Characterizing Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard
2010-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.
Binary black hole merger dynamics and waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-II; Koppitz, Michael; vanMeter, James
2006-01-01
We apply recently developed techniques for simulations of moving black holes to study dynamics and radiation generation in the last few orbits and merger of a binary black hole system. Our analysis produces a consistent picture from the gravitational wave forms and dynamical black hole trajectories for a set of simulations with black holes beginning on circular-orbit trajectories at a variety of initial separations. We find profound agreement at the level of 1% among the simulations for the last orbit, merger and ringdown, resulting in a final black hole with spin parameter a/m = 0.69. Consequently, we are confident that this part of our waveform result accurately represents the predictions from Einstein's General Relativity for the final burst of gravitational radiation resulting from the merger of an astrophysical system of equal-mass non-spinning black holes. We also find good agreement at a level of roughly 10% for the radiation generated in the preceding few orbits.
Black Hole Mergers in the Universe.
Portegies Zwart SF; McMillan
2000-01-01
Mergers of black hole binaries are expected to release large amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation. However, binary evolution models predict merger rates that are too low to be of observational interest. In this Letter, we explore the possibility that black holes become members of close binaries via dynamical interactions with other stars in dense stellar systems. In star clusters, black holes become the most massive objects within a few tens of millions of years; dynamical relaxation then causes them to sink to the cluster core, where they form binaries. These black hole binaries become more tightly bound by superelastic encounters with other cluster members and are ultimately ejected from the cluster. The majority of escaping black hole binaries have orbital periods short enough and eccentricities high enough that the emission of gravitational radiation causes them to coalesce within a few billion years. We predict a black hole merger rate of about 1.6x10-7 yr-1 Mpc-3, implying gravity-wave detection rates substantially greater than the corresponding rates from neutron star mergers. For the first-generation Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO-I), we expect about one detection during the first 2 years of operation. For its successor LIGO-II, the rate rises to roughly one detection per day. The uncertainties in these numbers are large. Event rates may drop by about an order of magnitude if the most massive clusters eject their black hole binaries early in their evolution. PMID:10587485
Binary Black Holes: Mergers, Dynamics, and Waveforms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-04-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Gravitational Waves from Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2011-01-01
During the final moments of a binary black hole (BH) merger, the gravitational wave (GW) luminosity of the system is greater than the combined electromagnetic (EM) output of the entire observable universe. However, the extremely weak coupling between GWs and ordinary matter makes these waves very difficult to detect directly. Fortunately, the inspirating BH system will interact strongly-on a purely Newtonian level-with any surrounding material in the host galaxy, and this matter can in turn produce unique EM signals detectable at Earth. By identifying EM counterparts to GW sources, we will be able to study the host environments of the merging BHs, in turn greatly expanding the scientific yield of a mission like LISA. Here we present a comprehensive review of the recent literature on the subject of EM counterparts, as well as a discussion of the theoretical and observational advances required to fully realize the scientific potential of the field.
Calculating Gravitational Wave Signature from Binary Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2003-01-01
Calculations of the final merger stage of binary black hole evolution can only be carried out using full scale numerical relativity simulations. We review the status of these calculations, highlighting recent progress and current challenges.
Simulation of Merger of Two Black Holes and Gravitational Radiation
This movie shows a simulation of the merger of two black holes and the resulting emission of gravitational radiation. The colored fields represent a component of the curvature of space-time. The ou...
Black-hole Merger Simulations for LISA Science
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan M.; McWilliams, Sean T.
2009-01-01
The strongest expected sources of gravitational waves in the LISA band are the mergers of massive black holes. LISA may observe these systems to high redshift, z>10, to uncover details of the origin of massive black holes, and of the relationship between black holes and their host structures, and structure formation itself. These signals arise from the final stage in the development of a massive black-hole binary emitting strong gravitational radiation that accelerates the system's inspiral toward merger. The strongest part of the signal, at the point of merger, carries much information about the system and provides a probe of extreme gravitational physics. Theoretical predictions for these merger signals rely on supercomputer simulations to solve Einstein's equations. We discuss recent numerical results and their impact on LISA science expectations.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.
Modeling Gravitational Radiation Waveforms from Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, J. G.; Centrelia, J. M.; Choi, D.; Koppitz, M.; VanMeter, J.
2006-01-01
Gravitational radiation from merging binary black hole systems is anticipated as a key source for gravitational wave observations. Ground-based instruments, such as the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) may observe mergers of stellar-scale black holes, while the space-based Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) observatory will be sensitive to mergers of massive galactic-center black holes over a broad range of mass scales. These cataclysmic events may emit an enormous amount of energy in a brief time. Gravitational waves from comparable mass mergers carry away a few percent of the system's mass-energy in just a few wave cycles, with peak gravitational wave luminosities on the order of 10^23 L_Sun. Optimal analysis and interpretation of merger observation data will depend on developing a detailed understanding, based on general relativistic modeling, of the radiation waveforms. We discuss recent progress in modeling radiation from equal mass mergers using numerical simulations of Einstein's gravitational field equations, known as numerical relativity. Our simulations utilize Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) to allow high-resolution near the black holes while simultaneously keeping the outer boundary of the computational domain far from the black holes, and making it possible to read out gravitational radiation waveforms in the weak-field wave zone. We discuss the results from simulations beginning with the black holes orbiting near the system's innermost stable orbit, comparing the recent simulations with earlier "Lazarus" waveform estimates based on an approximate hybrid numerical/perturbative technique.
Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and Multi-Messenger Astronomy
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. Although numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued for many years by a host of instabilities, recent breakthroughs have conquered these problems and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, astrophysics, and testing general relativity.
Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2010-01-01
Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.
Black Hole Mergers and Gravitational Waves: Opening the New Frontier
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational waves, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. Since these mergers take place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists tried to simulate these mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. In the past several years, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will highlight these breakthroughs and the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
Black Hole Mergers as Probes of Structure Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alicea-Munoz, Emily
2008-01-01
Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole (MBH) mergers can provide us with important clues about the era of structure formation in the early universe. Previous research in this field has been limited to calculating merger rates of MBHs using different models where many assumptions are made about the specific values of physical parameters of the mergers, resulting in merger rate estimates that span 5 to 6 orders of magnitude. We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters involved in the mergers. which we then turn around to determine how well LISA observations will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 structure formation era. We do this by generating synthetic LISA observable data (masses, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method. This allows us to constrain the physical parameters of the mergers.
Binary Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, J.; Boggs, W.; Kelly, B.; McWilliams, S.; vanMeter, J.
2008-01-01
The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for LISA. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. We will present the results of new simulations of black hole mergers with unequal masses and spins, focusing on the gravitational waves emitted and the accompanying astrophysical "kicks." The magnitude of these kicks has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive black holes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters.
Using Black Hole Mergers to Explore Structure Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alicea-Munoz, E.; Miller, M. Coleman
2008-01-01
Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers will open a new window into the era of structure formation in the early universe. Past efforts have concentrated on calculating merger rates using different physical assumptions, resulting in merger rate estimates that span a wide range (0.1 - 1 0A4 mergers/year). We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model of massive black hole mergers that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters, which we then turn around to determine how well observations with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approx. 5 - 30 epoch. Our approach involves generating synthetic LISA observable data (total BH masses, BH mass ratios, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, thus finding constraints for the physical parameters of the mergers. We find that our method works well at estimating merger parameters and that the number of merger events is a key discriminant among models, therefore making our method robust against observational uncertainties. Our approach can also be extended to more physically-driven models and more general problems in cosmology.
Using Black Hole Mergers to Explore Structure Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alicea-Munoz, E.; Miller, M. Coleman
2009-01-01
Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers will open a new window into the era of structure formation in the early universe. Past efforts have concentrated on calculating merger rates using different physical assumptions, resulting in merger rate estimates that span a wide range (0.1 - 10(exp 4) mergers/year). We develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model of massive black hole mergers that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters, which we then turn around to determine how well observations with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z approximately equal to 5-30 epoch. Our approach involves generating synthetic LISA observable data (total BH masses, BH mass ratios, redshifts, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method, thus finding constraints for the physical parameters of the mergers. We find that our method works well at estimating merger parameters and that the number of merger events is a key discriminant among models, therefore making our method robust against observational uncertainties. Our approach can also be extended to more physically-driven models and more general problems in cosmology. This work is supported in part by the Cooperative Education Program at NASA/GSFC.
Understanding the "antikick" in the merger of binary black holes.
Rezzolla, Luciano; Macedo, Rodrigo P; Jaramillo, José Luis
2010-06-01
The generation of a large recoil velocity from the inspiral and merger of binary black holes represents one of the most exciting results of numerical-relativity calculations. While many aspects of this process have been investigated and explained, the "antikick," namely, the sudden deceleration after the merger, has not yet found a simple explanation. We show that the antikick can be understood in terms of the radiation from a deformed black hole where the anisotropic curvature distribution on the horizon correlates with the direction and intensity of the recoil. Our analysis is focused on Robinson-Trautman spacetimes and allows us to measure both the energies and momenta radiated in a gauge-invariant manner. At the same time, this simpler setup provides the qualitative and quantitative features of merging black holes, opening the way to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear dynamics of black-hole spacetimes. PMID:20867159
Binary Black Hole Mergers, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, J.; Boggs, W.; Kelly, B.; McWilliams, S.; van Meter, J.
2007-12-01
The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for LISA. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. We will present the results of new simulations of black hole mergers with unequal masses and spins, focusing on the gravitational waves emitted and the accompanying astrophysical "kicks.” The magnitude of these kicks has bearing on the production and growth of supermassive blackholes during the epoch of structure formation, and on the retention of black holes in stellar clusters. This work was supported by NASA grant 06-BEFS06-19, and the simulations were carried out using Project Columbia at the NASA Advanced Supercomputing Division (Ames Research Center) and at the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (Goddard Space Flight Center).
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.
Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.
Exact event horizon of a black hole merger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emparan, Roberto; Martínez, Marina
2016-08-01
We argue that the event horizon of a binary black hole merger, in the extreme-mass-ratio limit where one of the black holes is much smaller than the other, can be described in an exact analytic way. This is done by tracing in the Schwarzschild geometry a congruence of null geodesics that approaches a null plane at infinity. Its form can be given explicitly in terms of elliptic functions, and we use it to analyze and illustrate the time-evolution of the horizon along the merger. We identify features such as the line of caustics at which light rays enter the horizon, and the critical point at which the horizons touch. We also compute several quantities that characterize these aspects of the merger.
Astrophysics of Super-Massive Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schnittman, Jeremy D.
2013-01-01
We present here an overview of recent work in the subject of astrophysical manifestations of super-massive black hole (SMBH) mergers. This is a field that has been traditionally driven by theoretical work, but in recent years has also generated a great deal of interest and excitement in the observational astronomy community. In particular, the electromagnetic (EM) counterparts to SMBH mergers provide the means to detect and characterize these highly energetic events at cosmological distances, even in the absence of a space-based gravitational-wave observatory. In addition to providing a mechanism for observing SMBH mergers, EM counterparts also give important information about the environments in which these remarkable events take place, thus teaching us about the mechanisms through which galaxies form and evolve symbiotically with their central black holes.
Binary black hole mergers in f(R) theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhoujian; Galaviz, Pablo; Li, Li-Fang
2013-05-01
In the near future, gravitational wave detection is set to become an important observational tool for astrophysics. It will provide us with an excellent means to distinguish different gravitational theories. In the effective form, many gravitational theories can be cast into an f(R) theory. In this article, we study the dynamics and gravitational waveform of an equal-mass binary black hole system in f(R) theory. We reduce the equations of motion in f(R) theory to the Einstein-Klein-Gordon coupled equations. In this form, it is straightforward to modify our existing numerical relativistic codes to simulate binary black hole mergers in f(R) theory. We consider a scalar field with the shape of a spherical shell containing binary black holes scalar field. We solve the initial data numerically using the Olliptic code. The evolution part is calculated using the extended AMSS-NCKU code. Both codes were updated and tested to solve the problem of binary black holes in f(R) theory. Our results show that the binary black hole dynamics in f(R) theory is more complex than in general relativity. In particular, the trajectory and merger time are strongly affected. Via the gravitational wave, it is possible to constrain the quadratic part parameter of f(R) theory in the range |a2|<1011m2. In principle, a gravitational wave detector can distinguish between a merger of a binary black hole in f(R) theory and the respective merger in general relativity. Moreover, it is possible to use gravitational wave detection to distinguish between f(R) theory and a non-self-interacting scalar field model in general relativity.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderón; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Baiardi, L. Cerboni; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Canton, T. Dal; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Da Silva Costa, C. F.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; De, S.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Gleason, J. R.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.
2016-02-01
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0 ×10-21. It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203 000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1 σ . The source lies at a luminosity distance of 41 0-180+160 Mpc corresponding to a redshift z =0.0 9-0.04+0.03 . In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ , and the final black hole mass is 6 2-4+4M⊙ , with 3. 0-0.5+0.5M⊙ c2 radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger.
Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger.
Abbott, B P; Abbott, R; Abbott, T D; Abernathy, M R; Acernese, F; Ackley, K; Adams, C; Adams, T; Addesso, P; Adhikari, R X; Adya, V B; Affeldt, C; Agathos, M; Agatsuma, K; Aggarwal, N; Aguiar, O D; Aiello, L; Ain, A; Ajith, P; Allen, B; Allocca, A; Altin, P A; Anderson, S B; Anderson, W G; Arai, K; Arain, M A; Araya, M C; Arceneaux, C C; Areeda, J S; Arnaud, N; Arun, K G; Ascenzi, S; Ashton, G; Ast, M; Aston, S M; Astone, P; Aufmuth, P; Aulbert, C; Babak, S; Bacon, P; Bader, M K M; Baker, P T; Baldaccini, F; Ballardin, G; Ballmer, S W; Barayoga, J C; Barclay, S E; Barish, B C; Barker, D; Barone, F; Barr, B; Barsotti, L; Barsuglia, M; Barta, D; Bartlett, J; Barton, M A; Bartos, I; Bassiri, R; Basti, A; Batch, J C; Baune, C; Bavigadda, V; Bazzan, M; Behnke, B; Bejger, M; Belczynski, C; Bell, A S; Bell, C J; Berger, B K; Bergman, J; Bergmann, G; Berry, C P L; Bersanetti, D; Bertolini, A; Betzwieser, J; Bhagwat, S; Bhandare, R; Bilenko, I A; Billingsley, G; Birch, J; Birney, R; Birnholtz, O; Biscans, S; Bisht, A; Bitossi, M; Biwer, C; Bizouard, M A; Blackburn, J K; Blair, C D; Blair, D G; Blair, R M; Bloemen, S; Bock, O; Bodiya, T P; Boer, M; Bogaert, G; Bogan, C; Bohe, A; Bojtos, P; Bond, C; Bondu, F; Bonnand, R; Boom, B A; Bork, R; Boschi, V; Bose, S; Bouffanais, Y; Bozzi, A; Bradaschia, C; Brady, P R; Braginsky, V B; Branchesi, M; Brau, J E; Briant, T; Brillet, A; Brinkmann, M; Brisson, V; Brockill, P; Brooks, A F; Brown, D A; Brown, D D; Brown, N M; Buchanan, C C; Buikema, A; Bulik, T; Bulten, H J; Buonanno, A; Buskulic, D; Buy, C; Byer, R L; Cabero, M; Cadonati, L; Cagnoli, G; Cahillane, C; Calderón Bustillo, J; Callister, T; Calloni, E; Camp, J B; Cannon, K C; Cao, J; Capano, C D; Capocasa, E; Carbognani, F; Caride, S; Casanueva Diaz, J; Casentini, C; Caudill, S; Cavaglià, M; Cavalier, F; Cavalieri, R; Cella, G; Cepeda, C B; Cerboni Baiardi, L; Cerretani, G; Cesarini, E; Chakraborty, R; Chalermsongsak, T; Chamberlin, S J; Chan, M; Chao, S; Charlton, P; Chassande-Mottin, E; Chen, H Y; Chen, Y; Cheng, C; Chincarini, A; Chiummo, A; Cho, H S; Cho, M; Chow, J H; Christensen, N; Chu, Q; Chua, S; Chung, S; Ciani, G; Clara, F; Clark, J A; Cleva, F; Coccia, E; Cohadon, P-F; Colla, A; Collette, C G; Cominsky, L; Constancio, M; Conte, A; Conti, L; Cook, D; Corbitt, T R; Cornish, N; Corsi, A; Cortese, S; Costa, C A; Coughlin, M W; Coughlin, S B; Coulon, J-P; Countryman, S T; Couvares, P; Cowan, E E; Coward, D M; Cowart, M J; Coyne, D C; Coyne, R; Craig, K; Creighton, J D E; Creighton, T D; Cripe, J; Crowder, S G; Cruise, A M; Cumming, A; Cunningham, L; Cuoco, E; Dal Canton, T; Danilishin, S L; D'Antonio, S; Danzmann, K; Darman, N S; Da Silva Costa, C F; Dattilo, V; Dave, I; Daveloza, H P; Davier, M; Davies, G S; Daw, E J; Day, R; De, S; DeBra, D; Debreczeni, G; Degallaix, J; De Laurentis, M; Deléglise, S; Del Pozzo, W; Denker, T; Dent, T; Dereli, H; Dergachev, V; DeRosa, R T; De Rosa, R; DeSalvo, R; Dhurandhar, S; Díaz, M C; Di Fiore, L; Di Giovanni, M; Di Lieto, A; 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Qi, H; Qin, J; Quetschke, V; Quintero, E A; Quitzow-James, R; Raab, F J; Rabeling, D S; Radkins, H; Raffai, P; Raja, S; Rakhmanov, M; Ramet, C R; Rapagnani, P; Raymond, V; Razzano, M; Re, V; Read, J; Reed, C M; Regimbau, T; Rei, L; Reid, S; Reitze, D H; Rew, H; Reyes, S D; Ricci, F; Riles, K; Robertson, N A; Robie, R; Robinet, F; Rocchi, A; Rolland, L; Rollins, J G; Roma, V J; Romano, J D; Romano, R; Romanov, G; Romie, J H; Rosińska, D; Rowan, S; Rüdiger, A; Ruggi, P; Ryan, K; Sachdev, S; Sadecki, T; Sadeghian, L; Salconi, L; Saleem, M; Salemi, F; Samajdar, A; Sammut, L; Sampson, L M; Sanchez, E J; Sandberg, V; Sandeen, B; Sanders, G H; Sanders, J R; Sassolas, B; Sathyaprakash, B S; Saulson, P R; Sauter, O; Savage, R L; Sawadsky, A; Schale, P; Schilling, R; Schmidt, J; Schmidt, P; Schnabel, R; Schofield, R M S; Schönbeck, A; Schreiber, E; Schuette, D; Schutz, B F; Scott, J; Scott, S M; Sellers, D; Sengupta, A S; Sentenac, D; Sequino, V; Sergeev, A; Serna, G; Setyawati, Y; Sevigny, A; Shaddock, D A; 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2016-02-12
On September 14, 2015 at 09:50:45 UTC the two detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory simultaneously observed a transient gravitational-wave signal. The signal sweeps upwards in frequency from 35 to 250 Hz with a peak gravitational-wave strain of 1.0×10(-21). It matches the waveform predicted by general relativity for the inspiral and merger of a pair of black holes and the ringdown of the resulting single black hole. The signal was observed with a matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 24 and a false alarm rate estimated to be less than 1 event per 203,000 years, equivalent to a significance greater than 5.1σ. The source lies at a luminosity distance of 410(-180)(+160) Mpc corresponding to a redshift z=0.09(-0.04)(+0.03). In the source frame, the initial black hole masses are 36(-4)(+5)M⊙ and 29(-4)(+4)M⊙, and the final black hole mass is 62(-4)(+4)M⊙, with 3.0(-0.5)(+0.5)M⊙c(2) radiated in gravitational waves. All uncertainties define 90% credible intervals. These observations demonstrate the existence of binary stellar-mass black hole systems. This is the first direct detection of gravitational waves and the first observation of a binary black hole merger. PMID:26918975
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Carl L.; Chatterjee, Sourav; Rasio, Frederic A.
2016-04-01
The recent discovery of GW150914, the binary black hole merger detected by Advanced LIGO, has the potential to revolutionize observational astrophysics. But to fully utilize this new window into the Universe, we must compare these new observations to detailed models of binary black hole formation throughout cosmic time. Expanding upon our previous work [C. L. Rodriguez, M. Morscher, B. Pattabiraman, S. Chatterjee, C.-J. Haster, and F. A. Rasio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 051101 (2015).], we study merging binary black holes formed in globular clusters using our Monte Carlo approach to stellar dynamics. We have created a new set of 52 cluster models with different masses, metallicities, and radii to fully characterize the binary black hole merger rate. These models include all the relevant dynamical processes (such as two-body relaxation, strong encounters, and three-body binary formation) and agree well with detailed direct N -body simulations. In addition, we have enhanced our stellar evolution algorithms with updated metallicity-dependent stellar wind and supernova prescriptions, allowing us to compare our results directly to the most recent population synthesis predictions for merger rates from isolated binary evolution. We explore the relationship between a cluster's global properties and the population of binary black holes that it produces. In particular, we derive a numerically calibrated relationship between the merger times of ejected black hole binaries and a cluster's mass and radius. With our improved treatment of stellar evolution, we find that globular clusters can produce a significant population of massive black hole binaries that merge in the local Universe. We explore the masses and mass ratios of these binaries as a function of redshift, and find a merger rate of ˜5 Gpc-3yr-1 in the local Universe, with 80% of sources having total masses from 32 M⊙ to 64 M⊙. Under standard assumptions, approximately one out of every seven binary black hole mergers
Observing Mergers of Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams S.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly Bernard J.; Thorpe, J. Ira; vanMeter, James R.
2008-01-01
Recent advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black hole coalescence. We present the application of nonspinning numerical relativity waveforms to the search for and precision measurement of black hole binary coalescences using LISA. In particular, we focus on the advances made in moving beyond the equal mass, nonspinning case into other regions of parameter space, focusing on the case of nonspinning holes with ever-increasing mass ratios. We analyze the available unequal mass merger waveforms from numerical relativity, and compare them to two models, both of which use an effective one body treatment of the inspiral, but which use fundamentally different approaches to the treatment of the merger-ringdown. We confirm the expected mass ratio scaling of the merger, and investigate the changes in waveform behavior and their observational impact with changing mass ratio. Finally, we investigate the potential contribution from the merger portion of the waveform to measurement uncertainties of the binary's parameters for the unequal mass case.
Exploring the Magnetic field and Black Hole Spin in Black Hole--Neutron star mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven; Megevand, Miguel; Motl, Patrick; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos
2010-02-01
A sizable magnetic field in neutron star-black hole binaries can have a strong influence on the merger dynamics of the fluid by redistributing angular momentum through different mechanisms. The magnetic field can also be responsible for collimating jets. BH spin can increase the number of orbits before merger as compared to a binary with a non-spinning BH. The corresponding decrease in ISCO can alter the tidal disruption suffered by the NS. We present results of fully relativistic black hole--neutron star simulations proceeding from quasi-circular initial data generated with the Lorene libraries. We explore the effect of magnetic field and spin by evolving four sets of nearly identical initial data which differ in their magnetic field and spin values. We examine the gravitational wave signature through direct simulation. Finally, we compare the fluid structure and explore the magnetic field configuration in the post-merger remnant disk. )
Final remnant of binary black hole mergers: Multipolar analysis
Owen, Robert
2009-10-15
Methods are presented to define and compute source multipoles of dynamical horizons in numerical relativity codes, extending previous work in the isolated and dynamical horizon formalisms to allow for horizons that are not axisymmetric. These methods are then applied to a binary black hole merger simulation, providing evidence that the final remnant is a Kerr black hole, both through the (spatially) gauge-invariant recovery of the geometry of the apparent horizon, and through a detailed extraction of quasinormal ringing modes directly from the strong-field region.
Merger of a Neutron Star with a Newtonian Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, William H.; Kluzniak, Wlodzimierz
1995-01-01
Newtonian smooth particle hydro simulations are presented of the merger of a 1.4 solar mass neutron star with a black hole of equal mass. The initial state of the system is modeled with a stiff polytrope orbiting a point mass. Dynamical instability sets in when the orbital separation is equal to about three stellar radii. The ensuing mass transfer occurs on the dynamical timescale. No accretion torus is formed. At the end of the computation a corona of large extent shrouds an apparently stable binary system of a 0.25 solar mass star orbiting a 2.3 solar mass black hole.
Black Hole Mergers as Probes of Structure Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alicea-Munoz, E.; Miller, M. Coleman
2008-01-01
Intense structure formation and reionization occur at high redshift, yet there is currently little observational information about this very important epoch. Observations of gravitational waves from massive black hole (MBH) mergers can provide us with important clues about the formation of structures in the early universe. Past efforts have been limited to calculating merger rates using different models in which many assumptions are made about the specific values of physical parameters of the mergers, resulting in merger rate estimates that span a very wide range (0.1 - 104 mergers/year). Here we develop a semi-analytical, phenomenological model of MBH mergers that includes plausible combinations of several physical parameters, which we then turn around to determine how well observations with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to enhance our understanding of the universe during the critical z 5 - 30 structure formation era. We do this by generating synthetic LISA observable data (total BH mass, BH mass ratio, redshift, merger rates), which are then analyzed using a Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. This allows us to constrain the physical parameters of the mergers. We find that our methodology works well at estimating merger parameters, consistently giving results within 1- of the input parameter values. We also discover that the number of merger events is a key discriminant among models. This helps our method be robust against observational uncertainties. Our approach, which at this stage constitutes a proof of principle, can be readily extended to physical models and to more general problems in cosmology and gravitational wave astrophysics.
Growth of Supermassive Black Holes, Galaxy Mergers, and Binary SMBHs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komossa, Stefanie
2015-08-01
Galaxy mergers are the sites of major black hole growth. They power luminous quasars, and form supermassive binary black holes (SMBBHs) at their centers. Coalescing binaries are among the strongest sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe. Studying the early and advanced stages galaxy merging, and the onset of accretion onto one or both BHs, informs us about feedback processes, and the origin of the scaling relations between SMBHs and their host galaxies. During gas-rich and gas-poor mergers, the initial conditions are set which later determine the amplitude of GW recoil. Identification of the compact SMBBHs, at parsec and sub-parsec scales, provides us with important constraints on the interaction processes that govern the shrinkage of the binary beyond "the final parsec". Here, I give an overview of the status of observations, important open questions, and future surveys, with an emphasis on SMBBHs.
New results in black hole-neutron star merger models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duez, Matthew
2010-10-01
I report on the SXS group's recent progress in using numerical general relativity to model one of the most violent and fascinating events in nature: the devouring of a neutron star by a black hole. I will discuss our efforts to simulate more representative and generic binary configurations and also our efforts to incorporate more realistic neutron star microphysics. Our numerical simulations allow us to predict post-merger states and gravitational wave signals.
Decoding Mode-mixing in Black-hole Merger Ringdown
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.
2013-01-01
Optimal extraction of information from gravitational-wave observations of binary black-hole coalescences requires detailed knowledge of the waveforms. Current approaches for representing waveform information are based on spin-weighted spherical harmonic decomposition. Higher-order harmonic modes carrying a few percent of the total power output near merger can supply information critical to determining intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the binary. One obstacle to constructing a full multi-mode template of merger waveforms is the apparently complicated behavior of some of these modes; instead of settling down to a simple quasinormal frequency with decaying amplitude, some |m| = modes show periodic bumps characteristic of mode-mixing. We analyze the strongest of these modes the anomalous (3, 2) harmonic mode measured in a set of binary black-hole merger waveform simulations, and show that to leading order, they are due to a mismatch between the spherical harmonic basis used for extraction in 3D numerical relativity simulations, and the spheroidal harmonics adapted to the perturbation theory of Kerr black holes. Other causes of mode-mixing arising from gauge ambiguities and physical properties of the quasinormal ringdown modes are also considered and found to be small for the waveforms studied here.
The Final Merger of Black-Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrealla, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Recent breakthroughs in the field of numerical relativity have led to dramatic progress in understanding the predictions of General Relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes in the regime of very strong gravitational fields. Such black-hole binaries are important astrophysical systems and are a key target of current and developing gravitational-wave detectors. The waveform signature of strong gravitational radiation emitted as the black holes fall together and merge provides a clear observable record of the process. After decades of slow progress / these mergers and the gravitational-wave signals they generate can now be routinely calculated using the methods of numerical relativity. We review recent advances in understanding the predicted physics of events and the consequent radiation, and discuss some of the impacts this new knowledge is having in various areas of astrophysics
LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Big news: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected its first gravitational-wave signal! Not only is the detection of this signal a major technical accomplishment and an exciting confirmation of general relativity, but it also has huge implications for black-hole astrophysics.What did LIGO see?LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in space-time created by two massive objects orbiting each other. These waves can reach observable amplitudes when a binary system consisting of two especially massive objects i.e., black holes or neutron stars reach the end of their inspiral and merge.LIGO has been unsuccessfully searching for gravitational waves since its initial operations in 2002, but a recent upgrade in its design has significantly increased its sensitivity and observational range. The first official observing run of Advanced LIGO began 18 September 2015, but the instruments were up and running in engineering mode several weeks before that. And it was in this time frame before official observing even began! that LIGO spotted its first gravitational wave signal: GW150914.One of LIGOs two detection sites, located near Hanford in eastern Washington. [LIGO]The signal, detected on 14 September, 2015, provides astronomers with a remarkable amount of information about the merger that caused it. From the detection, the LIGO team has extracted the masses of the two black holes that merged, 36+5-4 and 29+4-4 solar masses, as well as the mass of the final black hole formed by the merger, ~62 solar masses. The team also determined that the merger happened roughly a billion light-years away (at a redshift of z~0.1), and the direction of the signal was localized to an area of ~600 square degrees (roughly 1% of the sky).Why is this detection a big deal?This is the firstdirect detection of gravitational waves, providing spectacular further confirmation of Einsteins theory of general relativity. But the implications of GW150914 go far beyond this
Observing Mergers of Non-Spinning Black-Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams, Sean T.; Boggs, William D.; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
Advances in the field of numerical relativity now make it possible to calculate the final, most powerful merger phase of binary black-hole coalescence for generic binaries. The state of the art has advanced well beyond the equal-mass case into the unequal-mass and spinning regions of parameter space. We present a study of the nonspinning portion of parameter space, primarily using an analytic waveform model tuned to available numerical data, with an emphasis on observational implications. We investigate the impact of varied m8BS ratio on merger signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) for several detectors, and compare our results with expectations from the test-mass limit. We note a striking similarity of the waveform phasing of the merger waveform across the available mass ratios. Motivated by this, we calculate the match between our equal-mass and 4:1 mass-ratio waveforms during the merger as a function of location on the source sky, using a new formalism for the match that accounts for higher harmonics. This is an indicator of the amount of degeneracy in mass ratio for mergers of moderate mass ratio systems.
LIGO Discovers the Merger of Two Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-02-01
Big news: the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has detected its first gravitational-wave signal! Not only is the detection of this signal a major technical accomplishment and an exciting confirmation of general relativity, but it also has huge implications for black-hole astrophysics.What did LIGO see?LIGO is designed to detect the ripples in space-time created by two massive objects orbiting each other. These waves can reach observable amplitudes when a binary system consisting of two especially massive objects i.e., black holes or neutron stars reach the end of their inspiral and merge.LIGO has been unsuccessfully searching for gravitational waves since its initial operations in 2002, but a recent upgrade in its design has significantly increased its sensitivity and observational range. The first official observing run of Advanced LIGO began 18 September 2015, but the instruments were up and running in engineering mode several weeks before that. And it was in this time frame before official observing even began! that LIGO spotted its first gravitational wave signal: GW150914.One of LIGOs two detection sites, located near Hanford in eastern Washington. [LIGO]The signal, detected on 14 September, 2015, provides astronomers with a remarkable amount of information about the merger that caused it. From the detection, the LIGO team has extracted the masses of the two black holes that merged, 36+5-4 and 29+4-4 solar masses, as well as the mass of the final black hole formed by the merger, ~62 solar masses. The team also determined that the merger happened roughly a billion light-years away (at a redshift of z~0.1), and the direction of the signal was localized to an area of ~600 square degrees (roughly 1% of the sky).Why is this detection a big deal?This is the firstdirect detection of gravitational waves, providing spectacular further confirmation of Einsteins theory of general relativity. But the implications of GW150914 go far beyond this
Kick processes in the merger of two colliding black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aranha, R. F.; Soares, I. Damião; Tonini, E. V.
2010-11-01
We examine numerically the process of momentum extraction by gravitational waves in the merger of two colliding black holes, in the realm of Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. The initial data have already a common horizon so that the evolution covers the post-merger phase up to the final configuration of the remnant black hole. The analysis of the momentum flux carried out by gravitational waves indicates that two distinct regimes are present in the post-merger phase: (i) an initial accelerated regime, followed by (ii) a deceleration regime in which the deceleration increases rapidly towards a maximum and then decreases to zero, when the gravitational wave emission ceases. The analysis is based on the Bondi-Sachs conservation law for the total momentum of the system. We obtain the total kick velocity Vk imparted on the merged black hole during the accelerated regime (i) and the total antikick velocity Vak during the decelerated regime (ii), by evaluating the impulse of the gravitational wave flux during both regimes. The distributions of both Vk and Vak as a function of the symmetric mass ratio η satisfy a simple η-scaling law motivated by post-Newtonian analytical estimates. In the η-scaling formula the Newtonian factor is dominant in the decelerated regime, that generates Vak, contrary to the behavior in the initial accelerated regime. For an initial infalling velocity v/c≃0.462 of each individual black hole we obtain a maximum kick Vk≃6.4km/s at η≃0.209, and a maximum antikick Vak≃109km/s at η≃0.205. The net antikick velocity (Vak-Vk) also satisfies a similar η-scaling law with a maximum approximately 102km/s also at η≃0.205, qualitatively consistent with results from numerical relativity simulations, and post-Newtonian evaluations of binary black hole inspirals. For larger values of the initial data parameter v/c substantial larger values of the net antikick velocity are obtained. Based on the several velocity variables obtained, we discuss a
NONLINEAR GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE MEMORY FROM BINARY BLACK HOLE MERGERS
Favata, Marc
2009-05-10
Some astrophysical sources of gravitational waves can produce a 'memory effect', which causes a permanent displacement of the test masses in a freely falling gravitational-wave detector. The Christodoulou memory is a particularly interesting nonlinear form of memory that arises from the gravitational-wave stress-energy tensor's contribution to the distant gravitational-wave field. This nonlinear memory contributes a nonoscillatory component to the gravitational-wave signal at leading (Newtonian-quadrupole) order in the waveform amplitude. Previous computations of the memory and its detectability considered only the inspiral phase of binary black hole coalescence. Using an 'effective-one-body' (EOB) approach calibrated to numerical relativity simulations, as well as a simple fully analytic model, the Christodoulou memory is computed for the inspiral, merger, and ringdown. The memory will be very difficult to detect with ground-based interferometers, but is likely to be observable in supermassive black hole mergers with LISA out to redshifts z {approx}< 2. Detection of the nonlinear memory could serve as an experimental test of the ability of gravity to 'gravitate'.
RELATIVISTIC MERGERS OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES AND THEIR ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNATURES
Bode, Tanja; Haas, Roland; Laguna, Pablo; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Bogdanovic, Tamara
2010-06-01
Coincident detections of electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational wave (GW) signatures from coalescence events of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are the next observational grand challenge. Such detections will provide the means to study cosmological evolution and accretion processes associated with these gargantuan compact objects. More generally, the observations will enable testing general relativity in the strong, nonlinear regime and will provide independent cosmological measurements to high precision. Understanding the conditions under which coincidences of EM and GW signatures arise during SMBH mergers is therefore of paramount importance. As an essential step toward this goal, we present results from the first fully general relativistic, hydrodynamical study of the late inspiral and merger of equal-mass, spinning SMBH binaries in a gas cloud. We find that variable EM signatures correlated with GWs can arise in merging systems as a consequence of shocks and accretion combined with the effect of relativistic beaming. The most striking EM variability is observed for systems where spins are aligned with the orbital axis and where orbiting black holes form a stable set of density wakes, but all systems exhibit some characteristic signatures that can be utilized in searches for EM counterparts. In the case of the most massive binaries observable by the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, calculated luminosities imply that they may be identified by EM searches to z {approx} 1, while lower mass systems and binaries immersed in low density ambient gas can only be detected in the local universe.
Ultrahigh-energy Cosmic Rays and Black Hole Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kotera, Kumiko; Silk, Joseph
2016-06-01
The recent detection of the gravitational-wave source GW150914 by the LIGO collaboration motivates a speculative source for the origin of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays as a possible byproduct of the immense energies achieved in black hole (BH) mergers, provided that the BHs have spin, as seems inevitable, and there are relic magnetic fields and disk debris remaining from the formation of the BHs or from their accretion history. We argue that given the modest efficiency \\lt 0.01 required per event per unit of gravitational-wave energy release, merging BHs potentially provide an environment for accelerating cosmic rays to ultrahigh energies. The presence of tidally disrupted planetary or asteroidal debris could lead to associated fast radio bursts.
Electromagnetic Counterparts to Black Hole Mergers Detected by LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Loeb, Abraham
2016-03-01
Mergers of stellar-mass black holes (BHs), such as GW150914 observed by Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO), are not expected to have electromagnetic counterparts. However, the Fermi GBM detector identified a γ-ray transient 0.4 s after the gravitational wave (GW) signal GW150914 with consistent sky localization. I show that the two signals might be related if the BH binary detected by LIGO originated from two clumps in a dumbbell configuration that formed when the core of a rapidly rotating massive star collapsed. In that case, the BH binary merger was followed by a γ-ray burst (GRB) from a jet that originated in the accretion flow around the remnant BH. A future detection of a GRB afterglow could be used to determine the redshift and precise localization of the source. A population of standard GW sirens with GRB redshifts would provide a new approach for precise measurements of cosmological distances as a function of redshift.
Ultrafast Outflows from Black Hole Mergers with a Minidisk
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter; Shoemaker, Ian; Senno, Nicholas
2016-05-01
Recently, the direct detection of gravitational waves from black hole (BH) mergers was announced by the Advanced LIGO Collaboration. Multi-messenger counterparts of stellar-mass BH mergers are of interest, and it had been suggested that a small disk or celestial body may be involved in the binary of two BHs. To test such possibilities, we consider the fate of a wind powered by an active minidisk in a relatively short, super-Eddington accretion episode onto a BH with ∼10–100 solar masses. We show that its thermal emission could be seen as a fast optical transient with the duration from hours to days. We also find that the coasting outflow forms external shocks due to interaction with the interstellar medium, whose synchrotron emission might be expected in the radio band on a timescale of years. Finally, we also discuss a possible jet component and the associated high-energy neutrino emission as well as ultra-high-energy cosmic-ray acceleration.
Binary Black Hole Mergers from Planet-like Migrations.
Gould; Rix
2000-03-20
If supermassive black holes (BHs) are generically present in galaxy centers, and if galaxies are built up through hierarchical merging, BH binaries are at least temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observations suggest, however, that binary BHs are rare, pointing toward a binary lifetime far shorter than the Hubble time. We show that, almost regardless of the detailed mechanism, all stellar dynamical processes are too slow in reducing the orbital separation once orbital velocities in the binary exceed the virial velocity of the system. We propose that a massive gas disk surrounding a BH binary can effect its merger rapidly, in a scenario analogous to the orbital decay of super-Jovian planets due to a proto-planetary disk. As in the case of planets, gas accretion onto the secondary (here a supermassive BH) is integrally connected with its inward migration. Such accretion would give rise to quasar activity. BH binary mergers could therefore be responsible for many or most quasars. PMID:10702125
Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can We "See" what LISA will "Hear"?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of massive black holes produces strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. If the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We will review current efforts to simulate these systems, and discuss possibilities for observing the electromagnetic signals they produce.
Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.
2001-01-01
Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801
Dynamical Formation Signatures of Black Hole Binaries in the First Detected Mergers by LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
O’Leary, Ryan M.; Meiron, Yohai; Kocsis, Bence
2016-06-01
The dynamical formation of stellar-mass black hole–black hole binaries has long been a promising source of gravitational waves for the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). Mass segregation, gravitational focusing, and multibody dynamical interactions naturally increase the interaction rate between the most massive black holes in dense stellar systems, eventually leading them to merge. We find that dynamical interactions, particularly three-body binary formation, enhance the merger rate of black hole binaries with total mass M tot roughly as \\propto {M}{{tot}}β , with β ≳ 4. We find that this relation holds mostly independently of the initial mass function, but the exact value depends on the degree of mass segregation. The detection rate of such massive black hole binaries is only further enhanced by LIGO’s greater sensitivity to massive black hole binaries with M tot ≲ 80 {M}ȯ . We find that for power-law BH mass functions dN/dM ∝ M ‑α with α ≤ 2, LIGO is most likely to detect black hole binaries with a mass twice that of the maximum initial black hole mass and a mass ratio near one. Repeated mergers of black holes inside the cluster result in about ∼5% of mergers being observed between two and three times the maximum initial black hole mass. Using these relations, one may be able to invert the observed distribution to the initial mass function with multiple detections of merging black hole binaries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Salcido, Jaime; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Crain, Robert A.; Schaye, Joop; Regan, John
2016-08-01
We estimate the expected event rate of gravitational wave signals from mergers of supermassive black holes that could be resolved by a space-based interferometer, such as the Evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA), utilising the reference cosmological hydrodynamical simulation from the EAGLE suite. These simulations assume a ΛCDM cosmogony with state-of-the-art subgrid models for radiative cooling, star formation, stellar mass loss, and feedback from stars and accreting black holes. They have been shown to reproduce the observed galaxy population with unprecedented fidelity. We combine the merger rates of supermassive black holes in EAGLE with the latest phenomenological waveform models to calculate the gravitational waves signals from the intrinsic parameters of the merging black holes. The EAGLE models predict ˜2 detections per year by a gravitational wave detector such as eLISA. We find that these signals are largely dominated by mergers between seed mass black holes merging at redshifts between z ˜ 2 and z ˜ 1. In order to investigate the dependence on the assumed black hole seed mass, we introduce an additional model with a black hole seed mass an order of magnitude smaller than in our reference model. We also consider a variation of the reference model where a prescription for the expected delays in the black hole merger timescale has been included after their host galaxies merge. We find that the merger rate is similar in all models, but that the initial black hole seed mass could be distinguished through their detected gravitational waveforms. Hence, the characteristic gravitational wave signals detected by eLISA will provide profound insight into the origin of supermassive black holes and the initial mass distribution of black hole seeds.
Eccentric Mergers of Black Holes with Spinning Neutron Stars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
East, William E.; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pretorius, Frans
2015-07-01
We study dynamical capture binary black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers focusing on the effects of the neutron star spin. These events may arise in dense stellar regions, such as globular clusters, where the majority of neutron stars are expected to be rapidly rotating. We initialize the BH-NS systems with positions and velocities corresponding to marginally unbound Newtonian orbits, and evolve them using general-relativistic hydrodynamical simulations. We find that even moderate spins can significantly increase the amount of mass in unbound material. In some of the more extreme cases, there can be up to a third of a solar mass in unbound matter. Similarly, large amounts of tidally stripped material can remain bound and eventually accrete onto the BH—as much as a tenth of a solar mass in some cases. These simulations demonstrate that it is important to treat neutron star spin in order to make reliable predictions of the gravitational wave and electromagnetic transient signals accompanying these sources.
Mergers and ejections of black holes in globular clusters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aarseth, Sverre J.
2012-05-01
We report on results of fully consistent N-body simulations of globular cluster models with N= 100 000 members containing neutron stars and black holes (BHs). Using the improved 'algorithmic regularization' method of Hellström & Mikkola for compact subsystems, the new code NBODY7 enables for the first time general relativistic coalescence to be achieved for post-Newtonian terms and realistic parameters. Following an early stage of mass segregation, a few BHs form a small dense core which usually leads to the formation of one dominant binary. The subsequent evolution by dynamical shrinkage involves the competing processes of ejection and mergers by radiation energy loss. Unless the binary is ejected, long-lived triple systems often exhibit Kozai cycles with extremely high inner eccentricity (e > 0.999) which may terminate in coalescence at a few Schwarzschild radii. A characteristic feature is that ordinary stars as well as BHs and even BH binaries are ejected with high velocities. On the basis of the models studied so far, the results suggest a limited growth of a few remaining stellar mass BHs in globular clusters.
Observing the Final Moments of Massive Black Hole Mergers with LISA.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2006-01-01
Mergers of binary black hole systems are one of the strongest sources of gravitational radiation expected to be observed by LISA. Recent advances in modeling the final merger and ringdown of comparable-mass systems, particularly via numerical relativity simulations, are dramatically expanding our understanding of these systems and the radiation they generate. We summarize recent modeling results, highlighting the work of Goddard s numerical relativity group, and apply this emerging knowledge to the problem of observing the final moments of binary black hole mergers with LISA.
Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.
Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A
2015-07-31
The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments. PMID:26274407
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2010-01-01
The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.
