Science.gov

Sample records for black hole-bulge relations

  1. Black Hole-Bulge Relation for Narrow-Line Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Wei-Hao; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2003-02-01

    It has been thought that narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies are likely to be in the early stages of the evolution of active galaxies. To test this suggestion, the ratios of the central massive black hole (MBH) mass to the bulge mass (Mbh/Mbulge) were estimated for 22 Narrow Line AGNs (NL AGNs). It is found that NL AGNs appear to have genuinely lower MBH/Bulge mass ratio (Mbh/Mbulge). The mean log (Mbh/Mbulge) for 22 NL AGNs is -3.9 ± 0.07, which is an order of magnitude lower than that for Broad Line AGNs and quiescent galaxies. We suggest a nonlinear MBH/Bulge relation and find there exists a relation between the Mbh / Mbulge and the velocity dispersion, σ, derived from the [O III ] width. A scenario of MBH growth for NL AGNs is one of our interpretations of the nonline ar MBH/Bulge relation. The MBH growth timescales for 22 NL AGNs were calculated, with a mean value (1.29 ± 0.24) × 108 yr. Another plausible interpretation is also possible: that NL AGNs occur in low-Mbulge galaxies and that in such galaxies Mbh/Mbulge is lower than that in galaxies with a higher Mbulge, if we consider that NL AGNs already have their ``final'' Mbh/Mbulge. More information of the bulge in NL AGNs is needed to clarify the black hole-bulge relation.

  2. Selection effects in the black hole-bulge relation and its evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, A.; Wisotzki, L.

    2011-11-01

    We present an investigation of sample selection effects that influence the observed black hole-bulge relations and its evolution with redshift. We provide a common framework in which all kinds of selection effects on the M•-bulge relations can be investigated, but our main emphasis is on the consequences of using broad-line AGN with virial estimates of black hole masses and their host galaxies to search for evolution in the BH-bulge relation. We identified relevant sources of bias that were not discussed in the literature so far. A particularly important effect is caused by the fact that the active fraction among SMBHs varies considerably with BH mass, in the sense that high-mass BHs are less likely to be active than lower mass ones. In the connection with intrinsic scatter of the BH-bulge relation this effect implies a bias towards a low BH mass at given bulge property. This effect adds to the bias caused by working with luminosity or flux limited samples that were already discussed by others. A quantitative prediction of these biases requires (i) a realistic model of the sample selection function, and (ii) knowledge of relevant underlying distribution functions: the distribution of spheroid properties such as velocity dispersions or masses; the active fraction as a function of BH mass, or alternatively the active black hole mass function; and the Eddington ratio distribution function. We employed our formalism together with recently determined distribution functions to investigate how much existing studies of the M•-bulge relation using AGN hosts might suffer from selection biases. For low-redshift AGN samples we can naturally reproduce the flattening of the relation observed in some studies without having to invoke intrinsic differences in the BH-bulge relation between active and inactive galaxies. When extending our analysis to higher redshift samples we are clearly hampered by limited empirical constraints on the various relevant distribution functions

  3. Precise Black Hole Masses from Megamaser Disks: Black Hole-Bulge Relations at Low Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-01

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M BHgsim108 M sun) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L < L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H2O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B&C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M BH-σ* relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M BH and σ* seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M BH-σ* relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M BH-σ* relation in this low-mass regime.

  4. PRECISE BLACK HOLE MASSES FROM MEGAMASER DISKS: BLACK HOLE-BULGE RELATIONS AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Peng, Chien Y.; Kim, Minjin; Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Impellizzeri, C. M. Violette; Condon, James J.; Lo, K. Y.; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.

    2010-09-20

    The black hole (BH)-bulge correlations have greatly influenced the last decade of efforts to understand galaxy evolution. Current knowledge of these correlations is limited predominantly to high BH masses (M{sub BH{approx}}>10{sup 8} M{sub sun}) that can be measured using direct stellar, gas, and maser kinematics. These objects, however, do not represent the demographics of more typical L < L* galaxies. This study transcends prior limitations to probe BHs that are an order of magnitude lower in mass, using BH mass measurements derived from the dynamics of H{sub 2}O megamasers in circumnuclear disks. The masers trace the Keplerian rotation of circumnuclear molecular disks starting at radii of a few tenths of a pc from the central BH. Modeling of the rotation curves, presented by Kuo et al., yields BH masses with exquisite precision. We present stellar velocity dispersion measurements for a sample of nine megamaser disk galaxies based on long-slit observations using the B and C spectrograph on the Dupont telescope and the Dual Imaging Spectrograph on the 3.5 m telescope at Apache Point. We also perform bulge-to-disk decomposition of a subset of five of these galaxies with Sloan Digital Sky Survey imaging. The maser galaxies as a group fall below the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation defined by elliptical galaxies. We show, now with very precise BH mass measurements, that the low-scatter power-law relation between M{sub BH} and {sigma}{sub *} seen in elliptical galaxies is not universal. The elliptical galaxy M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation cannot be used to derive the BH mass function at low mass or the zero point for active BH masses. The processes (perhaps BH self-regulation or minor merging) that operate at higher mass have not effectively established an M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation in this low-mass regime.

  5. THE (BLACK HOLE)-BULGE MASS SCALING RELATION AT LOW MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Several recent papers have reported on the occurrence of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) containing undermassive black holes relative to a linear scaling relation between black hole mass (M {sub bh}) and host spheroid stellar mass (M {sub sph,} {sub *}). However, dramatic revisions to the M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} and M {sub bh}-L {sub sph} relations, based on samples containing predominantly inactive galaxies, have recently identified a new steeper relation at M {sub bh} ≲ (2-10) × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉}, roughly corresponding to M {sub sph,} {sub *} ≲ (0.3-1) × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}. We show that this steeper, quadratic-like M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies, i.e., galaxies without partially depleted cores, roughly tracks the apparent offset of the AGN having 10{sup 5} ≲ M {sub bh}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 0.5 × 10{sup 8}. That is, these AGNs are not randomly offset with low black hole masses, but also follow a steeper (nonlinear) relation. As noted by Busch et al., confirmation or rejection of a possible AGN offset from the steeper M {sub bh}-M {sub sph,} {sub *} relation defined by the Sérsic galaxies will benefit from improved stellar mass-to-light ratios for the spheroids hosting these AGNs. Several implications for formation theories are noted. Furthermore, reasons for possible under- and overmassive black holes, the potential existence of intermediate mass black holes (<10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}), and the new steep (black hole)-(nuclear star cluster) relation, M{sub bh}∝M{sub nc}{sup 2.7±0.7}, are also discussed.

  6. The Black Hole-Bulge Mass Relation in Megamaser Host Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Läsker, Ronald; Greene, Jenny E.; Seth, Anil; van de Ven, Glenn; Braatz, James A.; Henkel, Christian; Lo, K. Y.

    2016-07-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images for nine megamaser disk galaxies with the primary goal of studying photometric BH-galaxy scaling relations. The megamaser disks provide the highest-precision extragalactic BH mass measurements, while our high-resolution HST imaging affords us the opportunity to decompose the complex nuclei of their late-type hosts in detail. Based on the morphologies and shapes of the galaxy nuclei, we argue that most of these galaxies’ central regions contain secularly evolving components (pseudo-bulges), and in many cases we photometrically identify co-existing “classical” bulge components as well. Using these decompositions, we draw the following conclusions. (1) The megamaser BH masses span two orders of magnitude (106-{10}8 {M}⊙ ) while the stellar mass of their spiral host galaxies are all ˜ {10}11 {M}⊙ within a factor of three. (2) The BH masses at a given bulge mass or total stellar mass in the megamaser host spiral galaxies tend to be lower than expected when compared to an extrapolation of the BH-bulge relation based on early-type galaxies. (3) The observed large intrinsic scatter of BH masses in the megamaser host galaxies raises the question of whether scaling relations exist in spiral galaxies. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program 12185.

  7. THE BLACK HOLE-BULGE MASS RELATION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE EXTENDED CHANDRA DEEP FIELD-SOUTH SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, Malte; Silverman, John D.

    2013-04-10

    We present results from a study to determine whether relations-established in the local universe-between the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies are in place at higher redshifts. We identify a well-constructed sample of 18 X-ray-selected, broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Extended Chandra Deep Field-South Survey with 0.5 < z < 1.2. This redshift range is chosen to ensure that Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging is available with at least two filters that bracket the 4000 A break, thus providing reliable stellar mass estimates of the host galaxy by accounting for both young and old stellar populations. We compute single-epoch, virial black hole (BH) masses from optical spectra using the broad Mg II emission line. For essentially all galaxies in our sample, their total stellar mass content agrees remarkably well, given their BH masses, with local relations of inactive galaxies and active SMBHs. We further decompose the total stellar mass into bulge and disk components separately with full knowledge of the HST point-spread function. We find that {approx}80% of the sample is consistent with the local M{sub BH}-M{sub *,{sub Bulge}} relation even with 72% of the host galaxies showing the presence of a disk. In particular, bulge-dominated hosts are more aligned with the local relation than those with prominent disks. We further discuss the possible physical mechanisms that are capable of building up the stellar mass of the bulge from an extended disk of stars over the subsequent 8 Gyr.

  8. CO Linewidths and the Black Hole - Bulge Relationship for High Redshift QSOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menezes, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; Massart, C. A.; vanden Bout, P.

    2005-10-01

    Supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei have masses MBH related to the mass and velocity dispersion σ* of the host galaxy. We examine the MBH - σ* in high redshift QSOs, deriving MBH from the broad emission-line widths and σ* from the radio CO lines. At redshifts z = 4 to 6, gigantic black holes appear to exist in relatively modest galaxies.

