" at the horizon. Identifying the interior with the distant radiation promises to resolve the entanglement conflict and restore the vacuum. But the map must adjust for any interactions, or else the firewall will reappear if the Hawking radiation scatters off the cosmic microwave background. Such a map produces a "frozen vacuum," a phenomenon that is arguably worse than a firewall. An infalling observer is unable to excite the vacuum near the horizon. This allows the horizon to be locally detected and so violates the equivalence principle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, Raphael
2014-01-01
If information escapes from an evaporating black hole, then field modes just outside the horizon must be thermally entangled with distant Hawking radiation. But for an infalling observer to find empty space at the horizon, the same modes would have to be entangled with the black hole interior. Thus, unitarity appears to require a "firewall" at the horizon. Identifying the interior with the distant radiation promises to resolve the entanglement conflict and restore the vacuum. But the map must adjust for any interactions, or else the firewall will reappear if the Hawking radiation scatters off the cosmic microwave background. Such a map produces a "frozen vacuum," a phenomenon that is arguably worse than a firewall. An infalling observer is unable to excite the vacuum near the horizon. This allows the horizon to be locally detected and so violates the equivalence principle.
Conformally coupled scalar black holes admit a flat horizon due to axionic charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bardoux, Yannis; Caldarelli, Marco M.; Charmousis, Christos
2012-09-01
Static, charged black holes in the presence of a negative cosmological constant and with a planar horizon are found in four dimensions. The solutions have scalar secondary hair. We claim that these constitute the planar version of the Martínez-Troncoso-Zanelli black holes, only known up to now for a curved event horizon in four dimensions. Their planar version is rendered possible due to the presence of two, equal and homogeneously distributed, axionic charges dressing the flat horizon. The solutions are presented in the conformal and minimal frame and their basic properties and thermodynamics analysed. Entertaining recent applications to holographic superconductors, we expose two branches of solutions: the undressed axionic Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole, and the novel black hole carrying secondary hair. We show that there is a critical temperature at which the (bald) axionic Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole undergoes a second order phase transition to the hairy black hole spontaneously acquiring scalar hair.
Stringy stability of charged dilaton black holes with flat event horizon
Ong, Yen Chin; Chen, Pisin
2015-01-15
Electrically charged black holes with flat event horizon in anti-de Sitter space have received much attention due to various applications in Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, from modeling the behavior of quark-gluon plasma to superconductor. Critical to the physics on the dual field theory is the fact that when embedded in string theory, black holes in the bulk may become vulnerable to instability caused by brane pair-production. Since dilation arises naturally in the context of string theory, we study the effect of coupling dilation to Maxwell field on the stability of flat charged AdS black holes.
Inner boundary conditions for black hole initial data derived from isolated horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaramillo, José Luis; Gourgoulhon, Eric; Marugán, Guillermo A.
2004-12-01
We present a set of boundary conditions for solving the elliptic equations in the initial data problem for space-times containing a black hole, together with a number of constraints to be satisfied by the otherwise freely specifiable standard parameters of the conformal thin sandwich formulation. These conditions altogether are sufficient for the construction of a horizon that is instantaneously in equilibrium in the sense of the isolated horizons formalism. We then investigate the application of these conditions to the initial data problem of binary black holes and discuss the relation of our analysis with other proposals that exist in the literature.
Universal horizons and black holes in gravitational theories with broken Lorentz symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Abdalla, Elcio; Cai, Rong-Gen; Wang, Anzhong
2014-10-01
In this paper, we first show that the definition of the universal horizons studied recently in the khronometric theory of gravity can be straightforwardly generalized to other theories that violate the Lorentz symmetry, by simply considering the khronon as a probe field and playing the same role as a Killing vector field. As an application, we study static charged (D + 1)-dimensional spacetimes in the framework of the healthy (nonprojectable) Horava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity in the infrared (IR) limit, and find various solutions. Some of them represent Lifshitz spacetimes with hyperscaling violations, and some have black hole structures. In the latter, universal horizons always exist inside the Killing horizons. The surface gravity on them can be either larger or smaller than the surface gravity on the Killing horizons, depending on the spacetimes considered. Although such black holes are found only in the IR, we argue that black holes with universal horizons also exist in the full theory of the HL gravity. A simple example is the Schwarzschild solution written in the Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates, which is also a solution of the full theory of the HL gravity and has a universal horizon located inside the Schwarzschild Killing horizon.
What happens to Petrov classification, on horizons of axisymmetric dirty black holes
Tanatarov, I. V.; Zaslavskii, O. B.
2014-02-15
We consider axisymmetric stationary dirty black holes with regular non-extremal or extremal horizons, and compute their on-horizon Petrov types. The Petrov type (PT) in the frame of the observer crossing the horizon can be different from that formally obtained in the usual (but singular in the horizon limit) frame of an observer on a circular orbit. We call this entity the boosted Petrov type (BPT), as the corresponding frame is obtained by a singular boost from the regular one. The PT off-horizon can be more general than PT on-horizon and that can be more general than the BPT on horizon. This is valid for all regular metrics, irrespective of the extremality of the horizon. We analyze and classify the possible relations between the three characteristics and discuss the nature and features of the underlying singular boost. The three Petrov types can be the same only for space-times of PT D and O off-horizon. The mutual alignment of principal null directions and the generator in the vicinity of the horizon is studied in detail. As an example, we also analyze a special class of metrics with utra-extremal horizons (for which the regularity conditions look different from the general case) and compare their off-horizon and on-horizon algebraic structure in both frames.
Entropy function from the gravitational surface action for an extremal near horizon black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan
2015-11-01
It is often argued that all the information of a gravitational theory is encoded in the surface term of the action; which means one can find several physical quantities just from the surface term without incorporating the bulk part of the action. This has been observed in various instances; e.g. the derivation of the Einstein's equations, the surface term calculated on the horizon leads to the entropy, etc. Here I investigate the role of it in the context of the entropy function and the entropy of extremal near horizon black holes. Considering only the Gibbons-Hawking-York (GHY) surface term to define an entropy function for the extremal near horizon black hole solution, it is observed that the extremization of such a function leads to the exact value of the horizon entropy. This analysis again supports the previous claim that the gravitational action is of a " holographic" nature - the surface term contains information of the bulk.
Liko, Tomas
2009-04-15
We study the mechanics of D-dimensional isolated horizons (IHs) for Einstein gravity in the presence of arbitrary p-form matter fields. This generalizes the analysis of Copsey and Horowitz to nonstationary spacetimes and therefore the local first law in D>4 dimensions to include nonmonopolar (dipole) charges. The only requirement for the local first law to hold is that the action has to be differentiable. The resulting conserved charges are all intrinsic to the horizon and are independent of the topology of the horizon cross sections. We explicitly calculate the local charges for five-dimensional black holes and black rings that are relevant within the context of superstring theory. We conclude with some comments on the black-hole/string correspondence principle and argue that IHs (or some other quasilocal variant) should play a fundamental role in superstring theory.
Kerr-Newman black hole in the formalism of isolated horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholtz, M.; Flandera, A.; Gürlebeck, Norman
2017-09-01
The near horizon geometry of general black holes in equilibrium can be conveniently characterized in the formalism of weakly isolated horizons in the form of the Bondi-like expansions (Krishnan B, Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 205006, 2012, 10.1088/0264-9381/29/20/205006). While the intrinsic geometry of the Kerr-Newman black hole has been extensively investigated in the weakly isolated horizon framework, the off-horizon description in the Bondi-like system employed by Krishnan has not been studied. We extend Krishnan's work by explicit, nonperturbative construction of the Bondi-like tetrad in the full Kerr-Newman spacetime. Namely, we construct the Bondi-like tetrad which is parallelly propagated along a nontwisting null geodesic congruence transversal to the horizon and provide all Newman-Penrose scalars associated with this tetrad. This work completes the description of the Kerr-Newman spacetime in the formalism of weakly isolated horizons and is a starting point for the investigation of deformed black holes.
The black hole horizon as a quantum surface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, G.
In previous work it was argued why it is practically inevitable to assume the existence of an S-matrix that describes particle absorption and production by a black hole, and the relationship between this S-matrix and string theory was derived. The physical interpretation of the corresponding mathematical expressions, however, is quite different from string theory. This paper presents an algebra of operators now defined on a two-dimensional Euclidean 'world sheet'. The algebra simplifies if one restricts it to the self-dual projection of the fundamental surface elements W exp mu-nu. The two-dimensional functional integrals correspond to a rather unusual field theory. The long distance structure of this theory follows directly from the long distance structure of the standard model at the GeV scale. The rather delicate physical interpretation of this approach is emphasized.
Black-hole/near-horizon-CFT duality and 4 dimensional classical spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Leo L.
2011-09-01
In this thesis we accomplish two goals: We construct a two dimensional conformal field theory (CFT), in the form of a Liouville theory, in the near horizon limit for three and four dimensions black holes. The near horizon CFT assumes the two dimensional black hole solutions that were first introduced by Christensen and Fulling (1977 Phys. Rev. D 15 2088-104) and later expanded to a greater class of black holes via Robinson and Wilczek (2005 Phys. Rev. Lett. 95 011303). The two dimensions black holes admit a Diff( S1) or Witt subalgebra, which upon quantization in the horizon limit becomes Virasoro with calculable central charge. These charges and lowest Virasoro eigen-modes reproduce the correct Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the four and three dimensions black holes via the Cardy formula (Blote et al 1986 Phys. Rev. Lett. 56 742; Cardy 1986 Nucl. Phys. B 270 186). Furthermore, the two dimensions CFT's energy momentum tensor is anomalous, i.e. its trace is nonzero. However, In the horizon limit the energy momentum tensor becomes holomorphic equaling the Hawking flux of the four and three dimensions black holes. This encoding of both entropy and temperature provides a uniformity in the calculation of black hole thermodynamics and statistical quantities for the non local effective action approach. We also show that the near horizon regime of a Kerr-Newman-AdS (KNAdS) black hole, given by its two dimensional analogue a la Robinson and Wilczek, is asymptotically AdS 2 and dual to a one dimensional quantum conformal field theory (CFT). The s-wave contribution of the resulting CFT's energy-momentum-tensor together with the asymptotic symmetries, generate a centrally extended Virasoro algebra, whose central charge reproduces the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy via Cardy's Formula. Our derived central charge also agrees with the near extremal Kerr/CFT Correspondence in the appropriate limits. We also compute the Hawking temperature of the KNAdS black hole by coupling its
Local invariants vanishing on stationary horizons: a diagnostic for locating black holes.
Page, Don N; Shoom, Andrey A
2015-04-10
Inspired by the example of Abdelqader and Lake for the Kerr metric, we construct local scalar polynomial curvature invariants that vanish on the horizon of any stationary black hole: the squared norms of the wedge products of n linearly independent gradients of scalar polynomial curvature invariants, where n is the local cohomogeneity of the spacetime.
On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill
2016-09-01
The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d=4 and d=5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d=4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d=5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d=5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole with a NUT charge.
Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons
Chen Songbai; Wang Bin; Su Rukeng
2008-01-15
We explore the signature of the extra dimension in the Hawking radiation in a rotating Kaluza-Klein black hole with squashed horizons. Comparing with the spherical case, we find that the rotating parameter brings richer physics. We obtain the appropriate size of the extra dimension which can enhance the Hawking radiation and may open a window to detect the extra dimensions.
Ansorg, Marcus; Hennig, Jörg
2009-06-05
We study the interior electrovacuum region of axisymmetric and stationary black holes with surrounding matter and find that there exists always a regular inner Cauchy horizon inside the black hole, provided the angular momentum J and charge Q of the black hole do not vanish simultaneously. In particular, we derive an explicit relation for the metric on the Cauchy horizon in terms of that on the event horizon. Moreover, our analysis reveals the remarkable universal relation (8piJ);{2}+(4piQ;{2});{2}=A;{+}A;{-}, where A+ and A- denote the areas of event and Cauchy horizon, respectively.
Duggal, K L
2016-01-01
A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called "Evolving Null Horizons" (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time [Formula: see text] such that the metric [Formula: see text] satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in [Formula: see text]. Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems.
Black holes with su(N) gauge field hair and superconducting horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shepherd, Ben L.; Winstanley, Elizabeth
2017-01-01
We present new planar dyonic black hole solutions of the su(N) Einstein-Yang-Mills equations in asymptotically anti-de Sitter space-time, focussing on su(2) and su(3) gauge groups. The magnetic part of the gauge field forms a condensate close to the planar event horizon. We compare the free energy of a non-Abelian hairy black hole with that of an embedded Reissner-Nordström-anti-de Sitter (RN-AdS) black hole having the same Hawking temperature and electric charge. We find that the hairy black holes have lower free energy. We present evidence that there is a phase transition at a critical temperature, above which the only solutions are embedded RN-AdS black holes. At the critical temperature, an RN-AdS black hole can decay into a hairy black hole, and it is thermodynamically favourable to do so. Working in the probe limit, we compute the frequency-dependent conductivity, and find that enlarging the gauge group from su(2) to su(3) eliminates a divergence in the conductivity at nonzero frequency.
Uniqueness theorem for black hole space-times with multiple disconnected horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armas, Jay; Harmark, Troels
2010-05-01
We show uniqueness of stationary and asymptotically flat black hole spacetimes with multiple disconnected horizons and with two rotational Killing vector fields in the context of five-dimensional minimal supergravity (Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons gravity). The novelty in this work is the introduction in the uniqueness theorem of intrinsic local charges measured near each horizon as well as the measurement of local fluxes besides the asymptotic charges that characterize a particular solution. A systematic method of defining the boundary conditions on the fields that specify a black hole space-time is given based on the study of its rod structure (domain structure). Also, an analysis of known solutions with disconnected horizons is carried out as an example of an application of this theorem. ”But the perfect scientist is also a gardener: he believes that beauty is knowledge.” Gonçalo M. Tavares in Brief Notes on Science
Dynamics of Plasma Close to the Horizon of a Schwarzschild Black Hole
Chou, W.; Tajima, T.
1999-03-01
General relativistic plasma dynamics relevant to the condition very close to a black hole event horizon is developed. The plasma is studied using the 3{plus}1 paradigm of general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics. The equilibrium and dynamical solution of such a plasma in Rindler{close_quote}s coordinates are presented. We assume a pressure source at the horizon that provides the balancing force to stop the radial infall of the plasma. We show that the plasma near the black hole is subject to the convective instability when the magnetic field is absent and to the magnetic buoyancy instability when a toroidal field exists. These instabilities are largely suppressed, however, in the presence of a poloidal magnetic field. Therefore, when a poloidal magnetic field is twisted and changed into a toroidal field by plasma rotation, the plasma is destabilized due to these instabilities. The manifestation of these instabilities is a jet formation from this inner region of a black hole atmosphere. Since this formation mechanism is deep in the gravitational potential of a black hole, the energy liberated and the jet formed by this mechanism can be very substantial. We suggest that this mechanism provides a viable model for recent observations of the superluminal jets from the galactic black hole candidates GRS 1915{plus}105 and GRO J1655{minus}40. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}
String-theoretic breakdown of effective field theory near black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodelson, Matthew; Silverstein, Eva
2017-09-01
We investigate the validity of the equivalence principle near horizons in string theory, analyzing the breakdown of effective field theory caused by longitudinal string spreading effects. An experiment is set up where a detector is thrown into a black hole a long time after an early infalling string. Light cone gauge calculations, taken at face value, indicate a detectable level of root-mean-square longitudinal spreading of the initial string as measured by the late infaller. This results from the large relative boost between the string and detector in the near-horizon region, which develops automatically despite their modest initial energies outside the black hole and the weak curvature in the geometry. We subject this scenario to basic consistency checks, using these to obtain a relatively conservative criterion for its detectability. In a companion paper, we exhibit longitudinal nonlocality in well-defined gauge-invariant S-matrix calculations, obtaining results consistent with the predicted spreading albeit not in a direct analog of the black hole process. We discuss applications of this effect to the firewall paradox, and estimate the time and distance scales it predicts for new physics near black hole and cosmological horizons.
Instability in near-horizon geometries of even-dimensional Myers-Perry black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanahashi, Norihiro; Murata, Keiju
2012-12-01
We study the gravitational, electromagnetic and scalar field perturbations on the near-horizon geometries of the even-dimensional extremal Myers-Perry black holes. By dimensional reduction, the perturbation equations are reduced to effective equations of motion in AdS2. We find that some modes in the gravitational perturbations violate the Breitenlöhner-Freedman bound in AdS2. This result suggests that the even-dimensional (near-)extremal Myers-Perry black holes are unstable against gravitational perturbations. We also discuss implications of our results to the Kerr-CFT correspondence.
Hawking radiation of charged Einstein-aether black holes at both Killing and universal horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Chikun; Wang, Anzhong; Wang, Xinwen; Zhu, Tao
2016-12-01
We study analytically quantum tunneling of relativistic and non-relativistic particles at both Killing and universal horizons of Einstein-Maxwell-aether black holes, after high-order curvature corrections are taken into account, for which the dispersion relation of the particles becomes nonlinear. Our results at the Killing horizons confirm the previous ones, i.e., at high frequencies the corresponding radiation remains thermal and the nonlinearity of the dispersion does not alter the Hawking radiation significantly. In contrary, non-relativistic particles are created at universal horizons and are radiated out to infinity. The radiation also has a thermal spectrum, and the corresponding temperature takes the form, TUHz = 2κUH (z - 1) / (2 πz), where z (z ≥ 2) denotes the power of the leading term in the nonlinear dispersion relation, κUH is the surface gravity of the universal horizon, defined by peering behavior of ray trajectories at the universal horizon. We also study the Smarr formula by assuming that: (a) the entropy is proportional to the area of the universal horizon, and (b) the first law of black hole thermodynamics holds, whereby we derive the Smarr mass, which in general is different from the total mass obtained at infinity. This indicates that one or both of these assumptions must be modified.
2016-01-01
A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called “Evolving Null Horizons” (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time (M¯,g¯) such that the metric g¯ satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in (M¯,g¯). Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems. PMID:27722202
Super-resolution Polarimetric Imaging of Black Holes using the Event Horizon Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pleau, Mollie; Akiyama, Kazunori; Fish, Vincent L.
2017-01-01
Black holes are thought to reside in the centers of many galaxies; however, due to their diminutive size, we have yet to directly detect and image a black hole. The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global array for 1.3mm very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), has been designed to observe and image the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way (Sagittarius A*), as well as the one in the center of the nearby giant elliptical galaxy M87. The nominal resolution of the EHT is around 30 μas, comparable to the size of the black hole’s event horizon. For this reason, we require super-resolution to accurately reconstruct images in total intensity and linear polarization. High fidelity polarimetric imaging can be used to test general relativity and to characterize the magnetic field structure surrounding black holes, which is important for understanding its role in mediating the innermost accretion and outflow region. We employ new sparse imaging techniques based on compressed sensing for linear polarimetry. Using synthetic data of M87 observations with the EHT, we find that our new techniques improve upon the standard CLEAN by a factor of ten regardless of resolution, as measured by the differences in mean squared error (MSE). We conclude that compressed sensing proves to be an effective method for linear polarimetric imaging.
Black holes under the microscope: Prospects for imaging with the Event Horizon Telescopes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Rusen; Fish, V. L.; Doeleman, S.; Monnier, J. D.; Baron, F.
2014-01-01
Recent Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) observations have identified Schwarzschild-radius-scale emission around the black holes in Sgr A* and M87. We perform realistic VLBI simulations and explore well-established imaging algorithms that are optimized for data sets like those from the EHT to examine the model-independent detectability of black hole shadow features. With the expected substantial improvements in the uv coverage and sensitivity over the next few years, we show that the EHT will be able to image the jet launch region and the shadow cast by the black hole on its surrounding emission in M87 and Sgr A*, providing new insights on jet launching physics and tests of the fundamental predictions of general relativity.
Stellar tidal disruption flares provide evidence for a black hole event horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Velzen, Sjoert
2017-08-01
The tidal disruption of a star by a massive black is expected to yield a luminous flare of thermal emission. Optical transient surveys have collected about two dozen similar-looking nuclear transients that are consider examples of these stellar tidal disruption flares (TDFs). However, explaining the observed properties of these events within the tidal disruption paradigm is challenging. For example, there is no consensus on the origin of the optical emission. This theoretical ambiguity leaves open the possibility that the flares we call TDFs are instead due to a completely different process, such a nuclear supernovae or accretion disk instabilities. Fortunately, the number of discovered TDFs recently became large enough to test a fundamental prediction of the stellar tidal disruption paradigm. At high black hole mass (greater than 108 M⊙), the star will be swallowed whole before being disrupted. Using a recently compiled catalog of candidate TDFs with black hole mass measurements, plus a careful treatment of selection effects in this flux-limited sample, we robustly detect a suppression of flares from high-mass black holes. This dearth of observed TDFs from the upper end of the black hole mass distribution is naturally explained by suppression due the event horizon and implies a moderate mean spin of these black holes (a > 0.5). Conversely, if we start by assuming that current TDF candidates are indeed due to stellar tidal disruptions, our sample can be used to constrain the existence of naked singularities.
Highly damped quasinormal modes of generic single-horizon black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daghigh, Ramin G.; Kunstatter, Gabor
2005-10-01
We calculate analytically the highly damped quasinormal mode spectra of generic single-horizon black holes using the rigorous WKB techniques of Andersson and Howls (2004 Class. Quantum Grav. 21 1623). We thereby provide a firm foundation for previous analysis, and point out some of their possible limitations. The numerical coefficient in the real part of the highly damped frequency is generically determined by the behaviour of coupling of the perturbation to the gravitational field near the origin, as expressed in tortoise coordinates. This fact makes it difficult to understand how the famous ln(3) could be related to the quantum gravitational microstates near the horizon.
Causal nature and dynamics of trapping horizons in black hole collapse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helou, Alexis; Musco, Ilia; Miller, John C.
2017-07-01
In calculations of gravitational collapse to form black holes, trapping horizons (foliated by marginally trapped surfaces) make their first appearance either within the collapsing matter or where it joins on to a vacuum exterior. Those which then move outwards with respect to the matter have been proposed for use in defining black holes, replacing the global concept of an ‘event horizon’ which has some serious drawbacks for practical applications. We here present results from a study of the properties of both outgoing and ingoing trapping horizons, assuming strict spherical symmetry throughout. We have investigated their causal nature (i.e. whether they are spacelike, timelike or null), making contact with the Misner-Sharp-Hernandez formalism, which has often been used for numerical calculations of spherical collapse. We follow two different approaches, one using a geometrical quantity related to expansions of null geodesic congruences, and the other using the horizon velocity measured with respect to the collapsing matter. After an introduction to these concepts, we then implement them within numerical simulations of stellar collapse, revisiting pioneering calculations from the 1960s where some features of the emergence and subsequent behaviour of trapping horizons could already be seen. Our presentation here is aimed firmly at ‘real world’ applications of interest to astrophysicists and includes the effects of pressure, which may be important for the asymptotic behaviour of the ingoing horizon.
Near horizon extremal Myers-Perry black holes and integrability of associated conformal mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hakobyan, Tigran; Nersessian, Armen; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.
2017-09-01
We investigate dynamics of probe particles moving in the near-horizon limit of (2 N + 1)-dimensional extremal Myers-Perry black hole with arbitrary rotation parameters. We observe that in the most general case with non-equal non-vanishing rotational parameters the system admits separation of variables in N-dimensional ellipsoidal coordinates. This allows us to find solution of the corresponding Hamilton-Jacobi equation and write down the explicit expressions of Liouville constants of motion.
Event-horizon-scale structure in the supermassive black hole candidate at the Galactic Centre.
Doeleman, Sheperd S; Weintroub, Jonathan; Rogers, Alan E E; Plambeck, Richard; Freund, Robert; Tilanus, Remo P J; Friberg, Per; Ziurys, Lucy M; Moran, James M; Corey, Brian; Young, Ken H; Smythe, Daniel L; Titus, Michael; Marrone, Daniel P; Cappallo, Roger J; Bock, Douglas C-J; Bower, Geoffrey C; Chamberlin, Richard; Davis, Gary R; Krichbaum, Thomas P; Lamb, James; Maness, Holly; Niell, Arthur E; Roy, Alan; Strittmatter, Peter; Werthimer, Daniel; Whitney, Alan R; Woody, David
2008-09-04
The cores of most galaxies are thought to harbour supermassive black holes, which power galactic nuclei by converting the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation. Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), the compact source of radio, infrared and X-ray emission at the centre of the Milky Way, is the closest example of this phenomenon, with an estimated black hole mass that is 4,000,000 times that of the Sun. A long-standing astronomical goal is to resolve structures in the innermost accretion flow surrounding Sgr A*, where strong gravitational fields will distort the appearance of radiation emitted near the black hole. Radio observations at wavelengths of 3.5 mm and 7 mm have detected intrinsic structure in Sgr A*, but the spatial resolution of observations at these wavelengths is limited by interstellar scattering. Here we report observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm that set a size of 37(+16)(-10) microarcseconds on the intrinsic diameter of Sgr A*. This is less than the expected apparent size of the event horizon of the presumed black hole, suggesting that the bulk of Sgr A* emission may not be centred on the black hole, but arises in the surrounding accretion flow.
Holographic stress-energy tensor near the Cauchy horizon inside a rotating black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishibashi, Akihiro; Maeda, Kengo; Mefford, Eric
2017-07-01
We investigate a stress-energy tensor for a conformal field theory (CFT) at strong coupling inside a small five-dimensional rotating Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta by using the holographic method. As a gravitational dual, we perturbatively construct a black droplet solution by applying the "derivative expansion" method, generalizing the work of Haddad [Classical Quantum Gravity 29, 245001 (2012), 10.1088/0264-9381/29/24/245001] and analytically compute the holographic stress-energy tensor for our solution. We find that the stress-energy tensor is finite at both the future and past outer (event) horizons and that the energy density is negative just outside the event horizons due to the Hawking effect. Furthermore, we apply the holographic method to the question of quantum instability of the Cauchy horizon since, by construction, our black droplet solution also admits a Cauchy horizon inside. We analytically show that the null-null component of the holographic stress-energy tensor negatively diverges at the Cauchy horizon, suggesting that a singularity appears there, in favor of strong cosmic censorship.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adler, Stephen L.
2016-06-01
A frame-dependent effective action motivated by the postulates of three-space general coordinate invariance and Weyl scaling invariance exactly mimics a cosmological constant in Robertson-Walker spacetimes. However, in a static spherically symmetric Schwarzschild-like geometry it modifies the black hole horizon structure within microscopic distances of the nominal horizon, in such a way that g00 never vanishes. This could have important implications for the black hole “information paradox”.
Black-hole horizons as probes of black-hole dynamics. I. Post-merger recoil in head-on collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaramillo, José Luis; Macedo, Rodrigo P.; Moesta, Philipp; Rezzolla, Luciano
2012-04-01
The understanding of strong-field dynamics near black-hole horizons is a long-standing and challenging problem in general relativity. Recent advances in numerical relativity and in the geometric characterization of black-hole horizons open new avenues into the problem. In this first paper in a series of two, we focus on the analysis of the recoil occurring in the merger of binary black holes, extending the analysis initiated in [L. Rezzolla, R. P. Macedo, and J. L. Jaramillo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 221101 (2010).PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.221101] with Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. More specifically, we probe spacetime dynamics through the correlation of quantities defined at the black-hole horizon and at null infinity. The geometry of these hypersurfaces responds to bulk gravitational fields acting as test screens in a scattering perspective of spacetime dynamics. Within a 3+1 approach we build an effective-curvature vector from the intrinsic geometry of dynamical-horizon sections and correlate its evolution with the flux of Bondi linear momentum at large distances. We employ this setup to study numerically the head-on collision of nonspinning black holes and demonstrate its validity to track the qualitative aspects of recoil dynamics at infinity. We also make contact with the suggestion that the antikick can be described in terms of a “slowness parameter” and how this can be computed from the local properties of the horizon. In a companion paper [J. L. Jaramillo, R. P. Macedo, P. Moesta, and L. Rezzolla, following article, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ1550-7998 85, 084031 (2012).] we will further elaborate on the geometric aspects of this approach and on its relation with other approaches to characterize dynamical properties of black-hole horizons.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke
2009-07-01
Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, Frank J.
2001-10-01
Hawking has shown that if black holes were to exist in a universe that expands forever, black holes would completely evaporate, violating unitarity. Unitarity thus requires that the universe exist for only a finite future proper time. I develop this argument, showing that unitarity also requires the boundaries of all future sets to be Cauchy surfaces, and so no event horizons can exist. Thus, the null generators of the surfaces of astrophysical black holes must leave the surface in both time directions, allowing non-spherical topologies for black hole surfaces. Unitarity thus also requires the effective cosmological constant to be zero eventually, otherwise the universe would expand forever. .
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.
2016-09-01
We consider the Generalized Minimal Massive Gravity (GMMG) model in the first order formalism. We show that all the solutions of the Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constants solve the equations of motion of considered model. Then we find an expression for the off-shell conserved charges of this model. By considering the near horizon geometry of a three dimensional black hole in the Gaussian null coordinates, we find near horizon conserved charges and their algebra. The obtained algebra is centrally extended. By writing the algebra of conserved charges in terms of Fourier modes and considering the BTZ black hole solution as an example, one can see that the charge associated with rotations along Y0 coincides exactly with the angular momentum, and the charge associated with time translations T0 is the product of the black hole entropy and its temperature. As we expect, in the limit when the GMMG tends to the Einstein gravity, all the results we obtain in this paper reduce to the results of the paper [1].
