Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole
Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan E-mail: pcheng14@lzu.edu.cn E-mail: zhouxn10@lzu.edu.cn
2015-08-01
In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter a/M{sub 0} with M{sub 0} black hole mass and inclination angle i, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter √θ/M{sub 0} is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter √θ/M{sub 0}, while the distortion increases with it. Compared to the Kerr black hole, the parameter √θ/M{sub 0} increases the deformation of the shadow. This may offer a way to distinguish noncommutative geometry inspired black hole from Kerr one via astronomical instruments in the near future.
Highly eccentric inspirals into a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles R.
2016-03-01
We model the inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object into a massive nonrotating black hole including all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects on the orbital motion. The techniques we develop allow inspirals with initial eccentricities as high as e ˜0.8 and initial separations as large as p ˜50 to be evolved through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge into the black hole. The inspiral is computed using an osculating elements scheme driven by a hybridized self-force model, which combines Lorenz-gauge self-force results with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code. The high accuracy of our hybrid self-force model allows the orbital phase of the inspirals to be tracked to within ˜0.1 radians or better. The difference between self-force models and inspirals computed in the radiative approximation is quantified.
Regular black holes and noncommutative geometry inspired fuzzy sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Shinpei
2016-05-01
We investigated regular black holes with fuzzy sources in three and four dimensions. The density distributions of such fuzzy sources are inspired by noncommutative geometry and given by Gaussian or generalized Gaussian functions. We utilized mass functions to give a physical interpretation of the horizon formation condition for the black holes. In particular, we investigated three-dimensional BTZ-like black holes and four-dimensional Schwarzschild-like black holes in detail, and found that the number of horizons is related to the space-time dimensions, and the existence of a void in the vicinity of the center of the space-time is significant, rather than noncommutativity. As an application, we considered a three-dimensional black hole with the fuzzy disc which is a disc-shaped region known in the context of noncommutative geometry as a source. We also analyzed a four-dimensional black hole with a source whose density distribution is an extension of the fuzzy disc, and investigated the horizon formation condition for it.
Extreme-mass-ratio inspirals into a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osburn, Thomas
2016-04-01
The inspiral of a compact stellar-mass object (black hole, neutron star, or white dwarf) into a super-massive black hole is modeled perturbatively. All dissipative and conservative effects on the orbital motion are included up to first-order in the mass-ratio via the gravitational self-force. To calculate the self-force, a number of advanced numerical tools were developed. These tools are able to describe the complete range of astrophysically relevant orbital configurations for the first time (for non-rotating binary components), and at an accuracy never before achieved. The accuracy is high enough to aid in the detection of gravitational waves while correctly determining the physical parameters of the source.
Binary Black Hole Late Inspiral: Simulations for Gravitational Wave Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael
2006-01-01
Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the spacebased interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for approximately 1200M through approximately 7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass approximately 14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to PN calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than half a cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR 2 10 for some IMBBHs out to z approximately equals 1, and that LISA can see MBBHs in the range 3 x 10(exp 4) approximately < M/Mo approximately < 10(exp 7) at SNR > 100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z > 15.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahaman, Farook; Bhar, Piyali; Sharma, Ranjan; Tiwari, Rishi Kumar
2015-03-01
We report a -D charged black hole solution in an anti-de Sitter space inspired by noncommutative geometry. In this construction, the black hole exhibits two horizons, which turn into a single horizon in the extreme case. We investigate the impacts of electromagnetic field on the location of the event horizon, mass and thermodynamic properties such as Hawking temperature, entropy, and heat capacity of the black hole. The geodesics of the charged black hole are also analyzed.
CIRCUMBINARY MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC ACCRETION INTO INSPIRALING BINARY BLACK HOLES
Noble, Scott C.; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef; Krolik, Julian H.; Yunes, Nicolas
2012-08-10
We have simulated the magnetohydrodynamic evolution of a circumbinary disk surrounding an equal-mass binary comprising two non-spinning black holes during the period in which the disk inflow time is comparable to the binary evolution time due to gravitational radiation. Both the changing spacetime and the binary orbital evolution are described by an innovative technique utilizing high-order post-Newtonian approximations. Prior to the beginning of the inspiral, the structure of the circumbinary disk is predicted well by extrapolation from Newtonian results: a gap of roughly two binary separation radii is cleared, and matter piles up at the outer edge of this gap as inflow is retarded by torques exerted by the binary; the accretion rate is roughly half its value at large radius. During inspiral, the inner edge of the disk initially moves inward in coordination with the shrinking binary, but-as the orbital evolution accelerates-the inward motion of the disk edge falls behind the rate of binary compression. In this stage, the binary torque falls substantially, but the accretion rate decreases by only 10%-20%. When the binary separation is tens of gravitational radii, the rest-mass efficiency of disk radiation is a few percent, suggesting that supermassive binary black holes could be very luminous at this stage of their evolution. Inner disk heating is modulated at a beat frequency comparable to the binary orbital frequency. However, a disk with sufficient surface density to be luminous may be optically thick, suppressing periodic modulation of the luminosity.
GRAVITATIONAL WAVE EXTRACTION FROM AN INSPIRALING CONFIGURATION OF MERGING BLACK HOLES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Dae-Il, Choi; Koppitz, Michael; van Meter, James
2005-01-01
We present new techniques for evolving binary black hole systems which allow the accurate determination of gravitational waveforms directly from the wave zone region of the numerical simulations. Rather than excising the black hole interiors, our approach follows the "puncture" treatment of black holes, but utilizing a new gauge condition which allows the black holes to move successfully through the computational domain. We apply these techniques to an inspiraling binary, modeling the radiation generated during the final plunge and ringdown. We demonstrate convergence of the waveforms and and good conservation of mass-energy, with just over 3% of the system s mass converted to gravitational radiation.
Transition from adiabatic inspiral to plunge into a spinning black hole
Kesden, Michael
2011-05-15
A test particle of mass {mu} on a bound geodesic of a Kerr black hole of mass M>>{mu} will slowly inspiral as gravitational radiation extracts energy and angular momentum from its orbit. This inspiral can be considered adiabatic when the orbital period is much shorter than the time scale on which energy is radiated, and quasicircular when the radial velocity is much less than the azimuthal velocity. Although the inspiral always remains adiabatic provided {mu}<
Highly eccentric inspirals into a Schwarzschild black hole using self-force calculations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Osburn, Thomas; Warburton, Niels; Evans, Charles
2016-03-01
Eccentric-orbit inspirals into a massive black hole are calculated using the gravitational self-force. Both extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) and intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs) are modeled. These calculations include all dissipative and conservative first-order-in-the-mass-ratio effects for inspirals into a Schwarzschild black hole. We compute systems with initial eccentricities as high as e = 0.8 and initial separations as large as 100 M. In the case of EMRIs, the calculations follow the decay through many thousands of orbits up to the onset of the plunge. Inspirals are computed using an osculating-orbits scheme that is driven by self-force data from a hybridized self-force code. A Lorenz gauge self-force code is combined with highly accurate flux data from a Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli code, allowing the hybrid self-force model to track orbital phase in the inspirals to within 0.1 radians or better. Extensions of the method to include other physical effects are considered.
Komar energy and Smarr formula for noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Rabin; Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2011-11-01
We calculate the Komar energy E for a noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild black hole. A deformation from the conventional identity E = 2 ST H is found in the next to leading order computation in the noncommutative parameter θ (i.e. {{O}(sqrt{θ}e^{-M^2/θ})}) which is also consistent with the fact that the area law now breaks down. This deformation yields a nonvanishing Komar energy at the extremal point T H = 0 of these black holes. We then work out the Smarr formula, clearly elaborating the differences from the standard result M = 2 ST H , where the mass ( M) of the black hole is identified with the asymptotic limit of the Komar energy. Similar conclusions are also shown to hold for a deSitter-Schwarzschild geometry.
Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballinger, T.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. 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A.; Meadors, G.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mercer, R. A.; Merill, L.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mino, Y.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreau, J.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Nash, T.; Nawrodt, R.; Nelson, J.; Neri, I.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G. H.; Oldenburg, R. G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. 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Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szokoly, G. P.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Titsler, C.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tseng, K.; Turner, L.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vaishnav, B.; Vajente, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A. E.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Wei, P.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P.; Yvert, M.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2011-06-01
We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black-hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched approximately 2 years of LIGO data, taken between November 2005 and September 2007, for systems with component masses of 1-99M⊙ and total masses of 25-100M⊙. We did not detect any plausible gravitational-wave signals but we do place upper limits on the merger rate of binary black holes as a function of the component masses in this range. We constrain the rate of mergers for 19M⊙≤m1, m2≤28M⊙ binary black-hole systems with negligible spin to be no more than 2.0Mpc-3Myr-1 at 90% confidence.
Transient resonances in the inspirals of point particles into black holes.
Flanagan, Eanna E; Hinderer, Tanja
2012-08-17
We show that transient resonances occur in the two-body problem in general relativity for spinning black holes in close proximity to one another when one black hole is much more massive than the other. These resonances occur when the ratio of polar and radial orbital frequencies, which is slowly evolving under the influence of gravitational radiation reaction, passes through a low order rational number. At such points, the adiabatic approximation to the orbital evolution breaks down, and there is a brief but order unity correction to the inspiral rate. The resonances cause a perturbation to orbital phase of order a few tens of cycles for mass ratios ∼10(-6), make orbits more sensitive to changes in initial data (though not quite chaotic), and are genuine nonperturbative effects that are not seen at any order in a standard post-Newtonian expansion. Our results apply to an important potential source of gravitational waves, the gradual inspiral of white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes into much more massive black holes. Resonances' effects will increase the computational challenge of accurately modeling these sources.
Inspiral-merger-ringdown (2, 0) mode waveforms for aligned-spin black-hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao
2016-08-01
Based on spin weighted spherical harmonic decomposition, the (2,+/- 2) modes dominate the gravitational waveforms generated by binary black holes. Several recent works found that other modes including (l,0) ones are also important to gravitational wave data analysis. For aligned-spin binaries, these (l,0) modes are related to the memory effect of gravitational wave. Based on the post-Newtonian analysis, quasi-normal modes analysis and the results of numerical relativity simulations, we present a full inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform model for the (2,0) mode generated by binary black holes. Our model includes the quasinormal ringing part and includes the effect of a black hole’s spin. It is complementary to the previous results.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zlochower, Yosef; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Mundim, Bruno C.; Campanelli, Manuela; Noble, Scott; Zilhão, Miguel
2016-06-01
We explore how a recently developed analytical black-hole binary spacetime can be extended using numerical simulations to go beyond the slow-inspiral phase. The analytic spacetime solves the Einstein field equations approximately, with the approximation error becoming progressively smaller the more separated the binary. To continue the spacetime beyond the slow-inspiral phase, we need to transition. Such a transition was previously explored at smaller separations. Here, we perform this transition at a separation of D =20 M (large enough that the analytical metric is expected to be accurate), and evolve for six orbits. We find that small constraint violations can have large dynamical effects, but these can be removed by using a constraint-damping system like the conformal covariant formulation of the Z4 system. We find agreement between the subsequent numerical spacetime and the predictions of post-Newtonian theory for the waveform and inspiral rate that is within the post-Newtonian truncation error.
Small mass plunging into a Kerr black hole: Anatomy of the inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taracchini, Andrea; Buonanno, Alessandra; Khanna, Gaurav; Hughes, Scott A.
2014-10-01
We numerically solve the Teukolsky equation in the time domain to obtain the gravitational-wave emission of a small mass inspiraling and plunging into the equatorial plane of a Kerr black hole. We account for the dissipation of orbital energy using the Teukolsky frequency-domain gravitational-wave fluxes for circular, equatorial orbits, down to the light-ring. We consider Kerr spins -0.99≤q≤0.99, and compute the inspiral-merger-ringdown (2,2), (2,1), (3,3), (3,2), (4,4), and (5,5) modes. We study the large-spin regime, and find a great simplicity in the merger waveforms, thanks to the extremely circular character of the plunging orbits. We also quantitatively examine the mixing of quasinormal modes during the ringdown, which induces complicated amplitude and frequency modulations in the waveforms. Finally, we explain how the study of small mass-ratio black-hole binaries helps extending effective-one-body models for comparable-mass, spinning black-hole binaries to any mass ratio and spin magnitude.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiang, Li-E.; Zhao, Shu Hong; Xu, Peng
2016-12-01
Gravitational waves from coalescing black-hole binaries (BHBs) were recently observed by the advanced LIGO detectors. Based on the perturbation analysis, for general Kaluza-Klein theories with compact extra dimensions, we find a 1st-order post-Newtonian correction to the inspiral gravitational waveforms of black-hole binaries, that comes from the variations of the volume of the extra dimensions in near source zones. Such correction depends on a new parameter χ=\\frac{n}{2+n} with n the dimensionality of the extra space and it is irrelevant to the particular choice of the topology of the extra space. For the ideal case of a black-hole binary system following nearly circular orbital motion with almost equal or intermediate mass ratio, such higher-dimensional corrections to the chirping amplitude are worked out. Giving the power of tracing inspiral waves from coalescing massive BHBs with high signal-to-noise ratios, the planned space-borne antennas such as the eLISA and DECIGO may give us a measurement of the parameter χ in the near future and may serve us as new probes in the searching for the evidence of the hidden compact dimensions.
Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.
2001-01-01
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801
Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J
2001-09-11
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.
Post-Newtonian Black-Hole Inspiral Initial Data with Waves for Puncture Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, B. J.; Tichy, W.; Campanelli, M.; Whiting, F. B.
2007-01-01
We present post-Newtonian-inspired initial data for non-spinning black-hole binaries, suitable for numerical evolution with punctures. We revisit the work of Tichey et al. and explicitly calculate remaining integral terms.Thereby we improve the accuracy in the far zone, by including realistic gravitational waves in the initial data. We investigate the behavior of this data both at the center of mass and in the far zone, demonstrating agreement of the transverse-traceless parts of the new metric with quadrupole-approximation waveforms. An advantage of these data is that they can be used for numerical evolutions to make a direct connection between the merger waveforms and the post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams, Sean T.; Lang, Ryan N.; Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira
2011-01-01
We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, including for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. For an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2 x l0(exp 6) Stellar Mass at a redshift of z = 1 with random orientations and sky positions, we find median sky localization errors of approximately approx. 3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rather than through diminishing correlations with any subset of well-determined parameters.
Precision Measurement of Complete Black Hole Binary Inspiral-Merger-Ringdown Signals with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams, Sean T.
2009-01-01
Until recently, only the inspiral and ringdown phases of black hole binary (131-113) coalescences had been modeled. The merger signals, which were expected to be the most luminous portion of the total signal, were unavailable due to the technical difficulty of calculating the behavior of a BHB in this highly dynamical and non-linear regime. Advancements in the field of numerical relativity make it possible to include the merger segment of 131113 coalescence in the search for and characterization of gravitational wave signals. The implications for LISA include an increase in the event rate due to the increase in achievable signal-to-noise ratio, as well as potentially improved accuracy regarding the extraction of the source parameters. We investigate the degree to which mergers improve parameter estimation, by studying the impact of including mergers on achievable parameter accuracy over a significant range of masses and mass ratios for nonspinning systems, and its impact on LISA science.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sotani, Hajime; Miyamoto, Umpei
2015-08-01
We systematically examine the properties of null geodesics around an electrically charged, asymptotically flat black hole in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity, varying the electric charge of the black hole and the coupling constant in the theory. We find that the radius of the unstable circular orbit for a massless particle decreases with the coupling constant, if the value of the electrical charge is fixed. Additionally, we consider the strong gravitational lensing around such a black hole. We show that the deflection angle, the position angle of the relativistic images, and the magnification due to the light bending in strong gravitational field are quite sensitive to the parameters determining the black hole solution. Thus, through the accurate observations associated with the strong gravitational lensing, it might be possible to reveal the gravitational theory in a strong field regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundararajan, Pranesh A.; Khanna, Gaurav; Hughes, Scott A.; Drasco, Steve
2008-07-01
This is the second in a series of papers whose aim is to generate adiabatic gravitational waveforms from the inspiral of stellar-mass compact objects into massive black holes. In earlier work, we presented an accurate (2+1)D finite-difference time-domain code to solve the Teukolsky equation, which evolves curvature perturbations near rotating (Kerr) black holes. The key new ingredient there was a simple but accurate model of the singular source term based on a discrete representation of the Dirac-delta function and its derivatives. Our earlier work was intended as a proof of concept, using simple circular, equatorial geodesic orbits as a test bed. Such a source is effectively static, in that the smaller body remains at the same coordinate radius and orbital inclination over an orbit. (It of course moves through axial angle, but we separate that degree of freedom from the problem. Our numerical grid has only radial, polar, and time coordinates.) We now extend the time-domain code so that it can accommodate dynamic sources that move on a variety of physically interesting world lines. We validate the code with extensive comparison to frequency-domain waveforms for cases in which the source moves along generic (inclined and eccentric) bound geodesic orbits. We also demonstrate the ability of the time-domain code to accommodate sources moving on interesting nongeodesic worldlines. We do this by computing the waveform produced by a test mass following a kludged inspiral trajectory, made of bound geodesic segments driven toward merger by an approximate radiation loss formula.
Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafikov, Roman R.
2016-08-01
Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in the accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here, we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant \\dot{M} accretion disk solution. The suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semimajor axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. Thus, unlike the inspirals driven by stellar scattering, the gas-assisted merger can occur even if the binary is embedded in a relatively low-mass disk (lower than its own mass). This is important for resolving the “last parsec” problem for SMBH binaries and understanding powerful gravitational wave sources in the universe. We argue that the enhancement of accretion by the binary found in some recent simulations cannot persist for a long time and should not affect the long-term orbital inspiral. We also review existing simulations of SMBH binary-disk coupling and propose a numerical setup which is particularly well suited to verifying our theoretical predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Jakob; Yeom, Dong-han
2014-10-01
We investigate gravitational collapses of charged black holes in string-inspired gravity models, including dilaton gravity and braneworld model, as well as f( R) gravity and the ghost limit. If we turn on gauge coupling, the causal structures and the responses of the Brans-Dicke field depend on the coupling between the charged matter and the BransDicke field. For Type IIA inspired models, a Cauchy horizon exists, while there is no Cauchy horizon for Type I or Heterotic inspired models. For Type IIA inspired models, the no-hair theorem is satisfied asymptotically, while it is biased to the weak coupling limit for Type I or Heterotic inspired models. Apart from string theory, we find that in the ghost limit, a gravitational collapse can induce inflation by itself and create one-way traversable wormholes without the need of other special initial conditions.
Radio crickets: chirping jets from black hole binaries entering their gravitational wave inspiral
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kulkarni, Girish; Loeb, Abraham
2016-03-01
We study a novel electromagnetic signature of supermassive black hole (BH) binaries whose inspiral starts being dominated by gravitational wave (GW) emission. Recent simulations suggest that the binary's member BHs can continue to accrete gas from the circumbinary accretion disc in this phase of the binary's evolution, all the way until coalescence. If one of the binary members produces a radio jet as a result of accretion, the jet precesses along a biconical surface due to the binary's orbital motion. When the binary enters the GW phase of its evolution, the opening angle widens, the jet exhibits milliarcsecond-scale wiggles, and the conical surface of jet precession is twisted due to apparent superluminal motion. The rapidly increasing orbital velocity of the binary gives the jet an appearance of a `chirp'. This helical chirping morphology of the jet can be used to infer the binary parameters. For binaries with mass 107-1010 M⊙ at redshifts z < 0.5, monitoring these features in current and archival data will place a lower limit on sources that could be detected by Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna and Pulsar Timing Arrays. In the future, microarcsecond interferometry with the Square Kilometre Array will increase the potential usefulness of this technique.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Archisman; Del Pozzo, Walter; Ajith, Parameswaran
2016-11-01
We characterize the expected statistical errors with which the parameters of black hole binaries can be measured from gravitational-wave (GW) observations of their inspiral, merger, and ringdown by a network of second-generation ground-based GW observatories. We simulate a population of black hole binaries with uniform distribution of component masses in the interval (3 ,80 )M⊙, distributed uniformly in comoving volume, with isotropic orientations. From signals producing signal-to-noise ratio ≥5 in at least two detectors, we estimate the posterior distributions of the binary parameters using the Bayesian parameter estimation code LALInference. The GW signals will be redshifted due to the cosmological expansion, and we measure only the "redshifted" masses. By assuming a cosmology, it is possible to estimate the gravitational masses by inferring the redshift from the measured posterior of the luminosity distance. We find that the measurement of the gravitational masses will be, in general, dominated by the error in measuring the luminosity distance. In spite of this, the component masses of more than 50% of the population can be measured with accuracy better than ˜25 % using the Advanced LIGO-Virgo network. Additionally, the mass of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy ˜18 %. Spin of the final black hole can be measured with median accuracy ˜5 %(17 %) for binaries with nonspinning (aligned-spin) black holes. Additional detectors in Japan and India significantly improve the accuracy of sky localization, and moderately improve the estimation of luminosity distance, and hence, that of all mass parameters. We discuss the implication of these results on the observational evidence of intermediate-mass black holes and the estimation of cosmological parameters using GW observations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forseth, Erik Robert
The recent detection of gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 by the Advanced LIGO experiment has inaugurated the long-anticipated era of GW astronomy. This event saw the merger of two black holes, having roughly 36 and 29 solar masses, as well as the ringdown of the resulting 62 solar mass black hole. The energy emitted in gravitational radiation was equivalent to about three solar masses. The detection underscored the importance of theoretical models for not only isolating signal from noise, but especially for the accurate estimation of source parameters. The two-body problem in Einstein's general theory has no exact solution, and so the development of these models is highly nontrivial. We present in this thesis a set of original results on the dynamics of the inspiral for a class of binary systems known as extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs), comprised of a small compact object (generically a stellar mass black hole) in orbit about a supermassive black hole. Our work also has potential application to intermediate-mass-ratio inspirals (IMRIs). IMRIs are thought to be a potentially strong source for ground-based GW experiments such as Advanced LIGO/VIRGO. Though not generally a good source for the LIGO network, EMRIs on the other hand are well-suited for detection by proposed space-based detectors, e.g. eLISA. Our work particularly constitutes a program of developing computational tools, methods, and results for eccentric E/IMRIs, which are thought to be astrophysically important but are much more challenging to model theoretically compared with circular orbits. We begin with a brief review of relevant parts of general relativity (GR) theory, followed by overviews of two prevailing approximation formalisms in GR, black hole perturbation (BHP) theory and post-Newtonian (PN) theory. Our first original result is a high-precision computation of the first-order gravitational metric perturbation using a Lorenz gauge frequency domain procedure. Next, we present a fast
Prisons of light : black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Assisted inspirals of stellar mass black holes embedded in AGN discs: solving the `final au problem'
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, Nicholas C.; Metzger, Brian D.; Haiman, Zoltán
2017-01-01
We explore the evolution of stellar mass black hole binaries (BHBs) which are formed in the self-gravitating discs of active galactic nuclei (AGN). Hardening due to three-body scattering and gaseous drag are effective mechanisms that reduce the semimajor axis of a BHB to radii where gravitational waves take over, on time-scales shorter than the typical lifetime of the AGN disc. Taking observationally motivated assumptions for the rate of star formation in AGN discs, we find a rate of disc-induced BHB mergers (R ˜ 3 yr^{-1} Gpc^{-3}, but with large uncertainties) that is comparable with existing estimates of the field rate of BHB mergers, and the approximate BHB merger rate implied by the recent Advanced LIGO detection of GW150914. BHBs formed thorough this channel will frequently be associated with luminous AGN, which are relatively rare within the sky error regions of future gravitational wave detector arrays. This channel could also possess a (potentially transient) electromagnetic counterpart due to super-Eddington accretion on to the stellar mass black hole following the merger.
High-accuracy waveforms for binary black hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown
Scheel, Mark A.; Boyle, Michael; Chu, Tony; Matthews, Keith D.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Kidder, Lawrence E.
2009-01-15
The first spectral numerical simulations of 16 orbits, merger, and ringdown of an equal-mass nonspinning binary black hole system are presented. Gravitational waveforms from these simulations have accumulated numerical phase errors through ringdown of < or approx. 0.1 radian when measured from the beginning of the simulation, and < or approx. 0.02 radian when waveforms are time and phase shifted to agree at the peak amplitude. The waveform seen by an observer at infinity is determined from waveforms computed at finite radii by an extrapolation process accurate to < or approx. 0.01 radian in phase. The phase difference between this waveform at infinity and the waveform measured at a finite radius of r=100M is about half a radian. The ratio of final mass to initial mass is M{sub f}/M=0.951 62{+-}0.000 02, and the final black hole spin is S{sub f}/M{sub f}{sup 2}=0.686 46{+-}0.000 04.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liang, Jun; Guan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Yan-Chun; Liu, Bo
2017-02-01
The P- v criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time are studied, where the cosmological constant appears as a dynamical pressure and its conjugate quantity is thermodynamic volume of the black hole. It is found that the P- v criticality and the small black hole/large black hole phase transition appear for the noncommutative RN-AdS black hole. Numerical calculations indicate that the noncommutative parameter affects the phase transition as well as the critical temperature, horizon radius, pressure and ratio. The critical ratio is no longer universal, which is different from the result in the van de Waals liquid-gas system. The nature of phase transition at the critical point is also discussed. Especially, for the noncommutative geometry inspired RN-AdS black hole, a new thermodynamic quantity Ψ conjugate to the noncommutative parameter θ has to be defined further, which is required for consistency of both the first law of thermodynamics and the corresponding Smarr relation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Detweiler, Steven
2010-02-01
Post-Newtonian analysis, numerical relativity and, now, perturbation-based gravitational self-force analysis are all being used to describe various aspects of black hole binary systems. Recent comparisons between self-force analysis, with m1m2, and post-Newtonian analysis, with v/c 1 show excellent agreement in their common domain of validity. This lends credence to the two very different regularization procedures which are invoked in these approximations. When self-force analysis is able to create gravitational waveforms from extreme mass-ratio inspiral, then unprecedented cross cultural comparisons of these three distinct approaches to understanding gravitational waves will reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each. )
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Yi; Buonanno, Alessandra; Taracchini, Andrea; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Mroué, Abdul H.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla
2014-04-01
We describe a general procedure to generate spinning, precessing waveforms that include inspiral, merger, and ringdown stages in the effective-one-body (EOB) approach. The procedure uses a precessing frame in which precession-induced amplitude and phase modulations are minimized, and an inertial frame, aligned with the spin of the final black hole, in which we carry out the matching of the inspiral-plunge to merger-ringdown waveforms. As a first application, we build spinning, precessing EOB waveforms for the gravitational modes ℓ=2 such that in the nonprecessing limit those waveforms agree with the EOB waveforms recently calibrated to numerical-relativity waveforms. Without recalibrating the EOB model, we then compare EOB and post-Newtonian precessing waveforms to two numerical-relativity waveforms produced by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The numerical waveforms are strongly precessing and have 35 and 65 gravitational-wave cycles. We find a remarkable agreement between EOB and numerical-relativity precessing waveforms and spins' evolutions. The phase difference is ˜0.2 rad rad at merger, while the mismatches, computed using the advanced-LIGO noise spectral density, are below 2% when maximizing only on the time and phase at coalescence and on the polarization angle.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bossard, Guillaume
2012-05-01
Using algebraic tools inspired by the study of nilpotent orbits in simple Lie algebras, we obtain a large class of solutions describing interacting non-BPS black holes in {N} = 8 supergravity, which depend on 44 harmonic functions. For this purpose, we consider a truncation {E_{{{6}({6})}}}/S{p_{{c}}}( {8,{R}} ) subset {E_{{{8}({8})}}}/{{Spin}}_{{c}}^{ * }( {16} ) of the non-linear sigma model describing stationary solutions of the theory, which permits a reduction of algebraic computations to the multiplication of 27 by 27 matrices. The lift to {N} = 8 supergravity is then carried out without loss of information by using a pertinent representation of the moduli parametrizing E7(7)/SUc (8) in terms of complex valued Hermitian matrices over the split octonions, which generalise the projective coordinates of exceptional special K¨ahler manifolds. We extract the electromagnetic charges, mass and angular momenta of the solutions, and exhibit the duality invariance of the black holes distance separations. We discuss in particular a new type of interaction which appears when interacting non-BPS black holes are not aligned. Finally we will explain the possible generalisations toward the description of the most general stationary black hole solutions of {N} = 8 supergravity.
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-05-01
In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Hansen, Jakob; Yeom, Dong-han E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com
2015-09-01
We investigate the relation between the existence of mass inflation and model parameters of string-inspired gravity models. In order to cover various models, we investigate a Brans-Dicke theory that is coupled to a U(1) gauge field. By tuning a model parameter that decides the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the electromagnetic field, we can make both of models such that the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward strong or weak coupling directions after gravitational collapses. We observe that as long as the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward any (strong or weak) directions, there is no Cauchy horizon and no mass inflation. Therefore, we conclude that to induce a Cauchy horizon and mass inflation inside a charged black hole, either there is no bias of the Brans-Dicke field as well as no Brans-Dicke hair outside the horizon or such a biased Brans-Dicke field should be well trapped and controlled by a potential.
Hansen, Jakob; Yeom, Dong-han
2015-09-07
We investigate the relation between the existence of mass inflation and model parameters of string-inspired gravity models. In order to cover various models, we investigate a Brans-Dicke theory that is coupled to a U(1) gauge field. By tuning a model parameter that decides the coupling between the Brans-Dicke field and the electromagnetic field, we can make both of models such that the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward strong or weak coupling directions after gravitational collapses. We observe that as long as the Brans-Dicke field is biased toward any (strong or weak) directions, there is no Cauchy horizon and no mass inflation. Therefore, we conclude that to induce a Cauchy horizon and mass inflation inside a charged black hole, either there is no bias of the Brans-Dicke field as well as no Brans-Dicke hair outside the horizon or such a biased Brans-Dicke field should be well trapped and controlled by a potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre; Smith, Kenneth; Schnetter, Erik; Fiske, David; Laguna, Pablo; Pullin, Jorge
2002-04-01
Recently, stationary black holes have been successfully simulated for up to times of approximately 600-1000M, where M is the mass of the black hole. Considering that the expected burst of gravitational radiation from a binary black hole merger would last approximately 200-500M, black hole codes are approaching the point where simulations of mergers may be feasible. We will present two types of simulations of single black holes obtained with a code based on the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formulation of the Einstein evolution equations. One type of simulations addresses the stability properties of stationary black hole evolutions. The second type of simulations demonstrates the ability of our code to move a black hole through the computational domain. This is accomplished by shifting the stationary black hole solution to a coordinate system in which the location of the black hole is time dependent.
Geonic black holes and remnants in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D.; Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios
2014-03-01
We show that electrically charged solutions within the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity replace the central singularity by a wormhole supported by the electric field. As a result, the total energy associated with the electric field is finite and similar to that found in the Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory. When a certain charge-to-mass ratio is satisfied, in the lowest part of the mass and charge spectrum the event horizon disappears, yielding stable remnants. We argue that quantum effects in the matter sector can lower the mass of these remnants from the Planck scale down to the TeV scale.
Geonic black holes and remnants in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity.
Olmo, Gonzalo J; Rubiera-Garcia, D; Sanchis-Alepuz, Helios
We show that electrically charged solutions within the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld theory of gravity replace the central singularity by a wormhole supported by the electric field. As a result, the total energy associated with the electric field is finite and similar to that found in the Born-Infeld electromagnetic theory. When a certain charge-to-mass ratio is satisfied, in the lowest part of the mass and charge spectrum the event horizon disappears, yielding stable remnants. We argue that quantum effects in the matter sector can lower the mass of these remnants from the Planck scale down to the TeV scale.
Investigations into Gravitational Wave Emission from Compact Body Inspiral into Massive Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hughes, Scott A.
2005-01-01
In contrast to year 1 (when much of the activity associated with this grant focused upon developing our group at MIT), year 2 was a period of very focused attention on research problems. We made significant progress developing relativistic waveforms for the extreme mass ratio inspiral problem; we have pushed forward a formalism our group developed for mapping the spacetimes of massive compact objects; and, in collaboration with the Caltech group, we began to develop a framework for addressing issues in LISA data analysis for extreme mass ratio systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flanagan, Éanna É.; Hughes, Scott A.
1998-04-01
We estimate the expected signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) from the three phases (inspiral, merger, and ringdown) of coalescing binary black holes (BBHs) for initial and advanced ground-based interferometers (LIGO-VIRGO) and for the space-based interferometer LISA. Ground-based interferometers can do moderate SNR (a few tens), moderate accuracy studies of BBH coalescences in the mass range of a few to about 2000 solar masses; LISA can do high SNR (of order 104), high accuracy studies in the mass range of about 105-108 solar masses. BBHs might well be the first sources detected by LIGO-VIRGO: they are visible to much larger distances-up to 500 Mpc by initial interferometers-than coalescing neutron star binaries (heretofore regarded as the ``bread and butter'' workhorse source for LIGO-VIRGO, visible to about 30 Mpc by initial interferometers). Low-mass BBHs (up to 50Msolar for initial LIGO interferometers, 100Msolar for advanced, 106Msolar for LISA) are best searched for via their well-understood inspiral waves; higher mass BBHs must be searched for via their poorly understood merger waves and/or their well-understood ringdown waves. A matched filtering search for massive BBHs based on ringdown waves should be capable of finding BBHs in the mass range of about 100Msolar-700Msolar out to ~200 Mpc for initial LIGO interferometers, and in the mass range of ~200Msolar to ~3000Msolar out to about z=1 for advanced interferometers. The required number of templates is of the order of 6000 or less. Searches based on merger waves could increase the number of detected massive BBHs by a factor of the order of 10 over those found from inspiral and ringdown waves, without detailed knowledge of the waveform shapes, using a noise monitoring search algorithm which we describe. A full set of merger templates from numerical relativity simulations could further increase the number of detected BBHs by an additional factor of up to ~4.
In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke
2009-07-01
Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Israel, Werner
This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.
Hidden Structures of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vercnocke, Bert
2010-11-01
This thesis investigates two main topics concerning black holes in extensions of general relativity inspired by string theory. First, the structure of the equations of motion underlying black hole solutions is considered, in theories of D-dimensional gravity coupled to scalars and vectors. For solutions preserving supersymmetry, the equations of motion have a dramatic simplification: they become first-order instead of the second-order equations one would expect. Recently, it was found that this is a feature some non-supersymmetric black hole solutions exhibit as well. We investigate if this holds more generally, by examining what the conditions are to have first-order equations for the scalar fields of non-supersymmetric black holes, that mimic the form of their supersymmetric counterparts. This is illustrated in examples. Second, the structure of black holes themselves is investigated. String theory has been successful in explaining the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for (mainly supersymmetric) black holes from a microscopic perspective. However, it is not fully established what the interpretation of the corresponding 'microstates' should be in the gravitational description where the black hole picture is valid. There have been recent advances to understand the nature of black hole microstates in the gravity regime, such as the fuzzball proposal. A related idea says that black hole configurations with multiple centers are related to microstates of single-centered black holes. We report on work relating both pictures. As an aside, a relation between violations of causality for certain spacetimes (presence of closed timelike curves in the geometry) and a breakdown of unitarity in the dual conformal field theory is given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Agresti, J.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arain, M.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Aston, S.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Ballmer, S.; Bantilan, H.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barton, M. A.; Bayer, K.; Betzwieser, J.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhawal, B.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Biswas, R.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Brinkmann, M.; Brooks, A.; Brown, D. A.; Bullington, A.; Bunkowski, A.; Buonanno, A.; Burmeister, O.; Busby, D.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Cantley, C. A.; Cao, J.; Cardenas, L.; Castaldi, G.; Cepeda, C.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chatterji, S.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chiadini, F.; Christensen, N.; Clark, J.; Cochrane, P.; Cokelaer, T.; Coldwell, R.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T.; Coyne, D.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Croce, R. P.; Crooks, D. R. M.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Dalrymple, J.; D'Ambrosio, E.; Danzmann, K.; Davies, G.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; Degree, M.; Demma, T.; Dergachev, V.; Desai, S.; Desalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M.; Dickson, J.; di Credico, A.; Diederichs, G.; Dietz, A.; Doomes, E. E.; Drever, R. W. P.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dupuis, R. J.; Dwyer, J. G.; Ehrens, P.; Espinoza, E.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Fazi, D.; Fejer, M. M.; Finn, L. S.; Fiumara, V.; Fotopoulos, N.; Franzen, A.; Franzen, K. Y.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fyffe, M.; Galdi, V.; Garofoli, J.; Gholami, I.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Goda, K.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gossler, S.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, M.; Greenhalgh, J.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guenther, M.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hammer, D.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G.; Harstad, E.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hosken, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Huttner, S. H.; Ingram, D.; Innerhofer, E.; Ito, M.; Itoh, Y.; Ivanov, A.; Johnson, B.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kasprzyk, D.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalili, F. Ya.; Kim, C.; King, P.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R. K.; Kozak, D.; Krishnan, B.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lazzarini, A.; Lei, M.; Leiner, J.; Leonhardt, V.; Leonor, I.; Libbrecht, K.; Lindquist, P.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Longo, M.; Lormand, M.; Lubiński, M.; Lück, H.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Malec, M.; Mandic, V.; Marano, S.; Márka, S.; Markowitz, J.; Maros, E.; Martin, I.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Matone, L.; Matta, V.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McHugh, M.; McKenzie, K.; McWilliams, S.; Meier, T.; Melissinos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messaritaki, E.; Messenger, C. J.; Meyers, D.; Mikhailov, E.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Mohanty, S.; Moreno, G.; Mossavi, K.; Mowlowry, C.; Moylan, A.; Mudge, D.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P.; Myers, E.; Myers, J.; Nash, T.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Numata, K.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pan, Y.; Papa, M. A.; Parameshwaraiah, V.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Pierro, V.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H.; Plissi, M. V.; Postiglione, F.; Prix, R.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F.; Rabeling, D.; Radkins, H.; Rahkola, R.; Rainer, N.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramsunder, M.; Ray-Majumder, S.; Re, V.; Rehbein, H.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ribichini, L.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Rivera, B.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, A.; Rogan, A. M.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romie, J.; Route, R.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruet, L.; Russell, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Samidi, M.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Saraf, S.; Sarin, P.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Savov, P.; Schediwy, S.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Sears, B.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Sidles, J. A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Sinha, S.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Somiya, K.; Strain, K. A.; Strom, D. M.; Stuver, A.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, K.-X.; Sung, M.; Sutton, P. J.; Takahashi, H.; Tanner, D. B.; Taylor, R.; Taylor, R.; Thacker, J.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tyler, W.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Broeck, C.; Varvella, M.; Vass, S.; Vecchio, A.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P.; Villar, A.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Ward, H.; Ward, R.; Watts, K.; Weidner, A.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A.; Weiss, R.; Wen, S.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Wilmut, I.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wise, S.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Woods, D.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Wu, W.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yan, Z.; Yoshida, S.; Yunes, N.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M.; Zur Mühlen, H.; Zweizig, J.