  9. BLACK-HOLE-BULGE RELATIONSHIP OF POST-STARBURST QUASARS AT z {approx} 0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Hiner, Kyle D.; Canalizo, Gabriela; Wold, Margrethe; Brotherton, Michael S.; Cales, Sabrina L. E-mail: gabriela.canalizo@ucr.edu E-mail: mbrother@uwyo.edu

    2012-09-10

    The M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation has been studied extensively for local galaxies, but to date there have been scarce few direct measurements of stellar velocity dispersions for systems beyond the local universe. We investigate black hole and host galaxy properties of six 'post-starburst quasars' (PSQs) at z {approx} 0.3. Spectra of these objects simultaneously display features from the active nucleus including broad emission lines and a host galaxy Balmer absorption series indicative of the post-starburst stellar population. These are the first measurements of {sigma}{sub *} in such objects, and we significantly increase the number of directly measured non-local objects on the M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} diagram. The 'PSQs' of our sample fall on or above the locally defined M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} relation, a result that is consistent with previous M{sub BH}-{sigma}{sub *} studies of samples at z > 0.1. However, they are generally consistent with the M{sub BH}-L{sub bulge} relation. Furthermore, their location on the Faber-Jackson relation suggests that some of the bulges may be dynamically peculiar.

  10. The Black Hole-Bulge Relationship for QSOs at High Redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shields, G. A.; Menezes, K. L.; Massart, C. A.; Vanden Bout, P.

    2006-04-01

    We examine the black hole mass-galaxy bulge relationship in high-redshift QSOs. Black hole masses are derived from broad emission lines, and the host galaxy stellar velocity dispersion σ* is estimated from the widths of the radio CO emission lines. At redshifts z>3, the CO line widths are narrower than expected for the black hole mass, indicating that these giant black holes reside in undersized bulges by an order of magnitude or more. The largest black holes (MBH>109 Msolar) evidently grow rapidly in the early universe without commensurate growth of their host galaxies. CO line widths offer a unique opportunity to study AGN host galaxy dynamics at high redshift.

  11. The influence of mergers and ram-pressure stripping on black hole-bulge correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginat, Yonadav Barry; Meiron, Yohai; Soker, Noam

    2016-10-01

    We analyse the scatter in the correlation between supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass and bulge stellar mass of the host galaxy, and infer that it cannot be accounted for by mergers alone. The merger-only scenario, where small galaxies merge to establish a proportionality relation between the SMBH and bulge masses, leads to a scatter around the linear proportionality line that increases with the square root of the SMBH (or bulge) mass. By examining a sample of 103 galaxies, we find that the intrinsic scatter increases more rapidly than expected from the merger-only scenario. The correlation between SMBH masses and their host galaxy properties is therefore more likely to be determined by a negative feedback mechanism that is driven by an active galactic nucleus. We find, a hint, that some galaxies with missing stellar mass reside close to the centre of clusters and speculate that ram-pressure stripping of gas off the young galaxy as it moves near the cluster centre, might explain the missing stellar mass at later times.

  12. Model for common growth of supermassive black holes, bulges and globular star clusters: Ripping off Jeans clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieuwenhuizen, Theo M.

    2012-02-01

    It is assumed that a galaxy starts as a dark halo of a few million Jeans clusters (JCs), each of which consists of nearly a trillion micro brown dwarfs, MACHOs of Earth mass. JCs in the galaxy center heat up their MACHOs by tidal forces, which makes them expand, so that coagulation and star formation occurs. Being continuously fed by matter from bypassing JCs, the central star(s) may transform into a super massive black hole. It has a fast t3 growth during the first mega years, and a slow t1/3 growth at giga years. JCs disrupted by a close encounter with this black hole can provide matter for the bulge. Those that survive can be so agitated that they form stars inside them and become globular star clusters. Thus black holes mostly arise together with galactic bulges in their own environment and are about as old as the oldest globular clusters. The age 13.2 Gy of the star HE 1523-0901 puts forward that the Galactic halo was fully assembled at that moment. The star formation rate has a maximum at black hole mass ~4·107Modot and bulge mass ~5·1010Modot. In case of merging supermassive black holes the JCs passing near the galactic center provide ideal assistance to overcome the last parsec.

  13. How black holes saved relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  14. Analytical Relativity of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault

    The successful detection and analysis of gravitational wave (GW) signals from coalescing binary black holes necessitates the accurate prior knowledge of the form of the GW signals. This knowledge can be acquired through a synergy between Analytical Relativity (AR) methods and Numerical Relativity (NR) ones. We describe here the most promising AR formalism for describing the motion and radiation of coalescing binary black holes, the Effective One Body (EOB) method, and discuss its comparison with NR simulations.

  15. Relative Deprivation, Rising Expectations, and Black Militancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abeles, Ronald P.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the role of relative deprivation (RD) and rising expectations (RE) as mediating variables between social structure and black militancy through secondary analyses of survey data of blacks living in Cleveland and Miami in the late 1960s. Alternative explanations and implications derived from the present data and the theories for the…

  16. Linking the spin evolution of massive black holes to galaxy kinematics

    SciTech Connect

    Sesana, A.; Barausse, E.; Dotti, M.; Rossi, E. M. E-mail: barausse@iap.fr E-mail: emr@strw.leidenuniv.nl

    2014-10-20

    We present the results of a semianalytical model that evolves the masses and spins of massive black holes together with the properties of their host galaxies across the cosmic history. As a consistency check, our model broadly reproduces a number of observations, e.g., the cosmic star formation history; the black hole mass, luminosity, and galaxy mass functions at low redshift; the black hole-bulge mass relation; and the morphological distribution at low redshift. For the first time in a semianalytical investigation, we relax the simplifying assumptions of perfect coherency or perfect isotropy of the gas fueling the black holes. The dynamics of gas is instead linked to the morphological properties of the host galaxies, resulting in different spin distributions for black holes hosted in different galaxy types. We compare our results with the observed sample of spin measurements obtained through broad Kα iron line fitting. The observational data disfavor both accretion along a fixed direction and isotropic fueling. Conversely, when the properties of the accretion flow are anchored to the kinematics of the host galaxy, we obtain a good match between theoretical expectations and observations. A mixture of coherent accretion and phases of activity in which the gas dynamics is similar to that of the stars in bulges (i.e., with a significant velocity dispersion superimposed to a net rotation) best describes the data, adding further evidence in support of the coevolution of massive black holes and their hosts.

  17. Black hole based tests of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Stein, Leo C.

    2016-03-01

    General relativity has passed all solar system experiments and neutron star based tests, such as binary pulsar observations, with flying colors. A more exotic arena for testing general relativity is in systems that contain one or more black holes. Black holes are the most compact objects in the Universe, providing probes of the strongest-possible gravitational fields. We are motivated to study strong-field gravity since many theories give large deviations from general relativity only at large field strengths, while recovering the weak-field behavior. In this article, we review how one can probe general relativity and various alternative theories of gravity by using electromagnetic waves from a black hole with an accretion disk, and gravitational waves from black hole binaries. We first review model-independent ways of testing gravity with electromagnetic/gravitational waves from a black hole system. We then focus on selected examples of theories that extend general relativity in rather simple ways. Some important characteristics of general relativity include (but are not limited to) (i) only tensor gravitational degrees of freedom, (ii) the graviton is massless, (iii) no quadratic or higher curvatures in the action, and (iv) the theory is four-dimensional. Altering a characteristic leads to a different extension of general relativity: (i) scalar-tensor theories, (ii) massive gravity theories, (iii) quadratic gravity, and (iv) theories with large extra dimensions. Within each theory, we describe black hole solutions, their properties, and current and projected constraints on each theory using black hole based tests of gravity. We close this review by listing some of the open problems in model-independent tests and within each specific theory.

  18. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindiola, Tatcho Jr.; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Rodriguez, Nestor

    This book analyzes how African and Hispanic Americans perceive and interact with one another, highlighting black-brown relations in Houston, Texas, one of the largest cities with a majority ethnic population and one in which Hispanic Americans outnumber African Americans. Using results from several sociological studies, the book examines: how each…

  19. Black-Brown Relations and Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mindiola, Tatcho Jr.; Niemann, Yolanda Flores; Rodriguez, Nestor

    This book analyzes how African and Hispanic Americans perceive and interact with one another, highlighting black-brown relations in Houston, Texas, one of the largest cities with a majority ethnic population and one in which Hispanic Americans outnumber African Americans. Using results from several sociological studies, the book examines: how each…

  20. Black hole mergers: beyond general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Leo; Okounkova, Maria

    2017-01-01

    One hundred years after the birth of general relativity, advanced LIGO has finally directly detected gravitational waves. The source: two black holes merging into one. Advanced LIGO will soon provide the opportunity to test GR, using gravitational waves, in the dynamical strong-field regime-a setting where GR has not yet been tested. GR has passed all weak-field tests with flying colors. Yet it should eventually break down, so we must look to the strong-field. To perform strong-field tests of GR, we need waveform models from theories beyond GR. To date there are no numerical simulations of black hole mergers in theories which differ from GR. The main obstacle is the mathematical one of well-posedness. I will explain how to overcome this obstacle, and demonstrate the success of this approach by presenting the first numerical simulations of black hole mergers in a theory beyond GR.

  1. The black hole mass - spheroid luminosity relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Alister W.

    2007-08-01

    The differing Mbh -L relations presented in McLure & Dunlop, Marconi & Hunt and Erwin et al. have been investigated. A number of issues have been identified and addressed in each of these studies, including but not limited to the removal of a dependency on the Hubble constant, a correction for dust attenuation in the bulges of disc galaxies, the identification of lenticular galaxies previously treated as elliptical galaxies and the application of the same (Y | X) regression analysis. These adjustments result in relations which now predict similar black hole masses. The optimal K-band relation is log(Mbh/Msolar) = -0.37(+/-0.04)(MK + 24) + 8.29(+/-0.08), with a total (not intrinsic) scatter in logMbh equal to 0.33dex. This level of scatter is similar to the value of 0.34dex from the relation of Tremaine et al. and compares favourably with the value of 0.31dex from the Mbh -n relation of Graham & Driver. Using different photometric data, consistent relations in the B and R band are also provided, although we do note that the small (N = 13) R-band sample used by Erwin et al. is found here to have a slope of -0.30 +/- 0.06. Performing a symmetrical regression on the larger K-band sample gives a slope of ~ -0.40, implying Mbh ~ L1.00. Implications for galaxy-black hole co-evolution, in terms of dry mergers, are briefly discussed, as are the predictions for intermediate mass black holes. Finally, as noted by others, a potential bias in the galaxy sample used to define the Mbh -L relations is shown and a corrective formula provided.