Black hole-neutron star mergers with a hot equation of state and neutrino cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foucart, Francois
2014-03-01
Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) and neutron star-neutron star mergers will be prime candidates for the joint detection of gravitational wave and electromagnetic (EM) signals once the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO/KAGRA detectors come online. For BHNS binaries, the result of the merger strongly depends on the parameters of the system. EM emissions from a post-merger disk (e.g. gamma-ray bursts) are only possible for low mass or high spin black holes. The amount of ejected neutron-rich material, which has important consequences for the emission of more isotropic EM signals and the production of r-process elements, can also vary by a few orders of magnitudes - with high mass, high spin black holes ejecting more than 0 . 1M⊙ of unbound material. I will describe recent simulations of BHNS mergers performed by the SXS collaboration, which explore the parameter space dependence of these mergers while using a hot nuclear equation of state (LS220) and approximate neutrino cooling of the post-merger accretion disk. I will discuss the qualitative differences between these mergers and earlier simulations performed with polytropic equations of state, as well as the effect of neutrino cooling on the post-merger evolution and the general properties of the neutrino radiation.
Comparison of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with gasoline and ramses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabor, Jared M.; Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bellovary, Jillian; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas
2016-07-01
Supermassive black hole dynamics during galaxy mergers is crucial in determining the rate of black hole mergers and cosmic black hole growth. As simulations achieve higher resolution, it becomes important to assess whether the black hole dynamics is influenced by the treatment of the interstellar medium in different simulation codes. We compare simulations of black hole growth in galaxy mergers with two codes: the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code gasoline, and the adaptive mesh refinement code ramses. We seek to identify predictions of these models that are robust despite differences in hydrodynamic methods and implementations of subgrid physics. We find that the general behavior is consistent between codes. Black hole accretion is minimal while the galaxies are well-separated (and even as they fly by within 10 kpc at the first pericenter). At late stages, when the galaxies pass within a few kpc, tidal torques drive nuclear gas inflow that triggers bursts of black hole accretion accompanied by star formation. We also note quantitative discrepancies that are model dependent: our ramses simulations show less star formation and black hole growth, and a smoother gas distribution with larger clumps and filaments than our gasoline simulations. We attribute these differences primarily to the subgrid models for black hole fueling, feedback, and gas thermodynamics. The main conclusion is that differences exist quantitatively between codes, and this should be kept in mind when making comparisons with observations. However, both codes capture the same dynamical behaviors in terms of triggering black hole accretion, star formation, and black hole dynamics, which is reassuring.
Search for gravitational waves from binary black hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G. S.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amin, R. S.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Antonucci, F.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aronsson, M.; Aso, Y.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballinger, T.; Ballmer, S.; Barker, D.; Barnum, S.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barriga, P.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Behnke, B.; Beker, M. G.; Belletoile, A.; Benacquista, M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birindelli, S.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Boccara, C.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Boyle, M.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Budzyński, R.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Burmeister, O.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cain, J.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campagna, E.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chalkley, E.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Clark, D.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coulon, J.-P.; Coward, D. M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Culter, R. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Das, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Davier, M.; Davies, G.; Davis, A.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; Derosa, R.; Debra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Prete, M.; Dergachev, V.; de Rosa, R.; Desalvo, R.; Devanka, P.; Dhurandhar, S.; di Fiore, L.; di Lieto, A.; di Palma, I.; di Paolo Emilio, M.; di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doomes, E. E.; Dorsher, S.; Douglas, E. S. D.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Dueck, J.; Dumas, J.-C.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Ely, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Flasch, K.; Foley, S.; Forrest, C.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garofoli, J. A.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gholami, I.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, C.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hage, B.; Hall, P.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Hayler, T.; Heefner, J.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hirose, E.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hoyland, D.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Jaranowski, P.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kanner, J. B.; Katsavounidis, E.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, H.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kopparapu, R.; Koranda, S.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Krause, T.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kullman, J.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Landry, M.; Lang, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Leong, J.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lin, H.; Lindquist, P. E.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lu, P.; Luan, J.; Lubiński, M.; Lucianetti, A.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. D.; Machenschalk, B.; Macinnis, M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Mak, C.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIvor, G.; McKechan, D. J. A.; Meadors, G.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mercer, R. A.; Merill, L.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mino, Y.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreau, J.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Morioka, T.; Mors, K.; Mosca, S.; Moscatelli, V.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murray, P. G.; Nash, T.; Nawrodt, R.; Nelson, J.; Neri, I.; Newton, G.; Nishizawa, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Ogin, G. H.; Oldenburg, R. G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Pardi, S.; Pareja, M.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Pathak, D.; Pedraza, M.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Peralta, C.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Poggiani, R.; Postiglione, F.; Prato, M.; Predoi, V.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radke, T.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Roberts, P.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sakata, S.; Sakosky, M.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sancho de La Jordana, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santostasi, G.; Saraf, S.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Satterthwaite, M.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Searle, A. C.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Speirits, F. C.; Sperandio, L.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szokoly, G. P.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Titsler, C.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trias, M.; Tseng, K.; Turner, L.; Ugolini, D.; Urbanek, K.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vaishnav, B.; Vajente, G.; Vallisneri, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A. E.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyachanin, S. P.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Wei, P.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wen, S.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P.; Yvert, M.; Zanolin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2011-06-01
We present the first modeled search for gravitational waves using the complete binary black-hole gravitational waveform from inspiral through the merger and ringdown for binaries with negligible component spin. We searched approximately 2 years of LIGO data, taken between November 2005 and September 2007, for systems with component masses of 1-99M⊙ and total masses of 25-100M⊙. We did not detect any plausible gravitational-wave signals but we do place upper limits on the merger rate of binary black holes as a function of the component masses in this range. We constrain the rate of mergers for 19M⊙≤m1, m2≤28M⊙ binary black-hole systems with negligible spin to be no more than 2.0Mpc-3Myr-1 at 90% confidence.
Aligned spin neutron star-black hole mergers: A gravitational waveform amplitude model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pannarale, Francesco; Berti, Emanuele; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D.; Shibata, Masaru
2015-10-01
The gravitational radiation emitted during the merger of a black hole with a neutron star is rather similar to the radiation from the merger of two black holes when the neutron star is not tidally disrupted. When tidal disruption occurs, gravitational waveforms can be broadly classified in two groups, depending on the spatial extent of the disrupted material. Extending previous work by some of us, here we present a phenomenological model for the gravitational waveform amplitude in the frequency domain encompassing the three possible outcomes of the merger: no tidal disruption, and "mild" and "strong" tidal disruption. The model is calibrated to 134 general-relativistic numerical simulations of binaries where the black hole spin is either aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum. All simulations were produced using the SACRA code and piecewise polytropic neutron star equations of state. The present model can be used to determine when black-hole binary waveforms are sufficient for gravitational-wave detection, to extract information on the equation of state from future gravitational-wave observations, to obtain more accurate estimates of black hole-neutron star merger event rates, and to determine the conditions under which these systems are plausible candidates as central engines of gamma-ray bursts and macronovae/kilonovae.
Gravitational-wave cutoff frequencies of tidally disruptive neutron star-black hole binary mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pannarale, Francesco; Berti, Emanuele; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Lackey, Benjamin D.; Shibata, Masaru
2015-10-01
Tidal disruption has a dramatic impact on the outcome of neutron star-black hole mergers. The phenomenology of these systems can be divided in three classes: nondisruptive, mildly disruptive, and disruptive. The cutoff frequency of the gravitational radiation produced during the merger (which is potentially measurable by interferometric detectors) is very different in each regime, and when the merger is disruptive it carries information on the neutron star equation of state. Here we use semianalytical tools to derive a formula for the critical binary mass ratio Q =MBH/MNS below which mergers are disruptive as a function of the stellar compactness C =MNS/RNS and the dimensionless black hole spin χ . We then employ a new gravitational waveform amplitude model, calibrated to 134 general relativistic numerical simulations of binaries with black hole spin (anti-)aligned with the orbital angular momentum, to obtain a fit to the gravitational-wave cutoff frequency in the disruptive regime as a function of C , Q , and χ . Our findings are important to build gravitational-wave template banks, to determine whether neutron star-black hole mergers can emit electromagnetic radiation (thus helping multimessenger searches), and to improve event rate calculations for these systems.
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914.
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Laguna, P; Ossokine, S; Scheel, M A; Szilagyi, B; Teukolsky, S; Zlochower, Y
2016-06-17
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 36_{-4}^{+5}M_{⊙} and 29_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙}; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be <0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 410_{-180}^{+160} Mpc, corresponding to a redshift 0.09_{-0.04}^{+0.03} assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610 deg^{2}, primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 62_{-4}^{+4}M_{⊙} and spin 0.67_{-0.07}^{+0.05}. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime. PMID:27367378
Astrophysics: Recipe for a black-hole merger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eldridge, J. J.
2016-06-01
The detection of a gravitational wave was a historic event that heralded a new phase of astronomy. A numerical model of the Universe now allows researchers to tell the story of the black-hole system that caused the wave. See Letter p.512
Properties of the Binary Black Hole Merger GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
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G. F.; Libson, A.; Littenberg, T. B.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, H.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Paris, H. R.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patricelli, B.; Patrick, Z.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Predoi, V.; Premachandra, S. S.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Pürrer, M.; Qi, H.; Qin, J.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaltev, M.; Shao, Z.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singh, R.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, N. D.; Smith, R. J. E.; Son, E. J.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stephens, B. C.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Straniero, N.; Stratta, G.; Strauss, N. A.; Strigin, S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepańczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tápai, M.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taracchini, A.; Taylor, R.; Theeg, T.; Thirugnanasambandam, M. P.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Tonelli, M.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Töyrä, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trifirò, D.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tse, M.; Turconi, M.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; van der Schaaf, L.; van der Sluys, M. V.; van Heijningen, J. V.; Vañó-Viñuales, A.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Vass, S.; Vasúth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Voss, D.; Vousden, W. D.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Y.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L.-W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Weßels, P.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; ZadroŻny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; Boyle, M.; Brügamin, B.; Campanelli, M.; Clark, M.; Hamberger, D.; Kidder, L. E.; Kinsey, M.; Laguna, P.; Ossokine, S.; Scheel, M. A.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-06-01
On September 14, 2015, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detected a gravitational-wave transient (GW150914); we characterize the properties of the source and its parameters. The data around the time of the event were analyzed coherently across the LIGO network using a suite of accurate waveform models that describe gravitational waves from a compact binary system in general relativity. GW150914 was produced by a nearly equal mass binary black hole of masses 3 6-4+5M⊙ and 2 9-4+4M⊙ ; for each parameter we report the median value and the range of the 90% credible interval. The dimensionless spin magnitude of the more massive black hole is bound to be <0.7 (at 90% probability). The luminosity distance to the source is 41 0-180+160 Mpc , corresponding to a redshift 0.0 9-0.04+0.03 assuming standard cosmology. The source location is constrained to an annulus section of 610 deg2 , primarily in the southern hemisphere. The binary merges into a black hole of mass 6 2-4+4M⊙ and spin 0.6 7-0.07+0.05. This black hole is significantly more massive than any other inferred from electromagnetic observations in the stellar-mass regime.
Simulating Gravitational Radiation from Binary Black Holes Mergers as LISA Sources
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2005-01-01
A viewgraph presentation on the simulation of gravitational waves from Binary Massive Black Holes with LISA observations is shown. The topics include: 1) Massive Black Holes (MBHs); 2) MBH Binaries; 3) Gravitational Wavws from MBH Binaries; 4) Observing with LISA; 5) How LISA sees MBH binary mergers; 6) MBH binary inspirals to LISA; 7) Numerical Relativity Simulations; 8) Numerical Relativity Challenges; 9) Recent Successes; 10) Goddard Team; 11) Binary Black Hole Simulations at Goddard; 12) Goddard Recent Advances; 13) Baker, et al.:GSFC; 13) Starting Farther Out; 14) Comparing Initial Separation; 15) Now with AMR; and 16) Conclusion.
Black hole mergers: do gas discs lead to spin alignment?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lodato, Giuseppe; Gerosa, Davide
2013-02-01
In this Letter, we revisit arguments suggesting that the Bardeen-Petterson effect can coalign the spins of a central supermassive black hole binary accreting from a circumbinary (or circumnuclear) gas disc. We improve on previous estimates by adding the dependence on system parameters and noting that the non-linear nature of warp propagation in a thin viscous disc affects alignment. This reduces the disc's ability to communicate the warp, and can severely reduce the effectiveness of disc-assisted spin alignment. We test our predictions with a Monte Carlo realization of random misalignments and accretion rates, and we find that the outcome depends strongly on the spin magnitude. We estimate a generous upper limit to the probability of alignment by making assumptions which favour it throughout. Even with these assumptions, about 40 per cent of black holes with a ≳ 0.5 do not have time to align with the disc. If the residual misalignment is not small and it is maintained down to the final coalescence phase, this can give a powerful recoil velocity to the merged hole. Highly spinning black holes are thus more likely being subject to strong recoils, the occurrence of which is currently debated.
Grazing Collision of Binary Black Holes II: From Merger Towards Ringdown
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre
2000-04-01
One of the great challenges in gravitational physics is to simulate the collision of two black holes in order to study the resulting gravitational radiation. The Agave collaboration has successfully collided two spinning black holes in a grazing merger. The eventual goal of this work is to simulate the orbit, merger and ringdown stages of an astrophysical binary black hole system. The success of the grazing collision has proven to be strongly dependent on predicting the dynamics of the apparent horizons during the evolution. This is due to the fact that the region inside the apparent horizon containing the singularity is removed from the computational domain. Once the black holes have merged, one is left with a single black hole horizon. The spacetime is of a highly distorted black hole. We present results from simulations of the merged to ringdown stage in the life of a binary black hole collision. We show not only how crucial a role the dynamics of the apparent horizon plays in extending the lifetime of the simulation towards ringdown, but also the vital role the appropriate prescription of gauge conditions plays.
Direct formation of supermassive black holes via multi-scale gas inflows in galaxy mergers.
Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Escala, A; Callegari, S
2010-08-26
Observations of distant quasars indicate that supermassive black holes of billions of solar masses already existed less than a billion years after the Big Bang. Models in which the 'seeds' of such black holes form by the collapse of primordial metal-free stars cannot explain the rapid appearance of these supermassive black holes because gas accretion is not sufficiently efficient. Alternatively, these black holes may form by direct collapse of gas within isolated protogalaxies, but current models require idealized conditions, such as metal-free gas, to prevent cooling and star formation from consuming the gas reservoir. Here we report simulations showing that mergers between massive protogalaxies naturally produce the conditions for direct collapse into a supermassive black hole with no need to suppress cooling and star formation. Merger-driven gas inflows give rise to an unstable, massive nuclear gas disk of a few billion solar masses, which funnels more than 10(8) solar masses of gas to a sub-parsec-scale gas cloud in only 100,000 years. The cloud undergoes gravitational collapse, which eventually leads to the formation of a massive black hole. The black hole can subsequently grow to a billion solar masses on timescales of about 10(8) years by accreting gas from the surrounding disk. PMID:20740009
Black Holes in Galaxy Mergers: The Formation of Red Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Springel, Volker; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Hernquist, Lars
2005-02-01
We use hydrodynamical simulations to study the color transformations induced by star formation and active galactic nuclei (AGNs) during major mergers of spiral galaxies. Our modeling accounts for radiative cooling, star formation, and supernova feedback. Moreover, we include a treatment of accretion onto supermassive black holes embedded in the nuclei of the merging galaxies. We assume that a small fraction of the bolometric luminosity of an accreting black hole couples thermally to surrounding gas, providing a feedback mechanism that regulates its growth. The encounter and coalescence of the galaxies triggers nuclear gas inflow, which fuels both a powerful starburst and strong black hole accretion. Comparing simulations with and without black holes, we show that AGN feedback can quench star formation and accretion on a short timescale, particularly in large galaxies where the black holes can drive powerful winds once they become sufficiently massive. The color evolution of the remnant differs markedly between mergers with and without central black holes. Without AGNs, gas-rich mergers lead to elliptical galaxies that remain blue owing to residual star formation, even after more than 7 Gyr have elapsed. In contrast, mergers with black holes produce elliptical galaxies that redden much faster, an effect that is more pronounced in massive remnants where a nearly complete termination of star formation occurs, allowing them to redden to u-r~=2.3 in less than 1 Gyr. AGN feedback may thus be required to explain the population of extremely red massive early-type galaxies, and it appears to be an important driver in generating the observed bimodal color distribution of galaxies in the local universe.
O'Shaughnessy, R.; Vaishnav, B.; Healy, J.; Shoemaker, D.
2010-11-15
The next generation of ground-based gravitational wave detectors may detect a few mergers of comparable-mass M{approx_equal}100-1000M{sub {center_dot}}[''intermediate-mass'' (IMBH)] spinning black holes. Black hole spin is known to have a significant impact on the orbit, merger signal, and post-merger ringdown of any binary with non-negligible spin. In particular, the detection volume for spinning binaries depends significantly on the component black hole spins. We provide a fit to the single-detector and isotropic-network detection volume versus (total) mass and arbitrary spin for equal-mass binaries. Our analysis assumes matched filtering to all significant available waveform power (up to l=6 available for fitting, but only l{<=}4 significant) estimated by an array of 64 numerical simulations with component spins as large as S{sub 1,2}/M{sup 2{<=}}0.8. We provide a spin-dependent estimate of our uncertainty, up to S{sub 1,2}/M{sup 2{<=}}1. For the initial (advanced) LIGO detector, our fits are reliable for M(set-membership sign)[100,500]M{sub {center_dot}} (M(set-membership sign)[100,1600]M{sub {center_dot}}). In the online version of this article, we also provide fits assuming incomplete information, such as the neglect of higher-order harmonics. We briefly discuss how a strong selection bias towards aligned spins influences the interpretation of future gravitational wave detections of IMBH-IMBH mergers.
The relative role of galaxy mergers and cosmic flows in feeding black holes
Bellovary, Jillian; Brooks, Alyson; Volonteri, Marta; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James
2013-12-20
Using a set of zoomed-in cosmological simulations of high-redshift progenitors of massive galaxies, we isolate and trace the history of gas that is accreted by central supermassive black holes. We determine the origins of the accreted gas, in terms of whether it entered the galaxy during a merger event or was smoothly accreted. Furthermore, we designate whether the smoothly accreted gas is accreted via a cold flow or is shocked upon entry into the halo. For moderate-mass (10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}) black holes at z ∼ 4, there is a preference to accrete cold flow gas as opposed to gas of shocked or merger origin. However, this result is a consequence of the fact that the entire galaxy has a higher fraction of gas from cold flows. In general, each black hole tends to accrete the same fractions of smooth- and merger-accreted gas as is contained in its host galaxy, suggesting that once gas enters a halo it becomes well-mixed, and its origins are erased. We find that the angular momentum of the gas upon halo entry is a more important factor; black holes preferentially accrete gas that had low angular momentum when it entered the galaxy, regardless of whether it was accreted smoothly or through mergers.
The black hole merger event GW150914 within a modified theory of General Relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hess, P. O.
2016-08-01
In February 2016 the first observation of gravitational waves were reported. The source of this event, denoted as GW150914, was identified as the merger of two black holes with a about 30 solar masses each, at a distance of approximately 400Mpc. These data where deduced using the Theory of General Relativity. Since 2009 a modified theory was proposed which adds near massive objects phenomenologically the contribution of a dark energy, whose origin are vacuum fluctuations. The dark energy accumulates toward smaller distances, reducing effectively the gravitational constant. In this contribution we show that as a consequence the deduces chirping mass and the luminosity distance are larger. This result suggests that the black hole merger corresponds to two massive black holes near the center of primordial galaxies at large luminosity distance, i.e. large redshifts.
Rapid Formation of Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in Galaxy Mergers with Gas
Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; Madau, P.; Colpi, M.; Quinn, T.; Wadsley, J.; /McMaster U.
2008-03-24
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that, following the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink due to stellar or gas dynamical processes and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas due to the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years following the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than a million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars.
Rapid formation of supermassive black hole binaries in galaxy mergers with gas.
Mayer, L; Kazantzidis, S; Madau, P; Colpi, M; Quinn, T; Wadsley, J
2007-06-29
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are a ubiquitous component of the nuclei of galaxies. It is normally assumed that after the merger of two massive galaxies, a SMBH binary will form, shrink because of stellar or gas dynamical processes, and ultimately coalesce by emitting a burst of gravitational waves. However, so far it has not been possible to show how two SMBHs bind during a galaxy merger with gas because of the difficulty of modeling a wide range of spatial scales. Here we report hydrodynamical simulations that track the formation of a SMBH binary down to scales of a few light years after the collision between two spiral galaxies. A massive, turbulent, nuclear gaseous disk arises as a result of the galaxy merger. The black holes form an eccentric binary in the disk in less than 1 million years as a result of the gravitational drag from the gas rather than from the stars. PMID:17556550
Mergers of Black-Hole Binaries with Aligned Spins: Waveform Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Boggs, William D.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Centrella, Joan
2011-01-01
"We apply our gravitational-waveform analysis techniques, first presented in the context of nonspinning black holes of varying mass ratio [1], to the complementary case of equal-mass spinning black-hole binary systems. We find that, as with the nonspinning mergers, the dominant waveform modes phases evolve together in lock-step through inspiral and merger, supporting the previous model of the binary system as an adiabatically rigid rotator driving gravitational-wave emission - an implicit rotating source (IRS). We further apply the late-merger model for the rotational frequency introduced in [1], along with a new mode amplitude model appropriate for the dominant (2, plus or minus 2) modes. We demonstrate that this seven-parameter model performs well in matches with the original numerical waveform for system masses above - 150 solar mass, both when the parameters are freely fit, and when they are almost completely constrained by physical considerations."
Supermassive Black Hole Growth and Merger Rates from Cosmological N-body Simulations
Micic, Miroslav; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Sigurdsson, Steinn; Abel, Tom; /SLAC
2007-10-29
Understanding how seed black holes grow into intermediate and supermassive black holes (IMBHs and SMBHs, respectively) has important implications for the duty-cycle of active galactic nuclei (AGN), galaxy evolution, and gravitational wave astronomy. Most studies of the cosmological growth and merger history of black holes have used semianalytic models and have concentrated on SMBH growth in luminous galaxies. Using high resolution cosmological N-body simulations, we track the assembly of black holes over a large range of final masses - from seed black holes to SMBHs - over widely varying dynamical histories. We used the dynamics of dark matter halos to track the evolution of seed black holes in three different gas accretion scenarios. We have found that growth of a Sagittarius A* - size SMBH reaches its maximum mass M{sub SMBH}={approx}10{sup 6}M{sub {circle_dot}} at z{approx}6 through early gaseous accretion episodes, after which it stays at near constant mass. At the same redshift, the duty-cycle of the host AGN ends, hence redshift z=6 marks the transition from an AGN to a starburst galaxy which eventually becomes the Milky Way. By tracking black hole growth as a function of time and mass, we estimate that the IMBH merger rate reaches a maximum of R{sub max}=55 yr{sup -1} at z=11. From IMBH merger rates we calculate N{sub ULX}=7 per Milky Way type galaxy per redshift in redshift range 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 6.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Livio, Mario; Koekemoer, Anton M.
2011-02-01
Participants; Preface Mario Livio and Anton Koekemoer; 1. Black holes, entropy, and information G. T. Horowitz; 2. Gravitational waves from black-hole mergers J. G. Baker, W. D. Boggs, J. M. Centrella, B. J. Kelley, S. T. McWilliams and J. R. van Meter; 3. Out-of-this-world physics: black holes at future colliders G. Landsberg; 4. Black holes in globular clusters S. L. W. McMillan; 5. Evolution of massive black holes M. Volonteri; 6. Supermassive black holes in deep multiwavelength surveys C. M. Urry and E. Treister; 7. Black-hole masses from reverberation mapping B. M. Peterson and M. C. Bentz; 8. Black-hole masses from gas dynamics F. D. Macchetto; 9. Evolution of supermassive black holes A. Müller and G. Hasinger; 10. Black-hole masses of distant quasars M. Vestergaard; 11. The accretion history of supermassive black holes K. Brand and the NDWFS Boötes Survey Teams; 12. Strong field gravity and spin of black holes from broad iron lines A. C. Fabian; 13. Birth of massive black-hole binaries M. Colpi, M. Dotti, L. Mayer and S. Kazantzidis; 14. Dynamics around supermassive black holes A. Gualandris and D. Merritt; 15. Black-hole formation and growth: simulations in general relativity S. L. Shapiro; 16. Estimating the spins of stellar-mass black holes J. E. McClintock, R. Narayan and R. Shafee; 17. Stellar relaxation processes near the Galactic massive black hole T. Alexander; 18. Tidal disruptions of stars by supermassive black holes S. Gezari; 19. Where to look for radiatively inefficient accretion flows in low-luminosity AGN M. Chiaberge; 20. Making black holes visible: accretion, radiation, and jets J. H. Krolik.
Precision Measurement of Complete Black Hole Binary Inspiral-Merger-Ringdown Signals with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams, Sean T.
2009-01-01
Until recently, only the inspiral and ringdown phases of black hole binary (131-113) coalescences had been modeled. The merger signals, which were expected to be the most luminous portion of the total signal, were unavailable due to the technical difficulty of calculating the behavior of a BHB in this highly dynamical and non-linear regime. Advancements in the field of numerical relativity make it possible to include the merger segment of 131113 coalescence in the search for and characterization of gravitational wave signals. The implications for LISA include an increase in the event rate due to the increase in achievable signal-to-noise ratio, as well as potentially improved accuracy regarding the extraction of the source parameters. We investigate the degree to which mergers improve parameter estimation, by studying the impact of including mergers on achievable parameter accuracy over a significant range of masses and mass ratios for nonspinning systems, and its impact on LISA science.
Modeling Kicks from the Merger of Generic Black-hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; Miller, M. Coleman; vanMeter, James R.
2008-01-01
Recent numerical relativistic results demonstrate that the merger of comparable-mass spinning black holes has a maximum "recoil kick" of up to approx. 4000 km/s. However the scaling of these recoil velocities with mass ratio is poorly understood. We present new runs showing that the maximum possible kick parallel to the orbital axis does not scale as approx. eta(sup 2) (where eta is the symmetric mass ratio), as previously proposed, but is more consistent with approx. eta(sup 3). We discuss the effect of this dependence on galactic ejection scenarios and retention of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters. S
The Role of the Kozai--Lidov Mechanism in Black Hole Binary Mergers in Galactic Centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
VanLandingham, John H.; Miller, M. Coleman; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Richardson, Derek C.
2016-09-01
In order to understand the rate of merger of stellar mass black hole binaries (BHBs) by gravitational wave (GW) emission it is important to determine the major pathways to merger. We use numerical simulations to explore the evolution of BHBs inside the radius of influence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic centers. In this region, the evolution of binaries is dominated by perturbations from the central SMBH. In particular, as first pointed out by Antonini and Perets, the Kozai–Lidov mechanism trades relative inclination of the BHB to the SMBH for eccentricity of the BHB, and for some orientations can bring the BHB to an eccentricity near unity. At very high eccentricities, GW emission from the BHB can become efficient, causing the members of the BHB to coalesce. We use a novel combination of two N-body codes to follow this evolution. We are required to simulate small systems to follow the behavior accurately. We have completed 400 simulations that range from ∼300 stars around a 103 {M}ȯ black hole to ∼4500 stars around a 104 {M}ȯ black hole. These simulations are the first to follow the internal orbit of a binary near an SMBH while also following the changes to its external orbit self-consistently. We find that this mechanism could produce mergers at a maximum rate per volume of ∼100 Gpc‑3 yr‑1 or considerably less if the inclination oscillations of the binary remain constant as the BHB inclination to the SMBH changes, or if the binary black hole fraction is small.
Supermassive recoil velocities for binary black-hole mergers with antialigned spins.
González, José A; Hannam, Mark; Sperhake, Ulrich; Brügmann, Bernd; Husa, Sascha
2007-06-01
Recent calculations of the recoil velocity in binary black-hole mergers have found the kick velocity to be of the order of a few hundred km/s in the case of nonspinning binaries and about 500 km/s in the case of spinning configurations, and have lead to predictions of a maximum kick of up to 1300 km/s. We test these predictions and demonstrate that kick velocities of at least 2500 km/s are possible for equal-mass binaries with antialigned spins in the orbital plane. Kicks of that magnitude are likely to have significant repercussions for models of black-hole formation, the population of intergalactic black holes, and the structure of host galaxies. PMID:17677893
Bright transients from strongly-magnetized neutron star-black hole mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
D'Orazio, Daniel J.; Levin, Janna; Murray, Norman W.; Price, Larry
2016-07-01
Direct detection of black hole-neutron star pairs is anticipated with the advent of aLIGO. Electromagnetic counterparts may be crucial for a confident gravitational-wave detection as well as for extraction of astronomical information. Yet black hole-neutron star pairs are notoriously dark and so inaccessible to telescopes. Contrary to this expectation, a bright electromagnetic transient can occur in the final moments before merger as long as the neutron star is highly magnetized. The orbital motion of the neutron star magnet creates a Faraday flux and corresponding power available for luminosity. A spectrum of curvature radiation ramps up until the rapid injection of energy ignites a fireball, which would appear as an energetic blackbody peaking in the x ray to γ rays for neutron star field strengths ranging from 1012 to 1016 G respectively and a 10 M⊙ black hole. The fireball event may last from a few milliseconds to a few seconds depending on the neutron star magnetic-field strength, and may be observable with the Fermi Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor with a rate up to a few per year for neutron star field strengths ≳1014 G . We also discuss a possible decaying post-merger event which could accompany this signal. As an electromagnetic counterpart to these otherwise dark pairs, the black-hole battery should be of great value to the development of multi-messenger astronomy in the era of aLIGO.
Growth and activity of black holes in galaxy mergers with varying mass ratios
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Capelo, Pedro R.; Volonteri, Marta; Dotti, Massimo; Bellovary, Jillian M.; Mayer, Lucio; Governato, Fabio
2015-03-01
We study supermassive black holes (BHs) in merging galaxies, using a suite of hydrodynamical simulations with very high spatial (˜10 pc) and temporal (˜1 Myr) resolution, where we vary the initial mass ratio, the orbital configuration, and the gas fraction. (i) We address the question of when and why, during a merger, increased BH accretion occurs, quantifying gas inflows and BH accretion rates. (ii) We also quantify the relative effectiveness in inducing active galactic nuclei activity of merger-related versus secular-related causes, by studying different stages of the encounter: the stochastic (or early) stage, the (proper) merger stage, and the remnant (or late) stage. (iii) We assess which galaxy mergers preferentially enhance BH accretion, finding that the initial mass ratio is the most important factor. (iv) We study the evolution of the BH masses, finding that the BH mass contrast tends to decrease in minor mergers and to increase in major mergers. This effect hints at the existence of a preferential range of mass ratios for BHs in the final pairing stages. (v) In both merging and dynamically quiescent galaxies, the gas accreted by the BH is not necessarily the gas with low angular momentum, but the gas that loses angular momentum.
Swift Coalescence of Supermassive Black Holes in Cosmological Mergers of Massive Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas
2016-09-01
Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies with a sizable mass. It is expected that a pair of SMBHs originally in the nuclei of two merging galaxies would form a binary and eventually coalesce via a burst of gravitational waves. So far, theoretical models and simulations, focusing only on limited phases of the orbital decay of SMBHs under idealized conditions of the galaxy hosts, have been unable to directly predict the SMBH merger timescale from ab-initio galaxy formation theory. The predicted SMBH merger timescales are long, of order Gyrs, which could be problematic for future gravitational wave (GW) searches. Here, we present the first multi-scale ΛCDM cosmological simulation that follows the orbital decay of a pair of SMBHs in a merger of two typical massive galaxies at z∼ 3, all the way to the final coalescence driven by GW emission. The two SMBHs, with masses ∼ {10}8 {M}ȯ , settle quickly in the nucleus of the merger remnant. The remnant is triaxial and extremely dense due to the dissipative nature of the merger and the intrinsic compactness of galaxies at high redshift. Such properties naturally allow a very efficient hardening of the SMBH binary. The SMBH merger occurs in only ∼10 Myr after the galactic cores have merged, which is two orders of magnitude smaller than the Hubble time.
THE ROLE OF MERGERS IN EARLY-TYPE GALAXY EVOLUTION AND BLACK HOLE GROWTH
Schawinski, Kevin; Dowlin, Nathan; Urry, C. Megan; Thomas, Daniel; Edmondson, Edward
2010-05-01
Models of galaxy formation invoke the major merger of gas-rich progenitor galaxies as the trigger for significant phases of black hole growth and the associated feedback that suppresses star formation to create red spheroidal remnants. However, the observational evidence for the connection between mergers and active galactic nucleus (AGN) phases is not clear. We analyze a sample of low-mass early-type galaxies known to be in the process of migrating from the blue cloud to the red sequence via an AGN phase in the green valley. Using deeper imaging from Sloan Digital Sky Survey Stripe 82, we show that the fraction of objects with major morphological disturbances is high during the early starburst phase, but declines rapidly to the background level seen in quiescent early-type galaxies by the time of substantial AGN radiation several hundred Myr after the starburst. This observation empirically links the AGN activity in low-redshift early-type galaxies to a significant merger event in the recent past. The large time delay between the merger-driven starburst and the peak of AGN activity allows for the merger features to decay to the background and hence may explain the weak link between merger features and AGN activity in the literature.
Major galaxy mergers and the growth of supermassive black holes in quasars.
Treister, Ezequiel; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Sanders, David B; Urry, C Megan; Schawinski, Kevin; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan
2010-04-30
Despite observed strong correlations between central supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and star formation in galactic nuclei, uncertainties exist in our understanding of their coupling. We present observations of the ratio of heavily obscured to unobscured quasars as a function of cosmic epoch up to z congruent with 3 and show that a simple physical model describing mergers of massive, gas-rich galaxies matches these observations. In the context of this model, every obscured and unobscured quasar represents two distinct phases that result from a massive galaxy merger event. Much of the mass growth of the SMBH occurs during the heavily obscured phase. These observations provide additional evidence for a causal link between gas-rich galaxy mergers, accretion onto the nuclear SMBH, and coeval star formation. PMID:20339033
Vacuum electromagnetic counterparts of binary black-hole mergers
Moesta, Philipp; Rezzolla, Luciano; Pollney, Denis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin'ichirou
2010-03-15
As one step towards a systematic modeling of the electromagnetic (EM) emission from an inspiralling black hole binary we consider a simple scenario in which the binary moves in a uniform magnetic field anchored to a distant circumbinary disc. We study this system by solving the Einstein-Maxwell equations in which the EM fields are chosen with strengths consistent with the values expected astrophysically and treated as test fields. Our initial data consists of a series of binaries with spins aligned or antialigned with the orbital angular momentum and we study the dependence of gravitational and EM signals with different spin configurations. Overall we find that the EM radiation in the lowest l=2, m=2 multipole accurately reflects the gravitational one, with identical phase evolutions and amplitudes that differ only by a scaling factor. This is no longer true when considering higher l modes, for which the amplitude evolution of the scaled EM emission is slightly larger, while the phase evolutions continue to agree. We also compute the efficiency of the energy emission in EM waves and find that it scales quadratically with the total spin and is given by E{sub EM}{sup rad}/M{approx_equal}10{sup -15}(M/10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}){sup 2}(B/10{sup 4}G){sup 2}, hence 13 orders of magnitude smaller than the gravitational energy for realistic magnetic fields. Although large in absolute terms, the corresponding luminosity is much smaller than the accretion luminosity if the system is accreting at near the Eddington rate. Most importantly, this EM emission is at frequencies of {approx}10{sup -4}(10{sup 8}M{sub {center_dot}}/M) Hz, which are well outside those accessible to astronomical radio observations. As a result, it is unlikely that the EM emission discussed here can be detected directly and simultaneously with the gravitational-wave one. However, indirect processes, driven by changes in the EM fields behavior could yield observable events. In particular we argue that
Are Compton-thick AGNs the Missing Link between Mergers and Black Hole Growth?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocevski, Dale D.; Brightman, Murray; Nandra, Kirpal; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Salvato, Mara; Aird, James; Bell, Eric F.; Hsu, Li-Ting; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan S.; Koo, David C.; Lotz, Jennifer M.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Mozena, Mark; Rosario, David; Trump, Jonathan R.
2015-12-01
We examine the host morphologies of heavily obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z∼ 1 to test whether obscured super-massive black hole growth at this epoch is preferentially linked to galaxy mergers. Our sample consists of 154 obscured AGNs with {N}{{H}}\\gt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2 and z\\lt 1.5. Using visual classifications, we compare the morphologies of these AGNs to control samples of moderately obscured (1022 cm{}-2\\lt {N}{{H}}\\lt {10}23.5 {{cm}}-2) and unobscured ({N}{{H}}\\lt {10}22 {{cm}}-2) AGN. These control AGNs have similar redshifts and intrinsic X-ray luminosities to our heavily obscured AGN. We find that heavily obscured AGNs are twice as likely to be hosted by late-type galaxies relative to unobscured AGNs ({65.3}-4.6+4.1% versus {34.5}-2.7+2.9%) and three times as likely to exhibit merger or interaction signatures ({21.5}-3.3+4.2% versus {7.8}-1.3+1.9%). The increased merger fraction is significant at the 3.8σ level. If we exclude all point sources and consider only extended hosts, we find that the correlation between the merger fraction and obscuration is still evident, although at a reduced statistical significance (2.5σ ). The fact that we observe a different disk/spheroid fraction versus obscuration indicates that the viewing angle cannot be the only thing differentiating our three AGN samples, as a simple unification model would suggest. The increased fraction of disturbed morphologies with obscuration supports an evolutionary scenario, in which Compton-thick AGNs are a distinct phase of obscured super-massive black hole (SMBH) growth following a merger/interaction event. Our findings also suggest that some of the merger-triggered SMBH growth predicted by recent AGN fueling models may be hidden among the heavily obscured, Compton-thick population.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lupi, Alessandro; Haardt, Francesco; Dotti, Massimo; Colpi, Monica
2015-11-01
Mergers of gas-rich galaxies are key events in the hierarchical built-up of cosmic structures, and can lead to the formation of massive black hole binaries. By means of high-resolution hydrodynamical simulations we consider the late stages of a gas-rich major merger, detailing the dynamics of two circumnuclear discs, and of the hosted massive black holes during their pairing phase. During the merger gas clumps with masses of a fraction of the black hole mass form because of fragmentation. Such high-density gas is very effective in forming stars, and the most massive clumps can substantially perturb the black hole orbits. After ˜10 Myr from the start of the merger a gravitationally bound black hole binary forms at a separation of a few parsecs, and soon after, the separation falls below our resolution limit of 0.39 pc. At the time of binary formation the original discs are almost completely disrupted because of SNa feedback, while on pc scales the residual gas settles in a circumbinary disc with mass ˜ 105 M⊙. We also test that binary dynamics is robust against the details of the SNa feedback employed in the simulations, while gas dynamics is not. We finally highlight the importance of the SNa time-scale on our results.
Inspiral-merger-ringdown (2, 0) mode waveforms for aligned-spin black-hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Zhoujian; Han, Wen-Biao
2016-08-01
Based on spin weighted spherical harmonic decomposition, the (2,+/- 2) modes dominate the gravitational waveforms generated by binary black holes. Several recent works found that other modes including (l,0) ones are also important to gravitational wave data analysis. For aligned-spin binaries, these (l,0) modes are related to the memory effect of gravitational wave. Based on the post-Newtonian analysis, quasi-normal modes analysis and the results of numerical relativity simulations, we present a full inspiral-merger-ringdown gravitational waveform model for the (2,0) mode generated by binary black holes. Our model includes the quasinormal ringing part and includes the effect of a black hole’s spin. It is complementary to the previous results.
Impact of Mergers on USA Parameter Estimation for Nonspinning Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams, Sean T.; Thorpe, James Ira; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.
2011-01-01
We investigate the precision with which the parameters describing the characteristics and location of nonspinning black hole binaries can be measured with the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). By using complete waveforms including the inspiral, merger and ringdown portions of the signals, we find that LISA will have far greater precision than previous estimates for nonspinning mergers that ignored the merger and ringdown. Our analysis covers nonspinning waveforms with moderate mass ratios, q > or = 1/10, and total masses 10(exp 5) < M/M_{Sun} < 10(exp 7). We compare the parameter uncertainties using the Fisher matrix formalism, and establish the significance of mass asymmetry and higher-order content to the predicted parameter uncertainties resulting from inclusion of the merger. In real-time observations, the later parts of the signal lead to significant improvements in sky-position precision in the last hours and even the final minutes of observation. For comparable mass systems with total mass M/M_{Sun} = approx. 10(exp 6), we find that the increased precision resulting from including the merger is comparable to the increase in signal-to-noise ratio. For the most precise systems under investigation, half can be localized to within O(10 arcmin), and 18% can be localized to within O(1 arcmin).
Gas squeezing during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cerioli, Alice; Lodato, Giuseppe; Price, Daniel J.
2016-03-01
We study accretion rates during the gravitational wave-driven merger of a binary supermassive black hole embedded in an accretion disc, formed by gas driven to the centre of the galaxy. We use 3D simulations performed with PHANTOM, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. Contrary to previous investigations, we show that there is evidence of a `squeezing phenomenon', caused by the compression of the inner disc gas when the secondary black hole spirals towards the primary. This causes an increase in the accretion rates that always exceed the Eddington rate. We have studied the main features of the phenomenon for a mass ratio q = 10-3 between the black holes, including the effects of numerical resolution, the secondary accretion radius and the disc thickness. With our disc model with a low aspect ratio, we show that the mass expelled from the orbit of the secondary is negligible (<5 per cent of the initial disc mass), different to the findings of previous 2D simulations with thicker discs. The increase in the accretion rates in the last stages of the merger leads to an increase in luminosity, making it possible to detect an electromagnetic precursor of the gravitational wave signal emitted by the coalescence.
Binary black hole merger gravitational waves and recoil in the large mass ratio limit
Sundararajan, Pranesh A.; Hughes, Scott A.; Khanna, Gaurav
2010-05-15
Spectacular breakthroughs in numerical relativity now make it possible to compute spacetime dynamics in almost complete generality, allowing us to model the coalescence and merger of binary black holes with essentially no approximations. The primary limitation of these calculations is now computational. In particular, it is difficult to model systems with large mass ratio and large spins, since one must accurately resolve the multiple length scales that play a role in such systems. Perturbation theory can play an important role in extending the reach of computational modeling for binary systems. In this paper, we present first results of a code that allows us to model the gravitational waves generated by the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of a binary system in which one member of the binary is much more massive than the other. This allows us to accurately calibrate binary dynamics in the large mass ratio regime. We focus in this analysis on the recoil imparted to the merged remnant by these waves. We closely examine the ''antikick,'' an antiphase cancellation of the recoil arising from the plunge and ringdown waves, described in detail by Schnittman et al. We find that, for orbits aligned with the black hole spin, the antikick grows as a function of spin. The total recoil is smallest for prograde coalescence into a rapidly rotating black hole, and largest for retrograde coalescence. Amusingly, this completely reverses the predicted trend for kick versus spin from analyses that only include inspiral information.
Kulier, Andrea; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Lackner, Claire N.; Cen, Renyue; Natarajan, Priyamvada
2015-02-01
Accretion is thought to primarily contribute to the mass accumulation history of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) throughout cosmic time. While this may be true at high redshifts, at lower redshifts and for the most massive black holes (BHs) mergers themselves might add significantly to the mass budget. We explore this in two disparate environments—a massive cluster and a void region. We evolve SMBHs from 4 > z > 0 using merger trees derived from hydrodynamical cosmological simulations of these two regions, scaled to the observed value of the stellar mass fraction to account for overcooling. Mass gains from gas accretion proportional to bulge growth and BH-BH mergers are tracked, as are BHs that remain ''orbiting'' due to insufficient dynamical friction in a merger remnant, as well as those that are ejected due to gravitational recoil. We find that gas accretion remains the dominant source of mass accumulation in almost all SMBHs; mergers contribute 2.5% ± 0.1% for all SMBHs in the cluster and 1.0% ± 0.1% in the void since z = 4. However, mergers are significant for massive SMBHs. The fraction of mass accumulated from mergers for central BHs generally increases for larger values of the host bulge mass: in the void, the fraction is 2% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} = 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉}, increasing to 4% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} ≳ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, and in the cluster it is 4% at M {sub *,} {sub bul} = 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 23% at 10{sup 12} M {sub ☉}. We also find that the total mass in orbiting SMBHs is negligible in the void, but significant in the cluster, in which a potentially detectable 40% of SMBHs and ≈8% of the total SMBH mass (where the total includes central, orbiting, and ejected SMBHs) is found orbiting at z = 0. The existence of orbiting and ejected SMBHs requires modification of the Soltan argument. We estimate this correction to the integrated accreted mass density of SMBHs to be in the range 6%-21%, with a mean value of 11% ± 3
The Merger-Free Co-Evolution of Galaxies and Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simmons, Brooke; Smethurst, Rebecca Jane; Lintott, Chris; Galaxy Zoo Team
2016-06-01
Calm, "secular" accretion and evolutionary processes, once thought to be relegated to the sidelines of galaxy evolution, are now understood to play a significant role in the buildup of stellar mass in galaxies. Most galaxies are formed and evolve via a mix of secular-driven evolution and more violent processes like strong disk instabilities and galaxy mergers; this makes isolating the effects of secular evolution in galaxies very difficult. Massive pure disk galaxies, lacking the classical or "pseudo" bulge components that arise naturally from mergers and disk instabilities (respectively), are a unique opportunity to study galaxy evolution in the absence of violent processes. Previous studies have disagreed on whether the black hole-galaxy mass correlation is driven by galaxy-galaxy interactions or something more fundamental. Here we present new evidence using a statistically significant sample of AGN hosted in bulgeless disk galaxies at z < 0.2 to constrain black hole-galaxy co-evolution in the absence of mergers.