2008-08-01
We report on the methods and results of the first dedicated search for gravitational waves emitted during the inspiral of compact binaries with spinning component bodies. We analyze 788 hours of data collected during the third science run (S3) of the LIGO detectors. We searched for binary systems using a detection template family specially designed to capture the effects of the spin-induced precession of the orbital plane. We present details of the techniques developed to enable this search for spin-modulated gravitational waves, highlighting the differences between this and other recent searches for binaries with nonspinning components. The template bank we employed was found to yield high matches with our spin-modulated target waveform for binaries with masses in the asymmetric range 1.0M⊙
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
When Charged Black Holes Merge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-08-01
Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Novikov, Igor
Astrophysics of Black Holes Introduction The Origin of Stellar Black Holes A Nonrotating Black Hole Introduction Schwarzschild Gravitational Field Motion of Photons Along the Radial Direction Radial Motion of Nonrelativistic Particles The Puzzle of the Gravitational Radius R and T Regions Two Types of T-Regions Gravitational Collapse and White Holes Eternal Black Hole? Black Hole Celestial Mechanics Circular Motion Around a Black Hole Gravitational Capture of Particles by a Black Hole Corrections for Gravitational Radiation A Rotating Black Hole Introduction Gravitational Field of a Rotating Black Hole Specific Reference Frames General Properties of the Spacetime of a Rotating Black Hole; - Spacetime Inside the Horizon Celestial Mechanics of a Rotating Black Hole Motion of Particle in the Equatorial Plane Motion of Particles off the Equatorial Plane Peculiarities of the Gravitational Capture of Bodies by a Rotating - Black Hole Electromagnetic Fields Near a Black Hole Introduction Maxwell's Equations in the Neighborhood of a Rotating Black Hole Stationary Electrodynamics Boundary Conditions at the Event Horizon Electromagnetic Fields in Vacuum Magnetosphere of a Black Hole Some Aspects of Physics of Black Holes, Wormholes, and Time Machines Observational Appearence of the Black Holes in the Universe Black Holes in the Interstellar Medium Disk Accretion Black Holes in Stellar Binary Systems Black Holes in Galactic Centers Dynamical Evidence for Black Holes in Galaxy Nuclei Primordial Black Holes Acknowledgements References
Uniformly accelerated black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.
2001-09-01
The static and stationary C metric are examined in a generic framework and their interpretations studied in some detail, especially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We find that (i) the spacetime of an accelerated static black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or a lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon, (ii) by using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have a higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature of the accelerated frame, and (iii) the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/27) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated rotating black holes with no significant changes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeb, Abraham
2007-04-01
Recent data indicates that almost all galaxies possess a supermassive black hole at their center. When gas accretes onto the black hole it heats-up and shines, resulting in the appearance of a bright quasar. The earliest quasars are found to exist only a billion years after the big-bang. I will describe recent observations of both the nearest and the most distant supermassive black holes in the universe. The formation and evolution of the black hole population can be described in the context of popular models for galaxy formation. I will describe the key questions that drive current research on supermassive black holes and present theoretical work on the radiative and hydrodynamic effects that quasars have on their cosmic habitat. Within the coming decade it would be possible to test general relativity by monitoring over time, and possibly even imaging, the polarized emission from hot spots around the black hole in the center of our Galaxy (SgrA*).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Garcia, M.
2003-01-01
The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitates this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)
2004-01-01
The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitate this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ho, Pei-Ming
2017-04-01
Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2003-06-20
Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sago, Norichika; Fujita, Ryuichi; Nakano, Hiroyuki
2016-05-01
We revisit the accuracy of the post-Newtonian (PN) approximation and its region of validity for quasicircular orbits of a point particle in the Kerr spacetime, by using an analytically known highest post-Newtonian order gravitational energy flux and accurate numerical results in the black hole perturbation approach. It is found that regions of validity become larger for higher PN order results although there are several local maximums in regions of validity for relatively low-PN order results. This might imply that higher PN order calculations are also encouraged for comparable-mass binaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reynolds, Christopher S.
2015-08-01
Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.
Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.
Unruh, W G
2008-08-28
The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1999-01-01
This graphic shows the computer simulation of a black hole from start to finish. Plasma is falling slowly toward the black hole in a (at the upper left). The plasma has a magnetic field, shown by the white lines. It picks up speed as it falls toward the hole in b (at the upper right), c (lower left) and d (lower right). However, the rotating black hole twists up space itself (and the magnetic field lines) and ejects electromagnetic power along the north and south poles above the black hole. The red and white color shows the immense electromagnetic power output, which eventually will pick up particles and form squirting jets. This simulation was conducted using supercomputers at Japan's National Institute for Fusion Science.
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu
2015-01-10
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.
Mathur, Samir D.
2012-11-15
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmire, Gordon
1999-09-01
WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar E-mail: christos.charmousis@th.u-psud.fr
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.
1998-01-01
Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.
2011-10-01
In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, John
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-05-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Antonini, Fabio
2014-10-20
We use N-body simulations as well as analytical techniques to study the long-term dynamical evolution of stellar black holes (BHs) at the Galactic center (GC) and to put constraints on their number and mass distribution. Starting from models that have not yet achieved a state of collisional equilibrium, we find that timescales associated with cusp regrowth can be longer than the Hubble time. Our results cast doubts on standard models that postulate high densities of BHs near the GC and motivate studies that start from initial conditions that correspond to well-defined physical models. For the first time, we consider the distribution of BHs in a dissipationless model for the formation of the Milky Way nuclear cluster (NC), in which massive stellar clusters merge to form a compact nucleus. We simulate the consecutive merger of ∼10 clusters containing an inner dense sub-cluster of BHs. After the formed NC is evolved for ∼5 Gyr, the BHs do form a steep central cusp, while the stellar distribution maintains properties that resemble those of the GC NC. Finally, we investigate the effect of BH perturbations on the motion of the GC S-stars as a means of constraining the number of the perturbers. We find that reproducing the quasi-thermal character of the S-star orbital eccentricities requires ≳ 1000 BHs within 0.1 pc of Sgr A*. A dissipationless formation scenario for the GC NC is consistent with this lower limit and therefore could reconcile the need for high central densities of BHs (to explain the S-stars orbits) with the 'missing-cusp' problem of the GC giant star population.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics
Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav
2008-06-15
We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation T{sub h}=(K/2{pi}) connecting the black hole temperature (T{sub h}) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Furmann, John M.
2003-03-01
Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Joshi, Pankaj S.; Narayan, Ramesh
2016-10-01
We propose here that the well-known black hole paradoxes such as the information loss and teleological nature of the event horizon are restricted to a particular idealized case, which is the homogeneous dust collapse model. In this case, the event horizon, which defines the boundary of the black hole, forms initially, and the singularity in the interior of the black hole at a later time. We show that, in contrast, gravitational collapse from physically more realistic initial conditions typically leads to the scenario in which the event horizon and space-time singularity form simultaneously. We point out that this apparently simple modification can mitigate the causality and teleological paradoxes, and also lends support to two recently suggested solutions to the information paradox, namely, the ‘firewall’ and ‘classical chaos’ proposals.
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-15
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav
2013-11-01
It is considered the test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside the black hole (BH), which are stable, periodic and neither come out the BH nor terminate at the central singularity. Interiors of the supermassive BHs may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on the planets with the third kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of BHs by observing their white hole counterparts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hennigar, Robie A.; Mann, Robert B.; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-01
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ -line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid 4He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson
2017-01-13
We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie
1991-01-01
We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.
Nonisolated dynamic black holes and white holes
McClure, M. L.; Anderson, Kaem; Bardahl, Kirk
2008-05-15
Modifying the Kerr-Schild transformation used to generate black and white hole spacetimes, new dynamic black and white holes are obtained using a time-dependent Kerr-Schild scalar field. Physical solutions are found for black holes that shrink with time and for white holes that expand with time. The black hole spacetimes are physical only in the vicinity of the black hole, with the physical region increasing in radius with time. The white hole spacetimes are physical throughout. Unlike the standard Schwarzschild solution the singularities are nonisolated, since the time dependence introduces a mass-energy distribution. The surfaces in the metrics where g{sub tt}=g{sup rr}=0 are dynamic, moving inward with time for the black holes and outward for the white holes, which leads to a question of whether these spacetimes truly have event horizons--a problem shared with Vaidya's cosmological black hole spacetimes. By finding a surface that shrinks or expands at the same rate as the null geodesics move, and within which null geodesics move inward or outward faster than the surfaces shrink or expand, respectively, it is verified that these do in fact behave like black and white holes.
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-06-20
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David; Wills, Danielle
2013-06-01
A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is conical with respect to a local co-rotating frame, not with respect to the static frame at infinity.
Towards noncommutative quantum black holes
Lopez-Dominguez, J. C.; Obregon, O.; Sabido, M.; Ramirez, C.
2006-10-15
In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.
Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; El-Showk, Sheer; Vercnocke, Bert
These lectures notes provide a fast-track introduction to modern developments in black hole physics within string theory, including microscopic computations of the black hole entropy as well as construction and quantization of microstates using supergravity. These notes are largely self-contained and should be accessible to students at an early PhD or Masters level. Topics covered include the black holes in supergravity, D-branes, Strominger-Vafa's computation of the black hole entropy via D-branes, AdS-CFT and its applications to black hole phyisics, multicenter solutions, and the geometric quantization of the latter.
Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A
2017-02-10
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Duine, R. A.
2017-02-01
We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons—the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polchinski, Joseph
2015-04-01
Our modern understanding of space, time, matter, and even reality itself arose from the three great revolutions of the early twentieth century: special relativity, general relativity, and quantum mechanics. But a century later, this work is unfinished. Many deep connections have been discovered, but the full form of a unified theory incorporating all three principles is not known. Thought experiments and paradoxes have often played a key role in figuring out how to fit theories together. For the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics, black holes have been an important arena. I will talk about the quantum mechanics of black holes, the information paradox, and the latest version of this paradox, the firewall. The firewall points to a conflict between our current theories of spacetime and of quantum mechanics. It may lead to a new understanding of how these are connected, perhaps based on quantum entanglement.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
When asked to discuss Cyg XR-1, E. E. Salpeter once concluded, 'A black hole in Cyg X(R)-1 is the most conservative hypothesis.' Recent observations now make it likely that a black hole in Cyg XR-1 is the only hypothesis tenable. Chandrasekhar first showed that compact stars - those with the inward force of gravity on their outer layers balanced by the pressure generated by the Pauli exclusion principle acting on its electrons (in white dwarfs) or nucleons (in neutron stars) - have a maximum mass. Equilibrium is achieved at a minimum of the total energy of the star, which is the sum of the positive Fermi energy and the negative gravitational energy. The maximum mass attainable in equilibrium is found by setting E = 0: M(max) = 1.5 M(Sun). If the mass of the star is larger than this, then E can be decreased without bound by decreasing the star's radius and increasing its (negative) gravitational energy. No equilibrium value of the radius exist, and general relativity predicts that gravitational collapse to a point occurs. This point singularity is a black hole.
Toroidal horizons in binary black hole mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bohn, Andy; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2016-09-01
We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It has been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology. However, such a phase has never been seen in numerical simulations. Instead, in all previous simulations, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We find a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon, thus reconciling the numerical work with theoretical expectations. The demonstration requires extremely high numerical precision, which is made possible by a new event horizon code described in a companion paper. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
2012-04-01
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abel, T.
star. Within this wide range of possible initial masses the death of these star will lead very different remnants (Heger and Woosley 2001). In the case of stars with masses larger than 260 solar mass no metals may be released in black holes are the natural outcome. This may be an interesting possibility to form intermediate mass black holes which are attractive seeds to be nurtured to the super-massive black holes observed in the centers of nearby galaxies. However, no metals would be released and it would prove difficult to understand the transition to the formation of low mass metal enriched population II stars. Stars with masses below 140 solar masses would enrich the intergalactic medium as well as form massive black holes. The coincidence of the Kelvin Helmholtz time with our computed accretion times at about 120 solar masses may argue in favor of such smaller masses. These first black holes may well leave the halos in which they formed for even rather modest kick velocities >~ 10 km/s. Nevertheless, up to about one hundred thousand of these first black holes may remain in the Milky Way. The realization that structure formation began within one hundred million years after big bang makes it difficult to study observationally these first crucial steps. Future observatories have hence to focus on larger collecting areas and wavelengths for which the universe is transparent up to redshifts of 30. XEUS offers the chance to open a new window to these so far dark ages. The limiting masses quoted here rely on stellar models of primordial stars that do not include rotation, magnetic fields or mass loss and hence are somewhat uncertain.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham
2014-09-01
Black holes are the ultimate prisons of the Universe, regions of spacetime where the enormous gravity prohibits matter or even light to escape to infinity. Yet, matter falling toward the black holes may shine spectacularly, generating the strongest source of radiation. These sources provide us with astrophysical laboratories of extreme physical conditions that cannot be realized on Earth. This chapter offers a review of the basic menus for feeding matter onto black holes and discusses their observational implications.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David
2016-09-23
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
Black holes and the multiverse
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun E-mail: vilenkin@cosmos.phy.tufts.edu
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; KubizÅák, David
2016-09-01
We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon—even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
Regardless of size, black holes easily acquire accretion disks. Supermassive black holes can feast on the bountiful interstellar gas in galactic nuclei. Small black holes formed from collapsing stars often belong to binary systems in which a bulging companion star can spill some of its gas into the black hole s reach. In the chaotic mess of the accretion disk, atoms collide with one another. Swirling plasma reaches speeds upward of 10% that of light and glows brightly in many wavebands, particularly in X-rays. Gas gets blown back by a wind of radiation from the inner disk. New material enters the disks from different directions.
How black holes saved relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2002-10-01
Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way
Black-Hole Feedback in Quasars
This animation illustrates how black-hole feedback works in quasars. Dense gas and dust in the center simultaneously fuels the black hole and shrouds it from view. The black-hole wind propels large...
Hamiltonian formalism for Perturbed Black Hole Spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihaylov, Deyan; Gair, Jonathan
2017-01-01
Present and future gravitational wave observations provide a new mechanism to probe the predictions of general relativity. Observations of extreme mass ratio inspirals with millihertz gravitational wave detectors such as LISA will provide exquisite constraints on the spacetime structure outside astrophysical black holes, enabling tests of the no-hair property that all general relativistic black holes are described by the Kerr metric. Previous work to understand what constraints LISA observations will be able to place has focussed on specific alternative theories of gravity, or generic deviations that preserve geodesic separability. We describe an alternative approach to this problem--a technique that employs canonical perturbations of the Hamiltonian function describing motion in the Kerr metric. We derive this new approach and demonstrate its application to the cases of a slowly rotating Kerr black hole which is viewed as a perturbation of a Schwarzschild black hole, of coupled perturbations of black holes in the second-order Chern-Simons modified gravity theory, and several more indicative scenarios. Deyan Mihaylov is funded by STFC.
Numerical Simulation of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Teukolsky, Saul
2003-04-01
Einstein's equations of general relativity are prime candidates for numerical solution on supercomputers. There is some urgency in being able to carry out such simulations: Large-scale gravitational wave detectors are now coming on line, and the most important expected signals cannot be predicted except numerically. Problems involving black holes are perhaps the most interesting, yet also particularly challenging computationally. One difficulty is that inside a black hole there is a physical singularity that cannot be part of the computational domain. A second difficulty is the disparity in length scales between the size of the black hole and the wavelength of the gravitational radiation emitted. A third difficulty is that all existing methods of evolving black holes in three spatial dimensions are plagued by instabilities that prohibit long-term evolution. I will describe the ideas that are being introduced in numerical relativity to deal with these problems, and discuss the results of recent calculations of black hole collisions.
Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund
2005-02-07
We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.
Black hole final state conspiracies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInnes, Brett
2009-01-01
The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of “conspiracies” between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required “conspiracies” if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy.
Magnetic fields around black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garofalo, David A. G.
Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our
Bronnikov, K A; Fabris, J C
2006-06-30
We study self-gravitating, static, spherically symmetric phantom scalar fields with arbitrary potentials (favored by cosmological observations) and single out 16 classes of possible regular configurations with flat, de Sitter, and anti-de Sitter asymptotics. Among them are traversable wormholes, bouncing Kantowski-Sachs (KS) cosmologies, and asymptotically flat black holes (BHs). A regular BH has a Schwarzschild-like causal structure, but the singularity is replaced by a de Sitter infinity, giving a hypothetic BH explorer a chance to survive. It also looks possible that our Universe has originated in a phantom-dominated collapse in another universe, with KS expansion and isotropization after crossing the horizon. Explicit examples of regular solutions are built and discussed. Possible generalizations include k-essence type scalar fields (with a potential) and scalar-tensor gravity.
More Hidden Black Hole Dangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
Black holes such as GRO J1655-40 form from collapsed stars. When stars at least eight times more massive than our Sun exhaust their fuel supply, they no longer have the energy to support their tremendous bulk. These stars explode as supernovae, blasting their outer envelopes into space. If the core is more than three times the mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a singularity, a single point of infinite density.Although light cannot escape black holes, astronomers can see black holes by virtue of the hot, glowing gas often stolen from a neighboring star that orbits these objects. From our vantage point, the light seems to flicker. The Rossi Explorer has recorded this flickering (called quasiperiodic oscillations, or QPOs) around many black holes. QPOs are produced by gas very near the innermost stable orbit the closest orbit a blob of gas can maintain before falling pell-mell into the black hole. As gas whips around the black hole at near light speed, gravity pulls the gas in one direction, then another, adding to the flickering. The QPO is related to the speed and size of this orbit and the mass of the black hole.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version
This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end.
The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light.
The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
Black holes and Higgs stability
Tetradis, Nikolaos
2016-09-20
We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-03
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-08-15
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h{sub l} of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h{sub l}{sup EM}. The Love numbers h{sub l} give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
On regular rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, R.; Fayos, F.
2017-01-01
Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.
Orbital Resonances Around Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-01
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
Rotating regular black hole solution
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon
2016-07-01
Based on the Newman-Janis algorithm, the Ayón-Beato-García spacetime metric [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 5056 (1998)] of the regular spherically symmetric, static, and charged black hole has been converted into rotational form. It is shown that the derived solution for rotating a regular black hole is regular and the critical value of the electric charge for which two horizons merge into one sufficiently decreases in the presence of the nonvanishing rotation parameter a of the black hole.
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
'Black holes': escaping the void.
Waldron, Sharn
2013-02-01
The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2014-06-01
The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin
Analytical Relativity of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Damour, Thibault
The successful detection and analysis of gravitational wave (GW) signals from coalescing binary black holes necessitates the accurate prior knowledge of the form of the GW signals. This knowledge can be acquired through a synergy between Analytical Relativity (AR) methods and Numerical Relativity (NR) ones. We describe here the most promising AR formalism for describing the motion and radiation of coalescing binary black holes, the Effective One Body (EOB) method, and discuss its comparison with NR simulations.
The Black Hole Experiment Gallery
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gould, R.; Dussault, M.; Griswold, A.; Reinfeld, E.; Steel, S.
2008-06-01
We report preliminary findings from the development and prototyping of the Black Hole Experiment Gallery, a NASA and NSF-funded national traveling exhibition and related educational materials on black holes. Among the innovations described are partnerships with community-based programs that enable culturally diverse youth to collaborate in exhibit development; and computer-networked technology that helps personalize visitors' exhibit experiences through the creation of a ``digital diary,'' that extends learning beyond the gallery, and that collects embedded evaluation data.
Learning about Black-Hole Formation from Gravitational Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kesden, Michael H.
2017-01-01
The first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) discovered gravitational waves from two binary black-hole mergers. Although astrophysical black holes are simple objects fully characterized by their masses and spins, key features of binary black-hole formation such as mass transfer, natal kicks, and common-envelope evolution can misalign black-hole spins with the orbital angular momentum of the binary. These misaligned spins will precess as gravitational-wave emission causes the black holes to inspiral to separations at which the waves are detectable by observatories like LIGO. Spin precession modulates the amplitude and frequency of the gravitational waves observed by LIGO, allowing it to not only test general relativity but also reveal the secrets of black-hole formation. This talk will briefly describe those elements of binary black-hole formation responsible for initial spin misalignments, how spin precession and radiation reaction in general relativity determine how spins evolve from formation until the black holes enter LIGO’s sensitivity band, and how spin-induced gravitational-wave modulation in band can be used as a diagnostic of black-hole formation.
Rethinking Black Hole Accretion Discs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvesen, Greg
Accretion discs are staples of astrophysics. Tapping into the gravitational potential energy of the accreting material, these discs are highly efficient machines that produce copious radiation and extreme outflows. While interesting in their own right, accretion discs also act as tools to study black holes and directly influence the properties of the Universe. Black hole X-ray binaries are fantastic natural laboratories for studying accretion disc physics and black hole phenomena. Among many of the curious behaviors exhibited by these systems are black hole state transitions -- complicated cycles of dramatic brightening and dimming. Using X-ray observations with high temporal cadence, we show that the evolution of the accretion disc spectrum during black hole state transitions can be described by a variable disc atmospheric structure without invoking a radially truncated disc geometry. The accretion disc spectrum can be a powerful diagnostic for measuring black hole spin if the effects of the disc atmosphere on the emergent spectrum are well-understood; however, properties of the disc atmosphere are largely unconstrained. Using statistical methods, we decompose this black hole spin measurement technique and show that modest uncertainties regarding the disc atmosphere can lead to erroneous spin measurements. The vertical structure of the disc is difficult to constrain due to our ignorance of the contribution to hydrostatic balance by magnetic fields, which are fundamental to the accretion process. Observations of black hole X-ray binaries and the accretion environments near supermassive black holes provide mounting evidence for strong magnetization. Performing numerical simulations of accretion discs in the shearing box approximation, we impose a net vertical magnetic flux that allows us to effectively control the level of disc magnetization. We study how dynamo activity and the properties of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability depend on the
Violent flickering in Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-10-01
Unique observations of the flickering light from the surroundings of two black holes provide new insights into the colossal energy that flows at their hearts. By mapping out how well the variations in visible light match those in X-rays on very short timescales, astronomers have shown that magnetic fields must play a crucial role in the way black holes swallow matter. Flickering black hole ESO PR Photo 36/08 Flickering black hole Like the flame from a candle, light coming from the surroundings of a black hole is not constant -- it flares, sputters and sparkles. "The rapid flickering of light from a black hole is most commonly observed at X-ray wavelengths," says Poshak Gandhi, who led the international team that reports these results. "This new study is one of only a handful to date that also explore the fast variations in visible light, and, most importantly how these fluctuations relate to those in X-rays." The observations tracked the shimmering of the black holes simultaneously using two different instruments, one on the ground and one in space. The X-ray data were taken using NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer satellite. The visible light was collected with the high speed camera ULTRACAM, a visiting instrument at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), recording up to 20 images a second. ULTRACAM was developed by team members Vik Dhillon and Tom Marsh. "These are among the fastest observations of a black hole ever obtained with a large optical telescope," says Dhillon. To their surprise, astronomers discovered that the brightness fluctuations in the visible light were even more rapid than those seen in X-rays. In addition, the visible-light and X-ray variations were found not to be simultaneous, but to follow a repeated and remarkable pattern: just before an X-ray flare the visible light dims, and then surges to a bright flash for a tiny fraction of a second before rapidly decreasing again. None of this radiation emerges directly from the black hole, but from the
Dance of Two Monster Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-03-01
This past December, researchers all over the world watched an outburst from the enormous black hole in OJ 287 an outburst that had been predicted years ago using the general theory of relativity.Outbursts from Black-Hole OrbitsOJ 287 is one of the largest supermassive black holes known, weighing in at 18 billion solar masses. Located about 3.5 billion light-years away, this monster quasar is bright enough that it was first observed as early as the 1890s. What makes OJ 287 especially interesting, however, is that its light curve exhibits prominent outbursts roughly every 12 years.Diagram illustrating the orbit of the secondary black hole (shown in blue) in OJ 287 from 2000 to 2023. We see outbursts (the yellow bubbles) every time the secondary black hole crosses the accretion disk (shown in red, ina side view) surrounding the primary (the black circle). [Valtonen et al. 2016]What causes the outbursts? Astronomers think that there is a second supermassive black hole, ~100 times smaller, inspiraling as it orbits the central monster and set to merge within the next 10,000 years. In this model, the primary black hole of OJ 287 is surrounded by a hot accretion disk. As the secondary black hole orbits the primary, it regularly punches through this accretion disk, heating the material and causing the release of expanding bubbles of hot gas pulled from the disk. This gas then radiates thermally, causing the outbursts we see.Attempts to model this scenario using Newtonian orbits all fail; the timing of the secondary black holes crossings through the accretion disk (as measured by when we see the outbursts) can only be explained by a model incorporating general-relativistic effects on the orbit. Careful observations and precise timing of these outbursts therefore provide an excellent test of general relativity.Watching a Predicted CrossingThe model of OJ 287 predicted another disk crossing in December 2015, so professional and amateur astronomers around the world readied more
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
Evaporation of Primordial Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
The usual explanation of the isotropy of the universe is that inflation would have smoothed out any inhomogeneities. However, if the universe was initially fractal or in a foam like state, an overall inflation would have l it in the same state. I suggest that the universe did indeed begin with a tangled web of wormholes connecting pairs of black holes but that the inflationary expansion was unstable: wormholes that are slightly smaller correspond to black holes that are hotter than the cosmological background and evaporate away. This picture is supported by calculations with Raphael Bousso of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the s-wave and large
Scrambling with matrix black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche
2013-08-01
If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso
2016-11-01
Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.
Quantum Criticality and Black Holes
Sachdev, Subir
2007-08-22
I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.
Quantum Criticality and Black Holes
Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
2016-07-12
I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Modesto, Leonardo; Wang, Yixu
2017-01-01
We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee-Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M >Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M =Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.
The Black Hole Information Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Polchinski, Joseph
The black hole information problem has been a challenge since Hawking's original 1975 paper. It led to the discovery of AdS/CFT, which gave a partial resolution of the paradox. However, recent developments, in particular the firewall puzzle, show that there is much that we do not understand. I review the black hole, Hawking radiation, and the Page curve, and the classic form of the paradox. I discuss AdS/CFT as a partial resolution. I then discuss black hole complementarity and its limitations, leading to many proposals for different kinds of `drama.' I conclude with some recent ideas. Presented at the 2014-15 Jerusalem Winter School and the 2015 TASI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Zhong-Ying
2016-09-01
In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.
Begelman, Mitchell C.
2012-04-10
We propose that the growth of supermassive black holes is associated mainly with brief episodes of highly super-Eddington infall of gas ({sup h}yperaccretion{sup )}. This gas is not swallowed in real time, but forms an envelope of matter around the black hole that can be swallowed gradually, over a much longer timescale. However, only a small fraction of the black hole mass can be stored in the envelope at any one time. We argue that any infalling matter above a few percent of the hole's mass is ejected as a result of the plunge in opacity at temperatures below a few thousand degrees kelvin, corresponding to the Hayashi track. The speed of ejection of this matter, compared to the velocity dispersion {sigma} of the host galaxy's core, determines whether the ejected matter is lost forever or returns eventually to rejoin the envelope, from which it can be ultimately accreted. The threshold between matter recycling and permanent loss defines a relationship between the maximum black hole mass and {sigma} that resembles the empirical M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
Two Monster Black Holes at Work
Zoom into Markarian 739, a nearby galaxy hosting two monster black holes. Using NASA's Swift and Chandra, astronomers have shown that both black holes are producing energy as gas falls into them. T...
Astronomy: Intermediate-mass black hole found
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gültekin, Kayhan
2017-02-01
The existence of medium-sized black holes has long been debated. Such an object has now been discovered in the centre of a dense cluster of stars, potentially enhancing our understanding of all black holes. See Letter p.203
Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fraknoi, Andrew
1991-01-01
Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…
Fenimore, Edward E.
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryder, Lewis
1973-01-01
The newest and most exotic manner in which stars die is investigated. A brief outline is presented, along with a discussion of the role supernova play, followed by a description of how the black holes originate, exist, and how they might be detected. (DF)
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-02-01
Prologue; 1. A cosmic case of burnout; 2. Matters of gravity: Newton and Einstein; 3. The capture of light; 4. Tripping the theoretical fantastic; 5. Crossing the bar; 6. Contemplating an enormous nothing; 7. Evidence in the case; 8. Hearts of darkness; 9. The search goes on; 10. Passages into the labyrinth; 11. Black hole legends and far out ideas; Epilogue.
Black hole thermodynamics, stringy dualities and double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arvanitakis, Alex S.; Blair, Chris D. A.
2017-03-01
We discuss black hole thermodynamics in the manifestly duality invariant formalism of double field theory (DFT). We reformulate and prove the first law of black hole thermodynamics in DFT, using the covariant phase space approach. After splitting the full O(D, D) invariant DFT into a Kaluza–Klein-inspired form where only n coordinates are doubled, our results provide explicit duality invariant mass and entropy formulas. We illustrate how this works by discussing the black string solution and its T-duals.
Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Detweiler, Steven
1981-01-01
Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)
Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Lane
The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…
Gravitational Lensing of STU Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, H.
2013-12-01
In this paper we study gravitational lensing by STU black holes. We considered extremal limit of two special cases of zero-charged and one-charged black holes, and obtain the deflection angle. We find that the black hole charge increases the deflection angle.
Horndeski scalar-tensor black hole geodesics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tretyakova, Darya; Melkoserov, Dmitry; Adyev, Timur
2016-10-01
We examine massive particles and null geodesics for the scalar-tensor black hole in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits, corresponding to circular and elliptic orbits, are absent for the black hole solution with the static scalar field. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations.
Signatures of black holes at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglià, Marco; Godang, Romulus; Cremaldi, Lucien M.; Summers, Donald J.
2007-06-01
Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.
Black-hole Merger Simulations for LISA Science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan M.; McWilliams, Sean T.
2009-01-01
The strongest expected sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band are the mergers of massive black holes. LISA may observe these systems to high redshift, z>10, to uncover details of the origin of massive black holes, and of the relationship between black holes and their host structures, and structure formation itself. These signals arise from the final stage in the development of a massive black-hole binary emitting strong gravitational radiation that accelerates the system's inspiral toward merger. The strongest part of the signal, at the point of merger, carries much information about the system and provides a probe of extreme gravitational physics. Theoretical predictions for these merger signals rely on supercomputer simulations to solve Einstein's equations. We discuss recent numerical results and their impact on LISA science expectations.
Understanding the "antikick" in the merger of binary black holes.
Rezzolla, Luciano; Macedo, Rodrigo P; Jaramillo, José Luis
2010-06-04
The generation of a large recoil velocity from the inspiral and merger of binary black holes represents one of the most exciting results of numerical-relativity calculations. While many aspects of this process have been investigated and explained, the "antikick," namely, the sudden deceleration after the merger, has not yet found a simple explanation. We show that the antikick can be understood in terms of the radiation from a deformed black hole where the anisotropic curvature distribution on the horizon correlates with the direction and intensity of the recoil. Our analysis is focused on Robinson-Trautman spacetimes and allows us to measure both the energies and momenta radiated in a gauge-invariant manner. At the same time, this simpler setup provides the qualitative and quantitative features of merging black holes, opening the way to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of black-hole spacetimes.
Gravitational correlation, black hole entropy, and information conservation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, DongShan; Cai, QingYu
2017-04-01
When two objects have gravitational interaction between them, they are no longer independent of each other. In fact, there exists gravitational correlation between these two objects. Inspired by Verlinde's paper, we first calculate the entropy change of a system when gravity does positive work on this system. Based on the concept of gravitational correlation entropy, we prove that the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole originates from the gravitational correlations between the interior matters of the black hole. By analyzing the gravitational correlation entropies in the process of Hawking radiation in a general context, we prove that the reduced entropy of a black hole is exactly carried away by the radiation and the gravitational correlations between these radiating particles, and the entropy or information is conserved at all times during Hawking radiation. Finally, we attempt to give a unified description of the non-extensive black-hole entropy and the extensive entropy of ordinary matter.
Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2008-07-15
Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to
Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-07-01
Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never
Black Holes, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wald, Robert
2017-01-01
A black hole is a region of ``no escape'' that remains behind after a body has undergone complete gravitational collapse. It is truly remarkable that (i) black holes obey the ordinary laws of thermodynamics, (ii) the entropy of a black hole is given by a simple formula involving geometrical properties of its event horizon, and (iii) quantum theory plays an essential role in the thermodynamic properties of black holes. In this talk, I will review some of the key developments related to these properties of black holes, which fascinated me as a graduate student and continue to fascinate me now.
Noncritical superstring-black hole transition
Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A.
2006-04-15
An interesting case of string/black hole transition occurs in two-dimensional noncritical string theory dressed with a compact CFT. In these models the high energy densities of states of perturbative strings and black holes have the same leading behavior when the Hawking temperature of the black hole is equal to the Hagedorn temperature of perturbative strings. We compare the first subleading terms in the black hole and closed string entropies in this setting and argue that the entropy interpolates between these expressions as the energy is varied. We compute the subleading correction to the black hole entropy for a specific simple model.
Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.
Strong gravitational lensing by Kiselev black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Younas, Azka; Jamil, Mubasher; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Hussain, Saqib
2015-10-01
We investigate the gravitational lensing scenario due to Schwarzschild-like black hole surrounded by quintessence (Kiselev black hole). We work for the special case of Kiselev black hole where we take the state parameter wq=-2/3 . For the detailed derivation and analysis of the bending angle involved in the deflection of light, we discuss three special cases of Kiselev black hole: nonextreme, extreme, and naked singularity. We also calculate the approximate bending angle and compare it with the exact bending angle. We found the relation of bending angles in the decreasing order as: naked singularity, extreme Kiselev black hole, nonextreme Kiselev black hole, and Schwarzschild black hole. In the weak field approximation, we compute the position and total magnification of relativistic images as well.
Quantum information erasure inside black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2015-12-01
An effective field theory for infalling observers in the vicinity of a quasi-static black hole is given in terms of a freely falling lattice discretization. The lattice model successfully reproduces the thermal spectrum of outgoing Hawking radiation, as was shown by Corley and Jacobson, but can also be used to model observations made by a typical low-energy observer who enters the black hole in free fall at a prescribed time. The explicit short distance cutoff ensures that, from the viewpoint of the infalling observer, any quantum information that entered the black hole more than a scrambling time earlier has been erased by the black hole singularity. This property, combined with the requirement that outside observers need at least of order the scrambling time to extract quantum information from the black hole, ensures that a typical infalling observer does not encounter drama upon crossing the black hole horizon in a theory where black hole information is preserved for asymptotic observers.
Black holes in magnetic monopoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.
1991-01-01
We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.
Close supermassive binary black holes.
Gaskell, C Martin
2010-01-07
It has been proposed that when the peaks of the broad emission lines in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are significantly blueshifted or redshifted from the systemic velocity of the host galaxy, this could be a consequence of orbital motion of a supermassive black-hole binary (SMBB). The AGN J1536+0441 ( = SDSS J153636.22+044127.0) has recently been proposed as an example of this phenomenon. It is proposed here instead that J1536+0441 is an example of line emission from a disk. If this is correct, the lack of clear optical spectral evidence for close SMBBs is significant, and argues either that the merging of close SMBBs is much faster than has generally been hitherto thought, or if the approach is slow, that when the separation of the binary is comparable to the size of the torus and broad-line region, the feeding of the black holes is disrupted.
Complexity, action, and black holes
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; ...
2016-04-18
In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Complexity, action, and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-01
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Binary black hole spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Den Broeck, Chris; Sengupta, Anand S.
2007-03-01
We study parameter estimation with post-Newtonian (PN) gravitational waveforms for the quasi-circular, adiabatic inspiral of spinning binary compact objects. In particular, the performance of amplitude-corrected waveforms is compared with that of the more commonly used restricted waveforms, in Advanced LIGO and EGO. With restricted waveforms, the properties of the source can only be extracted from the phasing. In the case of amplitude-corrected waveforms, the spectrum encodes a wealth of additional information, which leads to dramatic improvements in parameter estimation. At distances of ~100 Mpc, the full PN waveforms allow for high-accuracy parameter extraction for total mass up to several hundred solar masses, while with the restricted ones the errors are steep functions of mass, and accurate parameter estimation is only possible for relatively light stellar mass binaries. At the low-mass end, the inclusion of amplitude corrections reduces the error on the time of coalescence by an order of magnitude in Advanced LIGO and a factor of 5 in EGO compared to the restricted waveforms; at higher masses these differences are much larger. The individual component masses, which are very poorly determined with restricted waveforms, become measurable with high accuracy if amplitude-corrected waveforms are used, with errors as low as a few per cent in Advanced LIGO and a few tenths of a per cent in EGO. The usual spin orbit parameter β is also poorly determined with restricted waveforms (except for low-mass systems in EGO), but the full waveforms give errors that are small compared to the largest possible value consistent with the Kerr bound. This suggests a way of finding out if one or both of the component objects violate this bound. On the other hand, we find that the spin spin parameter σ remains poorly determined even when the full waveform is used. Generally, all errors have but a weak dependence on the magnitudes and orientations of the spins. We also briefly
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Black hole binaries and microquasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuang-Nan
2013-12-01
This is a general review on the observations and physics of black hole X-ray binaries and microquasars, with the emphasize on recent developments in the high energy regime. The focus is put on understanding the accretion flows and measuring the parameters of black holes in them. It includes mainly two parts: i) Brief review of several recent review article on this subject; ii) Further development on several topics, including black hole spin measurements, hot accretion flows, corona formation, state transitions and thermal stability of standard think disk. This is thus not a regular bottom-up approach, which I feel not necessary at this stage. Major effort is made in making and incorporating from many sources useful plots and illustrations, in order to make this article more comprehensible to non-expert readers. In the end I attempt to make a unification scheme on the accretion-outflow (wind/jet) connections of all types of accreting BHs of all accretion rates and all BH mass scales, and finally provide a brief outlook.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-01
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Constraints on black hole remnants
Giddings, S.B. )
1994-01-15
One possible fate of information lost to black holes is its preservation in black hole remnants. It is argued that a type of effective field theory describes such remnants (generically referred to as informons). The general structure of such a theory is investigated and the infinite pair production problem is revisited. A toy model for remnants clarifies some of the basic issues; in particular, infinite remnant production is not suppressed simply by the large internal volumes as proposed in cornucopion scenarios. Criteria for avoiding infinite production are stated in terms of couplings in the effective theory. Such instabilities remain a problem barring what would be described in that theory as a strong coupling conspiracy. The relation to Euclidean calculations of cornucopion production is sketched, and potential flaws in that analysis are outlined. However, it is quite plausible that pair production of ordinary black holes (e.g., Reissner-Noerdstrom or others) is suppressed due to strong effective couplings. It also remains an open possibility that a microsopic dynamics can be found yielding an appropriate strongly coupled effective theory of neutral informons without infinite pair production.
Accretion disks around black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramowicz, M. A.
1994-01-01
The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.
Dynamical Friction around Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antonini, Fabio; Merritt, David
2012-01-01
The density of stars in galactic bulges is often observed to be flat or slowly rising inside the influence radius of the supermassive black hole (SMBH). Attributing the dynamical-friction force to stars moving more slowly than the test body, as is commonly done, is likely to be a poor approximation in such a core since there are no stars moving more slowly than the local circular velocity. We have tested this prediction using large-scale N-body experiments. The rate of orbital decay never drops precisely to zero, because stars moving faster than the test body also contribute to the frictional force. When the contribution from the fast-moving stars is included in the expression for the dynamical-friction force, and the changes induced by the massive body on the stellar distribution are taken into account, Chandrasekhar's theory is found to reproduce the rate of orbital decay remarkably well. However, this rate is still substantially smaller than the rate predicted by Chandrasekhar's formula in its most widely used forms, implying longer timescale for inspiral. Motivated by recent observations that suggest a parsec-scale core around the Galactic center (GC) SMBH, we investigate the evolution of a population of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) as they spiral into the center of the Galaxy. After ~10 Gyr, we find that the density of BHs can remain substantially less than the density in stars at all radii; we conclude that it would be unjustified to assume that the spatial distribution of BHs at the GC is well described by steady-state models. One consequence is that rates of capture of BHs by the SMBH at the Galactic center (extreme-mass-ratio inspirals) may be much lower than in standard models. When capture occurs, inspiraling BHs often reach the gravitational-radiation-dominated regime while on orbits that are still highly eccentric; even after the semimajor axis has decreased to values small enough for detection by space-based interferometers, eccentricities can be
Higher spin black holes with soft hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grumiller, Daniel; Pérez, Alfredo; Prohazka, Stefan; Tempo, David; Troncoso, Ricardo
2016-10-01
We construct a new set of boundary conditions for higher spin gravity, inspired by a recent "soft Heisenberg hair"-proposal for General Relativity on three-dimensional Anti-de Sitter space. The asymptotic symmetry algebra consists of a set of affine û(1) current algebras. Its associated canonical charges generate higher spin soft hair. We focus first on the spin-3 case and then extend some of our main results to spin- N , many of which resemble the spin-2 results: the generators of the asymptotic W 3 algebra naturally emerge from composite operators of the û(1) charges through a twisted Sugawara construction; our boundary conditions ensure regularity of the Euclidean solutions space independently of the values of the charges; solutions, which we call "higher spin black flowers", are stationary but not necessarily spherically symmetric. Finally, we derive the entropy of higher spin black flowers, and find that for the branch that is continuously connected to the BTZ black hole, it depends only on the affine purely gravitational zero modes. Using our map to W -algebra currents we recover well-known expressions for higher spin entropy. We also address higher spin black flowers in the metric formalism and achieve full consistency with previous results.
Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barret, Chris
2000-01-01
NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.
All or nothing: On the small fluctuations of two-dimensional string theoretic black holes
Gilbert, Gerald; Raiten, Eric
1992-10-01
A comprehensive analysis of small fluctuations about two-dimensional string-theoretic and string-inspired black holes is presented. It is shown with specific examples that two-dimensional black holes behave in a radically different way from all known black holes in four dimensions. For both the SL(2,R)/U(1) black hole and the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive dilaton with constant field strength, it is shown that there are a {\\it continuous infinity} of solutions to the linearized equations of motion, which are such that it is impossible to ascertain the classical linear response. It is further shown that the two-dimensional black hole coupled to a massive, linear dilaton admits {\\it no small fluctuations at all}. We discuss possible implications of our results for the Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger black hole.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; Di Pace, S; Di Palma, I; Di Virgilio, A; Dojcinoski, G; Dolique, V; Donovan, F; Dooley, K L; Doravari, S; Douglas, R; Downes, T P; Drago, M; Drever, R W P; Driggers, J C; Du, Z; Ducrot, M; Dwyer, S E; Edo, T B; Edwards, M C; Effler, A; Eggenstein, H-B; Ehrens, P; Eichholz, J; Eikenberry, S S; Engels, W; Essick, R C; Etzel, T; Evans, M; Evans, T M; Everett, R; Factourovich, M; Fafone, V; Fair, H; Fairhurst, S; Fan, X; Fang, Q; Farinon, S; Farr, B; Farr, W M; Favata, M; Fays, M; Fehrmann, H; Fejer, M M; Feldbaum, D; Ferrante, I; Ferreira, E C; Ferrini, F; Fidecaro, F; Finn, L S; Fiori, I; Fiorucci, D; Fisher, R P; Flaminio, R; Fletcher, M; Fong, H; Fournier, J-D; Franco, S; Frasca, S; Frasconi, F; Frede, M; Frei, Z; Freise, A; Frey, R; Frey, V; Fricke, T T; Fritschel, P; Frolov, V V; Fulda, P; Fyffe, M; Gabbard, H A G; Gair, J R; Gammaitoni, L; Gaonkar, S G; Garufi, F; Gatto, A; Gaur, G; Gehrels, N; Gemme, G; Gendre, B; Genin, E; Gennai, A; George, J; Gergely, L; Germain, V; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S; Giaime, J A; Giardina, K D; Giazotto, A; Gill, K; Glaefke, A; Gleason, J R; Goetz, E; Goetz, R; Gondan, L; González, G; Gonzalez Castro, J M; Gopakumar, A; Gordon, N A; Gorodetsky, M L; Gossan, S E; Gosselin, M; Gouaty, R; Graef, C; Graff, P B; Granata, M; Grant, A; Gras, S; Gray, C; Greco, G; Green, A C; Greenhalgh, R J S; Groot, P; Grote, H; Grunewald, S; Guidi, G M; Guo, X; Gupta, A; Gupta, M K; Gushwa, K E; Gustafson, E K; Gustafson, R; Hacker, J J; Hall, B R; Hall, E D; Hammond, G; Haney, M; Hanke, M M; Hanks, J; Hanna, C; Hannam, M D; Hanson, J; Hardwick, T; Harms, J; Harry, G M; Harry, I W; Hart, M J; Hartman, M T; Haster, C-J; Haughian, K; Healy, J; Heefner, J; Heidmann, A; Heintze, M C; Heinzel, G; Heitmann, H; Hello, P; Hemming, G; Hendry, M; Heng, I S; Hennig, J; Heptonstall, A W; Heurs, M; Hild, S; Hoak, D; Hodge, K A; Hofman, D; Hollitt, S E; Holt, K; Holz, D E; Hopkins, P; Hosken, D J; Hough, J; Houston, E A; Howell, E J; Hu, Y M; Huang, S; Huerta, E A; Huet, D; Hughey, B; Husa, S; Huttner, S H; Huynh-Dinh, T; Idrisy, A; Indik, N; Ingram, D R; Inta, R; Isa, H N; Isac, J-M; Isi, M; Islas, G; Isogai, T; Iyer, B R; Izumi, K; Jacobson, M B; Jacqmin, T; Jang, H; Jani, K; Jaranowski, P; Jawahar, S; Jiménez-Forteza, F; Johnson, W W; Johnson-McDaniel, N K; Jones, D I; Jones, R; Jonker, R J G; Ju, L; Haris, K; Kalaghatgi, C V; Kalogera, V; Kandhasamy, S; Kang, G; Kanner, J B; Karki, S; Kasprzack, M; Katsavounidis, E; Katzman, W; Kaufer, S; Kaur, T; Kawabe, K; Kawazoe, F; Kéfélian, F; Kehl, M S; Keitel, D; Kelley, D B; Kells, W; Kennedy, R; Keppel, D G; Key, J S; Khalaidovski, A; Khalili, F Y; Khan, I; Khan, S; Khan, Z; Khazanov, E A; Kijbunchoo, N; Kim, C; Kim, J; Kim, K; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y-M; King, E J; King, P J; Kinzel, D L; Kissel, J S; Kleybolte, L; Klimenko, S; Koehlenbeck, S M; Kokeyama, K; Koley, S; Kondrashov, V; Kontos, A; Koranda, S; Korobko, M; Korth, W Z; Kowalska, I; Kozak, D B; Kringel, V; Krishnan, B; Królak, A; Krueger, C; Kuehn, G; Kumar, P; Kumar, R; Kuo, L; Kutynia, A; Kwee, P; Lackey, B D; Landry, M; Lange, J; Lantz, B; Lasky, P D; Lazzarini, A; Lazzaro, C; Leaci, P; Leavey, S; Lebigot, E O; Lee, C H; Lee, H K; Lee, H M; Lee, K; Lenon, A; Leonardi, M; Leong, J R; Leroy, N; Letendre, N; Levin, Y; Levine, B M; Li, T G F; Libson, A; Littenberg, T B; Lockerbie, N A; Logue, J; Lombardi, A L; London, L T; Lord, J E; Lorenzini, M; Loriette, V; Lormand, M; Losurdo, G; Lough, J D; Lousto, C O; Lovelace, G; Lück, H; Lundgren, A P; Luo, J; Lynch, R; Ma, Y; MacDonald, T; Machenschalk, B; MacInnis, M; Macleod, D M; Magaña-Sandoval, F; Magee, R M; Mageswaran, M; Majorana, E; Maksimovic, I; Malvezzi, V; Man, N; Mandel, I; Mandic, V; Mangano, V; Mansell, G L; Manske, M; Mantovani, M; Marchesoni, F; Marion, F; Márka, S; Márka, Z; Markosyan, A S; Maros, E; Martelli, F; Martellini, L; Martin, I W; Martin, R M; Martynov, D V; Marx, J N; Mason, K; Masserot, A; Massinger, T J; Masso-Reid, M; Matichard, F; Matone, L; Mavalvala, N; Mazumder, N; Mazzolo, G; McCarthy, R; McClelland, D E; McCormick, S; McGuire, S C; McIntyre, G; McIver, J; McManus, D J; McWilliams, S T; Meacher, D; Meadors, G D; Meidam, J; Melatos, A; Mendell, G; Mendoza-Gandara, D; Mercer, R A; Merilh, E; Merzougui, M; Meshkov, S; Messenger, C; Messick, C; Meyers, P M; Mezzani, F; Miao, H; Michel, C; Middleton, H; Mikhailov, E E; Milano, L; Miller, J; Millhouse, M; Minenkov, Y; Ming, J; Mirshekari, S; Mishra, C; Mitra, S; Mitrofanov, V P; Mitselmakher, G; Mittleman, R; Moggi, A; Mohan, M; Mohapatra, S R P; Montani, M; Moore, B C; Moore, C J; Moraru, D; Moreno, G; Morriss, S R; Mossavi, K; Mours, B; Mow-Lowry, C M; Mueller, C L; Mueller, G; Muir, A W; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D; Mukherjee, S; Mukund, N; Mullavey, A; Munch, J; Murphy, D J; Murray, P G; Mytidis, A; Nardecchia, I; Naticchioni, L; Nayak, R K; Necula, V; Nedkova, K; Nelemans, G; Neri, M; Neunzert, A; Newton, G; Nguyen, T T; Nielsen, A B; Nissanke, S; Nitz, A; Nocera, F; Nolting, D; Normandin, M E N; Nuttall, L K; Oberling, J; Ochsner, E; O'Dell, J; Oelker, E; Ogin, G H; Oh, J J; Oh, S H; Ohme, F; Oliver, M; Oppermann, P; Oram, Richard J; O'Reilly, B; O'Shaughnessy, R; Ott, C D; Ottaway, D J; Ottens, R S; Overmier, H; Owen, B J; Pai, A; Pai, S A; Palamos, J R; Palashov, O; Palomba, C; Pal-Singh, A; Pan, H; Pan, Y; Pankow, C; Pannarale, F; Pant, B C; Paoletti, F; Paoli, A; Papa, M A; Paris, H R; Parker, W; Pascucci, D; Pasqualetti, A; Passaquieti, R; Passuello, D; Patricelli, B; Patrick, Z; Pearlstone, B L; Pedraza, M; Pedurand, R; Pekowsky, L; Pele, A; Penn, S; Perreca, A; Pfeiffer, H P; Phelps, M; Piccinni, O; Pichot, M; Pickenpack, M; Piergiovanni, F; Pierro, V; Pillant, G; Pinard, L; Pinto, I M; Pitkin, M; Poeld, J H; Poggiani, R; Popolizio, P; Post, A; Powell, J; Prasad, J; Predoi, V; Premachandra, S S; Prestegard, T; Price, L R; Prijatelj, M; Principe, M; Privitera, S; Prix, R; Prodi, G A; Prokhorov, L; Puncken, O; Punturo, M; Puppo, P; Pürrer, M; Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C R; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, G H; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; Shaffer, T; Shah, S; Shahriar, M S; Shaltev, M; Shao, Z; Shapiro, B; Shawhan, P; Sheperd, A; Shoemaker, D H; Shoemaker, D M; Siellez, K; Siemens, X; Sigg, D; Silva, A D; Simakov, D; Singer, A; Singer, L P; Singh, A; Singh, R; Singhal, A; Sintes, A M; Slagmolen, B J J; Smith, J R; Smith, M R; Smith, N D; Smith, R J E; Son, E J; Sorazu, B; Sorrentino, F; Souradeep, T; Srivastava, A K; Staley, A; Steinke, M; Steinlechner, J; Steinlechner, S; Steinmeyer, D; Stephens, B C; Stevenson, S P; Stone, R; Strain, K A; Straniero, N; Stratta, G; Strauss, N A; Strigin, S; Sturani, R; Stuver, A L; Summerscales, T Z; Sun, L; Sutton, P J; Swinkels, B L; Szczepańczyk, M J; Tacca, M; Talukder, D; Tanner, D B; Tápai, M; Tarabrin, S P; Taracchini, A; Taylor, R; Theeg, T; Thirugnanasambandam, M P; Thomas, E G; Thomas, M; Thomas, P; Thorne, K A; Thorne, K S; Thrane, E; Tiwari, S; Tiwari, V; Tokmakov, K V; Tomlinson, C; Tonelli, M; Torres, C V; Torrie, C I; Töyrä, D; Travasso, F; Traylor, G; Trifirò, D; Tringali, M C; 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Wimmer, M H; Winkelmann, L; Winkler, W; Wipf, C C; Wiseman, A G; Wittel, H; Woan, G; Worden, J; Wright, J L; Wu, G; Yablon, J; Yakushin, I; Yam, W; Yamamoto, H; Yancey, C C; Yap, M J; Yu, H; Yvert, M; Zadrożny, A; Zangrando, L; Zanolin, M; Zendri, J-P; Zevin, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, M; Zhang, Y; Zhao, C; Zhou, M; Zhou, Z; Zhu, X J; Zucker, M E; Zuraw, S E; Zweizig, J
2016-02-12
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heinzel, G.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Hofman, D.; Hollitt, S. E.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Idrisy, A.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Islas, G.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M. B.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Haris, K.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Karki, S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kawazoe, F.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Keppel, D. G.; Key, J. S.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Namjun; Kim, Y.-M.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Kokeyama, K.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Koranda, S.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwee, P.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Levine, B. M.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poeld, J. H.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C. R.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, G. H.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, H.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-02-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 ×10-21. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ . The source lies at a luminosity distance of 41 0-180+160 Mpc corresponding to a redshift z =0.0 9-0.04+0.03 . In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ , and the final black hole mass is 6 2-4+4M⊙ , with 3. 0-0.5+0.5M⊙ c2 radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruiz, Michael J.
2008-01-01
An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…
A periodic table for black hole orbits
Levin, Janna; Perez-Giz, Gabe
2008-05-15
Understanding the dynamics around rotating black holes is imperative to the success of future gravitational wave observatories. Although integrable in principle, test-particle orbits in the Kerr spacetime can also be elaborate, and while they have been studied extensively, classifying their general properties has been a challenge. This is the first in a series of papers that adopts a dynamical systems approach to the study of Kerr orbits, beginning with equatorial orbits. We define a taxonomy of orbits that hinges on a correspondence between periodic orbits and rational numbers. The taxonomy defines the entire dynamics, including aperiodic motion, since every orbit is in or near the periodic set. A remarkable implication of this periodic orbit taxonomy is that the simple precessing ellipse familiar from planetary orbits is not allowed in the strong-field regime. Instead, eccentric orbits trace out precessions of multileaf clovers in the final stages of inspiral. Furthermore, for any black hole, there is some point in the strong-field regime past which zoom-whirl behavior becomes unavoidable. Finally, we sketch the potential application of the taxonomy to problems of astrophysical interest, in particular its utility for computationally intensive gravitational wave calculations.
Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.
The Astrophysics of Merging Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
When two supermassive black holes (SMBHs) approach within 1-10 mpc, gravitational wave (GW) losses begin to dominate the evolution of the binary, pushing the system to merge in a relatively small time. During this final inspiral regime, the system will emit copious energy in GWs, which should be directly detectable by pulsar timing arrays and space-based interferometers. At the same time, any gas or stars in the immediate vicinity of the merging 5MBHs can get heated and produce bright electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to the GW signals. We present here a number of possible mechanisms by which simultaneous EM and GW signals will yield valuable new information about galaxy evolution, accretion disk dynamics, and fundamental physics in the most extreme gravitational fields.
Quantum correlations across the black hole horizon
Schuetzhold, Ralf; Unruh, William G.
2010-06-15
Inspired by the condensed-matter analogues of black holes, we study the quantum correlations across the event horizon reflecting the entanglement between the outgoing particles of the Hawking radiation and their in-falling partners. For a perfectly covariant theory, the total correlation is conserved in time and piles up arbitrary close to the horizon in the past, where it merges into the singularity of the vacuum two-point function at the light cone. After modifying the dispersion relation (i.e., breaking Lorentz invariance) for large k, on the other hand, the light cone is smeared out and the entanglement is not conserved but actually created in a given rate per unit time.
Stationary black holes: large D analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro
2015-09-01
We consider the effective theory of large D stationary black holes. By solving the Einstein equations with a cosmological constant using the 1 /D expansion in near zone of the black hole we obtain the effective equation for the stationary black hole. The effective equation describes the Myers-Perry black hole, bumpy black holes and, possibly, the black ring solution as its solutions. In this effective theory the black hole is represented as an embedded membrane in the background, e.g., Minkowski or Anti-de Sitter spacetime and its mean curvature is given by the surface gravity redshifted by the background gravitational field and the local Lorentz boost. The local Lorentz boost property of the effective equation is observed also in the metric itself. In fact we show that the leading order metric of the Einstein equation in the 1 /D expansion is generically regarded as a Lorentz boosted Schwarzschild black hole. We apply this Lorentz boost property of the stationary black hole solution to solve perturbation equations. As a result we obtain an analytic formula for quasinormal modes of the singly rotating Myers-Perry black hole in the 1 /D expansion.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis
2011-08-02
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes
Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo
2011-05-15
The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M{sub D-1}xS{sup 1}, where D is the spacetime dimension and M{sub D-1} stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.
Binary black hole merger dynamics and waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-II; Koppitz, Michael; vanMeter, James
2006-01-01
We apply recently developed techniques for simulations of moving black holes to study dynamics and radiation generation in the last few orbits and merger of a binary black hole system. Our analysis produces a consistent picture from the gravitational wave forms and dynamical black hole trajectories for a set of simulations with black holes beginning on circular-orbit trajectories at a variety of initial separations. We find profound agreement at the level of 1% among the simulations for the last orbit, merger and ringdown, resulting in a final black hole with spin parameter a/m = 0.69. Consequently, we are confident that this part of our waveform result accurately represents the predictions from Einstein's General Relativity for the final burst of gravitational radiation resulting from the merger of an astrophysical system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes. We also find good agreement at a level of roughly 10% for the radiation generated in the preceding few orbits.
Black holes in modified gravity (MOG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moffat, J. W.
2015-04-01
The field equations for scalar-tensor-vector gravity (STVG) or modified gravity (MOG) have a static, spherically symmetric black hole solution determined by the mass with two horizons. The strength of the gravitational constant is where is a parameter. A regular singularity-free MOG solution is derived using a nonlinear field dynamics for the repulsive gravitational field component and a reasonable physical energy-momentum tensor. The Kruskal-Szekeres completion of the MOG black hole solution is obtained. The Kerr-MOG black hole solution is determined by the mass , the parameter and the spin angular momentum . The equations of motion and the stability condition of a test particle orbiting the MOG black hole are derived, and the radius of the black hole photosphere and the shadows cast by the Schwarzschild-MOG and Kerr-MOG black holes are calculated. A traversable wormhole solution is constructed with a throat stabilized by the repulsive component of the gravitational field.
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341
NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-04-01
Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce
Techniques for Binary Black Hole Simulations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2006-01-01
Recent advances in techniques for numerical simulation of black hole systems have enabled dramatic progress in astrophysical applications. Our approach to these simulations, which includes new gauge conditions for moving punctures, AMR, and specific tools for analyzing black hole simulations, has been applied to a variety of black hole configurations, typically resulting in simulations lasting several orbits. I will discuss these techniques, what we've learned in applications, and outline some areas for further development.
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang
2009-02-01
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.
Corrected Entropy of BTZ Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farahani, Hoda; Sadeghi, Jafar; Saadat, Hassan
2012-12-01
In this paper, corrected entropy of a class of BTZ black holes, include charge and rotation, studied. We obtain corrected Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and find that effect of charge viewed at order A -2, and effect of rotation viewed at order A -6, therefore Q and J don't have contribution in corrected entropy lower than the second order. We also write the first law of black hole thermodynamics for the case of charged rotating BTZ black hole.
Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo
2016-09-01
We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr-Newman or Kerr-Newman-anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.
Black holes and the chocolate cake concept.
Allen, A
1994-10-01
The force of black holes in the universe is compared with the intense gravitational fields that we must navigate in our personal galaxy. Stressed by the many demands of home, work, and community, we are in danger of slipping into the black holes present in every aspect of our lives. The Chocolate Cake Concept is offered as a means of avoiding the black holes by breaking down barriers that influence our attitudes.
Black holes in the milky way galaxy.
Filippenko, A V
1999-08-31
Extremely strong observational evidence has recently been found for the presence of black holes orbiting a few relatively normal stars in our Milky Way Galaxy and also at the centers of some galaxies. The former generally have masses of 4-16 times the mass of the sun, whereas the latter are "supermassive black holes" with millions to billions of solar masses. The evidence for a supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy is especially strong.
Spinning black holes as particle accelerators.
Jacobson, Ted; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2010-01-15
It has recently been pointed out that particles falling freely from rest at infinity outside a Kerr black hole can in principle collide with an arbitrarily high center of mass energy in the limiting case of maximal black hole spin. Here we aim to elucidate the mechanism for this fascinating result, and to point out its practical limitations, which imply that ultraenergetic collisions cannot occur near black holes in nature.
Boson shells harboring charged black holes
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike
2010-11-15
We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.
Greene, Jenny E
2012-01-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.
The Black Hole Formation Probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clausen, Drew R.; Piro, Anthony; Ott, Christian D.
2015-01-01
A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. Using the observed BH mass distribution from Galactic X-ray binaries, we investigate the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass. Although the shape of the black hole formation probability function is poorly constrained by current measurements, we believe that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. We also consider some of the implications of this probability distribution, from its impact on the chemical enrichment from massive stars, to its connection with the structure of the core at the time of collapse, to the birth kicks that black holes receive. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be a useful input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.
Corda, Christian
2015-03-10
The idea that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity is today an intuitive but general conviction. In this paper it will be shown that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture. In fact, we will discuss a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. The model is completely consistent with existing results in the literature, starting from the celebrated result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
Black Hole Researchers in Schools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Rosa
2016-07-01
"Black Holes in my School" is a research project that aims to explore the impact of engaging students in real research experiences while learning new skills and topics addressed in the regular school curriculum. The project introduces teachers to innovative tools for science teaching, explore student centered methodologies such as inquiry based learning and provides a setting where students take the role of an astrophysicist researching the field of compact stellar mass objects in binary systems. Students will study already existing data and use the Faulkes Telescopes to acquire new data. In this presentation the main aim is to present the framework being built and the results achieved so far.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.
Lake, Kayll
2010-05-28
On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.
On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan
2012-12-01
In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form Iadia = ∮pi dqi. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by ΔA = 8 π lp2 in the Schwarzschild and Painlevé coordinates.
Black Holes versus Supersymmetry at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2007-11-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. In this paper we assess the distinguishability of supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our analysis shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider can be easily discriminated.
Do black holes really evaporate thermally
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tipler, F. J.
1980-09-01
The Raychaudhuri equation is used to analyze the effect of the Hawking radiation back reaction upon a black-hole event horizon. It is found that if the effective stress-energy tensor of the Hawking radiation has negative energy density as expected, then an evaporating black hole initially a solar mass in size must disappear in less than a second. This implies that either the evaporation process, if it occurs at all, must be quite different from what is commonly supposed, or else black-hole event horizons - and hence black holes - do not exist.
Black hole collapse and democratic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jansen, Aron; Magán, Javier M.
2016-11-01
We study the evolution of black hole entropy and temperature in collapse scenarios in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime, finding three generic lessons. First, entropy evolution is extensive. Second, at large times, entropy and temperature ring with twice the frequency of the lowest quasinormal mode. Third, the entropy oscillations saturate black hole area theorems in general relativity. The first two features are characteristic of entanglement dynamics in "democratic" models. Solely based on general relativity and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula, our results point to democratic models as microscopic theories of black holes. The third feature can be taken as a prediction for microscopic models of black hole physics.
Semiclassical geometry of charged black holes
Frolov, Andrei V.; Kristjansson, Kristjan R.; Thorlacius, Larus
2005-07-15
At the classical level, two-dimensional dilaton gravity coupled to an abelian gauge field has charged black hole solutions, which have much in common with four-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem black holes, including multiple asymptotic regions, timelike curvature singularities, and Cauchy horizons. The black hole spacetime is, however, significantly modified by quantum effects, which can be systematically studied in this two-dimensional context. In particular, the back-reaction on the geometry due to pair-creation of charged fermions destabilizes the inner horizon and replaces it with a spacelike curvature singularity. The semiclassical geometry has the same global topology as an electrically neutral black hole.
Micro black holes and the democratic transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvali, Gia; Pujolàs, Oriol
2009-03-01
Unitarity implies that the evaporation of microscopic quasiclassical black holes cannot be universal in different particle species. This creates a puzzle, since it conflicts with the thermal nature of quasiclassical black holes, according to which all of the species should see the same horizon and be produced with the same Hawking temperatures. We resolve this puzzle by showing that for the microscopic black holes, on top of the usual quantum evaporation time, there is a new time scale which characterizes a purely classical process during which the black hole loses the ability to differentiate among the species and becomes democratic. We demonstrate this phenomenon in a well-understood framework of large extra dimensions, with a number of parallel branes. An initially nondemocratic black hole is the one localized on one of the branes, with its high-dimensional Schwarzschild radius being much shorter than the interbrane distance. Such a black hole seemingly cannot evaporate into the species localized on the other branes that are beyond its reach. We demonstrate that in reality the system evolves classically in time, in such a way that the black hole accretes the neighboring branes. The end result is a completely democratic static configuration, in which all of the branes share the same black hole and all of the species are produced with the same Hawking temperature. Thus, just like their macroscopic counterparts, the microscopic black holes are universal bridges to the hidden sector physics.
Black holes and local dark matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegyi, D. J.; Kolb, E. W.; Olive, K. A.
1986-01-01
Two independent constraints are placed on the amount of dark matter in black holes contained in the galactic disk. First, gas accretion by black holes leads to X-ray emission which cannot exceed the observed soft X-ray background. Second, metals produced in stellar processes that lead to black hole formation cannot exceed the observed disk metal abundance. Based on these constraints, it appears unlikely that the missing disk mass could be contained in black holes. A consequence of this conclusion is that at least two different types of dark matter are needed to solve the various missing mass problems.
Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chou, Chia-Jui; Wu, Xiaoning; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Pei-Hung
2016-10-01
In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.
Gamma ray astronomy and black hole astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Edison P.
1990-01-01
The study of soft gamma emissions from black-hole candidates is identified as an important element in understanding black-hole phenomena ranging from stellar-mass black holes to AGNs. The spectra of Cyg X-1 and observations of the Galactic Center are emphasized, since thermal origins and MeV gamma-ray bumps are evident and suggest a thermal-pair cloud picture. MeV gamma-ray observations are suggested for studying black hole astrophysics such as the theorized escaping pair wind, the anticorrelation between the MeV gamma bump and the soft continuum, and the relationship between source compactness and temperature.
NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-02-01
The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first
Close limit of grazing black hole collisions: non-spinning holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khanna, Gaurav; Gleiser, Reinaldo; Price, Richard; Pullin, Jorge
2000-03-01
Using approximate techniques we study the final moments of the collision of two (individually non-spinnning) black holes which inspiral into each other. The approximation is based on treating the whole spacetime as a single distorted black hole. We obtain estimates for the radiated energy, angular momentum and waveforms for the gravitational waves produced in such a collision. The results can be of interest for analysing the data that will be forthcoming from gravitational wave interferometric detectors, like the LIGO, GEO, LISA, VIRGO and TAMA projects.
The black hole S-Matrix from quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Betzios, Panagiotis; Gaddam, Nava; Papadoulaki, Olga
2016-11-01
We revisit the old black hole S-Matrix construction and its new partial wave expansion of 't Hooft. Inspired by old ideas from non-critical string theory & c = 1 Matrix Quantum Mechanics, we reformulate the scattering in terms of a quantum mechanical model — of waves scattering off inverted harmonic oscillator potentials — that exactly reproduces the unitary black hole S-Matrix for all spherical harmonics; each partial wave corresponds to an inverted harmonic oscillator with ground state energy that is shifted relative to the s-wave oscillator. Identifying a connection to 2d string theory allows us to show that there is an exponential degeneracy in how a given total initial energy may be distributed among many partial waves of the 4d black hole.
Primordial black holes in globular clusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars
1993-01-01
It has recently been recognized that significant numbers of medium-mass back holes (of order 10 solar masses) should form in globular clusters during the early stages of their evolution. Here we explore the dynamical and observational consequences of the presence of such a primordial black-hole population in a globular cluster. The holes initially segregate to the cluster cores, where they form binary and multiple black-hole systems. The subsequent dynamical evolution of the black-hole population ejects most of the holes on a relatively short timescale: a typical cluster will retain between zero and four black holes in its core, and possibly a few black holes in its halo. The presence of binary, triple, and quadruple black-hole systems in cluster cores will disrupt main-sequence and giant stellar binaries; this may account for the observed anomalies in the distribution of binaries in globular clusters. Furthermore, tidal interactions between a multiple black-hole system and a red giant star can remove much of the red giant's stellar envelope, which may explain the puzzling absence of larger red giants in the cores of some very dense clusters.
Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Solodukhin, Sergey N.
2011-12-01
The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the blackhole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.
Superluminality, black holes and EFT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Goon, Garrett; Hinterbichler, Kurt
2017-02-01
Under the assumption that a UV theory does not display superluminal behavior, we ask what constraints on superluminality are satisfied in the effective field theory (EFT). We study two examples of effective theories: quantum electrodynamics (QED) coupled to gravity after the electron is integrated out, and the flat-space galileon. The first is realized in nature, the second is more speculative, but they both exhibit apparent superluminality around non-trivial backgrounds. In the QED case, we attempt, and fail, to find backgrounds for which the superluminal signal advance can be made larger than the putative resolving power of the EFT. In contrast, in the galileon case it is easy to find such backgrounds, indicating that if the UV completion of the galileon is (sub)luminal, quantum corrections must become important at distance scales of order the Vainshtein radius of the background configuration, much larger than the naive EFT strong coupling distance scale. Such corrections would be reminiscent of the non-perturbative Schwarzschild scale quantum effects that are expected to resolve the black hole information problem. Finally, a byproduct of our analysis is a calculation of how perturbative quantum effects alter charged Reissner-Nordstrom black holes.
Codimension-2 Brane Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zamorano, Nelson; Arias, Cesar; Ordenes, Ariel; Guzman, Francisco
2012-03-01
We analyze the geometry associated to a six dimensional solution of the Einstein's equations. It describes a Schwarzschild de-Sitter black hole on a 3-brane, surrounded by a two dimensional compact bulk. A four dimensional effective cosmological constant and a Planck mass are matched to their six dimensional counterpart. Deviation from Newton's law are computed in both of the solutions found. To learn about the geometry of the bulk, we study the geodesics in this sector. At least, in our opinion, there are some features of these solutions that makes worth to pursue this analysis. The singularity associated to the warped bulk is controlled by the mass M of the black hole. It vanishes if we set M=0. In the same context, it makes an interesting problem to study the Gregory-Laflamme instability in this context [1]. Another feature is the rugby ball type of geometry exhibited by these solutions [2]. They end up in two conical singularities at its respective poles. The branes are located precisely at the poles. Besides, a Wick's rotation generates a connection between different solutions. [4pt] [1] R. Gregory and R. Laflamme, Phys. Rev Lett., 70,2837 (1993)[0pt] [2] S. M. Carroll and M. M. Guica, arXiv:hep-th/0302067
Floating and sinking: the imprint of massive scalars around rotating black holes.
Cardoso, Vitor; Chakrabarti, Sayan; Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2011-12-09
We study the coupling of massive scalar fields to matter in orbit around rotating black holes. It is generally expected that orbiting bodies will lose energy in gravitational waves, slowly inspiraling into the black hole. Instead, we show that the coupling of the field to matter leads to a surprising effect: because of superradiance, matter can hover into "floating orbits" for which the net gravitational energy loss at infinity is entirely provided by the black hole's rotational energy. Orbiting bodies remain floating until they extract sufficient angular momentum from the black hole, or until perturbations or nonlinear effects disrupt the orbit. For slowly rotating and nonrotating black holes floating orbits are unlikely to exist, but resonances at orbital frequencies corresponding to quasibound states of the scalar field can speed up the inspiral, so that the orbiting body sinks. These effects could be a smoking gun of deviations from general relativity.
Hybrid method for understanding black-hole mergers: Head-on case
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nichols, David A.; Chen, Yanbei
2010-11-01
Black-hole-binary coalescence is often divided into three stages: inspiral, merger, and ringdown. The post-Newtonian (PN) approximation treats the inspiral phase, black-hole perturbation (BHP) theory describes the ringdown, and the nonlinear dynamics of space-time characterize the merger. In this paper, we introduce a hybrid method that incorporates elements of PN and BHP theories, and we apply it to the head-on collision of black holes with transverse, antiparallel spins. We compare our approximation technique with a full numerical-relativity simulation, and we find good agreement between the gravitational waveforms and the radiated energy and momentum. Our results suggest that PN and BHP theories may suffice to explain the main features of outgoing gravitational radiation for head-on mergers. This would further imply that linear perturbations to exact black-hole solutions can capture the nonlinear aspects of head-on binary-black-hole mergers accessible to observers far from the collision.
Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.
2010-01-15
Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced ''bumpy black holes'': objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity's black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes--objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime's bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime's multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.
Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.
Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J
2015-05-22
We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent.
How to Create Black Holes on Earth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bleicher, Marcus
2007-01-01
We present a short overview on the ideas of large extra dimensions and their implications for the possible production of micro black holes in the next generation particle accelerator at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) from this year on. In fact, the possibility of black hole production on Earth is currently one of the most exciting predictions for the…
Physics near Rapidly Spinning Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Hughes, Scott; Porfyriadis, Achilleas; Strominger, Andrew; Warburton, Niels
2016-03-01
The near-horizon region of a near-extreme Kerr black hole possesses additional emergent symmetries and can be thought of as a spacetime in its own right. I will discuss the dynamics of particles and fields in this region, the constraints imposed by symmetry, and observational consequences for astrophysical black holes.
Effective Potential in Noncommutative BTZ Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Jafar; Shajiee, Vahid Reza
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigated the noncommutative rotating BTZ black hole and showed that such a space-time is not maximally symmetric. We calculated effective potential for the massive and the massless test particle by geodesic equations, also we showed effect of non-commutativity on the minimum mass of BTZ black hole.
Gravitational Waves From Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
di Girolamo, Tristano
2016-10-01
In this talk, I will present the first direct detections of gravitational waves from binary stellar-mass black hole mergers during the first observing run of the two detectors of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory, which opened the field of gravitational-wave astronomy, and then discuss prospects for observing gravitational waves from supermassive black holes with future detectors.
Slender Galaxy with Robust Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a flat, spiral galaxy called NGC 3621 has a feeding, supermassive black hole lurking within it -- a surprise considering that astronomers thought this particular class of super-thin galaxies lacked big black holes.
The data were captured by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that cracks infrared light open to reveal the signatures of elements. In this case, the data, or spectrum, for NGC 3621, shows the signature of highly ionized neon -- a sure sign of an active, supermassive black hole. Only a black hole that is actively consuming gas and stars has enough energy to ionize neon to this state. The other features in this plot are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorine, produced in the gas surrounding stars.
The results challenge current theories, which hold that supermassive black holes require the bulbous central bulges that poke out from many spiral galaxies to form and grow. NGC 3621 is the second disk galaxy without any bulge found to harbor a supermassive black hole; the first, found in 2003, is NGC 4395. Astronomers have also used Spitzer to find six other mega black holes in thin spirals with only minimal bulges. Together, the findings indicate that, for a galaxy, being plump in the middle is not a necessary condition for growing a rotund black hole.
precession: Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael
2016-06-01
We present the numerical code precession, a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave-driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulas obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. precession is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. precession provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where they become detectable, thus linking gravitational-wave observations of spinning black-hole binaries to their astrophysical formation history. The code is also a useful tool to compute initial parameters for numerical-relativity simulations targeting specific precessing systems. precession can be installed from the python Package Index, and it is freely distributed under version control on github, where further documentation is provided.
ALIGNMENT OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY ORBITS AND SPINS
Miller, M. Coleman; Krolik, Julian H.
2013-09-01
Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from {approx}1 pc to {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time {approx}few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor {approx}(m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}){sup 1/2} > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.
Alignment of Supermassive Black Hole Binary Orbits and Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, M. Coleman; Krolik, Julian H.
2013-09-01
Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from ~1 pc to ~10-3-10-2 pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time ~few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor ~(m 1/m 2)1/2 > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.
Pregalactic black holes - A new constraint
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barrow, J. D.; Silk, J.
1979-01-01
Pregalactic black holes accrete matter in the early universe and produce copious amounts of X radiation. By using observations of the background radiation in the X and gamma wavebands, a strong constraint is imposed upon their possible abundance. If pregalactic black holes are actually present, several outstanding problems of cosmogony can be resolved with typical pregalactic black hole masses of 100 solar masses. Significantly more massive holes cannot constitute an appreciable mass fraction of the universe and are limited by a specific mass-density bound.
FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas
Dual jets from binary black holes.
Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L
2010-08-20
The coalescence of supermassive black holes--a natural outcome when galaxies merge--should produce gravitational waves and would likely be associated with energetic electromagnetic events. We have studied the coalescence of such binary black holes within an external magnetic field produced by the expected circumbinary disk surrounding them. Solving the Einstein equations to describe black holes interacting with surrounding plasma, we present numerical evidence for possible jets driven by these systems. Extending the process described by Blandford and Znajek for a single, spinning black hole, the picture that emerges suggests that the electromagnetic field extracts energy from the orbiting black holes, which ultimately merge and settle into the standard Blandford-Znajek scenario. Emissions along these jets could potentially be observable at large distances.
Testing conformal gravity with astrophysical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Cao, Zheng; Modesto, Leonardo
2017-03-01
Weyl conformal symmetry can solve the problem the spacetime singularities present in Einstein's gravity. In a recent paper, two of us have found a singularity-free rotating black hole solution in conformal gravity. In addition to the mass M and the spin angular momentum J of the black hole, the new solution has a new parameter, L , which here we consider to be proportional to the black hole mass. Since the solution is conformally equivalent to the Kerr metric, photon trajectories are unchanged, while the structure of an accretion disk around a black hole is affected by the value of the parameter L . In this paper, we show that x-ray data of astrophysical black holes require L /M <1.2 .
Binary Black Holes from Dense Star Clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Carl
2017-01-01
The recent detections of gravitational waves from merging binary black holes have the potential to revolutionize our understanding of compact object astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the universe, we must compare these observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. In this talk, I will review our current understanding of cluster dynamics, describing how binary black holes can be formed through gravitational interactions in dense stellar environments, such as globular clusters and galactic nuclei. I will review the properties and merger rates of binary black holes from the dynamical formation channel. Finally, I will describe how the spins of a binary black hole are determined by its formation history, and how we can use this to discriminate between dynamically-formed binaries and those formed from isolated evolution in galactic fields.
Renormalized vacuum polarization of rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Hugo R. C.
2015-04-01
Quantum field theory on rotating black hole spacetimes is plagued with technical difficulties. Here, we describe a general method to renormalize and compute the vacuum polarization of a quantum field in the Hartle-Hawking state on rotating black holes. We exemplify the technique with a massive scalar field on the warped AdS3 black hole solution to topologically massive gravity, a deformation of (2 + 1)-dimensional Einstein gravity. We use a "quasi-Euclidean" technique, which generalizes the Euclidean techniques used for static spacetimes, and we subtract the divergences by matching to a sum over mode solutions on Minkowski spacetime. This allows us, for the first time, to have a general method to compute the renormalized vacuum polarization, for a given quantum state, on a rotating black hole, such as the physically relevant case of the Kerr black hole in four dimensions.
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
Thermodynamics in Black-Hole Correspondence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju
2013-09-01
The area law of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the black hole suggests that the black hole should have a lower-dimensional holographic description. It has been found recently that a large class of rotating and charged black holes could be holographically described a two-dimensional (2D) conformal field theory (CFT). We show that the universal information of the dual CFT, including the central charges and the temperatures, is fully encoded in the thermodynamics laws of both outer and inner horizons. These laws, characterizing how the black hole responds under the perturbation, allows us to read different dual pictures with respect to different kinds of perturbations. The remarkable effectiveness of this thermodynamics method suggest that the inner horizon could play a key role in the study of holographic description of the black hole.