  2. Black Suburbanization: Has It Changed the Relative Location of Races?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galster, George C.

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes changes in relative decentralization for Blacks in 40 metropolitan statistical areas during the 1970s. Although there is substantial suburbanization among Blacks, measured conventionally, evidence implies that Blacks will gain little if job growth, high-quality education, and superior environments follow Whites as they move further into…

  3. Constructing binary black hole template banks using numerical relativity waveforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Prayush

    2013-04-01

    We present methods for constructing and validating template banks for gravitational waves from high mass binary black holes in advanced gravitational-wave detectors using waveforms from numerical relativity. We construct these template banks using numerical waveforms from the Simulating eXtreme Spacetimes (SXS) collaboration. We show how a template bank can be constructed using numerical waveforms for non-spinning black hole binaries and discuss how this can be extended into the aligned spin black hole binary space.

  4. Construction of regular black holes in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying; Wang, Xiaobao

    2016-12-01

    We present a general procedure for constructing exact black hole solutions with electric or magnetic charges in general relativity coupled to a nonlinear electrodynamics. We obtain a variety of two-parameter family spherically symmetric black hole solutions. In particular, the singularity at the center of the space-time can be canceled in the parameter space and the black hole solutions become regular everywhere in space-time. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics. We also generalize the procedure to include a cosmological constant and construct regular black hole solutions that are asymptotic to anti-de Sitter space-time.

  5. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this second lecture, we focus on simulations of black hole binary mergers. We hig hlight the instabilities that plagued the codes for many years, the r ecent breakthroughs that led to the first accurate simulations, and the current state of the art.

  6. Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pott, Jörg-Uwe

    2006-12-01

    reactions in stars. In the most active galaxies known, the radiating accretion disc of the central SMBH engine easily outshines the stellar light of the entire galaxy (Blandford 1995). In addition to the light, plasma streams can emerge from the innermost regions at relativistic velocities, returning energy to the host galaxy (host) and creating jets and lobes with strong observational signatures, especially at radio and X-ray wavelengths (Wilson 2003). New insights in the wide field of SMBH/host interaction are often related to the development of new, more sensitive instruments and telescopes. For example the idea, that a high luminosity AGN may result from a merger event between two galaxies, could only develop with the upcoming high resolution and sensitive imaging capabilities needed to detect the highly distorted host galaxy morphologies of (post-)merger galaxies (Heckman et al. 1986). Furthermore multi-wavelength approaches, which combine the results of measurements at different wavelengths, often lead to new conclusions or confirm unsecured hypotheses. Thus developing a new instrument can be as valuable as combining different datasets. I follow both approaches and developed projects which (i) deal with new instrumentation and telescope technology, (ii) combine datasets from different wavelengths and resolutions, and (iii) incorporate recent theoretical models and predictions, which can be verified empirically. While some projects are more focused on investigating the power of new observational techniques, others incorporate acknowledged instruments to probe predictions based on previous observations and models and trace special phenomena of SMBH/host interaction. But in most cases aspects of all three items appear. The SMBH/host interaction results in phenomena at all linear size scales of the system, from the direct accretion of matter onto the central black hole up to radio jets crossing the entire galaxy. Thus interaction effects do not simply concentrate on the

  7. Following Black Hole Scaling Relations through Gas-rich Mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medling, Anne M.; U, Vivian; Max, Claire E.; Sanders, David B.; Armus, Lee; Holden, Bradford; Mieda, Etsuko; Wright, Shelley A.; Larkin, James E.

    2015-04-01

    We present black hole mass measurements from kinematic modeling of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of the inner regions of nine nearby (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies in a variety of merger stages. These observations were taken with OSIRIS and laser guide star adaptive optics on the Keck I and Keck II telescopes, and reveal gas and stellar kinematics inside the spheres of influence of these supermassive black holes. We find that this sample of black holes are overmassive (˜107-9 {{M}}) compared to the expected values based on black hole scaling relations, and suggest that the major epoch of black hole growth occurs in early stages of a merger, as opposed to during a final episode of quasar-mode feedback. The black hole masses presented are the dynamical masses enclosed in ˜25 pc, and could include gas which is gravitationally bound to the black hole but has not yet lost sufficient angular momentum to be accreted. If present, this gas could in principle eventually fuel active galactic nucleus feedback or be itself blown out from the system.

  8. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  9. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-09-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target's race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes.

  10. Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.

  11. Black-Hole Binaries, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Bernard J.; Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the predictions of general relativity for the dynamical interactions of two black holes has been a long-standing unsolved problem in theoretical physics. Black-hole mergers are monumental astrophysical events ' releasing tremendous amounts of energy in the form of gravitational radiation ' and are key sources for both ground- and spacebased gravitational wave detectors. The black-hole merger dynamics and the resulting gravitational waveforms can only he calculated through numerical simulations of Einstein's equations of general relativity. For many years, numerical relativists attempting to model these mergers encountered a host of problems, causing their codes to crash after just a fraction of a binary orbit cnuld be simulated. Recently ' however, a series of dramatic advances in numerical relativity has ' for the first time, allowed stable / robust black hole merger simulations. We chronicle this remarkable progress in the rapidly maturing field of numerical relativity, and the new understanding of black-hole binary dynamics that is emerging. We also discuss important applications of these fundamental physics results to astrophysics, to gravitationalwave astronomy, and in other areas.

  12. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this third and final lecture, we present applications of the results of numerical relativity simulations to gravitational wave detection and astrophysics.

  13. Numerical Relativity, Black Hole Mergers, and Gravitational Waves: Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    This series of 3 lectures will present recent developments in numerical relativity, and their applications to simulating black hole mergers and computing the resulting gravitational waveforms. In this first lecture, we introduce the basic ideas of numerical relativity, highlighting the challenges that arise in simulating gravitational wave sources on a computer.

  14. Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.

  15. Numerical Relativity Simulations for Black Hole Merger Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John G.

    2010-01-01

    Massive black hole mergers are perhaps the most energetic astronomical events, establishing their importance as gravitational wave sources for LISA, and also possibly leading to observable influences on their local environments. Advances in numerical relativity over the last five years have fueled the development of a rich physical understanding of general relativity's predictions for these events. Z will overview the understanding of these event emerging from numerical simulation studies. These simulations elucidate the pre-merger dynamics of the black hole binaries, the consequent gravitational waveform signatures ' and the resulting state, including its kick velocity, for the final black hole produced by the merger. Scenarios are now being considered for observing each of these aspects of the merger, involving both gravitational-wave and electromagnetic astronomy.

  16. Relative deprivation in black and white youth: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Gaskell, G; Smith, P

    1984-06-01

    A model of relative deprivation is proposed drawing on the writings of Gurr (1970) and Runciman (1966) and is discussed in relation to existing studies. Those aspects of the model concerning the intensity of affective reaction to relative deprivation are subjected to empirical test using samples of employed and unemployed black and white youth. The prediction that the degree of relative deprivation is negatively associated with attitudes to the perceived cause of deprivation receives only limited support. Various indices of relative deprivation are compared and it is concluded that present relative deprivation is the most appropriate operational measure. It is concluded that in understanding the attitudes of black and white youth to societal institutions other social characteristics are more important then relative deprivation.

  17. Overview of EPA activities and research related to black carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this international presentation is to give an overview of EPA activities related to black carbon (BC). This overview includes some summary information on how EPA defines BC, current knowledge on United States emissions and forecasted emission reductions, and ongoin...

  18. Overview of EPA activities and research related to black carbon

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this international presentation is to give an overview of EPA activities related to black carbon (BC). This overview includes some summary information on how EPA defines BC, current knowledge on United States emissions and forecasted emission reductions, and ongoin...

  19. Merging Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes will emit more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. This energy will come in the form of gravitational waves, which are a key prediction of Einstein's general relativity and a new tool for exploring the universe. Observing these mergers with gravitational wave detectors, such as the ground-based LIGO and the space-based LISA, requires knowledge of the radiation waveforms. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were long plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and w aefo rms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  20. Merging Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes will emit more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. This energy will come in the form of gravitational waves, which are a key prediction of Einstein's general relativity and a new tool for exploring the universe. Observing these mergers with gravitational wave detectors, such as the ground-based LIGO and the space-based LISA, requires knowledge of the radiation waveforms. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes were long plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and w aefo rms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  1. Uncertainty relation and black hole entropy of Kerr spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuang-Qi; Zhao, Ren

    2005-07-01

    The properties of thermal radiation are discussed by using a new equation of state density, which is motivated by the generalized uncertainty relation in the quantum gravity. There is no burst at the last stage of the emission of Kerr black hole. When the new equation of state density is utilized to investigate the entropy of a Bosonic field and Fermionic field outside the horizon of a static Kerr black hole, the divergence appearing in the brick wall model is removed, without any cutoff. The entropy proportional to the horizon area is derived from the contribution of the vicinity of the horizon.

  2. Rotating black holes in the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nashed, Gamal G. L.

    2016-05-01

    We derive set of solutions with flat transverse sections in the framework of a teleparallel equivalent of general relativity which describes rotating black holes. The singularities supported from the invariants of torsion and curvature are explained. We investigate that there appear more singularities in the torsion scalars than in the curvature ones. The conserved quantities are discussed using Einstein-Cartan geometry. The physics of the constants of integration is explained through the calculations of conserved quantities. These calculations show that there is a unique solution that may describe true physical black hole.

  3. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, John

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GE0600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.

  4. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, John

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GE0600, as well as the space-based interferometer LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, data analysis, and astrophysics.

  5. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the massive black hole (MBH) binaries that are found at the center of most galaxies, "astronomical messenger", gravitational waves (GW), and the use of numerical relativity understand the features of these phenomena. The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity.. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  6. Binary black holes, gravitational waves, and numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrella, Joan M.; Baker, John G.; Boggs, William D.; Kelly, Bernard J.; McWilliams, Sean T.; van Meter, James R.