Thermodynamics of horizons: de Sitter black holes and reentrant phase transitions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubizňák, David; Simovic, Fil
2016-12-01
In this paper we propose a straightforward method for understanding the thermodynamics of black holes in de Sitter space, one that will allow us to study these black holes in a way that is analogous to the anti-de Sitter case. As per usual, we formulate separate thermodynamic first laws for each horizon present in the spacetime, and study their thermodynamics as if they were independent systems characterized by their own temperature. That these systems are not entirely independent and various thermodynamic quantities in them are in fact ‘correlated’ is reflected by the fact that their thermodynamics can be captured by a single Gibbs free energy-like thermodynamic potential. This quantity contains information about possible phase transitions in the system and allows us to uncover a rich phase structure for de Sitter black holes. In particular, we discover reentrant phase transitions for Kerr-dS black holes in six dimensions, a phenomenon recently observed for their six dimensional AdS cousins.
Perturbations of near-horizon geometries and instabilities of Myers-Perry black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durkee, Mark N.; Reall, Harvey S.
2011-05-01
It is shown that the equations governing linearized gravitational (or electromagnetic) perturbations of the near-horizon geometry of any known extreme vacuum black hole (allowing for a cosmological constant) can be Kaluza-Klein reduced to give the equation of motion of a charged scalar field in AdS2 with an electric field. One can define an effective Breitenlöhner-Freedman bound for such a field. We conjecture that if a perturbation preserves certain symmetries then a violation of this bound should imply an instability of the full black hole solution. Evidence in favor of this conjecture is provided by the extreme Kerr solution and extreme cohomogeneity-1 Myers-Perry solution. In the latter case, we predict an instability in seven or more dimensions and, in five dimensions, we present results for operator conformal weights assuming the existence of a conformal field theory dual. We sketch a proof of our conjecture for scalar field perturbations.
Quantization of area for event and Cauchy horizons of the Kerr-Newman black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visser, Matt
2012-06-01
Based on various string theoretic constructions, and various string-inspired generalizations thereof, there have been repeated suggestions that the areas of black hole event horizons might be quantized in a quite specific manner, in terms of linear combinations of square roots of positive integers. It is important to realise that there are significant physical constraints on such integer-based proposals when one (somewhat speculatively) attempts to extend them outside their original extremal and supersymmetric framework. Specifically, in their most natural and direct physical interpretations, some of the more speculative integer-based proposals for the quantization of horizon areas fail for the ordinary Kerr-Newman black holes in (3+1) dimensions, essentially because the fine structure constant is not an integer. A more baroque interpretation involves asserting the fine structure constant is the square root of a rational number; but such a proposal has its own problems. Insofar as one takes (3+1) general relativity (plus the usual quantization of angular momentum and electric charge) as being paramount, the known explicitly calculable spectra of horizon areas for the physically compelling Kerr-Newman spacetimes indicate that some caution is called for when assessing the universality of some of the more speculative integer-based string-inspired proposals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, John; Stojkovic, Dejan
2016-07-01
We examine the basic assumptions in the original setup of the firewall paradox. The main claim is that a single mode of the lathe radiation is maximally entangled with the mode inside the horizon and simultaneously with the modes of early Hawking radiation. We argue that this situation never happens during the evolution of a black hole. Quantum mechanics tells us that while the black hole exists, unitary evolution maximally entangles a late mode located just outside the horizon with a combination of early radiation and black hole states, instead of either of them separately. One of the reasons for this is that the black hole radiation is not random and strongly depends on the geometry and charge of the black hole, as detailed numerical calculations of Hawking evaporation clearly show. As a consequence, one can not factor out the state of the black hole. However, this extended entanglement between the black hole and modes of early and late radiation indicates that, as the black hole ages, the local Rindler horizon is modified out to macroscopic distances from the black hole. Fundamentally non-local physics nor firewalls are not necessary to explain this result. We propose an infrared mechanism called icezone that is mediated by low energy interacting modes and acts near any event horizon to entangle states separated by long distances. These interactions at first provide small corrections to the thermal Hawking radiation. At the end of evaporation however the effect of interactions is as large as the Hawking radiation and information is recovered for an outside observer. We verify this in an explicit construction and calculation of the density matrix of a spin model.
Observable Emission Features of Black Hole GRMHD Jets on Event Horizon Scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pu, Hung-Yi; Wu, Kinwah; Younsi, Ziri; Asada, Keiichi; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Masanori
2017-08-01
The general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (GRMHD) formulation for black hole-powered jets naturally gives rise to a stagnation surface, where inflows and outflows along magnetic field lines that thread the black hole event horizon originate. We derive a conservative formulation for the transport of energetic electrons, which are initially injected at the stagnation surface and subsequently transported along flow streamlines. With this formulation the energy spectra evolution of the electrons along the flow in the presence of radiative and adiabatic cooling is determined. For flows regulated by synchrotron radiative losses and adiabatic cooling, the effective radio emission region is found to be finite, and geometrically it is more extended along the jet central axis. Moreover, the emission from regions adjacent to the stagnation surface is expected to be the most luminous as this is where the freshly injected energetic electrons are concentrated. An observable stagnation surface is thus a strong prediction of the GRMHD jet model with the prescribed non-thermal electron injection. Future millimeter/submillimeter (mm/sub-mm) very-long-baseline interferometric observations of supermassive black hole candidates, such as the one at the center of M87, can verify this GRMHD jet model and its associated non-thermal electron injection mechanism.
Near-horizon geometry and the entropy of a minimally coupled scalar field in the Kerr black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Kaushik
2016-09-01
In this article we will discuss a Lorentzian sector calculation of the entropy of a minimally coupled scalar field in a Kerr black hole background. We will use the brick wall model of 't Hooft. In a Kerr black hole, complications arise due to the absence of a global timelike Killing field and the presence of the ergosphere. Nevertheless, it is possible to calculate the entropy of a thin shell of matter field in the near-horizon region using the brick wall model. The corresponding leading-order entropy of the nonsuperradiant modes is found to be proportional to the area of the horizon and is logarithmically divergent. Thus, the entropy of a three-dimensional system in the near-horizon region is proportional to the boundary surface. This aspect is also valid in the Schwarzschild black holes and is similar to that of the black hole entropy itself. The corresponding internal energy remains finite if the entropy is chosen to be of the order of the black hole entropy itself. For a fixed value of the brick wall cut-off, the leading order entropy in a Kerr black hole is found to be half of the corresponding term in a Schwarzschild black hole. This is due to rotation and is consistent with the preferential emission of particles in a Kerr black hole with azimuthal angular momentum in the same direction as that of the black hole itself. However, we can obtain the Schwarzschild case expression by including a subleading term and taking the appropriate slow rotation limit.
Bambi, Cosimo
2013-01-01
Black holes have the peculiar and intriguing property of having an event horizon, a one-way membrane causally separating their internal region from the rest of the Universe. Today, astrophysical observations provide some evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates. In this short paper, I compare the constraint we can infer from the nonobservation of electromagnetic radiation from the putative surface of these objects with the bound coming from the ergoregion instability, pointing out the respective assumptions and limitations.
2013-01-01
Black holes have the peculiar and intriguing property of having an event horizon, a one-way membrane causally separating their internal region from the rest of the Universe. Today, astrophysical observations provide some evidence for the existence of event horizons in astrophysical black hole candidates. In this short paper, I compare the constraint we can infer from the nonobservation of electromagnetic radiation from the putative surface of these objects with the bound coming from the ergoregion instability, pointing out the respective assumptions and limitations. PMID:23853532
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Santos, Jorge E.
2013-04-01
We construct stationary non-equilibrium black funnels locally asymptotic to global AdS4 in vacuum Einstein-Hilbert gravity with a negative cosmological constant. These are non-compactly-generated black holes in which a single connected bulk horizon extends to meet the conformal boundary. Thus the induced (conformal) boundary metric has smooth horizons as well. In our examples, the boundary spacetime contains a pair of black holes connected through the bulk by a tubular bulk horizon. Taking one boundary black hole to be hotter than the other (ΔT ≠ 0) prohibits equilibrium. The result is a so-called flowing funnel, a stationary bulk black hole with a non-Killing horizon that may be said to transport heat toward the cooler boundary black hole. While generators of the bulk future horizon evolve toward zero expansion in the far future, they begin at finite affine parameter with infinite expansion on a singular past horizon characterized by power-law divergences with universal exponents. We explore both the horizon generators and the boundary stress tensor in detail. While most of our results are numerical, a semi-analytic fluid/gravity description can be obtained by passing to a one-parameter generalization of the above boundary conditions. The new parameter detunes the temperatures Tbulk BH and Tbndy BH of the bulk and boundary black holes, and we may then take α = {T_{bndy \\ BH}/{T_{bulk \\ BH}} and ΔT small to control the accuracy of the fluid-gravity approximation. In the small α, ΔT regime, we find excellent agreement with our numerical solutions. For our cases the agreement also remains quite good even for α ˜ 0.8. In terms of a dual CFT, our α = 1 solutions describe heat transport via a large N version of Hawking radiation through a deconfined plasma that couples efficiently to both boundary black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikov, Igor
Astrophysics of Black Holes Introduction The Origin of Stellar Black Holes A Nonrotating Black Hole Introduction Schwarzschild Gravitational Field Motion of Photons Along the Radial Direction Radial Motion of Nonrelativistic Particles The Puzzle of the Gravitational Radius R and T Regions Two Types of T-Regions Gravitational Collapse and White Holes Eternal Black Hole? Black Hole Celestial Mechanics Circular Motion Around a Black Hole Gravitational Capture of Particles by a Black Hole Corrections for Gravitational Radiation A Rotating Black Hole Introduction Gravitational Field of a Rotating Black Hole Specific Reference Frames General Properties of the Spacetime of a Rotating Black Hole; - Spacetime Inside the Horizon Celestial Mechanics of a Rotating Black Hole Motion of Particle in the Equatorial Plane Motion of Particles off the Equatorial Plane Peculiarities of the Gravitational Capture of Bodies by a Rotating - Black Hole Electromagnetic Fields Near a Black Hole Introduction Maxwell's Equations in the Neighborhood of a Rotating Black Hole Stationary Electrodynamics Boundary Conditions at the Event Horizon Electromagnetic Fields in Vacuum Magnetosphere of a Black Hole Some Aspects of Physics of Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Machines Observational Appearence of the Black Holes in the Universe Black Holes in the Interstellar Medium Disk Accretion Black Holes in Stellar Binary Systems Black Holes in Galactic Centers Dynamical Evidence for Black Holes in Galaxy Nuclei Primordial Black Holes Acknowledgements References
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Israel, Werner
This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fischetti, Sebastian; Marolf, Donald; Santos, Jorge
2013-04-01
We construct stationary non-equilibrium black funnels locally asymptotic to global AdS4 in vacuum Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant. These are non-compactly-generated black holes in which a single connected bulk horizon extends to meet the conformal boundary. Thus the induced (conformal) boundary metric has smooth horizons as well. In our examples, the boundary spacetime contains a pair of black holes connected through the bulk by a tubular bulk horizon. Taking one boundary black hole to be hotter than the other (δT !=0) prohibits equilibrium. The result is a so-called flowing funnel, a stationary bulk black hole with a non-Killing horizon that may be said to transport heat toward the cooler boundary black hole. While most of our results are numerical, a semi-analytic fluid/gravity description can be obtained by passing to a one-parameter generalization of the above boundary conditions. In the fluid regime, we find excellent agreement with our numerical solutions. In terms of a dual CFT, our solutions describe heat transport via a large N version of Hawking radiation through a deconfined plasma that couples efficiently to both boundary black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, L. C.-C.; Pu, Hung-Yi; Hirotani, Kouichi; Kong, Albert K. H.; Matsushita, Satoki; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Inoue, Makoto; Tam, Pak-Hin T.
2017-08-01
We search for the gamma-ray counterparts of stellar-mass black holes using the long-term Fermi archive to investigate the electrostatic acceleration of electrons and positrons in the vicinity of the event horizon. We achieve this by applying the pulsar outer-gap model to their magnetospheres. When a black hole transient (BHT) is in a low-hard or quiescent state, the radiatively inefficient accretion flow cannot emit enough MeV photons that are required to sustain the force-free magnetosphere in the polar funnel via two-photon collisions. In this charge-starved gap region, an electric field arises along the magnetic field lines to accelerate electrons and positrons into ultra-relativistic energies. These relativistic leptons emit copious Gamma-rays via the curvature and inverse-Compton (IC) processes. It is found that these gamma-ray emissions exhibit a flaring activity when the plasma accretion rate typically stays between 0.01% and 0.005% of the Eddington value for rapidly rotating, stellar-mass black holes. By analyzing the detection limit determined from archival Fermi/Large Area Telescope data, we find that the 7-year averaged duty cycle of such flaring activities should be less than 5% and 10% for XTE J1118+480 and 1A 0620-00, respectively, and that the detection limit is comparable to the theoretical prediction for V404 Cyg. It is predicted that the gap emission can be discriminated from the jet emission if we investigate the high-energy spectral behavior or observe nearby BHTs during deep quiescence simultaneously in infrared wavelength and very-high energies.
Extremal rotating black holes in the near-horizon limit: Phase space and symmetry algebra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Compère, G.; Hajian, K.; Seraj, A.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.
2015-10-01
We construct the NHEG phase space, the classical phase space of Near-Horizon Extremal Geometries with fixed angular momenta and entropy, and with the largest symmetry algebra. We focus on vacuum solutions to d dimensional Einstein gravity. Each element in the phase space is a geometry with SL (2 , R) × U(1) d - 3 isometries which has vanishing SL (2 , R) and constant U (1) charges. We construct an on-shell vanishing symplectic structure, which leads to an infinite set of symplectic symmetries. In four spacetime dimensions, the phase space is unique and the symmetry algebra consists of the familiar Virasoro algebra, while in d > 4 dimensions the symmetry algebra, the NHEG algebra, contains infinitely many Virasoro subalgebras. The nontrivial central term of the algebra is proportional to the black hole entropy. The conserved charges are given by the Fourier decomposition of a Liouville-type stress-tensor which depends upon a single periodic function of d - 3 angular variables associated with the U (1) isometries. This phase space and in particular its symmetries can serve as a basis for a semiclassical description of extremal rotating black hole microstates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottewill, Adrian C.; Taylor, Peter
2011-01-01
We calculate the renormalized vacuum polarization and stress tensor for a massless, arbitrarily coupled scalar field in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum state on the horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole threaded by an infinite straight cosmic string. This calculation relies on a generalized Heine identity for non-integer Legendre functions which we derive without using specific properties of the Legendre functions themselves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McNutt, David D.; Page, Don N.
2017-04-01
We construct a scalar polynomial curvature invariant that transforms covariantly under a conformal transformation from any spherically symmetric metric. This invariant has the additional property that it vanishes on the event horizon of any black hole that is conformal to a static spherical metric.
Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.
2001-01-01
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801
Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J
2001-09-11
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.
A Connection between Plasma Conditions near Black Hole Event Horizons and Outflow Properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koljonen, K. I. I.; Russell, D. M.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Markoff, Sera; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; van der Horst, A. J.; Bernardini, F.; Casella, P.; Curran, P. A.; Gandhi, P.; Soria, R.
2015-12-01
Accreting black holes are responsible for producing the fastest, most powerful outflows of matter in the universe. The formation process of powerful jets close to black holes is poorly understood, and the conditions leading to jet formation are currently hotly debated. In this paper, we report an unambiguous empirical correlation between the properties of the plasma close to the black hole and the particle acceleration properties within jets launched from the central regions of accreting stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. In these sources the emission of the plasma near the black hole is characterized by a power law at X-ray energies during times when the jets are produced. We find that the photon index of this power law, which gives information on the underlying particle distribution, correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum, which is dependent on magnetohydrodynamical processes in the outflow. The observed range in break frequencies varies by five orders of magnitude in sources that span nine orders of magnitude in black hole mass, revealing a similarity of jet properties over a large range of black hole masses powering these jets. This correlation demonstrates that the internal properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions of the plasma close to the black hole, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin, and will provide a benchmark that should be reproduced by the jet formation models.
A CONNECTION BETWEEN PLASMA CONDITIONS NEAR BLACK HOLE EVENT HORIZONS AND OUTFLOW PROPERTIES
Koljonen, K. I. I.; Russell, D. M.; Bernardini, F.; Fernández-Ontiveros, J. A.; Markoff, Sera; Russell, T. D.; Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Curran, P. A.; Soria, R.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Casella, P.; Gandhi, P.
2015-12-01
Accreting black holes are responsible for producing the fastest, most powerful outflows of matter in the universe. The formation process of powerful jets close to black holes is poorly understood, and the conditions leading to jet formation are currently hotly debated. In this paper, we report an unambiguous empirical correlation between the properties of the plasma close to the black hole and the particle acceleration properties within jets launched from the central regions of accreting stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. In these sources the emission of the plasma near the black hole is characterized by a power law at X-ray energies during times when the jets are produced. We find that the photon index of this power law, which gives information on the underlying particle distribution, correlates with the characteristic break frequency in the jet spectrum, which is dependent on magnetohydrodynamical processes in the outflow. The observed range in break frequencies varies by five orders of magnitude in sources that span nine orders of magnitude in black hole mass, revealing a similarity of jet properties over a large range of black hole masses powering these jets. This correlation demonstrates that the internal properties of the jet rely most critically on the conditions of the plasma close to the black hole, rather than other parameters such as the black hole mass or spin, and will provide a benchmark that should be reproduced by the jet formation models.
Circular geodesic of Bardeen and Ayon-Beato-Garcia regular black-hole and no-horizon spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Schee, Jan
2015-12-01
In this paper, we study circular geodesic motion of test particles and photons in the Bardeen and Ayon-Beato-Garcia (ABG) geometry describing spherically symmetric regular black-hole or no-horizon spacetimes. While the Bardeen geometry is not exact solution of Einstein's equations, the ABG spacetime is related to self-gravitating charged sources governed by Einstein's gravity and nonlinear electrodynamics. They both are characterized by the mass parameter m and the charge parameter g. We demonstrate that in similarity to the Reissner-Nordstrom (RN) naked singularity spacetimes an antigravity static sphere should exist in all the no-horizon Bardeen and ABG solutions that can be surrounded by a Keplerian accretion disc. However, contrary to the RN naked singularity spacetimes, the ABG no-horizon spacetimes with parameter g/m > 2 can contain also an additional inner Keplerian disc hidden under the static antigravity sphere. Properties of the geodesic structure are reflected by simple observationally relevant optical phenomena. We give silhouette of the regular black-hole and no-horizon spacetimes, and profiled spectral lines generated by Keplerian rings radiating at a fixed frequency and located in strong gravity region at or nearby the marginally stable circular geodesics. We demonstrate that the profiled spectral lines related to the regular black-holes are qualitatively similar to those of the Schwarzschild black-holes, giving only small quantitative differences. On the other hand, the regular no-horizon spacetimes give clear qualitative signatures of their presence while compared to the Schwarschild spacetimes. Moreover, it is possible to distinguish the Bardeen and ABG no-horizon spacetimes, if the inclination angle to the observer is known.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Kaushik
2016-01-01
In this article, we will discuss a Lorentzian sector calculation of the entropy of a minimally coupled scalar field in the Schwarzschild black hole background using the brick wall model of 't Hooft. In the original article, the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation was used for the modes that are globally stationary. In a previous article, we found that the WKB quantization rule together with a proper counting of the states, leads to a new expression of the scalar field entropy which is not proportional to the area of the horizon. The expression of the entropy is logarithmically divergent in the brick wall cut-off parameter in contrast to an inverse power divergence obtained earlier. In this article, we will consider the entropy for a thin shell of matter field of a given thickness surrounding the black hole horizon. The thickness is chosen to be large compared with the Planck length and is of the order of the atomic scale. We will discuss the corresponding boundary conditions and the appropriateness of the WKB approximation using the Regge-Wheeler tortoise coordinates. When expressed in terms of a covariant cut-off parameter, the entropy of a thin shell of matter field of a given thickness and surrounding the horizon in the Schwarzschild black hole background is given by an expression proportional to the area of the black hole horizon. This leading order divergent term in the cut-off parameter remains to be logarithmically divergent. The logarithmic divergence is expected from the nature of the near-horizon geometry and is discussed in detail at the end of Sect. 2. We will find that these discussions are significant in the context of the continuation to the Euclidean sector and the corresponding regularization schemes used to evaluate the thermodynamical properties of matter fields in curved spaces. These are related with to geometric aspects of curved spaces.
Uniformly accelerated black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.
2001-09-01
The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.
Mandel, Ilya
2005-10-15
The most promising way to compute the gravitational waves emitted by binary black holes (BBHs) in their last dozen orbits, where post-Newtonian techniques fail, is a quasistationary approximation introduced by Detweiler and being pursued by Price and others. In this approximation the outgoing gravitational waves at infinity and downgoing gravitational waves at the holes' horizons are replaced by standing waves so as to guarantee that the spacetime has a helical Killing vector field. Because the horizon generators will not, in general, be tidally locked to the holes' orbital motion, the standing waves will destroy the horizons, converting the black holes into naked singularities that resemble black holes down to near the horizon radius. This paper uses a spherically symmetric, scalar-field model problem to explore in detail the following BBH issues: (i) The destruction of a horizon by the standing waves. (ii) The accuracy with which the resulting naked singularity resembles a black hole. (iii) The conversion of the standing-wave spacetime (with a destroyed horizon) into a spacetime with downgoing waves by the addition of a 'radiation-reaction field'. (iv) The accuracy with which the resulting downgoing waves agree with the downgoing waves of a true black-hole spacetime (with horizon). The model problem used to study these issues consists of a Schwarzschild black hole endowed with spherical standing waves of a scalar field, whose wave frequency and near-horizon energy density are chosen to match those of the standing gravitational waves of the BBH quasistationary approximation. It is found that the spacetime metric of the singular, standing-wave spacetime, and its radiation-reaction-field-constructed downgoing waves are quite close to those for a Schwarzschild black hole with downgoing waves--sufficiently close to make the BBH quasistationary approximation look promising for non-tidally-locked black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhi-Kun; Pan, Wei-Zhen; Yang, Xue-Jun
2013-03-01
Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, we discuss the quantum nonthermal radiation characteristics near an event horizon by studying the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of a scalar particle in curved space-time, and obtain the event horizon surface gravity and the Hawking temperature on that event horizon. The results show that there is a crossing of particle energy near the event horizon. We derive the maximum overlap of the positive and negative energy levels. It is also found that the Hawking temperature of a black hole depends not only on the time, but also on the angle. There is a problem of dimension in the usual tortoise coordinate, so the present results obtained by using a correct-dimension new tortoise coordinate transformation may be more reasonable.
BMS type symmetries at null-infinity and near horizon of non-extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setare, M. R.; Adami, H.
2016-12-01
In this paper we consider a generally covariant theory of gravity, and extend the generalized off-shell ADT current such that it becomes conserved for field dependent (asymptotically) Killing vector field. Then we define the extended off-shell ADT current and the extended off-shell ADT charge. Consequently, we define the conserved charge perturbation by integrating from the extended off-shell ADT charge over a spacelike codimension two surface. Eventually, we use the presented formalism to find the conserved charge perturbation of an asymptotically flat spacetime. The conserved charge perturbation we obtain is exactly matched with the result of Ref. (Barnich and Troessaert, 12:105 2011). These charges are as representations of the BMS_4 symmetry algebra. Also, we find that the near horizon conserved charges of a non-extremal black hole with extended symmetries are the Noether charges. For this case our result is also exactly matched with that of Ref. (Donnay et al., arXiv:1607.05703 [hep-th], 2016).
The cosmic evolution of massive black holes in the Horizon-AGN simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volonteri, M.; Dubois, Y.; Pichon, C.; Devriendt, J.
2016-08-01
We analyse the demographics of black holes (BHs) in the large-volume cosmological hydrodynamical simulation Horizon-AGN. This simulation statistically models how much gas is accreted on to BHs, traces the energy deposited into their environment and, consequently, the back-reaction of the ambient medium on BH growth. The synthetic BHs reproduce a variety of observational constraints such as the redshift evolution of the BH mass density and the mass function. Strong self-regulation via AGN feedback, weak supernova feedback, and unresolved internal processes result in a tight BH-galaxy mass correlation. Starting at z ˜ 2, tidal stripping creates a small population of BHs over-massive with respect to the halo. The fraction of galaxies hosting a central BH or an AGN increases with stellar mass. The AGN fraction agrees better with multi-wavelength studies, than single-wavelength ones, unless obscuration is taken into account. The most massive haloes present BH multiplicity, with additional BHs gained by ongoing or past mergers. In some cases, both a central and an off-centre AGN shine concurrently, producing a dual AGN. This dual AGN population dwindles with decreasing redshift, as found in observations. Specific accretion rate and Eddington ratio distributions are in good agreement with observational estimates. The BH population is dominated in turn by fast, slow, and very slow accretors, with transitions occurring at z = 3 and z = 2, respectively.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan; Johnson, Michael; Doeleman, Sheperd; Event Horizon Telescope Collaboration
2016-03-01
Accreting black holes (BHs) are at the core of relativistic astrophysics as messengers of the strong-field regime of General Relativity and prime targets of several observational campaigns, including imaging the black hole shadow in SagA* and M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope. I will present results from general-relativistic, polarized radiatiative transfer models for the inner accretion flow in Sgr A*. The models use time dependent, global GRMHD simulations of hot accretion flows including standard-and-normal-evolution (SANE) and magnetically arrested disks (MAD). I present comparisons of these synthetic data sets to the most recent observations with the Event Horizon Telescope and show how the data distinguishes the models and probes the magnetic field structure.
Kleihaus, B; Kunz, J
2001-04-23
We construct stationary black-hole solutions in SU(2) Einstein-Yang-Mills theory which carry angular momentum and electric charge. Possessing nontrivial non-Abelian magnetic fields outside their regular event horizon, they represent nonperturbative rotating hairy black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Pei-Ming
2017-04-01
Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.
Horizon quantum mechanics: A hitchhiker’s guide to quantum black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian
2016-01-01
It is congruous with the quantum nature of the world to view the spacetime geometry as an emergent structure that shows classical features only at some observational level. One can thus conceive the spacetime manifold as a purely theoretical arena, where quantum states are defined, with the additional freedom of changing coordinates like any other symmetry. Observables, including positions and distances, should then be described by suitable operators acting on such quantum states. In principle, the top-down (canonical) quantization of Einstein-Hilbert gravity falls right into this picture, but is notoriously very involved. The complication stems from allowing all the classical canonical variables that appear in the (presumably) fundamental action to become quantum observables acting on the “superspace” of all metrics, regardless of whether they play any role in the description of a specific physical system. On can instead revisit the more humble “minisuperspace” approach and choose the gravitational observables not simply by imposing some symmetry, but motivated by their proven relevance in the (classical) description of a given system. In particular, this review focuses on compact, spherically symmetric, quantum mechanical sources, in order to determine the probability that they are black holes (BHs) rather than regular particles. The gravitational radius is therefore lifted to the status of a quantum mechanical operator acting on the “horizon wave function (HWF),” the latter being determined by the quantum state of the source. This formalism is then applied to several sources with a mass around the fundamental scale, which are viewed as natural candidates of quantum BHs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khani, F.; Darvishi, M. T.; Baghbani, R.
2014-03-01
By means of the semiclassical approximations for the action, the horizon of Kerr-Sen black hole is studied. The corrected entropy of the Kerr-Sen black hole in a low-energy string theory is calculated. By assumption of a flat Friedman-Robertson-Walker (F.R.W.) geometries, we study horizon and present the semi-classic approximation affects of the thermodynamics properties. We discuss some physical consequences of this result and the properties of the Kerr-Sen black hole.
Growth of Primordial Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harada, Tomohiro
Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.
Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P.
2015-12-01
The half opening angle of a Kerr black hole shadow is always equal to (5 ± 0.2)GM/Dc{sup 2}, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of a shadow and verifying whether it is within this 4% range constitutes a null hypothesis test of general relativity. We show that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, is the optimal target for performing this test with upcoming observations using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We use the results of optical/IR monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the mass-to-distance ratio for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ∼4%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the properties of the scattering screen between Sgr A* and the Earth, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. Finally, we explore an edge detection scheme for interferometric data and a pattern matching algorithm based on the Hough/Radon transform and demonstrate that the shadow of the black hole at 1.3 mm can be localized, in principle, to within ∼9%. All these results suggest that our prior knowledge of the properties of the black hole, of scattering broadening, and of the accretion flow can only limit this general relativistic null hypothesis test with EHT observations of Sgr A* to ≲10%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Chan, Chi-Kwan; Marrone, Daniel P.
2015-12-01
The half opening angle of a Kerr black hole shadow is always equal to (5 ± 0.2)GM/Dc2, where M is the mass of the black hole and D is its distance from the Earth. Therefore, measuring the size of a shadow and verifying whether it is within this 4% range constitutes a null hypothesis test of general relativity. We show that the black hole in the center of the Milky Way, Sgr A*, is the optimal target for performing this test with upcoming observations using the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT). We use the results of optical/IR monitoring of stellar orbits to show that the mass-to-distance ratio for Sgr A* is already known to an accuracy of ∼4%. We investigate our prior knowledge of the properties of the scattering screen between Sgr A* and the Earth, the effects of which will need to be corrected for in order for the black hole shadow to appear sharp against the background emission. Finally, we explore an edge detection scheme for interferometric data and a pattern matching algorithm based on the Hough/Radon transform and demonstrate that the shadow of the black hole at 1.3 mm can be localized, in principle, to within ∼9%. All these results suggest that our prior knowledge of the properties of the black hole, of scattering broadening, and of the accretion flow can only limit this general relativistic null hypothesis test with EHT observations of Sgr A* to ≲10%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gold, Roman; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Johnson, Michael D.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.