Central charge for the Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ropotenko, K.
2016-12-01
Proceeding in exactly the same way as in the derivation of the temperature of a dual CFT for the extremal black hole in the Kerr/CFT correspondence, it is found that the temperature of a chiral, dual CFT for the Schwarzschild black hole is T = 1/2π. Comparing Cardy’s formula with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and using T, it is found that the central charge for the Schwarzschild black hole is of the form c = 12Jin, where Jin is the intrinsic angular momentum of the black hole, Jin = A/8πG. It is shown that the central charge for any four-dimensional (4D) extremal black hole is of the same form. The possible universality of this form is briefly discussed.
Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir
2016-06-01
We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.
No supermassive black hole in M33?
Merritt, D; Ferrarese, L; Joseph, C L
2001-08-10
We observed the nucleus of M33, the third-brightest galaxy in the Local Group, with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph at a resolution at least a factor of 10 higher than previously obtained. Rather than the steep rise expected within the radius of gravitational influence of a supermassive black hole, the random stellar velocities showed a decrease within a parsec of the center of the galaxy. The implied upper limit on the mass of the central black hole is only 3000 solar masses, about three orders of magnitude lower than the dynamically inferred mass of any other supermassive black hole. Detecting black holes of only a few thousand solar masses is observationally challenging, but it is critical to establish how supermassive black holes relate to their host galaxies, and which mechanisms influence the formation and evolution of both.
Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merritt, D.
2004-01-01
Supermassive black holes appear to be generic components of galactic nuclei. The formation and growth of black holes is intimately connected with the evolution of galaxies on a wide range of scales. For instance, mergers between galaxies containing nuclear black holes would produce supermassive binaries which eventually coalesce via the emission of gravitational radiation. The formation and decay of these binaries is expected to produce a number of observable signatures in the stellar distribution. Black holes can also affect the large-scale structure of galaxies by perturbing the orbits of stars that pass through the nucleus. Large-scale N-body simulations are beginning to generate testable predictions about these processes which will allow us to draw inferences about the formation history of supermassive black holes.
Black hole thermodynamics based on unitary evolutions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Feng, Yu-Lei; Chen, Yi-Xin
2015-10-01
In this paper, we try to construct black hole thermodynamics based on the fact that the formation and evaporation of a black hole can be described by quantum unitary evolutions. First, we show that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy SBH may not be a Boltzmann or thermal entropy. To confirm this statement, we show that the original black hole's ‘first law’ may not simply be treated as the first law of thermodynamics formally, due to some missing metric perturbations caused by matter. Then, by including those (quantum) metric perturbations, we show that the black hole formation and evaporation can be described effectively in a unitary manner, through a quantum channel between the exterior and interior of the event horizon. In this way, the paradoxes of information loss and firewall can be resolved effectively. Finally, we show that black hole thermodynamics can be constructed in an ordinary way, by constructing statistical mechanics.
Numerical simulations of black-hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chu, Tony
This thesis covers various aspects of the numerical simulation of black-hole spacetimes according to Einstein's general theory of relativity, using the Spectral Einstein Code developed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration. The first topic is improvement of binary-black-hole initial data. One such issue is the construction of binary-black-hole initial data with nearly extremal spins that remain nearly constant during the initial relaxation in an evolution. Another concern is the inclusion of physically realistic tidal deformations of the black holes to reduce the high-frequency components of the spurious gravitational radiation content, and represents a first step in incorporating post-Newtonian results in constraint-satisfying initial data. The next topic is the evolution of black-hole binaries and the gravitational waves they emit. The first spectral simulation of two inspiralling black holes through merger and ringdown is presented, in which the black holes are nonspinning and have equal masses. This work is extended to perform the first spectral simulations of two inspiralling black holes with moderate spins and equal masses, including the merger and ringdown. Two configurations are considered, in which both spins are either anti-aligned or aligned with the orbital angular momentum. Highly accurate gravitational waveforms are computed for all these cases, and are used to calibrate waveforms in the effective-one-body model. The final topic is the behavior of quasilocal black-hole horizons in highly dynamical situations. Simulations of a rotating black hole that is distort ed by a pulse of ingoing gravitational radiation are performed. Multiple marginally outer trapped surfaces are seen to appear and annihilate with each other during the evolution, and the world tubes th ey trace out are all dynamical horizons. The dynamical horizon and angular momentum flux laws are evaluated in this context, and the dynamical horizons are contrasted with the event horizon
Hawking temperature of expanding cosmological black holes
Faraoni, Valerio
2007-11-15
In the context of a debate on the correct expression of the Hawking temperature of a cosmological black hole, we show that the correct expression in terms of the Hawking-Hayward quasilocal energy m{sub H} of the hole is T=(8{pi}m{sub H}(t)){sup -1}. This expression holds for comoving black holes and agrees with a recent proposal by Saida, Harada, and Maeda.
Black hole as a wormhole factory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Sung-Won; Park, Mu-In
2015-12-01
There have been lots of debates about the final fate of an evaporating black hole and the singularity hidden by an event horizon in quantum gravity. However, on general grounds, one may argue that a black hole stops radiation at the Planck mass (ħc / G) 1 / 2 ∼10-5 g, where the radiated energy is comparable to the black hole's mass. And also, it has been argued that there would be a wormhole-like structure, known as "spacetime foam", due to large fluctuations below the Planck length (ħG /c3) 1 / 2 ∼10-33 cm. In this paper, as an explicit example, we consider an exact classical solution which represents nicely those two properties in a recently proposed quantum gravity model based on different scaling dimensions between space and time coordinates. The solution, called "Black Wormhole", consists of two different states, depending on its mass parameter M and an IR parameter ω: For the black hole state (with ωM2 > 1 / 2), a non-traversable wormhole occupies the interior region of the black hole around the singularity at the origin, whereas for the wormhole state (with ωM2 < 1 / 2), the interior wormhole is exposed to an outside observer as the black hole horizon is disappearing from evaporation. The black hole state becomes thermodynamically stable as it approaches the merging point where the interior wormhole throat and the black hole horizon merges, and the Hawking temperature vanishes at the exact merge point (with ωM2 = 1 / 2). This solution suggests the "Generalized Cosmic Censorship" by the existence of a wormhole-like structure which protects the naked singularity even after the black hole evaporation. One could understand the would-be wormhole inside the black hole horizon as the result of microscopic wormholes created by "negative" energy quanta which have entered the black hole horizon in Hawking radiation process; the quantum black hole could be a wormhole factory! It is found that this speculative picture may be consistent with the recent " ER
Making Supermassive Black Holes Spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-12-01
Where does the angular momentum come from that causes supermassive black holes (SMBHs) to spin on their axes and launch powerful jets? A new study of nearby SMBHs may help to answer this question.High-mass SMBHs are thought to form when two galaxies collide and the SMBHs at their centers merge. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI)]High- vs. Low-Mass MonstersObservational evidence suggests a dichotomy between low-mass SMBHs (those with 106-7 M) and high-mass ones (those with 108-10 M). High-mass SMBHs are thought to form via the merger of two smaller black holes, and the final black hole is likely spun up by the rotational dynamics of the merger. But what spins up low-mass SMBHs, which are thought to build up very gradually via accretion?A team of scientists led by Jing Wang (National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) have attempted to address this puzzle by examining the properties of the galaxies hosting low-mass SMBHs.A Sample of Neighboring SMBHsWang and collaborators began by constructing a sample of radio-selected nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies: those galaxies in which the stellar population and morphology of the host galaxy are visible to us, instead of being overwhelmed by continuum emission from the galaxys active nucleus.An example of a galaxy with a concentrated, classical bulge (M87; top) and a one with a disk-like pseudo bulge (Triangulum Galaxy; bottom). The authors find that for galaxies hosting low-mass SMBHs, those with more disk-like bulges appear to have more powerful radio jets. [Top: NASA/Hubble Heritage Team (STScI), Bottom: Hewholooks]From this sample, the authors then selected 31 galaxies that have low-mass SMBHs at their centers, as measured using the surrounding stellar dynamics. Wang and collaborators cataloged radio information revealing properties of the powerful jets launched by the SMBHs, and they analyzed the host galaxies properties by modeling their brightness profiles.Spin-Up From Accreting GasBy examining this
Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filloux, Charline; de Freitas Pacheco, J. A.; Durier, Fabrice; Silk, Joseph
2010-05-01
Cosmological simulations describing both the evolution of supermassive black holes and their host galaxies were performed by using the tree PM-SPH code GADGET-2 (Springel 2005). Physical mechanisms affecting the dynamics and the physical conditions of the gas (ionization and cooling processes, local heating by stars, injection of mechanical energy by supernovae, chemical enrichment) were introduced in the present version of the code (Filloux 2009). Black holes in a state of accretion (AGNs) also inject mechanical energy in the surrounding medium, contributing for quenching the star formation activity. In all simulations a ΛCDM cosmology was adopted (h = 0.7, ΩΛ=0.7, Ωm=0.3, Ωb=0.046 and σ8=0.9). Simulations were performed in a volume with a side of 50h-1 Mpc, starting at z = 50 and through the present time (z = 0). For low and intermediate resolution runs, the initial gas mass particles are respectively 5.35× 108 M⊙ and 3.09×108 M⊙. Black holes (BHs) are represented by collisionless particles and seeds of 100 M⊙ were introduced in density peaks at z = 15, growing either by accretion or coalescence. The accretion rate from the “disk mode” is based on a turbulent viscous thin disk model whereas in the “spherical mode” the rate is given by the Bondi-Hoyle formula. When accreting matter, jets, modeled by conical regions perpendicular to the disk plane, inject kinetic energy into the surrounding medium. Two models were tested: in the first, the injected energy rate is about 10% of the gravitational energy rate released in the accretion process while in the second, the injected energy rate is based on the Blandford & Znajek (1977) mechanism. All simulations give, at z = 0, similar black hole mass function but they overestimate slightly the BH density for masses above ~ 108 M⊙. The resulting BH density in this mass range is affected by feedback processes since they control the amount of gas available for accretion. The present simulations are not
Black holes in massive gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Brito, Richard
2015-08-01
We review the black hole (BH) solutions of the ghost-free massive gravity theory and its bimetric extension, and outline the main results on the stability of these solutions against small perturbations. Massive (bi)-gravity accommodates exact BH solutions, analogous to those of general relativity (GR). In addition to these solutions, hairy BHs—solutions with no correspondent in GR—have been found numerically, whose existence is a natural consequence of the absence of Birkhoff’s theorem in these theories. The existence of extra propagating degrees of freedom, makes the stability properties of these BHs richer and more complex than those of GR. In particular, the bi-Schwarzschild BH exhibits an unstable spherically symmetric mode, while the bi-Kerr geometry is also generically unstable, both against the spherical mode and against superradiant instabilities. If astrophysical BHs are described by these solutions, the superradiant instability of the Kerr solution imposes stringent bounds on the graviton mass.
Black holes in the Milky Way Galaxy
Filippenko, Alexei V.
1999-01-01
Extremely strong observational evidence has recently been found for the presence of black holes orbiting a few relatively normal stars in our Milky Way Galaxy and also at the centers of some galaxies. The former generally have masses of 4–16 times the mass of the sun, whereas the latter are “supermassive black holes” with millions to billions of solar masses. The evidence for a supermassive black hole in the center of our galaxy is especially strong. PMID:10468548
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2001-08-01
ISAAC Finds "Cool" Young Stellar Systems at the Centres of Active Galaxies Summary Supermassive Black Holes are present at the centres of many galaxies, some weighing hundreds of millions times more than the Sun. These extremely dense objects cannot be observed directly, but violently moving gas clouds and stars in their strong gravitational fields are responsible for the emission of energetic radiation from such "active galaxy nuclei" (AGN) . A heavy Black Hole feeds agressively on its surroundings . When the neighbouring gas and stars finally spiral into the Black Hole, a substantial fraction of the infalling mass is transformed into pure energy. However, it is not yet well understood how, long before this dramatic event takes place, all that material is moved from the outer regions of the galaxy towards the central region. So how is the food for the central Black Hole delivered to the table in the first place? To cast more light on this central question, a team of French and Swiss astronomers [1] has carried out a series of trailblazing observations with the VLT Infrared Spectrometer And Array Camera (ISAAC) on the VLT 8.2-m ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. The ISAAC instrument is particularly well suited to this type of observations. Visible light cannot penetrate the thick clouds of dust and gas in the innermost regions of active galaxies, but by recording the infrared light from the stars close to the Black Hole , their motions can be studied. By charting those motions in the central regions of three active galaxies (NGC 1097, NGC 1808 and NGC 5728), the astronomers were able to confirm the presence of "nuclear bars" in all three. These are dynamical structures that "open a road" for the flow of material towards the innermost region. Moreover, the team was surprised to discover signs of a young stellar population near the centres of these galaxies - stars that have apparently formed quite recently in a central gas disk. Such a system is unstable
Revisiting Black Holes as Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2017-02-01
Could dark matter be made of intermediate-mass black holes formed in the beginning of the universe? A recent study takes a renewed look at this question.Galactic LurkersThe nature of dark matter has long been questioned, but the recent discovery of gravitational waves by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has renewed interest in the possibility that dark matter could consist of primordial black holes in the mass range of 101000 solar masses.The relative amounts of the different constituents of the universe. Dark matter makes up roughly 27%. [ESA/Planck]According to this model, the extreme density of matter present during the universes early expansion led to the formation of a large number of intermediate-mass black holes. These black holes now hide in the halos of galaxies, constituting the mass that weve measured dynamically but remains unseen.LIGOs first gravitational-wave detection revealed the merger of two black holes that were both tens of solar masses in size. If primordial black holes are indeed a major constituent of dark matter, then LIGOs detection is consistent with what we would expect to find: occasional mergers of the intermediate-mass black holes that formed in the early universe and now lurk in galactic halos.Quasar MicrolensingTheres a catch, however. If there truly were a large number of intermediate-mass primordial black holes hiding in galactic halos, they wouldnt go completely unnoticed: we would see signs of their presence in the gravitational microlensing of background quasars. Unseen primordial black holes in a foreground galaxy could cause an image of a background quasar to briefly brighten which would provide us with clear evidence of such black holes despite our not being able to detect them directly.A depiction of quasar microlensing (click for a closer look!). The microlensing object in the foreground galaxy could be a star (as depicted), a primordial black hole, or any other compact object. [NASA
Floating and Sinking: The Imprint of Massive Scalars around Rotating Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Chakrabarti, Sayan; Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Gualtieri, Leonardo
2011-12-01
We study the coupling of massive scalar fields to matter in orbit around rotating black holes. It is generally expected that orbiting bodies will lose energy in gravitational waves, slowly inspiraling into the black hole. Instead, we show that the coupling of the field to matter leads to a surprising effect: because of superradiance, matter can hover into “floating orbits” for which the net gravitational energy loss at infinity is entirely provided by the black hole’s rotational energy. Orbiting bodies remain floating until they extract sufficient angular momentum from the black hole, or until perturbations or nonlinear effects disrupt the orbit. For slowly rotating and nonrotating black holes floating orbits are unlikely to exist, but resonances at orbital frequencies corresponding to quasibound states of the scalar field can speed up the inspiral, so that the orbiting body sinks. These effects could be a smoking gun of deviations from general relativity.
Template bank for gravitational waveforms from coalescing binary black holes: Nonspinning binaries
Ajith, P.; Hewitson, M.; Babak, S.; Chen, Y.; Krishnan, B.; Whelan, J. T.; Dorband, N.; Pollney, D.; Rezzolla, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Bruegmann, B.; Hannam, M.; Husa, S.; Sperhake, U.; Diener, P.; Gonzalez, J.; Santamaria, L.; Thornburg, J.
2008-05-15
Gravitational waveforms from the inspiral and ring-down stages of the binary black-hole coalescences can be modeled accurately by approximation/perturbation techniques in general relativity. Recent progress in numerical relativity has enabled us to model also the nonperturbative merger phase of the binary black-hole coalescence problem. This enables us to coherently search for all three stages of the coalescence of nonspinning binary black holes using a single template bank. Taking our motivation from these results, we propose a family of template waveforms which can model the inspiral, merger, and ring-down stages of the coalescence of nonspinning binary black holes that follow quasicircular inspiral. This two-dimensional template family is explicitly parametrized by the physical parameters of the binary. We show that the template family is not only effectual in detecting the signals from black-hole coalescences, but also faithful in estimating the parameters of the binary. We compare the sensitivity of a search (in the context of different ground-based interferometers) using all three stages of the black-hole coalescence with other template-based searches which look for individual stages separately. We find that the proposed search is significantly more sensitive than other template-based searches for a substantial mass range, potentially bringing about remarkable improvement in the event rate of ground-based interferometers. As part of this work, we also prescribe a general procedure to construct interpolated template banks using nonspinning black-hole waveforms produced by numerical relativity.
Black Hole Mergers in the Universe.
Portegies Zwart SF; McMillan
2000-01-01
Mergers of black hole binaries are expected to release large amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation. However, binary evolution models predict merger rates that are too low to be of observational interest. In this Letter, we explore the possibility that black holes become members of close binaries via dynamical interactions with other stars in dense stellar systems. In star clusters, black holes become the most massive objects within a few tens of millions of years; dynamical relaxation then causes them to sink to the cluster core, where they form binaries. These black hole binaries become more tightly bound by superelastic encounters with other cluster members and are ultimately ejected from the cluster. The majority of escaping black hole binaries have orbital periods short enough and eccentricities high enough that the emission of gravitational radiation causes them to coalesce within a few billion years. We predict a black hole merger rate of about 1.6x10-7 yr-1 Mpc-3, implying gravity-wave detection rates substantially greater than the corresponding rates from neutron star mergers. For the first-generation Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO-I), we expect about one detection during the first 2 years of operation. For its successor LIGO-II, the rate rises to roughly one detection per day. The uncertainties in these numbers are large. Event rates may drop by about an order of magnitude if the most massive clusters eject their black hole binaries early in their evolution.
Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2008-06-01
The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study
Particle creation rate for dynamical black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Firouzjaee, Javad T.; Ellis, George F. R.
2016-11-01
We present the particle creation probability rate around a general black hole as an outcome of quantum fluctuations. Using the uncertainty principle for these fluctuation, we derive a new ultraviolet frequency cutoff for the radiation spectrum of a dynamical black hole. Using this frequency cutoff, we define the probability creation rate function for such black holes. We consider a dynamical Vaidya model and calculate the probability creation rate for this case when its horizon is in a slowly evolving phase. Our results show that one can expect the usual Hawking radiation emission process in the case of a dynamical black hole when it has a slowly evolving horizon. Moreover, calculating the probability rate for a dynamical black hole gives a measure of when Hawking radiation can be killed off by an incoming flux of matter or radiation. Our result strictly suggests that we have to revise the Hawking radiation expectation for primordial black holes that have grown substantially since they were created in the early universe. We also infer that this frequency cut off can be a parameter that shows the primordial black hole growth at the emission moment.
Multipole moments of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.
2010-11-15
General relativity predicts the existence of black holes, compact objects whose spacetimes depend only on their mass, spin, and charge in vacuum (the 'no-hair' theorem). As various observations probe deeper into the strong fields of black hole candidates, it is becoming possible to test this prediction. Previous work suggested that such tests can be performed by measuring whether the multipolar structure of black hole candidates has the form that general relativity demands, and introduced a family of 'bumpy black hole' spacetimes to be used for making these measurements. These spacetimes have generalized multipoles, where the deviation from the Kerr metric depends on the spacetime's 'bumpiness'. In this paper, we show how to compute the Geroch-Hansen moments of a bumpy black hole, demonstrating that there is a clean mapping between the deviations used in the bumpy black hole formalism and the Geroch-Hansen moments. We also extend our previous results to define bumpy black holes whose current moments, analogous to magnetic moments of electrodynamics, deviate from the canonical Kerr value.
Black hole formation in a contracting universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quintin, Jerome; Brandenberger, Robert H.
2016-11-01
We study the evolution of cosmological perturbations in a contracting universe. We aim to determine under which conditions density perturbations grow to form large inhomogeneities and collapse into black holes. Our method consists in solving the cosmological perturbation equations in complete generality for a hydrodynamical fluid. We then describe the evolution of the fluctuations over the different length scales of interest and as a function of the equation of state for the fluid, and we explore two different types of initial conditions: quantum vacuum and thermal fluctuations. We also derive a general requirement for black hole collapse on sub-Hubble scales, and we use the Press-Schechter formalism to describe the black hole formation probability. For a fluid with a small sound speed (e.g., dust), we find that both quantum and thermal initial fluctuations grow in a contracting universe, and the largest inhomogeneities that first collapse into black holes are of Hubble size and the collapse occurs well before reaching the Planck scale. For a radiation-dominated fluid, we find that no black hole can form before reaching the Planck scale. In the context of matter bounce cosmology, it thus appears that only models in which a radiation-dominated era begins early in the cosmological evolution are robust against the formation of black holes. Yet, the formation of black holes might be an interesting feature for other models. We comment on a number of possible alternative early universe scenarios that could take advantage of this feature.
The Limits of Black Hole Complementarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Susskind, Leonard
Black hole complementarity, as originally formulated in the 1990's by Preskill, 't Hooft, and myself is now being challenged by the Almheiri-Marolf-Polchinski-Sully firewall argument. The AMPS argument relies on an implicit assumption—the "proximity" postulate—which says that the interior of a black hole must be constructed from degrees of freedom that are physically near the black hole. The proximity postulate manifestly contradicts the idea that interior information is redundant with information in Hawking radiation, which is very far from the black hole. AMPS argue that a violation of the proximity postulate would lead to a contradiction in a thought-experiment in which Alice distills the Hawking radiation and brings a bit back to the black hole. According to AMPS the only way to protect against the contradiction is for a firewall to form at the Page time. But the measurement that Alice must make, is of such a fine-grained nature that carrying it out before the black hole evaporates may be impossible. Harlow and Hayden have found evidence that the limits of quantum computation do in fact prevent Alice from carrying out her experiment in less than exponential time. If their conjecture is correct then black hole complementarity may be alive and well. My aim here is to give an overview of the firewall argument, and its basis in the proximity postulate; as well as the counterargument based on computational complexity, as conjectured by Harlow and Hayden.
Black hole entanglement and quantum error correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verlinde, Erik; Verlinde, Herman
2013-10-01
It was recently argued in [1] that black hole complementarity strains the basic rules of quantum information theory, such as monogamy of entanglement. Motivated by this argument, we develop a practical framework for describing black hole evaporation via unitary time evolution, based on a holographic perspective in which all black hole degrees of freedom live on the stretched horizon. We model the horizon as a unitary quantum system with finite entropy, and do not postulate that the horizon geometry is smooth. We then show that, with mild assumptions, one can reconstruct local effective field theory observables that probe the black hole interior, and relative to which the state near the horizon looks like a local Minkowski vacuum. The reconstruction makes use of the formalism of quantum error correcting codes, and works for black hole states whose entanglement entropy does not yet saturate the Bekenstein-Hawking bound. Our general framework clarifies the black hole final state proposal, and allows a quantitative study of the transition into the "firewall" regime of maximally mixed black hole states.
Some aspects of virtual black holes
Faizal, M.
2012-03-15
We first consider consistently third-quantize modified gravity. We then analyze certain aspects of virtual black holes in this third-quantized modified gravity. We see how a statistical mechanical origin for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy naturally arises in this model. Furthermore, the area and hence the entropy of a real macroscopic black hole is quantized in this model. Virtual black holes cause a loss of quantum coherence, which gives an intrinsic entropy to all physical systems that can be used to define a direction of time and hence provide a solution to the problem of time.
Entropy Inequality Violations from Ultraspinning Black Holes.
Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Kubizňák, David
2015-07-17
We construct a new class of rotating anti-de Sitter (AdS) black hole solutions with noncompact event horizons of finite area in any dimension and study their thermodynamics. In four dimensions these black holes are solutions to gauged supergravity. We find that their entropy exceeds the maximum implied from the conjectured reverse isoperimetric inequality, which states that for a given thermodynamic volume, the black hole entropy is maximized for Schwarzschild-AdS space. We use this result to suggest more stringent conditions under which this conjecture may hold.
Early black hole signals at the LHC
Koch, Ben; Bleicher, Marcus; Stoecker, Horst
2007-10-26
The production of mini black holes due to large extra dimensions is a speculative but possible scenario. We survey estimates for di-jet suppression, and multi-mono-jet emission due to black hole production. We further look for a possible sub-scenario which is the formation of a stable or meta-stable black hole remnant (BHR). We show that the beauty of such objects is, that they are relatively easy to observe, even in the early phase of LHC running.
Central black hole masses of galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fan, Jun-Hui
2003-11-01
In this paper, the stellar velocity dispersions in the host galaxies are used to estimate the central black hole masses for a sample of elliptical galaxies. We find that the central black hole masses are in the range of 10(5.5-9.5)Modot. Based on the estimated masses in this paper and those by Woo & Urry (2002) and the measured host galaxy absolute magnitude, a relation, log (MBH/Modot) = -(0.25±4.3×10-3)MR + (2.98±0.208) is found for central black hole mass and the host galaxy magnitude. Some discussions are presented.
Entanglement entropy of subtracted geometry black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cvetič, Mirjam; Saleem, Zain H.; Satz, Alejandro
2014-09-01
We compute the entanglement entropy of minimally coupled scalar fields on subtracted geometry black hole backgrounds, focusing on the logarithmic corrections. We notice that matching between the entanglement entropy of original black holes and their subtracted counterparts is only at the order of the area term. The logarithmic correction term is not only different but also, in general, changes sign in the subtracted case. We apply Harrison transformations to the original black holes and find out the choice of the Harrison parameters for which the logarithmic corrections vanish.
Early black hole signals at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koch, Ben; Bleicher, Marcus; Stöcker, Horst
2007-10-01
The production of mini black holes due to large extra dimensions is a speculative but possible scenario. We survey estimates for di-jet suppression, and multi-mono-jet emission due to black hole production. We further look for a possible sub-scenario which is the formation of a stable or meta-stable black hole remnant (BHR). We show that the beauty of such objects is, that they are relatively easy to observe, even in the early phase of LHC running.
Black Holes and the Information Paradox
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
't Hooft, Gerard
In electromagnetism, like charges repel, opposite charges attract. A remarkable feature of the gravitational force is that like masses attract. This gives rise to an instability: the more mass you have, the stronger the attractive force, until an inevitable implosion follows, leading to a "black hole". It is in the black hole where an apparent conflict between Einstein's General Relativity and the laws of Quantum Mechanics becomes manifest. Most physicists now agree that a black hole should be described by a Schrödinger equation, with a Hermitean Hamiltonian, but this requires a modification of general relativity. Both General Relativity and Quantum mechanics are shaking on their foundations.
Stationary Black Holes: Uniqueness and Beyond.
Chruściel, Piotr T; Costa, João Lopes; Heusler, Markus
2012-01-01
The spectrum of known black-hole solutions to the stationary Einstein equations has been steadily increasing, sometimes in unexpected ways. In particular, it has turned out that not all black-hole-equilibrium configurations are characterized by their mass, angular momentum and global charges. Moreover, the high degree of symmetry displayed by vacuum and electro-vacuum black-hole spacetimes ceases to exist in self-gravitating non-linear field theories. This text aims to review some developments in the subject and to discuss them in light of the uniqueness theorem for the Einstein-Maxwell system.
Microscopic Primordial Black Holes and Extra Dimensions
Conley, John A.; Wizansky, Tommer
2006-11-15
We examine the production and evolution of microscopic black holes in the early universe in the large extra dimensions scenario. We demonstrate that, unlike in the standard four-dimensional cosmology, in large extra dimensions absorption of matter from the primordial plasma by the black holes is significant and can lead to rapid growth of the black hole mass density. This effect can be used to constrain the conditions present in the very early universe. We demonstrate that this constraint is applicable in regions of parameter space not excluded by existing bounds.
The primordial black hole mass range
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, Paul H.
2016-04-01
We investigate Primordial Black Hole (PBH) formation by which we mean black holes produced in the early Universe during radiation domination. After discussing the range of PBH mass permitted in the original mechanism of Carr and Hawking, hybrid inflation with parametric resonance is presented as an existence theorem for PBHs of arbitrary mass. As proposed in arXiv:1510.00400, PBHs with many solar masses can provide a solution to the dark matter problem in galaxies. PBHs can also explain dark matter observed in clusters and suggest a primordial origin for Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) in galactic cores.
Magnetically charged black holes and their stability
Aichelburg, P.C. ); Bizon, P. )
1993-07-15
We study magnetically charged black holes in the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory in the limit of infinitely strong coupling of the Higgs field. Using mixed analytical and numerical methods we give a complete description of static spherically symmetric black hole solutions, both Abelian and non-Abelian. In particular, we find a new class of extremal non-Abelian solutions. We show that all non-Abelian solutions are stable against linear radial perturbations. The implications of our results for the semiclassical evolution of magnetically charged black holes are discussed.
Three charge supertubes and black hole hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Kraus, Per
2004-08-01
We construct finite size, supersymmetric, tubular D-brane configurations with three charges, two angular momenta and several brane dipole moments. In type IIA string theory these are tubular configurations with D0, D4 and F1 charge, as well as D2, D6 and NS5 dipole moments. These multicharge generalizations of supertubes might have interesting consequences for the physics of the D1-D5-P black hole. We study the relation of the tubes to the spinning Breckenridge-Myers-Peet-Vafa black hole, and find that they have properties consistent with describing some of the hair of this black hole.
Stellar black holes in globular clusters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kulkarni, S. R.; Hut, Piet; Mcmillan, Steve
1993-01-01
The recent discovery of large populations of millisec pulsars associated with neutron stars in globular clusters indicates that several hundred stellar black holes of about 10 solar masses each can form within a typical cluster. While, in clusters of high central density, the rapid dynamical evolution of the black-hole population leads to an ejection of nearly all holes on a short timescale, systems of intermediate density may involve a normal star's capture by one of the surviving holes to form a low-mass X-ray binary. One or more such binaries may be found in the globular clusters surrounding our galaxy.
Destruction and recreation of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bell, Peter M.
Even though the existence of the gravitationally collapsed concentrations of matter in space known as ‘black holes’ is accepted at all educational levels in our society, the basis for the black hole concept is really only the result of approximate calculations done over 40 years ago. The concept of the black hole is an esoteric subject, and recently the mathematical and physical frailties of the concept have come to light in an interesting round of theoretical shuffling. The recent activity in theorizing about black holes began about 10 years ago, when Cambridge University mathematican Stephen Hawking calculated that black holes could become unstable by losing mass and thus ‘evaporate.’ Hawking's results were surprisingly well received, considering the lack of theoretical understanding of the relations between quantum mechanics and relativity. (There is no quantized theory of gravitation, even today.) Nonetheless, his semiclassical calculations implied that the rate of ‘evaporation’ of a black hole would be slower than the rate of degradation of the universe. In fact, based on these and other calculations, the British regard Hawking as ‘the nearest thing we have to a new Einstein’ [New Scientist, Oct. 9, 1980]. Within the last few months, Frank Tipler, provocative mathematical physicist at the University of Texas, has reexamined Hawking's calculations [Physical Review Letters, 45, 941, 1980], concluding, in simple terms, (1) that because of possible vital difficulties in the assumptions, the very concept of black holes could be wrong; (2) that Hawkings' evaporation hypothesis is so efficient that a black hole once created must disappear in less than a second; or (3) that he, Tipler, may be wrong. The latter possibility has been the conclusion of physicist James Bardeen of the University of Washington, who calculated that black hole masses do evaporate but they do so according to Hawking's predicted rate and that Tipler's findings cause only a second
Self stimulated particles generation by black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex
2005-10-01
The Ideea of Black Holes Bomb was one of the most intriguing in the gravitational physics. Bohr was the first who quantized the levels of an atom. Subsequently his disciple J. A. Wheeler (1971) quantized the mass spin 0 and 1/2 levels near a black hole, described by a Schwarzschild metric. It is strange, but after this work the interest was drawn to Kerr black holes, due to discovery of particles generation by Ya. B. Zel'dovich and Ch. Misner in 1972. As a result, the ideea of a Black Holes bomb was announced by W.H. Press and S. Teukolsky in 1972. L.Ford (1975) observed, that test particles mass plays a role of a mirror, which could develope an instability. That ideea was independently discussed by Deruelle and Ruffini (1974) and Damour, Deruelle and Rufffini (1976), using WKB approach, while the analytic treatment of the bound levels problem in Kerr field for microscopically small black holes and mass particles was given by Ternov, Khalilov, Chizhov and Gaina (1978) and A. Vilenkin (1978) for a Kerr black hole inside a mirror. Once a particle could be localized on a bound level near a non-rotating (Schwarzschild ) black hole, due to stimulation, it will induces generation of another particles with the same quantum numbers (on the same level). This process will be a self-stimulated generation of particles, which was discussed in the literature by R. Wald and J. York, Jr. The accumulatiion of bosons on the bound levels, particularly on the s-bound level, will be exponentially fast for microscopically small black holes and will lead to a true instablity of Schwarzschild black holes. This is valid for bosons only, since the Fermi-Dirac statistics interdicts the accumulation of more than two particles with oposite spin. As a result the Black Holes mass will be limited M>= 8"pi"/5 x (M(pl))^2/m , where m is the scalar particles minimal rest mass, existing in nature, since the maximal growing rate for the instability is occuring for mM=8"pi"/5(M(pl))^2. If photon have a
Skyrmion black hole hair: Conservation of baryon number by black holes and observable manifestations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvali, Gia; Gußmann, Alexander
2016-12-01
We show that the existence of black holes with classical skyrmion hair invalidates standard proofs that global charges, such as the baryon number, cannot be conserved by a black hole. By carefully analyzing the standard arguments based on a Gedankenexperiment in which a black hole is seemingly-unable to return the baryon number that it swallowed, we identify inconsistencies in this reasoning, which does not take into the account neither the existence of skyrmion black holes nor the baryon/skyrmion correspondence. We then perform a refined Gedankenexperiment by incorporating the new knowledge and show that no contradiction with conservation of baryon number takes place at any stage of black hole evolution. Our analysis also indicates no conflict between semi-classical black holes and the existence of baryonic gauge interaction arbitrarily-weaker than gravity. Next, we study classical cross sections of a minimally-coupled massless probe scalar field scattered by a skyrmion black hole. We investigate how the skyrmion hair manifests itself by comparing this cross section with the analogous cross section caused by a Schwarzschild black hole which has the same ADM mass as the skyrmion black hole. Here we find an order-one difference in the positions of the characteristic peaks in the cross sections. The peaks are shifted to smaller scattering angles when the skyrmion hair is present. This comes from the fact that the skyrmion hair changes the near horizon geometry of the black hole when compared to a Schwarzschild black hole with same ADM mass. We keep the study of this second aspect general so that the qualitative results which we obtain can also be applied to black holes with classical hair of different kind.
Thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole: Thermal stability of the Nariai black hole
Myung, Yun Soo
2008-05-15
We study the thermodynamics of the Schwarzschild-de Sitter black hole in five dimensions by introducing two temperatures based on the standard and Bousso-Hawking normalizations. We use the first-law of thermodynamics to derive thermodynamic quantities. The two temperatures indicate that the Nariai black hole is thermodynamically unstable. However, it seems that black hole thermodynamics favors the standard normalization and does not favor the Bousso-Hawking normalization.
Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries
Colpi, M.; Dotti, M.; Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2007-11-19
If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.
Black holes, bandwidths and Beethoven
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kempf, Achim
2000-04-01
It is usually believed that a function φ(t) whose Fourier spectrum is bounded can vary at most as fast as its highest frequency component ωmax. This is, in fact, not the case, as Aharonov, Berry, and others drastically demonstrated with explicit counterexamples, so-called superoscillations. It has been claimed that even the recording of an entire Beethoven symphony can occur as part of a signal with a 1 Hz bandwidth. Bandlimited functions also occur as ultraviolet regularized fields. Their superoscillations have been suggested, for example, to resolve the trans-Planckian frequencies problem of black hole radiation. Here, we give an exact proof for generic superoscillations. Namely, we show that for every fixed bandwidth there exist functions that pass through any finite number of arbitrarily prespecified points. Further, we show that, in spite of the presence of superoscillations, the behavior of bandlimited functions can be characterized reliably, namely through an uncertainty relation: The standard deviation ΔT of samples φ(tn) taken at the Nyquist rate obeys ΔT>=1/4ωmax. This uncertainty relation generalizes to variable bandwidths. For ultraviolet regularized fields we identify the bandwidth as the in general spatially variable finite local density of degrees of freedom.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurd, Randy; Pan, Zhao; Meritt, Andrew; Belden, Jesse; Truscott, Tadd
2015-11-01
Since the mid-nineteenth century, both enlisted and fashion-conscious owners of khaki trousers have been plagued by undesired speckle patterns resulting from splash-back while urinating. In recent years, industrial designers and hygiene-driven entrepreneurs have sought to limit this splashing by creating urinal inserts, with the effectiveness of their inventions varying drastically. From this large assortment of inserts, designs consisting of macroscopic pillar arrays seem to be the most effective splash suppressers. Interestingly this design partially mimics the geometry of the water capturing moss Syntrichia caninervis, which exhibits a notable ability to suppress splash and quickly absorb water from impacting rain droplets. With this natural splash suppressor in mind, we search for the ideal urine black hole by performing experiments of simulated urine streams (water droplet streams) impacting macroscopic pillar arrays with varying parameters including pillar height and spacing, draining and material properties. We propose improved urinal insert designs based on our experimental data in hopes of reducing potential embarrassment inherent in wearing khakis.
Black holes as gravitational atoms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Cenalo
2014-06-01
Recently, it was argued [A. Almheiri et al., arXiv: 1207.3123, A. Almheiri et al., arXiv: 1304.6483], via a delicate thought experiment, that it is not consistent to simultaneously require that (a) Hawking radiation is pure, (b) effective field theory is valid outside a stretched horizon and (c) infalling observers encounter nothing unusual as they cross the horizon. These are the three fundamental assumptions underlying Black Hole Complementarity and the authors proposed that the most conservative resolution of the paradox is that (c) is false and the infalling observer burns up at the horizon (the horizon acts as a "firewall"). However, the firewall violates the equivalence principle and breaks the CPT invariance of quantum gravity. This led Hawking to propose recently that gravitational collapse may not end up producing event horizons, although he did not give a mechanism for how this may happen. Here we will support Hawking's conclusion in a quantum gravitational model of dust collapse. We will show that continued collapse to a singularity can only be achieved by combining two independent and entire solutions of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. We interpret the paradox as simply forbidding such a combination. This leads naturally to a picture in which matter condenses on the apparent horizon during quantum collapse.
The 'Heartbeats' of Flaring Black Holes
This animation compares the X-ray 'heartbeats' of GRS 1915 and IGR J17091, two black holes that ingest gas from companion stars. GRS 1915 has nearly five times the mass of IGR J17091, which at thre...
Spectral line broadening in magnetized black holes
Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.; Tzounis, Christos E-mail: ashoom@ualberta.ca
2014-07-01
We consider weakly magnetized non-rotating black holes. In the presence of a regular magnetic field the motion of charged particles in the vicinity of a black hole is modified. As a result, the position of the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) becomes closer to the horizon. When the Lorentz force is repulsive (directed from the black hole) the ISCO radius can reach the gravitational radius. In the process of accretion charged particles (ions) of the accreting matter can be accumulated near their ISCO, while neutral particles fall down to the black hole after they reach 6M radius. The sharp spectral line Fe α, emitted by iron ions at such orbits, is broadened when the emission is registered by a distant observer. In this paper we study this broadening effect and discuss how one can extract information concerning the strength of the magnetic field from the observed spectrum.