    2007-07-01

    The final merger of comparable mass binary black holes produces an intense burst of gravitational radiation and is one of the strongest sources for both ground-based and space-based gravitational wave detectors. Since the merger occurs in the strong-field dynamical regime of general relativity, numerical relativity simulations of the full Einstein equations in 3-D are required to calculate the resulting gravitational dynamics and waveforms. While this problem has been pursued for more than 30 years, the numerical codes have long been plagued by various instabilities and, overall, progress was incremental. Recently, however, dramatic breakthrough have occurred, resulting in robust simulations of merging black holes. In this paper, we examine these developments and the exciting new results that are emerging.

  7. Quasiequilibrium black hole-neutron star binaries in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Faber, Joshua A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2007-04-15

    We construct quasiequilibrium sequences of black hole-neutron star binaries in general relativity. We solve Einstein's constraint equations in the conformal thin-sandwich formalism, subject to black hole boundary conditions imposed on the surface of an excised sphere, together with the relativistic equations of hydrostatic equilibrium. In contrast to our previous calculations we adopt a flat spatial background geometry and do not assume extreme mass ratios. We adopt a {gamma}=2 polytropic equation of state and focus on irrotational neutron star configurations as well as approximately nonspinning black holes. We present numerical results for ratios of the black hole's irreducible mass to the neutron star's ADM mass in isolation of M{sub irr}{sup BH}/M{sub ADM,0}{sup NS}=1, 2, 3, 5, and 10. We consider neutron stars of baryon rest mass M{sub B}{sup NS}/M{sub B}{sup max}=83% and 56%, where M{sub B}{sup max} is the maximum allowed rest mass of a spherical star in isolation for our equation of state. For these sequences, we locate the onset of tidal disruption and, in cases with sufficiently large mass ratios and neutron star compactions, the innermost stable circular orbit. We compare with previous results for black hole-neutron star binaries and find excellent agreement with third-order post-Newtonian results, especially for large binary separations. We also use our results to estimate the energy spectrum of the outgoing gravitational radiation emitted during the inspiral phase for these binaries.

  8. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. This situation has changed dramatically in the past year, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA and LIGO.

  9. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA

  10. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simutation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  11. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  12. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields. We need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  13. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  14. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities. causing them to crash well before the black hole:, in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  15. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2006-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. This situation has changed dramatically in the past year, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA and LIGO.

  16. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simutation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  17. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA

  18. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  19. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  20. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities. causing them to crash well before the black hole:, in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  1. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2008-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy and is one of the brightest sources in the gravitational wave sky. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields. We need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for the holy grail of numerical relativity, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LIGO and LISA.

  2. A Prime Assessment for Black Colleges: Role of Blacks in the Sciences and Related Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Herman

    1978-01-01

    This article examines the need for blacks in science and engineering. From a review of the history of blacks as objects of scientific study from the 1790s to the present a better grasp of the problems confronting blacks can be gained by examining two fields: genetics and psychology. In genetic research on blacks, the results are used not by…

  3. A Prime Assessment for Black Colleges: Role of Blacks in the Sciences and Related Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Herman

    1978-01-01

    This article examines the need for blacks in science and engineering. From a review of the history of blacks as objects of scientific study from the 1790s to the present a better grasp of the problems confronting blacks can be gained by examining two fields: genetics and psychology. In genetic research on blacks, the results are used not by…

  4. Binary Black Holes, Gravitational Waves, and Numerical Relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    Massive black hole (MBH) binaries are found at the centers of most galaxies. MBH mergers trace galaxy mergers and are strong sources of gravitational waves. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. Since these mergers take place in regions of very strong gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these waveforms. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these waveforms using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities. causing them to crash well before the black hole:, in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Recently this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This presentation shows how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. Focus is on the recent advances that that reveal these waveforms, and the potential for discoveries that arises when these sources are observed by LIGO and LISA.

  5. Critical Issues Relative to Problems and Promises of Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Frank W., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A speech delivered at the National Association of College Deans, Registrars and Admissions Officers on March 16, 1980 in Alabama, presents a case for the continued existence of Black colleges. Suggests Black colleges have an important role in educating Black youth and recommends improvements for Black colleges. (RC)

  6. Binary Black Holes, Numerical Relativity, and Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA

  7. Binary Black Holes, Numerical Relativity, and Gravitational Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2007-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes releases a tremendous amount of energy, more than the combined light from all the stars in the visible universe. This energy is emitted in the form of gravitational waves, and observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors such as LISA requires that we know the pattern or fingerprint of the radiation emitted. Since black hole mergers take place in regions of extreme gravitational fields, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer in order to calculate these wave patterns. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute these wave patterns. However, their computer codes have been plagued by problems that caused them to crash. This situation has changed dramatically in the past 2 years, with a series of amazing breakthroughs. This talk will take you on this quest for these gravitational wave patterns, showing how a spacetime is constructed on a computer to build a simulation laboratory for binary black hole mergers. We will focus on the recent advances that are revealing these waveforms, and the dramatic new potential for discoveries that arises when these sources will be observed by LISA

  8. Theoretical re-evaluations of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation - I. Effect of seed black hole mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirakata, Hikari; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Okamoto, Takashi; Makiya, Ryu; Ishiyama, Tomoaki; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Nagashima, Masahiro; Enoki, Motohiro; Oogi, Taira; Kobayashi, Masakazu A. R.

    2016-10-01

    We explore the effect of varying the mass of a seed black hole on the resulting black hole mass-bulge mass relation at z ˜ 0, using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation combined with large cosmological N-body simulations. We constrain our model by requiring that the observed properties of galaxies at z ˜ 0 are reproduced. In keeping with previous semi-analytic models, we place a seed black hole immediately after a galaxy forms. When the mass of the seed is set at 105 M⊙, we find that the model results become inconsistent with recent observational results of the black hole mass-bulge mass relation for dwarf galaxies. In particular, the model predicts that bulges with ˜109 M⊙ harbour larger black holes than observed. On the other hand, when we employ seed black holes of 103 M⊙ or select their mass randomly within a 103-5 M⊙ range, the resulting relation is consistent with observation estimates, including the observed dispersion. We find that, to obtain stronger constraints on the mass of seed black holes, observations of less massive bulges at z ˜ 0 are a more powerful comparison than the relations at higher redshifts.

  9. THE QUASAR ACCRETION DISK SIZE-BLACK HOLE MASS RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E. E-mail: ckochanek@astronomy.ohio-state.ed E-mail: efalco@cfa.harvard.ed

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 A is related to the black hole mass by log(R{sub 2500}/cm) = (15.78 +- 0.12) + (0.80 +- 0.17)log(M{sub BH}/10{sup 9} M{sub sun}). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R {proportional_to} M {sup 2/3}{sub BH}), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T {proportional_to} R {sup -3/4}), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(eta) = -1.77 +- 0.29 + log(L/L{sub E}), where eta=L/(M-dot c{sup 2}). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (eta {approx} 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of {approx}4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 {mu}m quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T {proportional_to} R {sup -3/4} temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles.

  10. Relative Earnings of Black Men to White Men by Region, Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    The earnings gap between black men and white men widened from 1979-89. Black men were more likely to experience declines in regions where they were concentrated. White men's earnings rose relative to black men's in lower-paying industries. (SK)

  11. Relative Earnings of Black Men to White Men by Region, Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    The earnings gap between black men and white men widened from 1979-89. Black men were more likely to experience declines in regions where they were concentrated. White men's earnings rose relative to black men's in lower-paying industries. (SK)

  12. Competition, Conflict, and Coalitions: Black-Latino/a Relations within Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literte, Patricia E.

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines Black-Latino/a relations at a public university in California, which has a 31% Black and 40% Latino/a student population. In-depth interviews with students and administrators indicate that Black and Latino/a students do recognize that they share similar educational and socioeconomic obstacles; however, there is little to…

  13. Photonic devices based on black phosphorus and related hybrid materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitiello, M. S.; Viti, L.

    2016-08-01

    Artificial semiconductor heterostructures played a pivotal role in modern electronic and photonic technologies, providing a highly effective means for the manipulation and control of carriers, from the visible to the far-infrared, leading to the development of highly efficient devices like sources, detectors and modulators. The discovery of graphene and the related fascinating capabilities have triggered an unprecedented interest in devices based on inorganic two-dimensional (2D) materials. Amongst them, black phosphorus (BP) recently showed an extraordinary potential in a variety of applications across micro-electronics and photonics. With an energy gap between the gapless graphene and the larger gap transition metal dichalcogenides, BP can form the basis for a new generation of high-performance photonic devices that could be specifically engineered to comply with different applications, like transparent saturable absorbers, fast photocounductive switches and low noise photodetectors, exploiting its peculiar electrical, thermal and optical anisotropy. This paper will review the latest achievements in black-phosphorus-based THz photonics and discuss future perspectives of this rapidly developing research field.

  14. Black/Brown/White Relations: Race Relations in the 1970s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willie, Charles V., Ed.

    The collection of papers in this book present an analysis of the effects of institutional racism on all races. The first part of the book deals with seeking definitions of the race problem and explores the various facets of race relations in the 1970s, including: (1) the black view of a national population policy and the fear of racial genocide;…

  15. Generalized Uncertainty Relation and Hawking Radiation of the Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ren; Zhang, Lichun; Wu, Yueqin; Li, Huaifan

    2009-08-01

    Recently, there has been much attention devoted to the correction to the black hole radiation spectrum and the quantum corrections to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy. In particular, many researchers have expressed a vested interest in the coefficient of the logarithmic term of the black hole entropy correction term. In this paper, we calculate the radiation spectrum of arbitrary dimension Schwarzschild black hole after considering the generalized uncertainty principle. The correction value of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy is derived.

  16. The Quasar Accretion Disk Size-Black Hole Mass Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Christopher W.; Kochanek, C. S.; Morgan, Nicholas D.; Falco, Emilio E.