2017-03-01
Magnetic fields are believed to drive accretion and relativistic jets in black hole accretion systems, but the magnetic field structure that controls these phenomena remains uncertain. We perform general relativistic (GR) polarized radiative transfer of time-dependent three-dimensional GR magnetohydrodynamical simulations to model thermal synchrotron emission from the Galactic Center source Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*). We compare our results to new polarimetry measurements by the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) and show how polarization in the visibility (Fourier) domain distinguishes and constrains accretion flow models with different magnetic field structures. These include models with small-scale fields in disks driven by the magnetorotational instability as well as models with large-scale ordered fields in magnetically arrested disks. We also consider different electron temperature and jet mass-loading prescriptions that control the brightness of the disk, funnel-wall jet, and Blandford–Znajek-driven funnel jet. Our comparisons between the simulations and observations favor models with ordered magnetic fields near the black hole event horizon in Sgr A*, though both disk- and jet-dominated emission can satisfactorily explain most of the current EHT data. We also discuss how the black hole shadow can be filled-in by jet emission or mimicked by the absence of funnel jet emission. We show that stronger model constraints should be possible with upcoming circular polarization and higher frequency (349 GHz) measurements.
Psaltis, Dimitrios; Narayan, Ramesh; Loeb, Abraham; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Fish, Vincent L.; Broderick, Avery E. E-mail: rnarayan@cfa.harvard.edu
2015-01-01
Observations of the black hole in the center of the Milky Way with the Event Horizon Telescope at 1.3 mm have revealed a size of the emitting region that is smaller than the size of the black-hole shadow. This can be reconciled with the spectral properties of the source, if the accretion flow is seen at a relatively high inclination (50°-60°). Such an inclination makes the angular momentum of the flow, and perhaps of the black hole, nearly aligned with the angular momenta of the orbits of stars that lie within ≅ 3'' from the black hole. We discuss the implications of such an alignment for the properties of the black hole and of its accretion flow. We argue that future Event Horizon Telescope observations will not only refine the inclination of Sgr A* but also measure precisely its orientation on the plane of the sky.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Psaltis, Dimitrios; Narayan, Ramesh; Fish, Vincent L.; Broderick, Avery E.; Loeb, Abraham; Doeleman, Sheperd S.
2015-01-01
Observations of the black hole in the center of the Milky Way with the Event Horizon Telescope at 1.3 mm have revealed a size of the emitting region that is smaller than the size of the black-hole shadow. This can be reconciled with the spectral properties of the source, if the accretion flow is seen at a relatively high inclination (50°-60°). Such an inclination makes the angular momentum of the flow, and perhaps of the black hole, nearly aligned with the angular momenta of the orbits of stars that lie within ~= 3'' from the black hole. We discuss the implications of such an alignment for the properties of the black hole and of its accretion flow. We argue that future Event Horizon Telescope observations will not only refine the inclination of Sgr A* but also measure precisely its orientation on the plane of the sky.
Imaging the Supermassive Black Hole Shadow and Jet Base of M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Ru-Sen; Broderick, Avery E.; Baron, Fabien; Monnier, John D.; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Pankratius, Victor
2014-06-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a project to assemble a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network of millimeter wavelength dishes that can resolve strong field general relativistic signatures near a supermassive black hole. As planned, the EHT will include enough dishes to enable imaging of the predicted black hole "shadow," a feature caused by severe light bending at the black hole boundary. The center of M87, a giant elliptical galaxy, presents one of the most interesting EHT targets as it exhibits a relativistic jet, offering the additional possibility of studying jet genesis on Schwarzschild radius scales. Fully relativistic models of the M87 jet that fit all existing observational constraints now allow horizon-scale images to be generated. We perform realistic VLBI simulations of M87 model images to examine the detectability of the black shadow with the EHT, focusing on a sequence of model images with a changing jet mass load radius. When the jet is launched close to the black hole, the shadow is clearly visible both at 230 and 345 GHz. The EHT array with a resolution of 20-30 μas resolution (~2-4 Schwarzschild radii) is able to image this feature independent of any theoretical models and we show that imaging methods used to process data from optical interferometers are applicable and effective for EHT data sets. We demonstrate that the EHT is also capable of tracing real-time structural changes on a few Schwarzschild radii scales, such as those implicated by very high-energy flaring activity of M87. While inclusion of ALMA in the EHT is critical for shadow imaging, the array is generally robust against loss of a station.
Imaging the supermassive black hole shadow and jet base of M87 with the event horizon telescope
Lu, Ru-Sen; Fish, Vincent L.; Doeleman, Sheperd S.; Pankratius, Victor; Broderick, Avery E.; Baron, Fabien; Monnier, John D.
2014-06-20
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is a project to assemble a Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) network of millimeter wavelength dishes that can resolve strong field general relativistic signatures near a supermassive black hole. As planned, the EHT will include enough dishes to enable imaging of the predicted black hole 'shadow', a feature caused by severe light bending at the black hole boundary. The center of M87, a giant elliptical galaxy, presents one of the most interesting EHT targets as it exhibits a relativistic jet, offering the additional possibility of studying jet genesis on Schwarzschild radius scales. Fully relativistic models of the M87 jet that fit all existing observational constraints now allow horizon-scale images to be generated. We perform realistic VLBI simulations of M87 model images to examine the detectability of the black shadow with the EHT, focusing on a sequence of model images with a changing jet mass load radius. When the jet is launched close to the black hole, the shadow is clearly visible both at 230 and 345 GHz. The EHT array with a resolution of 20-30 μas resolution (∼2-4 Schwarzschild radii) is able to image this feature independent of any theoretical models and we show that imaging methods used to process data from optical interferometers are applicable and effective for EHT data sets. We demonstrate that the EHT is also capable of tracing real-time structural changes on a few Schwarzschild radii scales, such as those implicated by very high-energy flaring activity of M87. While inclusion of ALMA in the EHT is critical for shadow imaging, the array is generally robust against loss of a station.
Collisional Penrose Process near the Horizon of Extreme Kerr Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bejger, Michał; Piran, Tsvi; Abramowicz, Marek; Håkanson, Frida
2012-09-01
Collisions of particles in black hole ergospheres may result in an arbitrarily large center-of-mass energy. This led recently to the suggestion [M. Bañados, J. Silk, and S. M. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 111102 (2009)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.103.111102] that black holes can act as ultimate particle accelerators. If the energy of an outgoing particle is larger than the total energy of the infalling particles, the energy excess must come from the rotational energy of the black hole and hence, a Penrose process is involved. However, while the center-of-mass energy diverges, the position of the collision makes it impossible for energetic particles to escape to infinity. Following an earlier work on collisional Penrose processes [T. Piran and J. Shaham, Phys. Rev. D 16, 1615 (1977)], we show that even under the most favorable idealized conditions the maximal energy of an escaping particle is only a modest factor above the total initial energy of the colliding particles. This implies that one should not expect collisions around a black hole to act as spectacular cosmic accelerators.
Collisional Penrose process near the horizon of extreme Kerr black holes.
Bejger, Michał; Piran, Tsvi; Abramowicz, Marek; Håkanson, Frida
2012-09-21
Collisions of particles in black hole ergospheres may result in an arbitrarily large center-of-mass energy. This led recently to the suggestion [M. Bañados, J. Silk, and S. M. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 111102 (2009)] that black holes can act as ultimate particle accelerators. If the energy of an outgoing particle is larger than the total energy of the infalling particles, the energy excess must come from the rotational energy of the black hole and hence, a Penrose process is involved. However, while the center-of-mass energy diverges, the position of the collision makes it impossible for energetic particles to escape to infinity. Following an earlier work on collisional Penrose processes [T. Piran and J. Shaham, Phys. Rev. D 16, 1615 (1977)], we show that even under the most favorable idealized conditions the maximal energy of an escaping particle is only a modest factor above the total initial energy of the colliding particles. This implies that one should not expect collisions around a black hole to act as spectacular cosmic accelerators.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartman, Thomas Edward
The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh
2016-10-01
We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, Christopher S.
2015-08-01
Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie
1991-01-01
We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hyeyoun
2015-10-01
This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If
Gravitation without black holes
Agnese, A.G.; La Camera, M.
1985-03-15
The Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstroem, and Kerr exterior solutions in general relativity are reconsidered adding to the vacuum a massless scalar field. The event horizons in the modified solutions all reduce to a point, thus preventing the formation of black holes.
Black holes on gravitational instantons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Yu; Teo, Edward
2011-09-01
In this paper, we classify and construct five-dimensional black holes on gravitational instantons in vacuum Einstein gravity, with R×U(1)×U(1) isometry. These black holes have spatial backgrounds which are Ricci-flat gravitational instantons with U(1)×U(1) isometry, and are completely regular space-times outside the event horizon. Most of the known exact five-dimensional vacuum black-hole solutions can be classified within this scheme. Amongst the new space-times presented are static black holes on the Euclidean Kerr and Taub-bolt instantons. We also present a rotating black hole on the Eguchi-Hanson instanton.
Dain, Sergio
2010-11-15
We present a formula that relates the variations of the area of extreme throat initial data with the variation of an appropriate defined mass functional. From this expression we deduce that the first variation, with fixed angular momentum, of the area is zero and the second variation is positive definite evaluated at the extreme Kerr throat initial data. This indicates that the area of the extreme Kerr throat initial data is a minimum among this class of data. And hence the area of generic throat initial data is bounded from below by the angular momentum. Also, this result strongly suggests that the inequality between area and angular momentum holds for generic asymptotically flat axially symmetric black holes. As an application, we prove this inequality in the nontrivial family of spinning Bowen-York initial data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Demirchian, Hovhannes
2017-09-01
We investigate dynamics of probe particles moving in the near-horizon limit of (2N + 1)-dimensional extremal Myers-Perry black hole (in the cases of N = 3, 4, 5) with arbitrary rotation parameters. Very recently it has been shown in [T. Hakobyan, A. Nersessian and M. M. Sheikh-Jabbari, Phys. Lett. B 772, 586 (2017)] that in the most general cases with non-equal nonvanishing rotational parameters the system admits separation of variables in N-dimensional ellipsoidal coordinates. We wrote down the explicit expressions of Liouville integrals of motion, given in the above-mentioned reference in ellipsoidal coordinates, in initial “Cartesian” coordinates in seven, nine and eleven dimensions, and found that these expressions hold in any dimension. Then, taking the limit where all of the rotational parameters are equal, we reveal that each of these N ‑ 1 integrals of motion results in the Hamiltonian of the spherical mechanics of a (2N + 1)-dimensional MP black hole with equal nonvanishing rotational parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De, Sanchari; Ghosh, Sutapa; Chakrabarty, Somenath
2015-11-01
In the conventional scenario, the Hawking radiation is believed to be a tunneling process at the event horizon of the black hole. In the quantum field theoretic approach the Schwinger's mechanism is generally used to give an explanation of this tunneling process. It is the decay of quantum vacuum into particle anti-particle pairs near the black hole surface. However, in a reference frame undergoing a uniform accelerated motion in an otherwise flat Minkowski space-time geometry, in the non-relativistic approximation, the particle production near the event horizon of a black hole may be treated as a kind of Fowler-Nordheim field emission, which is the typical electron emission process from a metal surface under the action of an external electrostatic field. This type of emission from metal surface is allowed even at extremely low temperature. It has been noticed that in one-dimensional scenario, the Schrödinger equation satisfied by the created particle (anti-particle) near the event horizon, can be reduced to a differential form which is exactly identical with that obeyed by an electron immediately after the emission from the metal surface under the action of a strong electrostatic field. The mechanism of particle production near the event horizon of a black hole is therefore identified with Schwinger process in relativistic quantum field theory, whereas in the non-relativistic scenario it may be interpreted as Fowler-Nordheim emission process, when observed from a uniformly accelerated frame.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Duine, R. A.
2017-02-01
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons—the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A
2017-02-10
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
Destroying extremal magnetized black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siahaan, Haryanto M.
2017-07-01
The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adapted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "Ernst magnetization" permits a test particle to have strong enough energy to destroy the black hole. However, the corresponding effective potentials show that such particles would never reach the horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David; Wills, Danielle
2013-06-01
A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-15
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.
2011-10-01
In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.
1998-01-01
Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
Nonisolated dynamic black holes and white holes
McClure, M. L.; Anderson, Kaem; Bardahl, Kirk
2008-05-15
Modifying the Kerr-Schild transformation used to generate black and white hole spacetimes, new dynamic black and white holes are obtained using a time-dependent Kerr-Schild scalar field. Physical solutions are found for black holes that shrink with time and for white holes that expand with time. The black hole spacetimes are physical only in the vicinity of the black hole, with the physical region increasing in radius with time. The white hole spacetimes are physical throughout. Unlike the standard Schwarzschild solution the singularities are nonisolated, since the time dependence introduces a mass-energy distribution. The surfaces in the metrics where g{sub tt}=g{sup rr}=0 are dynamic, moving inward with time for the black holes and outward for the white holes, which leads to a question of whether these spacetimes truly have event horizons--a problem shared with Vaidya's cosmological black hole spacetimes. By finding a surface that shrinks or expands at the same rate as the null geodesics move, and within which null geodesics move inward or outward faster than the surfaces shrink or expand, respectively, it is verified that these do in fact behave like black and white holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-01
The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-08-15
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h{sub l} of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h{sub l}{sup EM}. The Love numbers h{sub l} give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
Quantum statistical entropy for Kerr de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Chun; Wu, Yue-Qin; Zhao, Ren
2004-06-01
Improving the membrane model by which the entropy of the black hole is studied, we study the entropy of the black hole in the non-thermal equilibrium state. To give the problem stated here widespread meaning, we discuss the (n+2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime. Through discussion, we obtain that the black hole's entropy which contains two horizons (a black hole's horizon and a cosmological horizon) in the non-thermal equilibrium state comprises the entropy corresponding to the black hole's horizon and the entropy corresponding to the cosmological horizon. Furthermore, the entropy of the black hole is a natural property of the black hole. The entropy is irrelevant to the radiation field out of the horizon. This deepens the understanding of the relationship between black hole's entropy and horizon's area. A way to study the bosonic and fermionic entropy of the black hole in high non-thermal equilibrium spacetime is given.
Analysis of linear waves near the Cauchy horizon of cosmological black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hintz, Peter; Vasy, András
2017-08-01
We show that linear scalar waves are bounded and continuous up to the Cauchy horizon of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter and Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes and in fact decay exponentially fast to a constant along the Cauchy horizon. We obtain our results by modifying the spacetime beyond the Cauchy horizon in a suitable manner, which puts the wave equation into a framework in which a number of standard as well as more recent microlocal regularity and scattering theory results apply. In particular, the conormal regularity of waves at the Cauchy horizon—which yields the boundedness statement—is a consequence of radial point estimates, which are microlocal manifestations of the blue-shift and red-shift effects.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; KubizÅák, David
2016-09-01
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon—even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
2012-04-01
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.
Black hole entropy quantization.
Corichi, Alejandro; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique
2007-05-04
Ever since the pioneering works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that the black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps, can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show consistency with the Bekenstein framework when an oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation is properly interpreted.
Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doughty, Noel A.
1981-01-01
Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…
Acceleration of a Static Observer Near the Event Horizon of a Static Isolated Black Hole.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Doughty, Noel A.
1981-01-01
Compares the magnitude of the proper acceleration of a static observer in a static, isolated, spherically symmetric space-time region with the Newtonian result including the situation in the interior of a perfect-fluid star. This provides a simple physical interpretation of surface gravity and illustrates the global nature of the event horizon.…
Global embedding of the Kerr black hole event horizon into hyperbolic 3-space
Gibbons, G. W.; Herdeiro, C. A. R.; Rebelo, C.
2009-08-15
An explicit global and unique isometric embedding into hyperbolic 3-space, H{sup 3}, of an axi-symmetric 2-surface with Gaussian curvature bounded below is given. In particular, this allows the embedding into H{sup 3} of surfaces of revolution having negative, but finite, Gaussian curvature at smooth fixed points of the U(1) isometry. As an example, we exhibit the global embedding of the Kerr-Newman event horizon into H{sup 3}, for arbitrary values of the angular momentum. For this example, considering a quotient of H{sup 3} by the Picard group, we show that the hyperbolic embedding fits in a fundamental domain of the group up to a slightly larger value of the angular momentum than the limit for which a global embedding into Euclidean 3-space is possible. An embedding of the double-Kerr event horizon is also presented, as an example of an embedding that cannot be made global.
Hawking versus Unruh effects, or the difficulty of slowly crossing a black hole horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barbado, Luis C.; Barceló, Carlos; Garay, Luis J.; Jannes, Gil
2016-10-01
When analyzing the perception of Hawking radiation by different observers, the Hawking effect becomes mixed with the Unruh effect. The separation of both effects is not always clear in the literature. Here we propose an inconsistency-free interpretation of what constitutes a Hawking effect and what an Unruh effect. An appropriate interpretation is important in order to elucidate what sort of effects a detector might experience depending on its trajectory and the state of the quantum field. Under simplifying assumptions we introduce an analytic formula that separates these two effects. Armed with the previous interpretation we argue that for a free-falling detector to cross the horizon without experiencing high-energy effects, it is necessary that the horizon crossing is not attempted at low velocities.
Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2008-07-15
Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lin, Kai; Shu, Fu-Wen; Wang, Anzhong; Wu, Qiang
2015-02-01
In this paper, we present all [(d +1 )+1 ] -dimensional static diagonal vacuum solutions of the nonprojectable Hořava-Lifshitz gravity in the IR limit and show that they give rise to very rich Lifshitz-type structures, depending on the choice of the free parameters of the solutions. These include the Lifshitz space-times with or without hyperscaling violation, Lifshitz solitons, and black holes. Remarkably, even the theory breaks explicitly the Lorentz symmetry and allows generically instantaneous propagations, universal horizons still exist, which serve as one-way membranes for signals moving with any large velocities. In particular, particles even with infinitely large velocities would just move around on these boundaries and would not be able to escape to infinity. Another remarkable feature appearing in the Lifshitz-type space-times is that the dynamical exponent z can take its values only in the ranges 1 ≤z <2 for d ≥3 and 1 ≤z <∞ for d =2 , due to the stability and ghost-free conditions of the theory.
Black hole Meissner effect and entanglement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penna, Robert F.
2014-08-01
Extremal black holes tend to expel magnetic and electric fields. Fields are unable to reach the horizon because the length of the black hole throat blows up in the extremal limit. The length of the throat is related to the amount of entanglement between modes on either side of the horizon. So it is natural to try to relate the black hole Meissner effect to entanglement. We derive the black hole Meissner effect directly from the low temperature limit of two-point functions in the Hartle-Hawking vacuum. Then we discuss several new examples of the black hole Meissner effect, its applications to astrophysics, and its relationship to gauge invariance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirotani, Kouichi; Pu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lupin Chun-Che; Kong, Albert K. H.; Matsushita, Satoki; Asada, Keiichi; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Tam, Pak-Hin T.
2017-08-01
Around a rapidly rotating black hole (BH), when the plasma accretion rate is much less than the Eddington rate, the radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) cannot supply enough MeV photons that are capable of materializing as pairs. In such a charge-starved BH magnetosphere, the force-free condition breaks down in the polar funnels. Applying the pulsar outer-magnetospheric lepton accelerator theory to supermassive BHs, we demonstrate that a strong electric field arises along the magnetic field lines in the direct vicinity of the event horizon in the funnels, that the electrons and positrons are accelerated up to 100 TeV in this vacuum gap, and that these leptons emit copious photons via inverse-Compton (IC) processes between 0.1 and 30 TeV for a distant observer. It is found that these IC fluxes will be detectable with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes, provided that a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus is located within 1 Mpc for a million-solar-mass central BH or within 30 Mpc for a billion-solar-mass central BH. These very high energy fluxes are beamed in a relatively small solid angle around the rotation axis because of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic distribution of the RIAF photon field and show an anticorrelation with the RIAF submillimeter fluxes. The gap luminosity depends little on the 3D magnetic field configuration, because the Goldreich-Julian charge density, and hence the exerted electric field, is essentially governed by the frame-dragging effect, not by the magnetic field configuration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso
2016-11-01
Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.
Extremal vacuum black holes in higher dimensions
Figueras, Pau; Lucietti, James; Rangamani, Mukund; Kunduri, Hari K.
2008-08-15
We consider extremal black hole solutions to the vacuum Einstein equations in dimensions greater than five. We prove that the near-horizon geometry of any such black hole must possess an SO(2,1) symmetry in a special case where one has an enhanced rotational symmetry group. We construct examples of vacuum near-horizon geometries using the extremal Myers-Perry black holes and boosted Myers-Perry strings. The latter lead to near-horizon geometries of black ring topology, which in odd spacetime dimensions have the correct number of rotational symmetries to describe an asymptotically flat black object. We argue that a subset of these correspond to the near-horizon limit of asymptotically flat extremal black rings. Using this identification we provide a conjecture for the exact 'phase diagram' of extremal vacuum black rings with a connected horizon in odd spacetime dimensions greater than five.
Black hole final state conspiracies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInnes, Brett
2009-01-01
The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of “conspiracies” between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required “conspiracies” if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy.
Hubeny, V.
2005-01-12
We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.
Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund
2005-02-07
We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.
Interior of a charged distorted black hole
Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.
2009-07-15
We study the interior of a charged, nonrotating distorted black hole. We consider static and axisymmetric black holes, and focus on a special case when an electrically charged distorted solution is obtained by the Harrison-Ernst transformation from an uncharged one. We demonstrate that the Cauchy horizon of such a black hole remains regular, provided the distortion is regular at the event horizon. The shape and the inner geometry of both the outer and inner (Cauchy) horizons are studied. We demonstrate that there exists a duality between the properties of the horizons. Proper time of a free fall of a test particle moving in the interior of the distorted black hole along the symmetry axis is calculated. We also study the property of the curvature in the inner domain between the horizons. Simple relations between the 4D curvature invariants and the Gaussian curvature of the outer and inner horizon surfaces are found.
Rotating regular black hole solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon
2016-07-01
Based on the Newman-Janis algorithm, the Ayón-Beato-García spacetime metric [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5056 (1998)] of the regular spherically symmetric, static, and charged black hole has been converted into rotational form. It is shown that the derived solution for rotating a regular black hole is regular and the critical value of the electric charge for which two horizons merge into one sufficiently decreases in the presence of the nonvanishing rotation parameter a of the black hole.
Orbital Resonances Around Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-01
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Inyong; Kim, Hyeong-Chan
2017-04-01
We investigate black holes formed by static perfect fluid with p =-ρ /3 . These represent the black holes in S3 and H3 spatial geometries. There are three classes of black-hole solutions, two S3 types and one H3 type. The interesting solution is the S3 type one, which possesses two singularities. One is at the north pole behind the horizon, and the other is naked at the south pole. The observers, however, are free from falling to the naked singularity. There are also nonstatic cosmological solutions in S3 and H3 and a singular static solution in H3.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Cosmological singularity theorems and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vilenkin, Alexander; Wall, Aron C.
2014-03-01
An extension of Penrose's singularity theorem is proved for spacetimes where black holes are allowed to form from nonsingular initial data. With standard assumptions about the spacetime, and assuming the existence of a trapped surface which lies outside of black hole horizons and is not completely surrounded by horizons, we show that the spacetime region outside (or on) the horizons must contain singularities. If the trapped surface is surrounded by horizons, we show that the horizons divide spacetime into causally disconnected pieces. Unlike the original Penrose theorem, our theorems provide some information about the location of singularities. We illustrate how they can be used to rule out some cosmological scenarios.
Semiclassical geometry of charged black holes
Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus
2005-07-15
At the classical level, two-dimensional dilaton gravity coupled to an abelian gauge field has charged black hole solutions, which have much in common with four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, including multiple asymptotic regions, timelike curvature singularities, and Cauchy horizons. The black hole spacetime is, however, significantly modified by quantum effects, which can be systematically studied in this two-dimensional context. In particular, the back-reaction on the geometry due to pair-creation of charged fermions destabilizes the inner horizon and replaces it with a spacelike curvature singularity. The semiclassical geometry has the same global topology as an electrically neutral black hole.
Do black holes really evaporate thermally
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, F. J.
1980-09-01
The Raychaudhuri equation is used to analyze the effect of the Hawking radiation back reaction upon a black-hole event horizon. It is found that if the effective stress-energy tensor of the Hawking radiation has negative energy density as expected, then an evaporating black hole initially a solar mass in size must disappear in less than a second. This implies that either the evaporation process, if it occurs at all, must be quite different from what is commonly supposed, or else black-hole event horizons - and hence black holes - do not exist.
On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan
2012-12-01
In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form Iadia = ∮pi dqi. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by ΔA = 8 π lp2 in the Schwarzschild and Painlevé coordinates.
Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.
Lake, Kayll
2010-05-28
On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.
Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chia-Jui; Wu, Xiaoning; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Pei-Hung
2016-10-01
In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.
Thermal corpuscular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-06-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Modesto, Leonardo; Wang, Yixu
2017-01-01
We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee-Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M >Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M =Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.
Black Holes, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wald, Robert
2017-01-01
A black hole is a region of ``no escape'' that remains behind after a body has undergone complete gravitational collapse. It is truly remarkable that (i) black holes obey the ordinary laws of thermodynamics, (ii) the entropy of a black hole is given by a simple formula involving geometrical properties of its event horizon, and (iii) quantum theory plays an essential role in the thermodynamic properties of black holes. In this talk, I will review some of the key developments related to these properties of black holes, which fascinated me as a graduate student and continue to fascinate me now.
In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...
Black holes in magnetic monopoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.
1991-01-01
We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.
Black holes and the positive cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Sourav
2013-02-01
We address some aspects of black hole spacetimes endowed with a positive cosmological constant, i.e. black holes located inside a cosmological event horizon. First we establish a general criterion for existence of cosmological event horizons. Using the geometrical set up built for this, we study classical black hole no hair theorems for both static and stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. We discuss cosmic Nielsen-Olesen strings as hair in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. We also give a general calculation for particle creation by a Killing horizon using complex path analysis and using this we study particle creation in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime by both black hole and the cosmological event horizons.
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang
2009-02-01
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.
Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo
2016-09-01
We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr-Newman or Kerr-Newman-anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.
Causal Structures of Dynamic Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James
2010-10-01
Dynamic space-times, especially those manifesting horizons, provide useful laboratories for examining how macroscopic quantum behaviors consistently co-generate gravitational phenomena. For this reason, the behaviors and large-scale causal structures of spatially coherent dynamic black holes will be explored in this presentation. Geodesic motions on an evaporating black hole will also be presented. Research recently completed with Beth Brown, including her final Penrose diagram for an accreting black hole, will be presented.
Vacuum polarization for lukewarm black holes
Winstanley, Elizabeth; Young, Phil M.
2008-01-15
We compute the renormalized expectation value of the square of a quantum scalar field on a Reissner-Nordstroem-de Sitter black hole in which the temperatures of the event and cosmological horizons are equal ('lukewarm' black hole). Our numerical calculations for a thermal state at the same temperature as the two horizons indicate that this renormalized expectation value is regular on both the event and cosmological horizons. We are able to show analytically, using an approximation for the field modes near the horizons, that this is indeed the case.
Physics near Rapidly Spinning Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Hughes, Scott; Porfyriadis, Achilleas; Strominger, Andrew; Warburton, Niels
2016-03-01
The near-horizon region of a near-extreme Kerr black hole possesses additional emergent symmetries and can be thought of as a spacetime in its own right. I will discuss the dynamics of particles and fields in this region, the constraints imposed by symmetry, and observational consequences for astrophysical black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.
2017-06-01
We numerically construct asymptotically AdS 4 solutions to Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. These have a dipolar electrostatic potential turned on at the conformal boundary {S}^2× {\\mathbb{R}}_t . We find two classes of geometries: AdS soliton solutions that encode the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry without a horizon, and neutral black holes that are "polarised" by the dipolar potential. For a certain range of the electric field \\mathcal{E} , we find two distinct branches of the AdS soliton that exist for the same value of \\mathcal{E} . For the black hole, we find either two or four branches depending on the value of the electric field and horizon temperature. These branches meet at critical values of the electric field and impose a maximum value of \\mathcal{E} that should be reflected in the dual field theory. For both the soliton and black hole geometries, we study boundary data such as the stress tensor. For the black hole, we also consider horizon observables such as the entropy. At finite temperature, we consider the Gibbs free energy for both phases and determine the phase transition between them. We find that the AdS soliton dominates at low temperature for an electric field up to the maximum value. Using the gauge/gravity duality, we propose that these solutions are dual to deformed ABJM theory and compute the corresponding weak coupling phase diagram.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holdom, Bob; Ren, Jing
2017-04-01
Astrophysical black hole candidates, although long thought to have a horizon, could be horizonless ultracompact objects. This intriguing possibility is motivated by the black hole information paradox and a plausible fundamental connection with quantum gravity. Asymptotically free quadratic gravity is considered here as the UV completion of general relativity. A classical theory that captures its main features is used to search for solutions as sourced by matter. We find that sufficiently dense matter produces a novel horizonless configuration, the 2-2-hole, which closely matches the exterior Schwarzschild solution down to about a Planck proper length of the would-be horizon. The 2-2-hole is characterized by an interior with a shrinking volume and a seemingly innocuous timelike curvature singularity. The interior also has a novel scaling behavior with respect to the physical mass of the 2-2-hole. This leads to an extremely deep gravitational potential in which particles get efficiently trapped via collisions. As a generic static solution, the 2-2-hole may then be the nearly black end point of gravitational collapse. There is a considerable time delay for external probes of the 2-2-hole interior, and this determines the spacing of echoes in a postmerger gravitational wave signal.