White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Szekeres, P.
1977-01-01
The three possible fates of burned-out stars: white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes, are described in elementary terms. Characteristics of these celestial bodies, as provided by Einstein's work, are described. (CP)
Black Holes: The making of a monster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, Lucio
2017-04-01
The biggest black holes in the Universe were in place soon after the Big Bang. Explaining how they formed so rapidly is a daunting challenge, but the latest simulations give clues to how this may have occurred.
Mass of a black hole firewall.
Abramowicz, M A; Kluźniak, W; Lasota, J-P
2014-03-07
Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio M(Pl)/(8πM).
Charged fermions tunneling from regular black holes
Sharif, M. Javed, W.
2012-11-15
We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions as a tunneling process from charged regular black holes, i.e., the Bardeen and ABGB black holes. For this purpose, we apply the semiclassical WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation for charged particles and evaluate the tunneling probabilities. We recover the Hawking temperature corresponding to these charged regular black holes. Further, we consider the back-reaction effects of the emitted spin particles from black holes and calculate their corresponding quantum corrections to the radiation spectrum. We find that this radiation spectrum is not purely thermal due to the energy and charge conservation but has some corrections. In the absence of charge, e = 0, our results are consistent with those already present in the literature.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Quasars, pulsars, black holes and HEAO's
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Doolitte, R. F.; Moritz, K.; Whilden, R. D. C.
1974-01-01
Astronomical surveys are discussed by large X-ray, gamma ray, and cosmic ray instruments carried onboard high-energy astronomy observatories. Quasars, pulsars, black holes, and the ultimate benefits of the new astronomy are briefly discussed.
Black holes and the positive cosmological constant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Sourav
2013-02-01
We address some aspects of black hole spacetimes endowed with a positive cosmological constant, i.e. black holes located inside a cosmological event horizon. First we establish a general criterion for existence of cosmological event horizons. Using the geometrical set up built for this, we study classical black hole no hair theorems for both static and stationary axisymmetric spacetimes. We discuss cosmic Nielsen-Olesen strings as hair in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime. We also give a general calculation for particle creation by a Killing horizon using complex path analysis and using this we study particle creation in Schwarzschild-de Sitter spacetime by both black hole and the cosmological event horizons.
Charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hendi, S. H.; Faizal, Mir; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2016-05-01
In this paper, we present charged dilatonic black holes in gravity's rainbow. We study the geometric and thermodynamic properties of black hole solutions. We also investigate the effects of rainbow functions on different thermodynamic quantities for these charged black holes in dilatonic gravity's rainbow. Then we demonstrate that the first law of thermodynamics is valid for these solutions. After that, we investigate thermal stability of the solutions using the canonical ensemble and analyze the effects of different rainbow functions on the thermal stability. In addition, we present some arguments regarding the bound and phase transition points in context of geometrical thermodynamics. We also study the phase transition in extended phase space in which the cosmological constant is treated as the thermodynamic pressure. Finally, we use another approach to calculate and demonstrate that the obtained critical points in extended phase space represent a second order phase transition for these black holes.
Interior of a charged distorted black hole
Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Frolov, Valeri P.; Shoom, Andrey A.
2009-07-15
We study the interior of a charged, nonrotating distorted black hole. We consider static and axisymmetric black holes, and focus on a special case when an electrically charged distorted solution is obtained by the Harrison-Ernst transformation from an uncharged one. We demonstrate that the Cauchy horizon of such a black hole remains regular, provided the distortion is regular at the event horizon. The shape and the inner geometry of both the outer and inner (Cauchy) horizons are studied. We demonstrate that there exists a duality between the properties of the horizons. Proper time of a free fall of a test particle moving in the interior of the distorted black hole along the symmetry axis is calculated. We also study the property of the curvature in the inner domain between the horizons. Simple relations between the 4D curvature invariants and the Gaussian curvature of the outer and inner horizon surfaces are found.
Black hole evolution by spectral methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kidder, Lawrence E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Teukolsky, Saul A.; Carlson, Eric D.; Cook, Gregory B.
2000-10-01
Current methods of evolving a spacetime containing one or more black holes are plagued by instabilities that prohibit long-term evolution. Some of these instabilities may be due to the numerical method used, traditionally finite differencing. In this paper, we explore the use of a pseudospectral collocation (PSC) method for the evolution of a spherically symmetric black hole spacetime in one dimension using a hyperbolic formulation of Einstein's equations. We demonstrate that our PSC method is able to evolve a spherically symmetric black hole spacetime forever without enforcing constraints, even if we add dynamics via a Klein-Gordon scalar field. We find that, in contrast with finite-differencing methods, black hole excision is a trivial operation using PSC applied to a hyperbolic formulation of Einstein's equations. We discuss the extension of this method to three spatial dimensions.
Black hole evaporation rates without spacetime.
Braunstein, Samuel L; Patra, Manas K
2011-08-12
Verlinde recently suggested that gravity, inertia, and even spacetime may be emergent properties of an underlying thermodynamic theory. This vision was motivated in part by Jacobson's 1995 surprise result that the Einstein equations of gravity follow from the thermodynamic properties of event horizons. Taking a first tentative step in such a program, we derive the evaporation rate (or radiation spectrum) from black hole event horizons in a spacetime-free manner. Our result relies on a Hilbert space description of black hole evaporation, symmetries therein which follow from the inherent high dimensionality of black holes, global conservation of the no-hair quantities, and the existence of Penrose processes. Our analysis is not wedded to standard general relativity and so should apply to extended gravity theories where we find that the black hole area must be replaced by some other property in any generalized area theorem.
Primordial Black Holes from First Principles (Overview)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lam, Casey; Bloomfield, Jolyon; Moss, Zander; Russell, Megan; Face, Stephen; Guth, Alan
2017-01-01
Given a power spectrum from inflation, our goal is to calculate, from first principles, the number density and mass spectrum of primordial black holes that form in the early universe. Previously, these have been calculated using the Press- Schechter formalism and some demonstrably dubious rules of thumb regarding predictions of black hole collapse. Instead, we use Monte Carlo integration methods to sample field configurations from a power spectrum combined with numerical relativity simulations to obtain a more accurate picture of primordial black hole formation. We demonstrate how this can be applied for both Gaussian perturbations and the more interesting (for primordial black holes) theory of hybrid inflation. One of the tools that we employ is a variant of the BBKS formalism for computing the statistics of density peaks in the early universe. We discuss the issue of overcounting due to subpeaks that can arise from this approach (the ``cloud-in-cloud'' problem). MIT UROP Office- Paul E. Gray (1954) Endowed Fund.
Gravitational radiation from extreme Kerr black hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sasaki, Misao; Nakamura, Takashi
1989-01-01
Gravitational radiation induced by a test particle falling into an extreme Kerr black hole was investigated analytically. Assuming the radiation is dominated by the infinite sequence of quasi-normal modes which has the limiting frequency m/(2M), where m is an azimuthal eigenvalue and M is the mass of the black hole, it was found that the radiated energy diverges logarithmically in time. Then the back reaction to the black hole was evaluated by appealing to the energy and angular momentum conservation laws. It was found that the radiation has a tendency to increase the ratio of the angular momentum to mass of the black hole, which is completely different from non-extreme case, while the contribution of the test particle is to decrease it.
CFT duals for accelerating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco
2016-09-01
The near horizon geometry of the rotating C-metric, describing accelerating Kerr-Newman black holes, is analysed. It is shown that, at extremality, even though it is not isomorphic to the extremal Kerr-Newman, it remains a warped and twisted product of AdS2 ×S2. Therefore the methods of the Kerr/CFT correspondence can successfully be applied to build a CFT dual model, whose entropy reproduces, through the Cardy formula, the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the accelerating black hole. The mass of accelerating Kerr-Newman black hole, which fulfils the first law of thermodynamics, is presented. Further generalisation in presence of an external Melvin-like magnetic field, used to regularise the conical singularity characteristic of the C-metrics, shows that the Kerr/CFT correspondence can be applied also for the accelerating and magnetised extremal black holes.
Energy conservation for dynamical black holes.
Hayward, Sean A
2004-12-17
An energy conservation law is described, expressing the increase in mass-energy of a general black hole in terms of the energy densities of the infalling matter and gravitational radiation. This first law of black-hole dynamics describes how a black hole grows and is regular in the limit where it ceases to grow. An effective gravitational-radiation energy tensor is obtained, providing measures of both ingoing and outgoing, transverse and longitudinal gravitational radiation on and near a black hole. Corresponding energy-tensor forms of the first law involve a preferred time vector which plays the role of a stationary Killing vector. Identifying an energy flux, vanishing if and only if the horizon is null, allows a division into energy supply and work terms. The energy supply can be expressed in terms of area increase and a newly defined surface gravity, yielding a Gibbs-like equation.
Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground).
New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams.
The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.
Black Hole Observations - Towards the Event Horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britzen, Silke
Black Holes are probably the most elusive solutions of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Despite numerous observations of the direct galactic environment and indirect influence of astrophysical black holes (e.g. jets, variable emission across the wavelength spectrum, feedback processes, etc.) -- a direct proof of their existence is still lacking. This article highlights some aspects deduced from many observations and concentrates on the experimental results with regard to black holes with masses from millions to billions of solar masses. The focus will be on the challenges and remaining questions. The Event Horizon Telescopce (EHT) project to image the photon sphere of Sgr A* and its potential is briefly sketched. This instrumental approach shall lead to highest resolution observations of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way (Sgr A*).
The signature of a black hole transit
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.
1989-01-01
This paper considers the possibility of identifying a black hole on the basis of the detection of some unique effect occurring during the transit of a black hole across the stellar disk of a companion star in a binary system. The results of Monte-Carlo calculations show that the amplitude of the photometric and polarimetric light curves in a typical X-ray binary is too small to be observed with present instrumentation, but that a black hole transit might be detectable in a binary having a large separation of the components. No binary system suggested as containing a stellar-mass-sized black hole is a like candidate to exhibit an observable transit signature, with the possible exception of X Persei/4U0352+30 described by White et al. (1976).
Shadow of rotating regular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdujabbarov, Ahmadjon; Amir, Muhammed; Ahmedov, Bobomurat; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-05-01
We study the shadows cast by the different types of rotating regular black holes viz. Ayón-Beato-García (ABG), Hayward, and Bardeen. These black holes have in addition to the total mass (M ) and rotation parameter (a ), different parameters as electric charge (Q ), deviation parameter (g ), and magnetic charge (g*). Interestingly, the size of the shadow is affected by these parameters in addition to the rotation parameter. We found that the radius of the shadow in each case decreases monotonically, and the distortion parameter increases when the values of these parameters increase. A comparison with the standard Kerr case is also investigated. We have also studied the influence of the plasma environment around regular black holes to discuss its shadow. The presence of the plasma affects the apparent size of the regular black hole's shadow to be increased due to two effects: (i) gravitational redshift of the photons and (ii) radial dependence of plasma density.
Spherical boson stars as black hole mimickers
Guzman, F. S.; Rueda-Becerril, J. M.
2009-10-15
We present spherically symmetric boson stars as black hole mimickers based on the power spectrum of a simple accretion disk model. The free parameters of the boson star are the mass of the boson and the fourth-order self-interaction coefficient in the scalar field potential. We show that even if the mass of the boson is the only free parameter, it is possible to find a configuration that mimics the power spectrum of the disk due to a black hole of the same mass. We also show that for each value of the self-interaction a single boson star configuration can mimic a black hole at very different astrophysical scales in terms of the mass of the object and the accretion rate. In order to show that it is possible to distinguish one of our mimickers from a black hole, we also study the deflection of light.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abramowicz, M. A.; Kluźniak, W.; Lasota, J.-P.
2014-03-01
Quantum entanglement of Hawking radiation has been supposed to give rise to a Planck density "firewall" near the event horizon of old black holes. We show that Planck density firewalls are excluded by Einstein's equations for black holes of mass exceeding the Planck mass. We find an upper limit of 1/(8πM) to the surface density of a firewall in a Schwarzschild black hole of mass M, translating for astrophysical black holes into a firewall density smaller than the Planck density by more than 30 orders of magnitude. A strict upper limit on the firewall density is given by the Planck density times the ratio MPl/(8πM).
Improved black hole fireworks: Asymmetric black-hole-to-white-hole tunneling scenario
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Lorenzo, Tommaso; Perez, Alejandro
2016-06-01
A new scenario for gravitational collapse has been recently proposed by Haggard and Rovelli. Presenting the model under the name of black hole fireworks, they claim that the accumulation of quantum gravitational effects outside the horizon can cause the tunneling of geometry from a black hole to a white hole, allowing a bounce of the collapsing star which can eventually go back to infinity. In this paper, we discuss the instabilities of this model and propose a simple minimal modification which eliminates them, as well as other related instabilities discussed in the literature. The new scenario is a time-asymmetric version of the original model with a time scale for the final explosion that is shorter than m log m in Planck units. Our analysis highlights the importance of irreversibility in gravitational collapse which, in turn, uncovers important issues that cannot be addressed in detail without a full quantum gravity treatment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dias, Oscar J. C.
2004-10-01
Black holes, first found as solutions of Einstein's General Relativity, are important in astrophysics, since they result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star or a cluster of stars, and in physics since they reveal properties of the fundamental physics, such as thermodynamic and quantum properties of gravitation. In order to better understand the black hole physics we need exact solutions that describe one or more black holes. In this thesis we study exact solutions in three, four and higher dimensional spacetimes. The study in 3-dimensions is important due to the simplification of the problem, while the discussion in higher dimensions is essential due to the fact that many theories indicate that extra dimensions exist in our universe. In this thesis, in any of the dimensions mentioned above, we study exact solutions with a single black hole and exact solutions that describe a pair of uniformly accelerated black holes (C-metric), with the acceleration source being well identified. This later solutions are then used to study in detail the quantum process of black hole pair creation in an external field. We also compute the gravitational radiation released during this pair creation process. KEYWORDS: Exact black hole solutions; Pair of accelerated black holes, C-metric, Ernst solution; Pair creation of black holes; Gravitational radiation; D-dimensional spacetimes; Cosmological constant backgrounds.
Black hole evolution - I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubois, Yohan; Volonteri, Marta; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain
2015-09-01
The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, and also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 1012 M⊙ halo at z = 2, which is the progenitor of a group of galaxies at z = 0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z > 3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled disc as well as the accumulation of dense cold gas in the vicinity of the BH and starves the central compact object. As the galaxy and its halo accumulate mass, they become able to confine the nuclear inflows provided by major mergers and the BH grows at a sustained near-to-Eddington accretion rate. We argue that this mechanism should be ubiquitous amongst low-mass galaxies, corresponding to galaxies with a stellar mass below ≲ 109 M⊙ in our simulations.
Local temperature for dynamical black holes
Hayward, Sean A.; Di Criscienzo, R.; Nadalini, M.; Vanzo, L.; Zerbini, S.
2009-05-01
A local Hawking temperature was recently derived for any future outer trapping horizon in spherical symmetry, using a Hamilton-Jacobi tunneling method, and is given by a dynamical surface gravity as defined geometrically. Descriptions are given of the operational meaning of the temperature, in terms of what observers measure, and its relation to the usual Hawking temperature for static black holes. Implications for the final fate of an evaporating black hole are discussed.
Strongly Magnetized Accretion Disks Around Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salvesen, Greg; Armitage, Philip J.; Simon, Jacob B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.
2017-01-01
Recent observations are suggestive of strongly magnetized accretion disks around black holes. Performing local (shearing box) simulations of accretion disks, we investigate how a strong magnetization state can develop and persist. We demonstrate that poloidal flux is a necessary prerequisite for the sustainability of strongly magnetized accretion disks. We also show that black hole spin measurements can become unconstrained if magnetic fields provide a significant contribution to the vertical pressure support of the accretion disk atmosphere.
Entanglement thermodynamics for charged black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Malvimat, Vinay; Sengupta, Gautam
2016-09-01
The holographic quantum entanglement entropy for an infinite strip region of the boundary for the field theory dual to charged black holes in A d S3 +1 is investigated. In this framework we elucidate the low and high temperature behavior of the entanglement entropy pertaining to various limits of the black hole charge. In the low temperature regime we establish a first law of entanglement thermodynamics for the boundary field theory.
Transonic disk accretion onto black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, E. P. T.; Thompson, K. A.
1980-01-01
The solution for the radial drift velocity of thin disk accretion onto black holes must be transonic, and is analogous to the critical solution in spherical Bondi accretion, except for the presence of angular momentum. The transonic requirement yields a correct treatment of the inner region of the disk not found in the conventional Keplerian models and may lead to significantly different overall disk structures. Possible observational consequences, relevant to the black hole hypothesis for Cyg X-1 and other candidates, are discussed.
Rotating black holes in dilatonic Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet theory.
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Radu, Eugen
2011-04-15
We construct generalizations of the Kerr black holes by including higher-curvature corrections in the form of the Gauss-Bonnet density coupled to the dilaton. We show that the domain of existence of these Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet-dilaton (EGBD) black holes is bounded by the Kerr black holes, the critical EGBD black holes, and the singular extremal EGBD solutions. The angular momentum of the EGBD black holes can exceed the Kerr bound. The EGBD black holes satisfy a generalized Smarr relation. We also compare their innermost stable circular orbits with those of the Kerr black holes and show the existence of differences which might be observable in astrophysical systems.
Maximum spin of black holes driving jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Andrew J.; Babul, Arif
2009-08-01
Unbound outflows in the form of highly collimated jets and broad winds appear to be a ubiquitous feature of accreting black hole systems. The most powerful jets are thought to derive a significant fraction, if not the majority, of their power from the rotational energy of the black hole. Whatever the precise mechanism that causes them, these jets must, therefore, exert a braking torque on the black hole. Consequently, we expect jet production to play a significant role in limiting the maximum spin attainable by accreting black holes. We calculate the spin-up function - the rate of change of black hole spin normalized to the black hole mass and accretion rate - for an accreting black hole, accounting for this braking torque. We assume that the accretion flow on to a Kerr black hole is advection-dominated (ADAF) and construct easy-to-use analytic fits to describe the global structure of such flows based on the numerical solutions of Popham & Gammie. We find that the predicted black hole spin-up function depends only on the black hole spin and dimensionless parameters describing the accretion flow. Using recent relativistic magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) numerical simulation results to calibrate the efficiency of angular momentum transfer in the flow, we find that an ADAF flow will spin a black hole up (or down) to an equilibrium value of about 96 per cent of the maximal spin value in the absence of jets. Combining our ADAF system with a simple model for jet power, we demonstrate that an equilibrium is reached at approximately 93 per cent of the maximal spin value, as found in the numerical simulation studies of the spin-up of accreting black holes, at which point the spin-up of the hole by accreted material is balanced by the braking torque arising from jet production. The existence of equilibrium spin means that optically dim active galactic nuclei (AGNs) that have grown via accretion from an advection-dominated flow will not be maximally rotating. It also offers a
Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory.
Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P Chris
2013-01-01
This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves. In this light we discuss how accretion disks might reveal some of the unique signatures of strong gravity: the event horizon, the innermost stable circular orbit, and the ergosphere. We then review, from a first-principles perspective, the physical processes at play in accretion disks. This leads us to the four primary accretion disk models that we review: Polish doughnuts (thick disks), Shakura-Sunyaev (thin) disks, slim disks, and advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs). After presenting the models we discuss issues of stability, oscillations, and jets. Following our review of the analytic work, we take a parallel approach in reviewing numerical studies of black hole accretion disks. We finish with a few select applications that highlight particular astrophysical applications: measurements of black hole mass and spin, black hole vs. neutron star accretion disks, black hole accretion disk spectral states, and quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs).
Black holes as bubble nucleation sites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G.; Withers, Benjamin
2014-03-01
We consider the effect of inhomogeneities on the rate of false vacuum decay. Modelling the inhomogeneity by a black hole, we construct explicit Euclidean instantons which describe the nucleation of a bubble of true vacuum centred on the inhomogeneity. We find that inhomogeneity significantly enhances the nucleation rate over that of the Coleman-de Luccia instanton — the black hole acts as a nucleation site for the bubble. The effect is larger than previously believed due to the contributions to the action from conical singularities. For a sufficiently low initial mass, the original black hole is replaced by flat space during this process, as viewed by a single causal patch observer. Increasing the initial mass, we find a critical value above which a black hole remnant survives the process. This resulting black hole can have a higher mass than the original black hole, but always has a lower entropy. We compare the process to bubble-to-bubble transitions, where there is a semi-classical Lorentzian description in the WKB approximation.
Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kubizňák, David; Mann, Robert B.; Teo, Mae
2017-03-01
We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities; in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality—an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at extending the AdS/CFT dictionary in this setting, discuss the connections with horizon thermodynamics, applications to Lifshitz spacetimes, and outline possible future directions in this field.
Black holes in full quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasnov, Kirill; Rovelli, Carlo
2009-12-01
Quantum black holes have been studied extensively in quantum gravity and string theory, using various semiclassical or background-dependent approaches. We explore the possibility of studying black holes in the full non-perturbative quantum theory, without recurring to semiclassical considerations, and in the context of loop quantum gravity. We propose a definition of a quantum black hole as the collection of the quantum degrees of freedom that do not influence observables at infinity. From this definition, it follows that for an observer at infinity a black hole is described by an SU(2) intertwining operator. The dimension of the Hilbert space of such intertwiners grows exponentially with the horizon area. These considerations shed some light on the physical nature of the microstates contributing to the black hole entropy. In particular, it can be seen that the microstates being counted for the entropy have the interpretation of describing different horizon shapes. The space of black hole microstates described here is related to the one arrived at recently by Engle et al (2009, arXiv:0905.3168) and sometime ago by Smolin (1995, J. Math. Phys. 36 6417), but obtained here directly within the full quantum theory.
Quasar Lifetimes and Black Hole Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafiee, Alireza; Hall, P. B.
2007-12-01
Wang et al. (2006) estimated a high average radiative efficiency of 30% to 35% for quasars (actively accreting black holes) at moderate redshift, strongly suggesting that all supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Their method for determining radiative efficiencies has two advantages: it deals with changes in quantities rather than absolutes and it is independent of obscured sources. However, we have investigated the reliability of the assumptions made by Wang et al. and have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes. Nonetheless, given constraints on quasar lifetimes, their method can be used to constrain quasar radiative efficiencies and black hole spins. Conversely, the range of radiative efficiencies possible for the full range of black hole spins can be used to constrain the average lifetimes of quasars (assuming that luminous quasars are not powered by radiatively inefficient accretion flows). We will present interrelated constraints on quasar lifetimes, Eddington ratios and radiative efficiencies (black hole spins) from a statistically complete sample of SDSS quasars with black hole mass estimates from Mg II. PBH and AR are supported in part by NSERC.
Star formation around supermassive black holes.
Bonnell, I A; Rice, W K M
2008-08-22
The presence of young massive stars orbiting on eccentric rings within a few tenths of a parsec of the supermassive black hole in the galactic center is challenging for theories of star formation. The high tidal shear from the black hole should tear apart the molecular clouds that form stars elsewhere in the Galaxy, and transport of stars to the galactic center also appears unlikely during their lifetimes. We conducted numerical simulations of the infall of a giant molecular cloud that interacts with the black hole. The transfer of energy during closest approach allows part of the cloud to become bound to the black hole, forming an eccentric disk that quickly fragments to form stars. Compressional heating due to the black hole raises the temperature of the gas up to several hundred to several thousand kelvin, ensuring that the fragmentation produces relatively high stellar masses. These stars retain the eccentricity of the disk and, for a sufficiently massive initial cloud, produce an extremely top-heavy distribution of stellar masses. This potentially repetitive process may explain the presence of multiple eccentric rings of young stars in the presence of a supermassive black hole.
Binary Black Hole Mergers and Recoil Kicks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, J.; Choi, D.; Koppitz, M.; vanMeter, J.; Miller, C.
2006-01-01
Recent developments in numerical relativity have made it possible to follow reliably the coalescence of two black holes from near the innermost stable circular orbit to final ringdown. This opens up a wide variety of exciting astrophysical applications of these simulations. Chief among these is the net kick received when two unequal mass or spinning black holes merge. The magnitude of this kick has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. Here we report the first accurate numerical calculation of this kick, for two nonspinning black holes in a 1.5:1 mass ratio, which is expected based on analytic considerations to give a significant fraction of the maximum possible recoil. We have performed multiple runs with different initial separations, orbital angular momenta, resolutions, extraction radii, and gauges. The full range of our kick speeds is 86-116 kilometers per second, and the most reliable runs give kicks between 86 and 97 kilometers per second. This is intermediate between the estimates from two recent post-Newtonian analyses and suggests that at redshifts z greater than 10, halos with masses less than 10(exp 9) M(sub SUN) will have difficulty retaining coalesced black holes after major mergers.
Chaotic Accretion and Merging Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nixon, Christopher James
2012-09-01
The main driver of the work in this thesis is the idea of chaotic accretion in galaxy centres. Most research in this area focuses on orderly or coherent accretion where supermassive black holes or supermassive black hole binaries are fed with gas always possessing the same sense of angular momentum. If instead gas flows in galaxies are chaotic, feeding occurs through randomly oriented depositions of gas. Previous works show that this chaotic mode of feeding can explain some astrophysical phenomena, such as the lack of correlation between host galaxy structure and the direction of jets. It has also been shown that by keeping the black hole spin low this feeding mechanism can grow supermassive black holes from stellar mass seeds. In this thesis I show that it also alleviates the "final parsec problem" by facilitating the merger of two supermassive black holes, and the growth of supermassive black holes through rapid accretion. I also develop the intriguing possibility of breaking a warped disc into two or more distinct planes.
Evaporation of 2-Dimensional Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ramazanoglu, Fethi M.
2011-04-01
Violation of unitarity in black hole evaporation has been puzzling physicist since the seminal work of Hawking in the seventies. Although there are hopes for a resolution of the problem in a full theory of quantum gravity, it has eluded us so far. Even less ambitious efforts considering only quantum corrections beyond the external field approximation have proven hard to attack in 4 dimensions. All these obstacles directed researchers to investigate the black hole evaporation problem in simpler 2-dimensional models. In this talk, we will present results on a new investigation of one of these models, the 2-dimensional Callan-Giddings-Harvey-Strominger (CGHS) model. Using a combination of analytical and high precision numerical tools, we are able to resolve CGHS black hole evaporation within the mean field approximation all the way to the point where the black hole area vanishes. Our results confirm some of the assumptions of the standard paradigm, and strongly suggest the recovery of unitarity within the full quantum theory. On the other hand, there are several surprising new results, in particular remarkable universal behavior in the evaporation of initially macroscopic black holes. This suggests that information about the collapsing matter that formed the black hole can not be recovered from the evaporation radiation. Though this separation of the questions of information loss and unitarity is peculiar to the 2-dimensional model, insights into the higher dimensional case can still be garnered.
Developments in Analytic Calculations for Binary Black Holes with Arbitrarily Aligned Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Brennan; West, Eric; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela
2017-01-01
We discuss a series of new developments to the analytic modeling of a dynamic binary black hole spacetime in the relativistic inspiral regime. This work extends to include misaligned spins of the two black holes. We explore various ways to improve the efficiency of these calculations that generalizes the spacetime to include arbitrary spins. We also present a new code for evolving generic orbits with precession in a PN framework. We speculate on the astrophysical and relativistic applications this work will have.
Neutrino radiation of the AGN black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ter-Kazarian, G.; Shidhani, S.; Sargsyan, L.
2007-07-01
In the framework of ‘microscopic’ theory of black holes (J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. Suppl. B 70, 84, 2001; Astrophys. USSR 4, 659, 1996; 35, 335, 1991, 33, 143, 1990, 31, 345, 1989a; Astrophys. Space Sci. 1, 1992; Dokl. Akad. Nauk USSR 309, 97, 1989b), and references therein, we address the ‘pre-radiation time’ (PRT) of neutrinos from black holes, which implies the lapse of time from black hole’s birth till radiation of an extremely high energy neutrinos. For post-PRT lifetime, the black hole no longer holds as a region of spacetime that cannot communicate with the external universe. We study main features of spherical accretion onto central BH and infer a mass accretion rate onto it, and, further, calculate the resulting PRT versus bolometric luminosity due to accretion onto black hole. We estimate the PRTs of AGN black holes, with the well-determined masses and bolometric luminosities, collected from the literature by Woo Jong-Hak and Urry (Astrophys. J. 579, 530, 2002) on which this paper is partially based. The simulations for the black holes of masses M BH ≃(1.1ṡ106 ÷4.2ṡ109) M ⊙ give the values of PRTs varying in the range of about T BH ≃(4.3ṡ105 ÷5.6ṡ1011) yr. The derived PRTs for the 60 AGN black holes are longer than the age of the universe (˜13.7 Gyr) favored today. At present, some of remaining 174 BHs may radiate neutrinos. However, these results would be underestimated if the reservoir of gas for accretion in the galaxy center is quite modest, and no obvious way to feed the BHs with substantial accretion.
Gamma -bursts by primordial Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaina, Alex
Gamma-burts may arise as a result of quantum generation of photons (as well as neutrinos, gravitons, electrons) by Primordial Black Holes (PBH's) of mass 5-7 x 10^14 g (Hawking: Nature, Volume 248, Issue 5443, pp. 30-31, 1974,Communications in Mathematical Physics, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp.199-220; Page:Particle emission rates from a black hole: Massless particles from an uncharged, nonrotating hole, Phys. Rev. D 13, 198, 1976,Physical Review D - Particles and Fields, 3rd Series, vol. 14, Dec. 15, 1976, p. 3260-327, Particle emission rates from a black hole. III. Charged leptons from a nonrotating hole Phys. Rev. D 16, 2402 Published 15 October 1977; Jane Mac Gibbon, Quark- and gluon-jet emission from primordial black holes. II. The emission over the black-hole lifetime Phys. Rev. D 44, 376 - Published 15 July 1991, J.H. MacGibbon & B.J. Carr,Astrophysical Journal, Part 1, vol. 371, April 20, 1991, p. 447-469 ). Another way of the Gamma-rays production by highly rotating PBH's results from the bomb-like accumulation of mass bosons on superradiative bound levels, which I have called Bose instability in Black Holes (Ternov et al.Soviet Physics Journal, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp.1200-1204 1978; Detweiler: Physical Review D (Particles and Fields), Volume 22, Issue 10, 15 November 1980, pp.2323-2326 1980; Gaina and Ternov: Soviet Astronomy Letters, vol. 12, Nov.-Dec. 1986, p. 394-396; Gaina: Soviet Astronomy Letters, Vol.15, NO.3/MAY,JUN, P. 243, 1989,Astronomical and Astrophysical Transactions, vol. 10, Issue 2, pp.111-112, 1996,Bulletin Astronomique de Belgrade, No. 153, p. 29 - 34 ). The only type of black Holes which is still undiscovered is just the primordial Black Holes type. Is this a technical problem related wuith the sensitivity of Gamma-detectors or this is rather a problem of unfinalized of the quantum mechanical treatment of the Black Holes evaporation? Is this a problem related with inexactitudes of measurements of the Hubble constant or the primordial black
THE BLACK HOLE FORMATION PROBABILITY
Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.
2015-02-01
A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P {sub BH}(M {sub ZAMS}) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.
The Black Hole Formation Probability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clausen, Drew; Piro, Anthony L.; Ott, Christian D.
2015-02-01
A longstanding question in stellar evolution is which massive stars produce black holes (BHs) rather than neutron stars (NSs) upon death. It has been common practice to assume that a given zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) mass star (and perhaps a given metallicity) simply produces either an NS or a BH, but this fails to account for a myriad of other variables that may effect this outcome, such as spin, binarity, or even stochastic differences in the stellar structure near core collapse. We argue that instead a probabilistic description of NS versus BH formation may be better suited to account for the current uncertainties in understanding how massive stars die. We present an initial exploration of the probability that a star will make a BH as a function of its ZAMS mass, P BH(M ZAMS). Although we find that it is difficult to derive a unique P BH(M ZAMS) using current measurements of both the BH mass distribution and the degree of chemical enrichment by massive stars, we demonstrate how P BH(M ZAMS) changes with these various observational and theoretical uncertainties. We anticipate that future studies of Galactic BHs and theoretical studies of core collapse will refine P BH(M ZAMS) and argue that this framework is an important new step toward better understanding BH formation. A probabilistic description of BH formation will be useful as input for future population synthesis studies that are interested in the formation of X-ray binaries, the nature and event rate of gravitational wave sources, and answering questions about chemical enrichment.
Quantum black hole and the modified uncertainty principle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Majumder, Barun
2011-07-01
Recently Ali et al. (2009) [13] proposed a Generalized Uncertainty Principle (or GUP) with a linear term in momentum (accompanied by Planck length). Inspired by this idea we examine the Wheeler-DeWitt equation for a Schwarzschild black hole with a modified Heisenberg algebra which has a linear term in momentum. We found that the leading contribution to mass comes from the square root of the quantum number n which coincides with Bekenstein's proposal. We also found that the mass of the black hole is directly proportional to the quantum number n when quantum gravity effects are taken into consideration via the modified uncertainty relation but it reduces the value of mass for a particular value of the quantum number.
The stellar cusp around the Milky Way's central black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schodel, R.; Gallego Cano, E.; Nogueras Lara, F.; Dong, H.; Gallego Calvente, T.
2017-03-01
The existence of stellar cusps in dense clusters around massive black holes is a fundamental, decades-old prediction of theoretical stellar dynamics. Yet, observational evidence has been elusive so far. With a new, improved analysis of high-angular resolution images of the central parsecs of the Galactic Center, we are finally able to provide the first solid evidence for the existence of a stellar cusp around the Milky Way's massive black hole. The existence of stellar cusps is not only of theoretical importance, but has a significant impact on predicted event rates of phenomena like tidal disruptions of stars and extreme mass ratio inspiral events, which are expected to be strong sources of gravitational wave emission.
Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA: Supermassive black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Antoine; Barausse, Enrico; Sesana, Alberto; Petiteau, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Babak, Stanislav; Gair, Jonathan; Aoudia, Sofiane; Hinder, Ian; Ohme, Frank; Wardell, Barry
2016-01-01
We compare the science capabilities of different eLISA mission designs, including four-link (two-arm) and six-link (three-arm) configurations with different arm lengths, low-frequency noise sensitivities and mission durations. For each of these configurations we consider a few representative massive black hole formation scenarios. These scenarios are chosen to explore two physical mechanisms that greatly affect eLISA rates, namely (i) black hole seeding, and (ii) the delays between the merger of two galaxies and the merger of the black holes hosted by those galaxies. We assess the eLISA parameter estimation accuracy using a Fisher matrix analysis with spin-precessing, inspiral-only waveforms. We quantify the information present in the merger and ringdown by rescaling the inspiral-only Fisher matrix estimates using the signal-to-noise ratio from nonprecessing inspiral-merger-ringdown phenomenological waveforms, and from a reduced set of precessing numerical relativity/post-Newtonian hybrid waveforms. We find that all of the eLISA configurations considered in our study should detect some massive black hole binaries. However, configurations with six links and better low-frequency noise will provide much more information on the origin of black holes at high redshifts and on their accretion history, and they may allow the identification of electromagnetic counterparts to massive black hole mergers.
Revisit on the thermodynamic stability of the noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Meng-Sen; Liu, Yan-Song; Li, Huai-Fan
In two frameworks, we discuss the thermodynamic stability of noncommutative geometry inspired Schwarzschild black hole (NCSBH). Under the horizon thermodynamics of black holes, we show that the NCSBH cannot be thermodynamically stable if requiring positive temperature. We note the inconsistency in the work of Larrañaga et al. and propose an effective first law of black hole thermodynamics for the NCSBH to eliminate the inconsistency. Based on the effective first law, we recalculate the heat capacity and the thermodynamic curvature by means of geometrothermodynamics (GTD) to revisit the thermodynamic stability.
Simulating Gravitational Radiation from Binary Black Holes Mergers as LISA Sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2005-01-01
A viewgraph presentation on the simulation of gravitational waves from Binary Massive Black Holes with LISA observations is shown. The topics include: 1) Massive Black Holes (MBHs); 2) MBH Binaries; 3) Gravitational Wavws from MBH Binaries; 4) Observing with LISA; 5) How LISA sees MBH binary mergers; 6) MBH binary inspirals to LISA; 7) Numerical Relativity Simulations; 8) Numerical Relativity Challenges; 9) Recent Successes; 10) Goddard Team; 11) Binary Black Hole Simulations at Goddard; 12) Goddard Recent Advances; 13) Baker, et al.:GSFC; 13) Starting Farther Out; 14) Comparing Initial Separation; 15) Now with AMR; and 16) Conclusion.
Grumblings from an Awakening Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2015-11-01
In June of this year, after nearly three decades of sleep, the black hole V404 Cygni woke up and began grumbling. Scientists across the globe scrambled to observe the sudden flaring activity coming from this previously peaceful black hole. And now were getting the first descriptions of what weve learned from V404 Cygs awakening!Sudden OutburstV404 Cyg is a black hole of roughly nine solar masses, and its in a binary system with a low-mass star. The black hole pulls a stream of gas from the star, which then spirals in around the black hole, forming an accretion disk. Sometimes the material simply accumulates in the disk but every two or three decades, the build-up of gas suddenly rushes toward the black hole as if a dam were bursting.The sudden accretion in these events causes outbursts of activity from the black hole, its flaring easily visible to us. The last time V404 Cyg exhibited such activity was in 1989, and its been rather quiet since then. Our telescopes are of course much more powerful and sensitive now, nearly three decades later so when the black hole woke up and began flaring in June, scientists were delighted at the chance to observe it.The high variability of V404 Cyg is evident in this example set of spectra, where time increases from the bottom panel to the top. [King et al. 2015]Led by Ashley King (Einstein Fellow at Stanford University), a team of scientists observed V404 Cyg with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, obtaining spectra of the black hole during its outbursts. The black hole flared so brightly during its activity that the team had to take precautions to protect the CCDs in their detector from radiation damage! Now the group has released the first results from their analysis.Windy DiskThe primary surprise from V404 Cyg is its winds. Many stellar-mass black holes have outflows of mass, either in the form of directed jets emitted from their centers, or in the form of high-energy winds isotropically emitted from their accretion disks. But V404
NASA's Chandra Finds Youngest Nearby Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-11-01
Astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have found evidence of the youngest black hole known to exist in our cosmic neighborhood. The 30-year-old black hole provides a unique opportunity to watch this type of object develop from infancy. The black hole could help scientists better understand how massive stars explode, which ones leave behind black holes or neutron stars, and the number of black holes in our galaxy and others. The 30-year-old object is a remnant of SN 1979C, a supernova in the galaxy M100 approximately 50 million light-years from Earth. Data from Chandra, NASA's Swift satellite, the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and the German ROSAT observatory revealed a bright source of X-rays that has remained steady during observation from 1995 to 2007. This suggests the object is a black hole being fed either by material falling into it from the supernova or a binary companion. "If our interpretation is correct, this is the nearest example where the birth of a black hole has been observed," said Daniel Patnaude of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. who led the study. The scientists think SN 1979C, first discovered by an amateur astronomer in 1979, formed when a star about 20 times more massive than the Sun collapsed. Many new black holes in the distant universe previously have been detected in the form of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). However, SN 1979C is different because it is much closer and belongs to a class of supernovas unlikely to be associated with a GRB. Theory predicts most black holes in the universe should form when the core of a star collapses and a GRB is not produced. "This may be the first time the common way of making a black hole has been observed," said co-author Abraham Loeb, also of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "However, it is very difficult to detect this type of black hole birth because decades of X-ray observations are needed to make the case." The idea of a black hole with
New geometries for black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Armas, Jay; Blau, Matthias
2015-07-01
We construct several classes of worldvolume effective actions for black holes by integrating out spatial sections of the worldvolume geometry of asymptotically flat black branes. This provides a generalisation of the blackfold approach for higher-dimensional black holes and yields a map between different effective theories, which we exploit by obtaining new hydrodynamic and elastic transport coefficients via simple integrations. Using Euclidean minimal surfaces in order to decouple the fluid dynamics on different sections of the worldvolume, we obtain local effective theories for ultraspinning Myers-Perry branes and helicoidal black branes, described in terms of a stress-energy tensor, particle currents and non-trivial boost vectors. We then study in detail and present novel compact and non-compact geometries for black hole horizons in higher-dimensional asymptotically flat space-time. These include doubly-spinning black rings, black helicoids and helicoidal p-branes as well as helicoidal black rings and helicoidal black tori in D ≥ 6.