    2010-04-01

    We use the microlensing variability observed for 11 gravitationally lensed quasars to show that the accretion disk size at a rest-frame wavelength of 2500 Å is related to the black hole mass by log(R 2500/cm) = (15.78 ± 0.12) + (0.80 ± 0.17)log(M BH/109 M sun). This scaling is consistent with the expectation from thin-disk theory (R vprop M 2/3 BH), but when interpreted in terms of the standard thin-disk model (T vprop R -3/4), it implies that black holes radiate with very low efficiency, log(η) = -1.77 ± 0.29 + log(L/L E), where η =L/(\\dot{M}c^2). Only by making the maximum reasonable shifts in the average inclination, Eddington factors, and black hole masses can we raise the efficiency estimate to be marginally consistent with typical efficiency estimates (η ≈ 10%). With one exception, these sizes are larger by a factor of ~4 than the size needed to produce the observed 0.8 μm quasar flux by thermal radiation from a thin disk with the same T vprop R -3/4 temperature profile. While scattering a significant fraction of the disk emission on large scales or including a large fraction of contaminating line emission can reduce the size discrepancy, resolving it also appears to require that accretion disks have flatter temperature/surface brightness profiles. Based on observations obtained with the Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) 1.3 m, which is operated by the SMARTS Consortium, the Apache Point Observatory 3.5 m telescope, which is owned and operated by the Astrophysical Research Consortium, the WIYN Observatory which is owned and operated by the University of Wisconsin, Indiana University, Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatories (NOAO), the 6.5 m Magellan Baade telescope, which is a collaboration between the observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (OCIW), University of Arizona, Harvard University, University of Michigan, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and observations made

  17. Mesoscale eddies and related processes in the northeastern Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Anna I.; Kostianoy, Andrey G.; Krivosheya, Vladimir G.; Nezlin, Nikolay P.; Soloviev, Dmitry M.; Stanichny, Sergey V.; Yakubenko, Valeriy G.

    2002-04-01

    Mesoscale dynamics in the northeastern Black Sea in Autumn 1993 and 1997 is considered on the basis of analysis of the NOAA AVHRR imagery together with relevant hydrographic measurements and meteorological information. Over the course from 6 September to 8 October 1997, five near-shore anticyclonic eddies (NAEs) about 40 km in diameter were observed within the region between Tuapse and the Kerch Strait, their movement speed reaching about 15 cm/s at separate parts of their trajectories. Separation of an NAE (NAE-1) from the coast in the region of a widening shelf/slope west of Novorossiysk and its transformation into deep-sea eddy was traced. Lifetime of the anticyclone was no less than 1 month, its mean offshore speed was about 4.3 cm/s. According to the SeaWiFS data, the increased chlorophyll a concentration (compared with the mean concentration at the center of the eastern part of the sea) was observed on 8 October 1997 in four "young" NAEs after an intense precipitation, the decreased one at the same time occurred in NAE-1, which was depleted of supply by shelf waters. In Summer 1993, a large NAE (about 95 km in diameter) was observed in the region between Tuapse and Gelendzhik. Evolution of the eddy from 3 June to 8 November 1993 was traced. Lifetime of the eddy exceeded 5 months. Its mean offshore speed to the southwest since its separation from the coast (around 17 August) in the Novorossiysk region was about 1.2 cm/s. The difference between dynamic situations in the same season (autumn) of 2 years, 1997 and 1993, was likely associated with peculiarities of atmospheric circulation and related intensity of cyclonic circulation in the Black Sea.

  18. Magnetic fields threading black holes: restrictions from general relativity and implications for astrophysical black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garofalo, David

    2017-07-01

    The idea that black hole spin is instrumental in the generation of powerful jets in active galactic nuclei and X-ray binaries is arguably the most contentious claim in black hole astrophysics. Because jets are thought to originate in the context of electromagnetism, and the modeling of Maxwell fields in curved spacetime around black holes is challenging, various approximations are made in numerical simulations that fall under the guise of `ideal magnetohydrodynamics'. But the simplifications of this framework may struggle to capture relevant details of real astrophysical environments near black holes. In this work, we highlight tension between analytic and numerical results, specifically between the analytically derived conserved Noether currents for rotating black hole spacetimes and the results of general relativistic numerical simulations (GRMHD). While we cannot definitively attribute the issue to any specific approximation used in the numerical schemes, there seem to be natural candidates, which we explore. GRMHD notwithstanding, if electromagnetic fields around rotating black holes are brought to the hole by accretion, we show from first principles that prograde accreting disks likely experience weaker large-scale black hole-threading fields, implying weaker jets than in retrograde configurations.

  19. What is a singular black hole beyond general relativity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Olmo, Gonzalo J.; Rubiera-Garcia, Diego

    2017-03-01

    Exploring the characterization of singular black hole spacetimes, we study the relation between energy density, curvature invariants, and geodesic completeness using a quadratic f (R ) gravity theory coupled to an anisotropic fluid. Working in a metric-affine approach, our models and solutions represent minimal extensions of general relativity (GR) in the sense that they rapidly recover the usual Reissner-Nordström solution from near the inner horizon outwards. The anisotropic fluid helps modify only the innermost geometry. Depending on the values and signs of two parameters on the gravitational and matter sectors, a breakdown of the correlations between the finiteness/divergence of the energy density, the behavior of curvature invariants, and the (in)completeness of geodesics is obtained. We find a variety of configurations with and without wormholes, a case with a de Sitter interior, solutions that mimic nonlinear models of electrodynamics coupled to GR, and configurations with up to four horizons. Our results raise questions regarding what infinities, if any, a quantum version of these theories should regularize.

  20. LOW-MASS AGNs AND THEIR RELATION TO THE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect

    Gültekin, Kayhan; King, Ashley L.; Miller, Jon M.; Cackett, Edward M.; Pinkney, Jason

    2014-06-20

    We put active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with low-mass black holes on the fundamental plane of black hole accretion—the plane that relates X-ray emission, radio emission, and mass of an accreting black hole—to test whether or not the relation is universal for both stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. We use new Chandra X-ray and Very Large Array radio observations of a sample of black holes with masses less than 10{sup 6.3} M {sub ☉}, which have the best leverage for determining whether supermassive black holes and stellar-mass black holes belong on the same plane. Our results suggest that the two different classes of black holes both belong on the same relation. These results allow us to conclude that the fundamental plane is suitable for use in estimating supermassive black hole masses smaller than ∼10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}, in testing for intermediate-mass black holes, and in estimating masses at high accretion rates.

  1. Black Students of United Methodist-Related Colleges and Universities: An Enrollment Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamada, Ken

    United Methodist-related colleges and universities maintained black enrollment at 9 percent of the total student body consistently during the period 1976-80, keeping pace with the growth in overall enrollment. Many institutions showed a decline in black student enrollment in 1978, with a significant increase in 1980, particularly in the…

  2. Species-area relations of song birds in the Black Hills, South Dakota

    Treesearch

    Mark A. Rumble; Brian L. Dykstra; Lester D. Flake

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the effects of stand size resulting from current logging practices on occurrence and species richness of song birds in the Black Hills. Richness of forest interior and forest interior/edge songbirds was not related to stand area (P > 0.40) in stands of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Black Hills. Brown creepers (...

  3. White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

  4. White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

  5. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  6. Attitudes about Male-Female Relations among Black Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Roger H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship of family structure, peer group affiliation, social class, and sex with five dependent variables concerned with attitudes toward dating values, marriage, romanticism, premarital pregnancy, and premarital sexual permissiveness among 85 rural, Black adolescent males and females. Findings suggest general community norms and…

  7. Personality Factors Related to Black Teenage Pregnancy and Abortion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Ruth; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Compared Black pregnant adolescents who applied for therapeutic abortions (TAs) with those who planned to have their babies (Terms). Suggests Terms seemed to be trying to fill a void and assume an adult role. Results indicated controls were most socialized, followed by TAs, then Terms. (Author/JAC)

  8. Blacks in Science and Related Disciplines. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, Vivian O., Comp.; Dempsey, Denise P., Comp.

    Humankind had its beginnings in Africa. Imhotep, the first scientist, was a man of color, an Egyptian. Africans made great strides in science and medicine prior to slavery. In the United States, blacks have contributed much to the advancement of science and invention; however, history for the most part has not given them credit for these…

  9. Angular Momentum-Free of the Entropy Relations for Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-he

    2016-11-01

    Based on a mathematical lemma related to the Vandermonde determinant and two theorems derived from the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we investigate the angular momentum independence of the entropy sum as well as the entropy product of general rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in higher dimensions. We show that for both non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes and non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein-AdS black holes, the angular momentum of the black holes will not be present in entropy sum relation in dimensions d≥4, while the independence of angular momentum of the entropy product holds provided that the black holes possess at least one zero rotation parameter a j = 0 in higher dimensions d≥5, which means that the cosmological constant does not affect the angular momentum-free property of entropy sum and entropy product under the circumstances that charge δ=0. For the reason that the entropy relations of charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes as well as the non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in asymptotically flat spacetime act the same way, it is found that the charge has no effect in the angular momentum-independence of entropy sum and product in asymptotically flat spactime.

  10. Angular Momentum-Free of the Entropy Relations for Rotating Kaluza-Klein Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-he

    2017-02-01

    Based on a mathematical lemma related to the Vandermonde determinant and two theorems derived from the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we investigate the angular momentum independence of the entropy sum as well as the entropy product of general rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in higher dimensions. We show that for both non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes and non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein-AdS black holes, the angular momentum of the black holes will not be present in entropy sum relation in dimensions d≥4, while the independence of angular momentum of the entropy product holds provided that the black holes possess at least one zero rotation parameter a j = 0 in higher dimensions d≥5, which means that the cosmological constant does not affect the angular momentum-free property of entropy sum and entropy product under the circumstances that charge δ=0. For the reason that the entropy relations of charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes as well as the non-charged rotating Kaluza-Klein black holes in asymptotically flat spacetime act the same way, it is found that the charge has no effect in the angular momentum-independence of entropy sum and product in asymptotically flat spactime.