Black holes: Supersymmetry and the information paradox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peet, Amanda Wensley
1994-01-01
U(1) times U(1) asymptotically flat dilaton black holes are investigated in the context of N = 4, d = 4 supergravity, or dimensionally reduced superstring theory. It is found that extremal (multi-) black holes are supersymmetric, and that the supersymmetric positivity bounds on the black hole mass coincide with the bounds coming from cosmic censorship. Temperature, entropy and horizon properties are discussed in connection with the extremal limit. The on-shell action is given and for extremal black holes is argued to be unaltered by higher-order quantum corrections in the supersymmetric theory. The entropy is related to the Euclidean action via the Gibbons-Hawking method, is found to be one-quarter of the horizon area, and vanishes for maximally supersymmetric black holes. Lastly, the near-horizon behavior of extremal black holes is investigated. N = 1 supersymmetric black holes are found to tend to a Robinson-Bertotti-type geometry with doubling of supersymmetries; no such doubling is found for the N = 2 case. Topics relevant to the Information Paradox of black hole physics are investigated. First, prime-t Hooft's S-matrix approach to the puzzles of black hole evaporation is clarified by considering d = 1 + 1 electrodynamic in a linear dilaton background; analogues of black holes, Hawking evaporation, and an information paradox exist in this system. The paradox is resolved in the full quantum theory where the exact S-matrix is calculated. Secondly, a study of tachyon hair on black holes in two-dimensional string theory is presented. Such black holes if static can have tachyon hair; configurations nonsingular at the horizon have nonvanishing asymptotic energy density. There also exist static solutions with finite total energy and singular horizon. Dynamical arguments suggest that neither type of tachyon hair will be present on a black hole formed in gravitational collapse. Lastly, thermalization of a (fundamental) string falling toward the horizon of a four
Collision of two rotating Hayward black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Bogeun
2017-07-01
We investigate the spin interaction and the gravitational radiation thermally allowed in a head-on collision of two rotating Hayward black holes. The Hayward black hole is a regular black hole in a modified Einstein equation, and hence it can be an appropriate model to describe the extent to which the regularity effect in the near-horizon region affects the interaction and the radiation. If one black hole is assumed to be considerably smaller than the other, the potential of the spin interaction can be analytically obtained and is dependent on the alignment of angular momenta of the black holes. For the collision of massive black holes, the gravitational radiation is numerically obtained as the upper bound by using the laws of thermodynamics. The effect of the Hayward black hole tends to increase the radiation energy, but we can limit the effect by comparing the radiation energy with the gravitational waves GW150914 and GW151226.
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2015-12-01
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Numerical simulations of black-hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Tony
This thesis covers various aspects of the numerical simulation of black-hole spacetimes according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, using the Spectral Einstein Code developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The first topic is improvement of binary-black-hole initial data. One such issue is the construction of binary-black-hole initial data with nearly extremal spins that remain nearly constant during the initial relaxation in an evolution. Another concern is the inclusion of physically realistic tidal deformations of the black holes to reduce the high-frequency components of the spurious gravitational radiation content, and represents a first step in incorporating post-Newtonian results in constraint-satisfying initial data. The next topic is the evolution of black-hole binaries and the gravitational waves they emit. The first spectral simulation of two inspiralling black holes through merger and ringdown is presented, in which the black holes are nonspinning and have equal masses. This work is extended to perform the first spectral simulations of two inspiralling black holes with moderate spins and equal masses, including the merger and ringdown. Two configurations are considered, in which both spins are either anti-aligned or aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Highly accurate gravitational waveforms are computed for all these cases, and are used to calibrate waveforms in the effective-one-body model. The final topic is the behavior of quasilocal black-hole horizons in highly dynamical situations. Simulations of a rotating black hole that is distort ed by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation are performed. Multiple marginally outer trapped surfaces are seen to appear and annihilate with each other during the evolution, and the world tubes th ey trace out are all dynamical horizons. The dynamical horizon and angular momentum flux laws are evaluated in this context, and the dynamical horizons are contrasted with the event horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anastopoulos, Charis; Savvidou, Ntina
2016-01-01
We study a black hole of mass M, enclosed within a spherical box, in equilibrium with its Hawking radiation. We show that the spacetime geometry inside the box is described by the Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations for radiation, except for a thin shell around the horizon. We use the maximum entropy principle to show that the invariant width of the shell is of order √{M} , its entropy is of order M and its temperature of order 1/√{M} (in Planck units). Thus, the width of the shell is much larger than the Planck length. Our approach is to insist on thermodynamic consistency when classical general relativity coexists with the Hawking temperature in the description of a gravitating system. No assumptions about an underlying theory are made and no restrictions are placed on the origins of the new physics near the horizon. We only employ classical general relativity and the principles of thermodynamics. Our result is strengthened by an analysis of the trace anomaly associated to the geometry inside the box, i.e., the regime where quantum field effects become significant correspond to the shells of maximum entropy around the horizon.
Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C
2006-06-30
We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.
Black hole entanglement and quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman
2013-10-01
It was recently argued in [1] that black hole complementarity strains the basic rules of quantum information theory, such as monogamy of entanglement. Motivated by this argument, we develop a practical framework for describing black hole evaporation via unitary time evolution, based on a holographic perspective in which all black hole degrees of freedom live on the stretched horizon. We model the horizon as a unitary quantum system with finite entropy, and do not postulate that the horizon geometry is smooth. We then show that, with mild assumptions, one can reconstruct local effective field theory observables that probe the black hole interior, and relative to which the state near the horizon looks like a local Minkowski vacuum. The reconstruction makes use of the formalism of quantum error correcting codes, and works for black hole states whose entanglement entropy does not yet saturate the Bekenstein-Hawking bound. Our general framework clarifies the black hole final state proposal, and allows a quantitative study of the transition into the "firewall" regime of maximally mixed black hole states.
Comments on black holes in bubbling spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Gary T.; Kunduri, Hari K.; Lucietti, James
2017-06-01
In five-dimensional minimal supergravity, there are spherical black holes with nontrivial topology outside the horizon which have the same conserved charges at infinity as the BMPV solution. We show that some of these black holes have greater entropy than the BMPV solution. These spacetimes are all asymptotically flat, stationary, and supersymmetric. We also show that there is a limit in which the black hole shrinks to zero size and the solution becomes a nonsingular "bubbling" geometry. Thus, these solutions provide explicit analytic examples of placing black holes inside solitons.
Thermodynamic product formula for a Taub–NUT black hole
Pradhan, P.
2016-01-15
We derive various important thermodynamic relations of the inner and outer horizons in the background of the Taub–NUT (Newman–Unti–Tamburino) black hole in four-dimensional Lorentzian geometry. We compare these properties with the properties of the Reissner–Nordström black hole. We compute the area product, area sum, area subtraction, and area division of black hole horizons. We show that they all are not universal quantities. Based on these relations, we compute the area bound of all horizons. From the area bound, we derive an entropy bound and an irreducible mass bound for both horizons. We further study the stability of such black holes by computing the specific heat for both horizons. It is shown that due to the negative specific heat, the black hole is thermodynamically unstable. All these calculations might be helpful in understanding the nature of the black hole entropy (both interior and exterior) at the microscopic level.
Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir
2016-06-01
We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.
Thermodynamics in Black-Hole Correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju
2013-09-01
The area law of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole suggests that the black hole should have a lower-dimensional holographic description. It has been found recently that a large class of rotating and charged black holes could be holographically described a two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT). We show that the universal information of the dual CFT, including the central charges and the temperatures, is fully encoded in the thermodynamics laws of both outer and inner horizons. These laws, characterizing how the black hole responds under the perturbation, allows us to read different dual pictures with respect to different kinds of perturbations. The remarkable effectiveness of this thermodynamics method suggest that the inner horizon could play a key role in the study of holographic description of the black hole.
The centre-of-mass energy of two colliding particles in STU black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Hassan
2014-12-01
In this paper we consider collision of two particle near the STU black hole and calculate center of mass energy. In the case of uncharged black hole we find that the maximum energy obtained near the black hole horizon which similarly happen for charged black hole. We verify that the black hole charge may be decreased or increased the center of mass energy near the black hole horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeb, Abraham
2007-04-01
Recent data indicates that almost all galaxies possess a supermassive black hole at their center. When gas accretes onto the black hole it heats-up and shines, resulting in the appearance of a bright quasar. The earliest quasars are found to exist only a billion years after the big-bang. I will describe recent observations of both the nearest and the most distant supermassive black holes in the universe. The formation and evolution of the black hole population can be described in the context of popular models for galaxy formation. I will describe the key questions that drive current research on supermassive black holes and present theoretical work on the radiative and hydrodynamic effects that quasars have on their cosmic habitat. Within the coming decade it would be possible to test general relativity by monitoring over time, and possibly even imaging, the polarized emission from hot spots around the black hole in the center of our Galaxy (SgrA*).
Some Simple Black Hole Thermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopresto, Michael C.
2003-05-01
In his recent popular book The Universe in a Nutshell, Steven Hawking gives expressions for the entropy1 and temperature (often referred to as the ``Hawking temperature''2 ) of a black hole:3 S = kc34ℏG A T = ℏc38πkGM, where A is the area of the event horizon, M is the mass, k is Boltzmann's constant, ℏ = h2π (h being Planck's constant), c is the speed of light, and G is the universal gravitational constant. These expressions can be used as starting points for some interesting approximations on the thermodynamics of a Schwarzschild black hole, of mass M, which by definition is nonrotating and spherical with an event horizon of radius R = 2GMc2.4,5
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Garcia, M.
2003-01-01
The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitates this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)
2004-01-01
The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitate this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.
Quantum capacity of quantum black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adami, Chris; Bradler, Kamil
2014-03-01
The fate of quantum entanglement interacting with a black hole has been an enduring mystery, not the least because standard curved space field theory does not address the interaction of black holes with matter. We discuss an effective Hamiltonian of matter interacting with a black hole that has a precise analogue in quantum optics and correctly reproduces both spontaneous and stimulated Hawking radiation with grey-body factors. We calculate the quantum capacity of this channel in the limit of perfect absorption, as well as in the limit of a perfectly reflecting black hole (a white hole). We find that the white hole is an optimal quantum cloner, and is isomorphic to the Unruh channel with positive quantum capacity. The complementary channel (across the horizon) is entanglement-breaking with zero capacity, avoiding a violation of the quantum no-cloning theorem. The black hole channel on the contrary has vanishing capacity, while its complement has positive capacity instead. Thus, quantum states can be reconstructed faithfully behind the black hole horizon, but not outside. This work sheds new light on black hole complementarity because it shows that black holes can both reflect and absorb quantum states without violating the no-cloning theorem, and makes quantum firewalls obsolete.
Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.
2015-07-01
Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kováčik, Samuel
2017-08-01
We study a black hole with a blurred mass density instead of a singular one, which is caused by the noncommutativity of three-space. Depending on its mass, such object has either none, one or two event horizons. It possesses properties, which become important on a microscopic scale, in particular, the Hawking temperature does not increase indefinitely as the mass goes to zero, but vanishes instead. Such frozen and extremely dense pieces of matter are good dark matter candidates.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2003-06-20
Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity.
General laws of black-hole dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayward, Sean A.
1994-06-01
A general definition of a black hole is given, and general ``laws of black-hole dynamics'' derived. The definition involves something similar to an apparent horizon, a trapping horizon, defined as a hypersurface foliated by marginal surfaces of one of four nondegenerate types, described as future or past, and outer or inner. If the boundary of an inextendible trapped region is suitably regular, then it is a (possibly degenerate) trapping horizon. The future outer trapping horizon provides the definition of a black hole. Outer marginal surfaces have spherical or planar topology. Trapping horizons are null only in the instantaneously stationary case, and otherwise outer trapping horizons are spatial and inner trapping horizons are Lorentzian. Future outer trapping horizons have nondecreasing area form, constant only in the null case: the ``second law.'' A definition of the trapping gravity of an outer trapping horizon is given, generalizing surface gravity. The total trapping gravity of a compact outer marginal surface has an upper bound, attained if and only if the trapping gravity is constant: the ``zeroth law.'' The variation of the area form along an outer trapping horizon is determined by the trapping gravity and an energy flux: the ``first law.''
Black hole entropy without brick walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Li
2002-07-01
The properties of the thermal radiation are discussed by using the new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of a Schwarzschild black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a scalar field outside the horizon of a static black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-01
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Black holes in modified gravity (MOG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffat, J. W.
2015-04-01
The field equations for scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) or modified gravity (MOG) have a static, spherically symmetric black hole solution determined by the mass with two horizons. The strength of the gravitational constant is where is a parameter. A regular singularity-free MOG solution is derived using a nonlinear field dynamics for the repulsive gravitational field component and a reasonable physical energy-momentum tensor. The Kruskal-Szekeres completion of the MOG black hole solution is obtained. The Kerr-MOG black hole solution is determined by the mass , the parameter and the spin angular momentum . The equations of motion and the stability condition of a test particle orbiting the MOG black hole are derived, and the radius of the black hole photosphere and the shadows cast by the Schwarzschild-MOG and Kerr-MOG black holes are calculated. A traversable wormhole solution is constructed with a throat stabilized by the repulsive component of the gravitational field.
Regular black holes with flux tube core
Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2009-09-15
We consider a class of black holes for which the area of the two-dimensional spatial cross section has a minimum on the horizon with respect to a quasiglobal (Krusckal-like) coordinate. If the horizon is regular, one can generate a tubelike counterpart of such a metric and smoothly glue it to a black hole region. The resulting composite space-time is globally regular, so all potential singularities under the horizon of the original metrics are removed. Such a space-time represents a black hole without an apparent horizon. It is essential that the matter should be nonvacuum in the outer region but vacuumlike in the inner one. As an example we consider the noninteracting mixture of vacuum fluid and matter with a linear equation of state and scalar phantom fields. This approach is extended to distorted metrics, with the requirement of spherical symmetry relaxed.
Black hole as a wormhole factory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Mu-In
2015-12-01
There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc / G) 1 / 2 ∼10-5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as "spacetime foam", due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG /c3) 1 / 2 ∼10-33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called "Black Wormhole", consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2 > 1 / 2), a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2 < 1 / 2), the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2 = 1 / 2). This solution suggests the "Generalized Cosmic Censorship" by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by "negative" energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the recent " ER
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Are black holes with hair a normal state of matter?
Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.
2011-03-28
Recent observations put forward that quasars are black holes with a magnetic dipole moment and no event horizon. To model hairy black holes a quantum field for hydrogen is considered in curved space, coupled to the scalar curvature. An exact, regular solution for the interior metric occurs for supermassive black holes. The equation of state is p = -{rho}c{sup 2}/3.
Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune
2010-11-15
It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/{radical}(3)){<=}(a/M){<=}1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.
Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.
Unruh, W G
2008-08-28
The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2002-10-01
. PR Photo 23b/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way (close-up) . PR Photo 23c/02 : Orbit of the star "S2" around the central Black Hole. PR Video Clip 02/02 : Motion of "S2" and other stars around the central Black Hole. Quasars and Black Holes Ever since the discovery of the quasars (quasi-stellar radio sources) in 1963, astrophysicists have searched for an explanation of the energy production in these most luminous objects in the Universe. Quasars reside at the centres of galaxies, and it is believed that the enormous energy emitted by these objects is due to matter falling onto a supermassive Black Hole, releasing gravitational energy through intense radiation before that material disappears forever into the hole (in physics terminology: "passes beyond the event horizon" [4]). To explain the prodigious energy production of quasars and other active galaxies, one needs to conjecture the presence of black holes with masses of one million to several billion times the mass of the Sun. Much evidence has been accumulating during the past years in support of the above "accreting black hole" model for quasars and other galaxies, including the detection of dark mass concentrations in their central regions. However, an unambiguous proof requires excluding all possible other, non-black hole configurations of the central mass concentration. For this, it is imperative to determine the shape of the gravitational field very close to the central object - and this is not possible for the distant quasars due to technological limitations of the currently available telescopes. The centre of the Milky Way ESO PR Photo 23a/02 ESO PR Photo 23a/02 [Preview - JPEG: 400 x 427 pix - 95k [Normal - JPEG: 800 x 853 pix - 488k] Caption : PR Photo 23a/02 is a reproduction of an image of the innermost area of the Milky Way, only a few light-years across, obtained in mid-2002 with the NACO instrument [3] at the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope. It combines frames in three infrared
Anti-evaporation of Bardeen de-Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Dharm Veer; Singh, Naveen K.
2017-08-01
In this paper, we discuss the possibility of the anti-evaporation of degenerate Bardeen de-Sitter black hole. We solve the perturbation equations around the Nariai space-time. The solution of one of the perturbations related to the horizon size demonstrates that horizon of such black hole is constant. The other perturbation is also found to be stable. We further study thermodynamical properties of such black holes. We observe double phase transition at the Nariai limit.
Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole
Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae E-mail: wtkim@sogang.ac.kr
2014-10-01
We study the thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole where the metric depends on the energy of the test particle. Identifying the black hole temperature with the energy from the modified dispersion relation, we obtain the modified entropy and thermodynamic energy along with the modified local temperature in the cavity to provide well defined black hole states. It is found that apart from the conventional critical temperature related to Hawking-Page phase transition there appears an additional critical temperature which is of relevance to the existence of a locally stable tiny black hole; however, the off-shell free energy tells us that this black hole should eventually tunnel into the stable large black hole. Finally, we discuss the reason why the temperature near the horizon is finite in the rainbow black hole by employing the running gravitational coupling constant, whereas it is divergent near the horizon in the ordinary Schwarzschild black hole.
Growth of Perturbations near a Rapidly Spinning Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel
2017-01-01
Aretakis discovered a horizon instability of extremal black holes, wherein transverse derivatives of axisymmetric perturbations grow polynomially in advanced time on the horizon. Since no physical black hole can be precisely extremal, nor any physical perturbation precisely axisymmetric, the physical implications rest on generalization to nonaxisymmetric perturbations of near-extreme black holes. We analytically study the response of a near-extremal Kerr black hole to generic external scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational field perturbations. We show that the energy density, electromagnetic field strength, and tidal force experienced by infalling observers exhibit transient growth near the horizon. As the black hole spin is increased, the growth lasts arbitrarily long and occurs arbitrarily near the horizon, reproducing the Aretakis instability in a smooth way. We explain these results in terms of near-horizon geometry and discuss potential astrophysical implications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science.
1999-11-30
This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04206
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu
2015-01-10
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.
Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime.
Braunstein, Samuel L; Patra, Manas K
2011-08-12
Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem.
Black holes as gravitational atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Cenalo
2014-06-01
Recently, it was argued [A. Almheiri et al., arXiv: 1207.3123, A. Almheiri et al., arXiv: 1304.6483], via a delicate thought experiment, that it is not consistent to simultaneously require that (a) Hawking radiation is pure, (b) effective field theory is valid outside a stretched horizon and (c) infalling observers encounter nothing unusual as they cross the horizon. These are the three fundamental assumptions underlying Black Hole Complementarity and the authors proposed that the most conservative resolution of the paradox is that (c) is false and the infalling observer burns up at the horizon (the horizon acts as a "firewall"). However, the firewall violates the equivalence principle and breaks the CPT invariance of quantum gravity. This led Hawking to propose recently that gravitational collapse may not end up producing event horizons, although he did not give a mechanism for how this may happen. Here we will support Hawking's conclusion in a quantum gravitational model of dust collapse. We will show that continued collapse to a singularity can only be achieved by combining two independent and entire solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We interpret the paradox as simply forbidding such a combination. This leads naturally to a picture in which matter condenses on the apparent horizon during quantum collapse.
Fermions tunnelling from the charged dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, De-You; Jiang, Qing-Quan; Zu, Xiao-Tao
2008-10-01
Kerner and Mann's recent work shows that for an uncharged and non-rotating black hole its Hawking temperature can be correctly derived by fermions tunnelling from its horizons. In this paper, our main work is to improve the analysis to deal with charged fermion tunnelling from the general dilatonic black holes, specifically including the charged, spherically symmetric dilatonic black hole, the rotating Einstein Maxwell dilaton axion (EMDA) black hole and the rotating Kaluza Klein (KK) black hole. As a result, the correct Hawking temperatures are well recovered by charged fermions tunnelling from these black holes.
Mathur, Samir D.
2012-11-15
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmire, Gordon
1999-09-01
WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.
Local temperature for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.; Di Criscienzo, R.; Nadalini, M.; Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S.
2009-05-01
A local Hawking temperature was recently derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method, and is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. Descriptions are given of the operational meaning of the temperature, in terms of what observers measure, and its relation to the usual Hawking temperature for static black holes. Implications for the final fate of an evaporating black hole are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherepashchuk, Anatolii M.
2009-08-01
We comment on the methodological note by A A Grib and Yu V Pavlov [Phys. Usp. 52 257 (2009)] to show that its authors are incorrect in understanding a passage that they quote from A M Cherepashchuk's book Black Holes in the Universe (Fryazino: Vek-2, 2005, p.7) and which supposes an astronaut to be at rest in the vicinity of the horizon (not to fall freely into a black hole!). With this error corrected, Grib and Pavlov's note is quite useful methodologically.
Micro black holes and the democratic transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvali, Gia; Pujolàs, Oriol
2009-03-01
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasiclassical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasiclassical black holes, according to which all of the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top of the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole loses the ability to differentiate among the species and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially nondemocratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the other branes that are beyond its reach. We demonstrate that in reality the system evolves classically in time, in such a way that the black hole accretes the neighboring branes. The end result is a completely democratic static configuration, in which all of the branes share the same black hole and all of the species are produced with the same Hawking temperature. Thus, just like their macroscopic counterparts, the microscopic black holes are universal bridges to the hidden sector physics.
Black holes in an expanding universe.
Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2010-04-02
An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 < or = for all w < or = 1). It is an exact solution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.
NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-04-01
Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce
Black hole thermodynamics based on unitary evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Yu-Lei; Chen, Yi-Xin
2015-10-01
In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy SBH may not be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's ‘first law’ may not simply be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described effectively in a unitary manner, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics.
Cosmological production of noncommutative black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mann, Robert B.; Nicolini, Piero
2011-09-01
We investigate the pair creation of noncommutative black holes in a background with a positive cosmological constant. As a first step we derive the noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild-de Sitter solution. By varying the mass and the cosmological constant parameters, we find several spacetimes compatible with the new solution: positive-mass spacetimes admit one cosmological horizon and two, one, or no black hole horizons, while negative-mass spacetimes have just a cosmological horizon. These new black holes share the properties of the corresponding asymptotically flat solutions, including the nonsingular core and thermodynamic stability in the final phase of the evaporation. As a second step we determine the action which generates the matter sector of gravitational field equations and we construct instantons describing the pair production of black holes and the other admissible topologies. As a result we find that for current values of the cosmological constant the de Sitter background is quantum mechanically stable according to experience. However, positive-mass noncommutative black holes and solitons would have plentifully been produced during inflationary times for Planckian values of the cosmological constant. As a special result we find that, in these early epochs of the Universe, Planck size black holes production would have been largely disfavored. We also find a potential instability for production of negative-mass solitons.
Black hole ringdown echoes and howls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakano, Hiroyuki; Sago, Norichika; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Takahiro
2017-07-01
Recently the possibility of detecting echoes of ringdown gravitational waves from binary black hole mergers was shown. The presence of echoes is expected if the black hole is surrounded by a mirror that reflects gravitational waves near the horizon. Here, we present slightly more sophisticated templates motivated by a waveform which is obtained by solving the linear perturbation equation around a Kerr black hole with a complete reflecting boundary condition in the stationary traveling wave approximation. We estimate that the proposed template can bring about a 10% improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio.
Interacting quantum fields around a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
1981-09-01
If one studies interacting fields on a black hole background using ordinary Feynman diagrams, one is faced with a problem of what to do with lines that cross the horizon. To avoid this difficulty a formulation is developed which can be expressed graphically in terms of a new class of diagram with external lines only at infinity. This formalism is applied to study the question of whether spontaneously broken symmetry would be restored near the black hole. It is also used to show that a black hole can emit more particles than antiparticles even in theories where the particle number is locally conserved by a global U(1) symmetry.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
2016-07-28
The blue dots in this field of galaxies, known as the COSMOS field, show galaxies that contain supermassive black holes emitting high-energy X-rays. The black holes were detected by NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Array, or NuSTAR, which spotted 32 such black holes in this field and has observed hundreds across the whole sky so far. The other colored dots are galaxies that host black holes emitting lower-energy X-rays, and were spotted by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Chandra data show X-rays with energies between 0.5 to 7 kiloelectron volts, while NuSTAR data show X-rays between 8 to 24 kiloelectron volts. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20865
2007-10-25
NASA Spitzer and Chandra space telescopes have uncovered a long-lost population of active supermassive black holes, or quasars located deep in the bellies of distant, massive galaxies circled in blue.
2013-11-26
The magenta spots in this image from NASA NuSTAR show two black holes in the spiral galaxy called NGC 1313, or the Topsy Turvy galaxy, located about 13 million light-years away in the Reticulum constellation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahaman, Farook; Bhar, Piyali; Sharma, Ranjan; Tiwari, Rishi Kumar
2015-03-01
We report a -D charged black hole solution in an anti-de Sitter space inspired by noncommutative geometry. In this construction, the black hole exhibits two horizons, which turn into a single horizon in the extreme case. We investigate the impacts of electromagnetic field on the location of the event horizon, mass and thermodynamic properties such as Hawking temperature, entropy, and heat capacity of the black hole. The geodesics of the charged black hole are also analyzed.
Particle creation rate for dynamical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.
2016-11-01
We present the particle creation probability rate around a general black hole as an outcome of quantum fluctuations. Using the uncertainty principle for these fluctuation, we derive a new ultraviolet frequency cutoff for the radiation spectrum of a dynamical black hole. Using this frequency cutoff, we define the probability creation rate function for such black holes. We consider a dynamical Vaidya model and calculate the probability creation rate for this case when its horizon is in a slowly evolving phase. Our results show that one can expect the usual Hawking radiation emission process in the case of a dynamical black hole when it has a slowly evolving horizon. Moreover, calculating the probability rate for a dynamical black hole gives a measure of when Hawking radiation can be killed off by an incoming flux of matter or radiation. Our result strictly suggests that we have to revise the Hawking radiation expectation for primordial black holes that have grown substantially since they were created in the early universe. We also infer that this frequency cut off can be a parameter that shows the primordial black hole growth at the emission moment.
Black hole geometrothermodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quevedo, Hernando
2017-03-01
We review the main aspects of geometrothermodynamics which is a geometric formalism to describe thermodynamic systems, taking into account the invariance of classical thermodynamics with respect to Legendre transformations. We focus on the particular case of black holes, and present a Riemannian metric which describes the corresponding space of equilibrium states. We show that this metric can be used to describe the stability properties and phase transition structure of black holes in different gravity theories.
Photon emission near extreme Kerr black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Shi, Yichen; Strominger, Andrew
2017-03-01
Ongoing astronomical efforts extract physical properties of black holes from electromagnetic emissions in their near-vicinity. This requires finding the null geodesics which extend from the near-horizon region out to a distant observatory. In general these are given by elliptic integrals which are often studied numerically. In this paper, for the interesting special case of extremally spinning Kerr black holes, we use an emergent near-horizon conformal symmetry to find near-superradiant geodesics analytically in terms of elementary functions.
Tidal forces in Kiselev black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shahzad, M. Umair; Jawad, Abdul
2017-06-01
The aim of this paper is to examine the tidal forces occurring in a Kiselev black hole surrounded by radiation and dust fluids. It is noted that the radial and angular components of the tidal force change the sign between event and Cauchy horizons. We solve the geodesic deviation equation for radially free-falling bodies toward Kiselev black holes. We explain the geodesic deviation vector graphically and point out the location of the event and Cauchy horizons for specific values of the radiation and dust parameters.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
The theory of optical black hole lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaona-Reyes, José L.; Bermudez, David
2017-05-01
The event horizon of black holes and white holes can be achieved in the context of analogue gravity. It was proven for a sonic case that if these two horizons are close to each other their dynamics resemble a laser, a black hole laser, where the analogue of Hawking radiation is trapped and amplified. Optical analogues are also very successful and a similar system can be achieved there. In this work we develop the theory of optical black hole lasers and prove that the amplification is also possible. Then, we study the optical system by determining the forward propagation of modes, obtaining an approximation for the phase difference which governs the amplification, and performing numerical simulations of the pulse propagation of our system.
Weighing the black hole via quasi-local energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ha, Yuan K.
2017-08-01
We set to weigh the black holes at their event horizons in various spacetimes and obtain masses which are substantially higher than their asymptotic values. In each case, the horizon mass of a Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordström, or Kerr black hole is found to be twice the irreducible mass observed at infinity. The irreducible mass does not contain electrostatic or rotational energy, leading to the inescapable conclusion that particles with electric charges and spins cannot exist inside a black hole. This is proposed as the External Energy Paradigm. A higher mass at the event horizon and its neighborhood is obligatory for the release of gravitational waves in binary black hole merging. We describe how these horizon mass values are obtained in the quasi-local energy approach and applied to the black holes of the first gravitational waves GW150914.
A Geometric Crescent Model for Black Hole Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamruddin, Ayman Bin; Dexter, J.
2013-01-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimeter wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environment of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), have been interpreted in terms of unmotivated geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations involving accretion onto a black hole. The latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by relativistic effects around black holes, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A*, superior to the Gaussian. It also closely matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for future observations for the accessibility of the black hole shadow, direct evidence for a black hole event horizon.
Stability of black holes in de Sitter space
Mellor, F.; Moss, I. )
1990-01-15
The theory of black-hole perturbations is extended to charged black holes in de Sitter space. These spacetimes have wormholes connecting different asymptotic regions. It appears that, at least in some cases, these holes are stable even at the Cauchy horizon. It follows that they violate cosmic censorship and an observer could in principle travel through the black hole to another universe. The stability of these spacetimes also implies the existence of a cosmological no hair'' theorem.
Statistical Entropy of Black Hole without Truncation Factor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Ji-Jian; Li, Yu-Shan; Liu, Jing-Lun; Li, Chuan-An
2017-07-01
The scatting probability of scalar particles near the event horizon is obtained by solving Klein-Gordon equation in curved space-time. By considering the reaction of a black hole radiation in space-time background, we find that Hawking radiation is not a strictly pure thermal-spectrum and scatting probability is related to the B-H entropy change of black hole. The statistical entropy of black hole is calculated based on the relations between entropy and thermodynamic probability of a macroscopic state in statistical equilibrium. The results show that the statistical entropy of black hole without using any truncation factor is proportional to the area of event horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Corda, Christian
2013-12-01
Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-05-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, John
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
1999-11-30
This three-dimensional illustration shows how the rotating space around a black hole twists up the magnetic field in the plasma falling toward the black hole. The black sphere at the center of the figure is the black hole itself. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA04207
Physical properties of a horizon of a white hole and a Kruskal wormhole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikov, I. D.; Novikov, D. I.