Black hole based tests of general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.
2016-03-01
General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.
Rotating black hole solutions with quintessential energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Ahmedov, Bobomurat
2017-02-01
Quintessential dark energy with density ρ and pressure p is governed by an equation of state of the form p=ωqρ with the quintessential parameter ω_qin (-1;-1/3). We derive the geometry of quintessential rotating black holes, generalizing thus the Kerr spacetimes. Then we study the quintessential rotating black hole spacetimes with the special value of ωq = -2/3 when the resulting formulae are simple and easily tractable. We show that such special spacetimes can exist for the dimensionless quintessential parameter c < 1/6 and determine the critical rotational parameter a0 separating the black hole and naked singularity spacetime in dependence on the quintessential parameter c . For the spacetimes with ωq = -2/3 we give all the black hole characteristics and demonstrate local thermodynamical stability. We present the integrated geodesic equations in separated form and study in details the circular geodetical orbits. We give radii and parameters of the photon circular orbits, marginally bound and marginally stable orbits. We stress that the outer boundary on the existence of circular geodesics, given by the so-called static radius where the gravitational attraction of the black hole is balanced by the cosmic repulsion, does not depend on the dimensionless spin of the rotating black hole, similarly to the case of the Kerr-de Sitter spacetimes with vacuum dark energy. We also give restrictions on the dimensionless parameters c and a of the spacetimes allowing for existence of stable circular geodesics. Finally, using numerical methods we generalize the discussion of the circular geodesics to the black holes with arbitrary quintessential parameter ωq.
Charged black holes and black hole binaries in Multi-messenger Astronomy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebling, Steven
2017-01-01
The possibility of observing electromagnetic signals from gravitational wave events holds great promise for gravitational wave astronomy. I discuss studies of black holes and black hole binaries in both Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theories, and their implications for LIGO detections and electromagnetic followups, such as Fermi's report of a coincident followup of GW150914.
Binary black hole shadows, chaotic scattering and the Cantor set
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shipley, Jake O.; Dolan, Sam R.
2016-09-01
We investigate the qualitative features of binary black hole shadows using the model of two extremally charged black holes in static equilibrium (a Majumdar-Papapetrou solution). Our perspective is that binary spacetimes are natural exemplars of chaotic scattering, because they admit more than one fundamental null orbit, and thus an uncountably infinite set of perpetual null orbits which generate scattering singularities in initial data. Inspired by the three-disc model, we develop an appropriate symbolic dynamics to describe planar null geodesics on the double black hole spacetime. We show that a one-dimensional (1D) black hole shadow may be constructed through an iterative procedure akin to the construction of the Cantor set; thus the 1D shadow is self-similar. Next, we study non-planar rays, to understand how angular momentum affects the existence and properties of the fundamental null orbits. Taking slices through 2D shadows, we observe three types of 1D shadow: regular, Cantor-like, and highly chaotic. The switch from Cantor-like to regular occurs where outer fundamental orbits are forbidden by angular momentum. The highly chaotic part is associated with an unexpected feature: stable and bounded null orbits, which exist around two black holes of equal mass M separated by {a}1\\lt a\\lt \\sqrt{2}{a}1, where {a}1=4M/\\sqrt{27}. To show how this possibility arises, we define a certain potential function and classify its stationary points. We conjecture that the highly chaotic parts of the 2D shadow possess the Wada property. Finally, we consider the possibility of following null geodesics through event horizons, and chaos in the maximally extended spacetime.
Quantum statistical entropy for Kerr de Sitter black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Chun; Wu, Yue-Qin; Zhao, Ren
2004-06-01
Improving the membrane model by which the entropy of the black hole is studied, we study the entropy of the black hole in the non-thermal equilibrium state. To give the problem stated here widespread meaning, we discuss the (n+2)-dimensional de Sitter spacetime. Through discussion, we obtain that the black hole's entropy which contains two horizons (a black hole's horizon and a cosmological horizon) in the non-thermal equilibrium state comprises the entropy corresponding to the black hole's horizon and the entropy corresponding to the cosmological horizon. Furthermore, the entropy of the black hole is a natural property of the black hole. The entropy is irrelevant to the radiation field out of the horizon. This deepens the understanding of the relationship between black hole's entropy and horizon's area. A way to study the bosonic and fermionic entropy of the black hole in high non-thermal equilibrium spacetime is given.
Rotating black hole thermodynamics with a particle probe
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon
2011-10-15
The thermodynamics of Myers-Perry black holes in general dimensions are studied using a particle probe. When undergoing particle absorption, the changes of the entropy and irreducible mass are shown to be dependent on the particle radial momentum. The black hole thermodynamic behaviors are dependent on dimensionality for specific rotations. For a 4-dimensional Kerr black hole, its black hole properties are maintained for any particle absorption. 5-dimensional black holes can avoid a naked ring singularity by absorbing a particle in specific momenta ranges. Black holes over 6 dimensions become ultraspinning black holes through a specific form of particle absorption. The microscopical changes are interpreted in limited cases of Myers-Perry black holes using Kerr/CFT correspondence. We systematically describe the black hole properties changed by particle absorption in all dimensions.
LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Big news: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected its first gravitational-wave signal! Not only is the detection of this signal a major technical accomplishment and an exciting confirmation of general relativity, but it also has huge implications for black-hole astrophysics.What did LIGO see?LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in space-time created by two massive objects orbiting each other. These waves can reach observable amplitudes when a binary system consisting of two especially massive objects i.e., black holes or neutron stars reach the end of their inspiral and merge.LIGO has been unsuccessfully searching for gravitational waves since its initial operations in 2002, but a recent upgrade in its design has significantly increased its sensitivity and observational range. The first official observing run of Advanced LIGO began 18 September 2015, but the instruments were up and running in engineering mode several weeks before that. And it was in this time frame before official observing even began! that LIGO spotted its first gravitational wave signal: GW150914.One of LIGOs two detection sites, located near Hanford in eastern Washington. [LIGO]The signal, detected on 14 September, 2015, provides astronomers with a remarkable amount of information about the merger that caused it. From the detection, the LIGO team has extracted the masses of the two black holes that merged, 36+5-4 and 29+4-4 solar masses, as well as the mass of the final black hole formed by the merger, ~62 solar masses. The team also determined that the merger happened roughly a billion light-years away (at a redshift of z~0.1), and the direction of the signal was localized to an area of ~600 square degrees (roughly 1% of the sky).Why is this detection a big deal?This is the firstdirect detection of gravitational waves, providing spectacular further confirmation of Einsteins theory of general relativity. But the implications of GW150914 go far beyond this
Observing Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, J.; McWillimas, S.; Baker, J.; Arnaud, K.
2009-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to detect gravitational radiation from the inspiral and merger of massive black hole binaries at high redshifts with large signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). These high-SNR observations will make it possible to extract physical parameters such as hole masses and spins, luminosity distance, and sky position from the observed waveforms. LISA'S effectiveness as a tool for astrophysics will be influenced by the precision with which these parameters can be measured. In addition, the practicality of coordinated observations with other instruments will be affected by the temporal evolution of parameter errors such as sky position. We present estimates of parameter errors for the special case of non-spinning black holes. Our focus is on the contribution of the late inspiral and merger portions of the waveform, a regime which typically dominates the SNR but has not been extensively studied due to the historic lack of a precise description of the waveform. Advances in numerical relativity have recently made such studies possible. Initial results suggest that the portion of the waveform beyond the Schwarzchild inner-most stable circular orbit can reduce parameter uncertainties by up to a factor of two.
Black holes in the early Universe.
Volonteri, Marta; Bellovary, Jillian
2012-12-01
The existence of massive black holes (MBHs) was postulated in the 1960s, when the first quasars were discovered. In the late 1990s their reality was proven beyond doubt in the Milky way and a handful nearby galaxies. Since then, enormous theoretical and observational efforts have been made to understand the astrophysics of MBHs. We have discovered that some of the most massive black holes known, weighing billions of solar masses, powered luminous quasars within the first billion years of the Universe. The first MBHs must therefore have formed around the time the first stars and galaxies formed. Dynamical evidence also indicates that black holes with masses of millions to billions of solar masses ordinarily dwell in the centers of today's galaxies. MBHs populate galaxy centers today, and shone as quasars in the past; the quiescent black holes that we detect now in nearby bulges are the dormant remnants of this fiery past. In this review we report on basic, but critical, questions regarding the cosmological significance of MBHs. What physical mechanisms led to the formation of the first MBHs? How massive were the initial MBH seeds? When and where did they form? How is the growth of black holes linked to that of their host galaxy? The answers to most of these questions are works in progress, in the spirit of these reports on progress in physics.
Kerr black holes as retro-MACHOs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Paolis, F.; Geralico, A.; Ingrosso, G.; Nucita, A. A.; Qadir, A.
2004-02-01
Gravitational lensing is a well known phenomenon predicted by the General Theory of Relativity. It is now a well-developed observational technique in astronomy and is considered to be a fundamental tool for acquiring information about the nature and distribution of dark matter. In particular, gravitational lensing experiments may be used to search for black holes. It has been proposed that a Schwarzschild black hole may act as a retro-lens (Holz & Wheeler \\cite{hw}) which, if illuminated by a powerful light source (e.g. the Sun), deflects light ray paths to large bending angles so that the light may reach the observer. Here, by considering the strong field limit in the deflection angle and confining our analysis to the black hole equatorial plane, we extend the Holz-Wheeler results to slowly spinning Kerr black holes. By considering the Holz-Wheeler geometrical configuration for the lens, source and observer we find that the inclusion of rotation does not substantially change the brightness of the retro-lensing images with respect to the Schwarzschild case. We also discuss the possibility that the next generation space-based telescopes may detect such retro-images and eventually put limits on the rotational parameter of the black hole.
Nonthermal WIMPs and primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Georg, Julian; Şengör, Gizem; Watson, Scott
2016-06-01
Nonthermal histories for the early universe have received notable attention as they are a rich source of phenomenology, while also being well motivated by top-down approaches to beyond the Standard Model physics. The early (pre-big bang nucleosynthesis) matter phase in these models leads to enhanced growth of density perturbations on sub-Hubble scales. Here, we consider whether primordial black hole formation associated with the enhanced growth is in conflict with existing observations. Such constraints depend on the tilt of the primordial power spectrum, and we find that nonthermal histories are tightly constrained in the case of a significantly blue spectrum. Alternatively, if dark matter is taken to be of nonthermal origin, we can restrict the primordial power spectrum on scales inaccessible to cosmic microwave background and large scale structure observations. We establish constraints for a wide range of scalar masses (reheat temperatures) with the most stringent bounds resulting from the formation of 1015 g black holes. These black holes would be evaporating today and are constrained by FERMI observations. We also consider whether the breakdown of the coherence of the scalar oscillations on subhorizon scales can lead to a Jean's pressure preventing black hole formation and relaxing our constraints. Our main conclusion is that primordial black hole constraints, combined with existing constraints on nonthermal weakly interacting massive particles, favor a primordial spectrum closer to scale invariance or a red tilted spectrum.
The Environmental Impact of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeb, A.
The supermassive black holes observed at the centers of almost all present-day galaxies had a profound impact on their environment. I highlight the principle of self-regulation, by which supermassive black holes grow until they release sufficient energy to unbind the gas that feeds them from their host galaxy. This principle explains several observed facts, including the correlation between the mass of a central black hole and the depth of the gravitational potential well of its host galaxy, and the abundance and clustering properties of bright quasars in the redshift interval of z~ 2-6. At lower redshifts, quasars might have limited the maximum mass of galaxies through the suppression of cooling flows in X-ray clusters. The seeds of supermassive black holes were likely planted in dwarf galaxies at redshifts z> 10, through the collapse of massive or supermassive stars. The minimum seed mass can be identified observationally through the detection of gravitational waves from black hole binaries by Advanced LIGO or LISA. Aside from shaping their host galaxies, quasar outflows filled the intergalactic medium with magnetic fields and heavy elements. Beyond the reach of these outflows, the brightest quasars at z>6 have ionized exceedingly large volumes of gas (tens of comoving Mpc) prior to global reionization, and must have suppressed the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in these volumes before the same occurred through the rest of the universe.
A black hole in a globular cluster.
Maccarone, Thomas J; Kundu, Arunav; Zepf, Stephen E; Rhode, Katherine L
2007-01-11
Globular star clusters contain thousands to millions of old stars packed within a region only tens of light years across. Their high stellar densities make it very probable that their member stars will interact or collide. There has accordingly been considerable debate about whether black holes should exist in these star clusters. Some theoretical work suggests that dynamical processes in the densest inner regions of globular clusters may lead to the formation of black holes of approximately 1,000 solar masses. Other numerical simulations instead predict that stellar interactions will eject most or all of the black holes that form in globular clusters. Here we report the X-ray signature of an accreting black hole in a globular cluster associated with the giant elliptical galaxy NGC 4472 (in the Virgo cluster). This object has an X-ray luminosity of about 4 x 10(39) erg s(-1), which rules out any object other than a black hole in such an old stellar population. The X-ray luminosity varies by a factor of seven in a few hours, which excludes the possibility that the object is several neutron stars superposed.
Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-01-01
Astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope have detected, in another galaxy, a stellar-mass black hole much farther away than any other previously known. With a mass above fifteen times that of the Sun, this is also the second most massive stellar-mass black hole ever found. It is entwined with a star that will soon become a black hole itself. The stellar-mass black holes [1] found in the Milky Way weigh up to ten times the mass of the Sun and are certainly not be taken lightly, but, outside our own galaxy, they may just be minor-league players, since astronomers have found another black hole with a mass over fifteen times the mass of the Sun. This is one of only three such objects found so far. The newly announced black hole lies in a spiral galaxy called NGC 300, six million light-years from Earth. "This is the most distant stellar-mass black hole ever weighed, and it's the first one we've seen outside our own galactic neighbourhood, the Local Group," says Paul Crowther, Professor of Astrophysics at the University of Sheffield and lead author of the paper reporting the study. The black hole's curious partner is a Wolf-Rayet star, which also has a mass of about twenty times as much as the Sun. Wolf-Rayet stars are near the end of their lives and expel most of their outer layers into their surroundings before exploding as supernovae, with their cores imploding to form black holes. In 2007, an X-ray instrument aboard NASA's Swift observatory scrutinised the surroundings of the brightest X-ray source in NGC 300 discovered earlier with the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. "We recorded periodic, extremely intense X-ray emission, a clue that a black hole might be lurking in the area," explains team member Stefania Carpano from ESA. Thanks to new observations performed with the FORS2 instrument mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have confirmed their earlier hunch. The new data show that the black hole and the Wolf-Rayet star dance
Black Hole Boldly Goes Where No Black Hole Has Gone Before
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-01-01
Astronomers have found a black hole where few thought they could ever exist, inside a globular star cluster. The finding has broad implications for the dynamics of stars clusters and also for the existence of a still-speculative new class of black holes called 'intermediate-mass' black holes. The discovery is reported in the current issue of Nature. Tom Maccarone of the University of Southampton in England leads an international team on the finding, made primarily with the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton satellite. Globular clusters are dense bundles of thousands to millions of old stars, and many scientists have doubted that black holes could survive in such an exclusive environment. Computer simulations show that a newly formed black hole would first sink towards the centre of the cluster but quickly get gravitationally slingshot out entirely when interacting with the cluster's myriad stars. Credit: ESA/Hubble Artist's impression of globular star cluster The new finding provides the first convincing evidence that some black hole might not only survive but grow and flourish in globular clusters. What has astonished astronomers is how quickly the black hole was found. "We were preparing for a long, systematic search of thousands of globular clusters with the hope of finding just one black hole," said Maccarone. "But bingo, we found one as soon as we started the search. It was only the second globular cluster we looked at." The search continues to find more, Maccarone said, yet only one black hole was needed to resolve the decades-old discussion about black holes and globular clusters. Scientists say there are two main classes of black holes. Supermassive black holes containing the mass of millions to billions of suns are found in the core of most galaxies, including our own. A quasar is one kind of supermassive black hole. Stellar-size black holes contain the mass of about ten suns. These are created from the collapsed core of massive stars. Our galaxy likely
Coalescing binary black holes: Applications enabled by many simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pfeiffer, Harald
2013-04-01
Recently, the Caltech-Cornell-CITA collaboration has succeeded in computing about 100 binary black hole (BBH) coalescence waveforms. These waveforms include a very long inspiral phase (some exceeding 60 cycles) and are of exquisite accuracy. The configurations simulated include extreme regions of the BBH parameter space like nearly extremal spins, high mass-ratios, and strongly precessing systems. This talk reports on applications of these waveforms to study strong field gravity and aid gravitational wave astronomy, in particular post-Newtonian comparisons and construction of template banks for BBH waveforms.
Upper bound on the radii of black-hole photonspheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hod, Shahar
2013-11-01
One of the most remarkable predictions of the general theory of relativity is the existence of black-hole “photonspheres”, compact null hypersurfaces on which massless particles can orbit the central black hole. We prove that every spherically-symmetric asymptotically flat black-hole spacetime is characterized by a photonsphere whose radius is bounded from above by rγ⩽3M, where M is the total ADM mass of the black-hole spacetime. It is shown that hairy black-hole configurations conform to this upper bound. In particular, the null circular geodesic of the (bald) Schwarzschild black-hole spacetime saturates the bound.
Thick domain walls in AdS black hole spacetimes
Moderski, Rafal; Rogatko, Marek
2006-08-15
Equations of motion for a real self-gravitating scalar field in the background of a black hole with negative cosmological constant were solved numerically. We obtain a sequence of static axisymmetric solutions representing thick domain wall cosmological black hole systems, depending on the mass of black hole, cosmological parameter and the parameter binding black hole mass with the width of the domain wall. For the case of extremal cosmological black hole the expulsion of scalar field from the black hole strongly depends on it.
Massive Black Hole Implicated in Stellar Destruction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-01-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Magellan telescopes suggest that a dense stellar remnant has been ripped apart by a black hole a thousand times as massive as the Sun. If confirmed, this discovery would be a cosmic double play: it would be strong evidence for an intermediate mass black hole, which has been a hotly debated topic, and would mark the first time such a black hole has been caught tearing a star apart. This scenario is based on Chandra observations, which revealed an unusually luminous source of X-rays in a dense cluster of old stars, and optical observations that showed a peculiar mix of elements associated with the X-ray emission. Taken together, a case can be made that the X-ray emission is produced by debris from a disrupted white dwarf star that is heated as it falls towards a massive black hole. The optical emission comes from debris further out that is illuminated by these X-rays. The intensity of the X-ray emission places the source in the "ultraluminous X-ray source" or ULX category, meaning that it is more luminous than any known stellar X-ray source, but less luminous than the bright X-ray sources (active galactic nuclei) associated with supermassive black holes in the nuclei of galaxies. The nature of ULXs is a mystery, but one suggestion is that some ULXs are black holes with masses between about a hundred and several thousand times that of the Sun, a range intermediate between stellar-mass black holes and supermassive black holes located in the nuclei of galaxies. This ULX is in a globular cluster, a very old and crowded conglomeration of stars. Astronomers have suspected that globular clusters could contain intermediate-mass black holes, but conclusive evidence for this has been elusive. "Astronomers have made cases for stars being torn apart by supermassive black holes in the centers of galaxies before, but this is the first good evidence for such an event in a globular cluster," said Jimmy Irwin of the University
Black hole complementarity in gravity's rainbow
Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae E-mail: wtkim@sogang.ac.kr
2015-05-01
To see how the gravity's rainbow works for black hole complementary, we evaluate the required energy for duplication of information in the context of black hole complementarity by calculating the critical value of the rainbow parameter in the certain class of the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole. The resultant energy can be written as the well-defined limit for the vanishing rainbow parameter which characterizes the deformation of the relativistic dispersion relation in the freely falling frame. It shows that the duplication of information in quantum mechanics could not be allowed below a certain critical value of the rainbow parameter; however, it might be possible above the critical value of the rainbow parameter, so that the consistent formulation in our model requires additional constraints or any other resolutions for the latter case.
Gravitational lens models for cosmological black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, A. F.; Capozziello, S.; Stornaiolo, C.
2017-03-01
If really such objects like cosmological black holes exist they may be studied with a standard technique like strong and weak gravitational lensing. Cosmological voids can be explained as the result the collapse of large perturbations into black hole with masses of the order of 1014 M ⊙ and the expansion of the universe. The resulting image of the universe is that it is more homogeneous than expected from present observations. In this paper we discuss some lensing properties related to the cosmological black holes (CBHs), namely we consider differences in gravitational lensing for point like mass and extended mass distributions. We consider the singular isothermal sphere model as a toy (illustrative) model for an extended distribution of dark matter and a slightly more complicated isothermal sphere with a core.
Bounded excursion stable gravastars and black holes
Rocha, P; Da Silva, M F; Wang, Anzhong; Santos, N O E-mail: yasuda@on.br E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu
2008-06-15
Dynamical models of prototype gravastars were constructed in order to study their stability. The models are the Visser-Wiltshire three-layer gravastars, in which an infinitely thin spherical shell of stiff fluid divides the whole spacetime into two regions, where the internal region is de Sitter, and the external one is Schwarzschild. It is found that in some cases the models represent the 'bounded excursion' stable gravastars, where the thin shell is oscillating between two finite radii, while in other cases they collapse until the formation of black holes occurs. In the phase space, the region for the 'bounded excursion' gravastars is very small in comparison to that of black holes, but not empty. Therefore, although the possibility of the existence of gravastars cannot be excluded from such dynamical models, our results indicate that, even if gravastars do indeed exist, that does not exclude the possibility of the existence of black holes.
Accretion Disk Emission Around Kerr Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campitiello, Samuele; Sbarrato, T.; Ghisellini, G.
2016-10-01
Measuring the spin of supermassive Black holes in Active Galactic Nuclei is a further step towards a better understanding of the evolution of their physics. We proposed a new method to estimate the Black hole spin, based on data-fitting. We consider a numerical model called KERRBB, including all relativistic effects (i.e. light-bending, gravitational redshift and Doppler beaming). We found that the same spectrum can be produced by different masses, accretion rates and spins, but that these three quantities are related. In other words, having a robust indipendent estimate on one of these three quantities fixes the other two. By using the Black hole mass, estimated by the virial method, we can pinpoint a narrow range of possible spins and accretion rates for the 32 blazars we have studied. For these objects, we found a lower limit of the spin, that must be a/M > 0.6-0.7
Thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes
Accetta, F.S.; Gleiser, M.
1986-05-01
We discuss the thermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes with particular emphasis on a new class of spinning black holes which, due to the increased number of Casimir invariants, have additional spin degrees of freedom. In suitable limits, analytic solutions in arbitrary dimensions are presented for their temperature, entropy, and specific heat. In 5 + 1 and 9 + 1 dimensions, more general forms for these quantities are given. It is shown that the specific heat for a higher dimensional black hole is negative definite if it has only one non-zero spin parameter, regardless of the value of this parameter. We also consider equilibrium configurations with both massless particles and massive string modes. 16 refs., 3 figs.
Supersymmetry Versus Black Holes at the Lhc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglià, Marco
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. We propose a simple but effective method to discriminate the two models: the analysis of isolated leptons with high transverse momentum. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our results show that the measure of the dilepton invariant mass provides a promising signature to differentiate supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Analysis of event-shape variables and multilepton events complement and strengthen this conclusion.
Black hole mergers: beyond general relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stein, Leo; Okounkova, Maria
2017-01-01
One hundred years after the birth of general relativity, advanced LIGO has finally directly detected gravitational waves. The source: two black holes merging into one. Advanced LIGO will soon provide the opportunity to test GR, using gravitational waves, in the dynamical strong-field regime-a setting where GR has not yet been tested. GR has passed all weak-field tests with flying colors. Yet it should eventually break down, so we must look to the strong-field. To perform strong-field tests of GR, we need waveform models from theories beyond GR. To date there are no numerical simulations of black hole mergers in theories which differ from GR. The main obstacle is the mathematical one of well-posedness. I will explain how to overcome this obstacle, and demonstrate the success of this approach by presenting the first numerical simulations of black hole mergers in a theory beyond GR.
Primordial Black Holes from First Principles (numerics)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bloomfield, Jolyon; Moss, Zander; Lam, Casey; Russell, Megan; Face, Stephen; Guth, Alan
2017-01-01
In order to compute accurate number densities and mass spectra for primordial black holes from an inflationary power spectrum, one needs to perform Monte Carlo integration over field configurations. This requires a method of determining whether a black hole will form, and if so, what its mass will be, for each sampled configuration. In order for such an integral to converge within any reasonable time, this requires a highly efficient process for making these determinations. We present a numerical pipeline that is capable of making reasonably accurate predictions for black holes and masses at the rate of a few seconds per sample (including the sampling process), utilizing a fully-nonlinear numerical relativity code in 1+1 dimensions.
Thermodynamics of regular accelerating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Astorino, Marco
2017-03-01
Using the covariant phase space formalism, we compute the conserved charges for a solution, describing an accelerating and electrically charged Reissner-Nordstrom black hole. The metric is regular provided that the acceleration is driven by an external electric field, in spite of the usual string of the standard C-metric. The Smarr formula and the first law of black hole thermodynamics are fulfilled. The resulting mass has the same form of the Christodoulou-Ruffini irreducible mass. On the basis of these results, we can extrapolate the mass and thermodynamics of the rotating C-metric, which describes a Kerr-Newman-(A)dS black hole accelerated by a pulling string.
Black Holes in a Violent Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Britzen, S.
2012-02-01
"Black Holes in a Violent Universe" is a COST Action (MP0905) connecting scientists from different disciplines - astronomers from all wavelength regimes (i.e. radio to TeV), physicists and particle physicists, theoreticians and observers - from currently 25 countries. The aim is to collaborate in a cross-disciplinary and multi-dimensional approach towards a better understanding of the general Black Hole phenomenon. COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) is one of the longest-running European instruments supporting cooperation among scientists and researchers across Europe. The goal of MP0905 is to decipher further the way the Universe and the stars and galaxies evolved and - in particular - the role Black Holes play in this. This Action is an open and flexible program of communication and interchange.
Regular black holes with flux tube core
Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2009-09-15
We consider a class of black holes for which the area of the two-dimensional spatial cross section has a minimum on the horizon with respect to a quasiglobal (Krusckal-like) coordinate. If the horizon is regular, one can generate a tubelike counterpart of such a metric and smoothly glue it to a black hole region. The resulting composite space-time is globally regular, so all potential singularities under the horizon of the original metrics are removed. Such a space-time represents a black hole without an apparent horizon. It is essential that the matter should be nonvacuum in the outer region but vacuumlike in the inner one. As an example we consider the noninteracting mixture of vacuum fluid and matter with a linear equation of state and scalar phantom fields. This approach is extended to distorted metrics, with the requirement of spherical symmetry relaxed.
How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
NASA astronomer Kim Weaver has got that sinking feeling. You know, it's that unsettling notion you get when you sift through your X-ray data and, to your surprise, find mid-sized black holes sinking toward the center of a galaxy, where they merge with others to form a single supermassive black hole. Could such a thing be true? These would be the largest mergers since America On Line bought Time-Warner, and perhaps even more violent. The process would turn a starburst galaxy inside out, making it more like a quasar host galaxy. Using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Weaver saw a hint of this fantastic process in a relatively nearby starburst galaxy named NGC 253 in the constellation Sculptor. She noticed that starburst galaxies - those gems set aglow in a colorful life cycle of hyperactive star birth, death, and renewal - seem to have a higher concentration of mid-mass black holes compared to other galaxies.
Observational constraints on black hole accretion disks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Edison P.
1994-01-01
We review the empirical constraints on accretion disk models of stellar-mass black holes based on recent multiwavelength observational results. In addition to time-averaged emission spectra, the time evolutions of the intensity and spectrum provide critical information about the structure, stability, and dynamics of the disk. Using the basic thermal Keplerian disk paradigm, we consider in particular generalizations of the standard optically thin disk models needed to accommodate the extremely rich variety of dynamical phenomena exhibited by black hole candidates ranging from flares of electron-positron annihilations and quasiperiodic oscillations in the X-ray intensity to X-ray novae activity. These in turn provide probes of the disk structure and global geometry. The goal is to construct a single unified framework to interpret a large variety of black hole phenomena. This paper will concentrate on the interface between basic theory and observational data modeling.
Black holes in an expanding universe.
Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi
2010-04-02
An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 < or = for all w < or = 1). It is an exact solution of the Einstein-scalar-Maxwell system, in which we have two Maxwell-type U(1) fields coupled to the scalar field. The potential of the scalar field is an exponential. We find a regular horizon, which depends on one parameter [the ratio of the energy density of U(1) fields to that of the scalar field]. The horizon is static because of the balance on the horizon between gravitational attractive force and U(1) repulsive force acting on the scalar field. We also calculate the black hole temperature.
Hologram of a pure state black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Shubho R.; Sarkar, Debajyoti
2015-12-01
In this paper, we extend the Hamilton-Kabat-Lifschytz-Lowe (HKLL) holographic smearing function method to reconstruct (quasi)local anti-de Sitter bulk scalar observables in the background of a large anti-de Sitter black hole formed by null shell collapse (a "pure state" black hole), from the dual conformal field theory which is undergoing a sudden quench. In particular, we probe the near horizon and subhorizon bulk locality. First, we construct local bulk operators from the conformal field theory in the leading semiclassical limit, N →∞ . Then, we look at effects due to the finiteness of N , where we propose a suitable coarse-graining prescription involving early and late time cutoffs to define semiclassical bulk observables which are approximately local, their departure from locality being nonperturbatively small in N . Our results have important implications on the black hole information problem.
Twisted black hole is Taub-NUT
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ong, Yen Chin
2017-01-01
Recently a purportedly novel solution of the vacuum Einstein field equations was discovered: it supposedly describes an asymptotically flat twisted black hole in 4-dimensions whose exterior spacetime rotates in a peculiar manner—the frame dragging in the northern hemisphere is opposite from that of the southern hemisphere, which results in a globally vanishing angular momentum. Furthermore it was shown that the spacetime has no curvature singularity. We show that the geometry of this black hole spacetime is nevertheless not free of pathological features. In particular, it harbors a rather drastic conical singularity along the axis of rotation. In addition, there exist closed timelike curves due to the fact that the constant r and constant t surfaces are not globally Riemannian. In fact, none of these are that surprising since the solution is just the Taub-NUT geometry. As such, despite the original claim that the twisted black hole might have observational consequences, it cannot be.
Black holes and quantumness on macroscopic scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Flassig, Daniel; Pritzel, Alexander; Wintergerst, Nico
2013-04-01
It has recently been suggested that black holes may be described as condensates of weakly interacting gravitons at a critical point, exhibiting strong quantum effects. In this paper, we study a model system of attractive bosons in one spatial dimension which is known to undergo a quantum phase transition. We demonstrate explicitly that indeed quantum effects are important at the critical point, even if the number of particles is macroscopic. Most prominently, we evaluate the entropy of entanglement between different momentum modes and observe it to become maximal at the critical point. Furthermore, we explicitly see that the leading entanglement is between long-wavelength modes and is hence a feature independent of ultraviolet physics. If applicable to black holes, our findings substantiate the conjectured breakdown of semiclassical physics even for large black holes. This can resolve long-standing mysteries, such as the information paradox and the no-hair theorem.
Black holes and large order quantum geometry
Huang Minxin; Klemm, Albrecht; Marino, Marcos; Tavanfar, Alireza
2009-03-15
We study five-dimensional black holes obtained by compactifying M theory on Calabi-Yau threefolds. Recent progress in solving topological string theory on compact, one-parameter models allows us to test numerically various conjectures about these black holes. We give convincing evidence that a microscopic description based on Gopakumar-Vafa invariants accounts correctly for their macroscopic entropy, and we check that highly nontrivial cancellations--which seem necessary to resolve the so-called entropy enigma in the Ooguri-Strominger-Vafa conjecture--do in fact occur. We also study analytically small 5d black holes obtained by wrapping M2 branes in the fiber of K3 fibrations. By using heterotic/type II duality we obtain exact formulae for the microscopic degeneracies in various geometries, and we compute their asymptotic expansion for large charges.
Nonlinear electrodynamics and regular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sajadi, S. N.; Riazi, N.
2017-03-01
In this work, an exact regular black hole solution in General Relativity is presented. The source is a nonlinear electromagnetic field with the algebraic structure T00=T11 for the energy-momentum tensor, partially satisfying the weak energy condition but not the strong energy condition. In the weak field limit, the EM field behaves like the Maxwell field. The solution corresponds to a charged black hole with q≤0.77 m. The metric, the curvature invariants, and the electric field are regular everywhere. The BH is stable against small perturbations of spacetime and using the Weinhold metric, geometrothermodynamical stability has been investigated. Finally we investigate the idea that the observable universe lives inside a regular black hole. We argue that this picture might provide a viable description of universe.
Status Report: Black Hole Complementarity Controversy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Bum-Hoon; Yeom, Dong-han
2014-01-01
Black hole complementarity was a consensus among string theorists for the interpretation of the information loss problem. However, recently some authors find inconsistency of black hole complementarity: large N rescaling and Almheiri, Marolf, Polchinski and Sully (AMPS) argument. According to AMPS, the horizon should be a firewall so that one cannot penetrate there for consistency. There are some controversial discussions on the firewall. Apart from these papers, the authors suggest an assertion using a semi-regular black hole model and we conclude that the firewall, if it exists, should affect to asymptotic observer. In addition, if any opinion does not consider the duplication experiment and the large N rescaling, then the argument is difficult to accept.
ORBITS AROUND BLACK HOLES IN TRIAXIAL NUCLEI
Merritt, David; Vasiliev, Eugene E-mail: eugvas@lpi.ru
2011-01-10
We discuss the properties of orbits within the influence sphere of a supermassive black hole (BH), in the case that the surrounding star cluster is non-axisymmetric. There are four major orbit families; one of these, the pyramid orbits, have the interesting property that they can approach arbitrarily closely to the BH. We derive the orbit-averaged equations of motion and show that in the limit of weak triaxiality, the pyramid orbits are integrable: the motion consists of a two-dimensional libration of the major axis of the orbit about the short axis of the triaxial figure, with eccentricity varying as a function of the two orientation angles and reaching unity at the corners. Because pyramid orbits occupy the lowest angular momentum regions of phase space, they compete with collisional loss cone repopulation and with resonant relaxation (RR) in supplying matter to BHs. General relativistic advance of the periapse dominates the precession for sufficiently eccentric orbits, and we show that relativity imposes an upper limit to the eccentricity: roughly the value at which the relativistic precession time is equal to the time for torques to change the angular momentum. We argue that this upper limit to the eccentricity should also apply to evolution driven by RR, with potentially important consequences for the rate of extreme-mass-ratio inspirals in low-luminosity galaxies. In giant galaxies, we show that capture of stars on pyramid orbits can dominate the feeding of BHs, at least until such a time as the pyramid orbits are depleted; however this time can be of order a Hubble time.
Quasar Outflows and Black Hole Masses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coatman, Liam; Hewett, Paul; Banerji, Manda; Richards, Gordon; Hennawi, Joseph; Prochaska, Jason X.
2016-08-01
Black-hole masses are crucial to understanding the physics of the connection between quasars and their host galaxies and measuring cosmic black hole-growth. At high redshift, z > 2, black hole masses are normally derived using the velocity-width of the CIV broad emission line, based on the assumption that the observed velocity-widths arise from virial-induced motions. In many quasars, the CIV-emission line exhibits significant blue asymmetries ('blueshifts') with the line centroid displaced by up to thousands of km/s to the blue. These blueshifts almost certainly signal the presence of strong outflows, most likely originating in a disc wind. Using both archival data and new observations, we have obtained near-infrared spectra, including the Ha and/or Hb emission lines, for ~400 luminous (L_Bol = 45.5-48.5 erg/s) SDSS quasars, at redshifts 1.5 < z < 4, with CIV emission lines spanning the full-range of blueshifts present in the population. A strong correlation between CIV-velocity width and blueshift is found and, at large blueshifts, >2000 km/s, the velocity-widths appear to be dominated by non-virial motions. Using the Ha/Hb emission to provide black hole masses free from non-virial contributions, we are able to derive a quantitative correction to the CIV-based black-hole masses as a function of blueshift. This correction reduces the scatter between Ha/Hb and CIV velocity widths to just ~0.1 dex. Without the correction, black hole masses would be overestimated by a factor of nine at the largest blueshifts. With a suitable systemic redshift-estimation algorithm, this correction can be straightforwardly applied based only on information contained in the rest-frame UV spectra.
Merging a Pair of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-10-01
When galaxies merge, the supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at the galaxies centers are thought to coalesce, forming a new, larger black hole. But can this merger process take place on timescales short enough that we could actually observe it? Results from a new simulation suggests that it can!When Galaxies CollideThese stills demonstrate the time evolution of the galaxy merger after the beginning of the authors simulation (starting from z=3.6). The red and blue dots mark the positions of the SMBHs. [Adapted from Khan et al. 2016]At present, its not well understood how the merger of two SMBHs proceeds from the merger of their host galaxies. Whats more, there are concerns about whether the SMBHs can coalesce on reasonable timescales; in many simulations and models, the inspiral of these behemoths stalls out when they are about a parsec apart, in whats known as the final parsec problem.Why are these mergers poorly understood? Modeling them from the initial interactions of the host galaxies all the way down to the final coalescence of their SMBHs in a burst of gravitational waves is notoriously complicated, due to the enormous range of scales and different processes that must be accounted for.But in a recent study, a team of scientists led by Fazeel Khan (Institute of Space Technology in Pakistan) has presented a simulation that successfully manages to track the entire merger making it the first multi-scale simulation to model the complete evolution of an SMBH binary that forms within a cosmological galaxy merger.Stages of aSimulationKhan and collaborators tackled the challenges of this simulation by using a multi-tiered approach.Beginning with the output of a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation, the authors select a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z=3.6 and use this as the starting point for their simulation. They increase the resolution and add in two supermassive black holes, one at the center of each galaxy.They then continue to evolve the galaxies
Rotating black holes on codimension 2 branes
Kiley, Derrick
2007-12-15
It has recently been demonstrated that certain types of nontensional stress-energy can live on tensional codimension-2 branes, including gravitational shockwaves and small Schwarzschild black holes. In this paper we generalize the earlier Schwarzschild results, and construct the exact gravitational fields of small rotating black holes on a codimension-2 brane. We focus on the phenomenologically interesting case of a three-brane embedded in a spacetime with two compactified extra dimensions. For a nonzero tension on the brane, we verify that these solutions also show the ''lightning rod'' effect found in the Schwarzschild solutions, the net effect of which is to rescale the fundamental Planck mass. This allows for larger black hole parameters, such as the event horizon, angular momentum, and lifetime than would be naively expected for a tensionless brane. It is also found that a black hole with angular momentum pointing purely along the brane directions has a smaller horizon angular velocity than the corresponding tensionless case, while a hole with bulk components of angular momentum has a larger angular velocity.
Gravity, black holes, and the universe
Nicolson, I.