Black hole - neutron star merger simulations: Precessing binaries with neutrino treatment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Desai, Dhruv; Foucart, Francois; Kasen, Daniel
2016-06-01
Black hole-neutron star (BH-NS) mergers are exciting events to model, as they are a source of gravitational waves, like those discovered for the first time by Advanced LIGO earlier this year. These mergers are also the source of gamma-ray bursts and radioactively powered transients. We present here an outline of our entire research process. We first display results of general relativistic-hydrodynamic simulations using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC). We ran a set of BH-NS merger simulations varying three of the initial parameters of the black hole: mass, spin magnitude, and spin inclination (relative to the orbital angular momentum of the binary system). The code factors in neutrino cooling and use a temperature dependent, nuclear theory based equation of state, as opposed to simpler equations of state previously used. Though systems which treat precession and neutrino cooling have been simulated individually, the systems we analyzed are the first to take both into account. Once a disk has formed and settled down, we take data from the GR simulations and input it into the particle evolution code, which reads in the positions/velocities and further evolves the system in a Newtonian potential. We then present the fallback rate of bound particles throughout this period of evolution, the approximate density evolution, and the spatial distribution of ejecta.
High-accuracy gravitational waveforms for binary black hole mergers with nearly extremal spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Boyle, Michael; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilágyi, Béla
2012-02-01
Motivated by the possibility of observing gravitational waves from merging black holes whose spins are nearly extremal (i.e. 1 in dimensionless units), we present numerical waveforms from simulations of merging black holes with the highest spins simulated to date: (1) a 25.5-orbit inspiral, merger and ringdown of two holes with equal masses and spins of magnitude 0.97 aligned with the orbital angular momentum; and (2) a previously reported 12.5-orbit inspiral, merger and ringdown of two holes with equal masses and spins of magnitude 0.95 anti-aligned with the orbital angular momentum. First, we consider the horizon mass and spin evolution of the new aligned-spin simulation. During the inspiral, the horizon area and spin evolve in remarkably close agreement with Alvi's analytic predictions, and the remnant hole's final spin agrees reasonably well with several analytic predictions. We also find that the total energy emitted by a real astrophysical system with these parameters—almost all of which is radiated during the time included in this simulation—would be 10.952% of the initial mass at infinite separation. Second, we consider the gravitational waveforms for both simulations. After estimating their uncertainties, we compare the waveforms to several post-Newtonian approximants, finding significant disagreement well before merger, although the phase of the TaylorT4 approximant happens to agree remarkably well with the numerical prediction in the aligned-spin case. We find that the post-Newtonian waveforms have sufficient uncertainty that hybridized waveforms will require far longer numerical simulations (in the absence of improved post-Newtonian waveforms) for accurate parameter estimation of low-mass binary systems.
Mergers of Magnetized Neutron Stars with Spinning Black Holes: Disruption, Accretion, and Fallback
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Neilsen, David
2010-09-01
We investigate the merger of a neutron star in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of 5∶1, allowing the star to have an initial magnetization of 1012G. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. We see no significant dynamical effects in the simulations or changes in the gravitational waveform resulting from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; 99% of the neutron star material has a fallback time of 10 seconds or shorter to reach the region of the central engine and that 99.99% of the star will interact with the central disk and black hole within 3 hours.
Mergers of magnetized neutron stars with spinning black holes: disruption, accretion, and fallback.
Chawla, Sarvnipun; Anderson, Matthew; Besselman, Michael; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Neilsen, David
2010-09-10
We investigate the merger of a neutron star in orbit about a spinning black hole in full general relativity with a mass ratio of 5:1, allowing the star to have an initial magnetization of 10(12) G. We present the resulting gravitational waveform and analyze the fallback accretion as the star is disrupted. We see no significant dynamical effects in the simulations or changes in the gravitational waveform resulting from the initial magnetization. We find that only a negligible amount of matter becomes unbound; 99% of the neutron star material has a fallback time of 10 seconds or shorter to reach the region of the central engine and that 99.99% of the star will interact with the central disk and black hole within 3 hours. PMID:20867561
Inspiral, merger, and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries: A multipolar analysis
Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Hannam, Mark; Husa, Sascha; Bruegmann, Bernd
2007-09-15
We study the inspiral, merger, and ringdown of unequal mass black hole binaries by analyzing a catalogue of numerical simulations for seven different values of the mass ratio (from q=M{sub 2}/M{sub 1}=1 to q=4). We compare numerical and post-Newtonian results by projecting the waveforms onto spin-weighted spherical harmonics, characterized by angular indices (l,m). We find that the post-Newtonian equations predict remarkably well the relation between the wave amplitude and the orbital frequency for each (l,m), and that the convergence of the post-Newtonian series to the numerical results is nonmonotonic. To leading order, the total energy emitted in the merger phase scales like {eta}{sup 2} and the spin of the final black hole scales like {eta}, where {eta}=q/(1+q){sup 2} is the symmetric mass ratio. We study the multipolar distribution of the radiation, finding that odd-l multipoles are suppressed in the equal mass limit. Higher multipoles carry a larger fraction of the total energy as q increases. We introduce and compare three different definitions for the ringdown starting time. Applying linear-estimation methods (the so-called Prony methods) to the ringdown phase, we find resolution-dependent time variations in the fitted parameters of the final black hole. By cross correlating information from different multipoles, we show that ringdown fits can be used to obtain precise estimates of the mass and spin of the final black hole, which are in remarkable agreement with energy and angular momentum balance calculations.
Impact of LISA's Low Frequency Sensitivity on Observations of Massive Black Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, J.; Centrella, J.
2005-01-01
LISA will be able to detect gravitational waves from inspiralling massive black hole (MBH) binaries out to redshifts z > 10. If the binary masses and luminosity distances can be extracted from the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) data stream, this information can be used to reveal the merger history of MBH binaries and their host galaxies in the evolving universe. Since this parameter extraction generally requires that LISA observe the inspiral for a significant fraction of its yearly orbit, carrying out this program requires adequate sensitivity at low frequencies, f < 10(exp -4) Hz. Using several candidate low frequency sensitivities, we examine LISA's potential for characterizing MBH binary coalescences at redshifts z > 1.
Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-hole Merger GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. 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A.; Logue, J.; Lombardi, A. L.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Luo, J.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; MacDonald, T.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Magaña-Sandoval, F.; Magee, R. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A. S.; Maros, E.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Meidam, J.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mendoza-Gandara, D.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Meyers, P. M.; Mezzani, F.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mirshekari, S.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moggi, A.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, B. C.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D. J.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Necula, V.; Nedkova, K.; Nelemans, G.; Neri, M.; Neunzert, A.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E. N.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. 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S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Re, V.; Read, J.; Reed, C. M.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Rew, H.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romanov, G.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sandberg, V.; Sandeen, B.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Schilling, R.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schönbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schutz, B. F.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Serna, G.; Setyawati, Y.; Sevigny, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shah, S.; Shahriar, M. 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F.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, G.; Yablon, J.; Yam, W.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yap, M. J.; Yu, H.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zangrando, L.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, X. J.; Zucker, M. E.; Zuraw, S. E.; Zweizig, J.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration; Virgo Collaboration
2016-02-01
The discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black hole (BH) systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the universe. Such BH mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively “heavy” BHs (≳ 25 {M}⊙ ) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with a metallicity lower than about 1/2 of the solar value. The rate of binary-BH (BBH) mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions (≳ 1 Gpc-3 yr-1) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift (z≃ 0.1) of GW150914 and the low inferred metallicity of the stellar progenitor imply either BBH formation in a low-mass galaxy in the local universe and a prompt merger, or formation at high redshift with a time delay between formation and merger of several Gyr. This discovery motivates further studies of binary-BH formation astrophysics. It also has implications for future detections and studies by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, and GW detectors in space.
Gravitational Wave Driven Mergers and Coalescence Time of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Berczik, Peter; Just, Andreas
2016-07-01
The evolution of Supermassive Black Holes (SMBHs) initially embedded in the centers of merging galaxies is studied from the onset of galaxy mergers till coalescence. We performed direct N-body simulations using the highly efficient and massively parallel phi-GPU code capable to run on GPU supported high performance computer clusters. Post-Newtonian terms up to order 3.5 are used to drive the SMBH binary evolution in the relativistic regime. We find that SMBH binaries coalesce well within one billion year when our models are scaled to dense cuspy galaxies at low redshift. Here higher central densities provide larger supply of stars to efficiently extract energy from the SMBH binary orbit and shrink it to the phase where gravitational wave (GW) emission becomes dominant leading to the coalescence of the SMBHs. On the other hand, mergers of models that are representative of giant elliptical galaxies having central cores result in less efficient extraction of binary's orbit energy due to the lower stellar densities in the center. However, high value of eccentricities witnessed for SMBH binaries in such galaxy mergers ensure that the GW emission dominated phase sets in at larger values of the semi-major axis. This helps to compensate for the less efficient energy extraction during the phase dominated by stellar encounters resulting in mergers of SMBHs in about one billion years after the formation of binary.
Short Gamma-Ray Bursts from the Merger of Two Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Perna, Rosalba; Lazzati, Davide; Giacomazzo, Bruno
2016-04-01
Short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are explosions of cosmic origins believed to be associated with the merger of two compact objects, either two neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole (BH). The presence of at least one neutron star has long been thought to be an essential element of the model: its tidal disruption provides the needed baryonic material whose rapid accretion onto the post-merger BH powers the burst. The recent tentative detection by the Fermi satellite of a short GRB in association with the gravitational wave signal GW150914 produced by the merger of two BHs has challenged this standard paradigm. Here, we show that the evolution of two high-mass, low-metallicity stars with main-sequence rotational speeds a few tens of percent of the critical speed eventually undergoing a weak supernova explosion can produce a short GRB. The outer layers of the envelope of the last exploding star remain bound and circularize at large radii. With time, the disk cools and becomes neutral, suppressing the magnetorotational instability, and hence the viscosity. The disk remains “long-lived dead” until tidal torques and shocks during the pre-merger phase heat it up and re-ignite accretion, rapidly consuming the disk and powering the short GRB.
Astrophysical Implications of the Binary Black-hole Merger GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Altin, P. A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Arceneaux, C. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Baune, C.; Bavigadda, V.; Bazzan, M.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Belczynski, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C. J.; Berger, B. K.; Bergman, J.; Bergmann, G.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Biscans, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bogan, C.; Bohe, A.; Bojtos, P.; Bond, C.; Bondu, F.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brown, N. M.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Callister, T.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Casanueva Diaz, J.; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cerboni Baiardi, L.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chakraborty, R.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, C.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, S.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conte, A.; Conti, L.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J.-P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Craig, K.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Danilishin, S. L.; D’Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Darman, N. S.; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Daveloza, H. P.; Davier, M.; Davies, G. S.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; De Laurentis, M.; Deléglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; Dereli, H.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Díaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Virgilio, A.; Dojcinoski, G.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Douglas, R.; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H.-B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Engels, W.; Essick, R. C.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Everett, R.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Fang, Q.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fehrmann, H.; Fejer, M. M.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fricke, T. T.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H. A. G.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garufi, F.; Gatto, A.; Gaur, G.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Gendre, B.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glaefke, A.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gondan, L.; González, G.; Gonzalez Castro, J. M.; Gopakumar, A.; Gordon, N. A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hacker, J. J.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.
2016-02-01
The discovery of the gravitational-wave (GW) source GW150914 with the Advanced LIGO detectors provides the first observational evidence for the existence of binary black hole (BH) systems that inspiral and merge within the age of the universe. Such BH mergers have been predicted in two main types of formation models, involving isolated binaries in galactic fields or dynamical interactions in young and old dense stellar environments. The measured masses robustly demonstrate that relatively “heavy” BHs (≳ 25 {M}ȯ ) can form in nature. This discovery implies relatively weak massive-star winds and thus the formation of GW150914 in an environment with a metallicity lower than about 1/2 of the solar value. The rate of binary-BH (BBH) mergers inferred from the observation of GW150914 is consistent with the higher end of rate predictions (≳ 1 Gpc‑3 yr‑1) from both types of formation models. The low measured redshift (z≃ 0.1) of GW150914 and the low inferred metallicity of the stellar progenitor imply either BBH formation in a low-mass galaxy in the local universe and a prompt merger, or formation at high redshift with a time delay between formation and merger of several Gyr. This discovery motivates further studies of binary-BH formation astrophysics. It also has implications for future detections and studies by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo, and GW detectors in space.
The Observation of Gravitational Waves from a Binary Black Hole Merger
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reitze, David
2016-03-01
On September 14, 2015, the two LIGO detectors operating at Hanford, WA and Livingston, LA nearly simultaneously recorded a strong trigger consistent with the passage of gravitational waves. An extensive and thorough analysis by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration over the following months determined the gravitational waves to originate from the final stage of the inspiral of two black holes with masses approximately 36 and 29 Msun merging to form a 62 Msun black hole located at a distance of roughly 410 Mpc.This discovery is remarkable in many ways. In addition to being the first direct measurement of a gravitational wave by an earth-based detector, this is the first observation of coalescing binary black hole system and the first evidence that ``heavy'' stellar mass black holes exist. The measured gravitational waveform was determined to be highly consistent with that predicted by general relativity for the merger of two black holes. In this talk, the first of two in this special session on the discovery of GW150914, I'll cover a number of topics related to the detection, including a brief description of the operation and performance of the Advanced LIGO detectors during the first `O1' Observing Run as well as the data quality verification methods used to determine the validity of the detection. I'll also present the searches that were used to find and establish the statistical confidence of the event, as well as provide an estimate of its sky localization. Finally, I will discuss the plans for future observations by LIGO, Virgo and other gravitational wave detectors over the next few years and, time permitting, present the short term and longer term programs for improving the sensitivity and range of gravitational wave detectors over the next ten years.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McWilliams, Sean T.; Lang, Ryan N.; Baker, John G.; Thorpe, James Ira
2011-01-01
We investigate the capability of LISA to measure the sky position of equal-mass, nonspinning black hole binaries, including for the first time the entire inspiral-merger-ringdown signal, the effect of the LISA orbits, and the complete three-channel LISA response. For an ensemble of systems near the peak of LISA's sensitivity band, with total rest mass of 2 x l0(exp 6) Stellar Mass at a redshift of z = 1 with random orientations and sky positions, we find median sky localization errors of approximately approx. 3 arcminutes. This is comparable to the field of view of powerful electromagnetic telescopes, such as the James Webb Space Telescope, that could be used to search for electromagnetic signals associated with merging black holes. We investigate the way in which parameter errors decrease with measurement time, focusing specifically on the additional information provided during the merger-ringdown segment of the signal. We find that this information improves all parameter estimates directly, rather than through diminishing correlations with any subset of well-determined parameters.
Influence of neutrinos on r-process nucleosynthesis in black hole-neutron star mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lippuner, Jonas; Roberts, Luke F.; Duez, Matthew D.; Faber, Joshua A.; Foucart, Francois; Lombardi, James C.; Ott, Christian D.; Ponce, Marcelo
2016-03-01
During a black hole-neutron star merger, baryonic material can be dynamically ejected. Because this ejecta is extremely neutron-rich, the r-process rapidly synthesizes heavy nuclides as the material expands and cools. This can contribute to galactic chemical evolution of the r-process elements and lead to a short-lived optical transient, called a kilonova, powered by the radioactive decay of the heavy nuclides. We use the nuclear reaction network SkyNet to model r-process nucleosynthesis under varying levels of neutrino irradiation by post-processing tracer particles in the ejecta of a full numerical relativity simulation of a black hole-neutron star merger. We find the ejected material robustly produces the second and third r-process peaks, whose abundances remain unchanged even for very high neutrino luminosities, due to the rapid velocities of the outflow. Nonetheless, we find that neutrinos can have an impact on the detailed abundance pattern by significantly enhancing the amount of material produced in the first peak around A ~ 78 . Electron neutrinos are captured by neutrons to produce protons while neutron capture is occurring. These protons rapidly form low-mass seed nuclei, a fraction of which eventually ends up in the first peak after neutron capture ceases. Partially supported by NASA and NSF under AST-1205732, AST-1313091, AST-1333520, PF3-140114, PF4-150122, and PHY-1151197.
Pulsations in short gamma ray bursts from black hole-neutron star mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stone, Nicholas; Loeb, Abraham; Berger, Edo
2013-04-01
The precise of short gamma ray bursts (SGRBs) remains an important open question in relativistic astrophysics. Increasingly, observational evidence suggests the merger of a binary compact object system as the source for most SGRBs, but it is currently unclear how to distinguish observationally between a binary neutron star progenitor and a black hole-neutron star progenitor. We suggest the quasiperiodic signal of jet precession as an observational signature of SGRBs originating in mixed binary systems, and quantify both the fraction of mixed binaries capable of producing SGRBs and the distributions of precession amplitudes and periods. The difficulty inherent in disrupting a neutron star outside the horizon of a stellar mass black hole biases the jet precession signal towards low amplitude and high frequency. Precession periods of ˜0.01-0.1s and disk-black hole spin misalignments ˜10° are generally expected, although sufficiently high viscosity may prevent the accumulation of multiple precession periods during the SGRB. The precessing jet will naturally cover a larger solid angle in the sky than would standard SGRB jets, enhancing observability for both prompt emission and optical afterglows.
Systematic Biases in Parameter Estimation of Binary Black-Hole Mergers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Littenberg, Tyson B.; Baker, John G.; Buonanno, Alessandra; Kelly, Bernard J.
2012-01-01
Parameter estimation of binary-black-hole merger events in gravitational-wave data relies on matched filtering techniques, which, in turn, depend on accurate model waveforms. Here we characterize the systematic biases introduced in measuring astrophysical parameters of binary black holes by applying the currently most accurate effective-one-body templates to simulated data containing non-spinning numerical-relativity waveforms. For advanced ground-based detectors, we find that the systematic biases are well within the statistical error for realistic signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). These biases grow to be comparable to the statistical errors at high signal-to-noise ratios for ground-based instruments (SNR approximately 50) but never dominate the error budget. At the much larger signal-to-noise ratios expected for space-based detectors, these biases will become large compared to the statistical errors but are small enough (at most a few percent in the black-hole masses) that we expect they should not affect broad astrophysical conclusions that may be drawn from the data.
Hierarchical black hole triples in young star clusters: impact of Kozai-Lidov resonance on mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kimpson, Thomas O.; Spera, Mario; Mapelli, Michela; Ziosi, Brunetto M.
2016-08-01
Mergers of compact object binaries are one of the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the frequency range of second-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors (Advanced LIGO and Virgo). Dynamical simulations of young dense star clusters (SCs) indicate that ˜27 per cent of all double compact object binaries are members of hierarchical triple systems (HTs). In this paper, we consider 570 HTs composed of three compact objects (black holes or neutron stars) that formed dynamically in N-body simulations of young dense SCs. We simulate them for a Hubble time with a new code based on the Mikkola's algorithmic regularization scheme, including the 2.5 post-Newtonian term. We find that ˜88 per cent of the simulated systems develop Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. KL resonance triggers the merger of the inner binary in three systems (corresponding to 0.5 per cent of the simulated HTs), by increasing the eccentricity of the inner binary. Accounting for KL oscillations leads to an increase of the total expected merger rate by ≈50 per cent. All binaries that merge because of KL oscillations were formed by dynamical exchanges (i.e. none is a primordial binary) and have chirp mass >20 M⊙. This result might be crucial to interpret the formation channel of the first recently detected GW events.
NUCLEOSYNTHESIS CONSTRAINTS ON THE NEUTRON STAR-BLACK HOLE MERGER RATE
Bauswein, A.; Ardevol Pulpillo, R.; Janka, H.-T.; Goriely, S.
2014-11-01
We derive constraints on the time-averaged event rate of neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) mergers by using estimates of the population-integrated production of heavy rapid neutron-capture (r-process) elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140 by such events in comparison to the Galactic repository of these chemical species. Our estimates are based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations convolved with theoretical predictions of the binary population. This allows us to determine a strict upper limit of the average NS-BH merger rate of ∼6× 10{sup –5} per year. We quantify the uncertainties of this estimate to be within factors of a few mostly because of the unknown BH spin distribution of such systems, the uncertain equation of state of NS matter, and possible errors in the Galactic content of r-process material. Our approach implies a correlation between the merger rates of NS-BH binaries and of double NS systems. Predictions of the detection rate of gravitational-wave signals from such compact object binaries by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo on the optimistic side are incompatible with the constraints set by our analysis.
Nucleosynthesis Constraints on the Neutron Star-Black Hole Merger Rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bauswein, A.; Ardevol Pulpillo, R.; Janka, H.-T.; Goriely, S.
2014-11-01
We derive constraints on the time-averaged event rate of neutron star-black hole (NS-BH) mergers by using estimates of the population-integrated production of heavy rapid neutron-capture (r-process) elements with nuclear mass numbers A > 140 by such events in comparison to the Galactic repository of these chemical species. Our estimates are based on relativistic hydrodynamical simulations convolved with theoretical predictions of the binary population. This allows us to determine a strict upper limit of the average NS-BH merger rate of ~6× 10-5 per year. We quantify the uncertainties of this estimate to be within factors of a few mostly because of the unknown BH spin distribution of such systems, the uncertain equation of state of NS matter, and possible errors in the Galactic content of r-process material. Our approach implies a correlation between the merger rates of NS-BH binaries and of double NS systems. Predictions of the detection rate of gravitational-wave signals from such compact object binaries by Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo on the optimistic side are incompatible with the constraints set by our analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foucart, Francois; Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; MacDonald, Ilana; Ott, Christian D.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Teukolsky, Saul A.
2013-04-01
Black-hole-neutron-star mergers resulting in the disruption of the neutron star and the formation of an accretion disk and/or the ejection of unbound material are prime candidates for the joint detection of gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signals when the next generation of gravitational-wave detectors comes online. However, the disruption of the neutron star and the properties of the postmerger remnant are very sensitive to the parameters of the binary (mass ratio, black-hole spin, neutron star radius). In this paper, we study the impact of the radius of the neutron star and the alignment of the black-hole spin on black-hole-neutron-star mergers within the range of mass ratio currently deemed most likely for field binaries (MBH˜7MNS) and for black-hole spins large enough for the neutron star to disrupt (JBH/MBH2=0.9). We find that (i) In this regime, the merger is particularly sensitive to the radius of the neutron star, with remnant masses varying from 0.3MNS to 0.1MNS for changes of only 2 km in the NS radius; (ii) 0.01M⊙-0.05M⊙ of unbound material can be ejected with kinetic energy ≳1051ergs, a significant increase compared to low mass ratio, low spin binaries. This ejecta could power detectable postmerger optical and radio afterglows. (iii) Only a small fraction of the Advanced LIGO events in this parameter range have gravitational-wave signals which could offer constraints on the equation of state of the neutron star (at best ˜3% of the events for a single detector at design sensitivity). (iv) A misaligned black-hole spin works against disk formation, with less neutron-star material remaining outside of the black hole after merger, and a larger fraction of that material remaining in the tidal tail instead of the forming accretion disk. (v) Large kicks vkick≳300km/s can be given to the final black hole as a result of a precessing black-hole-neutron-star merger, when the disruption of the neutron star occurs just outside or within the innermost
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foucart, Francois; Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Haas, Roland; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2014-07-01
We present a first exploration of the results of neutron star-black hole mergers using black hole masses in the most likely range of 7M⊙-10M⊙, a neutrino leakage scheme, and a modeling of the neutron star material through a finite-temperature nuclear-theory based equation of state. In the range of black hole spins in which the neutron star is tidally disrupted (χBH≳0.7), we show that the merger consistently produces large amounts of cool (T ≲1 MeV), unbound, neutron-rich material (Mej˜0.05M⊙-0.20M⊙). A comparable amount of bound matter is initially divided between a hot disk (Tmax˜15 MeV) with typical neutrino luminosity of Lν˜1053 erg /s, and a cooler tidal tail. After a short period of rapid protonization of the disk lasting ˜10 ms, the accretion disk cools down under the combined effects of the fall-back of cool material from the tail, continued accretion of the hottest material onto the black hole, and neutrino emission. As the temperature decreases, the disk progressively becomes more neutron rich, with dimmer neutrino emission. This cooling process should stop once the viscous heating in the disk (not included in our simulations) balances the cooling. These mergers of neutron star-black hole binaries with black hole masses of MBH˜7M⊙-10M⊙, and black hole spins high enough for the neutron star to disrupt provide promising candidates for the production of short gamma-ray bursts, of bright infrared postmerger signals due to the radioactive decay of unbound material, and of large amounts of r-process nuclei.
Mergers of Non-spinning Black-hole Binaries: Gravitational Radiation Characteristics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Centrella, Joan; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; vanMeter, James R.
2008-01-01
We present a detailed descriptive analysis of the gravitational radiation from black-hole binary mergers of non-spinning black holes, based on numerical simulations of systems varying from equal-mass to a 6:1 mass ratio. Our primary goal is to present relatively complete information about the waveforms, including all the leading multipolar components, to interested researchers. In our analysis, we pursue the simplest physical description of the dominant features in the radiation, providing an interpretation of the waveforms in terms of an implicit rotating source. This interpretation applies uniformly to the full wavetrain, from inspiral through ringdown. We emphasize strong relationships among the l = m modes that persist through the full wavetrain. Exploring the structure of the waveforms in more detail, we conduct detailed analytic fitting of the late-time frequency evolution, identifying a key quantitative feature shared by the l = m modes among all mass-ratios. We identify relationships, with a simple interpretation in terms of the implicit rotating source, among the evolution of frequency and amplitude, which hold for the late-time radiation. These detailed relationships provide sufficient information about the late-time radiation to yield a predictive model for the late-time waveforms, an alternative to the common practice of modeling by a sum of quasinormal mode overtones. We demonstrate an application of this in a new effective-one-body-based analytic waveform model.
Fully Relativistic Simulations of the Inspiral and Merger of Black Hole - Neutron Star Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motl, Patrick M.; Anderson, M.; Besselman, M.; Chawla, S.; Hirschmann, E. W.; Lehner, L.; Liebling, S. L.; Neilsen, D.; Tohline, J. E.
2010-01-01
We present fully relativistic simulations of the inspiral and merger of quasi-equilibrium binaries composed of a neutron star and a black hole. We vary the mass ratio of the binary, the spin angular momentum of the black hole and the initial separation in a series of simulations. We also explore the role of magnetic fields by including a dipole field in the neutron star and evolve the field in the MHD approximation. We use the adaptive mesh refinement package HAD to resolve the disparate length scales in the problem ranging from the radiation zone down to the internal dynamics of the initial neutron star and tidal remnant. We will briefly highlight our results for the gravitational radiation waveform as well as the fate of the neutron star's material including the fraction that forms a debris disk. This work was supported by the NSF through grants PHY-0803629 and PHY-0653375 to LSU. The computations presented here were performed on resources from the Teragrid and the Louisiana Optical Network Initiative (LONI).
Perturbed disks get shocked: Binary black hole merger effects on accretion disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Megevand, Miguel; Anderson, Matthew; Frank, Juhan; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Neilsen, David
2009-07-01
The merger process of a binary black hole system can have a strong impact on a circumbinary disk. In the present work we study the effect of both central mass reduction (due to the energy loss through gravitational waves) and a possible black hole recoil (due to asymmetric emission of gravitational radiation). For the mass reduction case and recoil directed along the disk’s angular momentum, oscillations are induced in the disk which then modulate the internal energy and bremsstrahlung luminosities. On the other hand, when the recoil direction has a component orthogonal to the disk’s angular momentum, the disk’s dynamics are strongly impacted, giving rise to relativistic shocks. The shock heating leaves its signature in our proxies for radiation, the total internal energy and bremsstrahlung luminosity. Interestingly, for cases where the kick velocity is below the smallest orbital velocity in the disk (a likely scenario in real active galactic nuclei), we observe a common, characteristic pattern in the internal energy of the disk. Variations in kick velocity simply provide a phase offset in the characteristic pattern implying that observations of such a signature could yield a measure of the kick velocity through electromagnetic signals alone.
Outflows from accretion discs formed in neutron star mergers: effect of black hole spin
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Rodrigo; Kasen, Daniel; Metzger, Brian D.; Quataert, Eliot
2015-01-01
The accretion disc that forms after a neutron star merger is a source of neutron-rich ejecta. The ejected material contributes to a radioactively powered electromagnetic transient, with properties that depend sensitively on the composition of the outflow. Here, we investigate how the spin of the black hole (BH) remnant influences mass ejection on the thermal and viscous time-scales. We carry out two-dimensional, time-dependent hydrodynamic simulations of merger remnant accretion discs including viscous angular momentum transport and approximate neutrino self-irradiation. The gravity of the spinning BH is included via a pseudo-Newtonian potential. We find that a disc around a spinning BH ejects more mass, up to a factor of several, relative to the non-spinning case. The enhanced mass-loss is due to energy release by accretion occurring deeper in the gravitational potential, raising the disc temperature and hence the rate of viscous heating in regions where neutrino cooling is ineffective. The mean electron fraction of the outflow increases moderately with BH spin due to a highly irradiated (though not neutrino-driven) wind component. While the bulk of the ejecta is still very neutron-rich, thus generating heavy r-process elements, the leading edge of the wind contains a small amount of Lanthanide-free material. This component can give rise to an ≲1 d blue optical `bump' in a kilonova light curve, even in the case of prompt BH formation, which may facilitate its detection.
Hydrodynamics of galaxy mergers with supermassive black holes: is there a last parsec problem?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapon, Damien; Mayer, Lucio; Teyssier, Romain
2013-03-01
We study the formation of a supermassive black hole (SMBH) binary and the shrinking of the separation of the two holes to sub-parsec scales starting from a realistic major merger between two gas-rich spiral galaxies with mass comparable to our Milky Way. The simulations, carried out with the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code RAMSES, are capable of resolving separations as small as 0.1 pc. The collision of the two galaxies produces a gravoturbulent rotating nuclear disc with mass (˜109 M⊙) and size (˜60 pc) in excellent agreement with previous smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with particle splitting that used a similar set-up (Mayer et al. 2007) but were limited to separations of a few parsecs. The AMR results confirm that the two black holes sink rapidly as a result of dynamical friction on to the gaseous background, reaching a separation of 1 pc in less than 107 yr. We show that the dynamical friction wake is well resolved by our model and we find good agreement with analytical predictions of the drag force as a function of the Mach number. Below 1 pc, black hole pairing slows down significantly, as the relative velocity between the sinking SMBH becomes highly subsonic and the mass contained within their orbit falls below the mass of the binary itself, rendering dynamical friction ineffective. In this final stage, the black holes have not opened a gap as the gaseous background is highly pressurized in the centre. Non-axisymmetric gas torques do not arise to restart sinking in absence of efficient dynamical friction, at variance with previous calculations using idealized equilibrium nuclear disc models. We believe that the rather `hot' equation of state we used to model the multiphase turbulent interstellar medium in the nuclear region is playing an important role in preventing efficient SMBH sinking inside the central parsec. We conclude with a discussion of the way forward to address sinking in gaseous backgrounds at sub-parsec scales approaching
Offset active galactic nuclei as tracers of galaxy mergers and supermassive black hole growth
Comerford, Julia M.; Greene, Jenny E.
2014-07-10
Offset active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are AGNs that are in ongoing galaxy mergers, which produce kinematic offsets in the AGNs relative to their host galaxies. Offset AGNs are also close relatives of dual AGNs. We conduct a systematic search for offset AGNs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey by selecting AGN emission lines that exhibit statistically significant line-of-sight velocity offsets relative to systemic. From a parent sample of 18,314 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.21, we identify 351 offset AGN candidates with velocity offsets of 50 km s{sup –1} < |Δv| < 410 km s{sup –1}. When we account for projection effects in the observed velocities, we estimate that 4%-8% of AGNs are offset AGNs. We designed our selection criteria to bypass velocity offsets produced by rotating gas disks, AGN outflows, and gravitational recoil of supermassive black holes, but follow-up observations are still required to confirm our candidates as offset AGNs. We find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset candidates increases with AGN bolometric luminosity, from 0.7% to 6% over the luminosity range 43 < log (L{sub bol}) [erg s{sup –1}] <46. If these candidates are shown to be bona fide offset AGNs, then this would be direct observational evidence that galaxy mergers preferentially trigger high-luminosity AGNs. Finally, we find that the fraction of AGNs that are offset AGN candidates increases from 1.9% at z = 0.1 to 32% at z = 0.7, in step with the growth in the galaxy merger fraction over the same redshift range.
Rapid and Bright Stellar-mass Binary Black Hole Mergers in Active Galactic Nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bartos, Imre
2016-06-01
Galactic nuclei are expected to harbor the densest population of stellar-mass black holes, accounting for as much as ∼ 2% of the mass of the nuclear stellar cluster. A significant fraction (∼ 30%) of these black holes can reside in binaries. We discuss the fate of the black hole binaries in active galactic nuclei, which get trapped in the inner region of the accretion disk around the central supermassive black hole. Binary black holes can migrate into and then rapidly merge within the disk. The binaries also accrete a significant amount of gas from the disk, potentially leading to detectable X-ray or gamma-ray emission.
Observable signatures of a black hole ejected by gravitational-radiation recoil in a galaxy merger.
Loeb, Abraham
2007-07-27
According to recent simulations, the coalescence of two spinning black holes (BHs) could lead to a BH remnant with recoil speeds of up to thousands of km s(-1). Here we examine the circumstances resulting from a gas-rich galaxy merger under which the ejected BH would carry an accretion disk and be observable. As the initial BH binary emits gravitational radiation and its orbit tightens, a hole is opened in the disk which delays the consumption of gas prior to the eventual BH ejection. The punctured disk remains bound to the ejected BH within the region where the gas orbital velocity is larger than the ejection speed. For a approximately 10(7) M[middle dot in circle] BH the ejected disk has a characteristic size of tens of thousands of Schwarzschild radii and an accretion lifetime of approximately 10(7) yr. During that time, the ejected BH could traverse a considerable distance and appear as an off-center quasar with a feedback trail along the path it left behind. PMID:17678347
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tazzari, M.; Lodato, G.
2015-05-01
In this paper, we revisit the issue of estimating the `fossil' disc mass in the circumprimary disc, during the merger of a supermassive black hole binary. As the binary orbital decay speeds up due to the emission of gravitational waves, the gas in the circumprimary disc might be forced to accrete rapidly and could in principle provide a significant electromagnetic counterpart to the gravitational wave emission. Since the luminosity of such flare is proportional to the gaseous mass in the circumprimary disc, estimating such mass accurately is important. Previous investigations of this issue have produced contradictory results, with some authors estimating super-Eddington flares and large disc mass, while others suggesting that the `fossil' disc mass is very low, even less than a Jupiter mass. Here, we perform simple 1D calculations to show that such very low estimates of the disc mass are an artefact of the specific implementation of the tidal torque in 1D models. In particular, for moderate mass ratios of the binary, the usual formula for the torque used in 1D models significantly overestimates the width of the gap induced by the secondary and this artificially leads to a very small leftover circumprimary disc. Using a modified torque, calibrated to reproduce the correct gap width as estimated by 3D models, leads to fossil disc masses of the order of one solar mass. The rapid accretion of the whole circumprimary disc would produce peak luminosities of the order of 1-20 times the Eddington luminosity. Even if a significant fraction of the gas escapes accretion by flowing out the secondary orbit during the merger (an effect not included in our calculations), we would still predict close to Eddington luminosities that might be easily detected.
Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Gonzalez, Jose A.; Sperhake, Ulrich
2007-06-15
The ringdown phase following a binary black hole merger is usually assumed to be well described by a linear superposition of complex exponentials (quasinormal modes). In the strong-field conditions typical of a binary black hole merger, nonlinear effects may produce mode coupling. Artificial mode coupling can also be induced by the black hole's rotation, if the radiation field is expanded in terms of spin-weighted spherical harmonics (rather than spin-weighted spheroidal harmonics). Observing deviations from the predictions of linear black hole perturbation theory requires optimal fitting techniques to extract ringdown parameters from numerical waveforms, which are inevitably affected by numerical error. So far, nonlinear least-squares fitting methods have been used as the standard workhorse to extract frequencies from ringdown waveforms. These methods are known not to be optimal for estimating parameters of complex exponentials. Furthermore, different fitting methods have different performance in the presence of noise. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce the gravitational wave community to modern variations of a linear parameter estimation technique first devised in 1795 by Prony: the Kumaresan-Tufts and matrix pencil methods. Using 'test' damped sinusoidal signals in Gaussian white noise we illustrate the advantages of these methods, showing that they have variance and bias at least comparable to standard nonlinear least-squares techniques. Then we compare the performance of different methods on unequal-mass binary black hole merger waveforms. The methods we discuss should be useful both theoretically (to monitor errors and search for nonlinearities in numerical relativity simulations) and experimentally (for parameter estimation from ringdown signals after a gravitational wave detection)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Komossa, S.; Zensus, J. A.
2016-02-01
The capture and disruption of stars by supermassive black holes (SMBHs), and the formation and coalescence of binaries, are inevitable consequences of the presence of SMBHs at the cores of galaxies. Pairs of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and binary SMBHs are important stages in the evolution of galaxy mergers, and an intense search for these systems is currently ongoing. In the early and advanced stages of galaxy merging, observations of the triggering of accretion onto one or both BHs inform us about feedback processes and BH growth. Identification of the compact binary SMBHs at parsec and sub-parsec scales provides us with important constraints on the interaction processes that govern the shrinkage of the binary beyond the ``final parsec''. Coalescing binary SMBHs are among the most powerful sources of gravitational waves (GWs) in the universe. Stellar tidal disruption events (TDEs) appear as luminous, transient, accretion flares when part of the stellar material is accreted by the SMBH. About 30 events have been identified by multi-wavelength observations by now, and they will be detected in the thousands in future ground-based or space-based transient surveys. The study of TDEs provides us with a variety of new astrophysical tools and applications, related to fundamental physics or astrophysics. Here, we provide a review of the current status of observations of SMBH pairs and binaries, and TDEs, and discuss astrophysical implications.
Accelerated prospective parameter estimation for observing black hole mergers with LISA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, John; Marsat, Sylvain; Graff, Philip
2016-03-01
LISA, a candidate for the European Space Agency's planned L3 gravitational wave mission, is expected to provide tremendous capabilities in observing merging black holes out to very high redshifts with much higher signal-to-noise ratios than are likely with ground-based observations. Understanding precisely how well we may be able to measure these systems requires detailed Bayesian analysis with the best available theoretical waveform predictions and a full treatment of LISA's instrumental response. Highly accurate representations of general relativity's signal predictions, such as those of the Effective-One-Body formalism, are becoming available but these are too slow to compute directly. We address the practical challenge of computing the signals and response both accurately and quickly with frequency-domain reduced order signal models and apt approximation techniques for LISA's instrumental response to achieve millisecond likelihood evaluations. We apply these techniques to study of the impact of higher-harmonics in LISA observations of non-spinning mergers. Supported by NASA Grant 11-ATP-046.
Accretion and Orbital Inspiral in Gas-assisted Supermassive Black Hole Binary Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafikov, Roman R.
2016-08-01
Many galaxies are expected to harbor binary supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in their centers. Their interaction with the surrounding gas results in the accretion and exchange of angular momentum via tidal torques, facilitating binary inspiral. Here, we explore the non-trivial coupling between these two processes and analyze how the global properties of externally supplied circumbinary disks depend on the binary accretion rate. By formulating our results in terms of the angular momentum flux driven by internal stresses, we come up with a very simple classification of the possible global disk structures, which differ from the standard constant \\dot{M} accretion disk solution. The suppression of accretion by the binary tides, leading to a significant mass accumulation in the inner disk, accelerates binary inspiral. We show that once the disk region strongly perturbed by the viscously transmitted tidal torque exceeds the binary semimajor axis, the binary can merge in less than its mass-doubling time due to accretion. Thus, unlike the inspirals driven by stellar scattering, the gas-assisted merger can occur even if the binary is embedded in a relatively low-mass disk (lower than its own mass). This is important for resolving the “last parsec” problem for SMBH binaries and understanding powerful gravitational wave sources in the universe. We argue that the enhancement of accretion by the binary found in some recent simulations cannot persist for a long time and should not affect the long-term orbital inspiral. We also review existing simulations of SMBH binary–disk coupling and propose a numerical setup which is particularly well suited to verifying our theoretical predictions.
Massive Black Hole Mergers: Can we see what LISA will hear?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are formed when galaxies merge. The final stages of this coalescence produce strong gravitational wave signals that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. When the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Meng-Ru; Fernández, Rodrigo; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel; Metzger, Brian D.
2016-08-01
We consider r-process nucleosynthesis in outflows from black hole accretion disks formed in double neutron star and neutron star - black hole mergers. These outflows, powered by angular momentum transport processes and nuclear recombination, represent an important - and in some cases dominant - contribution to the total mass ejected by the merger. Here we calculate the nucleosynthesis yields from disk outflows using thermodynamic trajectories from hydrodynamic simulations, coupled to a nuclear reaction network. We find that outflows produce a robust abundance pattern around the second r-process peak (mass number A ˜ 130), independent of model parameters, with significant production of A < 130 nuclei. This implies that dynamical ejecta with high electron fraction may not be required to explain the observed abundances of r-process elements in metal poor stars. Disk outflows reach the third peak (A ˜ 195) in most of our simulations, although the amounts produced depend sensitively on the disk viscosity, initial mass or entropy of the torus, and nuclear physics inputs. Some of our models produce an abundance spike at A = 132 that is absent in the Solar System r-process distribution. The spike arises from convection in the disk and depends on the treatment of nuclear heating in the simulations. We conclude that disk outflows provide an important - and perhaps dominant - contribution to the r-process yields of compact binary mergers, and hence must be included when assessing the contribution of these systems to the inventory of r-process elements in the Galaxy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.
The r-process in black hole-neutron star mergers based on a fully general-relativistic simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nishimura, N.; Wanajo, S.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Kiuchi, K.; Kyutoku, K.; Shibata, M.
2016-01-01
We investigate the black hole-neutron star binary merger in the contest of the r-process nucleosynthesis. Employing a hydrodynamical model simulated in the framework of full general relativity, we perform nuclear reaction network calculations. The extremely neutron-rich matter with the total mass 0.01 M⊙ is ejected, in which a strong r-process with fission cycling proceeds due to the high neutron number density. We discuss relevant astrophysical issues such as the origin of r-process elements as well as the r-process powered electromagnetic transients.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2010-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shibata, Masaru; Taniguchi, Keisuke
2006-03-01
Three-dimensional simulations for the merger of binary neutron stars are performed in the framework of full general relativity. We pay particular attention to the black hole formation case and to the resulting mass of the surrounding disk for exploring the possibility for formation of the central engine of short-duration gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). Hybrid equations of state are adopted mimicking realistic, stiff nuclear equations of state (EOSs), for which the maximum allowed gravitational mass of cold and spherical neutron stars, Msph, is larger than 2M⊙. Such stiff EOSs are adopted motivated by the recent possible discovery of a heavy neutron star of mass ˜2.1±0.2M⊙. For the simulations, we focus on binary neutron stars of the ADM mass M≳2.6M⊙. For an ADM mass larger than the threshold mass Mthr, the merger results in prompt formation of a black hole irrespective of the mass ratio QM with 0.65≲QM≤1. The value of Mthr depends on the EOSs and is approximately written as 1.3 1.35Msph for the chosen EOSs. For the black hole formation case, we evolve the space-time using a black hole excision technique and determine the mass of a quasistationary disk surrounding the black hole. The disk mass steeply increases with decreasing the value of QM for given ADM mass and EOS. This suggests that a merger with small value of QM is a candidate for producing central engine of SGRBs. For M
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gualandris, Alessia; Merritt, David
2012-01-01
We simulate mergers between galaxies containing collisionally relaxed nuclei around massive black holes (MBHs). Our galaxies contain four mass groups, representative of old stellar populations; a primary goal is to understand the distribution of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) after the merger. Mergers are followed using direct-summation N-body simulations, assuming a mass ratio of 1:3 and two different orbits. Evolution of the binary MBH is followed until its separation has shrunk by a factor of 20 below the hard-binary separation. During the galaxy merger, large cores are carved out in the stellar distribution, with radii several times the influence radius of the massive binary. Much of the pre-existing mass segregation is erased during this phase. We follow the evolution of the merged galaxies for approximately three central relaxation times after coalescence of the massive binary; both standard and top-heavy mass functions are considered. The cores that were formed in the stellar distribution persist, and the distribution of the stellar-mass BHs evolves against this essentially fixed background. Even after one central relaxation time, these models look very different from the relaxed, multi-mass models that are often assumed to describe the distribution of stars and stellar remnants near a massive BH. While the stellar BHs do form a cusp on roughly a relaxation timescale, the BH density can be much smaller than in those models. We discuss the implications of our results for the extreme-mass-ratio inspiral problem and for the existence of Bahcall-Wolf cusps.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bing
2016-08-01
The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH–BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH–BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}∼ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}∼ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamazaki, Ryo; Asano, Katsuaki; Ohira, Yutaka
2016-05-01
The Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor reported the possible detection of the gamma-ray counterpart of a binary black hole merger event, GW150914. We show that the gamma-ray emission is caused by a relativistic outflow with Lorentz factor larger than 10. Subsequently, debris outflow pushes the ambient gas to form a shock, which is responsible for the afterglow synchrotron emission. We find that the 1.4 GHz radio flux peaks at {˜ }10^5 s after the burst trigger. If the ambient matter is dense enough, with density larger than {˜ }10^{-2} cm^{-3}, then the peak radio flux is {˜ }0.1 mJy, which is detectable with radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array. The optical afterglow peaks earlier than the radio, and if the ambient matter density is larger than {˜ }0.1 cm^{-3}, the optical flux is detectable with large telescopes such as the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam. To reveal the currently unknown mechanisms of the outflow and its gamma-ray emission associated with the binary black hole merger event, follow-up electromagnetic observations of afterglows are important. Detection of the afterglow will localize the sky position of the gravitational wave and gamma-ray emissions, and it will support the physical association between them.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Bing
2016-08-01
The discoveries of GW150914, GW151226, and LVT151012 suggest that double black hole (BH–BH) mergers are common in the universe. If at least one of the two merging black holes (BHs) carries a certain amount of charge, possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere, the inspiral of a BH–BH system would drive a global magnetic dipole normal to the orbital plane. The rapidly evolving magnetic moment during the merging process would drive a Poynting flux with an increasing wind power. The magnetospheric activities during the final phase of the merger would make a fast radio burst (FRB) if the BH charge can be as large as a factor of \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-9{--}{10}-8) of the critical charge Q c of the BH. At large radii, dissipation of the Poynting flux energy in the outflow would power a short-duration high-energy transient, which would appear as a detectable short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) if the charge can be as large as \\hat{q}˜ ({10}-5{--}{10}-4). The putative short GRB coincident with GW150914 recorded by Fermi GBM may be interpreted with this model. Future joint GW/GRB/FRB searches would lead to a measurement or place a constraint on the charges carried by isolate BHs.