2016-11-01
The possible application of a Rindler type reference frame for studies of physical processes near the horizons of black and white holes is considered. New similar reference frames inside black and white holes in the region T of a Kruskal wormhole are introduced.
Black holes in full quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnov, Kirill; Rovelli, Carlo
2009-12-01
Quantum black holes have been studied extensively in quantum gravity and string theory, using various semiclassical or background-dependent approaches. We explore the possibility of studying black holes in the full non-perturbative quantum theory, without recurring to semiclassical considerations, and in the context of loop quantum gravity. We propose a definition of a quantum black hole as the collection of the quantum degrees of freedom that do not influence observables at infinity. From this definition, it follows that for an observer at infinity a black hole is described by an SU(2) intertwining operator. The dimension of the Hilbert space of such intertwiners grows exponentially with the horizon area. These considerations shed some light on the physical nature of the microstates contributing to the black hole entropy. In particular, it can be seen that the microstates being counted for the entropy have the interpretation of describing different horizon shapes. The space of black hole microstates described here is related to the one arrived at recently by Engle et al (2009, arXiv:0905.3168) and sometime ago by Smolin (1995, J. Math. Phys. 36 6417), but obtained here directly within the full quantum theory.
Spherically symmetric black-hole entropy without brick walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhao; Yue-Qin, Wu; Li-Chun, Zhang
2003-11-01
Properties of the thermal radiation of black holes are discussed using a new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of emission from a spherically symmetric black hole. When the new equation of state density is used to investigate the entropy of a bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static spherically symmetric black hole, the divergence that appears in the brick-wall model is removed without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution from the vicinity of the horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furmann, John M.
2003-03-01
Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics
Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav
2008-06-15
We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation T{sub h}=(K/2{pi}) connecting the black hole temperature (T{sub h}) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
Conductivity bound from dirty black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bitaghsir Fadafan, Kazem
2016-11-01
We propose a lower bound of the dc electrical conductivity in strongly disordered, strongly interacting quantum field theories using holography. We study linear response of black holes with broken translational symmetry in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theories of gravity. Using the generalized Stokes equations at the horizon, we derive the lower bound of the electrical conductivity for the dual two dimensional disordered field theory.
Hawking Temperature of Acoustic Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhi Kun
2014-09-01
Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, the Hawking radiation of the acoustic black hole was discussed by studying the Klein-Gordon equation of scalar particles in the curve space-time. It was found that the Hawking temperature is connected with time and position on the event horizon.
Scalar fields in black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thuestad, Izak; Khanna, Gaurav; Price, Richard H.
2017-07-01
The time evolution of matter fields in black hole exterior spacetimes is a well-studied subject, spanning several decades of research. However, the behavior of fields in the black hole interior spacetime has only relatively recently begun receiving some attention from the research community. In this paper, we numerically study the late-time evolution of scalar fields in both Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes, including the black hole interior. We recover the expected late-time power-law "tails" on the exterior (null infinity, timelike infinity, and the horizon). In the interior region, we find an interesting oscillatory behavior that is characterized by the multipole index ℓ of the scalar field. In addition, we also study the extremal Kerr case and find strong indications of an instability developing at the horizon.
Bird's eye view of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simien, Clayton
1998-03-01
Black hole theory can be quite complex, and from a mathematical point of view very abstract. However, from a bird's perspective its concepts and theories can be easily understood with the aid of a few fundamental ideas of physics. Black holes are just massive dead stars whose very existence originates from the ideas of the great mathematician and scientific pioneer, Pierre Laplace. These astrological wonders of the universe are currently governed by Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. It must be understood that the laws of the universe in accord with the black hole are only valid to its surface known as the horizon . After the horizon, the laws of physics are no longer valid. Consequently, science is replaced with imaginative ideas that are meaningfully probable through hypothetical assumptions.
A Particle Probing Thermodynamics in Rotating AdS Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2016-07-01
We briefly review the thermodynamics of a probe particle absorption to a black hole in this proceeding. The particle energy has a relation to its momenta at the horizon of the black hole. Following this relation, the particle infinitesimally changes the black hole mass and momenta. Under these changes, the changes of properties of the black hole are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirotani, Kouichi; Pu, Hung-Yi; Chun-Che Lin, Lupin; Chang, Hsiang-Kuang; Inoue, Makoto; Kong, Albert K. H.; Matsushita, Satoki; Tam, Pak-Hin T.
2016-12-01
We investigate the electrostatic acceleration of electrons and positrons in the vicinity of the event horizon, applying the pulsar outer-gap model to black hole (BH) magnetospheres. During a low accretion phase, the radiatively inefficient accretion flow (RIAF) cannot emit enough MeV photons that are needed to sustain the force-free magnetosphere via two-photon collisions. In such a charge-starved region (or a gap), an electric field arises along the magnetic field lines to accelerate electrons and positrons into ultra-relativistic energies. These relativistic leptons emit copious gamma rays via curvature and inverse-Compton (IC) processes. Some of such gamma rays collide with the submillimeter-IR photons emitted from the RIAF to materialize as pairs, which polarize to partially screen the original acceleration electric field. It is found that the gap gamma-ray luminosity increases with decreasing accretion rate. However, if the accretion rate decreases too much, the diminished RIAF soft photon field can no longer sustain a stationary pair production within the gap. As long as a stationary gap is formed, the magnetosphere becomes force-free outside the gap by the cascaded pairs, irrespective of the BH mass. If a nearby stellar-mass BH is in quiescence, or if a galactic intermediate-mass BH is in a very low accretion state, its curvature and IC emissions are found to be detectable with Fermi/LAT and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (IACT). If a low-luminosity active galactic nucleus is located within about 30 Mpc, the IC emission from its supermassive BH is marginally detectable with IACT.
Transmission Probability for Charged Dilatonic Black Holes in Various Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngampitipan, Tritos; Boonserm, Petarpa
A dilaton is a theoretical particle, which results from the Plank mass raised to a dynamical field. In this paper, the rigorous bounds on the transmission probabilities for charged black holes, coupled to a dilaton field in various dimensions, are calculated. The results show that in the absence of the cosmological constant, the black holes in (2 + 1) dimensions have only one event horizon. Moreover, the charges of the black holes can increase the transmission probabilities. However, for the black holes in (3 + 1) dimensions, the charges of the black holes can filter Hawking radiation.
Cosmic censorship of rotating Anti-de Sitter black hole
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr
2016-02-01
We test the validity of cosmic censorship in the rotating anti-de Sitter black hole. For this purpose, we investigate whether the extremal black hole can be overspun by the particle absorption. The particle absorption will change the mass and angular momentum of the black hole, which is analyzed using the Hamilton-Jacobi equations consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. We have found that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the angular momentum. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still exists, and cosmic censorship is valid.
Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.
Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol
2013-03-08
We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.
Better Late than Never: Information Retrieval from Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Braunstein, Samuel L.; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol
2013-03-01
We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2011-12-01
The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the blackhole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav
2013-11-01
It is considered the test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside the black hole (BH), which are stable, periodic and neither come out the BH nor terminate at the central singularity. Interiors of the supermassive BHs may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on the planets with the third kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of BHs by observing their white hole counterparts.
Inclination Angles of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries Manifest Strong Gravity around Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Yao, Yangsen
2002-01-01
System inclination angles have been determined for about 15 X-ray binaries, in which stellar mass black holes are considered to exist. These inclination angles range between 25 degrees and 80 degrees, but peaked between 60-70 degrees. This peak is not explained in the frame work of Newtonian gravity. However, this peak is reproduced naturally if we model the observed X-ray radiations as being produced in the accretion disks very close to the black hole horizons, where the extremely strong general and special relativistic effects, caused by the extremely strong gravity near the black hole horizons, modify the local radiation significantly as the X-rays propagate to the remote observer. Therefore the peak of the inclination angle distribution provides evidence or strong gravity around stellar mass black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennigar, Robie A.; Mann, Robert B.; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-01
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ -line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid 4He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
2017-09-28
When two black holes collide, they release massive amounts of energy in the form of gravitational waves that last a fraction of a second and can be "heard" throughout the universe - if you have the right instruments. Today we learned that the #LIGO project heard the telltale chirp of black holes colliding, fulfilling Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. NASA's LISA mission will look for direct evidence of gravitational waves. go.nasa.gov/23ZbqoE This video illustrates what that collision might look like.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-13
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin
2015-02-01
A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.
Energy conservation for dynamical black holes.
Hayward, Sean A
2004-12-17
An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. This first law of black-hole dynamics describes how a black hole grows and is regular in the limit where it ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures of both ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation on and near a black hole. Corresponding energy-tensor forms of the first law involve a preferred time vector which plays the role of a stationary Killing vector. Identifying an energy flux, vanishing if and only if the horizon is null, allows a division into energy supply and work terms. The energy supply can be expressed in terms of area increase and a newly defined surface gravity, yielding a Gibbs-like equation.
Mass of a black hole firewall.
Abramowicz, M A; Kluźniak, W; Lasota, J-P
2014-03-07
Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio M(Pl)/(8πM).
Spectral line broadening in magnetized black holes
Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.; Tzounis, Christos E-mail: ashoom@ualberta.ca
2014-07-01
We consider weakly magnetized non-rotating black holes. In the presence of a regular magnetic field the motion of charged particles in the vicinity of a black hole is modified. As a result, the position of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) becomes closer to the horizon. When the Lorentz force is repulsive (directed from the black hole) the ISCO radius can reach the gravitational radius. In the process of accretion charged particles (ions) of the accreting matter can be accumulated near their ISCO, while neutral particles fall down to the black hole after they reach 6M radius. The sharp spectral line Fe α, emitted by iron ions at such orbits, is broadened when the emission is registered by a distant observer. In this paper we study this broadening effect and discuss how one can extract information concerning the strength of the magnetic field from the observed spectrum.
CFT duals for accelerating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco
2016-09-01
The near horizon geometry of the rotating C-metric, describing accelerating Kerr-Newman black holes, is analysed. It is shown that, at extremality, even though it is not isomorphic to the extremal Kerr-Newman, it remains a warped and twisted product of AdS2 ×S2. Therefore the methods of the Kerr/CFT correspondence can successfully be applied to build a CFT dual model, whose entropy reproduces, through the Cardy formula, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the accelerating black hole. The mass of accelerating Kerr-Newman black hole, which fulfils the first law of thermodynamics, is presented. Further generalisation in presence of an external Melvin-like magnetic field, used to regularise the conical singularity characteristic of the C-metrics, shows that the Kerr/CFT correspondence can be applied also for the accelerating and magnetised extremal black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluźniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.
2014-03-01
Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio MPl/(8πM).
Flaring Black Hole Artist Concept
2011-09-20
This artist concept illustrates what the flaring black hole called GX 339-4 might look like. Infrared observations from NASA WISE reveal the best information yet on the chaotic and extreme environments of this black hole jets.
Different Flavors of Black Holes
2014-01-09
A range of supermassive black holes lights up this new image from NASA NuSTAR. All of the dots are active black holes tucked inside the hearts of galaxies, with colors representing different energies of X-ray light.
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
Black hole hair removal: non-linear analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jatkar, Dileep P.; Sen, Ashoke; Srivastava, Yogesh K.
2010-02-01
BMPV black holes in flat transverse space and in Taub-NUT space have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic degeneracies. It has been proposed that this difference can be accounted for by different contribution to the degeneracies of these black holes from hair modes, — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon. In this paper we explicitly construct the hair modes of these two black holes as finite bosonic and fermionic deformations of the black hole solution satisfying the full non-linear equations of motion of supergravity and preserving the supersymmetry of the original solutions. Special care is taken to ensure that these solutions do not have any curvature singularity at the future horizon when viewed as the full ten dimensional geometry. We show that after removing the contribution due to the hair degrees of freedom from the microscopic partition function, the partition functions of the two black holes agree.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bossard, Guillaume
2012-05-01
Using algebraic tools inspired by the study of nilpotent orbits in simple Lie algebras, we obtain a large class of solutions describing interacting non-BPS black holes in {N} = 8 supergravity, which depend on 44 harmonic functions. For this purpose, we consider a truncation {E_{{{6}({6})}}}/S{p_{{c}}}( {8,{R}} ) subset {E_{{{8}({8})}}}/{{Spin}}_{{c}}^{ * }( {16} ) of the non-linear sigma model describing stationary solutions of the theory, which permits a reduction of algebraic computations to the multiplication of 27 by 27 matrices. The lift to {N} = 8 supergravity is then carried out without loss of information by using a pertinent representation of the moduli parametrizing E7(7)/SUc (8) in terms of complex valued Hermitian matrices over the split octonions, which generalise the projective coordinates of exceptional special K¨ahler manifolds. We extract the electromagnetic charges, mass and angular momenta of the solutions, and exhibit the duality invariance of the black holes distance separations. We discuss in particular a new type of interaction which appears when interacting non-BPS black holes are not aligned. Finally we will explain the possible generalisations toward the description of the most general stationary black hole solutions of {N} = 8 supergravity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-06-20
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
2015-07-09
This cartoon shows how magnetic waves, called Alfvén S-waves, propagate outward from the base of black hole jets. The jet is a flow of charged particles, called a plasma, which is launched by a black hole. The jet has a helical magnetic field (yellow coil) permeating the plasma. The waves then travel along the jet, in the direction of the plasma flow, but at a velocity determined by both the jet's magnetic properties and the plasma flow speed. The BL Lac jet examined in a new study is several light-years long, and the wave speed is about 98 percent the speed of light. Fast-moving magnetic waves emanating from a distant supermassive black hole undulate like a whip whose handle is being shaken by a giant hand, according to a study using data from the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's Very Long Baseline Array. Scientists used this instrument to explore the galaxy/black hole system known as BL Lacertae (BL Lac) in high resolution. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19822
Towards noncommutative quantum black holes
Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Sabido, M.; Ramirez, C.
2006-10-15
In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.
Black holes will break up solitons and white holes may destroy them
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akbar, Fiki T.; Gunara, Bobby E.; Susanto, Hadi
2017-06-01
We consider a quantum analogue of black holes and white holes using Bose-Einstein condensates. The model is described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with a 'stream flow' potential, that induces a spatial translation to standing waves. We then mainly consider the dynamics of dark solitons in a black hole or white hole flow analogue and their interactions with the event horizon. A reduced equation describing the position of the dark solitons was obtained using variational method. Through numerical computations and comparisons with the analytical approximation we show that solitons can pass through black hole horizons even though they will break up into several solitons after the collision. In the interaction with a white hole horizon, we show that solitons either pass through the horizon or will be destroyed by it.
Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
Chandra Sees Remarkable Eclipse of Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-04-01
A remarkable eclipse of a supermassive black hole and the hot gas disk around it has been observed with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This eclipse has allowed two key predictions about the effects of supermassive black holes to be tested. Just as eclipses of the Sun and moon give astronomers rare opportunities to learn about those objects, an alignment in a nearby galaxy has provided a rare opportunity to investigate a supermassive black hole. Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse Illustrations of Black Hole Eclipse The supermassive black hole is located in NGC 1365, a galaxy 60 million light years from Earth. It contains a so called active galactic nucleus, or AGN. Scientists believe that the black hole at the center of the AGN is fed by a steady stream of material, presumably in the form of a disk. Material just about to fall into a black hole should be heated to millions of degrees before passing over the event horizon, or point of no return. The disk of gas around the central black hole in NGC 1365 produces copious X-rays but is much too small to resolve directly with a telescope. However, the disk was eclipsed by an intervening cloud, so observation of the time taken for the disk to go in and out of eclipse allowed scientists to estimate the size of the disk. Black Hole Animation Black Hole Animation "For years we've been struggling to confirm the size of this X-ray structure," said Guido Risaliti of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass, and the Italian Institute of Astronomy (INAF). "This serendipitous eclipse enabled us to make this breakthrough." The Chandra team directly measured the size of the X-ray source as about seven times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. That means the source of X-rays is about 2 billion times smaller than the host galaxy and only about 10 times larger than the estimated size of the black hole's event horizon, consistent with theoretical predictions. Chandra X-ray Image of NGC 1365
Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvali, Gia; Gußmann, Alexander
2016-12-01
We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.
Weighing supermassive black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafiee, Alireza
We calculate the black hole masses for a sample of 27728 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3 (DR3). To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio, we reconstruct quasar spectra for this large sample of quasars using the eigenspectra method (Yip et al., 2004). This method reduces the uncertainty of the measurements for even noisy original spectra, making almost all the SDSS quasar spectra usable for our study. A few applications for black hole mass estimates are presented here. Wang et al. (2006) estimated an average radiative efficiency of 30%-35% for quasars at moderate redshift, which implies that most supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Using our black hole mass estimates, we have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes and thus that quasars do not necessarily have such high efficiencies. As a second application, we have investigated a claim by Steinhardt and Elvis (2009) that there exists a sub-Eddington boundary in the quasar mass-luminosity plane using the Shen et al. (2008) mass estimates. We re-calibrate the mass-scaling relations following Wang et al. (2009) with the most up-to-date reverberation estimates of black hole masses. We compare results from the original data sets with the new re-calibrated estimates of the mass-luminosity plane. We conclude that the presence of the sub-Eddington boundary in the original data of Shen et al. (2008) is likely due to biases in the mass-scaling relation and not to any physical process.
South Pole Telescope joins black-hole project
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, Michael
2015-06-01
Astronomers are one step closer to observing the event horizon of a black hole after Antarctica's largest telescope joined a worldwide collection of millimetre/submillimetre facilities pursuing this goal.
Generic features of Einstein-Aether black holes
Tamaki, Takashi; Miyamoto, Umpei
2008-01-15
We reconsider spherically symmetric black hole solutions in Einstein-Aether theory with the condition that this theory has identical parametrized post-Newtonian parameters as those for general relativity, which is the main difference from the previous research. In contrast with previous study, we allow superluminal propagation of a spin-0 Aether-gravity wave mode. As a result, we obtain black holes having a spin-0 'horizon' inside an event horizon. We allow a singularity at a spin-0 horizon since it is concealed by the event horizon. If we allow such a configuration, the kinetic term of the Aether field can be large enough for black holes to be significantly different from Schwarzschild black holes with respect to Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass, innermost stable circular orbit, Hawking temperature, and so on. We also discuss whether or not the above features can be seen in more generic vector-tensor theories.
Tensile strength and the mining of black holes.
Brown, Adam R
2013-11-22
There are a number of important thought experiments that involve raising and lowering boxes full of radiation in the vicinity of black hole horizons. This Letter looks at the limitations placed on these thought experiments by the null energy condition, which imposes a fundamental bound on the tensile-strength-to-weight ratio of the materials involved, makes it impossible to build a box near the horizon that is wider than a single wavelength of the Hawking quanta, and puts a severe constraint on the operation of "space elevators" near black holes. In particular, it is shown that proposals for mining black holes by lowering boxes near the horizon, collecting some Hawking radiation, and dragging it out to infinity cannot proceed nearly as rapidly as has previously been claimed. As a consequence of this limitation, the boxes and all the moving parts are superfluous and black holes can be destroyed equally rapidly by threading the horizon with strings.
Models of Dilute Relativistic Plasmas Around Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quataert, Eliot
2016-10-01
In some regimes, mass flowing onto a central black hole can become sufficiently hot and low density that the collisional mean free path is appreciable compared to the size of the system. I describe new analytical and numerical models of these relativistically hot low collisionality plasmas around black holes. I also describe the application of these models to interpreting observations of the accreting black holes being observed by the Event Horizon Telescope.
Gauge-gravity duality and the black hole interior.
Marolf, Donald; Polchinski, Joseph
2013-10-25
We present a further argument that typical black holes with field theory duals have firewalls at the horizon. This argument makes no reference to entanglement between the black hole and any distant system, and so is not evaded by identifying degrees of freedom inside the black hole with those outside. We also address the Einstein-Rosen=Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen conjecture of Maldacena and Susskind, arguing that the correlations in generic highly entangled states cannot be geometrized as a smooth wormhole.
Black hole and hawking radiation by type-II Weyl fermions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volovik, G. E.
2016-11-01
The type-II Weyl and type-II Dirac fermions may emerge behind the event horizon of black holes. Correspondingly, the black hole can be simulated by creation of the region with overtilted Weyl or Dirac cones. The filling of the electronic states inside the "black hole" is accompanied by Hawking radiation. The Hawking temperature in the Weyl semimetals can reach the room temperature, if the black hole region is sufficiently small, and thus the effective gravity at the horizon is large.
Entropy of Kerr-de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Huai-Fan; Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren
2017-07-01
Based on the consideration that the black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon of Kerr-de Sitter black hole are not independent of each other, we conjecture the total entropy of the system should have an extra term contributed from the correlations between the two horizons, except for the sum of the two horizon entropies. By employing globally effective first law and effective thermodynamic quantities, we obtain the corrected total entropy and find that the region of stable state for Kerr-de Sitter is related to the angular velocity parameter a, i.e., the region of stable state becomes bigger as the rotating parameters a is increases.
Horizon detection and higher dimensional black rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coley, A. A.; McNutt, D. D.
2017-02-01
In this paper we study the stationary horizons of the rotating black ring and the supersymmetric black ring spacetimes in five dimensions. In the case of the rotating black ring we use Weyl aligned null directions to algebraically classify the Weyl tensor, and utilize an adapted Cartan algorithm in order to produce Cartan invariants. For the supersymmetric black ring we employ the discriminant approach and repeat the adapted Cartan algorithm. For both of these metrics we are able to construct Cartan invariants that detect the horizon alone, and which are easier to compute and analyse than scalar polynomial curvature invariants.
Caravan-submm, A Fisrt Black Hole Imager at Andes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miyoshi, M.; Kasuga, T.; Ishitsuka Iba, J. K.; Oka, T.; Sekido, M.; Takefuji, K.; Takahashi, M.; Saida, H.; Takahashi, R.
2017-07-01
We introduce our Peruvian-Japanese black hole imaging project, Caravan-submm at Andes. By constructing a sub-millimeter wavelength (submm) VLBI network at Andes we aim to get images of black hole horizon and the surroundings of Sgr A*. The array contains at least two fixed VLBI stations and one mobile VLBI station.
Construction of Penrose Diagrams for Dynamic Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brown, Beth A.; Lindesay, James
2008-01-01
A set of Penrose diagrams is constructed in order to examine the large-scale causal structure of black holes with dynamic horizons. Coordinate dependencies of significant features, such as the event horizon and radial mass scale, are demonstrated on the diagrams. Unlike in static Schwarzschild geometries, the radial mass scale is clearly seen to differ from the horizon. Trajectories for photons near the horizon are briefly discussed.
Quantum radiation from a sandwich black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.; Zelnikov, Andrei
2017-02-01
We discuss quantum radiation of a massless scalar field from a spherically symmetric nonsingular black hole with a finite lifetime. Namely, we discuss a sandwich black-hole model, where a black hole is originally created by a collapse of a null shell of mass M , and later, after some time Δ V , it is disrupted by the collapse of the other shell with negative mass -M . We assume that between the shells the metric is static and either coincides with the Hayward metric or with a special generalization of it. We show that in both cases for a sufficiently large parameter Δ V the radiation after the formation of the black hole practically coincides with the Hawking result. We also calculate the radiation, emitted from the black hole interior. This radiation contains a peak at the moment when the second shell intersects the inner horizon. In the standard sandwich metric (with the Hayward interior) this outburst of energy is exponentially large. In the modified metric, which includes an additional nontrivial redshift parameter, this exponent is suppressed. This is a result of a significant decrease of the surface gravity of the inner horizon in the latter case. We discuss possible consequences of this result in the context of the self-consistency requirement for nonsingular models with quantum radiation.
Supersymmetric black holes with lens-space topology.
Kunduri, Hari K; Lucietti, James
2014-11-21
We present a new supersymmetric, asymptotically flat, black hole solution to five-dimensional supergravity. It is regular on and outside an event horizon of lens-space topology L(2,1). It is the first example of an asymptotically flat black hole with lens-space topology. The solution is characterized by a charge, two angular momenta, and a magnetic flux through a noncontractible disk region ending on the horizon, with one constraint relating these.
Linear Waves in the Interior of Extremal Black Holes I
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gajic, Dejan
2017-07-01
We consider solutions to the linear wave equation in the interior region of extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes. We show that, under suitable assumptions on the initial data, the solutions can be extended continuously beyond the Cauchy horizon and, moreover, that their local energy is finite. This result is in contrast with previously established results for subextremal Reissner-Nordström black holes, where the local energy was shown to generically blow up at the Cauchy horizon.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; El-Showk, Sheer; Vercnocke, Bert
These lectures notes provide a fast-track introduction to modern developments in black hole physics within string theory, including microscopic computations of the black hole entropy as well as construction and quantization of microstates using supergravity. These notes are largely self-contained and should be accessible to students at an early PhD or Masters level. Topics covered include the black holes in supergravity, D-branes, Strominger-Vafa's computation of the black hole entropy via D-branes, AdS-CFT and its applications to black hole phyisics, multicenter solutions, and the geometric quantization of the latter.
Improved black hole fireworks: Asymmetric black-hole-to-white-hole tunneling scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lorenzo, Tommaso; Perez, Alejandro
2016-06-01
A new scenario for gravitational collapse has been recently proposed by Haggard and Rovelli. Presenting the model under the name of black hole fireworks, they claim that the accumulation of quantum gravitational effects outside the horizon can cause the tunneling of geometry from a black hole to a white hole, allowing a bounce of the collapsing star which can eventually go back to infinity. In this paper, we discuss the instabilities of this model and propose a simple minimal modification which eliminates them, as well as other related instabilities discussed in the literature. The new scenario is a time-asymmetric version of the original model with a time scale for the final explosion that is shorter than m log m in Planck units. Our analysis highlights the importance of irreversibility in gravitational collapse which, in turn, uncovers important issues that cannot be addressed in detail without a full quantum gravity treatment.
Prisons of light : black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Stability of nonlinear magnetic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bretón, Nora
2005-08-01
We study the stability of static spherically symmetric exact solutions of Einstein equations coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics, in the magnetic sector. These solutions satisfy the heuristic model proposed by Ashtekar, Corichi, and Sudarsky for hairy black holes, meaning that the horizon mass is related to their Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass and to the corresponding particlelike solution. We test the unstability conjecture that emerges for hairy black holes and it turned out that it becomes confirmed except for the Einstein-Born-Infeld solutions.
Stability of nonlinear magnetic black holes
Breton, Nora
2005-08-15
We study the stability of static spherically symmetric exact solutions of Einstein equations coupled with nonlinear electrodynamics, in the magnetic sector. These solutions satisfy the heuristic model proposed by Ashtekar, Corichi, and Sudarsky for hairy black holes, meaning that the horizon mass is related to their Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) mass and to the corresponding particlelike solution. We test the unstability conjecture that emerges for hairy black holes and it turned out that it becomes confirmed except for the Einstein-Born-Infeld solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polchinski, Joseph
2015-04-01
Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.
Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro
2015-06-01
The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this `black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/ D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for `black droplets', i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.
Anisotropic Expansion of the Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2009-01-01
Recently, Zhang proposed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state of temperature and density with hundred billion-trillion solar masses due to continuously inhaling matter from its outside. The structure of the entire space is similarly hierarchical or layered and the evolution is iterative. In each of iteration a universe passes through birth, growth, and death. The entire life of a universe roughly divides into three periods with different rates of expansion: slowly growing child universe, fast expanding adult universe, and gradually dying aged universe. When one universe expands to die out, a new universe grows up from its inside. On the AAS 211th meeting, the black hole universe model was shown to be consistent with Mach's principle, observations, and Einstein's general relativity. This new cosmological model can explain the cosmic microwave background radiation, quasars, and element abundances with the well-developed physics. Dark energy is not required for the universe to accelerate. Inflation is not necessary because the black hole universe does not have the horizon problem. In this presentation, the author will explain why the expansion of the universe is anisotropic as shown by the observed anisotropy of the Hubble constant. He will also compare the significant differences between the black hole universe and the big bang cosmology.
Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Teo, Mae
2017-03-01
We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities; in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality—an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at extending the AdS/CFT dictionary in this setting, discuss the connections with horizon thermodynamics, applications to Lifshitz spacetimes, and outline possible future directions in this field.
Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.
Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris
2013-01-01
This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
When asked to discuss Cyg XR-1, E. E. Salpeter once concluded, 'A black hole in Cyg X(R)-1 is the most conservative hypothesis.' Recent observations now make it likely that a black hole in Cyg XR-1 is the only hypothesis tenable. Chandrasekhar first showed that compact stars - those with the inward force of gravity on their outer layers balanced by the pressure generated by the Pauli exclusion principle acting on its electrons (in white dwarfs) or nucleons (in neutron stars) - have a maximum mass. Equilibrium is achieved at a minimum of the total energy of the star, which is the sum of the positive Fermi energy and the negative gravitational energy. The maximum mass attainable in equilibrium is found by setting E = 0: M(max) = 1.5 M(Sun). If the mass of the star is larger than this, then E can be decreased without bound by decreasing the star's radius and increasing its (negative) gravitational energy. No equilibrium value of the radius exist, and general relativity predicts that gravitational collapse to a point occurs. This point singularity is a black hole.
Rotating black holes on codimension 2 branes
Kiley, Derrick
2007-12-15
It has recently been demonstrated that certain types of nontensional stress-energy can live on tensional codimension-2 branes, including gravitational shockwaves and small Schwarzschild black holes. In this paper we generalize the earlier Schwarzschild results, and construct the exact gravitational fields of small rotating black holes on a codimension-2 brane. We focus on the phenomenologically interesting case of a three-brane embedded in a spacetime with two compactified extra dimensions. For a nonzero tension on the brane, we verify that these solutions also show the ''lightning rod'' effect found in the Schwarzschild solutions, the net effect of which is to rescale the fundamental Planck mass. This allows for larger black hole parameters, such as the event horizon, angular momentum, and lifetime than would be naively expected for a tensionless brane. It is also found that a black hole with angular momentum pointing purely along the brane directions has a smaller horizon angular velocity than the corresponding tensionless case, while a hole with bulk components of angular momentum has a larger angular velocity.