  11. Extending Black Domain Name List by Using Co-occurrence Relation between DNS Queries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazumichi; Ishibashi, Keisuke; Toyono, Tsuyoshi; Hasegawa, Haruhisa; Yoshino, Hideaki

    Botnet threats, such as server attacks or sending of spam e-mail, have been increasing. Therefore, infected hosts must be found and their malicious activities mitigated. An effective method for finding infected hosts is to use a blacklist of domain names. When a bot receives attack commands from a Command and Control (C&C) server, it attempts to resolve domain names of C&C servers. We can thus detect infected hosts by finding these that send queries on black domain names. However, we cannot find all infected hosts because of the inaccuracy of blacklists. There are many black domain names, and the lifetimes of these domain names are short; therefore a blacklist cannot cover all black domain names. We thus present a method for finding unknown black domain names by using DNS query data and an existing blacklist of known black domain names. To achieve this, we focus on DNS queries sent by infected hosts. One bot sends several queries on black domain names due to C&C server redundancy. We use the co-occurrence relation of two different domain names to find unknown black domain names and extend the blacklist. If a domain name frequently co-occurs with a known black name, we assume that the domain name is also black. A cross-validation evaluation of the proposed method showed that 91.2% of domain names that are on the validation list scored in the top 1%.

  12. I-Love-Q relations for gravastars and the approach to the black-hole limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The multipole moments and the tidal Love numbers of neutron stars and quark stars satisfy certain relations which are almost insensitive to the star's internal structure. A natural question is whether the same relations hold for different compact objects and how they possibly approach the black-hole limit. Here we consider "gravastars," which are hypothetical compact objects sustained by their internal vacuum energy. Such solutions have been proposed as exotic alternatives to the black-hole paradigm because they can be as compact as black holes and exist in any mass range. By constructing slowly rotating, thin-shell gravastars to quadratic order in the spin, we compute the moment of inertia I , the mass quadrupole moment Q , and the tidal Love number λ in exact form. The I -λ -Q relations of a gravastar are dramatically different from those of an ordinary compact star, but the black-hole limit is continuous; i.e., these quantities approach their Kerr counterparts when the compactness is maximum. Therefore, such relations can be used to discern a gravastar from an ordinary compact star but not to break the degeneracy with the black-hole case. Based on these results, we conjecture that the full multipolar structure and the tidal deformability of a spinning, ultracompact gravastar are identical to those of a Kerr black hole. The approach to the black-hole limit is nonpolynomial, thus differing from the critical behavior recently found for strongly anisotropic neutron stars.

  13. RELATION BETWEEN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AND SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES IN ELLIPTICALS AS A MANIFESTATION OF THE BLACK HOLE FUNDAMENTAL PLANE

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2011-02-10

    We analyze the relation between the mass of the central supermassive black hole (M{sub BH}) and the number of globular clusters (N{sub GC}) in elliptical galaxies and bulges as a ramification of the black hole fundamental plane, the theoretically predicted and observed multi-variable correlation between M{sub BH} and bulge binding energy. Although the tightness of the M{sub BH}-N{sub GC} correlation suggests an unlikely causal link between supermassive black holes and globular clusters (GCs), such a correspondence can exhibit small scatter even if the physical relationship is indirect. We show that the relatively small scatter of the M{sub BH}-N{sub GC} relation owes to the mutual residual correlation of M{sub BH} and N{sub GC} with stellar mass when the velocity dispersion is held fixed. Thus, present observations lend evidence for feedback-regulated models in which the bulge binding energy is most important; they do not necessarily imply any 'special' connection between GCs and M{sub BH}. This raises the question of why N{sub GC} traces the formation of ellipticals and bulges sufficiently well to be correlated with binding energy.

  14. A comparison of race-related pain stereotypes held by White and Black individuals.

    PubMed

    Hollingshead, Nicole A; Meints, Samantha M; Miller, Megan M; Robinson, Michael E; Hirsh, Adam T

    2016-12-01

    Pain judgments are the basis for pain management. The purpose of this study was to assess Black and White participants' race-related pain stereotypes. Undergraduates (n=551) rated the pain sensitivity and willingness to report pain for the typical Black person, White person, and themselves. Participants, regardless of race, rated the typical White person as being more pain sensitive and more willing to report pain than the typical Black person. White participants rated themselves as less sensitive and less willing to report pain than same-race peers; however, Black participants rated themselves as more pain sensitive and more willing to report pain than same-race peers. These findings highlight similarities and differences in racial stereotypic pain beliefs held by Black and White individuals.

  15. Generic rotating regular black holes in general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toshmatov, Bobir; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Ahmedov, Bobomurat

    2017-04-01

    We construct regular rotating black hole and no-horizon spacetimes based on the recently introduced spherically symmetric generic regular black hole spacetimes related to electric or magnetic charge under nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to general relativity that for special values of the spacetime parameters reduce to the Bardeen and Hayward spacetimes. We show that the weak and strong energy conditions are violated inside the Cauchy horizons of these generic rotating black holes. We give the boundary between the rotating black hole and no-horizon spacetimes and determine the black hole horizons and the boundary of the ergosphere. We introduce the separated Carter equations for the geodesic motion in these rotating spacetimes. For the most interesting new class of the regular spacetimes, corresponding for magnetic charges to the Maxwell field in the weak field limit of the nonlinear electrodynamics, we determine the structure of the circular geodesics and discuss their properties. We study the epicyclic motion of a neutral particle moving along the stable circular orbits around the "Maxwellian" rotating regular black holes. We show that epicyclic frequencies measured by the distant observers and related to the oscillatory motion of the neutral test particle along the stable circular orbits around the rotating singular and regular Maxwellian black holes are always smaller than ones in the Kerr spacetime.

  16. Area functional relation for 5D-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-08-01

    We present area (or entropy) functional relation for multi-horizons five dimensional (5D) Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole. It has been observed by exact and explicit calculation that some complicated function of two or three horizons area is mass-independent whereas the entropy product relation is not mass-independent. We also study the local thermodynamic stability of this black hole. The phase transition occurs at certain condition. Smarr mass formula and first law of thermodynamics have been derived. This mass-independent relation suggests they could turn out to be an universal quantity and further helps us to understanding the nature of black hole entropy (both interior and exterior) at the microscopic level. In the "Appendix", we have derived the thermodynamic products for 5D Einstein-Maxwell-Gauss-Bonnet black hole with vanishing cosmological constant.

  17. Problems related to gravitational waves from binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsokaros, Antonios A.

    With three gravitational wave observatories LIGO, GEO, and TAMA in operation the dawn of gravitational wave astronomy is nearly a reality. In the coming decade these earth-based observatories together with the expected space-based, LISA will play a major role in advancing our knowledge of our cosmic habitat. The first targets for gravitational wave detectors like LIGO are the waves emitted by pairs of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) that orbit each other. Developing an accurate numerical model for these binary coalescence is crucial to maximize the number of events that the gravitational-wave detectors will see and to extract from observed events the physics of the coalescing objects. The first step in studying the dynamics of this sort is to obtain astrophysically realistic initial data sets that represent such binaries. Although for the binary neutron stars that is already achieved, things have proven to be more difficult for the binary black hole case. In this study we analyze Einstein's equations in the presence of a helical killing vector and try to obtain initial data sets by solving five, instead of four, semi-elliptic equations. For the background metric we assumed a linear superposition of two Kerr metrics written in the Kerr-Schild form. A new computational technique with overlapping spherical domains for the solution of such semi-elliptic equations for two black holes of different masses was developed. In addition, motivated by the necessity of predicting realistic waveforms, we investigate the self-force experienced by a static non-minimally-coupled scalar charge outside a Schwarzschild black hole. We find that the finite part of this self-force is zero. To arrive at this result, we employ a Gedankenexperiment where the force is determined from the work required to slowly raise or lower the particle an infinitesimal distance. Our no-self-force result is in disagreement with a previous result of Zel'nikov and Frolov, who have suggested

  18. Characteristics of genetics-related news content in Black weekly newspapers.

    PubMed

    Caburnay, C A; Babb, P; Kaphingst, K A; Roberts, J; Rath, S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS/OBJECTIVES: The media are an important source of health information, especially for those with less access to regular health care. Black news outlets such as Black newspapers are a source of health information for African Americans. This study characterized media coverage of genetics-related information in Black weekly newspapers and general audience newspapers from the same communities. All health stories in a sample of 24 Black weekly newspapers and 12 general audience newspapers from January 2004 to December 2007 were reviewed for genetics-related stories. These stories were further coded for both journalistic and public health variables. Of all health-related stories identified, only 2% (n = 357) were considered genetics related. Genetics-related stories in Black newspapers - compared to those in general audience newspapers - were larger, more locally and racially relevant, and more likely to contain recommendations or action steps to improve health or reduce disease risks and to mention the importance of knowing one's family history. Stories in general audience newspapers were more likely to discuss causes of disease, mention genetic testing or therapy, and suggest a high/moderate degree of genetic determinism. Black newspapers are a viable communication channel to disseminate findings and implications of human genome research to African American audiences.

  19. Characteristics of genetics-related news content in Black weekly newspapers

    PubMed Central

    Caburnay, Charlene A.; Babb, Patricia; Kaphingst, Kimberly A.; Roberts, Jessica; Rath, Suchitra

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims/Objectives The media are an important source of health information, especially for those with less access to regular health care. Black news outlets such as Black newspapers are a source of health information for African Americans. This study characterized media coverage of genetics-related information in Black weekly newspapers and general audience newspapers from the same communities. Methods All health stories in a sample of 24 Black weekly newspapers and 12 general audience newspapers from January 2004 to December 2007 were reviewed for genetics-related stories. These stories were further coded for both journalistic and public health variables. Results Of all health-related stories identified, only 2% (n=357) were considered genetics-related. Genetics-related stories in Black newspapers–compared to those in general audience newspapers–were larger, more locally- and racially-relevant, and more likely to contain recommendations or action steps to improve health or reduce disease risks and to mention the importance of knowing one's family history. Stories in general audience newspapers were more likely to discuss causes of disease, mention genetic testing or therapy, and suggest a high/moderate degree of genetic determinism. Conclusions Black newspapers are a viable communication channel to disseminate findings and implications of human genome research to African American audiences. PMID:24080971

  20. Relation between CO and Black Carbon from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. S.; Kim, J.; Lim, H.; Mok, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Black Carbon (BC) is designated by one of the potential factor for global warming (IPCC, 2007). Furthermore, carbon monoxide (CO) is also important gas to modify chemical, physical and climatological properties of tropospheric chemistry. Both CO and carbonaceous aerosol, especial to the black carbon, are similar emission sources, fuel combustion and biomass burning. Previously, the MODIS-OMI algorithm (MOA) identified the BC amount and its location by using Angstrom Exponent (AE) from MODIS and Aerosol Index (AI) from OMI. In addition, the CO amount has been traced by the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) since 1999. Therefore, the correlation between the AOD of BC (AODBC) and total column densities of CO (TCDCO) can be estimated by MOA and MOPITT. The correlation between AODBC and TCDCO becomes better than that between fine mode AOD and TCDCO in most global regions. Highly correlated case is the region with biomass burning and wild fires. In Southern Africa, however, the correlation coefficient between AODBC and TCDCO is lower than those between fine mode AOD and TCDCO. It is explained by the characteristics of wind fields, sources of aerosols, and distance from the source regions from the difference in the correlation. The results from correlation studies propose the possibilities that CO can be used as surrogates of BC and reference of the validation for the aerosol classification algorithm of BC from satellite measurements.