Prospects for true calorimetry on Kerr black holes in core-collapse supernovae and mergers
Putten, Maurice H. P. M. van; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Masa-Katsu, Fujimoto; Della Valle, Massimo
2011-02-15
Observational evidence for black hole spin down has been found in the normalized light curves of long gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE catalog. Over the duration T{sub 90} of the burst, matter swept up by the central black hole is susceptible to nonaxisymmetries, producing gravitational radiation with a negative chirp. A time-sliced matched filtering method is introduced to capture phase coherence on intermediate time scales, {tau}, here tested by the injection of templates into experimental strain noise, h{sub n}(t). For TAMA 300, h{sub n}(f){approx_equal}10{sup -21} Hz{sup -1/2} at f=1 kHz gives a sensitivity distance for a reasonably accurate extraction of the trajectory in the time-frequency domain of about D{approx_equal}0.07-0.10 Mpc for the spin down of black holes of mass M=10-12M{sub {center_dot}} with {tau}=1 s. Extrapolation to advanced detectors implies D{approx_equal}35-50 Mpc for h{sub n}(f){approx_equal}2x10{sup -24} Hz{sup -1/2} around 1 kHz, which will open a new window to rigorous calorimetry on Kerr black holes.
Prospects for true calorimetry on Kerr black holes in core-collapse supernovae and mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Masa-Katsu, Fujimoto; Della Valle, Massimo
2011-02-01
Observational evidence for black hole spin down has been found in the normalized light curves of long gamma-ray bursts in the BATSE catalog. Over the duration T90 of the burst, matter swept up by the central black hole is susceptible to nonaxisymmetries, producing gravitational radiation with a negative chirp. A time-sliced matched filtering method is introduced to capture phase coherence on intermediate time scales, τ, here tested by the injection of templates into experimental strain noise, hn(t). For TAMA 300, hn(f)≃10-21Hz-1/2 at f=1kHz gives a sensitivity distance for a reasonably accurate extraction of the trajectory in the time-frequency domain of about D≃0.07-0.10Mpc for the spin down of black holes of mass M=10-12M⊙ with τ=1s. Extrapolation to advanced detectors implies D≃35-50Mpc for hn(f)≃2×10-24Hz-1/2 around 1 kHz, which will open a new window to rigorous calorimetry on Kerr black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Takashi; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Takahiro
2016-02-01
Recent population synthesis simulations of Pop III stars suggest that the event rate of coalescence of ˜30 M⊙-30 M⊙ binary black holes can be high enough for the detection by the second generation gravitational wave detectors. The frequencies of chirp signal as well as quasinormal modes are near the best sensitivity of these detectors so that it would be possible to confirm Einstein's general relativity. Using the WKB method, we suggest that for the typical value of spin parameter a /M ˜0.7 from numerical relativity results of the coalescence of binary black holes, the strong gravity of the black hole space-time at around the radius 2 M , which is just ˜1.17 times the event horizon radius, would be confirmed as predicted by general relativity. The expected event rate with the signal-to-noise ratio >35 needed for the determination of the quasinormal mode frequency with a meaningful accuracy is 0.17 -7.2 events yr-1 [(SFRp/(1 0-2.5M⊙ yr-1 Mpc-3)) .([fb/(1 +fb)]/0.33 ) ], where SFRp and fb are the peak value of the Pop III star formation rate and the fraction of binaries, respectively. As for the possible optical counterpart, if the merged black hole of mass M ˜60 M⊙ is in the interstellar matter with n ˜100 cm-3 and the proper motion of the black hole is ˜1 km s-1 , the luminosity is ˜1040 erg s-1 which can be detected up to ˜300 Mpc , for example, by Subaru-HSC and LSST with the limiting magnitude 26.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Luminet, Jean-Pierre
1992-09-01
Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mink, S. E.; Belczynski, K.
2015-11-01
The initial mass function (IMF), binary fraction, and distributions of binary parameters (mass ratios, separations, and eccentricities) are indispensable inputs for simulations of stellar populations. It is often claimed that these are poorly constrained, significantly affecting evolutionary predictions. Recently, dedicated observing campaigns have provided new constraints on the initial conditions for massive stars. Findings include a larger close binary fraction and a stronger preference for very tight systems. We investigate the impact on the predicted merger rates of neutron stars and black holes. Despite the changes with previous assumptions, we only find an increase of less than a factor of 2 (insignificant compared with evolutionary uncertainties of typically a factor of 10–100). We further show that the uncertainties in the new initial binary properties do not significantly affect (within a factor of 2) our predictions of double compact object merger rates. An exception is the uncertainty in IMF (variations by a factor of 6 up and down). No significant changes in the distributions of final component masses, mass ratios, chirp masses, and delay times are found. We conclude that the predictions are, for practical purposes, robust against uncertainties in the initial conditions concerning binary parameters, with the exception of the IMF. This eliminates an important layer of the many uncertain assumptions affecting the predictions of merger detection rates with the gravitational wave detectors aLIGO/aVirgo.
Rapid merger of binary primordial black holes: An implication for GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayasaki, Kimitake; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Nagataki, Shigehiro
2016-07-01
We propose a new scenario for the evolution of the binaries of primordial black holes (PBH). We consider dynamical friction by ambient dark matter, scattering of dark matter particles with a highly eccentric orbit besides the standard two-body relaxation process to refill the loss cone, and interaction between the binary and a circumbinary disk, assuming that PBHs do not constitute the bulk of dark matter. Binary PBHs lose the energy and angular momentum by these processes, which could be sufficiently efficient for a typical configuration. Such a binary coalesces due to the gravitational wave emission on a time scale much shorter than the age of the universe. We estimate the density parameter of the resultant gravitational wave background. Astrophysical implications concerning the formation of intermediate-mass to supermassive black holes is also discussed.
Rapid merger of binary primordial black holes: An implication for GW150914
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayasaki, Kimitake; Takahashi, Keitaro; Sendouda, Yuuiti; Nagataki, Shigehiro
2016-08-01
We propose a new scenario for the evolution of the binaries of primordial black holes (PBH). We consider dynamical friction by ambient dark matter, scattering of dark matter particles with a highly eccentric orbit besides the standard two-body relaxation process to refill the loss cone, and interaction between the binary and a circumbinary disk, assuming that PBHs do not constitute the bulk of dark matter. Binary PBHs lose the energy and angular momentum by these processes, which could be sufficiently efficient for a typical configuration. Such a binary coalesces due to the gravitational wave emission on a time scale much shorter than the age of the universe. We estimate the density parameter of the resultant gravitational wave background. Astrophysical implications concerning the formation of intermediate-mass to supermassive black holes is also discussed.
Fischetti, Sebastian; Cadonati, Laura; Mohapatra, Satyanarayan R. P.; Healy, James; London, Lionel; Shoemaker, Deirdre
2011-02-15
Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in numerical relativity and an ever improving performance of ground-based interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In preparation for the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (Advanced LIGO) and a new era in gravitational wave astronomy, the numerical relativity and gravitational wave data analysis communities are collaborating to ascertain the most useful role for numerical relativity waveforms in the detection and characterization of binary black hole coalescences. In this paper, we explore the detectability of equal mass, merging black hole binaries with precessing spins and total mass M{sub T}(set-membership sign)[80,350]M{sub {center_dot}}, using numerical relativity waveforms and templateless search algorithms designed for gravitational wave bursts. In particular, we present a systematic study using waveforms produced by the MayaKranc code that are added to colored, Gaussian noise and analyzed with the Omega burst search algorithm. Detection efficiency is weighed against the orientation of one of the black-hole's spin axes. We find a strong correlation between the detection efficiency and the radiated energy and angular momentum, and that the inclusion of the l=2, m={+-}1, 0 modes, at a minimum, is necessary to account for the full dynamics of precessing systems.
The Centennial of GR: Looking forward to Black Hole Mergers at Cosmic Dawn
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornish, Neil J.
2015-01-01
Einstein's theory of gravity has fundamentally altered mankind's conception of the Universe and its contents. Once outlandish notions such as the Universe expanding from a mere speck to its current vast size, or stars collapsing to form black holes are now well supported pillars of modern astronomy. Gravity is the dominant force that shapes the Universe, and gravity is behind all extremely energetic astrophysical phenomena. However, we are currently blind to the most powerful events in nature - bursts of pure gravitational wave energy from the collision of two black holes. A Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be able to record these collisions throughout the Universe, and provide unique insights into the co-evolution of galaxies and massive black holes. Motivated by the GR centennial, I'll take a look back at the rich and turbulent history of the LISA mission, and a look forward to the incredible science potential of its current incarnation as the European L3 eLISA mission.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-05-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, John
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tanikawa, A.
2013-10-01
We have performed N-body simulations of globular clusters (GCs) in order to estimate a detection rate of mergers of binary stellar mass black holes (BBHs) by means of gravitational wave (GW) observatories. For our estimate, we have only considered mergers of BBHs which escape from GCs (BBH escapers). BBH escapers merge more quickly than BBHs inside GCs because of their small semimajor axes. N-body simulation cannot deal with a GC with the number of stars N ˜ 106 due to its high calculation cost. We have simulated dynamical evolution of small N clusters (104 ≲ N ≲ 105), and have extrapolated our simulation results to large N clusters. From our simulation results, we have found the following dependence of BBH properties on N. BBHs escape from a cluster at each two-body relaxation time at a rate proportional to N. Semimajor axes of BBH escapers are inversely proportional to N, if initial mass densities of clusters are fixed. Eccentricities, primary masses and mass ratios of BBH escapers are independent of N. Using this dependence of BBH properties, we have artificially generated a population of BBH escapers from a GC with N ˜ 106, and have estimated a detection rate of mergers of BBH escapers by next-generation GW observatories. We have assumed that all the GCs are formed 10 or 12 Gyr ago with their initial numbers of stars Ni = 5 × 105-2 × 106 and their initial stellar mass densities inside their half-mass radii ρh,i = 6 × 103-106 M⊙ pc-3. Then, the detection rate of BBH escapers is 0.5-20 yr-1 for a BH retention fraction RBH = 0.5. A few BBH escapers are components of hierarchical triple systems, although we do not consider secular perturbation on such BBH escapers for our estimate. Our simulations have shown that BHs are still inside some of GCs at the present day. These BHs may marginally contribute to BBH detection.
Relativistic mergers of black hole binaries have large, similar masses, low spins and are circular
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Chen, Xian
2016-05-01
Gravitational waves are a prediction of general relativity, and with ground-based detectors now running in their advanced configuration, we will soon be able to measure them directly for the first time. Binaries of stellar-mass black holes are among the most interesting sources for these detectors. Unfortunately, the many different parameters associated with the problem make it difficult to promptly produce a large set of waveforms for the search in the data stream. To reduce the number of templates to develop, one must restrict some of the physical parameters to a certain range of values predicted by either (electromagnetic) observations or theoretical modelling. In this work, we show that `hyperstellar' black holes (HSBs) with masses 30 ≲ MBH/M⊙ ≲ 100, i.e black holes significantly larger than the nominal 10 M⊙, will have an associated low value for the spin, i.e. a < 0.5. We prove that this is true regardless of the formation channel, and that when two HSBs build a binary, each of the spin magnitudes is also low, and the binary members have similar masses. We also address the distribution of the eccentricities of HSB binaries in dense stellar systems using a large suite of three-body scattering experiments that include binary-single interactions and long-lived hierarchical systems with a highly accurate integrator, including relativistic corrections up to O(1/c^5). We find that most sources in the detector band will have nearly zero eccentricities. This correlation between large, similar masses, low spin and low eccentricity will help to accelerate the searches for gravitational-wave signals.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taracchini, Andrea
The long-sought direct detection of gravitational waves may only be a few years away, as a new generation of interferometric experiments of unprecedented sensitivity will start operating in 2015. These experiments will look for gravitational waves with frequencies from 10 to about 1000 Hz, thus targeting astrophysical sources such as coalescing binaries of compact objects, core collapse supernovae, and spinning neutron stars, among others. The search strategy for gravitational waves emitted by compact-object binaries consists in filtering the output of the detectors with template waveforms that describe plausible signals, as predicted by general relativity, in order to increase the signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, we modeled these systems through the effective-one-body approach to the general-relativistic 2-body problem. This formalism rests on the idea that binary coalescence is universal across different mass ratios, from the test-particle limit to the equal-mass regime. It bridges the gap between post-Newtonian theory (valid in the slow-motion, weak-field limit) and black-hole perturbation theory (valid in the small mass-ratio limit, but not limited to slow motion). The project unfolded along two main avenues of inquiry, with the goal of developing faithful inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms for generic spinning, stellar-mass black-hole binaries. On the one hand, we studied the motion and gravitational radiation of test masses orbiting Kerr black holes in perturbation theory, with the goal of extracting strong-field information that can be incorporated into effective-one-body models. On the other hand, we worked at the interface between analytical and numerical relativity by calibrating effective-one-body models against numerical solutions of Einstein's equations, and testing their accuracy when extrapolated to different regions of the parameter space. In the course of this project, we also studied conservative effects of the 2-body dynamics, namely the
ULTRAMASSIVE BLACK HOLE COALESCENCE
Khan, Fazeel Mahmood; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Berczik, Peter E-mail: k.holley@vanderbilt.edu
2015-01-10
Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC 1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC 1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gravitational wave emission dominates, and the black holes coalesce in a mere few Myr. Curiously, these extremely massive binaries appear to nearly bypass the three-body scattering evolutionary phase. Our study suggests that in this extreme case, SMBH coalescence is governed by dynamical friction followed nearly directly by gravitational wave emission, resulting in a rapid and efficient SMBH coalescence timescale. We discuss the implications for gravitational wave event rates and hypervelocity star production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalaghatgi, Chinmay; Ajith, Parameswaran; Arun, K. G.
2015-06-01
Searches for gravitational waves (GWs) from binary black holes using interferometric GW detectors require the construction of template banks for performing matched filtering while analyzing the data. Placement of templates over the parameter space of binaries, as well as coincidence tests of GW triggers from multiple detectors make use of the definition of a metric over the space of gravitational waveforms. Although recent searches have employed waveform templates coherently describing the inspiral, merger and ringdown (IMR) of the coalescence, the metric used in the template banks and coincidence tests was derived from post-Newtonian inspiral waveforms. In this paper, we compute (semianalytically) the template-space metric of the IMR waveform family IMRPhenomB over the parameter space of masses and the effective spin parameter. We also propose a coordinate system, which is a modified version of post-Newtonian chirp time coordinates, in which the metric is slowly varying over the parameter space. The match function semianalytically computed using the metric has excellent agreement with the "exact" match function computed numerically. We show that the metric is able to provide a reasonable approximation to the match function of other IMR waveform families, such that the effective-one-body model calibrated to numerical relativity (EOBNRv2). The availability of this metric can contribute to improving the sensitivity of searches for GWs from binary black holes in the advanced detector era.
The interplay of disc wind and dynamical ejecta in the aftermath of neutron star-black hole mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fernández, Rodrigo; Quataert, Eliot; Schwab, Josiah; Kasen, Daniel; Rosswog, Stephan
2015-05-01
We explore the evolution of the different ejecta components generated during the merger of a neutron star and a black hole. Our focus is the interplay between material ejected dynamically during the merger, and the wind launched on a viscous time-scale by the remnant accretion disc. These components are expected to contribute to an electromagnetic transient and to produce r-process elements, each with a different signature when considered separately. Here we introduce a two-step approach to investigate their combined evolution, using two- and three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations. Starting from the output of a merger simulation, we identify each component in the initial condition based on its phase-space distribution, and evolve the accretion disc in axisymmetry. The wind blown from this disc is injected into a three-dimensional computational domain where the dynamical ejecta is evolved. We find that the wind can suppress fallback accretion on time-scales longer than ˜100 ms. Because of self-similar viscous evolution, the disc accretion at late times nevertheless approaches a power-law time dependence ∝t-2.2. This can power some late-time gamma-ray burst engine activity, although the available energy is significantly less than in traditional fallback models. Inclusion of radioactive heating due to the r-process does not significantly affect the fallback accretion rate or the disc wind. We do not find any significant modification to the wind properties at large radius due to interaction with the dynamical ejecta. This is a consequence of the different expansion velocities of the two components.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mayer, Lucio
2013-12-01
We revisit the phases of the pairing and sinking of black holes (BHs) in galaxy mergers and circumnuclear discs in light of the results of recent simulations with massive BHs embedded in predominantly gaseous backgrounds. After a general overview we highlight for the first time the existence of a clear transition, for unequal mass BHs, between the regime in which the orbital decay is dominated by the conventional dynamical friction wake and one in which global disc torques associated with density waves launched by the secondary BH as well as co-orbital torques arising from gas gravitationally captured by the BH dominate and lead to faster decay. The new regime intervenes at BH binary separations of a few tens of parsecs and below, following a phase of orbital circularization driven dynamical friction. It bears some resemblance with planet migration in protoplanetary discs. While the orbital timescale is reasonably matched by the migration rate for the Type-I regime, the dominant negative torque arises near the co-rotation resonance, which is qualitatively similar to what is found in the so-called Type-III migration, the fastest migration regime identified so far for planets. This fast decay rate brings the BHs to separations of order 10-1 pc, the resolution limit of our simulations, in less than ˜107 yr in a smooth disc, while the decay timescale can increase to >108 yr in clumpy discs due to gravitational scattering with molecular clouds. Eventual gap opening at sub-pc scale separations will slow down the orbital decay subsequently. How fast the binary BH can reach the separation at which gravitational waves take over will be determined by the nature of the interaction with the circumbinary disc and the complex torques exerted the gas flowing through the edge of such disc, the subject of many recent studies. We also present a new intriguing connection between the conditions required for rapid orbital decay of massive BH binaries and those required for prominent
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2010-01-01
Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Close encounters of three black holes
Campanelli, Manuela; Lousto, Carlos O.; Zlochower, Yosef
2008-05-15
We present the first fully relativistic long-term numerical evolutions of three equal-mass black holes in a system consisting of a third black hole in a close orbit about a black-hole binary. These close-three-black-hole systems have very different merger dynamics from black-hole binaries; displaying complex trajectories, a redistribution of energy that can impart substantial kicks to one of the holes, distinctive waveforms, and suppression of the emitted gravitational radiation. In one configuration the binary is quickly disrupted and the individual holes follow complicated trajectories and merge with the third hole in rapid succession, while in another, the binary completes a half-orbit before the initial merger of one of the members with the third black hole, and the resulting two-black-hole system forms a highly elliptical, well separated binary that shows no significant inspiral for (at least) the first t{approx}1000M of evolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aasi, J.; Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allocca, A.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Ast, S.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Bao, Y.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Bell, C.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bhadbade, T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bond, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H. S.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J. A.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Damjanic, M.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Degallaix, J.; Del Pozzo, W.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorsher, S.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Farr, B. F.; Favata, M.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Ferrante, I.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Franco, S.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M. A.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gelencser, G.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil-Casanova, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gray, C.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Griffo, C.; Grote, H.; Grover, K.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Heurs, M.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasprzack, M.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kaufman, K.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Keitel, D.; Kelley, D.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Keresztes, Z.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B. K.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y. M.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kline, J.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kurdyumov, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Langley, A.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Le Roux, A.; Leaci, P.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Lhuillier, V.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Lindquist, P. E.; Litvine, V.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Logue, J.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macarthur, J.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Malvezzi, V.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Menéndez, D. F.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mingarelli, C. M. F.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mosca, S.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Necula, V.; Nelson, J.; Neri, I.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Oldenberg, R. G.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoletti, R.; Papa, M. A.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Pedraza, M.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Phelps, M.; Pichot, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pihlaja, M.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Poggiani, R.; Pöld, J.; Postiglione, F.; Poux, C.; Prato, M.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramet, C.; Rankins, B.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Roberts, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sankar, S.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Santostasi, G.; Saracco, E.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sidery, T. L.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Simakov, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Speirits, F. C.; Sperandio, L.; Stefszky, M.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Szeifert, G.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, R.; ter Braack, A. P. M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Titsler, C.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C. V.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tse, M.; Ugolini, D.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A. E.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Welborn, T.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wiesner, K.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yablon, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yvert, M.; Zadrożny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.
2013-01-01
We report a search for gravitational waves from the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black holes (BBH) with total mass between 25 and 100 solar masses, in data taken at the LIGO and Virgo observatories between July 7, 2009 and October 20, 2010. The maximum sensitive distance of the detectors over this period for a (20,20)M⊙ coalescence was 300 Mpc. No gravitational wave signals were found. We thus report upper limits on the astrophysical coalescence rates of BBH as a function of the component masses for nonspinning components, and also evaluate the dependence of the search sensitivity on component spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum. We find an upper limit at 90% confidence on the coalescence rate of BBH with nonspinning components of mass between 19 and 28M⊙ of 3.3×10-7 mergers Mpc-3yr-1.
When Charged Black Holes Merge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2016-08-01
Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge
Deaton, M. Brett; Duez, Matthew D.; Foucart, Francois; O'Connor, Evan; Ott, Christian D.; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Muhlberger, Curran D. E-mail: m.duez@wsu.edu
2013-10-10
Neutrino emission significantly affects the evolution of the accretion tori formed in black hole-neutron star mergers. It removes energy from the disk, alters its composition, and provides a potential power source for a gamma-ray burst. To study these effects, simulations in general relativity with a hot microphysical equation of state (EOS) and neutrino feedback are needed. We present the first such simulation, using a neutrino leakage scheme for cooling to capture the most essential effects and considering a moderate mass (1.4 M{sub ☉} neutron star, 5.6 M{sub ☉} black hole), high-spin (black hole J/M {sup 2} = 0.9) system with the K{sub 0} = 220 MeV Lattimer-Swesty EOS. We find that about 0.08 M{sub ☉} of nuclear matter is ejected from the system, while another 0.3 M{sub ☉} forms a hot, compact accretion disk. The primary effects of the escaping neutrinos are (1) to make the disk much denser and more compact, (2) to cause the average electron fraction Y{sub e} of the disk to rise to about 0.2 and then gradually decrease again, and (3) to gradually cool the disk. The disk is initially hot (T ∼ 6 MeV) and luminous in neutrinos (L{sub ν} ∼ 10{sup 54} erg s{sup –1}), but the neutrino luminosity decreases by an order of magnitude over 50 ms of post-merger evolution.
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Modeling Flows Around Merging Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are produced by the merger of galaxies. The final stages of the black hole coalescence produce strong gravitational radiation that can be detected by the space-borne LISA. In cases in which the black hole merger takes place in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Modeling such electromagnetic counterparts of the final merger requires evolving the behavior of both gas and fields in the strong-field regions around the black holes. We have taken a first step towards this problem by mapping the flow of pressureless matter in the dynamic, 3-D general relativistic spacetime around the merging black holes. We report on the results of these initial simulations and discuss their likely importance for future hydrodynamical simulations.
Cisternas, Mauricio; Jahnke, Knud; Inskip, Katherine J.; Robaina, Aday R.; Andrae, Rene; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lisker, Thorsten; Scodeggio, Marco; Sheth, Kartik; Capak, Peter; Trump, Jonathan R.; Impey, Chris D.; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Lusso, Elisabeta; Brusa, Marcella; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Ilbert, Olivier; Leauthaud, Alexie
2011-01-10
What is the relevance of major mergers and interactions as triggering mechanisms for active galactic nuclei (AGNs) activity? To answer this long-standing question, we analyze 140 XMM-Newton-selected AGN host galaxies and a matched control sample of 1264 inactive galaxies over z {approx} 0.3-1.0 and M{sub *} < 10{sup 11.7} M{sub sun} with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging from the COSMOS field. The visual analysis of their morphologies by 10 independent human classifiers yields a measure of the fraction of distorted morphologies in the AGN and control samples, i.e., quantifying the signature of recent mergers which might potentially be responsible for fueling/triggering the AGN. We find that (1) the vast majority (>85%) of the AGN host galaxies do not show strong distortions and (2) there is no significant difference in the distortion fractions between active and inactive galaxies. Our findings provide the best direct evidence that, since z {approx} 1, the bulk of black hole (BH) accretion has not been triggered by major galaxy mergers, therefore arguing that the alternative mechanisms, i.e., internal secular processes and minor interactions, are the leading triggers for the episodes of major BH growth. We also exclude an alternative interpretation of our results: a substantial time lag between merging and the observability of the AGN phase could wash out the most significant merging signatures, explaining the lack of enhancement of strong distortions on the AGN hosts. We show that this alternative scenario is unlikely due to (1) recent major mergers being ruled out for the majority of sources due to the high fraction of disk-hosted AGNs, (2) the lack of a significant X-ray signal in merging inactive galaxies as a signature of a potential buried AGN, and (3) the low levels of soft X-ray obscuration for AGNs hosted by interacting galaxies, in contrast to model predictions.
Binary pairs of supermassive black holes - Formation in merging galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valtaoja, L.; Valtonen, M. J.; Byrd, G. G.
1989-08-01
A process in which supermassive binary blackholes are formed in nuclei of supergiant galaxies due to galaxy mergers is examined. There is growing evidence that mergers of galaxies are common and that supermassive black holes in center of galaxies are also common. Consequently, it is expected that binary black holes should arise in connection with galaxy mergers. The merger process in a galaxy modeled after M87 is considered. The capture probability of a companion is derived as a function of its mass. Assuming a correlation between the galaxy mass and the blackholes mass, the expected mass ratio in binary black holes is calculated. The binary black holes formed in this process are long lived, surviving longer than the Hubble time unless they are perturbed by black holes from successive mergers. The properties of these binaries agree with Gaskell's (1988) observational work on quasars and its interpretation in terms of binary black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mink, S. E.; Mandel, I.
2016-08-01
We explore the predictions for detectable gravitational-wave signals from merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in massive short-period stellar binaries. We find that ˜500 events per year could be detected with advanced ground-based detectors operating at full sensitivity. We analyse the distribution of detectable events, and conclude that there is a very strong preference for detecting events with nearly equal components (mass ratio >0.66 at 90 per cent confidence in our default model) and high masses (total source-frame mass between 57 and 103 M⊙ at 90 per cent confidence). We consider multiple alternative variations to analyse the sensitivity to uncertainties in the evolutionary physics and cosmological parameters, and conclude that while the rates are sensitive to assumed variations, the mass distributions are robust predictions. Finally, we consider the recently reported results of the analysis of the first 16 double-coincident days of the O1 LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) observing run, and find that this formation channel is fully consistent with the inferred parameters of the GW150914 binary black hole detection and the inferred merger rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mink, S. E.; Mandel, I.
2016-08-01
We explore the predictions for detectable gravitational-wave signals from merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in massive short-period stellar binaries. We find that $\\sim 500$ events per year could be detected with advanced ground-based detectors operating at full sensitivity. We analyze the distribution of detectable events, and conclude that there is a very strong preference for detecting events with nearly equal components (mass ratio $>0.66$ at 90\\% confidence in our default model) and high masses (total source-frame mass between $57$ and $103\\, M_\\odot$ at 90\\% confidence). We consider multiple alternative variations to analyze the sensitivity to uncertainties in the evolutionary physics and cosmological parameters, and conclude that while the rates are sensitive to assumed variations, the mass distributions are robust predictions. Finally, we consider the recently reported results of the analysis of the first 16 double-coincident days of the O1 LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) observing run, and find that this formation channel is fully consistent with the inferred parameters of the GW150914 binary black hole detection and the inferred merger rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Mink, S. E.; Mandel, I.
2016-05-01
We explore the predictions for detectable gravitational-wave signals from merging binary black holes formed through chemically homogeneous evolution in massive short-period stellar binaries. We find that ˜500 events per year could be detected with advanced ground-based detectors operating at full sensitivity. We analyze the distribution of detectable events, and conclude that there is a very strong preference for detecting events with nearly equal components (mass ratio >0.66 at 90% confidence in our default model) and high masses (total source-frame mass between 57 and 103 M⊙ at 90% confidence). We consider multiple alternative variations to analyze the sensitivity to uncertainties in the evolutionary physics and cosmological parameters, and conclude that while the rates are sensitive to assumed variations, the mass distributions are robust predictions. Finally, we consider the recently reported results of the analysis of the first 16 double-coincident days of the O1 LIGO observing run, and find that this formation channel is fully consistent with the inferred parameters of the GW150914 binary black hole detection and the inferred merger rate.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukue, Jun
2000-08-01
A black hole falling into the Earth would syndrome toward the center, while it would shine through mass accretion. The author has re-examined the dynamics of such a black hole in the Earth. In the case of a non-radiating black hole, the timescale of the syndrome is inversely proportional to the initial mass of the black hole. In the case of a radiating black hole, on the other hand, the syndrome time is of the order of the Eddington time. The radiating black hole in the Earth would act as a strong heat source.
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Chen Yanbei; Cohen, Michael; Kaplan, Jeffrey D.; Keppel, Drew; Matthews, Keith D.; Nichols, David A.; Scheel, Mark A.; Sperhake, Ulrich
2010-09-15
Research on extracting science from binary-black-hole (BBH) simulations has often adopted a 'scattering matrix' perspective: given the binary's initial parameters, what are the final hole's parameters and the emitted gravitational waveform? In contrast, we are using BBH simulations to explore the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. Focusing on the head-on plunge, merger, and ringdown of a BBH with transverse, antiparallel spins, we explore numerically the momentum flow between the holes and the surrounding spacetime. We use the Landau-Lifshitz field-theory-in-flat-spacetime formulation of general relativity to define and compute the density of field energy and field momentum outside horizons and the energy and momentum contained within horizons, and we define the effective velocity of each apparent and event horizon as the ratio of its enclosed momentum to its enclosed mass-energy. We find surprisingly good agreement between the horizons' effective and coordinate velocities. During the plunge, the holes experience a frame-dragging-induced acceleration orthogonal to the plane of their spins and their infall ('downward'), and they reach downward speeds of order 1000 km/s. When the common apparent horizon forms (and when the event horizons merge and their merged neck expands), the horizon swallows upward field momentum that resided between the holes, causing the merged hole to accelerate in the opposite ('upward') direction. As the merged hole and the field energy and momentum settle down, a pulsational burst of gravitational waves is emitted, and the merged hole has a final effective velocity of about 20 km/s upward, which agrees with the recoil velocity obtained by measuring the linear momentum carried to infinity by the emitted gravitational radiation. To investigate the gauge dependence of our results, we compare generalized harmonic and Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura-moving-puncture evolutions of physically similar initial data; although the generalized
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly
2016-04-01
Astronomers now know that supermassive black holes reside in nearly every galaxy.Though these black holes are an observational certainty, nearly every aspect of their evolution -- from their birth, to their fuel source, to their basic dynamics -- is a matter of lively debate. In principle, gas-rich major galaxy mergers can generate the central stockpile of fuel needed for a low mass central black hole seed to grow quickly into a supermassive one. During a galaxy merger, the black holes in each galaxy meet and form a supermassive binary black hole; as the binary orbit shrinks through its final parsec, it becomes the loudest gravitational wave source in the Universe and a powerful agent to sculpt the galactic center. This talk will touch on some current and ongoing work on refining our theories of how supermassive black hole binaries form, evolve within, and alter their galaxy host.
In this NASA Now episode, Dr. Daniel Patnaude talks about how his team discovered a baby black hole, why this is important and how black holes create tidal forces. Throughout his discussion, Patnau...
Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.
Prodan, Snezana; Antonini, Fabio; Perets, Hagai B. E-mail: antonini@cita.utoronto.ca
2015-02-01
Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around massive black holes (MBHs) in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBHs, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbits around MBHs are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e.g., Kozai-Lidov cycles). During periapsis approach, dissipative processes such as tidal friction may become highly efficient, and may lead to shrinkage of a binary orbit and even to its merger. Binaries in this environment can therefore significantly change their orbital evolution due to the MBH third-body perturbative effects. Such orbital evolution may impinge on their later stellar evolution. Here we follow the secular dynamics of such binaries and its coupling to tidal evolution, as well as the stellar evolution of such binaries on longer timescales. We find that stellar binaries in the central parts of nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are highly likely to evolve into eccentric and/or short-period binaries, and become strongly interacting binaries either on the main sequence (at which point they may even merge), or through their later binary stellar evolution. The central parts of NSCs therefore catalyze the formation and evolution of strongly interacting binaries, and lead to the enhanced formation of blue stragglers, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and possible supernova progenitors. Induced mergers/collisions may also lead to the formation of G2-like cloud-like objects such as the one recently observed in the Galactic center.
Pannarale, Francesco; Tonita, Aaryn; Rezzolla, Luciano E-mail: aaryn.tonita@aei.mpg.de
2011-02-01
The merger of a binary system composed of a black hole (BH) and a neutron star (NS) may leave behind a torus of hot, dense matter orbiting around the BH. While numerical-relativity simulations are necessary to simulate this process accurately, they are also computationally expensive and unable at present to cover the large space of possible parameters, which include the relative mass ratio, the stellar compactness, and the BH spin. To mitigate this and provide a first reasonable coverage of the space of parameters, we have developed a method for estimating the mass of the remnant torus from BH-NS mergers. The toy model makes use of an improved relativistic affine model to describe the tidal deformations of an extended tri-axial ellipsoid orbiting around a Kerr BH and measures the mass of the remnant torus by considering which of the fluid particles composing the star are on bound orbits at the time of the tidal disruption. We tune the toy model by using the results of fully general-relativistic simulations obtaining relative precisions of a few percent and use it to investigate the space of parameters extensively. In this way, we find that the torus mass is largest for systems with highly spinning BHs, small stellar compactnesses, and large mass ratios. As an example, tori as massive as M{sub b,tor} {approx_equal} 1.33 M{sub sun} can be produced for a very extended star with compactness C {approx_equal} 0.1 inspiralling around a BH with dimensionless spin parameter a = 0.85 and mass ratio q {approx_equal} 0.3. However, for a more astrophysically reasonable mass ratio q {approx_equal} 0.14 and a canonical value of the stellar compactness C {approx_equal} 0.145, the toy model sets a considerably smaller upper limit of M{sub b,tor} {approx}< 0.34 M{sub sun}.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Levin, Janna; D'Orazio, Daniel
2016-03-01
Black holes are dark dead stars. Neutron stars are giant magnets. As the neutron star orbits the black hole, an electronic circuit forms that generates a blast of power just before the black hole absorbs the neutron star whole. The black hole battery conceivably would be observable at cosmological distances. Possible channels for luminosity include synchro-curvature radiation, a blazing fireball, or even an unstable, short-lived black hole pulsar. As suggested by Mingarelli, Levin, and Lazio, some fraction of the battery power could also be reprocessed into coherent radio emission to populate a subclass of fast radio bursts.
Evolution of binary black-hole spacetimes.
Pretorius, Frans
2005-09-16
We describe early success in the evolution of binary black-hole spacetimes with a numerical code based on a generalization of harmonic coordinates. Indications are that with sufficient resolution this scheme is capable of evolving binary systems for enough time to extract information about the orbit, merger, and gravitational waves emitted during the event. As an example we show results from the evolution of a binary composed of two equal mass, nonspinning black holes, through a single plunge orbit, merger, and ringdown. The resultant black hole is estimated to be a Kerr black hole with angular momentum parameter a approximately 0.70. At present, lack of resolution far from the binary prevents an accurate estimate of the energy emitted, though a rough calculation suggests on the order of 5% of the initial rest mass of the system is radiated as gravitational waves during the final orbit and ringdown. PMID:16197061
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Powell, Meredith; Urry, C. Megan
2016-06-01
We study the role of mergers in the quenching of star formation in galaxies at the dominant epoch of their evolution, by examining their color-mass distributions for different morphology types. We use HST ACS data from the CANDELS/GOODS North and South fields for galaxies in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.3 and use GALFIT to fit them with sersic profiles, enabling us to classify each as bulge-dominated (early type) or disk-dominated (late type). We find that spirals and ellipticals have distinct color-mass distributions, similar to studies at z=0, in that each have quenching modes of differing time scales. The smooth decay to the red sequence for the disky galaxies corresponds to a slow exhaustion of gas, while the lack of elliptical galaxies in the `green valley' indicates a faster quenching time for galaxies that underwent a major merger. We compare the inactive galaxies to the AGN hosts and find that the AGN phase lasts well into the red sequence for both types of host galaxy, spanning the full color space. The results suggest that the AGN trigger mechanism, as well as the significance of AGN feedback, is dependent on the merger history of the host galaxy.
Binary black holes' effects on electromagnetic fields.
Palenzuela, Carlos; Anderson, Matthew; Lehner, Luis; Liebling, Steven L; Neilsen, David
2009-08-21
In addition to producing gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We here study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as a possible enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves. PMID:19792706
Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Xiao-Gang; Ma, Bo-Qiang
We show that black holes can be quantized in an intuitive and elegant way with results in agreement with conventional knowledge of black holes by using Bohr's idea of quantizing the motion of an electron inside the atom in quantum mechanics. We find that properties of black holes can also be derived from an ansatz of quantized entropy Δ S = 4π k Δ R/{{-{λ }}}, which was suggested in a previous work to unify the black hole entropy formula and Verlinde's conjecture to explain gravity as an entropic force. Such an Ansatz also explains gravity as an entropic force from quantum effect. This suggests a way to unify gravity with quantum theory. Several interesting and surprising results of black holes are given from which we predict the existence of primordial black holes ranging from Planck scale both in size and energy to big ones in size but with low energy behaviors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sciama, D. W.
A physical account of the processes of black hole explosions is presented. Black holes form when the degeneracy pressure in a neutron star can no longer balance gravitational forces because the mass of the star is too large. Although black holes absorb surrounding matter through the action of a gravitational field, quantum fluctuations have been theoretically demonstrated to occur in the vacuum, and feature a thermal character. The temperature field decreases outwards, in accordance with the nonuniformity of the gravitational field, but does allow thermal radiation, i.e., Hawking radiation, to escape the black hole. The time scale for the radiation shortens as the mass of the black hole decreases, until a time scale is reached which is short enough for the process to be called an explosion. Observations of electron-positron Hawking radiation are suggested to offer proof of a black hole explosion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Hyeyoun
2015-10-01
This thesis explores the evolution of different types of black holes, and the ways in which black hole dynamics can be used to answer questions about other physical systems. We first investigate the differences in observable gravitational effects between a four-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (RS) braneworld universe compared to a universe without the extra dimension, by considering a black hole solution to the braneworld model that is localized on the brane. When the brane has a negative cosmological constant, then for a certain range of parameters for the black hole, the intersection of the black hole with the brane approximates a Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole on the brane with corrections that fall off exponentially outside the horizon. We compute the quasinormal modes of the braneworld black hole, and compare them to the known quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole. We find that there are two distinct regions for the braneworld black hole solutions that are reflected in the dependence of the quasinormal modes on the black hole mass. The imaginary parts of the quasinormal modes display phenomenological similarities to the quasinormal modes of the three-dimensional BTZ black hole, indicating that nonlinear gravitational effects may not be enough to distinguish between a lower-dimensional theory and a theory derived from a higher-dimensional braneworld. Secondly, we consider the evolution of non-extremal black holes in N=4, d=2 supergravity, and investigate how such black holes might evolve over time if perturbed away from extremality. We study this problem in the probe limit by finding tunneling amplitudes for a Dirac field in a single-centered background, which gives the decay rates for the emission of charged probe black holes from the central black hole. We find that there is no minimum to the potential for the probe particles at a finite distance from the central black hole, so any probes that are emitted escape to infinity. If
Neutron tori around Kerr black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Witt, H. J.; Jaroszynski, M.; Haensel, P.; Paczynski, B.; Wambsganss, J.
1994-01-01
Models of stationary, axisymmetric, non-self-gravitating tori around stellar mass Kerr black holes are calculated. Such objects may form as a result of a merger between two neutron stars, a neutron star and a stellar mass black hole, or a 'failed supernova' collapse of a single rapidly rotating star. We explore a large range of parameters: the black hole mass and angular momentum, the torus mass, angular momentum and entropy. Physical conditions within the tori are similar to those in young and hot neutron stars, but their topology is different, and the range of masses and energies is much larger.
Begelman, Mitchell C
2003-06-20
Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity. PMID:12817138
Supermassive Black Holes and Galaxy Evolution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Merritt, D.
2004-01-01
Supermassive black holes appear to be generic components of galactic nuclei. The formation and growth of black holes is intimately connected with the evolution of galaxies on a wide range of scales. For instance, mergers between galaxies containing nuclear black holes would produce supermassive binaries which eventually coalesce via the emission of gravitational radiation. The formation and decay of these binaries is expected to produce a number of observable signatures in the stellar distribution. Black holes can also affect the large-scale structure of galaxies by perturbing the orbits of stars that pass through the nucleus. Large-scale N-body simulations are beginning to generate testable predictions about these processes which will allow us to draw inferences about the formation history of supermassive black holes.
Noncommutative Singular Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hamid Mehdipour, S.
2010-11-01
In this paper, applying the method of coordinate coherent states to describe a noncommutative model of Vaidya black holes leads to an exact (t — r) dependence of solution in terms of the noncommutative parameter σ. In this setup, there is no black hole remnant at long times.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1997-08-01
We summarise recent work on the quantum production of black holes in the inflationary era. We describe, in simple terms, the Euclidean approach used, and the results obtained both for the pair creation rate and for the evolution of the black holes.
Supermassive Black Hole Binaries: The Search Continues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogdanović, Tamara
Gravitationally bound supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) are thought to be a natural product of galactic mergers and growth of the large scale structure in the universe. They however remain observationally elusive, thus raising a question about characteristic observational signatures associated with these systems. In this conference proceeding I discuss current theoretical understanding and latest advances and prospects in observational searches for SBHBs.
Fluctuating black hole horizons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mei, Jianwei
2013-10-01
In this paper we treat the black hole horizon as a physical boundary to the spacetime and study its dynamics following from the Gibbons-Hawking-York boundary term. Using the Kerr black hole as an example we derive an effective action that describes, in the large wave number limit, a massless Klein-Gordon field living on the average location of the boundary. Complete solutions can be found in the small rotation limit of the black hole. The formulation suggests that the boundary can be treated in the same way as any other matter contributions. In particular, the angular momentum of the boundary matches exactly with that of the black hole, suggesting an interesting possibility that all charges (including the entropy) of the black hole are carried by the boundary. Using this as input, we derive predictions on the Planck scale properties of the boundary.
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J.
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ˜500 km s-1 , which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy.
Black Hole Kicks as New Gravitational Wave Observables.
Gerosa, Davide; Moore, Christopher J
2016-07-01
Generic black hole binaries radiate gravitational waves anisotropically, imparting a recoil, or kick, velocity to the merger remnant. If a component of the kick along the line of sight is present, gravitational waves emitted during the final orbits and merger will be gradually Doppler shifted as the kick builds up. We develop a simple prescription to capture this effect in existing waveform models, showing that future gravitational wave experiments will be able to perform direct measurements, not only of the black hole kick velocity, but also of its accumulation profile. In particular, the eLISA space mission will measure supermassive black hole kick velocities as low as ∼500 km s^{-1}, which are expected to be a common outcome of black hole binary coalescence following galaxy mergers. Black hole kicks thus constitute a promising new observable in the growing field of gravitational wave astronomy. PMID:27419556
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartman, Thomas Edward
The connection between black holes in four dimensions and conformal field theories (CFTs) in two dimensions is explored, focusing on zero temperature (extreme) black holes and their low-temperature cousins. It is shown that extreme black holes in a theory of quantum gravity are holographically dual to field theories living in two dimensions without gravity, and that the field theory reproduces a variety of black hole phenomena in detail. The extreme black hole/CFT correspondence is derived from a symmetry analysis near the horizon of a Kerr black hole with mass M and maximal angular momentum J=M 2. The asymptotic symmetry generators form one copy of the Virasoro algebra with central charge c=12J, which implies that the near-horizon quantum states are identical to those of a two-dimensional CFT. We discuss extensions of this result to near-extreme black holes and cosmological horizons. Astrophysical black holes are never exactly extremal, but the black hole GRS1915+105 observed through X-ray and radio telescopy is likely within 1% of the extremal spin, suggesting that this extraordinary and well studied object is approximately dual to a two-dimensional CFT with c˜1079. As evidence for the correspondence, microstate counting in the CFT is used to derive the Bekenstein-Hawking area law for the Kerr entropy, S=Horizon area/4. Furthermore, the correlators in the dual CFT are shown to reproduce the scattering amplitudes of a charged scalar or spin-½ field by a near-extreme Kerr-Newman black hole, and a neutral spin-1 or spin-2 field by a near-extreme Kerr black hole. Scattering amplitudes probe the vacuum of fields living on the black hole background. For scalars, bound superradiant modes lead to an instability, while for fermions, it is shown that the bound superradiant modes condense and form a Fermi sea which extends well outside the ergosphere. Assuming no further instabilities, the low energy effective theory near the black hole is described by ripples in the
Mathur, Samir D.