Lux in obscuro: photon orbits of extremal black holes revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scen Khoo, Fech; Ong, Yen Chin
2016-12-01
It has been shown in the literature that the event horizon of an asymptotically flat extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole is also a stable photon sphere. We further clarify this statement and give a general proof that this holds for a large class of static spherically symmetric black hole spacetimes with an extremal horizon. In contrast, in the Doran frame, an asymptotically flat extremal Kerr black hole has an unstable photon orbit on the equatorial plane of its horizon. In addition, we show that an asymptotically flat extremal Kerr-Newman black hole exhibits two equatorial photon orbits if a\\lt M/2, one of which is on the extremal horizon in the Doran frame and is stable, whereas the second one outside the horizon is unstable. For a\\gt M/2, there is only one equatorial photon orbit, located on the extremal horizon, and it is unstable. There can be no photon orbit on the horizon of a non-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole.
Hawking radiation from magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rizwan, Muhammad; Saifullah, K.
2016-12-01
Hawking radiation of charged scalar and Dirac particles from the event horizon of magnetized Kerr-Newman black holes is studied using the Hamilton-Jacobi method and WKB approximation. This is done by calculating tunneling probabilities of these particles from the horizons of magnetized black holes. This method yields the Hawking temperature of magnetized Kerr-Newman black holes as well. It is interesting to note that while the tunneling probabilities depend upon the background magnetic field, the Hawking temperature is not affected by magnetization.
Hawking Radiation by Kerr Black Holes and Conformal Symmetry
Agullo, Ivan; Parker, Leonard; Navarro-Salas, Jose; Olmo, Gonzalo J.
2010-11-19
The exponential blueshift associated with the event horizon of a black hole makes conformal symmetry play a fundamental role in accounting for its thermal properties. Using a derivation based on two-point functions, we show that the full spectrum of thermal radiation of scalar particles by Kerr black holes can be explicitly derived on the basis of a conformal symmetry arising in the wave equation near the horizon. The simplicity of our approach emphasizes the depth of the connection between conformal symmetry and black hole radiance.
Hawking radiation from rotating black holes and gravitational anomalies
Murata, Keiju; Soda, Jiro
2006-08-15
We study the Hawking radiation from Rotating black holes from the gravitational anomalies point of view. First, we show that the scalar field theory near the Kerr black hole horizon can be reduced to the 2-dimensional effective theory. Then, following Robinson and Wilczek, we derive the Hawking flux by requiring the cancellation of gravitational anomalies. We also apply this method to Hawking radiation from higher dimensional Myers-Perry black holes. In the appendix, we present the trace anomaly derivation of Hawking radiation to argue the validity of the boundary condition at the horizon.
Internal structure of charged AdS black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh
2016-06-01
When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.
Non-abelian black holes and black strings in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartmann, Betti
2009-05-01
We review the properties of static, higher dimensional black hole solutions in theories where non-abelian gauge fields are minimally coupled to gravity. It is shown that black holes with hyperspherically symmetric horizon topology do not exist in d>4, but that hyperspherically symmetric black holes can be constructed numerically in generalized Einstein-Yang-Mills models. 5-dimensional black strings with horizon topology S2xS1 are also discussed. These are so-called undeformed and deformed non-abelian black strings, which are translationally invariant and correspond to 4-dimensional non-abelian black holes trivially extended into one extra dimensions. The fact that black strings can be deformed, i.e. axially symmetric for constant values of the extra coordinate is a new feature as compared to black string solutions of Einstein (-Maxwell) theory. It is argued that these non-abelian black strings are thermodynamically unstable.
Soft Heisenberg hair on black holes in three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Afshar, Hamid; Detournay, Stephane; Grumiller, Daniel; Merbis, Wout; Perez, Alfredo; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
2016-05-01
Three-dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant admits stationary black holes that are not necessarily spherically symmetric. We propose boundary conditions for the near-horizon region of these black holes that lead to a surprisingly simple near-horizon symmetry algebra consisting of two affine u ^(1 ) current algebras. The symmetry algebra is essentially equivalent to the Heisenberg algebra. The associated charges give a specific example of "soft hair" on the horizon, as defined by Hawking, Perry and Strominger. We show that soft hair does not contribute to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes and "black flower" generalizations. From the near-horizon perspective the conformal generators at asymptotic infinity appear as composite operators, which we interpret in the spirit of black hole complementarity. Another remarkable feature of our boundary conditions is that they are singled out by requiring that the whole spectrum is compatible with regularity at the horizon, regardless of the value of the global charges like mass or angular momentum. Finally, we address black hole microstates and generalizations to cosmological horizons.
Phenomenological loop quantum geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole
Chiou, D.-W.
2008-09-15
The interior of a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the discreteness corrections of loop quantum geometry implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In one scheme, the classical black hole singularity is resolved by the quantum bounce, which bridges the black hole interior with a white hole interior. In the other scheme, the classical singularity is resolved and the event horizon is also diffused by the quantum bounce. Jumping over the quantum bounce, the black hole gives birth to a baby black hole with a much smaller mass. This lineage continues as each classical black hole brings forth its own descendant in the consecutive classical cycle, giving the whole extended spacetime fractal structure, until the solution eventually descends into the deep Planck regime, signaling a breakdown of the semiclassical description. The issues of scaling symmetry and no-hair theorem are also discussed.
Phenomenological loop quantum geometry of the Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chiou, Dah-Wei
2008-09-01
The interior of a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated at the level of phenomenological dynamics with the discreteness corrections of loop quantum geometry implemented in two different improved quantization schemes. In one scheme, the classical black hole singularity is resolved by the quantum bounce, which bridges the black hole interior with a white hole interior. In the other scheme, the classical singularity is resolved and the event horizon is also diffused by the quantum bounce. Jumping over the quantum bounce, the black hole gives birth to a baby black hole with a much smaller mass. This lineage continues as each classical black hole brings forth its own descendant in the consecutive classical cycle, giving the whole extended spacetime fractal structure, until the solution eventually descends into the deep Planck regime, signaling a breakdown of the semiclassical description. The issues of scaling symmetry and no-hair theorem are also discussed.
Rotating Hayward's regular black hole as particle accelerator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-07-01
Recently, Bañados, Silk and West (BSW) demonstrated that the extremal Kerr black hole can act as a particle accelerator with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy ( E CM) when the collision takes place near the horizon. The rotating Hayward's regular black hole, apart from Mass ( M) and angular momentum ( a), has a new parameter g ( g > 0 is a constant) that provides a deviation from the Kerr black hole. We demonstrate that for each g, with M = 1, there exist critical a E and r {/H E }, which corresponds to a regular extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, and a E decreases whereas r {/H E } increases with increase in g. While a < a E describe a regular non-extremal black hole with outer and inner horizons. We apply the BSW process to the rotating Hayward's regular black hole, for different g, and demonstrate numerically that the E CM diverges in the vicinity of the horizon for the extremal cases thereby suggesting that a rotating regular black hole can also act as a particle accelerator and thus in turn provide a suitable framework for Plank-scale physics. For a non-extremal case, there always exist a finite upper bound for the E CM, which increases with the deviation parameter g.
Excluding black hole firewalls with extreme cosmic censorship
Page, Don N.
2014-06-01
The AMPS argument for black hole firewalls seems to arise not only from the assumption of local effective field theory outside the stretched horizon but also from an overcounting of internal black hole states that include states that are singular in the past. Here I propose to exclude such singular states by Extreme Cosmic Censorship (the conjectured principle that the universe is entirely nonsingular, except for transient singularities inside black and/or white holes). I argue that the remaining set of nonsingular realistic states do not have firewalls but yet preserve information in Hawking radiation from black holes that form from nonsingular initial states.
Gravitational lensing by black holes: The case of Sgr A*
Bozza, V.
2014-01-14
The strong gravitational fields created by black holes dramatically affect the propagation of photons by bending their trajectories. Gravitational lensing thus stands as the main source of information on the space-time structure in such extreme regimes. We will review the theory and phenomenology of gravitational lensing by black holes, with the generation of higher order images and giant caustics by rotating black holes. We will then focus on Sgr A*, the black hole at the center of the Milky Way, for which next-to-come technology will be able to reach resolutions of the order of the Schwarzschild radius and ultimately test the existence of an event horizon.
Black hole information, unitarity, and nonlocality
Giddings, Steven B.
2006-11-15
The black hole information paradox apparently indicates the need for a fundamentally new ingredient in physics. The leading contender is nonlocality. Possible mechanisms for the nonlocality needed to restore unitarity to black hole evolution are investigated. Suggestions that such dynamics arise from ultra-Planckian modes in Hawking's derivation are investigated and found not to be relevant, in a picture using smooth slices spanning the exterior and interior of the horizon. However, no simultaneous description of modes that have fallen into the black hole and outgoing Hawking modes can be given without appearance of a large kinematic invariant, or other dependence on ultra-Planckian physics. This indicates that a reliable argument for information loss has not been constructed, and that strong gravitational dynamics is important. Such dynamics has been argued to be fundamentally nonlocal in extreme situations, such as those required to investigate the fate of information.
Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han
2014-01-01
Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept.
Hawking radiation from dilatonic black holes via anomalies
Jiang Qingquan; Cai Xu; Wu Shuangqing
2007-03-15
Recently, Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild-type black hole via a gravitational anomaly at the horizon has been derived by Robinson and Wilczek. Their result shows that, in order to demand general coordinate covariance at the quantum level to hold in the effective theory, the flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel the gravitational anomaly at the horizon of the black hole is exactly equal to that of (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. In this paper, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation from the event horizons of static, spherically symmetric dilatonic black holes with arbitrary coupling constant {alpha}, and that from the rotating Kaluza-Klein ({alpha}={radical}(3)) as well as the Kerr-Sen ({alpha}=1) black holes via an anomalous point of view. Our results support Robinson and Wilczek's opinion. In addition, the properties of the obtained physical quantities near the extreme limit are qualitatively discussed.
“Twisted” black holes are unphysical
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, Finnian; Santiago, Jessica; Schuster, Sebastian; Visser, Matt
2017-06-01
So-called “twisted” black holes were recently proposed by [H. Zhang, arXiv:1609.09721], and were further considered by [S. Chen and J. Jing, arXiv:1610.00886]. More recently, they were severely criticized by [Y. C. Ong, J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys. 1701, 001 (2017)]. While these spacetimes are certainly Ricci-flat, and so mathematically satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations, they are also merely minor variants on Taub-NUT spacetimes. Consequently, they exhibit several unphysical features that make them quite unreasonable as realistic astrophysical objects. Specifically, these “twisted” black holes are not (globally) asymptotically flat. Furthermore, they contain closed time-like curves that are not hidden behind any event horizon — the most obvious of these closed time-like curves are small azimuthal circles around the rotation axis, but the effect is more general. The entire region outside the horizon is infested with closed time-like curves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, T.
star. Within this wide range of possible initial masses the death of these star will lead very different remnants (Heger and Woosley 2001). In the case of stars with masses larger than 260 solar mass no metals may be released in black holes are the natural outcome. This may be an interesting possibility to form intermediate mass black holes which are attractive seeds to be nurtured to the super-massive black holes observed in the centers of nearby galaxies. However, no metals would be released and it would prove difficult to understand the transition to the formation of low mass metal enriched population II stars. Stars with masses below 140 solar masses would enrich the intergalactic medium as well as form massive black holes. The coincidence of the Kelvin Helmholtz time with our computed accretion times at about 120 solar masses may argue in favor of such smaller masses. These first black holes may well leave the halos in which they formed for even rather modest kick velocities >~ 10 km/s. Nevertheless, up to about one hundred thousand of these first black holes may remain in the Milky Way. The realization that structure formation began within one hundred million years after big bang makes it difficult to study observationally these first crucial steps. Future observatories have hence to focus on larger collecting areas and wavelengths for which the universe is transparent up to redshifts of 30. XEUS offers the chance to open a new window to these so far dark ages. The limiting masses quoted here rely on stellar models of primordial stars that do not include rotation, magnetic fields or mass loss and hence are somewhat uncertain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham
2014-09-01
Black holes are the ultimate prisons of the Universe, regions of spacetime where the enormous gravity prohibits matter or even light to escape to infinity. Yet, matter falling toward the black holes may shine spectacularly, generating the strongest source of radiation. These sources provide us with astrophysical laboratories of extreme physical conditions that cannot be realized on Earth. This chapter offers a review of the basic menus for feeding matter onto black holes and discusses their observational implications.
Holographic entropy packing inside a black hole.
Davidson, Aharon; Gurwich, Ilya
2011-04-15
If general relativity is spontaneously induced, the black hole limit is governed by a phase transition which occurs precisely at the would-have-been horizon. The exterior Schwarzschild solution then connects with a novel core of vanishing spatial volume. The Kruskal structure, admitting the exact Hawking imaginary time periodicity, is recovered, with the conic defect defused at the origin, rather than at the horizon. The entropy stored inside any interior sphere is universal, equal to a quarter of its surface area, thus locally saturating the 't Hooft-Susskind holographic bound. The associated Komar mass and material energy functions are nonsingular.
Thermodynamics of novel charged dilatonic BTZ black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dehghani, M.
2017-10-01
In this paper, the three-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell theory in the presence of a dilatonic scalar field has been studied. It has been shown that the dilatonic potential must be considered as the linear combination of two Liouville-type potentials. Two new classes of charged dilatonic BTZ black holes, as the exact solutions to the coupled scalar, vector and tensor field equations, have been obtained and their properties have been studied. The conserved charge and mass of the new black holes have been calculated, making use of the Gauss's law and Abbott-Deser proposal, respectively. Through comparison of the thermodynamical extensive quantities (i.e. temperature and entropy) obtained from both, the geometrical and the thermodynamical methods, the validity of the first law of black hole thermodynamics has been confirmed for both of the new black holes we just obtained. A black hole thermal stability or phase transition analysis has been performed, making use of the canonical ensemble method. Regarding the black hole heat capacity, it has been found that for either of the new black hole solutions there are some specific ranges in such a way that the black holes with the horizon radius in these ranges are locally stable. The points of type one and type two phase transitions have been determined. The black holes, with the horizon radius equal to the transition points are unstable. They undergo type one or type two phase transitions to be stabilized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Daiqin; Ho, C. T. Marco; Mann, Robert B.; Ralph, Timothy C.
2017-09-01
We show that the gravitational quasinormal modes (QNMs) of a Schwarzschild black hole play the role of a multimode squeezer that can generate particles. For a minimally coupled scalar field, the QNMs "squeeze" the initial state of the scalar field (even for the vacuum) and produce scalar particles. The maximal squeezing amplitude is inversely proportional to the cube of the imaginary part of the QNM frequency, implying that the particle generation efficiency is higher for lower decaying QNMs. Our results show that the gravitational perturbations can amplify Hawking radiation.
Automorphic Black Hole Entropy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schimmrigk, Rolf
2013-09-01
Over the past few years the understanding of the microscopic theory of black hole entropy has made important conceptual progress by recognizing that the degeneracies are encoded in partition functions which are determined by higher rank automorphic representations, in particular in the context of Siegel modular forms of genus two. In this review, some of the elements of this framework are highlighted. One of the surprising aspects is that the Siegel forms that have appeared in the entropic context are geometric in origin, arising from weight two cusp forms, hence from elliptic curves.
On stimulated radiation of black holes
Ridky, Jan
2009-10-27
The Unruh's thermal state in the vicinity of the event horizon of the black hole provides conditions where impinging particles can radiate other particles. The subsequent decays eventually lead to observable radiation of photons and neutrinos. Such radiation can be induced even by massive particles with gravitational interaction only. The hadronic particles would induce {approx}30 MeV gamma radiation from {pi}{sup 0} decays.
Vacuum polarization near a distorted black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, V. P.; Alberto García, D.
1983-12-01
The vacuum polarization near a black hole distorted by the axially symmetric gravitational field of external matter is studied. The explicit expression for <φ2> at the pole of the distorted horizon is obtained. Also at Sección de Graduados, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica del IPN, México DF, México.
How black holes saved relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
Acceleration of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.
2014-01-01
Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
Regardless of size, black holes easily acquire accretion disks. Supermassive black holes can feast on the bountiful interstellar gas in galactic nuclei. Small black holes formed from collapsing stars often belong to binary systems in which a bulging companion star can spill some of its gas into the black hole s reach. In the chaotic mess of the accretion disk, atoms collide with one another. Swirling plasma reaches speeds upward of 10% that of light and glows brightly in many wavebands, particularly in X-rays. Gas gets blown back by a wind of radiation from the inner disk. New material enters the disks from different directions.
Black holes and the multiverse
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Letter: Dilatonic Black Hole Entropy Without Brick Walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Zhao; Sheng-Li, Zhang
2004-09-01
The properties of the thermal radiation are discussed by using the new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of dilatonic black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a bosonic field and fermionic field outside the horizon of a static dilatonic black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. It is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon that the entropy is proportional to the horizon area.
Uncertainty relation and black hole entropy of Kerr spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Shuang-Qi; Zhao, Ren
2005-07-01
The properties of thermal radiation are discussed by using a new equation of state density, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of Kerr black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a Bosonic field and Fermionic field outside the horizon of a static Kerr black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon.
Kerr black holes with scalar hair.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2014-06-06
We present a family of solutions of Einstein's gravity minimally coupled to a complex, massive scalar field, describing asymptotically flat, spinning black holes with scalar hair and a regular horizon. These hairy black holes (HBHs) are supported by rotation and have no static limit. Besides mass M and angular momentum J, they carry a conserved, continuous Noether charge Q measuring the scalar hair. HBHs branch off from the Kerr metric at the threshold of the superradiant instability and reduce to spinning boson stars in the limit of vanishing horizon area. They overlap with Kerr black holes for a set of (M, J) values. A single Killing vector field preserves the solutions, tangent to the null geodesic generators of the event horizon. HBHs can exhibit sharp physical differences when compared to the Kerr solution, such as J/M^{2}>1, a quadrupole moment larger than J^{2}/M, and a larger orbital angular velocity at the innermost stable circular orbit. Families of HBHs connected to the Kerr geometry should exist in scalar (and other) models with more general self-interactions.
Entropy product of rotating black holes in three-dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahdavian Yekta, Davood
2017-03-01
It has been shown that the product of the entropies of the inner Cauchy and outer event horizon of the charged axisymmetric and stationary black holes is a universal formula, which is independent of the black hole's mass. In this paper, we investigate this universality for the two kinds of rotating black holes in the three-dimensional gravity models. In fact, we study the spacelike warped anti-de Sitter black hole in the new massive gravity and the Bañados, Teitelboim, and Zanelli black hole in the minimal massive gravity. We show that this rule is held in the first theory. By contrast, in the latter case which includes a holographic gravitational anomalous term, we obtain that the universality does not work and the product depends on the mass. As a complement to the above verification, we also study the thermodynamic properties of these black holes.
Fermion tunneling from higher-dimensional black holes
Lin Kai; Yang Shuzheng
2009-03-15
Via the semiclassical approximation method, we study the 1/2-spin fermion tunneling from a higher-dimensional black hole. In our work, the Dirac equations are transformed into a simple form, and then we simplify the fermion tunneling research to the study of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation in curved space-time. Finally, we get the fermion tunneling rates and the Hawking temperatures at the event horizon of higher-dimensional black holes. We study fermion tunneling of a higher-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole and a higher-dimensional spherically symmetric quintessence black hole. In fact, this method is also applicable to the study of fermion tunneling from four-dimensional or lower-dimensional black holes, and we will take the rainbow-Finsler black hole as an example in order to make the fact explicit.
Tunneling Radiation of Massive Vector Bosons from Dilaton Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ran; Zhao, Jun-Kun; Wu, Xing-Hua
2016-07-01
It is well known that Hawking radiation can be treated as a quantum tunneling process of particles from the event horizon of black hole. In this paper, we attempt to apply the massive vector bosons tunneling method to study the Hawking radiation from the non-rotating and rotating dilaton black holes. Starting with the Proca field equation that govern the dynamics of massive vector bosons, we derive the tunneling probabilities and radiation spectrums of the emitted vector bosons from the static spherical symmetric dilatonic black hole, the rotating Kaluza—Klein black hole, and the rotating Kerr—Sen black hole. Comparing the results with the blackbody spectrum, we satisfactorily reproduce the Hawking temperatures of these dilaton black holes, which are consistent with the previous results in the literature. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11205048
Global geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes
Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus
2006-06-15
The semiclassical geometry of charged black holes is studied in the context of a two-dimensional dilaton gravity model where effects due to pair-creation of charged particles can be included in a systematic way. The classical mass-inflation instability of the Cauchy horizon is amplified and we find that gravitational collapse of charged matter results in a spacelike singularity that precludes any extension of the spacetime geometry. At the classical level, a static solution describing an eternal black hole has timelike singularities and multiple asymptotic regions. The corresponding semiclassical solution, on the other hand, has a spacelike singularity and a Penrose diagram like that of an electrically neutral black hole. Extremal black holes are destabilized by pair-creation of charged particles. There is a maximally charged solution for a given black hole mass but the corresponding geometry is not extremal. Our numerical data exhibits critical behavior at the threshold for black hole formation.
Inner mechanics of three-dimensional black holes.
Detournay, Stéphane
2012-07-20
We investigate properties of the inner horizons of certain black holes in higher-derivative three-dimensional gravity theories. We focus on Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli and spacelike warped anti-de Sitter black holes, as well as on asymptotically warped de Sitter solutions exhibiting both a cosmological and a black hole horizon. We verify that a first law is satisfied at the inner horizon, in agreement with the proposal of Castro and Rodriguez [arXiv:1204.1284]. We then show that, in topologically massive gravity, the product of the areas of the inner and outer horizons fails to be independent on the mass, and we trace this to the diffeomorphism anomaly of the theory.
Observational strong gravity and quantum black hole structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giddings, Steven B.
2016-09-01
Quantum considerations have led many theorists to believe that classical black hole (BH) physics is modified not just deep inside BHs but at horizon scales, or even further outward. The near-horizon regime has just begun to be observationally probed for astrophysical BHs — both by LIGO, and by the Event Horizon Telescope. This suggests exciting prospects for observational constraints on or discovery of new quantum BH structure. This paper overviews arguments for certain such structure and these prospects.
BLACK HOLES: ONE SIZE DOESN'T FIT ALL
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
This comparison of the hearts of four elliptical galaxies shows that the more massive a galaxy's central bulge of stars, the heftier its black hole. The galaxies are part of a census of 30 galaxies conducted by astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Black holes are dense, compact objects possessing such strong gravitational forces that not even light can escape them. The column of black-and-white pictures at left, taken by ground-based telescopes, shows the galaxies. The inset boxes define the central regions of stars. Close-up images of these regions, as seen by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are in the middle column. The column at right lists the masses of the black holes and illustrates the respective diameters of the event horizons. An event horizon defines a black hole's boundary. Any material that crosses that boundary becomes ensnared in a black hole's grasp and cannot escape. The event horizons cannot be seen in the Hubble images because they are 25 million times smaller than the scale of the pictures. Astronomers determined the mass of each black hole by measuring the motion of stars swirling around it: the closer the stars approach the black hole, the faster their velocity. Only through observations with Hubble's superior vision could astronomers probe to the core of the galaxy where these effects are easily measured. They discovered a remarkable new correlation between a black hole's mass and the average speed of the stars in a galaxy's central bulge. The faster the stars are moving, the more massive the black hole. This information suggests that the galaxy and the black hole grew simultaneously. Credit: NASA and Karl Gebhardt (Lick Observatory)
BLACK HOLES: ONE SIZE DOESN'T FIT ALL
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
This comparison of the hearts of four elliptical galaxies shows that the more massive a galaxy's central bulge of stars, the heftier its black hole. The galaxies are part of a census of 30 galaxies conducted by astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Black holes are dense, compact objects possessing such strong gravitational forces that not even light can escape them. The column of black-and-white pictures at left, taken by ground-based telescopes, shows the galaxies. The inset boxes define the central regions of stars. Close-up images of these regions, as seen by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are in the middle column. The column at right lists the masses of the black holes and illustrates the respective diameters of the event horizons. An event horizon defines a black hole's boundary. Any material that crosses that boundary becomes ensnared in a black hole's grasp and cannot escape. The event horizons cannot be seen in the Hubble images because they are 25 million times smaller than the scale of the pictures. Astronomers determined the mass of each black hole by measuring the motion of stars swirling around it: the closer the stars approach the black hole, the faster their velocity. Only through observations with Hubble's superior vision could astronomers probe to the core of the galaxy where these effects are easily measured. They discovered a remarkable new correlation between a black hole's mass and the average speed of the stars in a galaxy's central bulge. The faster the stars are moving, the more massive the black hole. This information suggests that the galaxy and the black hole grew simultaneously. Credit: NASA and Karl Gebhardt (Lick Observatory)
General Tortoise Coordinate Transformation in a Dynamical Kerr-Newman Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Xian-Ming; Cheng, Su-Jun; Liu, Wen-Biao
2012-02-01
Under the extended dynamical tortoise coordinate transformation, Damour-Ruffini method has been applied to calculate the charged particles' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a dynamical Kerr-Newman black hole. It is shown that Hawking radiation is still purely thermal black body spectrum. Moreover, the temperature of Hawking radiation is corresponding to the apparent horizon surface gravity and the first law of thermodynamics can also be constructed successfully on the apparent horizon in the dynamical Kerr-Newman black hole.
Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherepashchuk, A. M.
2014-04-01
In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).
Black-Hole Feedback in Quasars
This animation illustrates how black-hole feedback works in quasars. Dense gas and dust in the center simultaneously fuels the black hole and shrouds it from view. The black-hole wind propels large...
Shadow shapes around the black hole in the galactic centre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; De Paolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.
Recently Holz & Wheeler (2002) considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol (2000) suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.
Energy spectrum of black holes: A new view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majhi, Abhishek
2017-01-01
Energy of a black hole is usually quantized by invoking some area quantization scheme after expressing the energy in terms of the horizon area. However, in this approach one has to quantize the local and asymptotic energy of the black hole separately and the two results do not manifest any physical correspondence with each other. Here, as opposed to this practice, we find the unique energy spectrum of black holes by adopting a top-down approach. The physical links among the underlying quantum theory, statistical mechanics and thermodynamics of the black hole horizon play the central role in determining the energy spectrum. The energy spectrum that we obtain explicitly reveals the correspondence between asymptotic and local observations through the presence of the surface gravity of the horizon as a parameter in the spectrum, rather than being expressed as a function of area and consequently getting quantized in the usual approach. Thus, our result presents a new view as far as black hole energy quantization is concerned. The calculations are performed using the quantum geometric description of black hole horizons as laid down by loop quantum gravity.
Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solodukhin, S. N.
2005-03-01
We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.
Phase transition and thermodynamic stability of topological black holes in Hořava-Lifshitz gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Meng-Sen; Zhao, Ren; Liu, Yan-Song
2017-08-01
On the basis of horizon thermodynamics, we study the thermodynamic stability and P-V criticality of topological black holes constructed in Hořava-Lifshitz (HL) gravity without the detailed-balance condition (with general ɛ). In the framework of horizon thermodynamics, we do not need the concrete black hole solution (the metric function) and the concrete matter fields. It is shown that the HL black hole for k=0 is always thermodynamically stable. For k=1 , the thermodynamic behaviors and P-V criticality of the HL black hole are similar to those of RN-AdS black hole for some \
Numerical Simulation of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teukolsky, Saul
2003-04-01
Einstein's equations of general relativity are prime candidates for numerical solution on supercomputers. There is some urgency in being able to carry out such simulations: Large-scale gravitational wave detectors are now coming on line, and the most important expected signals cannot be predicted except numerically. Problems involving black holes are perhaps the most interesting, yet also particularly challenging computationally. One difficulty is that inside a black hole there is a physical singularity that cannot be part of the computational domain. A second difficulty is the disparity in length scales between the size of the black hole and the wavelength of the gravitational radiation emitted. A third difficulty is that all existing methods of evolving black holes in three spatial dimensions are plagued by instabilities that prohibit long-term evolution. I will describe the ideas that are being introduced in numerical relativity to deal with these problems, and discuss the results of recent calculations of black hole collisions.
When Charged Black Holes Merge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-08-01
Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-05-01
In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Stationary solutions of the Dirac equation in the gravitational field of a charged black hole
Dokuchaev, V. I. Eroshenko, Yu. N.
2013-07-15
A stationary solution of the Dirac equation in the metric of a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole has been found. Only one stationary regular state outside the black hole event horizon and only one stationary regular state below the Cauchy horizon are shown to exist. The normalization integral of the wave functions diverges on both horizons if the black hole is non-extremal. This means that the solution found can be only the asymptotic limit of a nonstationary solution. In contrast, in the case of an extremal black hole, the normalization integral is finite and the stationary regular solution is physically self-consistent. The existence of quantum levels below the Cauchy horizon can affect the final stage of Hawking black hole evaporation and opens up the fundamental possibility of investigating the internal structure of black holes using quantum tunneling between external and internal states.
Hidden Structures of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vercnocke, Bert
2010-11-01
This thesis investigates two main topics concerning black holes in extensions of general relativity inspired by string theory. First, the structure of the equations of motion underlying black hole solutions is considered, in theories of D-dimensional gravity coupled to scalars and vectors. For solutions preserving supersymmetry, the equations of motion have a dramatic simplification: they become first-order instead of the second-order equations one would expect. Recently, it was found that this is a feature some non-supersymmetric black hole solutions exhibit as well. We investigate if this holds more generally, by examining what the conditions are to have first-order equations for the scalar fields of non-supersymmetric black holes, that mimic the form of their supersymmetric counterparts. This is illustrated in examples. Second, the structure of black holes themselves is investigated. String theory has been successful in explaining the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for (mainly supersymmetric) black holes from a microscopic perspective. However, it is not fully established what the interpretation of the corresponding 'microstates' should be in the gravitational description where the black hole picture is valid. There have been recent advances to understand the nature of black hole microstates in the gravity regime, such as the fuzzball proposal. A related idea says that black hole configurations with multiple centers are related to microstates of single-centered black holes. We report on work relating both pictures. As an aside, a relation between violations of causality for certain spacetimes (presence of closed timelike curves in the geometry) and a breakdown of unitarity in the dual conformal field theory is given.