  1. Race-related stress, racial identity status attitudes, and emotional reactions of Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Carter, Robert T; Reynolds, Amy L

    2011-04-01

    The current study explored the relationship between race-related stress, racial identity status attitudes and emotional states among 229 Black Americans. Canonical correlation analyses revealed a shared variate between emotions and racial identity status attitudes in which anger, depression confusion and tension were related positively to Conformity and inversely related to Internalization status attitudes. Implications for research are discussed.

  2. Black Men's Perceptions of Divorce-Related Stressors and Strategies for Coping with Divorce: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Erma Jean; Thompson, Aaron

    1996-01-01

    Identifies factors that working-class/middle class black men perceive to cause significant stress following divorce and strategies that they use to reestablish their lives. Black men experience profound postdivorce psychological distress. Black men rely on: (1) family and friends; (2) church-related and social activities; and (3) heterosexual…

  3. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy Among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jennifer S; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current SES. Compared with white women, black women generally have less positive attitudes toward young nonmarital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because black women are more religious than white women and partly because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, black women had higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence and partly because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained; net of all potential mediators in our models, black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but they are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry and they expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires.

  4. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  5. Economic losses related to internal diseases in Japanese black cattle.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Keiichi; Honda, Takeshi; Oyama, Kenji

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the direct economic losses due to the condemnation of the liver and large intestine because of internal diseases (multifocal necrosis in the liver (MNL) and inflammation of the large intestine (ILI)), and the indirect losses because of reductions in carcass performance from MNL, bovine abdominal fat necrosis (BFN) and ILI using data from 5383 Japanese Black cattle. Direct losses were estimated by multiplying the price of the condemned part by the frequency of its occurrence owing to the disease. Similarly, indirect losses were estimated as the product of unit carcass price and reduction in carcass weight (CW) due to the disease. The direct impact on the beef cattle industry from MNL and ILI was estimated at around $1.29 million (US$1 = ¥120) per year. A least-squares analysis showed that MNL had no influence on any carcass trait, whereas BFN and ILI significantly reduced CW, rib eye area and darkened the beef. ILI also reduced rib thickness. The indirect losses from BFN and ILI were estimated as a maximum of $131.7 and $256.4 per animal and around $6.26 million and $4.03 million for the industry, respectively, mostly because of the reduction in CW.

  6. Algebraically special space-time in relativity, black holes, and pulsar models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R. J.; Sheffield, C.

    1973-01-01

    The entire field of astronomy is in very rapid flux, and at the center of interest are problems relating to the very dense, rotating, neutron stars observed as pulsars. the hypothesized collapsed remains of stars known as black holes, and quasars. Degenerate metric form, or Kerr-Schild metric form, was used to study several problems related to intense gravitational fields.

  7. Energy-Related Indicators and Breast Cancer Risk among White and Black Women.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Maureen; Lipworth, Loren; Shen-Miller, David; Nechuta, Sarah; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Shrubsole, Martha J; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Energy-related indicators, including physical activity, energy intake, body mass index (BMI) and adult weight change, have been linked to breast cancer risk. Very few studies of these associations have been conducted among black women, therefore we used the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS) to determine whether similar effects were seen in black and white women. The NBHS is a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among women age 25 to 75 years conducted between 2001 and 2010 in and around the Nashville Metropolitan area. Telephone interviews and self-administered food frequency questionnaires were completed with 2,614 incident breast cancer cases ascertained through hospitals and the statewide cancer registry, and 2,306 controls selected using random digit dialing. Among premenopausal white and black women, there was little effect of adult exercise or other energy-related indicators on breast cancer risk, regardless of tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status. The beneficial effect of adult exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer appeared to be comparable between white and black women (highest tertile relative to none - white odds ratio [OR] 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-1.0, p for trend=0.05; black OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, p for trend=0.07); however, among black women the reduction was limited to those with ER-positive disease. White and black women should be encouraged to engage in more physical activity to reduce their risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  8. Numerical Relativity and Black Hole Binaries: The historical path to present simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laguna, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    The numerical relativity landscape at the turn of the century reached a unique transformative moment. A time with the ripe conditions to solve one of the grand challenges in computational physics: the two-body problem in general relativity. The computational modeling of two black holes as they coalesce is a formidable undertaking, requiring the most powerful hardware, innovative algorithms and creativity. This talk provides a historical perspective of the developments that led to the current success we enjoy of binary black hole simulations as genuine tools of discovery in the new astronomy of gravitational waves.

  9. Criminal Justice Contact, Stressors, and Obesity-Related Health Problems Among Black Adults in the USA.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Paul C; Parker, Lauren; Thorpe, Roland

    2017-06-08

    Criminal justice contact-defined as lifetime arrest, parole, or incarceration, seems to exacerbate chronic conditions, and those who are most likely to have had contact with the criminal justice system, such as Black adults, often already have pre-existing disproportionately high rates of stress and chronic conditions due to the social determinants of health that affect underrepresented minorities. Findings from this study suggest that there is a mechanism that links the stressors among Black adults manifested by such factors as family, financial, neighborhood, and personal problems with criminal justice contact to obesity-related health status. Using the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), modified Poisson regression analyses were used to determine the association between criminal justice contact, stressors, and obesity-related health problems among a national sample of Black adults (n = 5008). In the full model, the odds of experiencing obesity-related health problems for Black adults who had criminal justice contact was reduced (PR, 1.23 to 1.14) and not statistically significant. Black adults who reported experiencing family stressors (PR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.36), financial stressors (PR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.47), and personal stressors (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.31) were statistically significant and higher than those who reported not experiencing any of these stressors; neighborhood stressors was not statistically significant. The evidence suggests a relationship between the stressors associated with criminal justice contact and obesity-related health status. These findings emphasize the need to further explore the family, financial, and personal stressors for Black adults with criminal justice contact in order to further our understanding of their obesity-related health problems.ᅟ.

  10. Relating black carbon content to reduction of snow albedo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, R. E.; Warren, S. G.; Clarke, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    In remote snow of the Northern Hemisphere, the levels of soot pollution are in the parts-per-billion (ppb) range, where the effect on albedo is at the level of a few percent. A reduction of albedo by 1-2% is significant for climate but is difficult to detect experimentally, because snow albedo depends on several other variables. In our work to quantify the climatic effect of black carbon (BC) in snow, we therefore do not directly measure the albedo reduction. Instead, we use a two-step procedure: (1) We collect snow samples, melt and filter them, and analyze the filters spectrophotometrically for BC concentration. (2) We use the BC amount from the filter measurement, together with snow grain size, in a radiative transfer model to compute the albedo reduction. Our radiative transfer model uses the discrete ordinates algorithm DISORT 2.0. We have chosen a representative BC size distribution and optical constants, and have incorporated those of mineral dust as well. While a given mass of BC causes over an order of magnitude more snow albedo reduction compared to dust, a snowpack containing dust mutes the albedo-reducing effect of BC. Because the computed reduction of snow albedo is model-based, it requires experimental verification. We doubt that direct measurement of albedo-reduction will be feasible in nature, because of the vertical variation of both snow grain size and soot content, and because the natural soot content is small. We conclude that what is needed is an artificial snowpack, with uniform grain size and large uniform soot content (ppm not ppb), to produce a large signal on albedo. We have chosen to pursue this experiment outdoors rather than in the laboratory, for the following reasons: (1) The snowpack in the field of view is uniformly illuminated if the source of radiation is the Sun. (2) Visible radiation penetrates into the snow, so photons emerge horizontally distant from where they entered. In the limited width of a laboratory snowpack, radiation

  11. Factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls in the United States.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Megan R; Bennett, Gary G; Brandon, Debra H

    2017-02-01

    In the United States, Black adolescents have the highest prevalence of pediatric obesity and overweight among girls. While Black girls are disproportionately affected, the reasons for this health disparity remain unclear. The authors conducted a systematic review to investigate the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. The authors searched four databases for relevant English-language publications using all publication years through 2015. Fifty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were used for this review. Using a configuration approach to synthesis, three categories were identified, paralleling the bioecological theory of human development: (1) individual, (2) interpersonal, and (3) community and societal factors. A description of each factor's association with obesity among Black adolescent girls is presented. From this review, the authors identified a diverse and vast set of individual, interpersonal, and community and societal factors explored for their relationship with obesity and overweight. Given the insufficient repetition and limited significant findings among most factors, the authors believe that multiple gaps in knowledge exist across all categories regarding the factors related to obesity and overweight among Black adolescent girls. To improve the quality of research in this area, suggested research directions and methodological recommendations are provided.

  12. Mixed Layer Depth in the Aegean, Marmara, Black and Azov Seas: Part II: Relation to the Sonic Layer Depth

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-03

    r.com/ locate / jmarsysMixed layer depth in the Aegean, Marmara, Black and Azov Seas : Part II: Relation to the sonic layer depth Robert W. Helber a...index terms: The Aegean Sea The Black Sea The Azov Sea Keywords: Sound transmission Mixed layer depth Climatologyt analysis of the seasonal evolution of...the sonic layer depth (SLD) relative to the mixed layer depth (MLD) for the Aegean, Marmara, Black, and Azov Seas . SLD identifies the acoustic ducting

  13. Race Relations Stories: How Southeast Asian Refugees Interpret the Ancestral Narration of Black and White Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jeremy; Moore, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    The contact hypothesis (Allport 1954) predicts that cross-racial interaction can produce social bonding under certain status, relational, and institutional conditions. We extend this classic theory on ingroups and outgroups using qualitative data on Cambodian and Hmong refugees' recollections of casual conversations about ancestry with black and…

  14. Race Relations Stories: How Southeast Asian Refugees Interpret the Ancestral Narration of Black and White Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hein, Jeremy; Moore, Christopher D.