1981-01-01
The book treats current understandings of the nature and properties of gravity, with particular emphasis on its role in the physics of black holes and the structure and evolution of the universe as a whole. The development of modern ideas on force, motion and gravity is traced from the systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy through the work of Copernicus, Galileo and Kepler to Newton's law of universal gravitation and Einstein's general theory of relativity. Particular attention is then given to the role of gravity in stellar motions and to the phenomena determined by the immense gravitational forces associated with bodies of such great density, including relativistic effects, tidal forces, space-time effects, event horizons, rotation, mass and electrical charge, the existence of naked singularities and white holes, and black-hole thermodynamics. The existence of actual black holes in the universe is considered, and various black-hole candidates in the Galaxy, quasars and galactic nuclei are indicated. The role of gravity in cosmology is then examined, with attention given to the implications of general relativity, the Hubble law, the age of the universe, the density of the universe and its eventual fate. Possible alternative to general relativity as a theory of gravitation are considered, including theories of variable gravitational constant, grand unified theories, and quantum gravity.
Retrolensing by a charged black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsukamoto, Naoki; Gong, Yungui
2017-03-01
Compact objects with a light sphere such as black holes and wormholes can reflect light rays like a mirror. This gravitational lensing phenomenon is called retrolensing and it is an interesting tool to survey dark and compact objects with a light sphere near the solar system. In this paper, we calculate the deflection angle analytically in the strong deflection limit in the Reissner-Nordström spacetime without Taylor expanding it in the power of the electric charge. Using the obtained deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, we investigate the retrolensing light curves and the separation of double images by the light sphere of Reissner-Nordström black holes.
Local Operators in the Eternal Black Hole.
Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat
2015-11-20
In the AdS/CFT correspondence, states obtained by Hamiltonian evolution of the thermofield doubled state are also dual to an eternal black-hole geometry, which is glued to the boundary with a time shift generated by a large diffeomorphism. We describe gauge-invariant relational observables that probe the black hole interior in these states and constrain their properties using effective field theory. By adapting recent versions of the information paradox we show that these observables are necessarily described by state-dependent bulk-boundary maps, which we construct explicitly.
Black holes in higher derivative gravity.
Lü, H; Perkins, A; Pope, C N; Stelle, K S
2015-05-01
Extensions of Einstein gravity with higher-order derivative terms arise in string theory and other effective theories, as well as being of interest in their own right. In this Letter we study static black-hole solutions in the example of Einstein gravity with additional quadratic curvature terms. A Lichnerowicz-type theorem simplifies the analysis by establishing that they must have vanishing Ricci scalar curvature. By numerical methods we then demonstrate the existence of further black-hole solutions over and above the Schwarzschild solution. We discuss some of their thermodynamic properties, and show that they obey the first law of thermodynamics.
Thermodynamical stability of the Bardeen black hole
Bretón, Nora; Perez Bergliaffa, Santiago E.
2014-01-14
We analyze the stability of the regular magnetic Bardeen black hole both thermodynamically and dynamically. For the thermodynamical analysis we consider a microcanonical ensemble and apply the turning point method. This method allows to decide a change in stability (or instability) of a system, requiring only the assumption of smoothness of the area functional. The dynamical stability is asserted using criteria based on the signs of the Lagrangian and its derivatives. It turns out from our analysis that the Bardeen black hole is both thermodynamically and dynamically stable.
Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns.
Modelling Gravitational Radiation from Binary Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2006-01-01
The final merger and coalescence of binary black holes is a key source of strong gravitational waves for the LISA mission. Observing these systems will allow us to probe the formation of cosmic structure to high redshifts and test general relativity directly in the strong-field, dynamical regime. Recently, major breakthroughs have been made in modeling black hole mergers using numerical relativity. This talk will survey these exciting developments, focusing on the gravitational waveforms and the recoil kicks produced from non-equal mass mergers.
Black hole entropy without brick walls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiang, Li
2002-07-01
The properties of the thermal radiation are discussed by using the new equation of state density motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of a Schwarzschild black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a scalar field outside the horizon of a static black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon.
Normal Modes of Black Hole Accretion Disks
Ortega-Rodriguez, Manuel; Silbergleit, Alexander S.; Wagoner, Robert V.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2006-11-07
This paper studies the hydrodynamical problem of normal modes of small adiabatic oscillations of relativistic barotropic thin accretion disks around black holes (and compact weakly magnetic neutron stars). Employing WKB techniques, we obtain the eigen frequencies and eigenfunctions of the modes for different values of the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. We discuss the properties of the various types of modes and examine the role of viscosity, as it appears to render some of the modes unstable to rapid growth.
Photon emission near extreme Kerr black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Porfyriadis, Achilleas P.; Shi, Yichen; Strominger, Andrew
2017-03-01
Ongoing astronomical efforts extract physical properties of black holes from electromagnetic emissions in their near-vicinity. This requires finding the null geodesics which extend from the near-horizon region out to a distant observatory. In general these are given by elliptic integrals which are often studied numerically. In this paper, for the interesting special case of extremally spinning Kerr black holes, we use an emergent near-horizon conformal symmetry to find near-superradiant geodesics analytically in terms of elementary functions.
Self tuning scalar tensor black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charmousis, Christos; Iosifidis, Damianos
2015-04-01
Studying a certain sub class of higher order Horndeski (scalar-tensor) theories we discuss a method discovered recently permitting analytic black hole solutions with a non trivial and regular scalar field. One of the solutions found has de Sitter asymptotics and self tunes the bulk cosmological constant. Using the aforementioned method we find and analyse new black hole solutions which can also have de Sitter asymptotics. By looking at small deviations of the integration constant responsible for self tuning we discuss the robustness of the self tuning mechanism. We find that neighboring solutions to the one previously found present also self tuning properties with unaltered effective cosmological constant.
Entropy of 4D extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Clifford V.; Khuri, Ramzi R.; Myers, Robert C.
1996-02-01
We derive the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula for four-dimensional Reissner-Nordström extremal black holes in type II string theory. The derivation is performed in two separate (T-dual) weak coupling pictures. One uses a type IIB bound state problem of D5- and D1-branes, while the other uses a bound state problem of D0- and D4-branes with macroscopic fundamental type IIA strings. In both cases, the D-brane systems are also bound to a Kaluza-Klein monopole, which then yields the four-dimensional black hole at strong coupling.
Radion clouds around evaporating black holes
Morris, J. R.
2009-08-15
A Kaluza-Klein model, with a matter source associated with Hawking radiation from an evaporating black hole, is used to obtain a simple form for the radion effective potential. The environmental effect generally causes a matter-induced shift of the radion vacuum, resulting in the formation of a radion cloud around the hole. There is an albedo due to the radion cloud, with an energy-dependent reflection coefficient that depends upon the size of the extra dimensions and the temperature of the hole.
STIS RECORDS A BLACK HOLE'S SIGNATURE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
The colorful 'zigzag' on the right is not the work of a flamboyant artist, but the signature of a supermassive black hole in the center of galaxy M84, discovered by Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). The image on the left, taken with Hubble's Wide Field Planetary and Camera 2 shows the core of the galaxy where the suspected black hole dwells. Astronomers mapped the motions of gas in the grip of the black hole's powerful gravitational pull by aligning the STIS's spectroscopic slit across the nucleus in a single exposure. The STIS data on the right shows the rotational motion of stars and gas along the slit. The change in wavelength records whether an object is moving toward or away from the observer. The larger the excursion from the centerline -- as seen as a green and yellow picture element (pixels) along the center strip, the greater the rotational velocity. If no black hole were present, the line would be nearly vertical across the scan. Instead, STIS's detector found the S-shape at the center of this scan, indicating a rapidly swirling disk of trapped material encircling the black hole. Along the S-shape from top to bottom, velocities skyrocket as seen in the rapid, dramatic swing to the left (blueshifted or approaching gas), then the region in the center simultaneously records the enormous speeds of the gas both approaching and receding for orbits in the immediate vicinity of the black hole, and then an equivalent swing from the right, back to the center line. STIS measures a velocity of 880,000 miles per hour (400 kilometers per second) within 26 light-years of the galaxy's center, where the black hole dwells. This motion allowed astronomers to calculate that the black hole contains at least 300 million solar masses. (Just as the mass of our Sun can be calculated from the orbital radii and speeds of the planets.) This observation demonstrates a direct connection between a supermassive black hole and activity (such as radio
Superkicks in ultrarelativistic encounters of spinning black holes
Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolas
2011-01-15
We study ultrarelativistic encounters of two spinning, equal-mass black holes through simulations in full numerical relativity. Two initial data sequences are studied in detail: one that leads to scattering and one that leads to a grazing collision and merger. In all cases, the initial black hole spins lie in the orbital plane, a configuration that leads to the so-called superkicks. In astrophysical, quasicircular inspirals, such kicks can be as large as {approx}3000 km/s; here, we find configurations that exceed {approx}15 000 km/s. We find that the maximum recoil is to a good approximation proportional to the total amount of energy radiated in gravitational waves, but largely independent of whether a merger occurs or not. This shows that the mechanism predominantly responsible for the superkick is not related to merger dynamics. Rather, a consistent explanation is that the ''bobbing'' motion of the orbit causes an asymmetric beaming of the radiation produced by the in-plane orbital motion of the binary, and the net asymmetry is balanced by a recoil. We use our results to formulate some conjectures on the ultimate kick achievable in any black hole encounter.
Forced motion near black holes
Gair, Jonathan R.; Flanagan, Eanna E.; Drasco, Steve; Hinderer, Tanja; Babak, Stanislav
2011-02-15
We present two methods for integrating forced geodesic equations in the Kerr spacetime. The methods can accommodate arbitrary forces. As a test case, we compute inspirals caused by a simple drag force, mimicking motion in the presence of gas. We verify that both methods give the same results for this simple force. We find that drag generally causes eccentricity to increase throughout the inspiral. This is a relativistic effect qualitatively opposite to what is seen in gravitational-radiation-driven inspirals, and similar to what others have observed in hydrodynamic simulations of gaseous binaries. We provide an analytic explanation by deriving the leading order relativistic correction to the Newtonian dynamics. If observed, an increasing eccentricity would thus provide clear evidence that the inspiral was occurring in a nonvacuum environment. Our two methods are especially useful for evolving orbits in the adiabatic regime. Both use the method of osculating orbits, in which each point on the orbit is characterized by the parameters of the geodesic with the same instantaneous position and velocity. Both methods describe the orbit in terms of the geodesic energy, axial angular momentum, Carter constant, azimuthal phase, and two angular variables that increase monotonically and are relativistic generalizations of the eccentric anomaly. The two methods differ in their treatment of the orbital phases and the representation of the force. In the first method, the geodesic phase and phase constant are evolved together as a single orbital phase parameter, and the force is expressed in terms of its components on the Kinnersley orthonormal tetrad. In the second method, the phase constants of the geodesic motion are evolved separately and the force is expressed in terms of its Boyer-Lindquist components. This second approach is a direct generalization of earlier work by Pound and Poisson [A. Pound and E. Poisson, Phys. Rev. D 77, 044013 (2008).] for planar forces in a
Giant Black Hole Rips Apart Star
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-02-01
Thanks to two orbiting X-ray observatories, astronomers have the first strong evidence of a supermassive black hole ripping apart a star and consuming a portion of it. The event, captured by NASA's Chandra and ESA's XMM-Newton X-ray Observatories, had long been predicted by theory, but never confirmed. Astronomers believe a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after being thrown off course by a close encounter with another star. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information about how these black holes grow and affect surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, leader of the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighborhood." While other observations have hinted stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as "stellar tidal disruptions"), these new results are the first strong evidence. Evidence already exists for supermassive black holes in many galaxies, but looking for tidal disruptions represents a completely independent way to search for black holes. Observations like these are urgently needed to determine how quickly black holes can grow by swallowing neighboring stars. Animation of Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Star Ripped Apart by Giant Black Hole Observations with Chandra and XMM-Newton, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgen satellite, detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the center of the galaxy RX J1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees Celsius before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in the process
Thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole
Gim, Yongwan; Kim, Wontae E-mail: wtkim@sogang.ac.kr
2014-10-01
We study the thermodynamic phase transition in the rainbow Schwarzschild black hole where the metric depends on the energy of the test particle. Identifying the black hole temperature with the energy from the modified dispersion relation, we obtain the modified entropy and thermodynamic energy along with the modified local temperature in the cavity to provide well defined black hole states. It is found that apart from the conventional critical temperature related to Hawking-Page phase transition there appears an additional critical temperature which is of relevance to the existence of a locally stable tiny black hole; however, the off-shell free energy tells us that this black hole should eventually tunnel into the stable large black hole. Finally, we discuss the reason why the temperature near the horizon is finite in the rainbow black hole by employing the running gravitational coupling constant, whereas it is divergent near the horizon in the ordinary Schwarzschild black hole.
Deflection Angle and R-Charged Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Hassan
2013-10-01
In this paper we consider R-charged black holes with three electrical charges and study deflection angle. We confirmed result of previous study that the black hole charges increased the deflection angle.
Thermodynamical Stability of a New Regular Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Hassan
2013-09-01
In this paper we consider a new regular black hole and calculate thermodynamical variables such as entropy, specific heat and free energy. Then we study thermodynamical stability of this black hole by using the specific heat in constant volume.
Swift Probes Exotic Object: 'Kicked' Black Hole or Mega Star?
Zoom into Markarian 177 and SDSS1133 and see how they compare with a simulated galaxy collision. When the central black holes in these galaxies combine, a "kick" launches the merged black hole on a...
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-12-01
In this study, we propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(–B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states.more » The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. As a result, our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.« less
Semiclassical S-matrix for black holes
Bezrukov, Fedor; Levkov, Dmitry; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2015-12-01
In this study, we propose a semiclassical method to calculate S-matrix elements for two-stage gravitational transitions involving matter collapse into a black hole and evaporation of the latter. The method consistently incorporates back-reaction of the collapsing and emitted quanta on the metric. We illustrate the method in several toy models describing spherical self-gravitating shells in asymptotically flat and AdS space-times. We find that electrically neutral shells reflect via the above collapse-evaporation process with probability exp(–B), where B is the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of the intermediate black hole. This is consistent with interpretation of exp(B) as the number of black hole states. The same expression for the probability is obtained in the case of charged shells if one takes into account instability of the Cauchy horizon of the intermediate Reissner-Nordström black hole. As a result, our semiclassical method opens a new systematic approach to the gravitational S-matrix in the non-perturbative regime.
Black Holes and the Large Hadron Collider
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roy, Arunava
2011-01-01
The European Center for Nuclear Research or CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has caught our attention partly due to the film "Angels and Demons." In the movie, an antimatter bomb attack on the Vatican is foiled by the protagonist. Perhaps just as controversial is the formation of mini black holes (BHs). Recently, the American Physical Society…
Nonthermal nature of incipient extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liberati, Stefano; Rothman, Tony; Sonego, Sebastiano
2000-07-01
We examine particle production from spherical bodies collapsing into extremal Reissner-Nordström black holes. Kruskal coordinates become ill defined in the extremal case, but we are able to find a simple generalization of them that is good in this limit. The extension allows us to calculate the late-time world line of the center of the collapsing star, thus establishing a correspondence with a uniformly accelerated mirror in Minkowski spacetime. The spectrum of created particles associated with such uniform acceleration is nonthermal, indicating that a temperature is not defined. Moreover, the spectrum contains a constant that depends on the history of the collapsing object. At first sight this points to a violation of the no-hair theorems; however, the expectation value of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is zero and its variance vanishes as a power law at late times. Hence, both the no-hair theorems and the cosmic censorship conjecture are preserved. The power-law decay of the variance is in distinction to the exponential falloff of a nonextremal black hole. Therefore, although the vanishing of the stress tensor's expectation value is consistent with a thermal state at zero temperature, the incipient black hole does not behave as a thermal object at any time and cannot be regarded as the thermodynamic limit of a nonextremal black hole, regardless of the fact that the final product of collapse is quiescent.
Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: The Search Continues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanović, Tamara
Gravitationally bound supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) are thought to be a natural product of galactic mergers and growth of the large scale structure in the universe. They however remain observationally elusive, thus raising a question about characteristic observational signatures associated with these systems. In this conference proceeding I discuss current theoretical understanding and latest advances and prospects in observational searches for SBHBs.
Constraints for transonic black hole accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramowicz, Marek A.; Kato, Shoji
1989-01-01
Regularity conditions and global topological constraints leave some forbidden regions in the parameter space of the transonic isothermal, rotating matter onto black holes. Unstable flows occupy regions touching the boundaries of the forbidden regions. The astrophysical consequences of these results are discussed.
AN ANOMALOUS QUIESCENT STELLAR MASS BLACK HOLE
Reynolds, Mark T.; Miller, Jon M.
2011-06-10
We present the results of a 40 ks Chandra observation of the quiescent stellar mass black hole GS 1354-64. A total of 266 net counts are detected at the position of this system. The resulting spectrum is found to be consistent with the spectra of previously observed quiescent black holes, i.e., a power law with a photon index of {Gamma} {approx} 2. The inferred luminosity in the 0.5-10 keV band is found to lie in the range 0.5-6.5 x 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}, where the uncertainty in the distance is the dominant source of this large luminosity range. Nonetheless, this luminosity is over an order of magnitude greater than that expected from the known distribution of quiescent stellar mass black hole luminosities and makes GS 1354-64 the only known stellar mass black hole to disagree with this relation. This observation suggests the possibility of significant accretion persisting in the quiescent state.
ULXs: Neutron stars versus black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Andrew; Lasota, Jean-Pierre
2016-05-01
We consider ultraluminous X-ray systems (ULXs) where the accretor is a neutron star rather than a black hole. We show that the recently discovered example (M82 X-2) fits naturally into the simple picture of ULXs as beamed X-ray sources fed at super-Eddington rates, provided that its magnetic field is weaker (≃1011G) than a new-born X-ray pulsar, as expected if there has been mass gain. Continuing accretion is likely to weaken the field to the point that pulsing stops, and make the system indistinguishable from a ULX containing a black hole. Accordingly we suggest that a significant fraction of all ULXs may actually contain neutron star accretors rather than black holes, reflecting the neutron-star fraction among their X-ray binary progenitors. We emphasize that neutron-star ULXs are likely to have higher apparent luminosities than black hole ULXs for a given mass transfer rate, as their tighter beaming outweighs their lower Eddington luminosities. This further increases the likely proportion of neutron-star accretors among all ULXs. Cygnus X-2 is probably a typical descendant of neutron-star ULXs, which may therefore ultimately end as millisecond pulsar binaries with massive white dwarf companions.
Hawking Temperature of Acoustic Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Zhi Kun
2014-09-01
Using a new tortoise coordinate transformation, the Hawking radiation of the acoustic black hole was discussed by studying the Klein-Gordon equation of scalar particles in the curve space-time. It was found that the Hawking temperature is connected with time and position on the event horizon.
Black Holes and the Centers of Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richstone, Douglas
1997-07-01
We propose to continue our survey of centers of nearby galaxies. The major goal for Cycle 7 is to survey an unbiased set of galaxies with a potentially wide range of black hole masses. The results will constrain the prevalence and formation of massive black holes and their relationship to AGN's. Over the last several years, we have used HST to characterize the scaling laws for galaxy centers, to identify an apparent dichotomy in galaxy types based on their central light profiles, and to identify new black hole candidates and confirm ground-based results on known candidates. In the STIS epoch, we wish to capitalize on the presence of a genuine slit spectrograph to study the central stellar dynamics of a large set of systematically selected elliptical and S0 galaxies. The sample for this cycle has been carefully chosen to optimize our leverage on the character of a proposed correlation of black hole mass with galaxy mass. In addition, high-S/N observations of line profiles should permit us to distinguish between BHs and anisotropic stellar orbits, a critical degeneracy that has long plagued this subject.
Binary Black Holes: Mergers, Dynamics, and Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-04-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Tachyon condensation and black hole entropy.
Dabholkar, Atish
2002-03-04
String propagation on a cone with deficit angle 2pi(1-1 / N) is considered for the purpose of computing the entropy of a large mass black hole. The entropy computed using the recent results on condensation of twisted-sector tachyons in this theory is found to be in precise agreement with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.
Entropy and temperatures of Nariai black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eune, Myungseok; Kim, Wontae
2013-06-01
The statistical entropy of the Nariai black hole in a thermal equilibrium is calculated by using the brick-wall method. Even if the temperature depends on the choice of the timelike Killing vector, the entropy can be written by the ordinary area law which agrees with the Wald entropy. We discuss some physical consequences of this result and the properties of the temperatures.
Black Hole Spills Kaleidoscope of Color
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
This new false-colored image from NASA's Hubble, Chandra and Spitzer space telescopes shows a giant jet of particles that has been shot out from the vicinity of a type of supermassive black hole called a quasar. The jet is enormous, stretching across more than 100,000 light-years of space -- a size comparable to our own Milky Way galaxy!
Quasars are among the brightest objects in the universe. They consist of supermassive black holes surrounded by turbulent material, which is being heated up as it is dragged toward the black hole. This hot material glows brilliantly, and some of it gets blown off into space in the form of powerful jets.
The jet pictured here is streaming out from the first known quasar, called 3C273, discovered in 1963. A kaleidoscope of colors represents the jet's assorted light waves. X-rays, the highest-energy light in the image, are shown at the far left in blue (the black hole itself is well to the left of the image). The X-rays were captured by Chandra. As you move from left to right, the light diminishes in energy, and wavelengths increase in size. Visible light recorded by Hubble is displayed in green, while infrared light caught by Spitzer is red. Areas where visible and infrared light overlap appear yellow.
Initial Data for Black Hole Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauber, Joel David
A problem of considerable interest in relativistic astrophysics is to determine the gravitational radiation produced by collisions of compact objects, such as black holes. Such collisions may occur, for example, in the nuclei of galaxies. This problem requires that one solve the Einstein equation without limiting approximations, for example, as a Cauchy problem. Therefore, one must first construct the initial data. The extrinsic curvature on an initial spacelike hypersurface of two black holes with axisymmetric parallel spins is derived in terms of an analytic infinite series. Other two body configurations are also considered. The extrinsic curvature is constructed so that the resulting spacetime will have the topology of two Einstein-Rosen bridges; a physical equivalence of the top and bottom sheets of the initial hypersurface is also built in. It is shown that one may a priori specify the spins of the two black holes. The extrinsic curvature, so constructed, is not derivable from a potential. An appropriate numerical problem for the conformal factor is posed and examined in the above configurations. Efforts at using multi-grid differencing schemes for solving the differential equations are discussed. In order to time evolve a black hole interaction or collision, the extrinsic curvature and conformal factor must be completely specified on an initial slice of spacetime.
Astronomical tests for quantum black hole structure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giddings, Steven B.
2017-03-01
Black holes present a profound challenge to our current foundations of physics, and an exciting era of astronomy is just opening in which gravitational-wave observation and very-long-baseline interferometry may provide important hints about the new principles of physics needed.
Static black hole uniqueness and Penrose inequality
Mizuno, Ryosuke; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Ohashi, Seiju
2010-02-15
Under certain conditions, we offer a new way to prove the uniqueness of the static black hole in higher dimensional asymptotically flat spacetimes. In the proof, the Penrose inequality plays a key role in higher dimensions as well as four dimensions.
Black Holes Masses in Seyfert Galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Macchetto, F. D.
2004-01-01
There is increasing evidence for the existence of supermassive black holes at the centers of all galaxies, and much work is being devoted to understand the process that lead to their formation, the duty cycle for the active phase of these black holes and the relevant fueling mechanisms. Seyfert galaxies determined by HST high spatial resolution observations of the kinematics of the central regions. The study of the gas kinematics provides a unique tool to probe the gravitational potential of the nuclear regions of Seyfert galaxies down to a limit radius of a few parsecs. This is particularly important to detect and measure the mass associated with any central massive black hole. We have obtained high spatial resolution spectra of a number of Seyfert galaxies, with the STIS G430M and G750M gratings, and we have been able to separate the emission line components associated with different velocity systems. We have derived two-dimensional velocity fields and determined the mass of the central black hole with good precision for each of the galaxies.
Black holes and high energy physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grib, A. A.; Pavlov, Yu. V.
2016-01-01
Three mechanisms of getting high energies in particle collisions in the ergosphere of the rotating black holes are considered. The consequences of these mechanisms for observation of ultra high energy cosmic rays particles on the Earth as result of conversion of superheavy dark matter particles into ordinary particles are discussed.
Precocious Supermassive Black Holes Challenge Theories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-11-01
NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has obtained definitive evidence that a distant quasar formed less than a billion years after the Big Bang contains a fully-grown supermassive black hole generating energy at the rate of twenty trillion Suns. The existence of such massive black holes at this early epoch of the Universe challenges theories of the formation of galaxies and supermassive black holes. Astronomers Daniel Schwartz and Shanil Virani of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, MA observed the quasar, known as SDSSp J1306, which is 12.7 billion light years away. Since the Universe is estimated to be 13.7 billion years old, we see the quasar as it was a billion years after the Big Bang. They found that the distribution of X-rays with energy, or X-ray spectrum, is indistinguishable from that of nearby, older quasars. Likewise, the relative brightness at optical and X-ray wavelengths of SDSSp J1306 was similar to that of the nearby group of quasars. Optical observations suggest that the mass of the black hole is about a billion solar masses. Illustration of Quasar SDSSp J1306 Illustration of Quasar SDSSp J1306 Evidence of another early-epoch supermassive black hole was published previously by a team of scientists from the California Institute of Technology and the United Kingdom using the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite. They observed the quasar SDSSp J1030 at a distance of 12.8 billion light years and found essentially the same result for the X-ray spectrum as the Smithsonian scientists found for SDSSp J1306. Chandra's precise location and spectrum for SDSSp J1306 with nearly the same properties eliminate any lingering uncertainty that precocious supermassive black holes exist. "These two results seem to indicate that the way supermassive black holes produce X-rays has remained essentially the same from a very early date in the Universe," said Schwartz. "This implies that the central black hole engine in a massive galaxy was formed very soon
SLIM DISKS AROUND KERR BLACK HOLES REVISITED
Sadowski, Aleksander
2009-08-01
We investigate stationary slim accretion disks around Kerr black holes. We construct a new numerical method based on the relaxation technique. We systematically cover the whole parameter space relevant to stellar mass X-ray binaries. We also notice some non-monotonic features in the disk structure, overlooked in previous studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2009-03-01
Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew
2009-03-01
Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.
Discriminating Supersymmetry and Black Holes at the Large Hadron Collider
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2008-04-01
We assess the distinguishability between supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET. Our study, based on event shape variables, visible and missing momenta, and analysis of dilepton events, shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC can be easily discriminated.
Phantom black holes and critical phenomena
Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Marques, Glauber T.
2014-07-01
We consider the two classes cosh and sinh of normal and phantom black holes of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory. The thermodynamics of these holes is characterized by heat capacities that may have both signs depending on the parameters of the theory. Leaving aside the normal Reissner-Nordström black hole, it is shown that only some phantom black holes of both classes exhibit critical phenomena. The two classes share a nonextremality, but special, critical point where the transition is continuous and the heat capacity, at constant charge, changes sign with an infinite discontinuity. This point yields a classification scheme for critical points. It is concluded that the two unstable and stable phases coexist on one side of the criticality state and disappear on the other side, that is, there is no configuration where only one phase exists. The sinh class has an extremality critical point where the entropy diverges. The transition from extremality to nonextremality with the charge held constant is accompanied by a loss of mass and an increase in the temperature. A special case of this transition is when the hole is isolated (microcanonical ensemble), it will evolve by emission of energy, which results in a decrease of its mass, to the final state of minimum mass and vanishing heat capacity. The Ehrenfest scheme of classification is inaccurate in this case but the generalized one due to Hilfer leads to conclude that the transition is of order less than unity. Fluctuations near criticality are also investigated.
Effects of intermediate mass black holes on nuclear star clusters
Mastrobuono-Battisti, Alessandra; Perets, Hagai B.; Loeb, Abraham
2014-11-20
Nuclear star clusters (NSCs) are dense stellar clusters observed in galactic nuclei, typically hosting a central massive black hole. Here we study the possible formation and evolution of NSCs through the inspiral of multiple star clusters hosting intermediate mass black holes (IMBHs). Using an N-body code, we examine the dynamics of the IMBHs and their effects on the NSC. We find that IMBHs inspiral to the core of the newly formed NSC and segregate there. Although the IMBHs scatter each other and the stars, none of them is ejected from the NSC. The IMBHs are excited to high eccentricities and their radial density profile develops a steep power-law cusp. The stars also develop a power-law cusp (instead of the central core that forms in their absence), but with a shallower slope. The relaxation rate of the NSC is accelerated due to the presence of IMBHs, which act as massive perturbers. This in turn fills the loss cone and boosts the tidal disruption rate of stars both by the MBH and the IMBHs to a value excluded by rate estimates based on current observations. Rate estimates of tidal disruptions can therefore provide a cumulative constraint on the existence of IMBHs in NSCs.
Inclination Angles of Black Hole X-Ray Binaries Manifest Strong Gravity around Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhang, S. N.; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Yao, Yangsen
2002-01-01
System inclination angles have been determined for about 15 X-ray binaries, in which stellar mass black holes are considered to exist. These inclination angles range between 25 degrees and 80 degrees, but peaked between 60-70 degrees. This peak is not explained in the frame work of Newtonian gravity. However, this peak is reproduced naturally if we model the observed X-ray radiations as being produced in the accretion disks very close to the black hole horizons, where the extremely strong general and special relativistic effects, caused by the extremely strong gravity near the black hole horizons, modify the local radiation significantly as the X-rays propagate to the remote observer. Therefore the peak of the inclination angle distribution provides evidence or strong gravity around stellar mass black holes.
Black Hole production in cosmic ray showers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2007-04-01
One way around the hierarchy problem of particle physics is to introduce large extra dimensions (LED). This suggests that gravity may become strong at the TeV and so production of scale black holes (BH's) would be possible by particle colliders and UHECR's. The interesting question is, what would be the BH signatures and whether we would detect them at the LHC or at the Auger Observatory. We also deal with the case of rotating BH's and how they may decay. Page [1976] showed that the power emitted from rotating four-dimensional BH's increases with angular momentum and so it is worth considering if this picture changes in higher dimensions. Also discussed is the case of excited string excitations from the decay of strings produced by neutrino-quark interactions. Ref: Page, D.N. (1976), Particle emission rates from a black hole. II. Massless particles from a rotating hole, Phys. Rev. D 14, 3260 - 3273
Thermodynamics and luminosities of rainbow black holes
Mu, Benrong; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang E-mail: pengw@scu.edu.cn
2015-11-01
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is ''Gravity's rainbow'', where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the ''Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation'' which is E{sup 2} = m{sup 2}+p{sup 2}[1−η(E/m{sub p}){sup n}] with n > 0, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of η and n in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with η < 0 and n ≥ 2. Considering effects of rainbow gravity on both the Hawking temperature and radius of the event horizon, we use the geometric optics approximation to compute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of η and n.
Thermodynamics and luminosities of rainbow black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mu, Benrong; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang
2015-11-01
Doubly special relativity (DSR) is an effective model for encoding quantum gravity in flat spacetime. As result of the nonlinearity of the Lorentz transformation, the energy-momentum dispersion relation is modified. One simple way to import DSR to curved spacetime is ``Gravity's rainbow'', where the spacetime background felt by a test particle would depend on its energy. Focusing on the ``Amelino-Camelia dispersion relation'' which is E2 = m2+p2[1-η(E/mp)n] with n > 0, we investigate the thermodynamical properties of a Schwarzschild black hole and a static uncharged black string for all possible values of η and n in the framework of rainbow gravity. It shows that there are non-vanishing minimum masses for these two black holes in the cases with η < 0 and n >= 2. Considering effects of rainbow gravity on both the Hawking temperature and radius of the event horizon, we use the geometric optics approximation to compute luminosities of a 2D black hole, a Schwarzschild one and a static uncharged black string. It is found that the luminosities can be significantly suppressed or boosted depending on the values of η and n.
Results from Binary Black Hole Simulations in Astrophysics Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2007-01-01
Present and planned gravitational wave observatories are opening a new astronomical window to the sky. A key source of gravitational waves is the merger of two black holes. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in particular, is expected to observe these events with signal-to-noise ratio's in the thousands. To fully reap the scientific benefits of these observations requires a detailed understanding, based on numerical simulations, of the predictions of General Relativity for the waveform signals. New techniques for simulating binary black hole mergers, introduced two years ago, have led to dramatic advances in applied numerical simulation work. Over the last two years, numerical relativity researchers have made tremendous strides in understanding the late stages of binary black hole mergers. Simulations have been applied to test much of the basic physics of binary black hole interactions, showing robust results for merger waveform predictions, and illuminating such phenomena as spin-precession. Calculations have shown that merging systems can be kicked at up to 2500 km/s by the thrust from asymmetric emission. Recently, long lasting simulations of ten or more orbits allow tests of post-Newtonian (PN) approximation results for radiation from the last orbits of the binary's inspiral. Already, analytic waveform models based PN techniques with incorporated information from numerical simulations may be adequate for observations with current ground based observatories. As new advances in simulations continue to rapidly improve our theoretical understanding of the systems, it seems certain that high-precision predictions will be available in time for LISA and other advanced ground-based instruments. Future gravitational wave observatories are expected to make precision.
John Wheeler, 1952 - 1976: Black Holes and Geometrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thorne, Kip S.
2009-05-01
In 1952 John Wheeler turned his attention from nuclear physics and national defense to a backwater of physics: general relativity. Over the next 25 years, with students and postdocs he led a ``revolution'' that made relativity a major subfield of fundamental physics and a tool for astrophysics. Wheeler viewed curved spacetime as a nonlinear dynamical entity, to be studied via tools of geometrodynamics (by analogy with electrodynamics) -- including numerical relativity, for which his students laid the earliest foundations. With Joseph Weber (his postdoc), he did theoretical work on gravitational waves that helped launch Weber on a career of laying foundations for modern gravitational-wave detectors. Wheeler and his students showed compellingly that massive stars must form black holes; and he gave black holes their name, formulated the theory of their pulsations and stability (with Tullio Regge), and mentored several generations of students in seminal black-hole research (including Jacob Bekenstein's black-hole entropy). Before the discovery of pulsars, Wheeler identified magnetized, spinning neutron stars as the likely power sources for supernova remnants including the Crab nebula. He identified the Planck length and time as the characteristic scales for the laws of quantum gravity, and formulated the concept of quantum fluctuations of spacetime geometry and quantum foam. With Bryce DeWitt, he defined a quantum wave function on the space of 3-geometries and derived the Wheeler-DeWitt equation that governs it, and its a sum-over-histories action principle. Wheeler was a great inspiration to his colleagues and students, pointing the directions toward fruitful research problems and making intuitive-leap speculations about what lies beyond the frontiers of knowledge. Many of his ideas that sounded crazy at the time were ``just crazy enough to be right''.
Are black holes with hair a normal state of matter?
Nieuwenhuizen, Th. M.
2011-03-28
Recent observations put forward that quasars are black holes with a magnetic dipole moment and no event horizon. To model hairy black holes a quantum field for hydrogen is considered in curved space, coupled to the scalar curvature. An exact, regular solution for the interior metric occurs for supermassive black holes. The equation of state is p = -{rho}c{sup 2}/3.
Charged fermions tunneling from accelerating and rotating black holes
Rehman, Mudassar; Saifullah, K. E-mail: saifullah@qau.edu.pk
2011-03-01
We study Hawking radiation of charged fermions from accelerating and rotating black holes with electric and magnetic charges. We calculate the tunneling probabilities of incoming and outgoing fermionic particles and find the Hawking temperature of these black holes. We also provide an explicit expression of the classical action for the massive and massless particles in the background of these black holes.
Black holes with surrounding matter in scalar-tensor theories.
Cardoso, Vitor; Carucci, Isabella P; Pani, Paolo; Sotiriou, Thomas P
2013-09-13
We uncover two mechanisms that can render Kerr black holes unstable in scalar-tensor gravity, both associated with the presence of matter in the vicinity of the black hole and the fact that this introduces an effective mass for the scalar. Our results highlight the importance of understanding the structure of spacetime in realistic, astrophysical black holes in scalar-tensor theories.
R-Charged Black Hole and Holographic Superfluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saadat, Hassan
2012-11-01
In this paper we consider an interesting model of superfluid and use AdS/CFT correspondence to extract sound modes. We assume that dual picture of superfluid is the R-charged black hole with two equal charges. By using hydrodynamic variables of such a black hole we obtain first, second and fourth sound modes as a function of black hole charge.
Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves.
Nakamura, Takashi
2006-12-01
Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed.
Formation of black hole and emission of gravitational waves
Nakamura, Takashi
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations were performed for the formation process of rotating black holes. It is suggested that Kerr black holes are formed for wide ranges of initial parameters. The nature of gravitational waves from a test particle falling into a Kerr black hole as well as the development of 3D numerical relativity for the coalescing binary neutron stars are discussed. PMID:25792793
Physical properties of a soliton black hole at finite temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pan, Rong-Shi; Su, Ru-Keng
1992-03-01
It is shown that the nontopological scalar black hole suggested by Friedberg, Lee, and Pang is dynamically stable at finite temperature. The heat capacity of a scalar soliton black hole is positive. The physical properties of a scalar black hole at finite temperature are discussed.
The basic physics of the binary black hole merger GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
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A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dasgupta, A.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Devine, R. C.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Fiore, L. Di; Giovanni, M. Di; Girolamo, T. Di; Lieto, A. Di; Pace, S. Di; Palma, I. Di; Virgilio, A. Di; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Fenyvesi, E.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Geng, P.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Hartman, M. T.; Haster, C.-J.; Haughian, K.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Henry, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hu, Y. M.; Huang, S.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J.-M.; Isi, M.; Isogai, T.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jang, H.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jian, L.; Jiménez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; K, Haris; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kaur, T.; Kawabe, K.; Kéfélian, F.; Kehl, M. S.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D. B.; Kells, W.; Kennedy, R.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chi-Woong; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, W.; Kim, Y.-M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kissel, J. S.; Klein, B.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Krueger, C.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Lackey, B. D.; Landry, M.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lebigot, E. O.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, K.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leong, J. R.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Lewis, J. B.; Li, T. G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magaña; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McRae, T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, A.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Qiu, S.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O. E. S.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Setyawati, Y.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D. V.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.
2017-01-01
The first direct gravitational-wave detection was made by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory on September 14, 2015. The GW150914 signal was strong enough to be apparent, without using any waveform model, in the filtered detector strain data. Here, features of the signal visible in the data are analyzed using concepts from Newtonian physics and general relativity, accessible to anyone with a general physics background. The simple analysis presented here is consistent with the fully general-relativistic analyses published elsewhere,in showing that the signal was produced by the inspiral and subsequent merger of two black holes. The black holes were each of approximately 35 Msun, still orbited each other as close as ~350 km apart, and subsequently merged to form a single black hole. Similar reasoning, directly from the data, is used to roughly estimate how far these black holes were from the Earth, and the energy that they radiated in gravitational waves.
Notes on nonsingular models of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2016-11-01
We discuss static spherically symmetric metrics which represent nonsingular black holes in four- and higher-dimensional spacetime. We impose a set of restrictions, such as a regularity of the metric at the center r =0 and Schwarzschild asymptotic behavior at large r . We assume that the metric besides mass M contains an additional parameter ℓ, which determines the scale where modification of the solution of the Einstein equations becomes significant. We require that the modified metric obeys the limiting curvature condition; that is, its curvature is uniformly restricted by the value ˜ℓ-2. We also make a "more technical" assumption that the metric coefficients are rational functions of r . In particular, the invariant (∇r )2 has the form Pn(r )/P˜n(r ), where Pn and P˜n are polynomials of the order of n . We discuss first the case of four dimensions. We show that when n ≤2 such a metric cannot describe a nonsingular black hole. For n =3 we find a suitable metric, which besides M and ℓ contains a dimensionless numerical parameter. When this parameter vanishes, the obtained metric coincides with Hayward's one. The characteristic property of such spacetimes is -ξ2=(∇r )2, where ξ2 is a timelike at infinity Killing vector. We describe a possible generalization of a nonsingular black-hole metric to the case when this equality is violated. We also obtain a metric for a charged nonsingular black hole obeying similar restrictions as the neutral one and construct higher dimensional models of neutral and charged black holes.