Properties of the distorted Kerr black hole
Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Tzounis, Christos; Kunz, Jutta; Nedkova, Petya E-mail: jutta.kunz@uni-oldenburg.de E-mail: tzounis@ualberta.ca
2015-12-01
We investigate the properties of the ergoregion and the location of the curvature singularities for the Kerr black hole distorted by the gravitational field of external sources. The particular cases of quadrupole and octupole distortion are studied in detail. We also investigate the scalar curvature invariants of the horizon and compare their behaviour with the case of the isolated Kerr black hole. In a certain region of the parameter space the ergoregion consists of a compact region encompassing the horizon and a disconnected part extending to infinity. The curvature singularities in the domain of outer communication, when they exist, are always located on the boundary of the ergoregion. We present arguments that they do not lie on the compact ergosurface. For quadrupole distortion the compact ergoregion size is negatively correlated with the horizon angular momentum when the external sources are varied. For octupole distortion infinitely many ergoregion configurations can exist for a certain horizon angular momentum. For some special cases we can have J{sup 2}/M{sup 4} > 1 and yet avoid a naked singularity.
Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2017-05-01
The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that
Magnetic fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
Gravity, black holes, and the universe
Nicolson, I.
1981-01-01
The book treats current understandings of the nature and properties of gravity, with particular emphasis on its role in the physics of black holes and the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The development of modern ideas on force, motion and gravity is traced from the systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy through the work of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler to Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's general theory of relativity. Particular attention is then given to the role of gravity in stellar motions and to the phenomena determined by the immense gravitational forces associated with bodies of such great density, including relativistic effects, tidal forces, space-time effects, event horizons, rotation, mass and electrical charge, the existence of naked singularities and white holes, and black-hole thermodynamics. The existence of actual black holes in the universe is considered, and various black-hole candidates in the Galaxy, quasars and galactic nuclei are indicated. The role of gravity in cosmology is then examined, with attention given to the implications of general relativity, the Hubble law, the age of the universe, the density of the universe and its eventual fate. Possible alternative to general relativity as a theory of gravitation are considered, including theories of variable gravitational constant, grand unified theories, and quantum gravity.
Gravity, black holes and the universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicolson, I.
The book treats current understandings of the nature and properties of gravity, with particular emphasis on its role in the physics of black holes and the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The development of modern ideas on force, motion and gravity is traced from the systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy through the work of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler to Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's general theory of relativity. Particular attention is then given to the role of gravity in stellar motions and to the phenomena determined by the immense gravitational forces associated with bodies of such great density, including relativistic effects, tidal forces, space-time effects, event horizons, rotation, mass and electrical charge, the existence of naked singularities and white holes, and black-hole thermodynamics. The existence of actual black holes in the universe is considered, and various black-hole candidates in the Galaxy, quasars and galactic nuclei are indicated. The role of gravity in cosmology is then examined, with attention given to the implications of general relativity, the Hubble law, the age of the universe, the density of the universe and its eventual fate. Possible alternative to general relativity as a theory of gravitation are considered, including theories of variable gravitational constant, grand unified theories, and quantum gravity.
Instabilities of Extremal Rotating Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro
2015-11-01
Recently, Durkee and Reall have conjectured a criterion for linear instability of rotating, extremal, asymptotically Minkowskian black holes in dimensions, such as the Myers-Perry black holes. They considered a certain elliptic operator, , acting on symmetric trace-free tensors intrinsic to the horizon. Based in part on numerical evidence, they suggested that if the lowest eigenvalue of this operator is less than the critical value -1/4 ( called "effective BF-bound"), then the black hole is linearly unstable. In this paper, we prove an extended version of their conjecture. Our proof uses a combination of methods such as (1) the "canonical energy method" of Hollands-Wald, (2) algebraically special properties of the near horizon geometries associated with the black hole, (3) the Corvino-Schoen technique, and (4) semiclassical analysis. Our method of proof is also applicable to rotating, extremal asymptotically Anti-deSitter black holes. In that case, we find additional instabilities for ultra-spinning black holes. Although we explicitly discuss in this paper only extremal black holes, we argue that our results can be generalized to near extremal black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schilling, Amanda; Carlton, A. K.; Kashkanova, A.; Kennefick, J.; Kennefick, D.; Seigar, M. S.; Lacy, C. H.; Galaxy Evolution Survey, Arkansas
2010-01-01
We have computed the mass of the central black hole in 145 quasars chosen from the SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) DR3. The objects were chosen to sample the peak in quasar evolution and have redshifts in the range 1.85 < z < 4.26. Masses were computed using standard gas dynamics techniques with the luminosity at 1350Å and the width (FWHM) of the Doppler broadened Carbon IV emission line. Also, we were able to compare masses calculated from the CIV line with those calculated from the MgII line for one third of our data set. We will discuss how the mass of the SMBHs change over the range of redshifts and how this may be correlated with other quasar properties. This project is funded by a grant from NASA.
Gamma -bursts by primordial Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex
holes density is overestimated in the most popular Big Bang scenarios? (PBH's cannot form at all?!). We pass now an epoch of relative absence of PBH's masses spectrum and particle physics, or the expectations for PBH's explosions are unbiased? Page (1975, 1976) investigated the powers and spectral densities for scalar massive and massles particles, massles neutrinos and gravitons. The numerical computations for electrons was realised later, since no analytical solutions for Dirac equation were known in the Kerr background. I have obtained such solutions, in collaboration with I.M. Ternov and G.A. Chizov in 1980 (Soviet Physics Journal, Volume 23, Issue 8, pp.695-700). Therefore I have calculated the transmission probabilities, absorption cross section and the spectral mass and momentum rate lost in the long wavelength limit for spin 1/2 particles) . It is very interesting that the absorption cross section averaged on the black hole and coincides with the cross section computed earlier by Unruh (1976). I have shown also that the extremely highly rotating black hole is stable against the formation of a naked singularity in spite of the horizon surface of a hole will increase temporarily due to classical generation of particles (Gaina, PHD work, Moscow, 1981; Soviet Physics Journal, Volume 28, Issue 8, pp.682-685). The higher spins particles radiation dominates if the black hole is highly rotating. For a/m<0.6 the emission of lower spin (spin 1/2) particles becomes dominant. The detection of quanta of ~1 Gev is of very great interest.
Strong-field tidal distortions of rotating black holes. III. Embeddings in hyperbolic three-space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Penna, Robert F.; Hughes, Scott A.; O'Sullivan, Stephen
2017-09-01
In previous work, we developed tools for quantifying the tidal distortion of a black hole's event horizon due to an orbiting companion. These tools use techniques which require large mass ratios (companion mass μ much smaller than black hole mass M ), but can be used for arbitrary bound orbits and for any black hole spin. We also showed how to visualize these distorted black holes by embedding their horizons in a global Euclidean three-space, E3. Such visualizations illustrate interesting and important information about horizon dynamics. Unfortunately, we could not visualize black holes with spin parameter a*>√{3 }/2 ≈0.866 : such holes cannot be globally embedded into E3. In this paper, we overcome this difficulty by showing how to embed the horizons of tidally distorted Kerr black holes in a hyperbolic three-space, H3. We use black hole perturbation theory to compute the Gaussian curvatures of tidally distorted event horizons, from which we build a two-dimensional metric of their distorted horizons. We develop a numerical method for embedding the tidally distorted horizons in H3. As an application, we give a sequence of embeddings into H3 of a tidally interacting black hole with spin a*=0.9999 . A small-amplitude, high-frequency oscillation seen in previous work shows up particularly clearly in these embeddings.
Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes
Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.
2010-11-15
Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d{>=}6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.
Nonrotating black hole in a post-Newtonian tidal environment
Taylor, Stephanne; Poisson, Eric
2008-10-15
We examine the motion and tidal dynamics of a nonrotating black hole placed within a post-Newtonian external spacetime. The black hole's gravity is described accurately to all orders in Gm/c{sup 2}r, where m is the black-hole mass and r is the distance to the black hole. The tidal perturbation created by the external environment is treated as a small perturbation. At a large distance from the black hole, the gravitational field of the external distribution of matter is assumed to be sufficiently weak to be adequately described by the (first) post-Newtonian approximation to general relativity. There, the black hole is treated as a monopole contribution to the total gravitational field. There exists an overlap in the domains of validity of each description, and the black-hole and post-Newtonian metrics are matched in the overlap. The matching procedure produces (i) a justification of the statement that a nonrotating black hole is a post-Newtonian monopole; (ii) a complete characterization of the coordinate transformation between the inertial, barycentric frame and the accelerated, black-hole frame; (iii) the equations of motion for the black hole; and (iv) the gravito-electric and gravito-magnetic tidal fields acting on the black hole. We first calculate the equations of motion and tidal fields by making no assumptions regarding the nature of the post-Newtonian environment; this could contain a continuous distribution of matter (so as to model a galactic core) or any number of condensed bodies. We next specialize our discussion to a situation in which the black hole is a member of a post-Newtonian two-body system. As an application of our results, we examine the geometry of the deformed event horizon and calculate the tidal heating of the black hole, the rate at which it acquires mass as a result of its tidal interaction with the companion body.
Kerr black hole thermodynamical fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pavon, D.; Rubi, J. M.
1985-04-01
The near-equilibrium thermodynamical (TD) fluctuations of a massive rotating uncharged Kerr black hole immersed in a uniformly corotating radiation bath at its temperature are investigated theoretically, generalizing Schwarzschild-black-hole analysis of Pavon and Rubi(1983), based on Einstein fluctuation theory. The correlations for the energy and angular moment fluctuations and the second moments of the other TD parameters are obtained, and the generalized second law of black-hole TD and the Bekenstein (1975) interpretation of black-hole entropy are seen as functioning well in this case. A local-stability criterion and relation for TD equilibrium between the Kerr hole and its own radiation in the flat-space-time limit are derived, and a restriction between C and Lambda is deduced.
More Hidden Black Hole Dangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
Black holes such as GRO J1655-40 form from collapsed stars. When stars at least eight times more massive than our Sun exhaust their fuel supply, they no longer have the energy to support their tremendous bulk. These stars explode as supernovae, blasting their outer envelopes into space. If the core is more than three times the mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a singularity, a single point of infinite density.Although light cannot escape black holes, astronomers can see black holes by virtue of the hot, glowing gas often stolen from a neighboring star that orbits these objects. From our vantage point, the light seems to flicker. The Rossi Explorer has recorded this flickering (called quasiperiodic oscillations, or QPOs) around many black holes. QPOs are produced by gas very near the innermost stable orbit the closest orbit a blob of gas can maintain before falling pell-mell into the black hole. As gas whips around the black hole at near light speed, gravity pulls the gas in one direction, then another, adding to the flickering. The QPO is related to the speed and size of this orbit and the mass of the black hole.
More Hidden Black Hole Dangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
Black holes such as GRO J1655-40 form from collapsed stars. When stars at least eight times more massive than our Sun exhaust their fuel supply, they no longer have the energy to support their tremendous bulk. These stars explode as supernovae, blasting their outer envelopes into space. If the core is more than three times the mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a singularity, a single point of infinite density.Although light cannot escape black holes, astronomers can see black holes by virtue of the hot, glowing gas often stolen from a neighboring star that orbits these objects. From our vantage point, the light seems to flicker. The Rossi Explorer has recorded this flickering (called quasiperiodic oscillations, or QPOs) around many black holes. QPOs are produced by gas very near the innermost stable orbit the closest orbit a blob of gas can maintain before falling pell-mell into the black hole. As gas whips around the black hole at near light speed, gravity pulls the gas in one direction, then another, adding to the flickering. The QPO is related to the speed and size of this orbit and the mass of the black hole.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version
This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end.
The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light.
The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
Lower bound on the spectral dimension near a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carlip, S.; Grumiller, D.
2011-10-01
We consider an evaporating Schwarzschild black hole in a framework in which the spectral dimension of spacetime varies continuously from four at large distances to a number smaller than three at small distances, as suggested by various approaches to quantum gravity. We demonstrate that the evaporation stops when the horizon radius reaches a scale at which spacetime becomes effectively three-dimensional, and argue that an observer remaining outside the horizon cannot probe the properties of the black hole at smaller scales. This result is universal in the sense that it does not depend on the details of the effective dimension as a function of the diffusion time. Observers falling into the black hole can resolve smaller scales, as can external observers in the presence of a cosmological constant. Even in these cases, though, we obtain an absolute bound D≥2 on the effective dimension that can be seen in any such attempt to measure the properties of the black hole.
Black hole evaporation in a noncommutative charged Vaidya model
Sharif, M. Javed, W.
2012-06-15
We study the black hole evaporation and Hawking radiation for a noncommutative charged Vaidya black hole. For this purpose, we determine a spherically symmetric charged Vaidya model and then formulate a noncommutative Reissner-Nordstroem-like solution of this model, which leads to an exact (t - r)-dependent metric. The behavior of the temporal component of this metric and the corresponding Hawking temperature are investigated. The results are shown in the form of graphs. Further, we examine the tunneling process of charged massive particles through the quantum horizon. We find that the tunneling amplitude is modified due to noncommutativity. Also, it turns out that the black hole evaporates completely in the limits of large time and horizon radius. The effect of charge is to reduce the temperature from a maximum value to zero. We note that the final stage of black hole evaporation is a naked singularity.
Inside black holes with synchronized hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brihaye, Yves; Herdeiro, Carlos; Radu, Eugen
2016-09-01
Recently, various examples of asymptotically flat, rotating black holes (BHs) with synchronized hair have been explicitly constructed, including Kerr BHs with scalar or Proca hair, and Myers-Perry BHs with scalar hair and a mass gap, showing there is a general mechanism at work. All these solutions have been found numerically, integrating the fully non-linear field equations of motion from the event horizon outwards. Here, we address the spacetime geometry of these solutions inside the event horizon. Firstly, we provide arguments, within linear theory, that there is no regular inner horizon for these solutions. Then, we address this question fully non-linearly, using as a tractable model five dimensional, equal spinning, Myers-Perry hairy BHs. We find that, for non-extremal solutions: (1) the inside spacetime geometry in the vicinity of the event horizon is smooth and the equations of motion can be integrated inwards; (2) before an inner horizon is reached, the spacetime curvature grows (apparently) without bound. In all cases, our results suggest the absence of a smooth Cauchy horizon, beyond which the metric can be extended, for hairy BHs with synchronized hair.
Hawking Absorption and Planck Absolute Entropy of Kerr-Newman Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, M. Hossain; Banu, Akhtara
2006-03-01
We find the existence of a quantum thermal effect, “Hawking absorption.” near the inner horizon of the Kerr Newman black hole. Redefining the entropy, temperature, angular velocity, and electric potential of the black hole, we give a new formulation of the Bekenstein Smarr formula. The redefined entropy vanishes for absolute zero temperature of the black hole and hence it is interpreted as the Planck absolute entropy of the KN black hole.
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-09-20
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Vacuum metastability with black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G.
2015-08-01
We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.
Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickover, Clifford A.
1998-03-01
BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.
On regular rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, R.; Fayos, F.
2017-01-01
Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham
2017-09-01
We predict the number of black holes with stellar companions that are potentially detectable with Gaia astrometry over the course of its 5-yr mission. Our model estimates that nearly 2 × 105 astrometric binaries hosting black holes and stellar companions brighter than Gaia's detection threshold, G ∼ 20, should be discovered with 5σ sensitivity. Among these detectable binaries, systems with longer orbital periods are favoured, and black hole and stellar companion masses in the range MBH ∼ 6-10 M⊙ and M* ∼ 1-2 M⊙, respectively, are expected to dominate.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-03
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
A simplified derivation of stimulated emission by black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sorkin, Rafael D.
1987-01-01
A black hole, when acting as a scatterer for quanta in a single mode of a massless scalar field, is known to convert any ingoing Gibbs state of that mode into an outgoing Gibbs state (with some other mean particle number). The paper presents a simple derivation for this property which may help to clarify what relation, if any, it bears to the microscopic structure of the black hole horizon.
On the source of the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Culetu, Hristu
2015-12-01
By assuming that the Kehagias-Sfetsos black hole is an exact solution of the standard Einstein equations, we investigate the properties of its source that generates the curvature. The anisotropic fluid has pr = - ρ as equation of state and fulfills the WEC and NEC. The gravitational field is repulsive inside the horizon and attractive outside, becoming of Schwarzschild type at large distances. The Misner-Sharp energy equals the black hole mass asymptotically.
Black hole mass threshold from nonsingular quantum gravitational collapse.
Bojowald, Martin; Goswami, Rituparno; Maartens, Roy; Singh, Parampreet
2005-08-26
Quantum gravity is expected to remove the classical singularity that arises as the end state of gravitational collapse. To investigate this, we work with a toy model of a collapsing homogeneous scalar field. We show that nonperturbative semiclassical effects of loop quantum gravity cause a bounce and remove the black hole singularity. Furthermore, we find a critical threshold scale below which no horizon forms: quantum gravity may exclude very small astrophysical black holes.
Never judge a black hole by its area
Ong, Yen Chin
2015-04-01
Christodoulou and Rovelli have shown that black holes have large interiors that grow asymptotically linearly in advanced time, and speculated that this may be relevant to the information loss paradox. We show that there is no simple relation between the interior volume of an arbitrary black hole and its horizon area. That is, the volume enclosed is not necessarily a monotonically increasing function of the surface area.
Emergent flux from particle collisions near a Kerr black hole
Banados, Maximo; Hassanain, Babiker; Silk, Joseph; West, Stephen M.
2011-01-15
The escape fraction at infinity is evaluated for massless particles produced in collisions of weakly interacting particles accreted into a density spike near the particle horizon of an extremal Kerr black hole, for the case of equatorial orbits. We compare with the Schwarzschild case, and argue that in the case of extremal black holes, redshifted signatures can be produced that could potentially explore the physics of particle collisions at center of mass energies that extend beyond those of any feasible terrestrial accelerator.
Black hole state degeneracy in loop quantum gravity
Agullo, Ivan; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique
2008-05-15
The combinatorial problem of counting the black hole quantum states within the isolated horizon framework in loop quantum gravity is analyzed. A qualitative understanding of the origin of the band structure shown by the degeneracy spectrum, which is responsible for the black hole entropy quantization, is reached. Even when motivated by simple considerations, this picture allows to obtain analytical expressions for the most relevant quantities associated to this effect.
Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Page, Don N; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-Han
2016-04-22
In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Pisin; Ong, Yen Chin; Page, Don N.; Sasaki, Misao; Yeom, Dong-han
2016-04-01
In the firewall proposal, it is assumed that the firewall lies near the event horizon and should not be observable except by infalling observers, who are presumably terminated at the firewall. However, if the firewall is located near where the horizon would have been, based on the spacetime evolution up to that time, later quantum fluctuations of the Hawking emission rate can cause the "teleological" event horizon to have migrated to the inside of the firewall location, rendering the firewall naked. In principle, the firewall can be arbitrarily far outside the horizon. This casts doubt about the notion that firewalls are the "most conservative" solution to the information loss paradox.
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-12-01
In this study, we propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(–B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states. The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. As a result, our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-12-01
In this study, we propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(–B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states.more » The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. As a result, our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.« less
Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc
2007-01-01
A striking property of an electric charge near a magnetic pole is that the system possesses angular momentum even when both the electric and the magnetic charges are at rest. The angular momentum is proportional to the product of the charges and independent of their distance. We analyze the effect of bringing gravitation into this remarkable system. To this end, we study an electric charge held at rest outside a magnetically charged black hole. We find that even if the electric charge is treated as a perturbation on a spherically symmetric magnetic Reissner–Nordstrom hole, the geometry at large distances is that of a magnetic Kerr–Newman black hole. When the charge approaches the horizon and crosses it, the exterior geometry becomes that of a Kerr–Newman hole, with electric and magnetic charges and with total angular momentum given by the standard value for a charged monopole pair. Thus, in accordance with the “no-hair theorem,” once the charge is captured by the black hole, the angular momentum associated with the charge monopole system loses all traces of its exotic origin and is perceived from the outside as common rotation. It is argued that a similar analysis performed on Taub–NUT space should give the same result. PMID:17626789
Bunster, Claudio; Henneaux, Marc
2007-07-24
A striking property of an electric charge near a magnetic pole is that the system possesses angular momentum even when both the electric and the magnetic charges are at rest. The angular momentum is proportional to the product of the charges and independent of their distance. We analyze the effect of bringing gravitation into this remarkable system. To this end, we study an electric charge held at rest outside a magnetically charged black hole. We find that even if the electric charge is treated as a perturbation on a spherically symmetric magnetic Reissner-Nordstrom hole, the geometry at large distances is that of a magnetic Kerr-Newman black hole. When the charge approaches the horizon and crosses it, the exterior geometry becomes that of a Kerr-Newman hole, with electric and magnetic charges and with total angular momentum given by the standard value for a charged monopole pair. Thus, in accordance with the "no-hair theorem," once the charge is captured by the black hole, the angular momentum associated with the charge monopole system loses all traces of its exotic origin and is perceived from the outside as common rotation. It is argued that a similar analysis performed on Taub-NUT space should give the same result.
"Iron-Clad" Evidence For Spinning Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2003-09-01
competing explanations that do not require extreme gravitational effects, and provide the best look yet at the geometry of the space-time around a stellar black hole created by the death of a massive star." The orbit of a particle near a black hole depends on the curvature of space around the black hole, which also depends on how fast the black hole is spinning. A spinning black hole drags space around with it and allows atoms to orbit closer to the black hole than is possible for a non-spinning black hole. The latest Chandra data from Cygnus X-1, the first stellar-size black hole discovered, show that the gravitational effects on the signal from the iron atoms can only be due to relativistic effects, and that some of the atoms are no closer than 100 miles to the black hole. There was no evidence that the Cygnus X-1 black hole is spinning. The XMM-Newton data from the black hole, XTE J1650-500, show a very similar distribution of iron atom X-rays with one important exception. More low energy X-rays from iron atoms are observed, an indication that some X-rays are coming from deep in the gravitational well around the black hole, as close as 20 miles to the black hole event horizon. This black hole must be spinning rapidly. Chandra observations of a third stellar black hole, GX 339-4, have revealed that it is also spinning rapidly, and clouds of warm absorbing gas appear to be flowing away from the black hole at speeds of about three hundred thousand miles per hour. Such warm gas flows have been observed in the vicinity of supermassive black holes. Previous observations of some supermassive black holes by Japan's ASCA satellite, XMM-Newton and Chandra have indicated that they may also be rotating rapidly. The latest results presented by Miller indicate that the peculiar geometry of space around spinning stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes is remarkably similar. Stellar and supermassive black holes may be similar in other ways. Powerful jets of high
Smooth Horizonless Geometries Deep Inside the Black-Hole Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Giusto, Stefano; Martinec, Emil J.; Russo, Rodolfo; Shigemori, Masaki; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P.
2016-11-01
We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges, and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D 1 -D 5 -P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Deep in this throat, the black-hole singularity is resolved into a smooth cap. We also identify the holographically dual states in the N =(4 ,4 ) D 1 -D 5 orbifold conformal field theory (CFT). Our solutions are among the states counted by the CFT elliptic genus, and provide examples of smooth microstate geometries within the ensemble of supersymmetric black-hole microstates.
Smooth Horizonless Geometries Deep Inside the Black-Hole Regime.
Bena, Iosif; Giusto, Stefano; Martinec, Emil J; Russo, Rodolfo; Shigemori, Masaki; Turton, David; Warner, Nicholas P
2016-11-11
We construct the first family of horizonless supergravity solutions that have the same mass, charges, and angular momenta as general supersymmetric rotating D1-D5-P black holes in five dimensions. This family includes solutions with arbitrarily small angular momenta, deep within the regime of quantum numbers and couplings for which a large classical black hole exists. These geometries are well approximated by the black-hole solution, and in particular exhibit the same near-horizon throat. Deep in this throat, the black-hole singularity is resolved into a smooth cap. We also identify the holographically dual states in the N=(4,4) D1-D5 orbifold conformal field theory (CFT). Our solutions are among the states counted by the CFT elliptic genus, and provide examples of smooth microstate geometries within the ensemble of supersymmetric black-hole microstates.
Classification and asymptotic structure of black holes in bimetric theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torsello, Francesco; Kocic, Mikica; Mörtsell, Edvard
2017-09-01
We study general properties of static and spherically symmetric bidiagonal black holes in Hassan-Rosen bimetric theory by means of a new method. In particular, we explore the behavior of the black hole solutions both at the common Killing horizon and at the large radii. The former study was never done before and leads to a new classification for black holes within the bidiagonal ansatz. The latter study shows that, among the great variety of the black hole solutions, the only solutions converging to Minkowski, anti-de Sitter, and de Sitter spacetimes at large radii are those of general relativity, i.e., the Schwarzschild, Schwarzschild-anti-de Sitter and Schwarzschild-de Sitter solutions. Moreover, we present a proposition, whose validity is not limited to black hole solutions, which establishes the relation between the curvature singularities of the two metrics and the invertibility of their interaction potential.
Regular black holes and noncommutative geometry inspired fuzzy sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Shinpei
2016-05-01
We investigated regular black holes with fuzzy sources in three and four dimensions. The density distributions of such fuzzy sources are inspired by noncommutative geometry and given by Gaussian or generalized Gaussian functions. We utilized mass functions to give a physical interpretation of the horizon formation condition for the black holes. In particular, we investigated three-dimensional BTZ-like black holes and four-dimensional Schwarzschild-like black holes in detail, and found that the number of horizons is related to the space-time dimensions, and the existence of a void in the vicinity of the center of the space-time is significant, rather than noncommutativity. As an application, we considered a three-dimensional black hole with the fuzzy disc which is a disc-shaped region known in the context of noncommutative geometry as a source. We also analyzed a four-dimensional black hole with a source whose density distribution is an extension of the fuzzy disc, and investigated the horizon formation condition for it.
Thermodynamics and luminosities of rainbow black holes
Mu, Benrong; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang E-mail: pengw@scu.edu.cn
2015-11-01
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is ''Gravity's rainbow'', where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the ''Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation'' which is E{sup 2} = m{sup 2}+p{sup 2}[1−η(E/m{sub p}){sup n}] with n > 0, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of η and n in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with η < 0 and n ≥ 2. Considering effects of rainbow gravity on both the Hawking temperature and radius of the event horizon, we use the geometric optics approximation to compute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of η and n.
Thermodynamics and luminosities of rainbow black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Benrong; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2015-11-01
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is ``Gravity's rainbow'', where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the ``Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation'' which is E2 = m2+p2[1-η(E/mp)n] with n > 0, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of η and n in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with η < 0 and n >= 2. Considering effects of rainbow gravity on both the Hawking temperature and radius of the event horizon, we use the geometric optics approximation to compute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of η and n.
Hot accretion flows onto binary and single black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gold, Roman; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Ruiz, Milton; Shapiro, Stuart; Etienne, Zachariah; Pfeiffer, Harald; McKinney, Jonathan
2015-04-01
Accreting black holes (BHs) are at the core of relativistic astrophysics as messengers of the strong-field regime of General Relativity and prime targets of several observational campaigns, including imaging the black hole shadow in SagA* and M87 with the Event Horizon Telescope. Binary Black Holes are one of the most promising gravitational wave sources for adLIGO and Pulsar Timing Arrays and - if accreting - can provide a strong electromagnetic counterpart. I will present results from global GRMHD simulations of both single and binary BHs embedded in a hot, magnetized disk, highlighting differences in their observational appearance including their gravitational and electromagnetic radiation.
Adiabatic transport of qubits around a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Viennot, David; Moro, Olivia
2017-03-01
We consider localized qubits evolving around a black hole following a quantum adiabatic dynamics. We develop a geometric structure (based on fibre bundles) permitting to describe the quantum states of a qubit and the spacetime geometry in a single framework. The quantum decoherence induced by the black hole on the qubit is analysed in this framework (the role of the dynamical and geometric phases in this decoherence is treated), especially for the quantum teleportation protocol when one qubit falls to the event horizon. A simple formula to compute the fidelity of the teleportation is derived. The case of a Schwarzschild black hole is analysed.
Asymptotic Reissner–Nordström black holes
Hendi, S.H.
2013-06-15
We consider two types of Born–Infeld like nonlinear electromagnetic fields and obtain their interesting black hole solutions. The asymptotic behavior of these solutions is the same as that of a Reissner–Nordström black hole. We investigate the geometric properties of the solutions and find that depending on the value of the nonlinearity parameter, the singularity covered with various horizons. -- Highlights: •We investigate two types of the BI-like nonlinear electromagnetic fields in the Einsteinian gravity. •We analyze the effects of nonlinearity on the electromagnetic field. •We examine the influences of the nonlinearity on the geometric properties of the black hole solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
Braneworld Black Hole Gravitational Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Jun
2017-04-01
A class of braneworld black holes, which I called as Bronnikov-Melnikov-Dehen (BMD) black holes, are studied as gravitational lenses. I obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. I also compare the results with those obtained for Schwarzschild and two braneworld black holes, i.e., the tidal Reissner-Nordström (R-N) and the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati (CFM) black holes. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Shannxi Provincial Government under Grant No. 15JK1077, and Doctorial Scientific Research Starting Fund of Shannxi University of Science and Technology under Grant No. BJ12-02
The first supermassive black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smith, Aaron; Bromm, Volker; Loeb, Abraham
2017-01-01
We briefly review the historical development of the ideas regarding the first supermassive black hole seeds, the physics of their formation and radiative feedback, recent theoretical and observational progress, and our outlook for the future.