2012-11-15
The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome 'remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a 'fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates together with ideas about entangled states leads to a natural set of conjectures on many long-standing questions in gravity: the significance of Rindler and de Sitter entropies, the notion of black hole complementarity, and the fate of an observer falling into a black hole. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The information paradox is a serious problem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To solve it we need to find 'hair' on black holes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In string theory we find 'hair' by the fuzzball construction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fuzzballs help to resolve many other issues in gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Emparan, Roberto; Figueras, Pau; Martínez, Marina
2014-12-01
We study six-dimensional rotating black holes with bumpy horizons: these are topologically spherical, but the sizes of symmetric cycles on the horizon vary nonmonotonically with the polar angle. We construct them numerically for the first three bumpy families, and follow them in solution space until they approach critical solutions with localized singularities on the horizon. We find strong evidence of the conical structures that have been conjectured to mediate the transitions to black rings, to black Saturns, and to a novel class of bumpy black rings. For a different, recently identified class of bumpy black holes, we find evidence that this family ends in solutions with a localized singularity that exhibits apparently universal properties, and which does not seem to allow for transitions to any known class of black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garmire, Gordon
1999-09-01
WE PROPOSE TO CARRY OUT A SYSTEMATIC STUDY OF EMISSION AND ABSORPTION SPECTRAL FEATURES THAT ARE OFTEN SEEN IN X-RAY SPECTRA OF BLACK HOLE BINARIES. THE EXCELLENT SENSITIVITY AND ENERGY RESOLUTION OF THE ACIS/HETG COMBINATION WILL NOT ONLY HELP RESOLVE AMBIGUITIES IN INTERPRETING THESE FEATURES, BUT MAY ALLOW MODELLING OF THE EMISSION LINE PROFILES IN DETAIL. THE PROFILES MAY CONTAIN INFORMATION ON SUCH FUNDAMENTAL PROPERTIES AS THE SPIN OF BLACK HOLES. THEREFORE, THIS STUDY COULD LEAD TO A MEASUREMENT OF BLACK HOLE SPIN FOR SELECTED SOURCES. THE RESULT CAN THEN BE DIRECTLY COMPARED WITH THOSE FROM PREVIOUS STUDIES BASED ON INDEPENDENT METHODS.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruffini, Remo; Wheeler, John A.
1971-01-01
discusses the cosmology theory of a black hole, a region where an object loses its identity, but mass, charge, and momentum are conserved. Include are three possible formation processes, theorized properties, and three way they might eventually be detected. (DS)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O’Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.
2016-07-01
Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar
2015-05-01
We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garcia, M.
1998-01-01
Our UV/VIS work concentrates on black hole X-ray nova. These objects consist of two stars in close orbit, one of which we believe is a black hole - our goal is to SHOW that one is a black hole. In order to reach this goal we carry out observations in the Optical, UV, IR and X-ray bands, and compare the observations to theoretical models. In the past year, our UV/VIS grant has provided partial support (mainly travel funds and page charges) for work we have done on X-ray nova containing black holes and neutron stars. We have been very successful in obtaining telescope time to support our project - we have completed approximately a dozen separate observing runs averaging 3 days each, using the MMT (5M), Lick 3M, KPNO 2.1M, CTIO 4M, CTIO 1.5M, and the SAO/WO 1.2M telescopes. These observations have allowed the identification of one new black hole (Nova Oph 1977), and allowed the mass of another to be measured (GS2000+25). Perhaps our most exciting new result is the evidence we have gathered for the existence of 'event horizons' in black hole X-ray nova.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Science Teacher, 2005
2005-01-01
Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.
2011-10-01
In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.
Gravitational Rocket from the Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Dale
2006-01-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are expected to be among the most fascinating gravitational wave sources, observable by the NASA/ESA LISA detector. Not only will the merger events reveal the rich phenomenology of extremely strong and dynamical gravity deep inside the potential wells at the centers of galaxies (thus providing an excellent testing ground for general relativity), it will also make important contributions to the astrophysics of massive black hole evolutions. Typical black hole mergers involve asymmetric radiation of gravitational waves and lose linear momentum as well as energy and angular momentum. As a result, the merger remnant receives a kick from the GW emission: a gravitational rocket effect. High kick velocities (higher than the escape velocities of the host structure) would have a strong impact on our understanding of how massive black holes have evolved over time and, in particular, on the estimates of the merger rate for LISA. The main difficulties in calculations of the kick velocities has been in the last moments of the merger where the full theory of general relativity must be employed to accurately model the black hole dynamics. I describe a recent calculation of the kick velocities from numerical relativity simulations of the merging black hole binaries.
Gravitational Rocket from the Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, D.
2005-12-01
Coalescing massive black hole binaries are expected to be among the most fascinating gravitational wave sources, observable by the NASA/ESA LISA detector. Not only will the merger events reveal the rich phenomenology of extremely strong and dynamical gravity deep inside the potential wells at the centers of galaxies (thus providing an excellent testing ground for general relativity), it will also make important contributions to the astrophysics of massive black hole evolutions. Typical black hole mergers involve asymmetric radiation of gravitational waves and lose linear momentum as well as energy and angular momentum. As a result, the merger remnant receives a kick from the GW emission: a gravitational rocket effect. High kick velocities (higher than the escape velocites of the host structure) would have a strong impact on our understanding of how massive black holes have evolved over time and, in particular, on the estimates of the merger rate for LISA. The main difficulties in calculations of the kick velocities has been in the last moments of the merger where the full theory of general relativity must be employed to accurately model the black hole dynamics. I describe a recent calculation of the kick velocities from numerical relativity simulations of the merging black hole binaries. Support from NASA ATP#02-0043-0056 is greatly appreciated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Genzel, Reinhard
1998-01-01
The dimness of the black holes located at the center of galaxies surprises astrophysicists, but a possible explanation has been found in the behavior of the plasma they consume. In a hot accretion flow, the gas is ionized to form a plasma. The heavy ions carry most of the mass, and thus of the energy, whereas the electrons produce most of the radiation. But, crucially, in a low-density flow the temperatures of the ions and of the electrons may decouple. Consequently, most of the gravitational energy would be viscously converted into thermal energy of the ions and not radiated away by the electrons. Instead, the gravitational energy is carried with the flow across the event horizon of the black hole. Such a flow leads to a low radiation efficiency even in a highly dissipative accretion disk.
How big can a black hole grow?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
King, Andrew
2016-02-01
I show that there is a physical limit to the mass of a black hole, above which it cannot grow through luminous accretion of gas, and so cannot appear as a quasar or active galactic nucleus (AGN). The limit is Mmax ≃ 5 × 1010 M⊙ for typical parameters, but can reach Mmax ≃ 2.7 × 1011 M⊙ in extreme cases (e.g. maximal prograde spin). The largest black hole masses so far found are close to but below the limit. The Eddington luminosity ≃6.5 × 1048 erg s-1 corresponding to Mmax is remarkably close to the largest AGN bolometric luminosity so far observed. The mass and luminosity limits both rely on a reasonable but currently untestable hypothesis about AGN disc formation, so future observations of extreme supermassive black hole masses can therefore probe fundamental disc physics. Black holes can in principle grow their masses above Mmax by non-luminous means such as mergers with other holes, but cannot become luminous accretors again. They might nevertheless be detectable in other ways, for example through gravitational lensing. I show further that black holes with masses ˜Mmax can probably grow above the values specified by the black-hole-host-galaxy scaling relations, in agreement with observation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
1996-03-01
One would expect spacetime to have a foamlike structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the nontrivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S2×S2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S2×S2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix S/ that does not factorize into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the θ angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The picture of virtual black holes given here also suggests that macroscopic black holes will evaporate down to the Planck size and then disappear in the sea of virtual black holes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-01
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability—which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold—akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies—a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2 +1 )-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vaz, Cenalo; Wijewardhana, L. C. R.
2013-12-01
General consensus on the nature of the degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy remains elusive despite decades of effort dedicated to the problem. Different approaches to quantum gravity disagree in their description of the microstates and, more significantly, in the statistics used to count them. In some approaches (string theory, AdS/CFT) the elementary degrees of freedom are indistinguishable, whereas they must be treated as distinguishable in other approaches to quantum gravity (eg., LQG) in order to recover the Bekenstein-Hawking area-entropy law. However, different statistics will imply different behaviors of the black hole outside the thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this point by quantizing the Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, for which we argue that Bose condensation will occur leading to a "cold", stable remnant.
Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis
2015-02-27
We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids. PMID:25768746
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-15
The 'no-hair' theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively ''frozen in'' the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N{sub B}=e{Phi}{sub {infinity}}/({pi}c({h_bar}/2{pi})), where {Phi}{sub {infinity}}{approx_equal}2{pi}{sup 2}B{sub NS}R{sub NS}{sup 3}/(P{sub NS}c) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Noncommutative solitonic black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang-Young, Ee; Kimm, Kyoungtae; Lee, Daeho; Lee, Youngone
2012-05-01
We investigate solitonic black hole solutions in three-dimensional noncommutative spacetime. We do this in gravity with a negative cosmological constant coupled to a scalar field. Noncommutativity is realized with the Moyal product which is expanded up to first order in the noncommutativity parameter in two spatial directions. With numerical simulation we study the effect of noncommutativity by increasing the value of the noncommutativity parameter starting from commutative solutions. We find that even a regular soliton solution in the commutative case becomes a black hole solution when the noncommutativity parameter reaches a certain value.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dowker, Fay; Gregory, Ruth; Traschen, Jennie
1991-01-01
We argue the existence of solutions of the Euclidean Einstein equations that correspond to a vortex sitting at the horizon of a black hole. We find the asymptotic behaviors, at the horizon and at infinity, of vortex solutions for the gauge and scalar fields in an abelian Higgs model on a Euclidean Schwarzschild background and interpolate between them by integrating the equations numerically. Calculating the backreaction shows that the effect of the vortex is to cut a slice out of the Schwarzschild geometry. Consequences of these solutions for black hole thermodynamics are discussed.
Tests and applications of the SXS binary black hole catalog
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scheel, Mark; Simulations of Extreme Spacetimes (SXS) Collaboration Collaboration
2016-03-01
Numerical relativity is the only reliable method of computing the full gravitational waveform--including inspiral, merger, and ringdown--for strongly-gravitating systems like coalescing black holes, which are of foremost importance to gravitational-wave interferometers such as LIGO. We have used the Spectral Einstein Code [black-holes.org/SpEC.html] to construct a public catalog of hundreds of binary black hole simulations, for use by gravitational-wave science, and for calibration of fast analytic models of binary black-hole waveforms. We discuss the current status of the catalog, tests of the resulting waveforms, and selected applications.
Chaotic Accretion and Merging Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nixon, Christopher James
2012-09-01
The main driver of the work in this thesis is the idea of chaotic accretion in galaxy centres. Most research in this area focuses on orderly or coherent accretion where supermassive black holes or supermassive black hole binaries are fed with gas always possessing the same sense of angular momentum. If instead gas flows in galaxies are chaotic, feeding occurs through randomly oriented depositions of gas. Previous works show that this chaotic mode of feeding can explain some astrophysical phenomena, such as the lack of correlation between host galaxy structure and the direction of jets. It has also been shown that by keeping the black hole spin low this feeding mechanism can grow supermassive black holes from stellar mass seeds. In this thesis I show that it also alleviates the "final parsec problem" by facilitating the merger of two supermassive black holes, and the growth of supermassive black holes through rapid accretion. I also develop the intriguing possibility of breaking a warped disc into two or more distinct planes.
Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru
2015-03-26
We review the existence of exact hairy black holes in asymptotically flat, anti-de Sitter and de Sitter space-times. We briefly discuss the issue of stability and the charging of the black holes with a Maxwell field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyutikov, Maxim; McKinney, Jonathan C.
2011-10-01
The “no-hair” theorem, a key result in general relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the no-hair theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from the collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively “frozen in” the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes NB=eΦ∞/(πcℏ), where Φ∞≈2π2BNSRNS3/(PNSc) is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. We test this theoretical result via 3-dimensional general relativistic plasma simulations of rotating black holes that start with a neutron star dipole magnetic field with no currents initially present outside the event horizon. The black hole’s magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split-monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that balds the black hole on long resistive time scales rather than the short light-crossing time scales expected from the vacuum no-hair theorem.
Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO and LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This discussion examines these gravitational patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. The focus is on recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by the space-based gravitational wave detector LISA.
How to Build a Supermassive Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
NASA astronomer Kim Weaver has got that sinking feeling. You know, it's that unsettling notion you get when you sift through your X-ray data and, to your surprise, find mid-sized black holes sinking toward the center of a galaxy, where they merge with others to form a single supermassive black hole. Could such a thing be true? These would be the largest mergers since America On Line bought Time-Warner, and perhaps even more violent. The process would turn a starburst galaxy inside out, making it more like a quasar host galaxy. Using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, Weaver saw a hint of this fantastic process in a relatively nearby starburst galaxy named NGC 253 in the constellation Sculptor. She noticed that starburst galaxies - those gems set aglow in a colorful life cycle of hyperactive star birth, death, and renewal - seem to have a higher concentration of mid-mass black holes compared to other galaxies.
Nathanail, Antonios; Contopoulos, Ioannis
2014-06-20
We investigate the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole in various astrophysical settings. The solution Ψ(r, θ) depends on the distributions of the magnetic field line angular velocity ω(Ψ) and the poloidal electric current I(Ψ). These are obtained self-consistently as eigenfunctions that allow the solution to smoothly cross the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner light surface inside the ergosphere, and the outer light surface, which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. Magnetic field configurations that cross both singular surfaces (e.g., monopole, paraboloidal) are uniquely determined. Configurations that cross only one light surface (e.g., the artificial case of a rotating black hole embedded in a vertical magnetic field) are degenerate. We show that, similar to pulsars, black hole magnetospheres naturally develop an electric current sheet that potentially plays a very important role in the dissipation of black hole rotational energy and in the emission of high-energy radiation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki
2012-03-01
We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.
Bender, P.; Bloom, E.; Cominsky, L.
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
Weighing supermassive black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rafiee, Alireza
We calculate the black hole masses for a sample of 27728 quasars selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Data Release 3 (DR3). To ensure a high signal-to-noise ratio, we reconstruct quasar spectra for this large sample of quasars using the eigenspectra method (Yip et al., 2004). This method reduces the uncertainty of the measurements for even noisy original spectra, making almost all the SDSS quasar spectra usable for our study. A few applications for black hole mass estimates are presented here. Wang et al. (2006) estimated an average radiative efficiency of 30%-35% for quasars at moderate redshift, which implies that most supermassive black holes are rotating very rapidly. Using our black hole mass estimates, we have found that their method is not independent of quasar lifetimes and thus that quasars do not necessarily have such high efficiencies. As a second application, we have investigated a claim by Steinhardt and Elvis (2009) that there exists a sub-Eddington boundary in the quasar mass-luminosity plane using the Shen et al. (2008) mass estimates. We re-calibrate the mass-scaling relations following Wang et al. (2009) with the most up-to-date reverberation estimates of black hole masses. We compare results from the original data sets with the new re-calibrated estimates of the mass-luminosity plane. We conclude that the presence of the sub-Eddington boundary in the original data of Shen et al. (2008) is likely due to biases in the mass-scaling relation and not to any physical process.
Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie
Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent
A CAPTURED RUNAWAY BLACK HOLE IN NGC 1277?
Shields, G. A.; Bonning, E. W. E-mail: erin.bonning@questu.ca
2013-07-20
Recent results indicate that the compact lenticular galaxy NGC 1277 in the Perseus Cluster contains a black hole of mass {approx}10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }. This far exceeds the expected mass of the central black hole in a galaxy of the modest dimensions of NGC 1277. We suggest that this giant black hole was ejected from the nearby giant galaxy NGC 1275 and subsequently captured by NGC 1277. The ejection was the result of gravitational radiation recoil when two large black holes merged following the merger of two giant ellipticals that helped to form NGC 1275. The black hole wandered in the cluster core until it was captured in a close encounter with NGC 1277. The migration of black holes in clusters may be a common occurrence.
Rotating black hole and quintessence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-04-01
We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω ) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass ( M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α =-e^2 ne 0 and ω =1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α =0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω , there exists a critical rotation parameter (a=aE), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a
Prisons of light : black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
What is a black hole? Could we survive a visit to one -- perhaps even venture inside? Have we yet discovered any real black holes? And what do black holes teach us about the mysteries of our Universe? These are just a few of the tantalizing questions examined in this tour-de-force, jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light - Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
Flip-Flopping Binary Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lousto, Carlos O.; Healy, James
2015-04-01
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d ≈25 M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t =20 000 M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.
Flip-flopping binary black holes.
Lousto, Carlos O; Healy, James
2015-04-10
We study binary spinning black holes to display the long term individual spin dynamics. We perform a full numerical simulation starting at an initial proper separation of d≈25M between equal mass holes and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles, and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t=20 000M and displays a total change in the orientation of the spin of one of the black holes from an initial alignment with the orbital angular momentum to a complete antialignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects this dynamics may have on spin growth in accreting binaries and on the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes. PMID:25910104
BLACK HOLE AURORA POWERED BY A ROTATING BLACK HOLE
Takahashi, Masaaki; Takahashi, Rohta
2010-05-15
We present a model for high-energy emission sources generated by a standing magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) shock in a black hole magnetosphere. The black hole magnetosphere would be constructed around a black hole with an accretion disk, where a global magnetic field could be originated by currents in the accretion disk and its corona. Such a black hole magnetosphere may be considered as a model for the central engine of active galactic nuclei, some compact X-ray sources, and gamma-ray bursts. The energy sources of the emission from the magnetosphere are the gravitational and electromagnetic energies of magnetized accreting matters and the rotational energy of a rotating black hole. When the MHD shock generates in MHD accretion flows onto the black hole, the plasma's kinetic energy and the black hole's rotational energy can convert to radiative energy. In this Letter, we demonstrate the huge energy output at the shock front by showing negative energy postshock accreting MHD flows for a rapidly rotating black hole. This means that the extracted energy from the black hole can convert to the radiative energy at the MHD shock front. When an axisymmetric shock front is formed, we expect a ring-shaped region with very hot plasma near the black hole; this would look like an 'aurora'. The high-energy radiation generated from there would carry to us the information for the curved spacetime due to the strong gravity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chamblin, A.; Hawking, S. W.; Reall, H. S.
2000-03-01
Gravitational collapse of matter trapped on a brane will produce a black hole on the brane. We discuss such black holes in the models of Randall and Sundrum where our universe is viewed as a domain wall in five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. We present evidence that a non-rotating uncharged black hole on the domain wall is described by a ``black cigar'' solution in five dimensions.
Orientation and quasar black hole mass estimation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brotherton, Michael S.; Singh, Vikram; Runnoe, Jessie
2015-12-01
We have constructed a sample of 386 radio-loud quasars with z < 0.75 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey in order to investigate orientation effects on black hole mass estimates. Orientation is estimated using radio core dominance measurements based on FIRST survey maps. Black hole masses are estimated from virial-based scaling relationships using Hβ, and compared to the stellar velocity dispersion (σ*), predicted using the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of [O III] λ5007, which tracks mass via the M-σ* relation. We find that the FWHM of Hβ correlates significantly with radio core dominance and biases black hole mass determinations that use it, but that this is not the case for σ* based on [O III] λ5007. The ratio of black hole masses predicted using orientation-biased and unbiased estimates, which can be determined for radio-quiet as well as radio-loud quasars, is significantly correlated with radio core dominance. Although there is significant scatter, this mass ratio calculated in this way may in fact serve as an orientation estimator. We additionally note the existence of a small population of radio core-dominated quasars with extremely broad Hβ emission lines that we hypothesize may represent recent black hole mergers.
Inspiralling, nonprecessing, spinning black hole binary spacetime via asymptotic matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Brennan; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela
2016-05-01
We construct a new global, fully analytic, approximate spacetime which accurately describes the dynamics of nonprecessing, spinning black hole binaries during the inspiral phase of the relativistic merger process. This approximate solution of the vacuum Einstein's equations can be obtained by asymptotically matching perturbed Kerr solutions near the two black holes to a post-Newtonian metric valid far from the two black holes. This metric is then matched to a post-Minkowskian metric even farther out in the wave zone. The procedure of asymptotic matching is generalized to be valid on all spatial hypersurfaces, instead of a small group of initial hypersurfaces discussed in previous works. This metric is well suited for long term dynamical simulations of spinning black hole binary spacetimes prior to merger, such as studies of circumbinary gas accretion which requires hundreds of binary orbits.
Thermal corpuscular black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-06-01
We study the corpuscular model of an evaporating black hole consisting of a specific quantum state for a large number N of self-confined bosons. The single-particle spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy m (corresponding to toy gravitons forming the black hole), and a gapless continuous spectrum (to accommodate for the Hawking radiation with energy ω >m ). Each constituent is in a superposition of the ground state and a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature in the continuum. We first find that, assuming the Hawking radiation is the leading effect of the internal scatterings, the corresponding N -particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M =N m and a Planckian distribution for E >M at the same Hawking temperature. From this collective state, we compute the partition function and obtain an entropy which reproduces the usual area law with a logarithmic correction precisely related with the Hawking component. By means of the horizon wave function for the system, we finally show the backreaction of modes with ω >m reduces the Hawking flux. Both corrections, to the entropy and to the Hawking flux, suggest the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass, if the black hole is in this particular quantum state.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dolan, Joseph F.; Fisher, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
When asked to discuss Cyg XR-1, E. E. Salpeter once concluded, 'A black hole in Cyg X(R)-1 is the most conservative hypothesis.' Recent observations now make it likely that a black hole in Cyg XR-1 is the only hypothesis tenable. Chandrasekhar first showed that compact stars - those with the inward force of gravity on their outer layers balanced by the pressure generated by the Pauli exclusion principle acting on its electrons (in white dwarfs) or nucleons (in neutron stars) - have a maximum mass. Equilibrium is achieved at a minimum of the total energy of the star, which is the sum of the positive Fermi energy and the negative gravitational energy. The maximum mass attainable in equilibrium is found by setting E = 0: M(max) = 1.5 M(Sun). If the mass of the star is larger than this, then E can be decreased without bound by decreasing the star's radius and increasing its (negative) gravitational energy. No equilibrium value of the radius exist, and general relativity predicts that gravitational collapse to a point occurs. This point singularity is a black hole.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Contopoulos, I.
2013-09-01
We revisit the Blandford & Znajek (1977) process and solve the fundamental equation that governs the structure of the steady-state force-free magnetosphere around a Kerr black hole. The solution depends on the distributions of the magnetic field angular velocity and the poloidal electric current I. These are not arbitrary. They are determined self-consistently by requiring that magnetic field lines cross smoothly the two singular surfaces of the problem, the inner `light surface' located inside the ergosphere, and the outer `light surface' which is the generalization of the pulsar light cylinder. We obtain the rate of electromagnetic extraction of energy and confirm the results of Blanford & Znajek. Unless the black hole is surrounded by a thick disk and/or extended disk outflows, the asymptotic solution is very similar to the asymptotic pulsar magnetosphere which has no collimation and no significant plasma acceleration. We discuss the role of the surrounding disk and of pair production in the generation of black hole jets.
Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horowitz, Gary T.
2012-04-01
List of contributors; Preface; Part I. Introduction: 1. Black holes in four dimensions Gary Horowitz; Part II. Five Dimensional Kaluza-Klein Theory: 2. The Gregory-Laflamme instability Ruth Gregory; 3. Final state of Gregory-Laflamme instability Luis Lehner and Frans Pretorius; 4. General black holes in Kaluza-Klein theory Gary Horowitz and Toby Wiseman; Part III. Higher Dimensional Solutions: 5. Myers-Perry black holes Rob Myers; 6. Black rings Roberto Emparan and Harvey Reall; Part IV. General Properties: 7. Constraints on the topology of higher dimensional black holes Greg Galloway; 8. Blackfolds Roberto Emparan; 9. Algebraically special solutions in higher dimensions Harvey Reall; 10. Numerical construction of static and stationary black holes Toby Wiseman; Part V. Advanced Topics: 11. Black holes and branes in supergravity Don Marolf; 12. The gauge/gravity duality Juan Maldacena; 13. The fluid/gravity correspondence Veronika Hubeny, Mukund Rangamani and Shiraz Minwalla; 14. Horizons, holography and condensed matter Sean Hartnoll; Index.
Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.
2010-01-01
Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.
Searching for Intermediate Mass Black Holes with Advanced LIGO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghian, Laleh; Wade, Leslie
2016-03-01
Intermediate Mass Black Holes (IMBHs) are conjectured to occupy the mass space between stellar-mass and super-massive black holes, roughly between 100 and 105 solar masses. The coalescence and merger of IMBH binaries with masses of a few hundred solar masses is an intriguing possible source of gravitational waves for Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. A single detection of an IMBH binary merger would provide the first unambiguous proof of IMBH existence. Searches for these sources have started on data collected by the Advanced LIGO since September 2015. In this talk I will present a search method for these sources in the advanced detector era, based on known signal morphology.
Black hole evolution - I. Supernova-regulated black hole growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dubois, Yohan; Volonteri, Marta; Silk, Joseph; Devriendt, Julien; Slyz, Adrianne; Teyssier, Romain
2015-09-01
The growth of a supermassive black hole (BH) is determined by how much gas the host galaxy is able to feed it, which in turn is controlled by the cosmic environment, through galaxy mergers and accretion of cosmic flows that time how galaxies obtain their gas, and also by internal processes in the galaxy, such as star formation and feedback from stars and the BH itself. In this paper, we study the growth of a 1012 M⊙ halo at z = 2, which is the progenitor of a group of galaxies at z = 0, and of its central BH by means of a high-resolution zoomed cosmological simulation, the Seth simulation. We study the evolution of the BH driven by the accretion of cold gas in the galaxy, and explore the efficiency of the feedback from supernovae (SNe). For a relatively inefficient energy input from SNe, the BH grows at the Eddington rate from early times, and reaches self-regulation once it is massive enough. We find that at early cosmic times z > 3.5, efficient feedback from SNe forbids the formation of a settled disc as well as the accumulation of dense cold gas in the vicinity of the BH and starves the central compact object. As the galaxy and its halo accumulate mass, they become able to confine the nuclear inflows provided by major mergers and the BH grows at a sustained near-to-Eddington accretion rate. We argue that this mechanism should be ubiquitous amongst low-mass galaxies, corresponding to galaxies with a stellar mass below ≲ 109 M⊙ in our simulations.
Merging Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan M.
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes will emit more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. This energy will come in the form of gravitational waves, which are a key prediction of Einstein's general relativity and a new tool for exploring the universe. Observing these mergers with gravitational wave detectors, such as the ground-based LIGO and the space-based LISA, requires knowledge of the radiation waveforms. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were long plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and w aefo rms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Punsly, Brian
This chapter compares and contrasts winds and jets driven by the two distinct components of the black magnetosphere: the event horizon magnetosphere (the large scale magnetic field lines that thread the event horizon) and the ergospheric disk magnetosphere associated with poloidal magnetic flux threading plasma near the equatorial plane of the ergosphere. The power of jets from the two components as predicted from single-fluid, perfect MHD numerical simulations are compared. The decomposition of the magnetosphere into these two components depends on the distribution of large scale poloidal magnetic flux in the ergosphere. However, the final distribution of magnetic flux in a black hole magnetosphere depends on physics beyond these simple single-fluid treatments, non-ideal MHD (eg, the dynamics of magnetic field reconnection and radiation effects) and two-fluid effects (eg, ion coupled waves and instabilities in the inner accretion flow). In this chapter, it is emphasized that magnetic field line reconnection is the most important of these physical elements. Unfortunately, in single-fluid perfect MHD simulations, reconnection is a mathematical artifact of numerical diffusion and is not determined by physical processes. Consequently, considerable calculational progress is required before we can reliably assess the role of each of these components of black hole magnetospheres in astrophysical systems.
Black Hole Formation in Real Time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissanke, Samaya
2015-08-01
Gravity plays a fundamental role in the formation, evolution and fate of stars. However, it remains unclear how massive stars, almost always in pairs, end their lives as extreme gravity objects (neutron stars and black holes) and what their eventual fate is. The physics driving these events in strong-field gravity are complex, rich but still remain elusive. Theoretical work in general relativity has long predicted that the formation of black holes through neutron star mergers emit vast amounts of gravitational radiation, through gravitational waves (GWs), and conventional electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Observing GWs and EM radiation from these elusive short-lived mergers remains one of the holy grails of modern astronomy and is only now possible with a suite of new time-domain telescopes and experiments. I will first review the most recent advances in this blossoming field of EM+GW astronomy, which combines three active disciplines: time-domain astronomy, computational astrophysics and general relativity. I will discuss the promises of this new convergence by illustrating the wealth of astrophysical information that a combined EM+GW measurement would immediately bring. I will then outline the main challenges that lie ahead for this new field in pinpointing the sky location of neutron star mergers using GW detectors and optical and radio wide-field synoptic surveys.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham
2014-09-01
Black holes are the ultimate prisons of the Universe, regions of spacetime where the enormous gravity prohibits matter or even light to escape to infinity. Yet, matter falling toward the black holes may shine spectacularly, generating the strongest source of radiation. These sources provide us with astrophysical laboratories of extreme physical conditions that cannot be realized on Earth. This chapter offers a review of the basic menus for feeding matter onto black holes and discusses their observational implications.
Observational signatures of binary supermassive black holes
Roedig, Constanze; Krolik, Julian H.; Miller, M. Coleman
2014-04-20
Observations indicate that most massive galaxies contain a supermassive black hole, and theoretical studies suggest that when such galaxies have a major merger, the central black holes will form a binary and eventually coalesce. Here we discuss two spectral signatures of such binaries that may help distinguish them from ordinary active galactic nuclei. These signatures are expected when the mass ratio between the holes is not extreme and the system is fed by a circumbinary disk. One such signature is a notch in the thermal continuum that has been predicted by other authors; we point out that it should be accompanied by a spectral revival at shorter wavelengths and also discuss its dependence on binary properties such as mass, mass ratio, and separation. In particular, we note that the wavelength λ {sub n} at which the notch occurs depends on these three parameters in such a way as to make the number of systems displaying these notches ∝λ{sub n}{sup 16/3}; longer wavelength searches are therefore strongly favored. A second signature, first discussed here, is hard X-ray emission with a Wien-like spectrum at a characteristic temperature ∼100 keV produced by Compton cooling of the shock generated when streams from the circumbinary disk hit the accretion disks around the individual black holes. We investigate the observability of both signatures. The hard X-ray signal may be particularly valuable as it can provide an indicator of black hole merger a few decades in advance of the event.
Massive Binary Black Holes in the Cosmic Landscape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colpi, Monica; Dotti, Massimo
2011-02-01
Binary black holes occupy a special place in our quest for understanding the evolution of galaxies along cosmic history. If massive black holes grow at the center of (pre-)galactic structures that experience a sequence of merger episodes, then dual black holes form as inescapable outcome of galaxy assembly, and can in principle be detected as powerful dual quasars. But, if the black holes reach coalescence, during their inspiral inside the galaxy remnant, then they become the loudest sources of gravitational waves ever in the universe. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna is being developed to reveal these waves that carry information on the mass and spin of these binary black holes out to very large look-back times. Nature seems to provide a pathway for the formation of these exotic binaries, and a number of key questions need to be addressed: How do massive black holes pair in a merger? Depending on the properties of the underlying galaxies, do black holes always form a close Keplerian binary? If a binary forms, does hardening proceed down to the domain controlled by gravitational wave back reaction? What is the role played by gas and/or stars in braking the black holes, and on which timescale does coalescence occur? Can the black holes accrete on flight and shine during their pathway to coalescence? After outlining key observational facts on dual/binary black holes, we review the progress made in tracing their dynamics in the habitat of a gas-rich merger down to the smallest scales ever probed with the help of powerful numerical simulations. N-Body/hydrodynamical codes have proven to be vital tools for studying their evolution, and progress in this field is expected to grow rapidly in the effort to describe, in full realism, the physics of stars and gas around the black holes, starting from the cosmological large scale of a merger. If detected in the new window provided by the upcoming gravitational wave experiments, binary black holes will provide a deep view
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Casadio, Roberto; Giugno, Andrea; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio
2015-10-01
We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a discrete ground state of energy $m$ (the bosons forming the black hole), and a continuous spectrum with energy $\\omega > m$ (representing the Hawking radiation and modelled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature). The $N$-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy $M = N m$ and a Planckian distribution for $E > M$ at the same Hawking temperature. The partition function is then found to yield the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related with the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with $\\omega > m$ is also shown to reduce the Hawking flux and the evaporation properly stops for vanishing mass.
Acceleration of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.
2014-01-01
Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.
Black holes and the multiverse
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun
2016-02-01
Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.
Black holes as antimatter factories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bambi, Cosimo; Dolgov, Alexander D.; Petrov, Alexey A.
2009-09-01
We consider accretion of matter onto a low mass black hole surrounded by ionized medium. We show that, because of the higher mobility of protons than electrons, the black hole would acquire positive electric charge. If the black hole's mass is about or below 1020 g, the electric field at the horizon can reach the critical value which leads to vacuum instability and electron-positron pair production by the Schwinger mechanism. Since the positrons are ejected by the emergent electric field, while electrons are back-captured, the black hole operates as an antimatter factory which effectively converts protons into positrons.
How black holes saved relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda
2016-02-01
While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2010-04-01
One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, η. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.
Bizon, P. )
1990-06-11
We analyze the static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills equations with SU(2) gauge group and show numerically that the equations possess asymptotically flat solutions with regular event horizon and nontrivial Yang-Mills (YM) connection. The solutions have zero global YM charges and asymptotically approximate the Schwarzschild solution with quantized values of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass. Our result questions the validity of the no-hair'' conjecture for YM black holes. This work complements the recent study of Bartnik and McKinnon on static spherically symmetric Einstein-Yang-Mills soliton solutions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2002-10-01
Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way
BLACK HOLE-GALAXY CORRELATIONS WITHOUT SELF-REGULATION
Angles-Alcazar, Daniel; Oezel, Feryal; Dave, Romeel
2013-06-10
Recent models of black hole growth in a cosmological context have forwarded a paradigm in which the growth is self-regulated by feedback from the black hole itself. Here we use cosmological zoom simulations of galaxy formation down to z = 2 to show that such strong self-regulation is required in the popular spherical Bondi accretion model, but that a plausible alternative model in which black hole growth is limited by galaxy-scale torques does not require self-regulation. Instead, this torque-limited accretion model yields black holes and galaxies evolving on average along the observed scaling relations by relying only on a fixed, 5% mass retention rate onto the black hole from the radius at which the accretion flow is fed. Feedback from the black hole may (and likely does) occur, but does not need to couple to galaxy-scale gas in order to regulate black hole growth. We show that this result is insensitive to variations in the initial black hole mass, stellar feedback, or other implementation details. The torque-limited model allows for high accretion rates at very early epochs (unlike the Bondi case), which if viable can help explain the rapid early growth of black holes, while by z {approx} 2 it yields Eddington factors of {approx}1%-10%. This model also yields a less direct correspondence between major merger events and rapid phases of black hole growth. Instead, growth is more closely tied to cosmological disk feeding, which may help explain observational studies showing that, at least at z {approx}> 1, active galaxies do not preferentially show merger signatures.
Black Hole-Galaxy Correlations without Self-regulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Özel, Feryal; Davé, Romeel
2013-06-01
Recent models of black hole growth in a cosmological context have forwarded a paradigm in which the growth is self-regulated by feedback from the black hole itself. Here we use cosmological zoom simulations of galaxy formation down to z = 2 to show that such strong self-regulation is required in the popular spherical Bondi accretion model, but that a plausible alternative model in which black hole growth is limited by galaxy-scale torques does not require self-regulation. Instead, this torque-limited accretion model yields black holes and galaxies evolving on average along the observed scaling relations by relying only on a fixed, 5% mass retention rate onto the black hole from the radius at which the accretion flow is fed. Feedback from the black hole may (and likely does) occur, but does not need to couple to galaxy-scale gas in order to regulate black hole growth. We show that this result is insensitive to variations in the initial black hole mass, stellar feedback, or other implementation details. The torque-limited model allows for high accretion rates at very early epochs (unlike the Bondi case), which if viable can help explain the rapid early growth of black holes, while by z ~ 2 it yields Eddington factors of ~1%-10%. This model also yields a less direct correspondence between major merger events and rapid phases of black hole growth. Instead, growth is more closely tied to cosmological disk feeding, which may help explain observational studies showing that, at least at z >~ 1, active galaxies do not preferentially show merger signatures.
Black-Hole Feedback in Quasars
This animation illustrates how black-hole feedback works in quasars. Dense gas and dust in the center simultaneously fuels the black hole and shrouds it from view. The black-hole wind propels large...
Simulating merging binary black holes with nearly extremal spins
Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Szilagyi, Bela
2011-01-15
Astrophysically realistic black holes may have spins that are nearly extremal (i.e., close to 1 in dimensionless units). Numerical simulations of binary black holes are important tools both for calibrating analytical templates for gravitational-wave detection and for exploring the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. However, all previous simulations of binary-black-hole inspiral, merger, and ringdown have been limited by an apparently insurmountable barrier: the merging holes' spins could not exceed 0.93, which is still a long way from the maximum possible value in terms of the physical effects of the spin. In this paper, we surpass this limit for the first time, opening the way to explore numerically the behavior of merging, nearly extremal black holes. Specifically, using an improved initial-data method suitable for binary black holes with nearly extremal spins, we simulate the inspiral (through 12.5 orbits), merger and ringdown of two equal-mass black holes with equal spins of magnitude 0.95 antialigned with the orbital angular momentum.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, John
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GE0600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.
Black hole final state conspiracies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McInnes, Brett
2009-01-01
The principle that unitarity must be preserved in all processes, no matter how exotic, has led to deep insights into boundary conditions in cosmology and black hole theory. In the case of black hole evaporation, Horowitz and Maldacena were led to propose that unitarity preservation can be understood in terms of a restriction imposed on the wave function at the singularity. Gottesman and Preskill showed that this natural idea only works if one postulates the presence of “conspiracies” between systems just inside the event horizon and states at much later times, near the singularity. We argue that some AdS black holes have unusual internal thermodynamics, and that this may permit the required “conspiracies” if real black holes are described by some kind of sum over all AdS black holes having the same entropy.
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-05-01
In this jargon-free review of one of the most fascinating topics in modern science, acclaimed science writer Kitty Ferguson examines the discovery of black holes, their nature, and what they can teach us about the mysteries of the universe. In search of the answers, we trace a star from its birth to its death throes, take a hypothetical journey to the border of a black hole and beyond, spend time with some of the world's leading theoretical physicists and astronomers, and take a whimsical look at some of the wild ideas black holes have inspired. Prisons of Light--Black Holes is comprehensive and detailed. Yet Kitty Ferguson's lightness of touch and down-to-earth analogies set this book apart from all others on black holes and make it a wonderfully stimulating and entertaining read.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bini, Donato; Bittencourt, Eduardo; Geralico, Andrea; Jantzen, Robert T.
2015-04-01
A general framework is developed to investigate the properties of useful choices of stationary spacelike slicings of stationary spacetimes whose congruences of timelike orthogonal trajectories are interpreted as the world lines of an associated family of observers, the kinematical properties of which in turn may be used to geometrically characterize the original slicings. On the other hand, properties of the slicings themselves can directly characterize their utility motivated instead by other considerations like the initial value and evolution problems in the 3-plus-1 approach to general relativity. An attempt is made to categorize the various slicing conditions or "time gauges" used in the literature for the most familiar stationary spacetimes: black holes and their flat spacetime limit.
Models of Kilonova/Macronova Emission from Black Hole–Neutron Star Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi
2016-07-01
Black hole–neutron star (BH–NS) mergers are among the most promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from BH–NS mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. The simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational waves would provide rich information about merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from BH–NS mergers is the so-called kilonova/macronova, emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, which is one of the best targets for follow-up observations. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic BH–NS merger based on recently performed numerical-relativity simulations. We combine these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a BH–NS kilonova/macronova lightcurve, which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the results of each band magnitude obtained by the previous radiation-transfer simulations within ˜1 mag. By using this semi-analytic model we found that, at 400 Mpc, the kilonova/macronova is as bright as 22–24 mag for cases with a small chirp mass and a high black hole spin, and >28 mag for a large chirp mass and a low black hole spin. We also apply our model to GRB 130603B as an illustration, and show that a BH–NS merger with a rapidly spinning black hole and a large neutron star radius is favored.
Models of Kilonova/Macronova Emission from Black Hole–Neutron Star Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kawaguchi, Kyohei; Kyutoku, Koutarou; Shibata, Masaru; Tanaka, Masaomi
2016-07-01
Black hole–neutron star (BH–NS) mergers are among the most promising gravitational-wave sources for ground-based detectors, and gravitational waves from BH–NS mergers are expected to be detected in the next few years. The simultaneous detection of electromagnetic counterparts with gravitational waves would provide rich information about merger events. Among the possible electromagnetic counterparts from BH–NS mergers is the so-called kilonova/macronova, emission powered by the decay of radioactive r-process nuclei, which is one of the best targets for follow-up observations. We derive fitting formulas for the mass and the velocity of ejecta from a generic BH–NS merger based on recently performed numerical-relativity simulations. We combine these fitting formulas with a new semi-analytic model for a BH–NS kilonova/macronova lightcurve, which reproduces the results of radiation-transfer simulations. Specifically, the semi-analytic model reproduces the results of each band magnitude obtained by the previous radiation-transfer simulations within ∼1 mag. By using this semi-analytic model we found that, at 400 Mpc, the kilonova/macronova is as bright as 22–24 mag for cases with a small chirp mass and a high black hole spin, and >28 mag for a large chirp mass and a low black hole spin. We also apply our model to GRB 130603B as an illustration, and show that a BH–NS merger with a rapidly spinning black hole and a large neutron star radius is favored.
Black Hole Hunters Set New Distance Record
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-01-01
around each other in a diabolic waltz, with a period of about 32 hours. The astronomers also found that the black hole is stripping matter away from the star as they orbit each other. "This is indeed a very 'intimate' couple," notes collaborator Robin Barnard. "How such a tightly bound system has been formed is still a mystery." Only one other system of this type has previously been seen, but other systems comprising a black hole and a companion star are not unknown to astronomers. Based on these systems, the astronomers see a connection between black hole mass and galactic chemistry. "We have noticed that the most massive black holes tend to be found in smaller galaxies that contain less 'heavy' chemical elements," says Crowther [2]. "Bigger galaxies that are richer in heavy elements, such as the Milky Way, only succeed in producing black holes with smaller masses." Astronomers believe that a higher concentration of heavy chemical elements influences how a massive star evolves, increasing how much matter it sheds, resulting in a smaller black hole when the remnant finally collapses. In less than a million years, it will be the Wolf-Rayet star's turn to go supernova and become a black hole. "If the system survives this second explosion, the two black holes will merge, emitting copious amounts of energy in the form of gravitational waves as they combine [3]," concludes Crowther. However, it will take some few billion years until the actual merger, far longer than human timescales. "Our study does however show that such systems might exist, and those that have already evolved into a binary black hole might be detected by probes of gravitational waves, such as LIGO or Virgo [4]." Notes [1] Stellar-mass black holes are the extremely dense, final remnants of the collapse of very massive stars. These black holes have masses up to around twenty times the mass of the Sun, as opposed to supermassive black holes, found in the centre of most galaxies, which can weigh a million to a
Coleman, S. ); Preskill, J. ); Wilczek, F. )
1991-10-07
A black hole can carry quantum numbers that are {ital not} associated with massless gauge fields, contrary to the spirit of the no-hair'' theorems. In the Higgs phase of a gauge theory, electric charge on a black hole generates a nonzero electric field outside the event horizon. This field is nonperturbative in {h bar} and is exponentially screened far from the hole. It arises from the cloud of virtual cosmic strings that surround the black hole. In the confinement phase, a magnetic charge on a black hole generates a {ital classical} field that is screened at long range by nonperturbative effects. Despite the sharp difference in their formal descriptions, the electric and magnetic cases are closely similar physically.
Acceleration of Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2012-05-01
An alternative cosmological model called black hole universe has been recently proposed by the author. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole to the present state by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we live, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and limits to zero for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of space-time, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. In this study. we will analyze the acceleration of black hole universe that accretes its ambient matter in an increasing rate. We will also compare the result obtained from the black hole universe model with the measurement of type Ia supernova and the result from the big bang cosmology.
A nonsingular rotating black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Sushant G.
2015-11-01
The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a well-defined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m( r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r ≫ k, k>0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k=0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2006-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version
This artist's concept shows a supermassive black hole at the center of a remote galaxy digesting the remnants of a star. NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer had a 'ringside' seat for this feeding frenzy, using its ultraviolet eyes to study the process from beginning to end.
The artist's concept chronicles the star being ripped apart and swallowed by the cosmic beast over time. First, the intact sun-like star (left) ventures too close to the black hole, and its own self-gravity is overwhelmed by the black hole's gravity. The star then stretches apart (middle yellow blob) and eventually breaks into stellar crumbs, some of which swirl into the black hole (cloudy ring at right). This doomed material heats up and radiates light, including ultraviolet light, before disappearing forever into the black hole. The Galaxy Evolution Explorer was able to watch this process unfold by observing changes in ultraviolet light.