Formation and Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Combes, F.
The correlation between the mass of supermassive black holes in galaxy nuclei and the mass of the galaxy spheroids or bulges (or more precisely their central velocity dispersion), suggests a common formation scenario for galaxies and their central black holes. The growth of bulges and black holes can commonly proceed through external gas accretion or hierarchical mergers, and are both related to starbursts. Internal dynamical processes control and regulate the rate of mass accretion. Self-regulation and feedback are key to the correlation. It is possible that the growth of one component, either BH or bulge, takes over, breaking the correlation, as in Narrow Line Seyfert 1 objects. The formation of supermassive black holes can begin early in the Universe, from the collapse of Population III stars, and then through gas accretion. The active black holes can then play a significant role in the re-ionization of the Universe. The nuclear activity is now frequently invoked as a feedback to star formation in galaxies, and even more spectacularly in cooling flows. The growth of SMBH is certainly self-regulated there. SMBHs perturb their local environment, and the mergers of binary SMBHs help to heat and destroy central stellar cusps. The interpretation of the X-ray background yields important constraints on the history of AGN activity and obscuration, and the census of AGN at low and at high redshifts reveals the downsizing effect, already observed for star formation. History appears quite different for bright QSO and low-luminosity AGN: the first grow rapidly at high z, and their number density decreases then sharply, while the density of low-luminosity objects peaks more recently, and then decreases smoothly.
Local invariants vanishing on stationary horizons: a diagnostic for locating black holes.
Page, Don N; Shoom, Andrey A
2015-04-10
Inspired by the example of Abdelqader and Lake for the Kerr metric, we construct local scalar polynomial curvature invariants that vanish on the horizon of any stationary black hole: the squared norms of the wedge products of n linearly independent gradients of scalar polynomial curvature invariants, where n is the local cohomogeneity of the spacetime.
Cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.
2010-11-01
Modifying slightly the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe. This new cosmological model is consistent with the Mach principle, Einsteinian general theory of relativity, and observations of the universe. The origin, structure, evolution, and expansion of the black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published recently in a scientific journal: Progress in Physics. This paper explains the observed 2.725 K cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present universe with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses. According to the black hole universe model, the observed cosmic microwave background radiation can be explained as the black body radiation of the black hole universe, which can be considered as an ideal black body. When a hot and dense star-like black hole accretes its ambient materials and merges with other black holes, it expands and cools down. A governing equation that expresses the possible thermal history of the black hole universe is derived from the Planck law of black body radiation and radiation energy conservation. The result obtained by solving the governing equation indicates that the radiation temperature of the present universe can be ˜2.725 K if the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and is therefore consistent with the observation of the cosmic microwave background radiation. A smaller or younger black hole universe usually cools down faster. The characteristics of the original star-like or supermassive black hole are not critical to the physical properties of the black hole universe at present, because matter and radiation are mainly from the outside space, i.e., the mother universe.
Flip-flopping binary black holes.
Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James
2015-04-10
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.
Initial data for black hole collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rauber, J. D.
A problem of considerable interest in relativistic astrophysics is to determine the gravitational radiation produced by collisions of compact objects, such as black holes. Such collisions may occur, for example, in the nuclei of galaxies. This problem requires that one solve the Einstein equation without limiting approximations, for example, as a Cauchy problem. Therefore, one must first construct the initial data. The extrinsic curvature on an initial spacelike hypersurface of two black holes with asisymmetric parallel spins is derived in terms of an analytic infinite series. Other two body configurations are also considered. The extrinsic curvature is constructed so that the resulting spacetime will have the topology of two Einstein-Rosen bridges; a physical equivalence of the top and bottom sheets of the initial hypersurface is also built in. It is shown that one may a priori specify the spins of the two black holes. The extrinsic curvature, so constructed, is not derivable from a potential. An appropriate numerical problem for the conformal factor is posed and examined in the above configurations. Efforts at using multi-grid differencing schemes for solving the differential equations are discussed. In order to time evolve ablack hole interaction or collision, the extrinsic curvature and conformal factor must be completely specified on an initial slice of spacetime.
Giant black hole rips star apart
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2004-02-01
Astronomers believe that a doomed star came too close to a giant black hole after a close encounter with another star threw it off course. As it neared the enormous gravity of the black hole, the star was stretched by tidal forces until it was torn apart. This discovery provides crucial information on how these black holes grow and affect the surrounding stars and gas. "Stars can survive being stretched a small amount, as they are in binary star systems, but this star was stretched beyond its breaking point," said Dr Stefanie Komossa of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) in Germany, who led the international team of researchers. "This unlucky star just wandered into the wrong neighbourhood." While other observations have hinted that stars are destroyed by black holes (events known as ‘stellar tidal disruptions’), these new results are the first strong evidence. Observations with XMM-Newton and Chandra, combined with earlier images from the German Roentgensatellite (ROSAT), detected a powerful X-ray outburst from the centre of the galaxy RXJ1242-11. This outburst, one of the most extreme ever detected in a galaxy, was caused by gas from the destroyed star that was heated to millions of degrees before being swallowed by the black hole. The energy liberated in this process is equivalent to that of a supernova. "Now, with all of the data in hand, we have the smoking gun proof that this spectacular event has occurred," said co-author Prof. Guenther Hasinger, also of MPE. The black hole in the centre of RX J1242-11 is estimated to have a mass about 100 million times that of the Sun. By contrast, the destroyed star probably had a mass about equal to that of the Sun, making it a lopsided battle of gravity. "This is the ultimate ‘David versus Goliath’ battle, but here David loses," said Hasinger. The astronomers estimated that about one hundredth of the mass of the star was ultimately consumed, or accreted, by the black hole. This small
Observational signatures of binary supermassive black holes
Roedig, Constanze; Krolik, Julian H.; Miller, M. Coleman
2014-04-20
Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary active galactic nuclei. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength λ {sub n} at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches ∝λ{sub n}{sup 16/3}; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A second signature, first discussed here, is hard X-ray emission with a Wien-like spectrum at a characteristic temperature ∼100 keV produced by Compton cooling of the shock generated when streams from the circumbinary disk hit the accretion disks around the individual black holes. We investigate the observability of both signatures. The hard X-ray signal may be particularly valuable as it can provide an indicator of black hole merger a few decades in advance of the event.
Rotating black holes with non-Abelian hair
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Navarro-Lérida, Francisco
2016-12-01
We here review asymptotically flat rotating black holes in the presence of non-Abelian gauge fields. Like their static counterparts these black holes are no longer uniquely determined by their global charges. In the case of pure SU(2) Yang-Mills fields, the rotation generically induces an electric charge, while the black holes do not carry a magnetic charge. When a Higgs field is coupled, rotating black holes with monopole hair arise in the case of a Higgs triplet, while in the presence of a complex Higgs doublet the black holes carry sphaleron hair. The inclusion of a dilaton allows for Smarr type mass formulae.
Better late than never: information retrieval from black holes.
Braunstein, Samuel L; Pirandola, Stefano; Życzkowski, Karol
2013-03-08
We show that, in order to preserve the equivalence principle until late times in unitarily evaporating black holes, the thermodynamic entropy of a black hole must be primarily entropy of entanglement across the event horizon. For such black holes, we show that the information entering a black hole becomes encoded in correlations within a tripartite quantum state, the quantum analogue of a one-time pad, and is only decoded into the outgoing radiation very late in the evaporation. This behavior generically describes the unitary evaporation of highly entangled black holes and requires no specially designed evolution. Our work suggests the existence of a matter-field sum rule for any fundamental theory.
Grand unification scale primordial black holes: consequences and constraints.
Anantua, Richard; Easther, Richard; Giblin, John T
2009-09-11
A population of very light primordial black holes which evaporate before nucleosynthesis begins is unconstrained unless the decaying black holes leave stable relics. We show that gravitons Hawking radiated from these black holes would source a substantial stochastic background of high frequency gravititational waves (10(12) Hz or more) in the present Universe. These black holes may lead to a transient period of matter-dominated expansion. In this case the primordial Universe could be temporarily dominated by large clusters of "Hawking stars" and the resulting gravitational wave spectrum is independent of the initial number density of primordial black holes.
Transmission Probability for Charged Dilatonic Black Holes in Various Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngampitipan, Tritos; Boonserm, Petarpa
A dilaton is a theoretical particle, which results from the Plank mass raised to a dynamical field. In this paper, the rigorous bounds on the transmission probabilities for charged black holes, coupled to a dilaton field in various dimensions, are calculated. The results show that in the absence of the cosmological constant, the black holes in (2 + 1) dimensions have only one event horizon. Moreover, the charges of the black holes can increase the transmission probabilities. However, for the black holes in (3 + 1) dimensions, the charges of the black holes can filter Hawking radiation.
Cosmic censorship of rotating Anti-de Sitter black hole
Gwak, Bogeun; Lee, Bum-Hoon E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr
2016-02-01
We test the validity of cosmic censorship in the rotating anti-de Sitter black hole. For this purpose, we investigate whether the extremal black hole can be overspun by the particle absorption. The particle absorption will change the mass and angular momentum of the black hole, which is analyzed using the Hamilton-Jacobi equations consistent with the laws of thermodynamics. We have found that the mass of the extremal black hole increases more than the angular momentum. Therefore, the outer horizon of the black hole still exists, and cosmic censorship is valid.
"Iron-Clad" Evidence For Spinning Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2003-09-01
Telltale X-rays from iron may reveal if black holes are spinning or not, according to astronomers using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory. The gas flows and bizarre gravitational effects observed near stellar black holes are similar to those seen around supermassive black holes. Stellar black holes, in effect, are convenient `scale models' of their much larger cousins. Black holes come in at least two different sizes. Stellar black holes are between five and 20 times the mass of the Sun. At the other end of the size scale, supermassive black holes contain millions or billions times the mass of our Sun. The Milky Way contains both a supermassive black hole at its center, as well as a number of stellar black holes sprinkled throughout the Galaxy. At a press conference at the "Four Years of Chandra" symposium in Huntsville, Ala., Jon Miller of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass. discussed recent results on the X-ray spectra, or distribution of X-rays with energy, from the iron atoms in gas around three stellar black holes in the Milky Way. "Discovering the high degree of correspondence between stellar and supermassive black holes is a real breakthrough," said Miller. "Because stellar black holes are smaller, everything happens about a million times faster, so they can be used as a test-bed for theories of how spinning black holes affect the space and matter around them." X-rays from a stellar black hole are produced when gas from a nearby companion star is heated to tens of millions of degrees as it swirls toward the black hole. Iron atoms in this gas produce distinctive X-ray signals that can be used to study the orbits of particles around the black hole. For example, the gravity of a black hole can shift the X-rays to lower energies. "The latest work provides the most precise measurements yet of the X-ray spectra for stellar black holes," said Miller. "These data help rule out
The Most Massive Black Holes in the Local Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Chung-Pei
2017-01-01
For over three decades, the giant elliptical galaxy Messier 87 in the Virgo Cluster has hosted the most massive known black hole in the local universe. New observational data in the past several years have substantially expanded dynamical measurements of black hole masses at the centers of nearby galaxies. I will describe recent progress in discovering black holes up to twenty billion solar masses. This new population of supermassive black holes is revising our understanding of the symbiotic relationship between black holes and galaxies, and of the gravitational wave signals from merging binaries targeted by ongoing pulsar timing array experiments.
BLACK HOLE FORAGING: FEEDBACK DRIVES FEEDING
Dehnen, Walter; King, Andrew E-mail: ark@astro.le.ac.uk
2013-11-10
We suggest a new picture of supermassive black hole (SMBH) growth in galaxy centers. Momentum-driven feedback from an accreting hole gives significant orbital energy, but little angular momentum to the surrounding gas. Once central accretion drops, the feedback weakens and swept-up gas falls back toward the SMBH on near-parabolic orbits. These intersect near the black hole with partially opposed specific angular momenta, causing further infall and ultimately the formation of a small-scale accretion disk. The feeding rates into the disk typically exceed Eddington by factors of a few, growing the hole on the Salpeter timescale and stimulating further feedback. Natural consequences of this picture include (1) the formation and maintenance of a roughly toroidal distribution of obscuring matter near the hole; (2) random orientations of successive accretion disk episodes; (3) the possibility of rapid SMBH growth; (4) tidal disruption of stars and close binaries formed from infalling gas, resulting in visible flares and ejection of hypervelocity stars; (5) super-solar abundances of the matter accreting on to the SMBH; and (6) a lower central dark-matter density, and hence annihilation signal, than adiabatic SMBH growth implies. We also suggest a simple subgrid recipe for implementing this process in numerical simulations.
Observing Mergers of Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams S.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly Bernard J.; Thorpe, J. Ira; vanMeter, James R.
2008-01-01
Recent advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black hole coalescence. We present the application of nonspinning numerical relativity waveforms to the search for and precision measurement of black hole binary coalescences using LISA. In particular, we focus on the advances made in moving beyond the equal mass, nonspinning case into other regions of parameter space, focusing on the case of nonspinning holes with ever-increasing mass ratios. We analyze the available unequal mass merger waveforms from numerical relativity, and compare them to two models, both of which use an effective one body treatment of the inspiral, but which use fundamentally different approaches to the treatment of the merger-ringdown. We confirm the expected mass ratio scaling of the merger, and investigate the changes in waveform behavior and their observational impact with changing mass ratio. Finally, we investigate the potential contribution from the merger portion of the waveform to measurement uncertainties of the binary's parameters for the unequal mass case.
Horizons of description: Black holes and complementarity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokulich, Peter Joshua Martin
Niels Bohr famously argued that a consistent understanding of quantum mechanics requires a new epistemic framework, which he named complementarity . This position asserts that even in the context of quantum theory, classical concepts must be used to understand and communicate measurement results. The apparent conflict between certain classical descriptions is avoided by recognizing that their application now crucially depends on the measurement context. Recently it has been argued that a new form of complementarity can provide a solution to the so-called information loss paradox. Stephen Hawking argues that the evolution of black holes cannot be described by standard unitary quantum evolution, because such evolution always preserves information, while the evaporation of a black hole will imply that any information that fell into it is irrevocably lost---hence a "paradox." Some researchers in quantum gravity have argued that this paradox can be resolved if one interprets certain seemingly incompatible descriptions of events around black holes as instead being complementary. In this dissertation I assess the extent to which this black hole complementarity can be undergirded by Bohr's account of the limitations of classical concepts. I begin by offering an interpretation of Bohr's complementarity and the role that it plays in his philosophy of quantum theory. After clarifying the nature of classical concepts, I offer an account of the limitations these concepts face, and argue that Bohr's appeal to disturbance is best understood as referring to these conceptual limits. Following preparatory chapters on issues in quantum field theory and black hole mechanics, I offer an analysis of the information loss paradox and various responses to it. I consider the three most prominent accounts of black hole complementarity and argue that they fail to offer sufficient justification for the proposed incompatibility between descriptions. The lesson that emerges from this
Using LISA to Learn How Pairs of Black Holes Formed
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-11-01
Artists impression of the European Space Agencys Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, currently planned for a 2034 launch. [NASA]How are black-hole binaries built? Observations of gravitational waves from these systems made using the European Space Agencys upcoming mission, the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) may be able to reveal their origins.Formation ChannelsThere are two primary placeswhere stellar-mass black-hole binaries are thought to form:In isolation in the galactic field, as the components of a stellar binary independently evolve into black holes but remain bound to each other.In dense stellar environments like globular clusters, where the high density of already-formed black holes can cause a pair to dynamically interact and form a binary before being ejected from the cluster.Can we differentiate between these origins based on future detections of gravitational waves from black-hole binaries? A team of scientists led by Katelyn Breivik (CIERA, Northwestern University) thinks that we can!The gravitational-wave spectrum and how we detect it (click for a closer look!). While ground-based interferometers like LIGO detect black-hole binaries in the final moments before merger, LISAs lower frequency band will allow it to detect binaries earlier in their inspiral. [NASA Goddard SFC]Differentiation by EccentricityBreivik and collaborators believe that the key clue is the binarys eccentricity. Gravitational-wave emission will eventually circularize all black-hole binaries during their inspiral. But in the first formation scenario, binary evolution processes like tidal circularization and mass transfer will reduce the binarys eccentricity early on whereas in the second scenario, the binaries that form in globular clusters may retain eccentricity in their orbits long enough that we can detect it.Ground-based interferometers wont be up to this task; by the time the binary orbits shrink enough to evolve into the LIGO frequency band, the orbits wont have
Black hole as a magnetic monopole within exponential nonlinear electrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kruglov, S. I.
2017-03-01
We perform the gauge covariant quantization of the exponential model of nonlinear electrodynamics. Magnetically charged black holes, in the framework of our model are considered, and the regular black hole solution is obtained in general relativity. The asymptotic black hole solution at r → ∞ is found. We calculate the magnetic mass of the black hole and the metric function which are expressed via the parameter β of the model and the magnetic charge. The thermodynamic properties and thermal stability of regular black holes are analysed. We calculate the Hawking temperature of black holes and their heat capacity at the constant magnetic charge. We find a point where the temperature changes the sign that corresponds to the first-order phase transition. It is shown that at critical point, where the heat capacity diverges, there is a phase transition of the second-order. We obtain the parameters of the model when the black hole is stable.
A Geometric Crescent Model for Black Hole Images
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kamruddin, Ayman Bin; Dexter, J.
2013-01-01
The Event Horizon Telescope (EHT), a global very long baseline interferometry array operating at millimeter wavelengths, is spatially resolving the immediate environment of black holes for the first time. The current observations of the Galactic center black hole, Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*), have been interpreted in terms of unmotivated geometric models (e.g., a symmetric Gaussian) or detailed calculations involving accretion onto a black hole. The latter are subject to large systematic uncertainties. Motivated by relativistic effects around black holes, we propose a geometric crescent model for black hole images. We show that this simple model provides an excellent statistical description of the existing EHT data of Sgr A*, superior to the Gaussian. It also closely matches physically predicted models, bridging accretion theory and observation. Based on our results, we make predictions for future observations for the accessibility of the black hole shadow, direct evidence for a black hole event horizon.
Effective theory of black holes in the 1/D expansion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emparan, Roberto; Shiromizu, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Ryotaku; Tanabe, Kentaro; Tanaka, Takahiro
2015-06-01
The gravitational field of a black hole is strongly localized near its horizon when the number of dimensions D is very large. In this limit, we can effectively replace the black hole with a surface in a background geometry (e.g. Minkowski or Anti-deSitter space). The Einstein equations determine the effective equations that this `black hole surface' (or membrane) must satisfy. We obtain them up to next-to-leading order in 1/ D for static black holes of the Einstein-(A)dS theory. To leading order, and also to next order in Minkowski backgrounds, the equations of the effective theory are the same as soap-film equations, possibly up to a redshift factor. In particular, the Schwarzschild black hole is recovered as a spherical soap bubble. Less trivially, we find solutions for `black droplets', i.e. black holes localized at the boundary of AdS, and for non-uniform black strings.
Stability of black holes in de Sitter space
Mellor, F.; Moss, I. )
1990-01-15
The theory of black-hole perturbations is extended to charged black holes in de Sitter space. These spacetimes have wormholes connecting different asymptotic regions. It appears that, at least in some cases, these holes are stable even at the Cauchy horizon. It follows that they violate cosmic censorship and an observer could in principle travel through the black hole to another universe. The stability of these spacetimes also implies the existence of a cosmological no hair'' theorem.
Black holes in binary stellar systems and galactic nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cherepashchuk, A. M.
2014-04-01
In the last 40 years, following pioneering papers by Ya B Zeldovich and E E Salpeter, in which a powerful energy release from nonspherical accretion of matter onto a black hole (BH) was predicted, many observational studies of black holes in the Universe have been carried out. To date, the masses of several dozen stellar-mass black holes (M_BH = (4{-}20) M_\\odot) in X-ray binary systems and of several hundred supermassive black holes (M_BH = (10^{6}{-}10^{10}) M_\\odot) in galactic nuclei have been measured. The estimated radii of these massive and compact objects do not exceed several gravitational radii. For about ten stellar-mass black holes and several dozen supermassive black holes, the values of the dimensionless angular momentum a_* have been estimated, which, in agreement with theoretical predictions, do not exceed the limiting value a_* = 0.998. A new field of astrophysics, so-called black hole demography, which studies the birth and growth of black holes and their evolutionary connection to other objects in the Universe, namely stars, galaxies, etc., is rapidly developing. In addition to supermassive black holes, massive stellar clusters are observed in galactic nuclei, and their evolution is distinct from that of supermassive black holes. The evolutionary relations between supermassive black holes in galactic centers and spheroidal stellar components (bulges) of galaxies, as well as dark-matter galactic haloes are brought out. The launch into Earth's orbit of the space radio interferometer RadioAstron opened up the real possibility of finally proving that numerous discovered massive and highly compact objects with properties very similar to those of black holes make up real black holes in the sense of Albert Einstein's General Relativity. Similar proofs of the existence of black holes in the Universe can be obtained by intercontinental radio interferometry at short wavelengths \\lambda \\lesssim 1 mm (the international program, Event Horizon Telescope).
Electromagnetic jets from stars and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gralla, Samuel E.; Lupsasca, Alexandru; Rodriguez, Maria J.
2016-02-01
We present analytic force-free solutions modeling rotating stars and black holes immersed in the magnetic field of a thin disk that terminates at an inner radius. The solutions are exact in flat spacetime and approximate in Kerr spacetime. The compact object produces a conical jet whose properties carry information about its nature. For example, the jet from a star is surrounded by a current sheet, while that of a black hole is smooth. We compute an effective resistance in each case and compare to the canonical values used in circuit models of energy extraction. These solutions illustrate all of the basic features of the Blandford-Znajek process for energy extraction and jet formation in a clean setting.
Black-hole universe: time evolution.
Yoo, Chul-Moon; Okawa, Hirotada; Nakao, Ken-ichi
2013-10-18
Time evolution of a black hole lattice toy model universe is simulated. The vacuum Einstein equations in a cubic box with a black hole at the origin are numerically solved with periodic boundary conditions on all pairs of faces opposite to each other. Defining effective scale factors by using the area of a surface and the length of an edge of the cubic box, we compare them with that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. It is found that the behavior of the effective scale factors is well approximated by that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In our model, if the box size is sufficiently larger than the horizon radius, local inhomogeneities do not significantly affect the global expansion law of the Universe even though the inhomogeneity is extremely nonlinear.
Angular momentum of dark matter black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frampton, Paul H.
2017-04-01
We provide strongly suggestive evidence that the halo constituents of dark matter are Primordial Intermediate-Mass Black Holes (PIMBHs). PIMBHs are described by a Kerr metric with two parameters, mass M and angular momentum J. There has been little discussion of J since it plays no role in the upcoming attempt at PIMBH detection by microlensing. Nevertheless J does play a central role in understanding their previous lack of detection, especially by CMB distortion. We explain why bounds previously derived from lack of CMB distortion are too strong for PIMBHs with J non-vanishing and that, provided almost no dark matter black holes originate from stellar collapse, excessive CMB distortion is avoided.
AXISYMMETRIC, NONSTATIONARY BLACK HOLE MAGNETOSPHERES: REVISITED
Song, Yoo Geun; Park, Seok Jae E-mail: sjpark@kasi.re.kr
2015-10-10
An axisymmetric, stationary, general-relativistic, electrodynamic engine model of an active galactic nucleus was formulated by Macdonald and Thorne that consisted of a supermassive black hole surrounded by a plasma magnetosphere and a magnetized accretion disk. Based on this initial formulation, a nonstationary, force-free version of their model was constructed by Park and Vishniac (PV), with the simplifying assumption that the poloidal component of the magnetic field line velocity be confined along the radial direction in cylindrical polar coordinates. In this paper, we derive the new, nonstationary “Transfield Equation,” which was not specified in PV. If we can solve this “Transfield Equation” numerically, then we will understand the axisymmetric, nonstationary black hole magnetosphere in more rigorous ways.
Hybrid Black-Hole Binary Initial Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mundim, Bruno C.; Kelly, Bernard J.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela
2010-01-01
"Traditional black-hole binary puncture initial data is conformally flat. This unphysical assumption is coupled with a lack of radiation signature from the binary's past life. As a result, waveforms extracted from evolutions of this data display an abrupt jump. In Kelly et al. [Class. Quantum Grav. 27:114005 (2010)], a new binary black-hole initial data with radiation contents derived in the post-Newtonian (PN) calculations was adapted to puncture evolutions in numerical relativity. This data satisfies the constraint equations to the 2.5PN order, and contains a transverse-traceless "wavy" metric contribution, violating the standard assumption of conformal flatness. Although the evolution contained less spurious radiation, there were undesired features; the unphysical horizon mass loss and the large initial orbital eccentricity. Introducing a hybrid approach to the initial data evaluation, we significantly reduce these undesired features."
Mirror reflections of a black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Good, Michael R. R.; Anderson, Paul R.; Evans, Charles R.
2016-09-01
An exact correspondence between a black hole and an accelerating mirror is demonstrated. It is shown that for a massless minimally coupled scalar field, the same Bogolubov coefficients connecting the "in" and "out" states occur for a (1 +1 )-dimensional flat spacetime with a particular perfectly reflecting accelerating boundary trajectory and a (1 +1 )-dimensional curved spacetime in which a null shell collapses to form a black hole. Generalization of the latter to the (3 +1 )-dimensional case is discussed. The spectral dynamics is computed in both (1 +1 )-dimensional spacetimes along with the energy flux in the spacetime with a mirror. It is shown that the approach to equilibrium is monotonic, asymmetric in terms of the rate, and there is a specific time which characterizes the system when it is the most out of equilibrium.
Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu
2014-08-01
Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.
Semiclassical geons as solitonic black hole remnants
Lobo, Francisco S.N.; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, D. E-mail: gonzalo.olmo@csic.es
2013-07-01
We find that the end state of black hole evaporation could be represented by non-singular and without event horizon stable solitonic remnants with masses of the order the Planck scale and up to ∼ 16 units of charge. Though these objects are locally indistinguishable from spherically symmetric, massive electric (or magnetic) charges, they turn out to be sourceless geons containing a wormhole generated by the electromagnetic field. Our results are obtained by interpreting semiclassical corrections to Einstein's theory in the first-order (Palatini) formalism, which yields second-order equations and avoids the instabilities of the usual (metric) formulation of quadratic gravity. We also discuss the potential relevance of these solutions for primordial black holes and the dark matter problem.
Gravitational crystal inside the black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nikolić, Hrvoje
2015-10-01
Crystals, as quantum objects typically much larger than their lattice spacing, are counterexamples to a frequent prejudice that quantum effects should not be pronounced at macroscopic distances. We propose that the Einstein theory of gravity only describes a fluid phase and that a phase transition of crystallization can occur under extreme conditions such as those inside the black hole. Such a crystal phase with lattice spacing of the order of the Planck length offers a natural mechanism for pronounced quantum-gravity effects at distances much larger than the Planck length. A resolution of the black hole information paradox is proposed, according to which all information is stored in a crystal-phase remnant with size and mass much above the Planck scale.
Schwarzschild Black Holes from Matrix Theory
Banks, T.; Fischler, W.; Klebanov, I.R.; Susskind, L.
1998-01-01
We consider matrix theory compactified on T{sup 3} and show that it correctly describes the properties of Schwarzschild black holes in 7+1 dimensions, including the mass-entropy relation, the Hawking temperature, and the physical size, up to numerical factors of order unity. The most economical description involves setting the cutoff N in the discretized light-cone quantization to be of order the black hole entropy. A crucial ingredient necessary for our work is the recently proposed equation of state for 3+1 dimensional supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with 16supercharges. We give detailed arguments for the range of validity of this equation following the methods of Horowitz and Polchinski. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Black holes surrounded by uniformly rotating rings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ansorg, Marcus; Petroff, David
2005-07-01
Highly accurate numerical solutions to the problem of black holes surrounded by uniformly rotating rings in axially symmetric, stationary spacetimes are presented. The numerical methods developed to handle the problem are discussed in some detail. Related Newtonian problems are described and numerical results provided, which show that configurations can reach an inner mass-shedding limit as the mass of the central object increases. Exemplary results for the full relativistic problem for rings of constant density are given and the deformation of the event horizon due to the presence of the ring is demonstrated. Finally, we provide an example of a system for which the angular momentum of the central black hole divided by the square of its mass exceeds one (Jc/M2c>1).
High-spin binary black hole mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Brügmann, Bernd; González, Jose; Sperhake, Ulrich
2008-03-01
We study identical mass black hole binaries with spins perpendicular to the binary’s orbital plane. These binaries have individual spins ranging from s/m2=-0.90 to 0.90, (s1=s2 in all cases) which is near the limit possible with standard Bowen-York puncture initial data. The extreme cases correspond to the largest initial spin simulations to date. Our results expand the parameter space covered by Rezzolla et al., and when combining both data sets, we obtain estimations for the minimum and maximum values for the intrinsic angular momenta of the remnant of binary black hole mergers of J/M2=0.341±0.004 and 0.951±0.004, respectively. Note, however, that these values are reached through extrapolation to the singular cases |s1|=|s2|=1 and thus remain as estimates until full-fledged numerical simulations provide confirmation.
High-spin binary black hole mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marronetti, Pedro; Tichy, Wolfgang; Brügmann, Bernd; Sperhake, Ulrich; González, José
2008-04-01
We study identical mass black hole binaries with spins perpendicular to the binary's orbital plane. These binaries have individual spins ranging from s/m^2=-0.90 to 0.90, (s1= s2 in all cases) which is near the limit possible with standard Bowen-York puncture initial data. The extreme cases correspond to the largest initial spin simulations to date. Our results expand the parameter space covered by Rezzolla et al. and, when combining both data sets, we obtain estimations for the minimum and maximum values for the intrinsic angular momenta of the remnant of binary black hole mergers of J/M^2=0.341(4) and 0.951(4) respectively.
Formation and evaporation of nonsingular black holes.
Hayward, Sean A
2006-01-27
Regular (nonsingular) space-times are given that describe the formation of a (locally defined) black hole from an initial vacuum region, its quiescence as a static region, and its subsequent evaporation to a vacuum region. The static region is Bardeen-like, supported by finite density and pressures, vanishing rapidly at large radius and behaving as a cosmological constant at small radius. The dynamic regions are Vaidya-like, with ingoing radiation of positive-energy flux during collapse and negative-energy flux during evaporation, the latter balanced by outgoing radiation of positive-energy flux and a surface pressure at a pair creation surface. The black hole consists of a compact space-time region of trapped surfaces, with inner and outer boundaries that join circularly as a single smooth trapping horizon.
Black holes, cooling flows and galaxy formation.
Peacock, J A
2005-03-15
Central black holes in galaxies are now well established as a ubiquitous phenomenon, and this fact is important for theories of cosmological structure formation. Merging of galaxy haloes must preserve the proportionality between black hole mass and baryonic mass; the way in which this happens may help solve difficulties with existing ing models of galaxy formation, which suffer from excessive cooling and thus over- produce stars. Feedback from active nuclei may be the missing piece of the puzzle, regulating galaxy-scale cooling flows. Such a process now seems to be observed in cluster-scale cooling flows, where dissipation of sound waves generated by radio lobes can plausibly balance the energy lost in X-rays, at least in a time-averaged sense.
Chapter 8. Black Holes in Braneworld Models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanahashi, N.; Tanaka, T.
In this review, we summarize current understandings of blackhole solutions in various braneworld models, including the Arkani-Hamed-Dimopoulos-Dvali model, the Randall-Sundrum (RS) models, Karch-Randall (KR) model and the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model. After illustrating basic properties of each braneworld model, we introduce the bulk/brane correspondence in the RS and KR braneworld models, adding supporting evidence for it. We then summarize the studies on braneworld black hole solutions, which consist of constructing exact or approximate solutions and investigating the phase diagram of solutions. In the study of phase diagram, we will also expound the implications of the bulk/brane correspondence to the braneworld black holes.
Lyapunov timescales and black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornish, Neil J.; Levin, Janna
2003-05-01
Black hole binaries support unstable orbits at very close separations. In the simplest case of geodesics around a Schwarzschild black hole the orbits, though unstable, are regular. Under perturbation the unstable orbits can become the locus of chaos. All unstable orbits, whether regular or chaotic, can be quantified by their Lyapunov exponents. The exponents are observationally relevant since the phase of gravitational waves can decohere in a Lyapunov time. If the timescale for dissipation due to gravitational waves is shorter than the Lyapunov time, chaos will be damped and essentially unobservable. We find that the two timescales can be comparable. We emphasize that the Lyapunov exponents must only be used cautiously for several reasons: they are relative and depend on the coordinate system used, they vary from orbit to orbit, and finally they can be deceptively diluted by transient behaviour for orbits which pass in and out of unstable regions.
Superrotations and black hole pair creation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Strominger, Andrew; Zhiboedov, Alexander
2017-03-01
Recent work has shown that the symmetries of classical gravitational scattering in asymptotically flat spacetimes include, at the linearized level, infinitesimal superrotations. These act like Virasoro generators on the celestial sphere at null infinity. However, due to the singularities in these generators, the physical status of finite superrotations has remained unclear. Here we address this issue in the context of the breaking of a cosmic string via quantum black hole pair nucleation. This process is described by a gravitational instanton known as the C-metric. After pair production, the black holes are pulled by the string to null infinity with a constant acceleration. At late times the string decays and the spacetime settles into a vacuum state. We show that the early and late spacetimes before and after string decay differ by a finite superrotation. This provides a physical interpretation of superrotations. They act on spacetimes which are asymptotically flat everywhere except at isolated singularities with cosmic string defects.
Remarks on the black hole information problem
Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus
2006-05-15
String theory provides numerous examples of duality between gravitational theories and unitary gauge theories. To resolve the black hole information paradox in this setting, it is necessary to better understand how unitarity is implemented on the gravity side. We argue that unitarity is restored by nonlocal effects whose initial magnitude is suppressed by the exponential of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. Time-slicings for which effective field theory is valid are obtained by demanding the mutual back-reaction of quanta be small. The resulting bounds imply that nonlocal effects do not lead to observable violations of causality or conflict with the equivalence principle for infalling observers, yet implement information retrieval for observers who stay outside the black hole.
Black hole production and large extra dimensions.
Cheung, Kingman
2002-06-03
Black hole (BH) production at colliders is possible when the colliding energy is above the Planck scale, which can effectively be at TeV scale in models of large extra dimensions. In this work, we study the production of black holes at colliders and discuss the possible signatures. We point out the " ij-->BH+others" subprocesses, in which the BH and other standard-model particles are produced with a large transverse momentum. When the BH decays, it gives a signature that consists of particles of high multiplicity in a boosted spherical shape on one side of the event and a few numbers of high p(T) partons on the other side, which provide very useful tags for the event.
Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Seeds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Latif, Muhammad A.; Ferrara, Andrea
2016-10-01
The detection of quasars at z > 6 unveils the presence of supermassive black holes of a few billion solar masses. The rapid formation process of these extreme objects remains a fascinating and open issue. Such discovery implies that seed black holes must have formed early on, and grown via either rapid accretion or BH/galaxy mergers. In this theoretical review, we discuss in detail various BH seed formation mechanisms and the physical processes at play during their assembly. We discuss the three most popular BH formation scenarios, involving the (i) core-collapse of massive stars, (ii) dynamical evolution of dense nuclear star clusters, (iii) collapse of a protogalactic metal free gas cloud. This article aims at giving a broad introduction and an overview of the most advanced research in the field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zdziarski, Andrzej
2016-07-01
I will review selected aspects of observations and theory of jets in black-hole binaries. The radio and gamma-ray emission of jets differs significantly between the low and high-mass X-ray binaries, which appears to be due jet-wind interaction (in particular, formation of recollimation shocks) in the latter. Also, both radio and X-ray emission of the jets can be significantly absorbed in the stellar wind of the donors in high-mass binaries. I will also review the theory of radiative processes in jets, their contributions to broad-band spectra, estimates of the jet power, the role of black-hole spin in powering jets, and the possibility that the base of the jet is the main source of X-ray emission (the lamppost model).
Black hole portal into hidden valleys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubovsky, Sergei; Gorbenko, Victor
2011-05-01
Superradiant instability turns rotating astrophysical black holes into unique probes of light axions. We consider what happens when a light axion is coupled to a strongly coupled hidden gauge sector. In this case superradiance results in an adiabatic increase of a hidden sector CP-violating θ parameter in a near horizon region. This may trigger a first order phase transition in the gauge sector. As a result a significant fraction of a black hole mass is released as a cloud of hidden mesons and can be later converted into electromagnetic radiation. This results in a violent electromagnetic burst. The characteristic frequency of such bursts may range from ˜100eV to ˜100MeV.
On the formation of black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Michel, F. Curtis
1988-01-01
The paper explores the consequences of the existence of a burning process beyond ordinary nuclear processes (which stop at iron), involving the 'strange' particles. In effect, this idea has already had considerable discussion within the high energy physics community in terms of 'quark' matter. A possible consequence is that neutron stars may explode rather than collapse to black holes. It should be evident that such a possibility suggests radically new scenarios for activity in galactic nuclei and gamma ray burst sources.
Pair production close to black hole horizon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Laurent, Philippe; Titarchuk, Lev
2012-07-01
Accreting stellar-mass black holes in Galactic binaries exhibit a ``bi-modal" spectral behavior - namely the so called high-soft and low-hard spectral states. An increase in the soft blackbody luminosity component leads to the appearance of an extended power law. An important observational fact is that this effect is seen as a persistent phenomenon only in BH candidates, and thus it is apparently a unique black hole signature. Although similar power law components are detected in the intermediate stages in neutron star systems, they are of a transient nature, i.e. disappearing with increasing luminosity. It thus seems a reasonable assumption that the unique spectral signature of the soft state of BH binaries is directly tied to the black hole event horizon. This is the primary motivation for the Bulk Motion Comptonization Model, introduced in several previous papers, and recently applied with striking success to a substantial body of observational data. We argued that the BH X-ray spectrum in the high-soft state is formed in the relatively cold accretion flow with a subrelativistic bulk velocity close to c and a temperature of a few keV. In such a flow the effect of the bulk Comptonization is indeed much stronger than the effect of the thermal ones. Another property of these accreted flow, that we will explore during this talk, is that, very close to horizon, X-ray photons may be upscattered by bulk electrons to MeV energy. Most of these photons fall down then in the black hole, but some of them anyway have time to interact with another X-ray photon by the photon-photon process to make an electron-positron pairs. We will then explore in details the consequences of this pair creation process close to horizon and what can be the observational evidences of this effect.
Microlensing Signature of Binary Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy; Sahu, Kailash; Littenberg, Tyson
2012-01-01
We calculate the light curves of galactic bulge stars magnified via microlensing by stellar-mass binary black holes along the line-of-sight. We show the sensitivity to measuring various lens parameters for a range of survey cadences and photometric precision. Using public data from the OGLE collaboration, we identify two candidates for massive binary systems, and discuss implications for theories of star formation and binary evolution.
On stimulated radiation of black holes
Ridky, Jan
2009-10-27
The Unruh's thermal state in the vicinity of the event horizon of the black hole provides conditions where impinging particles can radiate other particles. The subsequent decays eventually lead to observable radiation of photons and neutrinos. Such radiation can be induced even by massive particles with gravitational interaction only. The hadronic particles would induce {approx}30 MeV gamma radiation from {pi}{sup 0} decays.
Automated Alerting for Black Hole Routing
2007-09-01
BGP Blackhole Routing Performance.” Kleffman used simulation as the evaluation technique for his research. A simulation software package, Opnet...stated: Second, we concluded that, of the three basic BGP Blackhole routing methods, the customer-triggered method has the worst performance. Neither...trigger router or the ‘Black Hole Route Server’ in the network. This router will be pushing out BGP blackhole route announcements (both addition