Topics in black holes and quantum cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campiglia, Miguel
2012-06-01
Black holes and the big bang beginning of the universe are among the most spectacular predictions of general relativity, having a broad impact that ranges from observational astronomy to quantum gravity. In this thesis we will focus on classical and quantum aspects of these subjects: In the first part we present a coordinate-free way of describing the approach to equilibrium of black holes within the framework of dynamical and isolated horizons. In the second part we focus on loop quantum cosmology. We present a uniqueness theorem of its kinematics, and explore the possible ways to implement its dynamics via path integrals.¹ ¹The topics presented here form part of the research done during my PhD studies. See the Vita at the end of the Thesis for a complete list of my work during this period.
Black-hole universe: time evolution.
Yoo, Chul-Moon; Okawa, Hirotada; Nakao, Ken-ichi
2013-10-18
Time evolution of a black hole lattice toy model universe is simulated. The vacuum Einstein equations in a cubic box with a black hole at the origin are numerically solved with periodic boundary conditions on all pairs of faces opposite to each other. Defining effective scale factors by using the area of a surface and the length of an edge of the cubic box, we compare them with that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. It is found that the behavior of the effective scale factors is well approximated by that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In our model, if the box size is sufficiently larger than the horizon radius, local inhomogeneities do not significantly affect the global expansion law of the Universe even though the inhomogeneity is extremely nonlinear.
Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela
2010-01-01
"Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."
Formation and evaporation of nonsingular black holes.
Hayward, Sean A
2006-01-27
Regular (nonsingular) space-times are given that describe the formation of a (locally defined) black hole from an initial vacuum region, its quiescence as a static region, and its subsequent evaporation to a vacuum region. The static region is Bardeen-like, supported by finite density and pressures, vanishing rapidly at large radius and behaving as a cosmological constant at small radius. The dynamic regions are Vaidya-like, with ingoing radiation of positive-energy flux during collapse and negative-energy flux during evaporation, the latter balanced by outgoing radiation of positive-energy flux and a surface pressure at a pair creation surface. The black hole consists of a compact space-time region of trapped surfaces, with inner and outer boundaries that join circularly as a single smooth trapping horizon.
Black holes surrounded by uniformly rotating rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansorg, Marcus; Petroff, David
2005-07-01
Highly accurate numerical solutions to the problem of black holes surrounded by uniformly rotating rings in axially symmetric, stationary spacetimes are presented. The numerical methods developed to handle the problem are discussed in some detail. Related Newtonian problems are described and numerical results provided, which show that configurations can reach an inner mass-shedding limit as the mass of the central object increases. Exemplary results for the full relativistic problem for rings of constant density are given and the deformation of the event horizon due to the presence of the ring is demonstrated. Finally, we provide an example of a system for which the angular momentum of the central black hole divided by the square of its mass exceeds one (Jc/M2c>1).
Black hole portal into hidden valleys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovsky, Sergei; Gorbenko, Victor
2011-05-01
Superradiant instability turns rotating astrophysical black holes into unique probes of light axions. We consider what happens when a light axion is coupled to a strongly coupled hidden gauge sector. In this case superradiance results in an adiabatic increase of a hidden sector CP-violating θ parameter in a near horizon region. This may trigger a first order phase transition in the gauge sector. As a result a significant fraction of a black hole mass is released as a cloud of hidden mesons and can be later converted into electromagnetic radiation. This results in a violent electromagnetic burst. The characteristic frequency of such bursts may range from ˜100eV to ˜100MeV.
Semiclassical geons as solitonic black hole remnants
Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D. E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es
2013-07-01
We find that the end state of black hole evaporation could be represented by non-singular and without event horizon stable solitonic remnants with masses of the order the Planck scale and up to ∼ 16 units of charge. Though these objects are locally indistinguishable from spherically symmetric, massive electric (or magnetic) charges, they turn out to be sourceless geons containing a wormhole generated by the electromagnetic field. Our results are obtained by interpreting semiclassical corrections to Einstein's theory in the first-order (Palatini) formalism, which yields second-order equations and avoids the instabilities of the usual (metric) formulation of quadratic gravity. We also discuss the potential relevance of these solutions for primordial black holes and the dark matter problem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2014-06-01
The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin
Black holes, quasars, and the universe /2nd edition/
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shipman, H. L.
1980-01-01
Topics of astronomy are discussed in terms of black holes, galaxies, quasars, and models of the universe. Black holes are approached through consideration of stellar evolution, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars, pulsars, the event horizon, Cygnus X-1, white holes, and worm holes. Attention is also given to radio waves from high speed electrons, the radiation emitted by quasars, active galaxies, galactic energy sources, and interpretations of the redshift. Finally, the life cycle of the universe is deliberated, along with the cosmic time scale, evidence for the Big Bang, and the future of the universe.
Black holes, quasars, and the universe /2nd edition/
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shipman, H. L.
1980-01-01
Topics of astronomy are discussed in terms of black holes, galaxies, quasars, and models of the universe. Black holes are approached through consideration of stellar evolution, white dwarfs, supernovae, neutron stars, pulsars, the event horizon, Cygnus X-1, white holes, and worm holes. Attention is also given to radio waves from high speed electrons, the radiation emitted by quasars, active galaxies, galactic energy sources, and interpretations of the redshift. Finally, the life cycle of the universe is deliberated, along with the cosmic time scale, evidence for the Big Bang, and the future of the universe.
Superradiant instabilities of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Green, Stephen R.; Hollands, Stefan; Ishibashi, Akihiro; Wald, Robert M.
2016-06-01
We study the linear stability of asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes in general relativity in spacetime dimension d≥slant 4. Our approach is an adaptation of the general framework of Hollands and Wald, which gives a stability criterion in terms of the sign of the canonical energy, { E }. The general framework was originally formulated for static or stationary and axisymmetric black holes in the asymptotically flat case, and the stability analysis for that case applies only to axisymmetric perturbations. However, in the asymptotically anti-de Sitter case, the stability analysis requires only that the black hole have a single Killing field normal to the horizon and there are no restrictions on the perturbations (apart from smoothness and appropriate behavior at infinity). For an asymptotically anti-de Sitter black hole, we define an ergoregion to be a region where the horizon Killing field is spacelike; such a region, if present, would normally occur near infinity. We show that for black holes with ergoregions, initial data can be constructed such that { E }\\lt 0, so all such black holes are unstable. To obtain such initial data, we first construct an approximate solution to the constraint equations using the WKB method, and then we use the Corvino-Schoen technique to obtain an exact solution. We also discuss the case of charged asymptotically anti-de Sitter black holes with generalized ergoregions.
Analytical Relativity of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
The successful detection and analysis of gravitational wave (GW) signals from coalescing binary black holes necessitates the accurate prior knowledge of the form of the GW signals. This knowledge can be acquired through a synergy between Analytical Relativity (AR) methods and Numerical Relativity (NR) ones. We describe here the most promising AR formalism for describing the motion and radiation of coalescing binary black holes, the Effective One Body (EOB) method, and discuss its comparison with NR simulations.
Black holes from extended inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsu, Stephen D. H.
1990-11-01
It is argued that models of extended inflation, in which modified Einstein gravity allows a graceful exit from the false vacuum, lead to copious production of black holes. The critical temperature of the inflationary phase transition must be > 108 GeV in order to avoid severe cosmological problems in a universe dominated by black holes. We speculate on the possibility that the interiors of false vacuum regions evolve into baby universes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Narayan, R.
1996-12-01
X-ray binaries (XRBs) are systems in which a neutron star or a black hole accretes matter from a companion secondary star. Several XRBs have mass functions greater than 3M_sun, the maximum mass of a neutron star. These are identified as black hole candidates purely on the basis of mass, but in a few cases there is additional evidence to suggest that the accreting stars actually do have event horizons (see below). Black hole XRBs display at least five spectral states: quiescent state, low state, intermediate state, high state, and very high state. The states are believed to correspond to increasing mass accretion rates. The phenomenology of XRBs can be explained by models which combine the following two basic modes of accretion. (1) Thin accretion disk: In this well-known accretion model, the gas radiates efficiently, is relatively cool, and is geometrically thin in the vertical direction. The spectrum is nearly blackbody. (2) Advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF): Here the accreting gas is optically thin, radiates inefficiently, and is quasi-spherical. Because of the negligible loss of energy through radiation, the gas is extremely hot, with the ions approaching the virial temperature, T_i ~ 10(12) K /r, where r is the radius in Schwarzschild units. The electrons, however, level off at a temperature T_e ~ 10(9-10(10)) K. The spectrum consists of Comptonized synchrotron and bremsstrahlung emission. The quiescent state of black hole XRBs has been explained with a model in which the accreting gas is in the form of a thin disk at large radii, r>rtr ~ 10(3-10^4) , and an ADAF at smaller radii, r
Analysis of the Sultana-Dyer cosmological black hole solution of the Einstein equations
Faraoni, Valerio
2009-08-15
The Sultana-Dyer solution of general relativity representing a black hole embedded in a special cosmological background is analyzed. We find an expanding (weak) spacetime singularity instead of the reported conformal Killing horizon, which is covered by an expanding black hole apparent horizon (internal to a cosmological apparent horizon) for most of the history of the Universe. This singularity was naked early on. The global structure of the solution is studied as well.
A note on entropy of de Sitter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Sourav
2016-03-01
A de Sitter black hole or a black hole spacetime endowed with a positive cosmological constant has two Killing horizons—a black hole and a cosmological event horizon surrounding it. It is natural to expect that the total Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of such spacetimes should be the sum of the two horizons' areas. In this work we apply the recently developed formalism using the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term and the near horizon symmetries to derive the total entropy of such two horizon spacetimes. We construct a suitable general geometric set up for general stationary axisymmetric spacetimes with two or more than two commuting Killing vector fields in an arbitrary spacetime dimensions. This framework helps us to deal with both horizons on an equal footing. We show that in order to obtain the total entropy of such spacetimes, the near horizon mode functions for the diffeomorphism generating vector fields have to be restricted in a certain manner, compared to the single horizon spacetimes. We next discuss specific known exact solutions belonging to the Kerr-Newman or the Plebanski-Demianski-de Sitter families to show that they fall into the category of our general framework. We end with a sketch of further possible extensions of this work.
Black hole in the expanding universe from intersecting branes
Maeda, Kei-ichi; Nozawa, Masato
2010-02-15
We study physical properties and global structures of a time-dependent, spherically symmetric solution obtained via the dimensional reduction of intersecting M-branes. We find that the spacetime describes a maximally charged black hole which asymptotically tends to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe filled by a stiff matter. The metric solves the field equations of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton system, in which four Abelian gauge fields couple to the dilation with different coupling constants. The spacetime satisfies the dominant energy condition and is characterized by two parameters, Q and {tau}, related to the Maxwell charge and the relative ratio of black-hole horizon radii, respectively. In spite of the nontrivial time dependence of the metric, it turns out that the black-hole event horizon is a Killing horizon. This unexpected symmetry may be ascribed to the fact that the 11-dimensional brane configurations are supersymmetric in the static limit. Finally, combining with laws of the trapping horizon, we discuss the thermodynamic properties of the black hole. It is shown that the horizon possesses a nonvanishing temperature, contrary to the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem solution.
Hawking radiation from a Vaidya black hole by Hamilton-Jacobi method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Han; Liu, Wen-Biao
2011-03-01
Using the Hamilton-Jacobi method, Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of a dynamical Vaidya black hole is calculated. The black hole thermodynamics can be built successfully on the apparent horizon. If a relativistic perturbation is given to the apparent horizon, a similar calculation can also lead to a purely thermal spectrum, which corresponds to a modified temperature from the former. The first law of thermodynamics can also be constructed successfully at a new supersurface which has a small deviation from the apparent horizon. When the event horizon is thought as such a deviation from the apparent horizon, the expressions of the characteristic position and temperature are consistent with the previous result that asserts that thermodynamics should be built on the event horizon. It is concluded that the thermodynamics should be constructed on the apparent horizon exactly while the event horizon thermodynamics is just one of the perturbations near the apparent horizon.
Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvesen, Greg
Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the
Three-dimensional charged Einstein-aether black holes and the Smarr formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, Chikun; Liu, Changqing; Wang, Anzhong; Jing, Jiliang
2016-12-01
We investigate behaviors of the three-dimensional gravity coupled to a dynamical unit timelike vector, the aether, and present two new classes of exact charged solutions. When c13=0 , Λ'=0 , we find the solution is the usual BTZ black hole but now with a universal horizon. In the frame of black hole chemistry, we then calculate the temperature of the universal horizons and construct the Smarr formulas and first law in the three cases: (quasi)asymptotically flat, aether asymptotically flat, and quasi-BTZ black hole spacetime. We found these universal horizons obey an exact (or slightly modified) first law of black hole mechanics and may have an entropy, and the black hole mass can be interpreted as enthalpy of spacetime. Then the holography may be extended to these horizons under violating Lorentz symmetry.
Black Hole Thermodynamics and Lorentz Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jacobson, Ted; Wall, Aron C.
2010-08-01
Recent developments point to a breakdown in the generalized second law of thermodynamics for theories with Lorentz symmetry violation. It appears possible to construct a perpetual motion machine of the second kind in such theories, using a black hole to catalyze the conversion of heat to work. Here we describe and extend the arguments leading to that conclusion. We suggest the inference that local Lorentz symmetry may be an emergent property of the macroscopic world with origins in a microscopic second law of causal horizon thermodynamics.
Cosmic censorship conjecture in Kerr-Sen black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gwak, Bogeun
2017-06-01
The validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the Kerr-Sen black hole, which is a solution to the low-energy effective field theory for four-dimensional heterotic string theory, is investigated using charged particle absorption. When the black hole absorbs the particle, the charge on it changes owing to the conserved quantities of the particle. Changes in the black hole are constrained to the equation for the motion of the particle and are consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. Particle absorption increases the mass of the Kerr-Sen black hole to more than that of the absorbed charges such as angular momentum and electric charge; hence, the black hole cannot be overcharged. In the near-extremal black hole, we observe a violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture for the angular momentum in the first order of expansion and the electric charge in the second order. However, considering an adiabatic process carrying the conserved quantities as those of the black hole, we prove the stability of the black hole horizon. Thus, we resolve the violation. This is consistent with the third law of thermodynamics.
Black hole phase transitions in Horava-Lifshitz gravity
Cao Qiaojun; Chen Yixin; Shao Kainan
2011-03-15
We study black hole phase transitions in (deformed) Horava-Lifshitz (H-L) gravity, including the charged/uncharged topological black holes and KS black hole. Stability analysis and state space geometry are both used. We find interesting phase structures in these black holes, some of the properties are never observed in Einstein gravity. Particularly, the stability properties of black holes in H-L gravity with small radius change dramatically, which can be considered as a leak of information about the small scale behavior of spacetime. A new black hole local phase transition in H-L gravity which cannot be revealed by thermodynamical metrics has been found. There is an infinite discontinuity at the specific heat curve for charged black hole in H-L gravity with hyperbolic event horizon. However, this discontinuity does not have a corresponding curvature singularity of thermodynamical metrics. Our results may provide new insights towards a better understanding of the H-L gravity, as well as black hole thermodynamics.
Particle motion and Penrose processes around rotating regular black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon
2016-07-01
The neutral particle motion around rotating regular black hole that was derived from the Ayón-Beato-García (ABG) black hole solution by the Newman-Janis algorithm in the preceding paper (Toshmatov et al., Phys. Rev. D, 89:104017, 2014) has been studied. The dependencies of the ISCO (innermost stable circular orbits along geodesics) and unstable orbits on the value of the electric charge of the rotating regular black hole have been shown. Energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole through various processes has been examined. We have found expression of the center of mass energy for the colliding neutral particles coming from infinity, based on the BSW (Baňados-Silk-West) mechanism. The electric charge Q of rotating regular black hole decreases the potential of the gravitational field as compared to the Kerr black hole and the particles demonstrate less bound energy at the circular geodesics. This causes an increase of efficiency of the energy extraction through BSW process in the presence of the electric charge Q from rotating regular black hole. Furthermore, we have studied the particle emission due to the BSW effect assuming that two neutral particles collide near the horizon of the rotating regular extremal black hole and produce another two particles. We have shown that efficiency of the energy extraction is less than the value 146.6 % being valid for the Kerr black hole. It has been also demonstrated that the efficiency of the energy extraction from the rotating regular black hole via the Penrose process decreases with the increase of the electric charge Q and is smaller in comparison to 20.7 % which is the value for the extreme Kerr black hole with the specific angular momentum a= M.
Entropy of Reissner-Nordström-de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Chun; Zhao, Ren; Ma, Meng-Sen
2016-10-01
Based on the consideration that the black hole horizon and the cosmological horizon of Reissner-Nordström black hole in de Sitter space are not independent each other, we conjecture the total entropy of the system should have an extra term contributed from the entanglement between the two horizons, except for the sum of the two horizon entropies. Making use of the globally effective first law and the effective thermodynamic quantities, we derive the total entropy and find that it will diverge as the two horizons tend to coincide.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sheykhi, A.; Hajkhalili, S.
2015-11-01
We study topological dilaton black holes of Einstein gravity in the presence of exponential nonlinear electrodynamics. The event horizons of these black holes can be a two-dimensional positive, zero or negative constant curvature surface. We analyze thermodynamics of these solutions by calculating all conserved and thermodynamic quantities and showing that the first law holds on the black hole horizon. Then, we perform the stability analysis in both canonical and grand canonical ensemble and disclose the effects of the dilaton and nonlinear electrodynamics on the thermal stability of the solutions. Finally, we study the phase transition points of these black holes in the thermodynamic geometry approach.
Static Einstein-Maxwell Black Holes with No Spatial Isometries in AdS Space.
Herdeiro, Carlos A R; Radu, Eugen
2016-11-25
We explicitly construct static black hole solutions to the fully nonlinear, D=4, Einstein-Maxwell-anti-de Sitter (AdS) equations that have no continuous spatial symmetries. These black holes have a smooth, topologically spherical horizon (section), but without isometries, and approach, asymptotically, global AdS spacetime. They are interpreted as bound states of a horizon with the Einstein-Maxwell-AdS solitons recently discovered, for appropriate boundary data. In sharp contrast to the uniqueness results for a Minkowski electrovacuum, the existence of these black holes shows that single, equilibrium, black hole solutions in an AdS electrovacuum admit an arbitrary multipole structure.
Marginally bound (critical) geodesics of rapidly rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2013-10-01
One of the most important geodesics in a black hole spacetime is the marginally bound spherical orbit. This critical geodesic represents the innermost spherical orbit which is bound to the central black hole. The radii rmb(a¯) of the marginally bound equatorial circular geodesics of rotating Kerr black holes were found analytically by Bardeen et al. more than four decades ago (here a¯≡J/M2 is the dimensionless angular momentum of the black hole). On the other hand, no closed-form formula exists in the literature for the radii of generic (nonequatorial) marginally bound geodesics of the rotating Kerr spacetime. In the present study, we analyze the critical (marginally bound) orbits of rapidly rotating Kerr black holes. In particular, we derive a simple analytical formula for the radii rmb(a¯≃1;cosi) of the marginally bound spherical orbits, where cosi is an effective inclination angle (with respect to the black hole equatorial plane) of the geodesic. We find that the marginally bound spherical orbits of rapidly rotating black holes are characterized by a critical inclination angle, cosi=2/3, above which the coordinate radii of the geodesics approach the black hole radius in the extremal a¯→1 limit. It is shown that this critical inclination angle signals a transition in the physical properties of the orbits: in particular, it separates marginally bound spherical geodesics which lie a finite proper distance from the black hole horizon from marginally bound geodesics which lie an infinite proper distance from the horizon.
Violent flickering in Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-10-01
Unique observations of the flickering light from the surroundings of two black holes provide new insights into the colossal energy that flows at their hearts. By mapping out how well the variations in visible light match those in X-rays on very short timescales, astronomers have shown that magnetic fields must play a crucial role in the way black holes swallow matter. Flickering black hole ESO PR Photo 36/08 Flickering black hole Like the flame from a candle, light coming from the surroundings of a black hole is not constant -- it flares, sputters and sparkles. "The rapid flickering of light from a black hole is most commonly observed at X-ray wavelengths," says Poshak Gandhi, who led the international team that reports these results. "This new study is one of only a handful to date that also explore the fast variations in visible light, and, most importantly how these fluctuations relate to those in X-rays." The observations tracked the shimmering of the black holes simultaneously using two different instruments, one on the ground and one in space. The X-ray data were taken using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite. The visible light was collected with the high speed camera ULTRACAM, a visiting instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), recording up to 20 images a second. ULTRACAM was developed by team members Vik Dhillon and Tom Marsh. "These are among the fastest observations of a black hole ever obtained with a large optical telescope," says Dhillon. To their surprise, astronomers discovered that the brightness fluctuations in the visible light were even more rapid than those seen in X-rays. In addition, the visible-light and X-ray variations were found not to be simultaneous, but to follow a repeated and remarkable pattern: just before an X-ray flare the visible light dims, and then surges to a bright flash for a tiny fraction of a second before rapidly decreasing again. None of this radiation emerges directly from the black hole, but from the
Hawking Radiation as a Possible Probe for the Interior Structure of Regular Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Yanbin; Cleaver, Gerald
2017-03-01
The notion of black hole singularity and the proof of the singularity theorem were considered great successes in classical general relativity whereas they meanwhile brought with deep puzzles. Conceptual challenges were set up by the intractability of the singularity. The existence of black hole horizons which cover up the black hole interior including the singularity from outside observers, builds an information curtain, further hindering physicists from understanding the nature of the singularity and the interior structure of black holes. The regular black hole is a concept produced out of multiple attempts of establishing a tractable and understandable interior structure for black holes as well as avoiding the singularity behind the black hole horizon. The practicality of the new constructions of black holes would be considered more reliable if there can be found some connection between the interior of regular black holes and some far-reaching signals released from the black hole. After studying the Hawking radiation by fermion tunnelling from one type of regular black hole, structure dependent results were obtained. The result being structure dependent hints the prospects of employing the Hawking radiation as a method to probe into the structure of black holes.
Stellar black holes and the origin of cosmic acceleration
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda; Afshordi, Niayesh; Balogh, Michael L.
2009-08-15
The discovery of cosmic acceleration has presented a unique challenge for cosmologists. As observational cosmology forges ahead, theorists have struggled to make sense of a standard model that requires extreme fine-tuning. This challenge is known as the cosmological constant problem. The theory of gravitational aether is an alternative to general relativity that does not suffer from this fine-tuning problem, as it decouples the quantum field theory vacuum from geometry, while remaining consistent with other tests of gravity. In this paper, we study static black hole solutions in this theory and show that it manifests a UV-IR coupling: Aether couples the space-time metric close to the black hole horizon, to metric at infinity. We then show that using the trans-Planckian ansatz (as a quantum gravity effect) close to the black hole horizon, leads to an accelerating cosmological solution, far from the horizon. Interestingly, this acceleration matches current observations for stellar-mass black holes. Based on our current understanding of the black hole accretion history in the Universe, we then make a prediction for how the effective dark energy density should evolve with redshift, which can be tested with future dark energy probes.
Superradiant instability of black holes immersed in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brito, Richard; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo
2014-05-01
Magnetic fields surrounding spinning black holes can confine radiation and trigger superradiant instabilities. To investigate this effect, we perform the first fully-consistent linear analysis of the Ernst spacetime, an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell equations describing a black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field B. In the limit in which the black-hole mass vanishes, the background reduces to the marginally stable Melvin spacetime. The presence of an event horizon introduces a small dissipative term, resulting in a set of long-lived—or unstable—modes. We provide a simple interpretation of the mode spectrum in terms of a small perfect absorber immersed in a confining box of size ˜1/B and show that rotation triggers a superradiant instability. By studying scalar perturbations of a magnetized Kerr-Newman black hole, we are able to confirm and quantify the details of this instability. The instability time scale can be orders of magnitude shorter than that associated to massive bosonic fields. The instability extracts angular momentum from the event horizon, competing against accretion. This implies that strong magnetic fields set an upper bound on the black-hole spin. Conversely, observations of highly-spinning massive black holes impose an intrinsic limit to the strength of the surrounding magnetic field. We discuss the astrophysical implications of our results and the limitations of the Ernst spacetime to describe realistic astrophysical configurations.
Extended black hole cosmologies in de Sitter space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.
2010-04-01
We generalize the superposition principle for time-symmetric initial data of black hole spacetimes to (anti-)de Sitter cosmologies in terms of an eigenvalue problem \\Delta _g\\phi =\\frac{1}{8}(R_g-2\\Lambda )\\phi for a conformal scale phi applied to a metric gij with constant three-curvature Rg. Here, Rg = 0, 2 in the Brill-Lindquist and, respectively, the Misner construction of multihole solutions for Λ = 0. For de Sitter and anti-de Sitter cosmologies, we express the result for Rg = 0 in incomplete elliptic functions. The topology of a black hole in de Sitter space can be extended into an infinite tower of universes, across the turning points at the black hole and cosmological event horizons. Superposition introduces binary black holes for small separations and binary universes for separations largely relative to the cosmological event horizon. The evolution of the metric can be described by a hyperbolic system of equations with a curvature-driven lapse function, of alternating sign at successive cosmologies. The computational problem of interacting black hole universes is conceivably of interest to early cosmology when Λ was large and black holes were of mass <\\frac{1}{3}\\Lambda ^{-1/2}, here facilitated by a metric which is singularity-free and smooth everywhere on real coordinate space.
Critical behavior in black hole scalar field interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Crespo, J. A.; de Oliveira, H. P.
2015-09-01
We study the critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in a model consisting of a scalar field incident to a reflector barrier enclosing a Schwarzschild black hole. Weak incident scalar field waves disturb slightly the black hole spacetime and are completely radiated by the reflector, like water waves striking against the wall of a dam. Strong incident waves produce the formation of an apparent horizon outside the barrier. In this case, a fraction of scalar field crosses the horizon together with the barrier, whereas another fraction escapes to infinity. We have integrated the field equations using a Galerkin collocation code that allowed the necessary accuracy to investigate the behavior of the black hole masses for a broad range of scalar field initial amplitude. We have shown that a scaling law describes the black hole masses for amplitudes very close to the critical value. In the limit of very strong scalar fields, the black hole masses either scale linearly with the initial amplitude or saturate depending on the existence of the initial monopole moment.
Absorption of scalars by extremal black holes in string theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moura, Filipe
2017-09-01
We show that the low frequency absorption cross section of minimally coupled test massless scalar fields by extremal spherically symmetric black holes in d dimensions is equal to the horizon area, even in the presence of string-theoretical α ' corrections. Classically one has the relation σ = 4 GS between that absorption cross section and the black hole entropy. By comparing in each case the values of the horizon area and Wald's entropy, we discuss the validity of such relation in the presence of higher derivative corrections for extremal black holes in many different contexts: in the presence of electric and magnetic charges; for nonsupersymmetric and supersymmetric black holes; in d=4 and d=5 dimensions. The examples we consider seem to indicate that this relation is not verified in the presence of α ' corrections in general, although being valid in some specific cases (electrically charged maximally supersymmetric black holes in d=5). We argue that the relation σ = 4 GS should in general be valid for the absorption cross section of scalar fields which, although being independent from the black hole solution, have their origin from string theory, and therefore are not minimally coupled.
Shadows (Mirages) Around Black Holes and Retro Gravitational Lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A. F.; Nucita, A. A.; Depaolis, F.; Ingrosso, G.
Recently Holz & Wheeler [1] considered a very attracting possibility to detect retro-MACHOs, i.e. retro-images of the Sun by a Schwarzschild black hole. In this paper we discuss glories (mirages) formed near rapidly rotating Kerr black hole horizons and propose a procedure to measure masses and rotation parameters analyzing these forms of mirages (a detailed description of the problem is given in [2]). In some sense that is a manifestation of gravitational lens effect in the strong gravitational field near black hole horizon and a generalization of the retro-gravitational lens phenomenon. We analyze the case of a Kerr black hole rotating at arbitrary speed for some selected positions of a distant observer with respect to the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. Some time ago Falcke, Melia & Agol [3] suggested to search shadows at the Galactic Center. In this paper we present the boundaries for shadows calculated numerically. We also propose to use future radio interferometer RADIOASTRON facilities to measure shapes of mirages (glories) and to evaluate the black hole spin as a function of the position angle of a distant observer.
Geometry of deformed black holes. I. Majumdar-Papapetrou binary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semerák, O.; Basovník, M.
2016-08-01
Although black holes are eminent manifestations of very strong gravity, the geometry of space-time around and even inside them can be significantly affected by additional bodies present in their surroundings. We study such an influence within static and axially symmetric (electro)vacuum space-times described by exact solutions of Einstein's equations, considering astrophysically motivated configurations (such as black holes surrounded by rings) as well as those of pure academic interest (such as specifically "tuned" systems of multiple black holes). The geometry is represented by the simplest invariants determined by the metric (the lapse function) and its gradient (gravitational acceleration), with special emphasis given to curvature (the Kretschmann and Ricci-square scalars). These quantities are analyzed and their level surfaces plotted both above and below the black-hole horizons, in particular near the central singularities. Estimating that the black hole could be most strongly affected by the other black hole, we focus, in this first paper, on the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution for a binary black hole and compare the deformation caused by "the other" hole (and the electrostatic field) with that induced by rotational dragging in the well-known Kerr and Kerr-Newman solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
A general glance at theoretical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chia, Han-Yu
This thesis is a general review based on the materials of black hole physics that ordinary graduate course such as the General Relativity and Cosmology do not cover. The thesis mainly covers the studies of four-dimensional black holes and black hole thermodynamics. Then, a brief discussion on higher dimensional black holes of Kerr-Schwarzschild class follows. Advanced topics in higher dimensional black holes are also discussed in the thesis. Those advanced topics include extra dimension, black hole production in particle accelerators and evaporation in both colliders and atmosphere.