The area around the black hole appears warped because the gravity of the black hole acts like a lens, twisting and distorting light.
More Hidden Black Hole Dangers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wanjek, Christopher
2003-01-01
Black holes such as GRO J1655-40 form from collapsed stars. When stars at least eight times more massive than our Sun exhaust their fuel supply, they no longer have the energy to support their tremendous bulk. These stars explode as supernovae, blasting their outer envelopes into space. If the core is more than three times the mass of the Sun, it will collapse into a singularity, a single point of infinite density.Although light cannot escape black holes, astronomers can see black holes by virtue of the hot, glowing gas often stolen from a neighboring star that orbits these objects. From our vantage point, the light seems to flicker. The Rossi Explorer has recorded this flickering (called quasiperiodic oscillations, or QPOs) around many black holes. QPOs are produced by gas very near the innermost stable orbit the closest orbit a blob of gas can maintain before falling pell-mell into the black hole. As gas whips around the black hole at near light speed, gravity pulls the gas in one direction, then another, adding to the flickering. The QPO is related to the speed and size of this orbit and the mass of the black hole.
Thermodynamics of Lifshitz black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Devecioǧlu, Deniz Olgu; Sarıoǧlu, Özgür
2011-06-01
We apply the recently extended conserved Killing charge definition of Abbott-Deser-Tekin formalism to compute, for the first time, the energies of analytic Lifshitz black holes in higher dimensions. We then calculate the temperature and the entropy of this large family of solutions, and study and discuss the first law of black hole thermodynamics. Along the way we also identify the possible critical points of the relevant quadratic curvature gravity theories. Separately, we also apply the generalized Killing charge definition to compute the energy and the angular momentum of the warped AdS3 black hole solution of the three-dimensional new massive gravity theory.
Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pickover, Clifford A.
1998-03-01
BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.
Quantum mechanics of black holes.
Witten, Edward
2012-08-01
The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely. PMID:22859480
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-08-15
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h{sub l} of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h{sub l}{sup EM}. The Love numbers h{sub l} give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
Dynamics of Charged Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zilhão, Miguel; Cardoso, Vitor; Herdeiro, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Sperhake, Ulrich
2015-01-01
We report on numerical simulations of charged-black-hole collisions.We focus on head-on collisions of non-spinning black holes, starting from rest and with the same charge to mass ratio. The addition of charge to black holes introduces a new interesting channel of radiation and dynamics. The amount of gravitational-wave energy generated throughout the collision decreases by about three orders of magnitude as the charge-to-mass ratio is increased from 0 to 0.98. This is a consequence of the smaller accelerations present for larger values of the charge.
Evaporation of primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
The usual explanation of the isotropy of the universe is that inflation would have smoothed out any inhomogeneities. However, if the universe was initially fractal or in a foam like state, an overall inflation would have left it in the same state. I suggest that the universe did indeed begin with a tangled web of wormholes connecting pairs of black holes but that the inflationary expansion was unstable: wormholes that are slightly smaller correspond to black holes that are hotter than the cosmological background and evaporate away. This picture is supported by calculations with Raphael Bousso of the evaporation of primordial black holes in the s-wave and large N approximations.
Orbital resonances around black holes.
Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja
2015-02-27
We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here. PMID:25768747
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Aneesur Rahman Prize for Computational Physics Talk: Black Hole Collisions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pretorius, Frans
2010-02-01
The class of spacetimes describing the merger of two black holes contain some of the most fascinating solutions to the equations of general relativity. In this talk I will review what has been learnt about the binary black hole problem over the past several years from numerical simulations of the Einstein field equations, focusing on the more ``extreme'' solutions obtained in the high velocity limit. This is of possible relevance to LHC and cosmic ray physics in certain proposed large extra dimension scenarios. Some of the interesting results include the near-Planck scale luminosity in radiated gravitational waves, recoil velocities of on the order of ten thousand kilometers per second or larger, zoom-whirl orbital motion, the formation of near-extremal Kerr black holes, and that in the ultra relativistic limit the internal nature of the colliding object, whether black holes or not, seemingly becomes irrelevant. )
Black holes and Newtonian physics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raychaudhuri, A. K.
1992-03-01
It is argued that one-way passage is inconsistent with Newtonian physics and thus the dark bodies as thought of by Michell and Laplace cannot be considered as exact analogues of relativistic black holes.
Black hole accretion disc impacts
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pihajoki, P.
2016-04-01
We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength λ = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas
2010-04-01
The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2014-06-01
The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero
2010-11-01
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Probability for primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bousso, R.; Hawking, S. W.
1995-11-01
We consider two quantum cosmological models with a massive scalar field: an ordinary Friedmann universe and a universe containing primordial black holes. For both models we discuss the complex solutions to the Euclidean Einstein equations. Using the probability measure obtained from the Hartle-Hawking no-boundary proposal we find that the only unsuppressed black holes start at the Planck size but can grow with the horizon scale during the roll down of the scalar field to the minimum.
Charged rotating noncommutative black holes
Modesto, Leonardo; Nicolini, Piero
2010-11-15
In this paper we complete the program of the noncomutative geometry inspired black holes, providing the richest possible solution, endowed with mass, charge and angular momentum. After providing a prescription for employing the Newman-Janis algorithm in the case of nonvanishing stress tensors, we find regular axisymmetric charged black holes in the presence of a minimal length. We study also the new thermodynamics and we determine the corresponding higher-dimensional solutions. As a conclusion we make some consideration about possible applications.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
Massive black hole (MBH) binaries are found at the centers of most galaxies. MBH mergers trace galaxy mergers and are strong sources of gravitational waves. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities. causing them to crash well before the black hole:, in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This presentation shows how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. Focus is on the recent advances that that reveal these waveforms, and the potential for discoveries that arises when these sources are observed by LIGO and LISA.
Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2009-03-01
New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don
Binary black hole late inspiral: Simulations for gravitational wave observations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, John G.; McWilliams, Sean T.; van Meter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael
2007-06-01
Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of general relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late-inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for ˜1200M through ˜7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass ˜14cycle before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to post-Newtonian (PN) calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than one cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform, which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR≳10 for some intermediate mass binary black holes (IMBBHs) out to z˜1, and that LISA can see massive binary black holes (MBBHs) in the range 3×104≲M/M⊙≲107 at SNR>100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z>15.
Possible evolution of supermassive black holes from FRI quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J.; Garofalo, David; D'Avanzo, Jaclyn
2016-08-01
We explore the question of the rapid buildup of black hole mass in the early universe employing a growing black hole mass-based determination of both jet and disk powers predicted in recent theoretical work on black hole accretion and jet formation. Despite simplified, even artificial assumptions about accretion and mergers, we identify an interesting low probability channel for the growth of one billion solar mass black holes within hundreds of millions of years of the Big Bang without appealing to super Eddington accretion. This result is made more compelling by the recognition of a connection between this channel and an end product involving active galaxies with FRI radio morphology but weaker jet powers in mildly sub-Eddington accretion regimes. While FRI quasars have already been shown to occupy a small region of the available parameter space for black hole feedback in the paradigm, we further suggest that the observational dearth of FRI quasars is also related to their connection to the most massive black hole growth due to both these FRIs high redshifts and relative weakness. Our results also allow us to construct the AGN luminosity function at high redshift, that agree with recent studies. In short, we produce a connection between the unexplained paucity of a given family of active galactic nuclei and the rapid growth of supermassive black holes, two heretofore seemingly unrelated aspects of the physics of active galactic nuclei.
Possible evolution of supermassive black holes from FRI quasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Matthew I.; Christian, Damian J.; Garofalo, David; D'Avanzo, Jaclyn
2016-08-01
We explore the question of the rapid buildup of black hole mass in the early universe employing a growing black hole mass-based determination of both jet and disc powers predicted in recent theoretical work on black hole accretion and jet formation. Despite simplified, even artificial assumptions about accretion and mergers, we identify an interesting low probability channel for the growth of one billion solar mass black holes within hundreds of millions of years of the big bang without appealing to super Eddington accretion. This result is made more compelling by the recognition of a connection between this channel and an end product involving active galaxies with FRI radio morphology but weaker jet powers in mildly sub-Eddington accretion regimes. While FRI quasars have already been shown to occupy a small region of the available parameter space for black hole feedback in the paradigm, we further suggest that the observational dearth of FRI quasars is also related to their connection to the most massive black hole growth due to both these FRIs high redshifts and relative weakness. Our results also allow us to construct the AGN (active galactic nucleus) luminosity function at high redshift, that agree with recent studies. In short, we produce a connection between the unexplained paucity of a given family of AGNs and the rapid growth of supermassive black holes, two heretofore seemingly unrelated aspects of the physics of AGNs.
Testing general relativity using golden black-hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Johnson-McDaniel, Nathan K.; Mishra, Chandra Kant; Ajith, Parameswaran; Del Pozzo, Walter; Nichols, David A.; Chen, Yanbei; Nielsen, Alex B.; Berry, Christopher P. L.; London, Lionel
2016-07-01
The coalescences of stellar-mass black-hole binaries through their inspiral, merger, and ringdown are among the most promising sources for ground-based gravitational-wave (GW) detectors. If a GW signal is observed with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio, the masses and spins of the black holes can be estimated from just the inspiral part of the signal. Using these estimates of the initial parameters of the binary, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be uniquely predicted making use of general-relativistic numerical simulations. In addition, the mass and spin of the final black hole can be independently estimated from the merger-ringdown part of the signal. If the binary black-hole dynamics is correctly described by general relativity (GR), these independent estimates have to be consistent with each other. We present a Bayesian implementation of such a test of general relativity, which allows us to combine the constraints from multiple observations. Using kludge modified GR waveforms, we demonstrate that this test can detect sufficiently large deviations from GR and outline the expected constraints from upcoming GW observations using the second-generation of ground-based GW detectors.
Precessional Instability in Binary Black Holes with Aligned Spins
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele
2015-10-01
Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been test beds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is antialigned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation r is between the values ru d ±=(√{χ1 }±√{q χ2 })4(1 -q )-2M , where M is the total mass, q ≡m2/m1 is the mass ratio, and χ1 (χ2) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near the merger. We describe the origin and nature of the instability using recently developed analytical techniques to characterize fully generic spin precession. This instability provides a channel to circumvent astrophysical spin alignment at large binary separations, allowing significant spin precession prior to merger affecting both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signatures of stellar-mass and supermassive binary black holes.
Precessional Instability in Binary Black Holes with Aligned Spins.
Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Klein, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Sperhake, Ulrich; Trifirò, Daniele
2015-10-01
Binary black holes on quasicircular orbits with spins aligned with their orbital angular momentum have been test beds for analytic and numerical relativity for decades, not least because symmetry ensures that such configurations are equilibrium solutions to the spin-precession equations. In this work, we show that these solutions can be unstable when the spin of the higher-mass black hole is aligned with the orbital angular momentum and the spin of the lower-mass black hole is antialigned. Spins in these configurations are unstable to precession to large misalignment when the binary separation r is between the values r(ud±)=(√(χ(1))±√(qχ(2)))(4)(1-q)(-2)M, where M is the total mass, q≡m(2)/m(1) is the mass ratio, and χ(1) (χ(2)) is the dimensionless spin of the more (less) massive black hole. This instability exists for a wide range of spin magnitudes and mass ratios and can occur in the strong-field regime near the merger. We describe the origin and nature of the instability using recently developed analytical techniques to characterize fully generic spin precession. This instability provides a channel to circumvent astrophysical spin alignment at large binary separations, allowing significant spin precession prior to merger affecting both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic signatures of stellar-mass and supermassive binary black holes. PMID:26551802
precession: Dynamics of spinning black-hole binaries with python
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gerosa, Davide; Kesden, Michael
2016-06-01
We present the numerical code precession, a new open-source python module to study the dynamics of precessing black-hole binaries in the post-Newtonian regime. The code provides a comprehensive toolbox to (i) study the evolution of the black-hole spins along their precession cycles, (ii) perform gravitational-wave-driven binary inspirals using both orbit-averaged and precession-averaged integrations, and (iii) predict the properties of the merger remnant through fitting formulas obtained from numerical-relativity simulations. precession is a ready-to-use tool to add the black-hole spin dynamics to larger-scale numerical studies such as gravitational-wave parameter estimation codes, population synthesis models to predict gravitational-wave event rates, galaxy merger trees and cosmological simulations of structure formation. precession provides fast and reliable integration methods to propagate statistical samples of black-hole binaries from/to large separations where they form to/from small separations where they become detectable, thus linking gravitational-wave observations of spinning black-hole binaries to their astrophysical formation history. The code is also a useful tool to compute initial parameters for numerical-relativity simulations targeting specific precessing systems. precession can be installed from the python Package Index, and it is freely distributed under version control on github, where further documentation is provided.
Science with the space-based interferometer eLISA: Supermassive black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Antoine; Barausse, Enrico; Sesana, Alberto; Petiteau, Antoine; Berti, Emanuele; Babak, Stanislav; Gair, Jonathan; Aoudia, Sofiane; Hinder, Ian; Ohme, Frank; Wardell, Barry
2016-01-01
We compare the science capabilities of different eLISA mission designs, including four-link (two-arm) and six-link (three-arm) configurations with different arm lengths, low-frequency noise sensitivities and mission durations. For each of these configurations we consider a few representative massive black hole formation scenarios. These scenarios are chosen to explore two physical mechanisms that greatly affect eLISA rates, namely (i) black hole seeding, and (ii) the delays between the merger of two galaxies and the merger of the black holes hosted by those galaxies. We assess the eLISA parameter estimation accuracy using a Fisher matrix analysis with spin-precessing, inspiral-only waveforms. We quantify the information present in the merger and ringdown by rescaling the inspiral-only Fisher matrix estimates using the signal-to-noise ratio from nonprecessing inspiral-merger-ringdown phenomenological waveforms, and from a reduced set of precessing numerical relativity/post-Newtonian hybrid waveforms. We find that all of the eLISA configurations considered in our study should detect some massive black hole binaries. However, configurations with six links and better low-frequency noise will provide much more information on the origin of black holes at high redshifts and on their accretion history, and they may allow the identification of electromagnetic counterparts to massive black hole mergers.
Black holes in a box: Toward the numerical evolution of black holes in AdS space-times
Witek, Helvi; Nerozzi, Andrea; Cardoso, Vitor; Herdeiro, Carlos; Sperhake, Ulrich; Zilhao, Miguel
2010-11-15
The evolution of black holes in ''confining boxes'' is interesting for a number of reasons, particularly because it mimics the global structure of anti-de Sitter geometries. These are nonglobally hyperbolic space-times and the Cauchy problem may only be well defined if the initial data are supplemented by boundary conditions at the timelike conformal boundary. Here, we explore the active role that boundary conditions play in the evolution of a bulk black hole system, by imprisoning a black hole binary in a box with mirrorlike boundary conditions. We are able to follow the post-merger dynamics for up to two reflections off the boundary of the gravitational radiation produced in the merger. We estimate that about 15% of the radiation energy is absorbed by the black hole per interaction, whereas transfer of angular momentum from the radiation to the black hole is observed only in the first interaction. We discuss the possible role of superradiant scattering for this result. Unlike the studies with outgoing boundary conditions, both of the Newman-Penrose scalars {Psi}{sub 4} and {Psi}{sub 0} are nontrivial in our setup, and we show that the numerical data verifies the expected relations between them.
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greene, Jenny E.
2012-12-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass `stellar mass' black holes and the `supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive `intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ~104-105Msolar black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.
Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, Meg; Treister, Ezequiel; Simmons, Brooke; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Glikman, Eilat
2011-12-20
One of the key open questions in cosmology today pertains to understanding when, where, and how supermassive black holes form. While it is clear that mergers likely play a significant role in the growth cycles of black holes, the issue of how supermassive black holes form, and how galaxies grow around them, still needs to be addressed. Here, we present Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/IR grism observations of a clumpy galaxy at z = 1.35, with evidence for 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} rapidly growing black holes in separate sub-components of the host galaxy. These black holes could have been brought into close proximity as a consequence of a rare multiple galaxy merger or they could have formed in situ. Such holes would eventually merge into a central black hole as the stellar clumps/components presumably coalesce to form a galaxy bulge. If we are witnessing the in situ formation of multiple black holes, their properties can inform seed formation models and raise the possibility that massive black holes can continue to emerge in star-forming galaxies as late as z = 1.35 (4.8 Gyr after the big bang).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2001-08-01
extremely intense gravitational field and as light can not escape from them, they are dark and invisible. Indeed, with presently available observational tools, they cannot be detected directly, only by effects resulting from interaction with their immediate surroundings. A small fraction of the black holes in galaxies are thus revealed by the spectacular activity they trigger in the central part of their hosts. Attracted by that heavy object, enormous quantities of gas (mostly hydrogen) spiral inwards towards the black hole. A disk-shaped structure forms in which the gas moves ever faster around the black hole while enormous amounts of energy are radiated at all wavelengths [3]. Getting the food to the Black Hole A great debate is now going on among scientists about how exactly the black holes are "fed". How is the gas first transported into the disk to fuel the seemingly insatiable supermassive black hole? It is still not well understood how the gas is moved from the outside to within a distance of 1000 light-years of the centre. Various violent processes have been mentioned in this context, like the merger of galaxies. A fine example of such an event was recently observed at the distant quasar HE 1013-2136 with the ESO Very Large Telescope, cf. ESO PR 13/01. The role of "nuclear bars" ESO PR Photo 25d/01 ESO PR Photo 25d/01 [Preview - JPEG: 364 x 400 pix - 89k] [Normal - JPEG: 727 x 800 pix - 264k] Caption : PR Photo 25d/01 is a schematic drawing of the various components of a double-barred galaxy, as mentioned in the text. Another possibility to move the gas inwards is the presence of bar-like structures at the centres of some galaxies, so-called "nuclear bars" . They look like small versions of the well-known, beautiful large-scale bar-like structures seen in galaxies like NGC 1365 (cf. ESO PR Photos 08a-e/99 ), but the responsible dynamical processes may possibly be somewhat different. Photo 25d/01 shows the various components that are discussed here in a schematic way
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
Quantum Criticality and Black Holes
Sachdev, Subir [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
2009-09-01
I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.
Scrambling with matrix black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche
2013-08-01
If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.
Quantum Criticality and Black Holes
Sachdev, Subir
2007-08-22
I will describe the behavior of a variety of condensed matter systems in the vicinity of zero temperature quantum phase transitions. There is a remarkable analogy between the hydrodynamics of such systems and the quantum theory of black holes. I will show how insights from this analogy have shed light on recent experiments on the cuprate high temperature superconductors. Studies of new materials and trapped ultracold atoms are yielding new quantum phases, with novel forms of quantum entanglement. Some materials are of technological importance: e.g. high temperature superconductors. Exact solutions via black hole mapping have yielded first exact results for transport coefficients in interacting many-body systems, and were valuable in determining general structure of hydrodynamics. Theory of VBS order and Nernst effect in cuprates. Tabletop 'laboratories for the entire universe': quantum mechanics of black holes, quark-gluon plasma, neutrons stars, and big-bang physics.
Liouvillian perturbations of black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Couch, W. E.; Holder, C. L.
2007-10-01
We apply the well-known Kovacic algorithm to find closed form, i.e., Liouvillian solutions, to the differential equations governing perturbations of black holes. Our analysis includes the full gravitational perturbations of Schwarzschild and Kerr, the full gravitational and electromagnetic perturbations of Reissner-Nordstrom, and specialized perturbations of the Kerr-Newman geometry. We also include the extreme geometries. We find all frequencies ω, in terms of black hole parameters and an integer n, which allow Liouvillian perturbations. We display many classes of black hole parameter values and their corresponding Liouvillian perturbations, including new closed-form perturbations of Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom. We also prove that the only type 1 Liouvillian perturbations of Schwarzschild are the known algebraically special ones and that type 2 Liouvillian solutions do not exist for extreme geometries. In cases where we do not prove the existence or nonexistence of Liouvillian perturbations we obtain sequences of Diophantine equations on which decidability rests.
Tomograms of spinning black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishnan, Chethan
2009-12-01
The classical internal structure of spinning black holes is vastly different from that of static black holes. We consider spinning Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes, and probe their interior from the gauge theory. Utilizing the simplicity of the geometry and reverse engineering from the geodesics, we propose a thermal correlator construction which can be interpreted as arising from two entangled conformal field theories. By analytic continuation of these correlators, we can probe the Cauchy horizon. Correlators that capture the Cauchy horizon in our work have a structure closely related to those that capture the singularity in a nonrotating Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli. As expected, the regions beyond the Cauchy horizon are not probed in this picture, protecting cosmic censorship.
Search for gravitational waves from intermediate mass binary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Amador Ceron, E.; Amariutei, D.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Arai, K.; Arain, M. A.; Araya, M. C.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atkinson, D.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Aylott, B. E.; Babak, S.; Baker, P.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S.; Barayoga, J. C. B.; Barker, D.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barton, M. A.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Bastarrika, M.; Basti, A.; Batch, J.; Bauchrowitz, J.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bebronne, M.; Beck, D.; Behnke, B.; Bejger, M.; Beker, M. G.; Bell, A. S.; Belletoile, A.; Belopolski, I.; Benacquista, M.; Berliner, J. M.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Beveridge, N.; Beyersdorf, P. T.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Birch, J.; Biswas, R.; Bitossi, M.; Bizouard, M. A.; Black, E.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackburn, L.; Blair, D.; Bland, B.; Blom, M.; Bock, O.; Bodiya, T. P.; Bogan, C.; Bondarescu, R.; Bondu, F.; Bonelli, L.; Bonnand, R.; Bork, R.; Born, M.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bosi, L.; Bouhou, B.; Braccini, S.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Braginsky, V. B.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Breyer, J.; Briant, T.; Bridges, D. O.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, M.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Campsie, P.; Cannizzo, J.; Cannon, K.; Canuel, B.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Carbognani, F.; Carbone, L.; Caride, S.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglià, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C.; Cesarini, E.; Chaibi, O.; Chalermsongsak, T.; Charlton, P.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chelkowski, S.; Chen, W.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Cho, H.; Chow, J.; Christensen, N.; Chua, S. S. Y.; Chung, C. T. Y.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Clara, F.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, J.; Clayton, J. H.; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P.-F.; Colacino, C. N.; Colas, J.; Colla, A.; Colombini, M.; Conte, A.; Conte, R.; Cook, D.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordier, M.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M.; Coulon, J.-P.; Couvares, P.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M.; Coyne, D. C.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cruise, A. M.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Cutler, R. M.; Dahl, K.; Danilishin, S. L.; Dannenberg, R.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dattilo, V.; Daudert, B.; Daveloza, H.; Davier, M.; Daw, E. J.; Day, R.; Dayanga, T.; De Rosa, R.; DeBra, D.; Debreczeni, G.; Del Pozzo, W.; del Prete, M.; Dent, T.; Dergachev, V.; DeRosa, R.; DeSalvo, R.; Dhurandhar, S.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Palma, I.; Di Paolo Emilio, M.; Di Virgilio, A.; Díaz, M.; Dietz, A.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Drago, M.; Drever, R. W. P.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Dumas, J.-C.; Dwyer, S.; Eberle, T.; Edgar, M.; Edwards, M.; Effler, A.; Ehrens, P.; Endrőczi, G.; Engel, R.; Etzel, T.; Evans, K.; Evans, M.; Evans, T.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, Y.; Farr, B. F.; Fazi, D.; Fehrmann, H.; Feldbaum, D.; Feroz, F.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Finn, L. S.; Fiori, I.; Fisher, R. P.; Flaminio, R.; Flanigan, M.; Foley, S.; Forsi, E.; Forte, L. A.; Fotopoulos, N.; Fournier, J.-D.; Franc, J.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frede, M.; Frei, M.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Fricke, T. T.; Friedrich, D.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fujimoto, M.-K.; Fulda, P. J.; Fyffe, M.; Gair, J.; Galimberti, M.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garcia, J.; Garufi, F.; Gáspár, M. E.; Gemme, G.; Geng, R.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Gergely, L. Á.; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giampanis, S.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gil, S.; Gill, C.; Gleason, J.; Goetz, E.; Goggin, L. M.; González, G.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Goßler, S.; Gouaty, R.; Graef, C.; Graff, P. B.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Gray, N.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Gretarsson, A. M.; Greverie, C.; Grosso, R.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Guidi, G. M.; Guido, C.; Gupta, R.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Ha, T.; Hallam, J. M.; Hammer, D.; Hammond, G.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hanson, J.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Harstad, E. D.; Hartman, M. T.; Haughian, K.; Hayama, K.; Hayau, J.-F.; Heefner, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hendry, M. A.; Heng, I. S.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Herrera, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hild, S.; Hoak, D.; Hodge, K. A.; Holt, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hong, T.; Hooper, S.; Hosken, D. J.; Hough, J.; Howell, E. J.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Ingram, D. R.; Inta, R.; Isogai, T.; Ivanov, A.; Izumi, K.; Jacobson, M.; James, E.; Jang, Y. J.; Jaranowski, P.; Jesse, E.; Johnson, W. W.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.; Ju, L.; Kalmus, P.; Kalogera, V.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kasturi, R.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, H.; Kawabe, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kawazoe, F.; Kelley, D.; Kells, W.; Keppel, D. G.; Keresztes, Z.; Khalaidovski, A.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kim, B.; Kim, C.; Kim, H.; Kim, K.; Kim, N.; Kim, Y.-M.; King, P. J.; Kinzel, D. L.; Kissel, J. S.; Klimenko, S.; Kokeyama, K.; Kondrashov, V.; Koranda, S.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D.; Kranz, O.; Kringel, V.; Krishnamurthy, S.; Krishnan, B.; Królak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, R.; Kwee, P.; Lam, P. K.; Landry, M.; Lantz, B.; Lastzka, N.; Lawrie, C.; Lazzarini, A.; Leaci, P.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Leong, J. R.; Leonor, I.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Li, J.; Li, T. G. F.; Liguori, N.; Lindquist, P. E.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lockerbie, N. A.; Lodhia, D.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J.; Luan, J.; Lubinski, M.; Lück, H.; Lundgren, A. P.; Macdonald, E.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Mageswaran, M.; Mailand, K.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandel, I.; Mandic, V.; Mantovani, M.; Marandi, A.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Márka, S.; Márka, Z.; Markosyan, A.; Maros, E.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Marx, J. N.; Mason, K.; Masserot, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Matzner, R. A.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazzolo, G.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McKechan, D. J. A.; McWilliams, S.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meier, T.; Melatos, A.; Melissinos, A. C.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Meyer, M. S.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Milano, L.; Miller, J.; Minenkov, Y.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Miyakawa, O.; Moe, B.; Mohan, M.; Mohanty, S. D.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morgado, N.; Morgia, A.; Mori, T.; Morriss, S. R.; Mosca, S.; Mossavi, K.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, C. L.; Mueller, G.; Mukherjee, S.; Mullavey, A.; Müller-Ebhardt, H.; Munch, J.; Murphy, D.; Murray, P. G.; Mytidis, A.; Nash, T.; Naticchioni, L.; Necula, V.; Nelson, J.; Newton, G.; Nguyen, T.; Nishizawa, A.; Nitz, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; Normandin, M. E.; Nuttall, L.; Ochsner, E.; O'Dell, J.; Oelker, E.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; O'Reilly, B.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Osthelder, C.; Ott, C. D.; Ottaway, D. J.; Ottens, R. S.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Page, A.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palladino, L.; Palomba, C.; Pan, Y.; Pankow, C.; Paoletti, F.; Papa, M. A.; Parisi, M.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patel, P.; Pedraza, M.; Peiris, P.; Pekowsky, L.; Penn, S.; Perreca, A.; Persichetti, G.; Phelps, M.; Pickenpack, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pietka, M.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pitkin, M.; Pletsch, H. J.; Plissi, M. V.; Poggiani, R.; Pöld, J.; Postiglione, F.; Prato, M.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Price, L. R.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prix, R.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Quetschke, V.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Rácz, I.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Rakhmanov, M.; Rankins, B.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Re, V.; Redwine, K.; Reed, C. M.; Reed, T.; Regimbau, T.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ricci, F.; Riesen, R.; Riles, K.; Robertson, N. A.; Robinet, F.; Robinson, C.; Robinson, E. L.; Rocchi, A.; Roddy, S.; Rodriguez, C.; Rodruck, M.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Romano, J. D.; Romano, R.; Romie, J. H.; Rosińska, D.; Röver, C.; Rowan, S.; Rüdiger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Ryan, K.; Sainathan, P.; Salemi, F.; Sammut, L.; Sandberg, V.; Sannibale, V.; Santamaría, L.; Santiago-Prieto, I.; Santostasi, G.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Sato, S.; Saulson, P. R.; Savage, R. L.; Schilling, R.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schreiber, E.; Schulz, B.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwinberg, P.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seifert, F.; Sellers, D.; Sentenac, D.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaltev, M.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Sibley, A.; Siemens, X.; Sigg, D.; Singer, A.; Singer, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Skelton, G. R.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Slutsky, J.; Smith, J. R.; Smith, M. R.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith-Lefebvre, N. D.; Somiya, K.; Sorazu, B.; Soto, J.; Speirits, F. C.; Sperandio, L.; Stefszky, M.; Stein, A. J.; Stein, L. C.; Steinert, E.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steplewski, S.; Stochino, A.; Stone, R.; Strain, K. A.; Strigin, S. E.; Stroeer, A. S.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sung, M.; Susmithan, S.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B.; Tacca, M.; Taffarello, L.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tarabrin, S. P.; Taylor, J. R.; Taylor, R.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Thüring, A.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Tomlinson, C.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Torre, O.; Torres, C.; Torrie, C. I.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Tseng, K.; Ugolini, D.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van Den Broeck, C.; van der Putten, S.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vaulin, R.; Vavoulidis, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Veltkamp, C.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Viceré, A.; Villar, A. E.; Vinet, J.-Y.; Vitale, S.; Vitale, S.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A.; Wade, L.; Wade, M.; Waldman, S. J.; Wallace, L.; Wan, Y.; Wang, M.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Wanner, A.; Ward, R. L.; Was, M.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessels, P.; West, M.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; White, D. J.; Whiting, B. F.; Wilkinson, C.; Willems, P. A.; Williams, L.; Williams, R.; Willke, B.; Winkelmann, L.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wiseman, A. G.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Wooley, R.; Worden, J.; Yakushin, I.; Yamamoto, H.; Yamamoto, K.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, H.; Yeaton-Massey, D.; Yoshida, S.; Yu, P.; Yvert, M.; Zadroźny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zendri, J.-P.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.; Zhao, C.; Zotov, N.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.
2012-05-01
We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of nonspinning intermediate mass black holes in the total mass range 100-450M⊙ and with the component mass ratios between 1∶1 and 4∶1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the intermediate mass black holes mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88+88M⊙, for nonspinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc3 per Myr at the 90% confidence level.
Locating the two black holes in NGC 6240.
Max, Claire E; Canalizo, Gabriela; de Vries, Willem H
2007-06-29
Mergers play an important role in galaxy evolution and are key to understanding the correlation between central-black hole mass and host-galaxy properties. We used the new technology of adaptive optics at the Keck II telescope to observe NGC 6240, a merger between two disk galaxies. Our high-resolution near-infrared images, combined with radio and x-ray positions, revealed the location and environment of two central supermassive black holes. Each is at the center of a rotating stellar disk, surrounded by a cloud of young star clusters. The brightest of these young clusters lie in the plane of each disk, but surprisingly are seen only on the disks' receding side. PMID:17510326
Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John
2009-01-01
Binary black hole mergers are central to many key science objectives of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). For many systems the strongest part of the signal is only understood by numerical simulations. Gravitational wave emissions are understood by simulations of vacuum General Relativity (GR). I discuss numerical simulation results from the perspective of LISA's needs, with indications of work that remains to be done. Some exciting scientific opportunities associated with LISA observations would be greatly enhanced if prompt electromagnetic signature could be associated. I discuss simulations to explore this possibility. Numerical simulations are important now for clarifying LISA's science potential and planning the mission. We also consider how numerical simulations might be applied at the time of LISA's operation.
Building Black Holes: Supercomputer Cinema
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Stuart L.; Teukolsky, Saul A.
1988-07-01
A new computer code can solve Einstein's equations of general relativity for the dynamical evolution of a relativistic star cluster. The cluster may contain a large number of stars that move in a strong gravitational field at speeds approaching the speed of light. Unstable star clusters undergo catastrophic collapse to black holes. The collapse of an unstable cluster to a supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy may explain the origin of quasars and active galactic nuclei. By means of a supercomputer simulation and color graphics, the whole process can be viewed in real time on a movie screen.
Information loss in black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.
2005-10-01
The question of whether information is lost in black holes is investigated using Euclidean path integrals. The formation and evaporation of black holes is regarded as a scattering problem with all measurements being made at infinity. This seems to be well formulated only in asymptotically AdS spacetimes. The path integral over metrics with trivial topology is unitary and information preserving. On the other hand, the path integral over metrics with nontrivial topologies leads to correlation functions that decay to zero. Thus at late times only the unitary information preserving path integrals over trivial topologies will contribute. Elementary quantum gravity interactions do not lose information or quantum coherence.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2010-07-01
Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help
Results from Binary Black Hole Simulations in Astrophysics Applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.
2007-01-01
Present and planned gravitational wave observatories are opening a new astronomical window to the sky. A key source of gravitational waves is the merger of two black holes. The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), in particular, is expected to observe these events with signal-to-noise ratio's in the thousands. To fully reap the scientific benefits of these observations requires a detailed understanding, based on numerical simulations, of the predictions of General Relativity for the waveform signals. New techniques for simulating binary black hole mergers, introduced two years ago, have led to dramatic advances in applied numerical simulation work. Over the last two years, numerical relativity researchers have made tremendous strides in understanding the late stages of binary black hole mergers. Simulations have been applied to test much of the basic physics of binary black hole interactions, showing robust results for merger waveform predictions, and illuminating such phenomena as spin-precession. Calculations have shown that merging systems can be kicked at up to 2500 km/s by the thrust from asymmetric emission. Recently, long lasting simulations of ten or more orbits allow tests of post-Newtonian (PN) approximation results for radiation from the last orbits of the binary's inspiral. Already, analytic waveform models based PN techniques with incorporated information from numerical simulations may be adequate for observations with current ground based observatories. As new advances in simulations continue to rapidly improve our theoretical understanding of the systems, it seems certain that high-precision predictions will be available in time for LISA and other advanced ground-based instruments. Future gravitational wave observatories are expected to make precision.
The Signature of Black Hole-Neutron Star Binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liebling, Steven; Anderson, Matthew; Hirschmann, Eric; Lehner, Luis; Motl, Patrick; Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos
2011-04-01
Black hole-neutron star (BHNS) binaries are key gravitational wave sources, merging in the frequency band to which Earth-based GW detectors are most sensitive. Furthermore, as possible candidates for short-hard gamma ray bursts, combined observations in both gravitational and electromagnetic bands of BHNS mergers is thus an exciting possibility. This talk will discuss results from simulations that account for gravitational and magnetic effects as well as connections with processes capable of explaining key features of gamma ray bursts.
Two Monster Black Holes at Work
Zoom into Markarian 739, a nearby galaxy hosting two monster black holes. Using NASA's Swift and Chandra, astronomers have shown that both black holes are producing energy as gas falls into them. T...
Superradiance from a charged dilation black hole
Shiraishi, K. )
1992-12-07
In this paper, the authors study the behavior of the wave function of charged Klein-Gordon field around a charge dilaton black hole. The rate of spontaneous charge loss is estimated for large black hole case.
Effects of nearly extremal black-hole spin in numerical-relativity simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovelace, Geoffrey
2012-03-01
There is a significant possibility that nearly extremal black holes (i.e., holes spinning nearly as rapidly as possible) exist and thus are among the compact-binary mergers that could be observed by Advanced LIGO. Numerical-relativity simulations of merging compact objects---necessary for predicting the gravitational waveforms that Advanced LIGO could detect---are particularly challenging when they contain nearly extremal black-hole spins. In this talk, I will discuss results from recent simulations [performed using the SpEC code (black-holes.org/SpEC)] that contain nearly extremal black holes, including a simulation of merging black holes with the highest spins (and among the most gravitational-wave cycles) simulated to date. In particular, I will compare the numerical gravitational waveforms and the holes' masses and spins with analytic predictions. I will also discuss the behavior of the strongly warped spacetime near the holes' horizons.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities. causing them to crash well before the black hole:, in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
This viewgraph presentation reviews the massive black hole (MBH) binaries that are found at the center of most galaxies, "astronomical messenger", gravitational waves (GW), and the use of numerical relativity understand the features of these phenomena. The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity.. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields. We need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simutation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Binary Black Holes, Numerical Relativity, and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2006-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. This situation has changed dramatically in the past year, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA and LIGO.
Superkicks in ultrarelativistic encounters of spinning black holes
Sperhake, Ulrich; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Pretorius, Frans; Yunes, Nicolas
2011-01-15
We study ultrarelativistic encounters of two spinning, equal-mass black holes through simulations in full numerical relativity. Two initial data sequences are studied in detail: one that leads to scattering and one that leads to a grazing collision and merger. In all cases, the initial black hole spins lie in the orbital plane, a configuration that leads to the so-called superkicks. In astrophysical, quasicircular inspirals, such kicks can be as large as {approx}3000 km/s; here, we find configurations that exceed {approx}15 000 km/s. We find that the maximum recoil is to a good approximation proportional to the total amount of energy radiated in gravitational waves, but largely independent of whether a merger occurs or not. This shows that the mechanism predominantly responsible for the superkick is not related to merger dynamics. Rather, a consistent explanation is that the ''bobbing'' motion of the orbit causes an asymmetric beaming of the radiation produced by the in-plane orbital motion of the binary, and the net asymmetry is balanced by a recoil. We use our results to formulate some conjectures on the ultimate kick achievable in any black hole encounter.
Cosmic Messengers: Binary Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2007-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein s equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. . This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will. be observed by LISA.
Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.
Spin flips in generic black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lousto, Carlos O.; Healy, James; Nakano, Hiroyuki
2016-02-01
We study the spin dynamics of individual black holes in a binary system. In particular we focus on the polar precession of spins and the possibility of a complete flip of spins with respect to the orbital plane. We perform a full numerical simulation that displays these characteristics. We evolve equal mass binary spinning black holes for t =20 ,000 M from an initial proper separation of d =25 M down to merger after 48.5 orbits. We compute the gravitational radiation from this system and compare it to 3.5 post-Newtonian generated waveforms finding close agreement. We then further use 3.5 post-Newtonian evolutions to show the extension of this spin flip-flop phenomenon to unequal mass binaries. We also provide analytic expressions to approximate the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency in terms of the binary spins and mass ratio parameters at a given orbital radius. Finally we discuss the effect this spin flip flop would have on accreting matter and other potential observational effects.
ECCENTRIC EVOLUTION OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARIES
Iwasawa, Masaki; An, Sangyong; Matsubayashi, Tatsushi; Funato, Yoko; Makino, Junichiro
2011-04-10
In recent numerical simulations, it has been found that the eccentricity of supermassive black hole (SMBH)-intermediate black hole (IMBH) binaries grows toward unity through interactions with the stellar background. This increase of eccentricity reduces the merging timescale of the binary through the gravitational radiation to a value well below the Hubble time. It also gives a theoretical explanation of the existence of eccentric binaries such as that in OJ287. In self-consistent N-body simulations, this increase of eccentricity is always observed. On the other hand, the result of the scattering experiment between SMBH binaries and field stars indicated that the eccentricity dose not change significantly. This discrepancy leaves the high eccentricity of the SMBH binaries in N-body simulations unexplained. Here, we present a stellar-dynamical mechanism that drives the increase of the eccentricity of an SMBH binary with a large mass ratio. There are two key processes involved. The first one is the Kozai mechanism under a non-axisymmetric potential, which effectively randomizes the angular momenta of surrounding stars. The other is the selective ejection of stars with prograde orbits. Through these two mechanisms, field stars extract the orbital angular momentum of the SMBH binary. Our proposed mechanism causes the increase in the eccentricity of most of SMBH binaries, resulting in the rapid merger through gravitational wave radiation. Our result has given a definite solution to the 'last-parsec problem'.
A candidate sub-parsec supermassive binary black hole system.
Boroson, Todd A; Lauer, Tod R
2009-03-01
The role of mergers in producing galaxies, together with the finding that most large galaxies harbour black holes in their nuclei, implies that binary supermassive black hole systems should be common. Here we report that the quasar SDSS J153636.22+044127.0 is a plausible example of such a system. This quasar shows two broad-line emission systems, separated in velocity by 3,500 km s(-1). A third system of unresolved absorption lines has an intermediate velocity. These characteristics are unique among known quasars. We interpret this object as a binary system of two black holes, having masses of 10(7.3) and 10(8.9) solar masses separated by approximately 0.1 parsec with an orbital period of approximately 100 years. PMID:19262667
The origin and growth of the first black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schawinski, Kevin
2015-08-01
I will present recent results on the search for black hole growth at the highest redshifts in the deepest Chandra X-ray observations: a startling lack of faint AGN in z>5 galaxies is starting to place interesting constraints on formation and early growth scenarios. At the same time, circumstantial evidence from both observations and theory points to late formation of black hole seeds in moderate mass galaxies as a viable channel. Dense sub-galactic clumps and major mergers are plausible formation sites perhaps even to z~0. I will also present the outlook for future X-ray missions such as ATHENA in tracing black hole growth at unprecedented levels using X-ray variability.
High-energy collision of two black holes.
Sperhake, Ulrich; Cardoso, Vitor; Pretorius, Frans; Berti, Emanuele; González, José A
2008-10-17
We study the head-on collision of two highly boosted equal mass, nonrotating black holes. We determine the waveforms, radiated energies, and mode excitation in the center of mass frame for a variety of boosts. For the first time we are able to compare analytic calculations, black-hole perturbation theory, and strong field, nonlinear numerical calculations for this problem. Extrapolation of our results, which include velocities of up to 0.94c, indicate that in the ultrarelativistic regime about 14+/-3% of the energy is converted into gravitational waves. This gives rise to a luminosity of order 10_(-2)c_(5)/G, the largest known so far in a black-hole merger. PMID:18999655
Fenimore, Edward E.
2014-10-06
Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.
Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ryder, Lewis
1973-01-01
The newest and most exotic manner in which stars die is investigated. A brief outline is presented, along with a discussion of the role supernova play, followed by a description of how the black holes originate, exist, and how they might be detected. (DF)
'Black holes': escaping the void.
Waldron, Sharn
2013-02-01
The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche. PMID:23351000
Prisons of Light - Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferguson, Kitty
1998-02-01
Prologue; 1. A cosmic case of burnout; 2. Matters of gravity: Newton and Einstein; 3. The capture of light; 4. Tripping the theoretical fantastic; 5. Crossing the bar; 6. Contemplating an enormous nothing; 7. Evidence in the case; 8. Hearts of darkness; 9. The search goes on; 10. Passages into the labyrinth; 11. Black hole legends and far out ideas; Epilogue.
Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fraknoi, Andrew
1991-01-01
Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…
Astrophysical constraints on massive black hole binary evolution from pulsar timing arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Middleton, Hannah; Del Pozzo, Walter; Farr, Will M.; Sesana, Alberto; Vecchio, Alberto
2016-01-01
We consider the information that can be derived about massive black hole binary (MBHB) populations and their formation history solely from current and possible future pulsar timing array (PTA) results. We use models of the stochastic gravitational-wave background from circular MBHBs with chirp mass in the range 106-1011 M⊙ evolving solely due to radiation reaction. Our parametrized models for the black hole merger history make only weak assumptions about the properties of the black holes merging over cosmic time. We show that current PTA results place an upper limit on the black hole merger density which does not depend on the choice of a particular merger history model; however, they provide no information about the redshift or mass distribution. We show that even in the case of a detection resulting from a factor of 10 increase in amplitude sensitivity, PTAs will only put weak constraints on the source merger density as a function of mass, and will not provide any additional information on the redshift distribution. Without additional assumptions or information from other observations, a detection cannot meaningfully bound the massive black hole merger rate above zero for any particular mass.
Characterizing spinning black hole binaries in eccentric orbits with LISA
Key, Joey Shapiro; Cornish, Neil J.
2011-04-15
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is designed to detect gravitational wave signals from astrophysical sources, including those from coalescing binary systems of compact objects such as black holes. Colliding galaxies have central black holes that sink to the center of the merged galaxy and begin to orbit one another and emit gravitational waves. Some galaxy evolution models predict that the binary black hole system will enter the LISA band with significant orbital eccentricity, while other models suggest that the orbits will already have circularized. Using a full 17 parameter waveform model that includes the effects of orbital eccentricity, spin precession, and higher harmonics, we investigate how well the source parameters can be inferred from simulated LISA data. Defining the reference eccentricity as the value one year before merger, we find that for typical LISA sources, it will be possible to measure the eccentricity to an accuracy of parts in a thousand. The accuracy with which the eccentricity can be measured depends only very weakly on the eccentricity, making it possible to distinguish circular orbits from those with very small eccentricities. LISA measurements of the orbital eccentricity can help constraints theories of galaxy mergers in the early universe. Failing to account for the eccentricity in the waveform modeling can lead to a loss of signal power and bias the estimation of parameters such as the black hole masses and spins.
Signatures of black holes at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavaglià, Marco; Godang, Romulus; Cremaldi, Lucien M.; Summers, Donald J.
2007-06-01
Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.
Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Roth, Lane
The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for transcendent…
Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Detweiler, Steven
1981-01-01
Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)
Scalar field radiation from dilatonic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohar, H.; Saifullah, K.
2012-12-01
We study radiation of scalar particles from charged dilaton black holes. The Hamilton-Jacobi method has been used to work out the tunneling probability of outgoing particles from the event horizon of dilaton black holes. For this purpose we use WKB approximation to solve the charged Klein-Gordon equation. The procedure gives Hawking temperature for these black holes as well.
MASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN CENTRAL CLUSTER GALAXIES
Volonteri, Marta; Ciotti, Luca
2013-05-01
We explore how the co-evolution of massive black holes (MBHs) and galaxies is affected by environmental effects, addressing in particular MBHs hosted in the central cluster galaxies (we will refer to these galaxies in general as ''CCGs''). Recently, the sample of MBHs in CCGs with dynamically measured masses has increased, and it has been suggested that these MBH masses (M{sub BH}) deviate from the expected correlations with velocity dispersion ({sigma}) and mass of the bulge (M{sub bulge}) of the host galaxy: MBHs in CCGs appear to be ''overmassive''. This discrepancy is more pronounced when considering the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation than the M{sub BH}-M{sub bulge} one. We show that this behavior stems from a combination of two natural factors: (1) CCGs experience more mergers involving spheroidal galaxies and their MBHs and (2) such mergers are preferentially gas poor. We use a combination of analytical and semi-analytical models to investigate the MBH-galaxy co-evolution in different environments and find that the combination of these two factors is in accordance with the trends observed in current data sets.
Extremal higher spin black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bañados, Máximo; Castro, Alejandra; Faraggi, Alberto; Jottar, Juan I.
2016-04-01
The gauge sector of three-dimensional higher spin gravities can be formulated as a Chern-Simons theory. In this context, a higher spin black hole corresponds to a flat connection with suitable holonomy (smoothness) conditions which are consistent with the properties of a generalized thermal ensemble. Building on these ideas, we discuss a definition of black hole extremality which is appropriate to the topological character of 3 d higher spin theories. Our definition can be phrased in terms of the Jordan class of the holonomy around a non-contractible (angular) cycle, and we show that it is compatible with the zero-temperature limit of smooth black hole solutions. While this notion of extremality does not require supersymmetry, we exemplify its consequences in the context of sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and show that, as usual, not all extremal solutions preserve supersymmetries. Remarkably, we find in addition that the higher spin setup allows for non-extremal supersymmetric black hole solutions. Furthermore, we discuss our results from the perspective of the holographic duality between sl(3|2) ⊕ sl(3|2) Chern-Simons theory and two-dimensional CFTs with W (3|2) symmetry, the simplest higher spin extension of the N = 2 super-Virasoro algebra. In particular, we compute W (3|2) BPS bounds at the full quantum level, and relate their semiclassical limit to extremal black hole or conical defect solutions in the 3 d bulk. Along the way, we discuss the role of the spectral flow automorphism and provide a conjecture for the form of the semiclassical BPS bounds in general N = 2 two-dimensional CFTs with extended symmetry algebras.
Black hole mimickers: Regular versus singular behavior
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2008-07-15
Black hole mimickers are possible alternatives to black holes; they would look observationally almost like black holes but would have no horizon. The properties in the near-horizon region where gravity is strong can be quite different for both types of objects, but at infinity it could be difficult to discern black holes from their mimickers. To disentangle this possible confusion, we examine the near-horizon properties, and their connection with far away asymptotic properties, of some candidates to black mimickers. We study spherically symmetric uncharged or charged but nonextremal objects, as well as spherically symmetric charged extremal objects. Within the uncharged or charged but nonextremal black hole mimickers, we study nonextremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, of which a subclass are called black foils, and gravastars. Within the charged extremal black hole mimickers we study extremal {epsilon}-wormholes on the threshold of the formation of an event horizon, quasi-black holes, and wormholes on the basis of quasi-black holes from Bonnor stars. We elucidate whether or not the objects belonging to these two classes remain regular in the near-horizon limit. The requirement of full regularity, i.e., finite curvature and absence of naked behavior, up to an arbitrary neighborhood of the gravitational radius of the object enables one to rule out potential mimickers in most of the cases. A list ranking the best black hole mimickers up to the worst, both nonextremal and extremal, is as follows: wormholes on the basis of extremal black holes or on the basis of quasi-black holes, quasi-black holes, wormholes on the basis of nonextremal black holes (black foils), and gravastars. Since in observational astrophysics it is difficult to find extremal configurations (the best mimickers in the ranking), whereas nonextremal configurations are really bad mimickers, the task of distinguishing black holes from their mimickers seems to
Tunnelling from black holes and tunnelling into white holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chatterjee, Bhramar; Ghosh, A.; Mitra, P.
2008-03-01
Hawking radiation is nowadays being understood as tunnelling through black hole horizons. Here, the extension of the Hamilton-Jacobi approach to tunnelling for non-rotating and rotating black holes in different non-singular coordinate systems not only confirms this quantum emission from black holes but also reveals the new phenomenon of absorption into white holes by quantum mechanical tunnelling. The rôle of a boundary condition of total absorption or emission is also clarified.
Gamma ray bursts of black hole universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, T. X.
2015-07-01
Slightly modifying the standard big bang theory, Zhang recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which has only a single postulate but is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain existing observations of the universe. In the previous studies, we have explained the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, cosmic microwave background radiation, quasar, and acceleration of black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This study investigates gamma ray bursts of black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the energy and spectrum measurements of gamma ray bursts according to the black hole universe model. The results indicate that gamma ray bursts can be understood as emissions of dynamic star-like black holes. A black hole, when it accretes its star or merges with another black hole, becomes dynamic. A dynamic black hole has a broken event horizon and thus cannot hold the inside hot (or high-frequency) blackbody radiation, which flows or leaks out and produces a GRB. A star when it collapses into its core black hole produces a long GRB and releases the gravitational potential energy of the star as gamma rays. A black hole that merges with another black hole produces a short GRB and releases a part of their blackbody radiation as gamma rays. The amount of energy obtained from the emissions of dynamic star-like black holes are consistent with the measurements of energy from GRBs. The GRB energy spectra derived from this new emission mechanism are also consistent with the measurements.
Chandra Catches "Piranha" Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-07-01
Supermassive black holes have been discovered to grow more rapidly in young galaxy clusters, according to new results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These "fast-track" supermassive black holes can have a big influence on the galaxies and clusters that they live in. Using Chandra, scientists surveyed a sample of clusters and counted the fraction of galaxies with rapidly growing supermassive black holes, known as active galactic nuclei (or AGN). The data show, for the first time, that younger, more distant galaxy clusters contained far more AGN than older, nearby ones. Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe, consisting of many individual galaxies, a few of which contain AGN. Earlier in the history of the universe, these galaxies contained a lot more gas for star formation and black hole growth than galaxies in clusters do today. This fuel allows the young cluster black holes to grow much more rapidly than their counterparts in nearby clusters. Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus Illustration of Active Galactic Nucleus "The black holes in these early clusters are like piranha in a very well-fed aquarium," said Jason Eastman of Ohio State University (OSU) and first author of this study. "It's not that they beat out each other for food, rather there was so much that all of the piranha were able to really thrive and grow quickly." The team used Chandra to determine the fraction of AGN in four different galaxy clusters at large distances, when the Universe was about 58% of its current age. Then they compared this value to the fraction found in more nearby clusters, those about 82% of the Universe's current age. The result was the more distant clusters contained about 20 times more AGN than the less distant sample. AGN outside clusters are also more common when the Universe is younger, but only by factors of two or three over the same age span. "It's been predicted that there would be fast-track black holes in clusters, but we never
Noncritical superstring-black hole transition
Parnachev, Andrei; Sahakyan, David A.
2006-04-15
An interesting case of string/black hole transition occurs in two-dimensional noncritical string theory dressed with a compact CFT. In these models the high energy densities of states of perturbative strings and black holes have the same leading behavior when the Hawking temperature of the black hole is equal to the Hagedorn temperature of perturbative strings. We compare the first subleading terms in the black hole and closed string entropies in this setting and argue that the entropy interpolates between these expressions as the energy is varied. We compute the subleading correction to the black hole entropy for a specific simple model.
Mechanism of quasistabilization of primordial black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, R.
2013-06-01
It is argued that primordial black holes with initial masses satisfying M<1015g, instead of having explode, might currently be in a quasistable phase contributing to a tiny fraction of the measured dark matter. This statement is based on a computation of black hole evaporation in which energy conservation is taken into account that shows that the backreaction to Hawking radiation favors the quasistabilization of the black hole. The result is specifically shown for general spherically symmetric quantum black holes described by an effective metric independently of the specific framework from which it is derived. The quintessential primordial black hole is fully analyzed as an example.
Hidden Pair of Supermassive Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kohler, Susanna
2015-08-01
Could a pair of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) be lurking at the center of the galaxy Mrk 231? A recent study finds that this may be the case and the unique spectrum of this galaxy could be the key to discovering more hidden binary SMBH systems.Where Are the Binary Supermassive Black Holes?Its believed that most, if not all, galaxies have an SMBH at their centers. As two galaxies merge, the two SMBHs should evolve into a closely-bound binary system before they eventually merge. Given the abundance of galaxy mergers, we would expect to see the kinematic and visual signatures of these binary SMBHs among observed active galactic nuclei yet such evidence for sub-parsec binary SMBH systems remains scarce and ambiguous. This has led researchers to wonder: is there another way that we might detect these elusive systems?A collaboration led by Chang-Shuo Yan (National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences) thinks that there is. The group suggests that these systems might have distinct signatures in their optical-to-UV spectra, and they identify a system that might be just such a candidate: Mrk 231.A Binary CandidateProposed model of Mrk 231. Two supermassive black holes, each with their own mini-disk, orbit each other in the center of a circumbinary disk. The secondary black hole has cleared gap in the circumbinary disk as a result of its orbit around the primary black hole. [Yan et al. 2015]Mrk 231 is a galaxy with a disturbed morphology and tidal tails strong clues that it might be in the final stages of a galactic merger. In addition to these signs, Mrk 231 also has an unusual spectrum for a quasar: its continuum emission displays an unexpected drop in the near-UV band.Yan and her collaborators propose that the odd behavior of Mrk 231s spectrum can be explained if the center of the galaxy houses a pair of SMBHs each with its own mini accretion disk surrounded by a circumbinary accretion disk. As the secondary SMBH orbits the primary SMBH (with a
GOODS Missing Black Hole Report: Hundreds Found!
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2007-10-01
time when the universe was in its infancy, between 2.5 and 4.5 billion years old. When the astronomers peered more closely at the galaxies with Spitzer's infrared eyes, they noticed that about 200 of the galaxies gave off an unusual amount of infrared light. X-ray data from Chandra, and a technique called "stacking," revealed the galaxies were in fact hiding plump quasars inside. The scientists now think that the quasars heat the dust in their surrounding doughnut clouds, releasing the excess infrared light. "We found most of the population of hidden quasars in the early universe," said Daddi. Previously, only the rarest and most energetic of these hidden black holes had been seen at this early epoch. For decades, large populations of active black holes have been considered missing. These highly energetic structures, also called quasars, consist of a dusty, doughnut-shaped cloud that surrounds and feeds a growing supermassive black hole. They give off a lot of X-rays that can be detected as a general glow in space, but sometimes the quasars themselves can't be seen because dust and gas blocks their X-rays from our point of view. The newfound quasars are helping answer fundamental questions about how massive galaxies evolve. For instance, astronomers have learned that most massive galaxies steadily build up their stars and black holes simultaneously until they get too big and their black holes suppress star formation. The observations also suggest that collisions between galaxies might not play as large a role in galaxy evolution as previously believed. "Theorists thought that mergers between galaxies were required to initiate this quasar activity, but we now see that quasars can be active in unharrassed galaxies," said co-author David Alexander of Durham University, United Kingdom. "It's as if we were blind-folded studying the elephant before, and we weren't sure what kind of animal we had," added co-author David Elbaz of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. "Now, we
Genuine Spin-Flip in Binary Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lousto, Carlos; Healy, James
2015-04-01
We perform a full numerical simulation of binary spinning black holes to display the long term spin dynamics. We start the simulation at an initial proper separation between the equal mass holes of d ~ 25 M and evolve them down to merger for nearly 48 orbits, 3 precession cycles and half of a flip-flop cycle. The simulation lasts for t = 20000 M and displays a change in the orientation of the spin of the black holes with one of them going from initially aligned with the orbital angular momentum to a complete anti-alignment after half of a flip-flop cycle. We compare this evolution with an integration of the 3.5 Post-Newtonian equations of motion and spin evolution to show that this process continuously flip-flops the spin during the lifetime of the binary until merger. We also provide lower order analytic expressions for the maximum flip-flop angle and frequency. We discuss the effects on spin growth in accreting binaries and the observational consequences for galactic and supermassive binary black holes.
Black hole with quantum potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ali, Ahmed Farag; Khalil, Mohammed M.
2016-08-01
In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.
Symmetries of supergravity black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chow, David D. K.
2010-10-01
We investigate Killing tensors for various black hole solutions of supergravity theories. Rotating black holes of an ungauged theory, toroidally compactified heterotic supergravity, with NUT parameters and two U(1) gauge fields are constructed. If both charges are set equal, then the solutions simplify, and then there are concise expressions for rank-2 conformal Killing-Stäckel tensors. These are induced by rank-2 Killing-Stäckel tensors of a conformally related metric that possesses a separability structure. We directly verify the separation of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation on this conformally related metric and of the null Hamilton-Jacobi and massless Klein-Gordon equations on the 'physical' metric. Similar results are found for more general solutions; we mainly focus on those with certain charge combinations equal in gauged supergravity but also consider some other solutions.
Black holes in magnetic monopoles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.
1991-01-01
We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value v sub cr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For v less than v sub cr, we find additional solutions which are singular at f = 0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordstrom solutions is discussed.
ALIGNMENT OF SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE BINARY ORBITS AND SPINS
Miller, M. Coleman; Krolik, Julian H.
2013-09-01
Recent studies of accretion onto supermassive black hole binaries suggest that much, perhaps most, of the matter eventually accretes onto one hole or the other. If so, then for binaries whose inspiral from {approx}1 pc to {approx}10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} pc is driven by interaction with external gas, both the binary orbital axis and the individual black hole spins can be reoriented by angular momentum exchange with this gas. Here we show that, unless the binary mass ratio is far from unity, the spins of the individual holes align with the binary orbital axis in a time {approx}few-100 times shorter than the binary orbital axis aligns with the angular momentum direction of the incoming circumbinary gas; the spin of the secondary aligns more rapidly than that of the primary by a factor {approx}(m{sub 1}/m{sub 2}){sup 1/2} > 1. Thus the binary acts as a stabilizing agent, so that for gas-driven systems, the black hole spins are highly likely to be aligned (or counteraligned if retrograde accretion is common) with each other and with the binary orbital axis. This alignment can significantly reduce the recoil speed resulting from subsequent black hole merger.
Complexity, action, and black holes
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-18
In an earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" we conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Complexity, action, and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying
2016-04-01
Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.
Chandra Clinches Case for Missing Link Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2000-09-01
The strongest evidence yet that the universe is home to a new type of black hole was reported by several groups of scientists today Using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, scientists have zeroed in on a mid-mass black hole in the galaxy M82. This black hole - located 600 light years away from the center of a galaxy - may represent the missing link between smaller stellar black holes and the supermassive variety found at the centers of galaxies. "This opens a whole new field of research," said Martin Ward of the University of Leicester, UK, a lead author involved with the observations. "No one was sure that such black holes existed, especially outside the centers of galaxies." The black hole in M82 packs the mass of at least 500 suns into a region about the size of the Moon. Such a black hole would require extreme conditions for its creation, such as the collapse of a "hyperstar" or the merger of scores of black holes. The result comes as Chandra starts its second year of operation and is testimony to how Chandra's power and precision is changing the field of astronomy. "This black hole might eventually sink to the center of the galaxy," said Dr. Hironori Matsumoto of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the lead author on one of three Chandra papers scheduled to be published on the mid-mass black hole, "where it could grow to become a supermassive black hole." Although previous X-ray data from the German-U.S. Roentgen Satellite and the Japan-U.S. ASCA Satellite suggested that a mid-mass black hole might exist in M82, the crucial breakthrough came when astronomers compared the new high resolution Chandra data with optical, radio, and infrared maps of the region. They determined that most of the X-rays were coming from a single bright source. Repeated observations of M82 over a period of eight months showed the bright X-ray source gradually peaking in X-ray brightness before dimming. Another critical discovery was that the intensity of the X rays was rising and
Inspiralling, spinning, non-precessing binary black hole spacetime via asymptotic matching
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ireland, Brennan; Mundim, Bruno; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Campanelli, Manuela
2016-03-01
We construct and present a new global, fully analytic, approximate spacetime which accurately describes the dynamics of non-precessing, spinning black hole binaries during the inspiral phase of the relativistic merger process. This approximate solution of the vacuum Einstein's equations can be obtained by asymptotically matching perturbed Kerr solutions near the two black holes to a post-Newtonian metric valid far from the two black holes. This metric is then matched to a post-Minkowskian metric even farther out in the wave zone. The procedure of asymptotic matching is generalized to be valid on all spatial hypersurfaces, instead of a small group of initial hypersurfaces discussed in previous works. This metric is well suited for long term dynamical simulations of spinning black hole binary spacetimes prior to merger, such as studies of circumbinary gas accretion which requires hundreds of binary orbits.
Glory scattering by black holes
Matzner, R.A.; DeWitte-Morette, C.; Nelson, B.; Zhang, T.
1985-04-15
We present a physically motivated derivation of the JWKB backward glory-scattering cross section of massless waves by Schwarzschild black holes. The angular dependence of the cross section is identical with the one derived by path integration, namely, dsigma/d..cap omega.. = 4..pi../sup 2/lambda/sup -1/B/sub g/ /sup 2/(dB mW..pi.., where lambda is the wavelength, B(theta) is the inverse of the classical deflection function CTHETA(B), B/sub g/ is the glory impact parameter, s is the helicity of the scattered wave, and J/sub 2s/ is the Bessel function of order 2s. The glory rings formed by scalar waves are bright at the center; those formed by polarized waves are dark at the center. For scattering of massless particles by a spherical black hole of mass M, B(theta)/Mapprox.3 ..sqrt..3 + 3.48 exp(-theta), theta > owig..pi... The numerical values of dsigma/d..cap omega.. for this deflection function are found to agree with earlier computer calculations of glory cross sections from black holes.
Accretion disks around black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramowicz, M. A.
1994-01-01
The physics of accretion flow very close to a black hole is dominated by several general relativistic effects. It cannot be described by the standard Shakura Sunyaev model or by its relativistic version developed by Novikov and Thome. The most important of these effects is a dynamical mass loss from the inner edge of the disk (Roche lobe overflow). The relativistic Roche lobe overflow induces a strong advective cooling, which is sufficient to stabilize local, axially symmetric thermal and viscous modes. It also stabilizes the non-axially-symmetric global modes discovered by Papaloizou and Pringle. The Roche lobe overflow, however, destabilizes sufficiently self-gravitating accretion disks with respect to a catastrophic runaway of mass due to minute changes of the gravitational field induced by the changes in the mass and angular momentum of the central black hole. One of the two acoustic modes may become trapped near the inner edge of the disk. All these effects, absent in the standard model, have dramatic implications for time-dependent behavior of the accretion disks around black holes.
Constraints on black hole remnants
Giddings, S.B. )
1994-01-15
One possible fate of information lost to black holes is its preservation in black hole remnants. It is argued that a type of effective field theory describes such remnants (generically referred to as informons). The general structure of such a theory is investigated and the infinite pair production problem is revisited. A toy model for remnants clarifies some of the basic issues; in particular, infinite remnant production is not suppressed simply by the large internal volumes as proposed in cornucopion scenarios. Criteria for avoiding infinite production are stated in terms of couplings in the effective theory. Such instabilities remain a problem barring what would be described in that theory as a strong coupling conspiracy. The relation to Euclidean calculations of cornucopion production is sketched, and potential flaws in that analysis are outlined. However, it is quite plausible that pair production of ordinary black holes (e.g., Reissner-Noerdstrom or others) is suppressed due to strong effective couplings. It also remains an open possibility that a microsopic dynamics can be found yielding an appropriate strongly coupled effective theory of neutral informons without infinite pair production.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-01
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.
Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew
2016-06-10
It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units. PMID:27341223
Black hole binaries and microquasars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shuang-Nan
2013-12-01
This is a general review on the observations and physics of black hole X-ray binaries and microquasars, with the emphasize on recent developments in the high energy regime. The focus is put on understanding the accretion flows and measuring the parameters of black holes in them. It includes mainly two parts: i) Brief review of several recent review article on this subject; ii) Further development on several topics, including black hole spin measurements, hot accretion flows, corona formation, state transitions and thermal stability of standard think disk. This is thus not a regular bottom-up approach, which I feel not necessary at this stage. Major effort is made in making and incorporating from many sources useful plots and illustrations, in order to make this article more comprehensible to non-expert readers. In the end I attempt to make a unification scheme on the accretion-outflow (wind/jet) connections of all types of accreting BHs of all accretion rates and all BH mass scales, and finally provide a brief outlook.
Binary Black Hole Late Inspiral: Simulations for Gravitational Wave Observations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baker, John G.; vanMeter, James R.; Centrella, Joan; Choi, Dae-Il; Kelly, Bernard J.; Koppitz, Michael
2006-01-01
Coalescing binary black hole mergers are expected to be the strongest gravitational wave sources for ground-based interferometers, such as the LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the spacebased interferometer LISA. Until recently it has been impossible to reliably derive the predictions of General Relativity for the final merger stage, which takes place in the strong-field regime. Recent progress in numerical relativity simulations is, however, revolutionizing our understanding of these systems. We examine here the specific case of merging equal-mass Schwarzschild black holes in detail, presenting new simulations in which the black holes start in the late inspiral stage on orbits with very low eccentricity and evolve for approximately 1200M through approximately 7 orbits before merging. We study the accuracy and consistency of our simulations and the resulting gravitational waveforms, which encompass approximately 14 cycles before merger, and highlight the importance of using frequency (rather than time) to set the physical reference when comparing models. Matching our results to PN calculations for the earlier parts of the inspiral provides a combined waveform with less than half a cycle of accumulated phase error through the entire coalescence. Using this waveform, we calculate signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) for iLIGO, adLIGO, and LISA, highlighting the contributions from the late-inspiral and merger-ringdown parts of the waveform which can now be simulated numerically. Contour plots of SNR as a function of z and M show that adLIGO can achieve SNR 2 10 for some IMBBHs out to z approximately equals 1, and that LISA can see MBBHs in the range 3 x 10(exp 4) approximately < M/Mo approximately < 10(exp 7) at SNR > 100 out to the earliest epochs of structure formation at z > 15.
Implications of the LIGO Discovery of a Binary Black Hole Coalescence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kalogera, Vassiliki
2016-03-01
In this talk I will review how we extract astrophysical information from gravitational-wave signals, including source parameters and implied rates of black hole inspirals and mergers. I will discuss the implications of these results in the context of astrophysical models for binary black-hole formation as well as implications for testing general relativity in the strong-field regime, for the first time.
Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune
2010-11-15
It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/{radical}(3)){<=}(a/M){<=}1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.
Shapes of rotating nonsingular black hole shadows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amir, Muhammed; Ghosh, Sushant G.
2016-07-01
It is believed that curvature singularities are a creation of general relativity and, hence, in the absence of a quantum gravity, models of nonsingular black holes have received significant attention. We study the shadow (apparent shape), an optical appearance because of its strong gravitational field, cast by a nonsingular black hole which is characterized by three parameters, i.e., mass (M ), spin (a ), and a deviation parameter (k ). The nonsingular black hole under consideration is a generalization of the Kerr black hole that can be recognized asymptotically (r ≫k ,k >0 ) explicitly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and in the limit k →0 as the Kerr black hole. It turns out that the shadow of a nonsingular black hole is a dark zone covered by a deformed circle. Interestingly, it is seen that the shadow of a black hole is affected due to the parameter k . Indeed, for a given a , the size of a shadow reduces as the parameter k increases, and the shadow becomes more distorted as we increase the value of the parameter k when compared with the analogous Kerr black hole shadow. We also investigate, in detail, how the ergoregion of a black hole is changed due to the deviation parameter k .
Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barret, Chris
2000-01-01
NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.
Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges.
Kormendy, John; Bender, R; Cornell, M E
2011-01-20
The masses of supermassive black holes are known to correlate with the properties of the bulge components of their host galaxies. In contrast, they seem not to correlate with galaxy disks. Disk-grown 'pseudobulges' are intermediate in properties between bulges and disks; it has been unclear whether they do or do not correlate with black holes in the same way that bulges do. At stake in this issue are conclusions about which parts of galaxies coevolve with black holes, possibly by being regulated by energy feedback from black holes. Here we report pseudobulge classifications for galaxies with dynamically detected black holes and combine them with recent measurements of velocity dispersions in the biggest bulgeless galaxies. These data confirm that black holes do not correlate with disks and show that they correlate little or not at all with pseudobulges. We suggest that there are two different modes of black-hole feeding. Black holes in bulges grow rapidly to high masses when mergers drive gas infall that feeds quasar-like events. In contrast, small black holes in bulgeless galaxies and in galaxies with pseudobulges grow as low-level Seyfert galaxies. Growth of the former is driven by global processes, so the biggest black holes coevolve with bulges, but growth of the latter is driven locally and stochastically, and they do not coevolve with disks and pseudobulges. PMID:21248845
A Black Hole in Our Galactic Center
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ruiz, Michael J.
2008-01-01
An introductory approach to black holes is presented along with astronomical observational data pertaining to the presence of a supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy. Concepts of conservation of energy and Kepler's third law are employed so students can apply formulas from their physics class to determine the mass of the black hole…
Black Holes and the Central Structure of Early-type Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lauer, Tod R.
Central massive black holes appear to have a strong role in determining the central structure of elliptical galaxies. The existence of cores in the more luminous ellipticals may be understood as the merger endpoint of two less-luminous galaxies, each harboring a massive black hole. As the two black holes spiral together at the center of the merger product, stars would be ejected from this region, creating a break in the stellar density profile and the shallow cusp in surface brightness characteristic of a core. Further, the resulting binary or merged black hole would preserve the core over subsequent mergers or cannibalism events by disrupting any incoming dense stellar system that would otherwise fill in the core. The effects of black holes are also strongly favored to explain central ``double-nuclei,'' such as that seen in M31, and a recently discovered class of ``hollow galaxies,'' which have local minima in their central stellar density profiles. In short, any discussion of the origin of galaxy morphology must include the ubiquitous presence of massive black holes.
Simulating Gravitational Wave Emission from Massive Black Hole Binaries
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2008-01-01
The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. In the past few years, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms. highlighting their astrophysical consequences and the dramatic new potential for discovery that arises when merging black holes will be observed using gravitational waves.
The search for massive black hole binaries with LISA
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornish, Neil J.; Porter, Edward K.
2007-12-01
In this work we focus on the search and detection of massive black hole binary (MBHB) systems, including systems at high redshift. As well as expanding on previous works where we used a variant of Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), called Metropolis Hastings Monte Carlo, with simulated annealing, we introduce a new search method based on frequency annealing which leads to a more rapid and robust detection. We compare the two search methods on systems where we do and do not see the merger of the black holes. In the non-merger case, we also examine the posterior distribution exploration using a 7D MCMC algorithm. We demonstrate that this method is effective in dealing with the high correlations between parameters, has a higher acceptance rate than previously proposed methods and produces posterior distribution functions that are close to the prediction from the Fisher information matrix. Finally, after carrying out searches where there is only one binary in the data stream, we examine the case where two black hole binaries are present in the same data stream. We demonstrate that our search algorithm can accurately recover both binaries, and more importantly showing that we can safely extract the MBHB sources without contaminating the rest of the data stream.
SUPERMASSIVE SEEDS FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES
Johnson, Jarrett L.; Whalen, Daniel J.; Li Hui; Holz, Daniel E.
2013-07-10
Recent observations of quasars powered by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) out to z {approx}> 7 constrain both the initial seed masses and the growth of the most massive black holes (BHs) in the early universe. Here we elucidate the implications of the radiative feedback from early generations of stars and from BH accretion for popular models for the formation and growth of seed BHs. We show that by properly accounting for (1) the limited role of mergers in growing seed BHs as inferred from cosmological simulations of early star formation and radiative feedback, (2) the sub-Eddington accretion rates of BHs expected at the earliest times, and (3) the large radiative efficiencies {epsilon} of the most massive BHs inferred from observations of active galactic nuclei at high redshift ({epsilon} {approx}> 0.1), we are led to the conclusion that the initial BH seeds may have been as massive as {approx}> 10{sup 5} M{sub Sun }. This presents a strong challenge to the Population III seed model, which calls for seed masses of {approx}100 M{sub Sun} and, even with constant Eddington-limited accretion, requires {epsilon} {approx}< 0.09 to explain the highest-z SMBHs in today's standard {Lambda}CDM cosmological model. It is, however, consistent with the prediction of the direct collapse scenario of SMBH seed formation, in which a supermassive primordial star forms in a region of the universe with a high molecule-dissociating background radiation field, and collapses directly into a 10{sup 4}-10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} seed BH. These results corroborate recent cosmological simulations and observational campaigns which suggest that these massive BHs were the seeds of a large fraction of the SMBHs residing in the centers of galaxies today.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gabach-Clement, Maria E.; Reiris, Martin
2013-08-01
We give a thorough description of the shape of rotating axisymmetric stable black-hole (apparent) horizons applicable in dynamical or stationary regimes. It is found that rotation manifests in the widening of their central regions (rotational thickening), limits their global shapes to the extent that stable holes of a given area A and angular momentum J≠0 form a precompact family (rotational stabilization) and enforces their whole geometry to be close to the extreme-Kerr horizon geometry at almost maximal rotational speed (enforced shaping). The results, which are based on the stability inequality, depend only on A and J. In particular they are entirely independent of the surrounding geometry of the space-time and of the presence of matter satisfying the strong energy condition. A complete set of relations between A, J, the length L of the meridians and the length R of the greatest axisymmetric circle, is given. We also provide concrete estimations for the distance between the geometry of horizons and that of the extreme Kerr, in terms only of A and J. Besides its own interest, the work has applications to the Hoop conjecture as formulated by Gibbons in terms of the Birkhoff invariant, to the Bekenstein-Hod entropy bounds and to the study of the compactness of classes of stationary black-hole space-times.
Holographic interpretation of acoustic black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ge, Xian-Hui; Sun, Jia-Rui; Tian, Yu; Wu, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Yun-Long
2015-10-01
With the attempt to find the holographic description of the usual acoustic black holes in fluid, we construct an acoustic black hole formed in the d -dimensional fluid located at the timelike cutoff surface of a neutral black brane in asymptotically AdSd +1 spacetime; the bulk gravitational dual of the acoustic black hole is presented at the first order of the hydrodynamic fluctuation. Moreover, the Hawking-like temperature of the acoustic black hole horizon is showed to be connected to the Hawking temperature of the real anti-de Sitter (AdS) black brane in the bulk, and the duality between the phonon scattering in the acoustic black hole and the sound channel quasinormal mode propagating in the bulk perturbed AdS black brane is extracted. We thus point out that the acoustic black hole appearing in fluid, which was originally proposed as an analogous model to simulate Hawking radiation of the real black hole, is not merely an analogy, it can indeed be used to describe specific properties of the real AdS black holes, in the spirit of the fluid/gravity duality.
Destroying Kerr-Sen black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Siahaan, Haryanto M.
2016-03-01
By neglecting the self-force, self-energy, and radiative effects, it has been shown that an extremal or near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole can turn into a naked singularity when it captures charged and spinning massive particles. A straightforward question then arises: do charged and rotating black holes in string theory possess the same property? In this paper we apply Wald's gedanken experiment, in his study on the possibility of destroying extremal Kerr-Newman black holes, to the case of (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black holes. We find that feeding a test particle into a (near-)extremal Kerr-Sen black hole could lead to a violation of the extremal bound for the black hole.
NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2006-04-01
Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W.; Liebling, Steven L.; Motl, Patrick M.; Garrett, Travis
2011-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford–Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux. PMID:21768341
Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neilsen, D.; Lehner, L.; Palenzuela, C.; Hirschmann, E. W.; Liebling, S. L.; Motl, P. M.; Garrett, T.
2011-08-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Tapping into the Energy of Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Motl, Patrick M.; Lenher, L.; Liebling, S.; Palenzuela, C.; Neilsen, D.; Hirschmann, E.
2012-01-01
The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.
Entropy, area, and black hole pairs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hawking, S. W.; Horowitz, Gary T.; Ross, Simon F.
1995-04-01
We clarify the relation between gravitational entropy and the area of horizons. We first show that the entropy of an extreme Reissner-Nordström black hole is zero, despite the fact that its horizon has nonzero area. Next, we consider the pair creation of extremal and nonextremal black holes. It is shown that the action which governs the rate of this pair creation is directly related to the area of the acceleration horizon and (in the nonextremal case) the area of the black hole event horizon. This provides a simple explanation of the result that the rate of pair creation of nonextreme black holes is enhanced by precisely the black hole entropy. Finally, we discuss black hole annihilation, and argue that Planck scale remnants are not sufficient to preserve unitarity in quantum gravity.
Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes
Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo
2011-05-15
The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M{sub D-1}xS{sup 1}, where D is the spacetime dimension and M{sub D-1} stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.
Hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes
Chen Bin; Long Jiang; Zhang Jiaju
2010-11-15
We study the hidden conformal symmetry of extremal black holes. We introduce a new set of conformal coordinates to write the SL(2,R) generators. We find that the Laplacian of the scalar field in many extremal black holes, including Kerr(-Newman), Reissner-Nordstrom, warped AdS{sub 3}, and null warped black holes, could be written in terms of the SL(2,R) quadratic Casimir. This suggests that there exist dual conformal field theory (CFT) descriptions of these black holes. From the conformal coordinates, the temperatures of the dual CFTs could be read directly. For the extremal black hole, the Hawking temperature is vanishing. Correspondingly, only the left (right) temperature of the dual CFT is nonvanishing, and the excitations of the other sector are suppressed. In the probe limit, we compute the scattering amplitudes of the scalar off the extremal black holes and find perfect agreement with the CFT prediction.
Escape of Black Holes from the Brane
Flachi, Antonino; Tanaka, Takahiro
2005-10-14
TeV-scale gravity theories allow the possibility of producing small black holes at energies that soon will be explored at the CERN LHC or at the Auger observatory. One of the expected signatures is the detection of Hawking radiation that might eventually terminate if the black hole, once perturbed, leaves the brane. Here, we study how the 'black hole plus brane' system evolves once the black hole is given an initial velocity that mimics, for instance, the recoil due to the emission of a graviton. The results of our dynamical analysis show that the brane bends around the black hole, suggesting that the black hole eventually escapes into the extra dimensions once two portions of the brane come in contact and reconnect. This gives a dynamical mechanism for the creation of baby branes.
High-Resolution Observations of a Binary Black Hole Candidate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsai, Chao-Wei; Phillips, Chris; Norris, Ray; Jarrett, Thomas; Emonts, Bjorn; Cluver, Michelle; Eisenhardt, Peter; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto
2012-10-01
We propose a 12-hour 2.3 GHz continuum Long Baseline Array (LBA) observation of WISE J2332-5056, a newly discovered supermassive black hole (SMBH) merger candidate that is located in the nearby universe (z = 0.3447). Our recently acquired 9 GHz ATCA map shows unusual radio morphology: a one-sided, smaller (and likely younger) FR-I jet perpendicular to a larger, Doppler-boosted FR-II jet. Follow-up Gemini-S/GMOS spectroscopy of this WISE-selected radio galaxy reveals broad emission lines blue-shifted by > 3,500 km/s with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy, hallmarks of a dual AGN system. Combined, the optical spectroscopy and radio morphology of this object are strongly suggestive of a black hole merger system. Even in the local universe these systems are extremely difficult to identify; yet the process of supermassive blackhole growth is vital toward understanding galaxy evolution from the early to the current universe. Moreover, nearby merging SMBHs may serve as outstanding targets for gravitational wave studies. The proposed high resolution LBA map, reaching 50 pc resolution at the source redshift will allow us to investigate the SMBH merger scenario hypothesis.
Tidal disruption as a probe for supermassive black hole binaries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuo; Liu, Fukun; Berczik, Peter; Spurzem, Rainer
2016-02-01
Supermassive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) are the products of frequent galaxy mergers. It is very hard to be detected in quiescent galaxy. By using one million particle direct N-body simulations on special many-core hardware (GPU cluster), we study the dynamical co-evolution of SMBHB and its surrounding stars, specially focusing on the evolution of stellar tidal disruption event (TDE) rates before and after the coalescence of the SMBHB. We find a boosted TDE rate during the merger of the galaxies. After the coalescence of two supermassive black holes (SMBHs), the post-merger SMBH can get a kick velocity due to the anisotropic GW radiations. Our results about the recoiling SMBH, which oscillates around galactic center, show that most of TDEs are contributed by unbound stars when the SMBH passing through galactic center. In addition, the TDE light curve in SMBHB system is significantly different from the curve for single SMBH, which can be used to identify the SMBHB.
Witnessing Black Hole Births in the Transient Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nissanke, Samaya
2015-08-01
Gravity plays a fundamental role in the formation, evolution and fate of stars. However, it remains unclear how massive stars, almost always in pairs, end their lives as extreme gravity objects (neutron stars and black holes) and what their eventual fate is. The physics driving these events in strong-field gravity are complex, rich but still remain elusive. Theoretical work in general relativity has long predicted that the formation of black holes through neutron star mergers emit vast amounts of gravitational radiation, through gravitational waves (GWs), and conventional electromagnetic (EM) radiation. Observing GWs and EM radiation from these elusive short-lived mergers remains one of the holy grails of modern astronomy and is only now possible with a suite of new time-domain telescopes and experiments. I will first review the most recent advances in this blossoming field of EM+GW astronomy, which combines three active disciplines: time-domain astronomy, computational astrophysics and general relativity. I will discuss the promises of this new convergence by illustrating the wealth of astrophysical information that a combined EM+GW measurement would immediately bring. I will then outline the main challenges that lie ahead for this new field in pinpointing the sky location of neutron star mergers using GW detectors and optical and radio wide-field synoptic surveys.
Boson shells harboring charged black holes
Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Laemmerzahl, Claus; List, Meike
2010-11-15
We consider boson shells in scalar electrodynamics coupled to Einstein gravity. The interior of the shells can be empty space, or harbor a black hole or a naked singularity. We analyze the properties of these types of solutions and determine their domains of existence. We investigate the energy conditions and present mass formulae for the composite black hole-boson shell systems. We demonstrate that these types of solutions violate black hole uniqueness.
Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bastos, C.; Bertolami, O.; Dias, N. C.; Prata, J. N.
2011-09-01
A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hua, Jia-Chen; Huang, Yong-Chang
2009-02-01
Quantum radiation of general nonstationary black holes is investigated by using the method of generalized tortoise-coordinate transformation (GTT). It is shown in general that the temperature and the shape of the event horizon of this kind of black holes depend on time and angle. Further, we find that the chemical potential in the thermal-radiation spectrum is equal to the highest energy of the negative-energy state of particles in nonthermal radiation for general nonstationary black holes.
Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo
2016-09-01
We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr–Newman or Kerr–Newman–anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.
Birth of Massive Black Hole Binaries
Colpi, M.; Dotti, M.; Mayer, L.; Kazantzidis, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2007-11-19
If massive black holes (BHs) are ubiquitous in galaxies and galaxies experience multiple mergers during their cosmic assembly, then BH binaries should be common albeit temporary features of most galactic bulges. Observationally, the paucity of active BH pairs points toward binary lifetimes far shorter than the Hubble time, indicating rapid inspiral of the BHs down to the domain where gravitational waves lead to their coalescence. Here, we review a series of studies on the dynamics of massive BHs in gas-rich galaxy mergers that underscore the vital role played by a cool, gaseous component in promoting the rapid formation of the BH binary. The BH binary is found to reside at the center of a massive self-gravitating nuclear disc resulting from the collision of the two gaseous discs present in the mother galaxies. Hardening by gravitational torques against gas in this grand disc is found to continue down to sub-parsec scales. The eccentricity decreases with time to zero and when the binary is circular, accretion sets in around the two BHs. When this occurs, each BH is endowed with it own small-size ({approx}< 0.01 pc) accretion disc comprising a few percent of the BH mass. Double AGN activity is expected to occur on an estimated timescale of {approx}< 1 Myr. The double nuclear point-like sources that may appear have typical separation of {approx}< 10 pc, and are likely to be embedded in the still ongoing starburst. We note that a potential threat of binary stalling, in a gaseous environment, may come from radiation and/or mechanical energy injections by the BHs. Only short-lived or sub-Eddington accretion episodes can guarantee the persistence of a dense cool gas structure around the binary necessary for continuing BH inspiral.
Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.
Greene, Jenny E
2012-01-01
Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism. PMID:23250434
Aspects of Black Holes in Higher Dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hartnett, Gavin S.
This thesis is divided into three Parts. In Part I the general theory of black holes in higher dimensions is discussed. In addition to an introductory essay, two studies of linear perturbations of Myers-Perry black holes are presented. These black holes are the higher dimensional generalization of the Kerr black hole, and their analysis reveals numerous instabilities. Threshold unstable modes provide the connection between the Myers-Perry black holes and novel stationary black hole solutions such as black rings or black Saturns, as well as other non-stationary solutions known as single Killing vector field black holes. In Part II gauge/gravity duality is briefly reviewed and two aspects are studied in detail. First, the problem of finding a holographic dual to a superconductor with d-wave order parameter is investigated, and second, we examine the problem of holographic thermalization in field theories dual to rotating black holes. Lastly, in Part III the role of de Sitter solutions in string theory is discussed. A recent puzzle surrounding the fate of the de Sitter landscape is reviewed, and it is shown how the study of black holes in certain flux backgrounds can provide insight into this puzzle. We then present a theorem ruling out the addition of black holes to a certain class of flux backgrounds. Finally, a study is presented which shows that black holes can be added to the flux backgrounds relevant for the de Sitter landscape in string theory, thereby providing strong evidence for the resolution of the puzzle.
Black holes in galactic centers
Rees, M.J. )
1990-11-01
For more than 25 years astronomers have known that some galaxies also have a bright, compact central nucleus whose emission does not come from normal stars. The most extreme instances of these so-called active galactic nuclei are quasars, objects no larger than the solar system whose total radiation exceeds that of 100 billion stars. Quasars seem to represent a particularly agitated stage in the development of some galaxies. Astronomers generally agree that gravity powers active galactic nuclei. The best candidate for the central engine of quasars is a black hole--a collapsed body whose gravity is so great that nothing, including light, can escape from it. The discovery of black holes in galactic centers, exciting in its own right, could affect current ideas about the evolution of the universe. Quasars appeared when the universe was less than one billion years old, indicting that some galaxies had already developed dense central regions. The early appearance of quasars rules out many cosmological models, which predict that the formation of galaxies should require billions of years, and even raises problems for the reigning cold dark matter model. Recent measurements of the cosmic background radiation intensify the puzzle. Most theorists think that galaxies formed from density variations in the newborn universe. Yet measurements of the background radiation indicate that any variations were so slight that it is difficult to understand how they could have produced the structures seen today. Apart from its cosmological significance, the detection of massive black holes also could elucidate predictions of Einstein's theory of general relativity.
Entropy spectrum of dimensional stringy black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suresh, Jishnu; Kuriakose, V. C.
2015-05-01
We explore the entropy spectrum of dimensional dilatonic stringy black holes via the adiabatic invariant integral method known as Jiang and Han's method (Phys Lett B 718:584, 2012) and the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization rule. It is found that the corresponding spectrum depends on black hole parameters like charge, ADM mass, and, more interestingly, on the dilatonic field. We calculate the entropy of the present black hole system via the Euclidean treatment of quantum gravity and study the thermodynamics of the black hole and find that the system does not undergo any phase transition.
Schwarzschild Black Holes can Wear Scalar Wigs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-01
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.
Black Holes versus Supersymmetry at the LHC
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco
2007-11-01
Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. In this paper we assess the distinguishability of supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our analysis shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider can be easily discriminated.
Black holes and local dark matter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hegyi, D. J.; Kolb, E. W.; Olive, K. A.
1986-01-01
Two independent constraints are placed on the amount of dark matter in black holes contained in the galactic disk. First, gas accretion by black holes leads to X-ray emission which cannot exceed the observed soft X-ray background. Second, metals produced in stellar processes that lead to black hole formation cannot exceed the observed disk metal abundance. Based on these constraints, it appears unlikely that the missing disk mass could be contained in black holes. A consequence of this conclusion is that at least two different types of dark matter are needed to solve the various missing mass problems.
On black hole spectroscopy via adiabatic invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Qing-Quan; Han, Yan
2012-12-01
In this Letter, we obtain the black hole spectroscopy by combining the black hole property of adiabaticity and the oscillating velocity of the black hole horizon. This velocity is obtained in the tunneling framework. In particular, we declare, if requiring canonical invariance, the adiabatic invariant quantity should be of the covariant form Iadia = ∮pi dqi. Using it, the horizon area of a Schwarzschild black hole is quantized independently of the choice of coordinates, with an equally spaced spectroscopy always given by ΔA = 8 π lp2 in the Schwarzschild and Painlevé coordinates.
Gamma ray astronomy and black hole astrophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, Edison P.
1990-01-01
The study of soft gamma emissions from black-hole candidates is identified as an important element in understanding black-hole phenomena ranging from stellar-mass black holes to AGNs. The spectra of Cyg X-1 and observations of the Galactic Center are emphasized, since thermal origins and MeV gamma-ray bumps are evident and suggest a thermal-pair cloud picture. MeV gamma-ray observations are suggested for studying black hole astrophysics such as the theorized escaping pair wind, the anticorrelation between the MeV gamma bump and the soft continuum, and the relationship between source compactness and temperature.
The horizon of the lightest black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Calmet, Xavier; Casadio, Roberto
2015-09-01
We study the properties of the poles of the resummed graviton propagator obtained by resumming bubble matter diagrams which correct the classical graviton propagator. These poles have been previously interpreted as black holes precursors. Here, we show using the horizon wave-function formalism that these poles indeed have properties which make them compatible with being black hole precursors. In particular, when modeled with a Breit-Wigner distribution, they have a well-defined gravitational radius. The probability that the resonance is inside its own gravitational radius, and thus that it is a black hole, is about one half. Our results confirm the interpretation of these poles as black hole precursors.
Black Hole Universe Model and Dark Energy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2011-01-01
Considering black hole as spacetime and slightly modifying the big bang theory, the author has recently developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach principle and Einsteinian general relativity and self consistently explains various observations of the universe without difficulties. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole and gradually grew through a supermassive black hole to the present universe by accreting ambient material and merging with other black holes. The entire space is infinitely and hierarchically layered and evolves iteratively. The innermost three layers are the universe that we lives, the outside space called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and zero limits for both the mass density and absolute temperature. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside black holes. The origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of black hole universe have been presented in the recent sequence of American Astronomical Society (AAS) meetings and published in peer-review journals. This study will show how this new model explains the acceleration of the universe and why dark energy is not required. We will also compare the black hole universe model with the big bang cosmology.
Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.
Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier
2012-08-24
We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations. PMID:23002734
Hawking radiation from fluctuating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, Tomohiro; Soda, Jiro
2010-09-01
Classically, black holes have a rigid event horizon. However, quantum mechanically, the event horizon of black holes becomes fuzzy due to quantum fluctuations. We study Hawking radiation of a real scalar field from a fluctuating black hole. To quantize metric perturbations, we derive the quadratic action for those in the black hole background. Then, we calculate cubic interaction terms in the action for the scalar field. Using these results, we obtain the spectrum of Hawking radiation in the presence of the interaction between the scalar field and the metric. It turns out that the spectrum deviates from the Planck spectrum due to quantum fluctuations of the metric.
Black hole thermodynamics from Euclidean horizon constraints.
Carlip, S
2007-07-13
To explain black hole thermodynamics in quantum gravity, one must introduce constraints to ensure that a black hole is actually present. I show that for a large class of black holes, such "horizon constraints" allow the use of conformal field theory techniques to compute the density of states, reproducing the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in a nearly model-independent manner. One standard string theory approach to black hole entropy arises as a special case, lending support to the claim that the mechanism may be "universal." I argue that the relevant degrees of freedom are Goldstone-boson-like excitations arising from the weak breaking of symmetry by the constraints. PMID:17678209
Corda, Christian
2015-03-10
The idea that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the “hydrogen atom” and the “quasi-thermal emission” in quantum gravity is today an intuitive but general conviction. In this paper it will be shown that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture. In fact, we will discuss a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. The model is completely consistent with existing results in the literature, starting from the celebrated result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.
Locking information in black holes.
Smolin, John A; Oppenheim, Jonathan
2006-03-01
We show that a central presumption in the debate over black-hole information loss is incorrect. Ensuring that information not escape during evaporation does not require that it all remain trapped until the final stage of the process. Using the recent quantum information-theoretic result of locking, we show that the amount of information that must remain can be very small, even as the amount already radiated is negligible. Information need not be additive: A small system can lock a large amount of information, making it inaccessible. Only if the set of initial states is restricted can information leak. PMID:16606164
Hidden symmetries and black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frolov, Valeri P.
2009-10-01
The paper contains a brief review of recent results on hidden symmetries in higher dimensional black hole spacetimes. We show how the existence of a principal CKY tensor (that is a closed conformal Killing-Yano 2-form) allows one to generate a `tower' of Killing-Yano and Killing tensors responsible for hidden symmetries. These symmetries imply complete integrability of geodesic equations and the complete separation of variables in the Hamilton-Jacobi, Klein-Gordon, Dirac and gravitational perturbation equations in the general Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metrics. Equations of the parallel transport of frames along geodesics in these spacetimes are also integrable.
Black Hole Researchers in Schools
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doran, Rosa
2016-07-01
"Black Holes in my School" is a research project that aims to explore the impact of engaging students in real research experiences while learning new skills and topics addressed in the regular school curriculum. The project introduces teachers to innovative tools for science teaching, explore student centered methodologies such as inquiry based learning and provides a setting where students take the role of an astrophysicist researching the field of compact stellar mass objects in binary systems. Students will study already existing data and use the Faulkes Telescopes to acquire new data. In this presentation the main aim is to present the framework being built and the results achieved so far.
NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-02-01
The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first
Black holes and gravitational waves in models of minicharged dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardoso, Vitor; Macedo, Caio F. B.; Pani, Paolo; Ferrari, Valeria
2016-05-01
In viable models of minicharged dark matter, astrophysical black holes might be charged under a hidden U(1) symmetry and are formally described by the same Kerr-Newman solution of Einstein-Maxwell theory. These objects are unique probes of minicharged dark matter and dark photons. We show that the recent gravitational-wave detection of a binary black-hole coalescence by aLIGO provides various observational bounds on the black hole's charge, regardless of its nature. The pre-merger inspiral phase can be used to constrain the dipolar emission of (ordinary and dark) photons, whereas the detection of the quasinormal modes set an upper limit on the final black hole's charge. By using a toy model of a point charge plunging into a Reissner-Nordstrom black hole, we also show that in dynamical processes the (hidden) electromagnetic quasinormal modes of the final object are excited to considerable amplitude in the gravitational-wave spectrum only when the black hole is nearly extremal. The coalescence produces a burst of low-frequency dark photons which might provide a possible electromagnetic counterpart to black-hole mergers in these scenarios.
Template bank for gravitational waveforms from coalescing binary black holes: Nonspinning binaries
Ajith, P.; Hewitson, M.; Babak, S.; Chen, Y.; Krishnan, B.; Whelan, J. T.; Dorband, N.; Pollney, D.; Rezzolla, L.; Sintes, A. M.; Bruegmann, B.; Hannam, M.; Husa, S.; Sperhake, U.; Diener, P.; Gonzalez, J.; Santamaria, L.; Thornburg, J.
2008-05-15
Gravitational waveforms from the inspiral and ring-down stages of the binary black-hole coalescences can be modeled accurately by approximation/perturbation techniques in general relativity. Recent progress in numerical relativity has enabled us to model also the nonperturbative merger phase of the binary black-hole coalescence problem. This enables us to coherently search for all three stages of the coalescence of nonspinning binary black holes using a single template bank. Taking our motivation from these results, we propose a family of template waveforms which can model the inspiral, merger, and ring-down stages of the coalescence of nonspinning binary black holes that follow quasicircular inspiral. This two-dimensional template family is explicitly parametrized by the physical parameters of the binary. We show that the template family is not only effectual in detecting the signals from black-hole coalescences, but also faithful in estimating the parameters of the binary. We compare the sensitivity of a search (in the context of different ground-based interferometers) using all three stages of the black-hole coalescence with other template-based searches which look for individual stages separately. We find that the proposed search is significantly more sensitive than other template-based searches for a substantial mass range, potentially bringing about remarkable improvement in the event rate of ground-based interferometers. As part of this work, we also prescribe a general procedure to construct interpolated template banks using nonspinning black-hole waveforms produced by numerical relativity.
MASSIVE BLACK HOLE PAIRS IN CLUMPY, SELF-GRAVITATING CIRCUMNUCLEAR DISKS: STOCHASTIC ORBITAL DECAY
Fiacconi, Davide; Mayer, Lucio; Roškar, Rok; Colpi, Monica
2013-11-01
We study the dynamics of massive black hole pairs in clumpy gaseous circumnuclear disks. We track the orbital decay of the light, secondary black hole M {sub .2} orbiting around the more massive primary at the center of the disk, using N-body/smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulations. We find that the gravitational interaction of M {sub .2} with massive clumps M {sub cl} erratically perturbs the otherwise smooth orbital decay. In close encounters with massive clumps, gravitational slingshots can kick the secondary black hole out of the disk plane. The black hole moving on an inclined orbit then experiences the weaker dynamical friction of the stellar background, resulting in a longer orbital decay timescale. Interactions between clumps can also favor orbital decay when the black hole is captured by a massive clump that is segregating toward the center of the disk. The stochastic behavior of the black hole orbit emerges mainly when the ratio M {sub .2}/M {sub cl} falls below unity, with decay timescales ranging from ∼1 to ∼50 Myr. This suggests that describing the cold clumpy phase of the interstellar medium in self-consistent simulations of galaxy mergers, albeit so far neglected, is important to predict the black hole dynamics in galaxy merger remnants.
Growing black holes and galaxies: black hole accretion versus star formation rate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volonteri, Marta; Capelo, Pedro R.; Netzer, Hagai; Bellovary, Jillian; Dotti, Massimo; Governato, Fabio
2015-05-01
We present a new suite of hydrodynamical simulations and use it to study, in detail, black hole and galaxy properties. The high time, spatial and mass resolution, and realistic orbits and mass ratios, down to 1:6 and 1:10, enable us to meaningfully compare star formation rate (SFR) and BH accretion rate (BHAR) time-scales, temporal behaviour, and relative magnitude. We find that (i) BHAR and galaxy-wide SFR are typically temporally uncorrelated, and have different variability time-scales, except during the merger proper, lasting ˜0.2-0.3 Gyr. BHAR and nuclear (<100 pc) SFR are better correlated, and their variability are similar. Averaging over time, the merger phase leads typically to an increase by a factor of a few in the BHAR/SFR ratio. (ii) BHAR and nuclear SFR are intrinsically proportional, but the correlation lessens if the long-term SFR is measured. (iii) Galaxies in the remnant phase are the ones most likely to be selected as systems dominated by an active galactic nucleus, because of the long time spent in this phase. (iv) The time-scale over which a given diagnostic probes the SFR has a profound impact on the recovered correlations with BHAR, and on the interpretation of observational data.
Detection of gravitational waves from black holes: Is there a window for alternative theories?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konoplya, Roman; Zhidenko, Alexander
2016-05-01
Recently the LIGO and VIRGO Collaborations reported the observation of gravitational-wave signal corresponding to the inspiral and merger of two black holes, resulting into formation of the final black hole. It was shown that the observations are consistent with the Einstein theory of gravity with high accuracy, limited mainly by the statistical error. Angular momentum and mass of the final black hole were determined with rather large allowance of tens of percents. Here we shall show that this indeterminacy in the range of the black-hole parameters allows for some non-negligible deformations of the Kerr spacetime leading to the same frequencies of the black-hole ringing. This means that at the current precision of the experiment there remains some possibility for alternative theories of gravity.
NASA Observatory Confirms Black Hole Limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2005-02-01
The very largest black holes reach a certain point and then grow no more, according to the best survey to date of black holes made with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. Scientists have also discovered many previously hidden black holes that are well below their weight limit. These new results corroborate recent theoretical work about how black holes and galaxies grow. The biggest black holes, those with at least 100 million times the mass of the Sun, ate voraciously during the early Universe. Nearly all of them ran out of 'food' billions of years ago and went onto a forced starvation diet. Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North Focus on Black Holes in the Chandra Deep Field North On the other hand, black holes between about 10 and 100 million solar masses followed a more controlled eating plan. Because they took smaller portions of their meals of gas and dust, they continue growing today. "Our data show that some supermassive black holes seem to binge, while others prefer to graze", said Amy Barger of the University of Wisconsin in Madison and the University of Hawaii, lead author of the paper describing the results in the latest issue of The Astronomical Journal (Feb 2005). "We now understand better than ever before how supermassive black holes grow." One revelation is that there is a strong connection between the growth of black holes and the birth of stars. Previously, astronomers had done careful studies of the birthrate of stars in galaxies, but didn't know as much about the black holes at their centers. DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole DSS Optical Image of Lockman Hole "These galaxies lose material into their central black holes at the same time that they make their stars," said Barger. "So whatever mechanism governs star formation in galaxies also governs black hole growth." Astronomers have made an accurate census of both the biggest, active black holes in the distance, and the relatively smaller, calmer ones closer by. Now, for the first
Analyzing and improving initial data for binary black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grigsby, Jason D.
Binary black holes are one of the most likely sources of gravitational radiation to be detected by projects such as LIGO and LISA. This radiation causes the binary to lose energy and angular momentum with the black holes adiabatically spiraling together. The strongest radiation is emitted at merger, where the strong fields and lack of symmetry require the use of fully numerical methods for solving Einstein's equations. Numerical simulations of binary black holes require the specification of initial data to be used with evolution equations. The physics of a binary black hole system in numerical relativity will largely be determined by the initial data. This dissertation is concerned with the analysis and improvement of that initial data. There will be two main parts to this dissertation. The first part will be concerned with how initial data is created. This starts with a presentation of the 3+1 decomposition which rewrites Einstein's field equations as a set of constraint and evolution equations. This will be followed with a discussion of the conformal thin-sandwich decomposition and excision methods which rewrite a portion of the 3+1 decomposition as a well-posed set of elliptic equations and boundary conditions that can be used to determine initial data. Then I will discuss the the physics of binary black holes, what physical measurements we can apply and how they are used to find astrophysically likely initial data for binary black holes. Lastly, there will be a discussion of the implementation of these methods. The second section will cover my own research into binary black hole initial data. I will describe tests of methods for finding binaries in quasicircular orbit, thought to be the most likely scenario for binary sources of gravitational waves. This is entwined with tests to better understand spin in binary black holes. I will then report on efforts to understand eccentricity in binary black hole initial data. Finally I will discuss efforts to improve
Black holes are almost optimal quantum cloners
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adami, Christoph; Ver Steeg, Greg
2015-06-01
If black holes were able to clone quantum states, a number of paradoxes in black hole physics would disappear. However, the linearity of quantum mechanics forbids exact cloning of quantum states. Here we show that black holes indeed clone incoming quantum states with a fidelity that depends on the black hole’s absorption coefficient, without violating the no-cloning theorem because the clones are only approximate. Perfectly reflecting black holes are optimal universal ‘quantum cloning machines’ and operate on the principle of stimulated emission, exactly as their quantum optical counterparts. In the limit of perfect absorption, the fidelity of clones is only equal to what can be obtained via quantum state estimation methods. But for any absorption probability less than one, the cloning fidelity is nearly optimal as long as ω /T≥slant 10, a common parameter for modest-sized black holes.
A Different Reason Why Black Holes are Black
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farghal, Noha S.
2009-11-01
Although it is true that black holes appear to be black on the outside due to the fact that the escape velocity from the event horizon is even higher than that of light, black holes may be black on the inside as well. A recent paper by Zach Adams (2009) presents a new model which provides evidence of gravitons actually being a result of a fusion of 2 photons, which manifests in 4-D space. In fact, the duality between gravitons and photons has been suggested in earlier works as well. Falling Photon Experiment shows that as photons approach a massive body, their energies increase, and their wavelengths decrease. Photon-graviton conversions occur when the wavelengths of photons decrease to Planck's length. As a result, the photons approaching the event horizon of a black hole may gain energy enough for photon pairs to fuse and become gravitons. Therefore, as we will discuss in this work, there exists a probability that photons cannot survive within the event horizon of a black hole. It is true that nothing can escape a black hole, which is the reason why it looks black on the outside, but also the possibility that photons may not be able to survive on a black hole means that black holes may be black on the inside as well.
The role of stellar relaxation in the formation and evolution of the first massive black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yajima, Hidenobu; Khochfar, Sadegh
2016-04-01
We present calculations on the formation of massive black holes of 105 M⊙ at z > 6, which can be the seeds of supermassive black holes at z ≳ 6. Under the assumption of compact star cluster formation in merging galaxies, star clusters in haloes of ˜ 108-109 M⊙ can undergo rapid core collapse, leading to the formation of very massive stars (VMSs) of ˜ 1000 M⊙ that collapse directly into black holes with similar masses. Star clusters in haloes of ≳ 109 M⊙ experience Type II supernovae before the formation of VMSs, due to long core-collapse time-scales. We also model the subsequent growth of black holes via accretion of residual stars in clusters. Two-body relaxation refills the loss cones of stellar orbits efficiently at larger radii and resonant relaxation at small radii is the main driver for accretion of stars on to black holes. As a result, more than 90 percent of stars in the initial cluster are swallowed by the central black holes before z = 6. Using dark matter merger trees, we derive black hole mass functions at z = 6-20. The mass function ranges from 103-105 M⊙ at z ≲ 15. Major merging of galaxies of ≳ 4 × 108 M⊙ at z ˜ 20 leads successfully to the formation of ≳ 105 M⊙ black holes by z ≳ 10, which could be the potential seeds of supermassive black holes seen today.
New observational constraints on the growth of the first supermassive black holes
Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Volonteri, M.; Natarajan, P.
2013-12-01
We constrain the total accreted mass density in supermassive black holes at z > 6, inferred via the upper limit derived from the integrated X-ray emission from a sample of photometrically selected galaxy candidates. Studying galaxies obtained from the deepest Hubble Space Telescope images combined with the Chandra 4 Ms observations of the Chandra Deep Field-South, we achieve the most restrictive constraints on total black hole growth in the early universe. We estimate an accreted mass density <1000 M {sub ☉} Mpc{sup –3} at z ∼ 6, significantly lower than the previous predictions from some existing models of early black hole growth and earlier prior observations. These results place interesting constraints on early black hole growth and mass assembly by accretion and imply one or more of the following: (1) only a fraction of the luminous galaxies at this epoch contain active black holes; (2) most black hole growth at early epochs happens in dusty and/or less massive—as yet undetected—host galaxies; (3) there is a significant fraction of low-z interlopers in the galaxy sample; (4) early black hole growth is radiatively inefficient, heavily obscured, and/or due to black hole mergers as opposed to accretion; or (5) the bulk of the black hole growth occurs at late times. All of these possibilities have important implications for our understanding of high-redshift seed formation models.
Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies.
Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf
2011-01-20
Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges. PMID:21248846
Quantum criticality and black holes.
Sachdev, Subir; Müller, Markus
2009-04-22
Many condensed matter experiments explore the finite temperature dynamics of systems near quantum critical points. Often, there are no well-defined quasiparticle excitations, and so quantum kinetic equations do not describe the transport properties completely. The theory shows that the transport coefficients are not proportional to a mean free scattering time (as is the case in the Boltzmann theory of quasiparticles), but are completely determined by the absolute temperature and by equilibrium thermodynamic observables. Recently, explicit solutions of this quantum critical dynamics have become possible via the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory duality discovered in string theory. This shows that the quantum critical theory provides a holographic description of the quantum theory of black holes in a negatively curved anti-de Sitter space, and relates its transport coefficients to properties of the Hawking radiation from the black hole. We review how insights from this connection have led to new results for experimental systems: (i) the vicinity of the superfluid-insulator transition in the presence of an applied magnetic field, and its possible application to measurements of the Nernst effect in the cuprates, (ii) the magnetohydrodynamics of the plasma of Dirac electrons in graphene and the prediction of a hydrodynamic cyclotron resonance. PMID:21825396
Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes
Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.
2010-01-15
Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced ''bumpy black holes'': objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity's black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes--objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime's bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime's multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.
Catching supermassive black hole binaries without a net
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornish, Neil J.; Porter, Edward K.
2007-01-01
The gravitational wave signals from coalescing Supermassive Black Hole Binaries are prime targets for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). With optimal data processing techniques, the LISA observatory should be able to detect black hole mergers anywhere in the Universe. The challenge is to find ways to dig the signals out of a combination of instrument noise and the large foreground from stellar mass binaries in our own galaxy. The standard procedure of matched filtering against a grid of templates can be computationally prohibitive, especially when the black holes are spinning or the mass ratio is large. Here we develop an alternative approach based on Metropolis-Hastings sampling and simulated annealing that is orders of magnitude cheaper than a grid search. For the first time, we show that it is possible to detect and characterize the signals from binary systems of Schwarzschild Black Holes that are embedded in instrument noise and a foreground containing millions of galactic binaries. Our technique is computationally efficient, robust, and applicable to both high and low signal-to-noise ratio systems.
Superkicks in hyperbolic encounters of binary black holes.
Healy, James; Herrmann, Frank; Hinder, Ian; Shoemaker, Deirdre M; Laguna, Pablo; Matzner, Richard A
2009-01-30
Generic inspirals and mergers of binary black holes produce beamed emission of gravitational radiation that can lead to a gravitational recoil or kick of the final black hole. The kick velocity depends on the mass ratio and spins of the binary as well as on the dynamics of the binary configuration. Studies have focused so far on the most astrophysically relevant configuration of quasicircular inspirals, for which kicks as large as approximately 3300 km s;(-1) have been found. We present the first study of gravitational recoil in hyperbolic encounters. Contrary to quasicircular configurations, in which the beamed radiation tends to average during the inspiral, radiation from hyperbolic encounters is plunge dominated, resulting in an enhancement of preferential beaming. As a consequence, it is possible in highly relativistic scatterings to achieve kick velocities as large as 10 000 km s;(-1). PMID:19257409
Dusty Feedback from Massive Black Holes in Two Elliptical Galaxies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Temi, P.; Brighenti, F.; Mathews, W. G.; Amblard, A.; Riguccini, L.
2013-01-01
Far-infrared dust emission from elliptical galaxies informs us about galaxy mergers, feedback energy outbursts from supermassive black holes and the age of galactic stars. We report on the role of AGN feedback observationally by looking for its signatures in elliptical galaxies at recent epochs in the nearby universe. We present Herschel observations of two elliptical galaxies with strong and spatially extended FIR emission from colder grains 5-10 kpc distant from the galaxy cores. Extended excess cold dust emission is interpreted as evidence of recent feedback-generated AGN energy outbursts in these galaxies, visible only in the FIR, from buoyant gaseous outflows from the galaxy cores.
Observing Massive Black Hole Binary Coalescences with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Centrella, Joan
2005-01-01
Massive black hole binary coalescences are among the most important astrophysical sources of gravitational waves to be observed by LISA. The ability to observe and characterize such sources with masses approximately equal to 105 M/odot and larger at high redshifts is strongly dependent on the sensitivity of LISA in the low frequency (0.1 mHz and below) regime. We examine LISA's ability to observe these systems at redshifts up to z approximately equal to 10 for various proposed values of the low frequency sensitivity, under current assumptions about the merger rates. The discussion will focus on the astrophysical information that can be gained by these observations.
3D grazing collision of two black holes.
Alcubierre, M; Benger, W; Brügmann, B; Lanfermann, G; Nerger, L; Seidel, E; Takahashi, R
2001-12-31
We present results for two colliding black holes (BHs), with angular momentum, spin, and unequal mass. For the first time, gravitational waveforms are computed for a grazing collision from a full 3D numerical evolution. The collision can be followed through the merger to form a single BH, and through part of the ringdown period of the final BH. The apparent horizon is tracked and studied, and physical parameters, such as the mass of the final BH, are computed. The total energy radiated in gravitational waves is shown to be consistent with the total initial mass of the spacetime and the apparent horizon mass of the final BH. PMID:11800869
MCMC exploration of supermassive black hole binary inspirals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cornish, Neil J.; Porter, Edward K.
2006-10-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna will be able to detect the inspiral and merger of super massive black hole binaries (SMBHBs) anywhere in the universe. Standard matched filtering techniques can be used to detect and characterize these systems. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are ideally suited to this and other LISA data analysis problems as they are able to efficiently handle models with large dimensions. Here we compare the posterior parameter distributions derived by an MCMC algorithm with the distributions predicted by the Fisher information matrix. We find excellent agreement for the extrinsic parameters, while the Fisher matrix slightly overestimates errors in the intrinsic parameters.
Observing Merging Massive Black Hole Binaries with LISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thorpe, J.; McWillimas, S.; Baker, J.; Arnaud, K.
2009-01-01
The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is expected to detect gravitational radiation from the inspiral and merger of massive black hole binaries at high redshifts with large signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). These high-SNR observations will make it possible to extract physical parameters such as hole masses and spins, luminosity distance, and sky position from the observed waveforms. LISA'S effectiveness as a tool for astrophysics will be influenced by the precision with which these parameters can be measured. In addition, the practicality of coordinated observations with other instruments will be affected by the temporal evolution of parameter errors such as sky position. We present estimates of parameter errors for the special case of non-spinning black holes. Our focus is on the contribution of the late inspiral and merger portions of the waveform, a regime which typically dominates the SNR but has not been extensively studied due to the historic lack of a precise description of the waveform. Advances in numerical relativity have recently made such studies possible. Initial results suggest that the portion of the waveform beyond the Schwarzchild inner-most stable circular orbit can reduce parameter uncertainties by up to a factor of two.
ON THE DETECTABILITY OF DUAL JETS FROM BINARY BLACK HOLES
Moesta, Philipp; Alic, Daniela; Rezzolla, Luciano; Zanotti, Olindo; Palenzuela, Carlos
2012-04-20
We revisit the suggestion that dual jets can be produced during the inspiral and merger of supermassive black holes when these are immersed in a force-free plasma threaded by a uniform magnetic field. By performing independent calculations of the late inspiral and merger, and by computing the electromagnetic (EM) emission in a way which is consistent with estimates using the Poynting flux, we show that a dual-jet structure is present but energetically subdominant with respect to a non-collimated and predominantly quadrupolar emission, which is similar to the one computed when the binary is in electrovacuum. While our findings set serious restrictions on the detectability of dual jets from coalescing binaries, they also increase the chances of detecting an EM counterpart from these systems.
Entropic force in black hole binaries and its Newtonian limits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
van Putten, Maurice H. P. M.
2012-03-01
We give an exact solution for the static force between two black holes at the turning points in their binary motion. The results are derived by Gibbs’ principle and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy applied to the apparent horizon surfaces in time-symmetric initial data. New power laws are derived for the entropy jump in mergers, while Newton’s law is shown to derive from a new adiabatic variational principle for the Hilbert action in the presence of apparent horizon surfaces. In this approach, entropy is strictly monotonic such that gravity is attractive for all separations including mergers, and the Bekenstein entropy bound is satisfied also at arbitrarily large separations, where gravity reduces to Newton’s law. The latter is generalized to point particles in the Newtonian limit by application of Gibbs’ principle to world-lines crossing light cones.
Computing Binary Black Hole Initial Data in Damped Harmonic Gauge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varma, Vijay; Scheel, Mark; Simulating Extreme Spacetimes Collaboration
2016-03-01
Binary black hole evolution in the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC) is currently done in the damped harmonic (DH) gauge, which has proven very useful for merger simulations. However, the initial data for the simulation is constructed in a different gauge. Once the evolution starts we need to perform a smooth gauge transformation to the DH gauge, introducing additional gauge dynamics into the evolution. In this work, we construct the initial data in the DH gauge itself, which allows us to avoid the above gauge transformation. This can have added benefits such as possibly reducing junk radiation, making it easier to achieve a desired orbital eccentricity, reducing the runtime of simulations, and being able to start evolution closer to the merger.
Search for Gravitational Waves from Intermediate Mass Binary Black Holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. B.; Cannizzo, J.; Stroeer, A. S.
2012-01-01
We present the results of a weakly modeled burst search for gravitational waves from mergers of non-spinning intermediate mass black holes (IMBH) in the total mass range 100-450 solar Mass and with the component mass ratios between 1:1 and 4:1. The search was conducted on data collected by the LIGO and Virgo detectors between November of 2005 and October of 2007. No plausible signals were observed by the search which constrains the astrophysical rates of the IMBH mergers as a function of the component masses. In the most efficiently detected bin centered on 88 + 88 solar Mass , for non-spinning sources, the rate density upper limit is 0.13 per Mpc(exp 3) per Myr at the 90% confidence level.
Observing Massive Black-hole Binaries With A Redesigned Lisa
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McWilliams, Sean T.
2012-01-01
In response to recent events in NASA and ESA, which necessitate the redesign of the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) to lower its cost, we present results of a design study that evaluates the impact of various redesigns on the study of massive black-hole binaries (MBHB). As a result of the shift in sensitivity towards higher frequencies in all of the redesigns, the final merger signal will be even more critical for characterizing the coalescence of MBHBs. We assess the achievable parameter accuracy of MBHB measurements with various redesign options, and how well we expect the final design choices to perform. We include spinning mergers with higher harmonics in our calculation, which was never previously included in LISA calculations, and highlights the need to include all of the available physics in order to recover any performance lost in the redesign.
Effective Potential in Noncommutative BTZ Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, Jafar; Shajiee, Vahid Reza
2016-02-01
In this paper, we investigated the noncommutative rotating BTZ black hole and showed that such a space-time is not maximally symmetric. We calculated effective potential for the massive and the massless test particle by geodesic equations, also we showed effect of non-commutativity on the minimum mass of BTZ black hole.
Quasinormal modes of extremal black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richartz, Maurício
2016-03-01
The continued fraction method (also known as Leaver's method) is one of the most effective techniques used to determine the quasinormal modes of a black hole. For extremal black holes, however, the method does not work (since, in such a case, the event horizon is an irregular singular point of the associated wave equation). Fortunately, there exists a modified version of the method, devised by Onozawa et al. [Phys. Rev. D 53, 7033 (1996)], which works for neutral massless fields around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole. In this paper, we generalize the ideas of Onozawa et al. to charged massless perturbations around an extremal Reissner-Nordström black hole and to neutral massless perturbations around an extremal Kerr black hole. In particular, the existence of damped modes is analyzed in detail. Similarities and differences between the results of the original continued fraction method for near extremal black holes and the results of the new continued fraction method for extremal black holes are discussed. Mode stability of extremal black holes is also investigated.
Observational Evidences of Black Hole Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Tianxi
2010-01-01
Recently, the author has proposed an alternative cosmological model called black hole universe. According to this model, the universe originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up through a supermassive black hole with billion solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient materials and merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with an infinite number of layers hierarchically. The innermost three layers are the universe that we are living, the outside called mother universe, and the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes. The outermost layer has an infinite radius and a zero limit for both the mass density and absolute temperature. The relationships among all layers or universes can be connected by a universe family tree. The entire space can be represented as a set of all universes. All layers or universes are governed by the same physics, the Einstein general theory of relativity with the Robertson-Walker metric of spacetime, and tend to expand outward physically. The evolution of the space structure is iterative. When one universe expands out, a new similar universe grows up from its inside. This presentation will demonstrate the observational evidences of the black hole universe in terms of the universe expansion, star-like and supermassive black holes, galactic evolutions, quasars, background radiation, and large scale structure. We will also compare the black hole universe with the big bang cosmology.
Black Hole Phase Transition in Massive Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ning, Shou-Li; Liu, Wen-Biao
2016-07-01
In massive gravity, some new phenomena of black hole phase transition are found. There are more than one critical points under appropriate parameter values and the Gibbs free energy near critical points also has some new properties. Moreover, the Maxwell equal area rule is also investigated and the coexistence curve of the black hole is given.
Slender Galaxy with Robust Black Hole
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2008-01-01
This plot of data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope indicates that a flat, spiral galaxy called NGC 3621 has a feeding, supermassive black hole lurking within it -- a surprise considering that astronomers thought this particular class of super-thin galaxies lacked big black holes.
The data were captured by Spitzer's infrared spectrograph, an instrument that cracks infrared light open to reveal the signatures of elements. In this case, the data, or spectrum, for NGC 3621, shows the signature of highly ionized neon -- a sure sign of an active, supermassive black hole. Only a black hole that is actively consuming gas and stars has enough energy to ionize neon to this state. The other features in this plot are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorine, produced in the gas surrounding stars.
The results challenge current theories, which hold that supermassive black holes require the bulbous central bulges that poke out from many spiral galaxies to form and grow. NGC 3621 is the second disk galaxy without any bulge found to harbor a supermassive black hole; the first, found in 2003, is NGC 4395. Astronomers have also used Spitzer to find six other mega black holes in thin spirals with only minimal bulges. Together, the findings indicate that, for a galaxy, being plump in the middle is not a necessary condition for growing a rotund black hole.
Black Hole Interior in Quantum Gravity.
Nomura, Yasunori; Sanches, Fabio; Weinberg, Sean J
2015-05-22
We discuss the interior of a black hole in quantum gravity, in which black holes form and evaporate unitarily. The interior spacetime appears in the sense of complementarity because of special features revealed by the microscopic degrees of freedom when viewed from a semiclassical standpoint. The relation between quantum mechanics and the equivalence principle is subtle, but they are still consistent. PMID:26047218
How to Create Black Holes on Earth
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bleicher, Marcus
2007-01-01
We present a short overview on the ideas of large extra dimensions and their implications for the possible production of micro black holes in the next generation particle accelerator at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland) from this year on. In fact, the possibility of black hole production on Earth is currently one of the most exciting predictions for the…
Black hole physics: More similar than knot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gómez, José L.
2016-08-01
The detection of a discrete knot of particle emission from the active galaxy M81* reveals that black hole accretion is self-similar with regard to mass, producing the same knotty jets irrespective of black hole mass and accretion rate.
Never Before Seen: Two Supermassive Black Holes in Same Galaxy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
2002-11-01
For the first time, scientists have proof two supermassive black holes exist together in the same galaxy, thanks to data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. These black holes are orbiting each other and will merge several hundred million years from now, to create an even larger black hole resulting in a catastrophic event that will unleash intense radiation and gravitational waves. The Chandra image reveals that the nucleus of an extraordinarily bright galaxy, known as NGC 6240, contains not one, but two giant black holes, actively accreting material from their surroundings. This discovery shows that massive black holes can grow through mergers in the centers of galaxies, and that these enigmatic events will be detectable with future space-borne gravitational wave observatories. "The breakthrough came with Chandra's ability to clearly distinguish the two nuclei, and measure the details of the X-radiation from each nucleus," said Guenther Hasinger, of the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics in Germany, a coauthor of an upcoming Astrophysical Journal Letters paper describing the research. "These cosmic fingerprints revealed features characteristic of supermassive black holes -- an excess of high-energy photons from gas swirling around a black hole, and X-rays from fluorescing iron atoms in gas near black holes," he said. Previous X-ray observatories had shown that the central region produces X-rays, while radio, infrared and optical observations had detected two bright nuclei, but the nature of this region remained a mystery. Astronomers did not know the location of the X-ray source, or the nature of the two bright nuclei. "With Chandra, we hoped to determine which one, if either, of the nuclei was an active supermassive black hole," said Stefanie Komossa, also of the Max Planck Institute, lead author of the paper on NGC 6240. "Much to our surprise, we found that both were active black holes!" At a distance of about 400 million light years, NGC 6240
A simple estimate of gravitational wave memory in binary black hole systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garfinkle, David
2016-09-01
A simple estimate is given of gravitational wave memory for the inspiral and merger of a binary black hole system. Here the memory is proportional to the total energy radiated and has a simple angular dependence. Estimates of this sort might be helpful as a consistency check for numerical relativity memory waveforms.
Black Holes at the LHC: Progress since 2002
Park, Seong Chan
2008-11-23
We review the recent noticeable progresses in black hole physics focusing on the up-coming super-collider, the LHC. We discuss the classical formation of black holes by particle collision, the greybody factors for higher dimensional rotating black holes, the deep implications of black hole physics to the 'energy-distance' relation, the security issues of the LHC associated with black hole formation and the newly developed Monte-Carlo generators for black hole events.
Kerr Black Hole Entropy and its Quantization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Ji-Jian; Li, Chuan-An; Cheng, Xie-Feng
2016-08-01
By constructing the four-dimensional phase space based on the observable physical quantity of Kerr black hole and gauge transformation, the Kerr black hole entropy in the phase space was obtained. Then considering the corresponding mechanical quantities as operators and making the operators quantized, entropy spectrum of Kerr black hole was obtained. Our results show that the Kerr black hole has the entropy spectrum with equal intervals, which is in agreement with the idea of Bekenstein. In the limit of large event horizon, the area of the adjacent event horizon of the black hole have equal intervals. The results are in consistent with the results based on the loop quantum gravity theory by Dreyer et al.
Voros Product and Noncommutative Inspired Black Holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, Sunandan
2013-03-01
We emphasize the importance of the Voros product in defining the noncommutative (NC) inspired black holes. The computation of entropy for both the noncommutative inspired Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström (RN) black holes show that the area law holds up to order (1)/(√ {θ )}e-M2/θ . The leading correction to the entropy (computed in the tunneling formalism) is shown to be logarithmic. The Komar energy E for these black holes is then obtained and a deviation from the standard identity E = 2STH is found at the order √ {θ }e-M2/θ . This deviation leads to a nonvanishing Komar energy at the extremal point TH = 0 of these black holes. The Smarr formula is finally worked out for the NC Schwarzschild black hole. Similar features also exist for a de Sitter-Schwarzschild geometry.
Shadow of noncommutative geometry inspired black hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, Shao-Wen; Cheng, Peng; Zhong, Yi; Zhou, Xiang-Nan
2015-08-01
In this paper, the shadow casted by the rotating black hole inspired by noncommutative geometry is investigated. In addition to the dimensionless spin parameter a/M0 with M0 black hole mass and inclination angle i, the dimensionless noncommutative parameter √vartheta/M0 is also found to affect the shape of the black hole shadow. The result shows that the size of the shadow slightly decreases with the parameter √vartheta/M0, while the distortion increases with it. Compared to the Kerr black hole, the parameter √vartheta/M0 increases the deformation of the shadow. This may offer a way to distinguish noncommutative geometry inspired black hole from Kerr one via astronomical instruments in the near future.
Renormalized vacuum polarization of rotating black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferreira, Hugo R. C.
2015-04-01
Quantum field theory on rotating black hole spacetimes is plagued with technical difficulties. Here, we describe a general method to renormalize and compute the vacuum polarization of a quantum field in the Hartle-Hawking state on rotating black holes. We exemplify the technique with a massive scalar field on the warped AdS3 black hole solution to topologically massive gravity, a deformation of (2 + 1)-dimensional Einstein gravity. We use a "quasi-Euclidean" technique, which generalizes the Euclidean techniques used for static spacetimes, and we subtract the divergences by matching to a sum over mode solutions on Minkowski spacetime. This allows us, for the first time, to have a general method to compute the renormalized vacuum polarization, for a given quantum state, on a rotating black hole, such as the physically relevant case of the Kerr black hole in four dimensions.
Black hole thermodynamics in MOdified Gravity (MOG)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mureika, Jonas R.; Moffat, John W.; Faizal, Mir
2016-06-01
We analyze the thermodynamical properties of black holes in a modified theory of gravity, which was initially proposed to obtain correct dynamics of galaxies and galaxy clusters without dark matter. The thermodynamics of non-rotating and rotating black hole solutions resembles similar solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with the electric charge being replaced by a new mass dependent gravitational charge Q =√{ αGN } M. This new mass dependent charge modifies the effective Newtonian constant from GN to G =GN (1 + α), and this in turn critically affects the thermodynamics of the black holes. We also investigate the thermodynamics of regular solutions, and explore the limiting case when no horizons forms. So, it is possible that the modified gravity can lead to the absence of black hole horizons in our universe. Finally, we analyze corrections to the thermodynamics of a non-rotating black hole and obtain the usual logarithmic correction term.
Mass formula for quasi-black holes
Lemos, Jose P. S.; Zaslavskii, Oleg B.
2008-12-15
A quasi-black hole, either nonextremal or extremal, can be broadly defined as the limiting configuration of a body when its boundary approaches the body's quasihorizon. We consider the mass contributions and the mass formula for a static quasi-black hole. The analysis involves careful scrutiny of the surface stresses when the limiting configuration is reached. It is shown that there exists a strict correspondence between the mass formulas for quasi-black holes and pure black holes. This perfect parallelism exists in spite of the difference in derivation and meaning of the formulas in both cases. For extremal quasi-black holes the finite surface stresses give zero contribution to the total mass. This leads to a very special version of Abraham-Lorentz electron in general relativity in which the total mass has pure electromagnetic origin in spite of the presence of bare stresses.
Black holes and stars in Horndeski theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Lehébel, Antoine
2016-08-01
We review black hole and star solutions for Horndeski theory. For non-shift symmetric theories, black holes involve a Kaluza–Klein reduction of higher dimensional Lovelock solutions. On the other hand, for shift symmetric theories of Horndeski and beyond Horndeski, black holes involve two classes of solutions: those that include, at the level of the action, a linear coupling to the Gauss–Bonnet term and those that involve time dependence in the galileon field. We analyze the latter class in detail for a specific subclass of Horndeski theory, discussing the general solution of a static and spherically symmetric spacetime. We then discuss stability issues, slowly rotating solutions as well as black holes coupled to matter. The latter case involves a conformally coupled scalar field as well as an electromagnetic field and the (primary) hair black holes thus obtained. We review and discuss the recent results on neutron stars in Horndeski theories.
Dynamical Formation of the GW150914 Binary Black Hole
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rodriguez, Carl L.; Haster, Carl-Johan; Chatterjee, Sourav; Kalogera, Vicky; Rasio, Frederic A.
2016-06-01
We explore the possibility that GW150914, the binary black hole (BBH) merger recently detected by Advanced LIGO, was formed by gravitational interactions in the core of a dense star cluster. Using models of globular clusters (GCs) with detailed N-body dynamics and stellar evolution, we show that a typical cluster with a mass of 3× {10}5{M}ȯ to 6× {10}5{M}ȯ is optimal for forming GW150914-like BBHs that will merge in the local universe. We identify the most likely dynamical processes for forming GW150914 in such a cluster, and we show that the detection of GW150914 is consistent with the masses and merger rates expected for BBHs from GCs. Our results show that dynamical processes provide a significant and well-understood pathway for forming BBH mergers in the local universe. Understanding the contribution of dynamics to the BBH merger problem is a critical step in unlocking the full potential of gravitational-wave astronomy.
FEASTING BLACK HOLE BLOWS BUBBLES
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2002-01-01
A monstrous black hole's rude table manners include blowing huge bubbles of hot gas into space. At least, that's the gustatory practice followed by the supermassive black hole residing in the hub of the nearby galaxy NGC 4438. Known as a peculiar galaxy because of its unusual shape, NGC 4438 is in the Virgo Cluster, 50 million light-years from Earth. These NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of the galaxy's central region clearly show one of the bubbles rising from a dark band of dust. The other bubble, emanating from below the dust band, is barely visible, appearing as dim red blobs in the close-up picture of the galaxy's hub (the colorful picture at right). The background image represents a wider view of the galaxy, with the central region defined by the white box. These extremely hot bubbles are caused by the black hole's voracious eating habits. The eating machine is engorging itself with a banquet of material swirling around it in an accretion disk (the white region below the bright bubble). Some of this material is spewed from the disk in opposite directions. Acting like high-powered garden hoses, these twin jets of matter sweep out material in their paths. The jets eventually slam into a wall of dense, slow-moving gas, which is traveling at less than 223,000 mph (360,000 kph). The collision produces the glowing material. The bubbles will continue to expand and will eventually dissipate. Compared with the life of the galaxy, this bubble-blowing phase is a short-lived event. The bubble is much brighter on one side of the galaxy's center because the jet smashed into a denser amount of gas. The brighter bubble is 800 light-years tall and 800 light-years across. The observations are being presented June 5 at the American Astronomical Society meeting in Rochester, N.Y. Both pictures were taken March 24, 1999 with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2. False colors were used to enhance the details of the bubbles. The red regions in the picture denote the hot gas
Transition from adiabatic inspiral to plunge into a spinning black hole
Kesden, Michael
2011-05-15
A test particle of mass {mu} on a bound geodesic of a Kerr black hole of mass M>>{mu} will slowly inspiral as gravitational radiation extracts energy and angular momentum from its orbit. This inspiral can be considered adiabatic when the orbital period is much shorter than the time scale on which energy is radiated, and quasicircular when the radial velocity is much less than the azimuthal velocity. Although the inspiral always remains adiabatic provided {mu}<
Spacetime and orbits of bumpy black holes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vigeland, Sarah J.; Hughes, Scott A.
2010-01-01
Our Universe contains a great number of extremely compact and massive objects which are generally accepted to be black holes. Precise observations of orbital motion near candidate black holes have the potential to determine if they have the spacetime structure that general relativity demands. As a means of formulating measurements to test the black hole nature of these objects, Collins and Hughes introduced “bumpy black holes”: objects that are almost, but not quite, general relativity’s black holes. The spacetimes of these objects have multipoles that deviate slightly from the black hole solution, reducing to black holes when the deviation is zero. In this paper, we extend this work in two ways. First, we show how to introduce bumps which are smoother and lead to better behaved orbits than those in the original presentation. Second, we show how to make bumpy Kerr black holes—objects which reduce to the Kerr solution when the deviation goes to zero. This greatly extends the astrophysical applicability of bumpy black holes. Using Hamilton-Jacobi techniques, we show how a spacetime’s bumps are imprinted on orbital frequencies, and thus can be determined by measurements which coherently track the orbital phase of a small orbiting body. We find that in the weak field, orbits of bumpy black holes are modified exactly as expected from a Newtonian analysis of a body with a prescribed multipolar structure, reproducing well-known results from the celestial mechanics literature. The impact of bumps on strong-field orbits is many times greater than would be predicted from a Newtonian analysis, suggesting that this framework will allow observations to set robust limits on the extent to which a spacetime’s multipoles deviate from the black hole expectation.