    2009-01-01

    The contact hypothesis (Allport 1954) predicts that cross-racial interaction can produce social bonding under certain status, relational, and institutional conditions. We extend this classic theory on ingroups and outgroups using qualitative data on Cambodian and Hmong refugees' recollections of casual conversations about ancestry with black and…

  15. Diversity and Distribution of Planctomycetes and Related Bacteria in the Suboxic Zone of the Black Sea

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, John; Oakley, Brian; Fuchsman, Clara; Srinivasan, Sujatha; Staley, James T.; Murray, James W.

    2006-01-01

    Samples from six depths of the Black Sea's suboxic zone were analyzed for 16S rRNA gene sequence information. A gradient in phylotype diversity was found. The distributions of known anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria, many unknown Planctomycetes, and other phylotypes were examined in relation to the local nutrient and redox conditions. PMID:16598025

  16. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  17. Audiovisual Records in the National Archives Relating to Black History. Preliminary Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waffen, Leslie; And Others

    A representative selection of the National Archives and Records Services' audiovisual collection relating to black history is presented. The intention is not to provide an exhaustive survey, but rather to indicate the breadth and scope of materials available for study and to suggest areas for concentrated research. The materials include sound…

  18. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life and Health-Promoting Behaviors in Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Wilma J.; Isaac,, E. Paulette; Johnson, Sharon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the health-related quality of life and health-promoting behaviors in a convenience sample of low-income black men. Almost three-fourths reported their overall health as good or better. However, the mean number of recent (that is, past 30 days) mentally unhealthy days was 13.12, and more than half reported frequent (greater than…

  20. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  1. Quasiequilibrium sequences of black-hole-neutron-star binaries in general relativity

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Keisuke; Faber, Joshua A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2006-08-15

    We construct quasiequilibrium sequences of black-hole-neutron-star binaries for arbitrary mass ratios by solving the constraint equations of general relativity in the conformal thin-sandwich decomposition. We model the neutron star as a stationary polytrope satisfying the relativistic equations of hydrodynamics and account for the black hole by imposing equilibrium boundary conditions on the surface of an excised sphere (the apparent horizon). In this paper we focus on irrotational configurations, meaning that both the neutron star and the black hole are approximately nonspinning in an inertial frame. We present results for a binary with polytropic index n=1, mass ratio M{sub irr}{sup BH}/M{sub B}{sup NS}=5, and neutron star compaction M{sub ADM,0}{sup NS}/R{sub 0}=0.0879, where M{sub irr}{sup BH} is the irreducible mass of the black hole, M{sub B}{sup NS} the neutron star baryon rest mass, and M{sub ADM,0}{sup NS} and R{sub 0} the neutron star Arnowitt-Deser-Misner mass and areal radius in isolation, respectively. Our models represent valid solutions to Einstein's constraint equations and may therefore be employed as initial data for dynamical simulations of black-hole-neutron-star binaries.

  2. Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: free-fall frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang; Ying, Shuxuan

    2016-01-01

    Due to the exponential high gravitational red shift near the event horizon of a black hole, it might appear that the Hawking radiation would be highly sensitive to some unknown high energy physics. To study the effects of any unknown physics at the Planck scale on the Hawking radiation, the dispersive field theory models have been proposed, which are variations of Unruh's sonic black hole analogy. In this paper, we use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the dispersive field theory models. The preferred frame is the free-fall frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energy but is modified near the Planck mass mp. The corrections to the Hawking temperature are calculated for massive and charged particles to {O}( mp^{-2}) and neutral and massless particles with λ =0 to all orders. The Hawking temperature of radiation agrees with the standard one at the leading order. After the spectrum of radiation near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole and a 2D one. Finally, the luminosity of a Schwarzschild black hole is calculated by using the geometric optics approximation.

  3. Testing general relativity with black-hole binary observations: results and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallisneri, Michele

    2017-01-01

    The first two LIGO-Virgo detections of gravitational waves from binary black-hole inspirals offered the first opportunity to test gravitation in its strong-field, relativistic-motion, and radiative sector. The initial tests reported in PRL 116 (2016) probed consistency with the predictions of general relativity, to moderate precision. The space-based observatory LISA will observe black-hole binary signals with much larger SNRs, allowing for even more precise tests. Last, the detection of a binary black-hole stochastic background with pulsar-timing arrays will offer more constraints on the speed and polarizations of gravitational waves. I review these results and examine synergies across the gravitational-wave spectrum. I discuss the main challenges and opportunities from the viewpoint of data analysis, and outline prospects for making contact with current alternative theories of gravitation, in particular those motivated by models of dark energy.

  4. Selection bias in dynamically measured supermassive black hole samples: its consequences and the quest for the most fundamental relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.; Ferrarese, Laura; Graham, Alister W.; Savorgnan, Giulia; Allevato, Viola; Marconi, Alessandro; Läsker, Ronald; Lapi, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    We compare the set of local galaxies having dynamically measured black holes with a large, unbiased sample of galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm earlier work showing that the majority of black hole hosts have significantly higher velocity dispersions σ than local galaxies of similar stellar mass. We use Monte Carlo simulations to illustrate the effect on black hole scaling relations if this bias arises from the requirement that the black hole sphere of influence must be resolved to measure black hole masses with spatially resolved kinematics. We find that this selection effect artificially increases the normalization of the Mbh-σ relation by a factor of at least ˜3; the bias for the Mbh-Mstar relation is even larger. Our Monte Carlo simulations and analysis of the residuals from scaling relations both indicate that σ is more fundamental than Mstar or effective radius. In particular, the Mbh-Mstar relation is mostly a consequence of the Mbh-σ and σ-Mstar relations, and is heavily biased by up to a factor of 50 at small masses. This helps resolve the discrepancy between dynamically based black hole-galaxy scaling relations versus those of active galaxies. Our simulations also disfavour broad distributions of black hole masses at fixed σ. Correcting for this bias suggests that the calibration factor used to estimate black hole masses in active galaxies should be reduced to values of fvir ˜ 1. Black hole mass densities should also be proportionally smaller, perhaps implying significantly higher radiative efficiencies/black hole spins. Reducing black hole masses also reduces the gravitational wave signal expected from black hole mergers.

  5. The black hole-host galaxy relation for very low mass quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanghvi, J.; Kotilainen, J. K.; Falomo, R.; Decarli, R.; Karhunen, K.; Uslenghi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, the relation between the masses of the black hole (MBH) and the host galaxy (Mhost) in quasars has been probed down to the parameter space of MBH ˜ 108 M⊙ and Mhost ˜ 1011 M⊙ at z < 0.5. In this study, we have investigated the MBH-Mhost log-linear relation for a sample of 37 quasars with low black hole masses (107 M⊙ < MBH < 108.3 M⊙) at 0.5 < z < 1.0. The black hole masses were derived using virial mass estimates from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) optical spectra. For 25 quasars, we detected the presence of the host galaxy from deep near-infrared H-band imaging, whereas upper limits for the host galaxy luminosity (mass) were estimated for the 12 unresolved quasars. We combined our previous studies with the results from this work to create a sample of 89 quasars at z < 1.0 having a large range of black hole masses (107 M⊙ < MBH < 1010 M⊙) and host galaxy masses (1010 M⊙ < Mhost < 1013 M⊙). Most of the quasars at the low-mass end lie below the extrapolation of the local relation. This apparent break in the linearity of the entire sample is due to increasing fraction of disc-dominated host galaxies in the low-mass quasars. After correcting for the disc component, and considering only the bulge component, the bilinear regression for the entire quasar sample holds over 3.5 dex in both the black hole mass and the bulge mass, and is in very good agreement with the local relation. We advocate secular evolution of discs of galaxies being responsible for the relatively strong disc domination.

  6. Relation of Misperception of Healthy Weight to Obesity in Urban Black Men

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; Lepore, Stephen J.; Rassnick, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity, as well as moderators of this relation, in a sample of middle-aged black men. Survey data from 404 mostly immigrant, black males living in greater New York City were collected as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Data included measures of health status, BMI, perceived healthy weight, and misperception of healthy weight. Misperception of healthy weight was more frequent among obese men (90.2%) than nonobese men (48.7%) (P < 0.001). Mean level of misperception was also significantly higher in obese men than nonobese men (P < 0.001). Health status moderated the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity: obese men who felt healthy or who had fewer comorbid conditions had greater misperception of healthy weight than obese men who felt unhealthy or had relatively more comorbid conditions (P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that misperception of healthy weight discriminates between obese and nonobese black men, and the magnitude of this relation is exacerbated in obese men who are relatively healthy. Future studies should determine the prevalence of misperception of healthy weight in more diverse populations and identify potential mediators of the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity. PMID:19876006

  7. Relation of misperception of healthy weight to obesity in urban black men.

    PubMed

    Godino, Job G; Lepore, Stephen J; Rassnick, Stefanie

    2010-07-01

    This study examined the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity, as well as moderators of this relation, in a sample of middle-aged black men. Survey data from 404 mostly immigrant, black males living in greater New York City were collected as part of a larger randomized controlled trial. Data included measures of health status, BMI, perceived healthy weight, and misperception of healthy weight. Misperception of healthy weight was more frequent among obese men (90.2%) than nonobese men (48.7%) (P < 0.001). Mean level of misperception was also significantly higher in obese men than nonobese men (P < 0.001). Health status moderated the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity: obese men who felt healthy or who had fewer comorbid conditions had greater misperception of healthy weight than obese men who felt unhealthy or had relatively more comorbid conditions (P < 0.01). Our findings demonstrate that misperception of healthy weight discriminates between obese and nonobese black men, and the magnitude of this relation is exacerbated in obese men who are relatively healthy. Future studies should determine the prevalence of misperception of healthy weight in more diverse populations and identify potential mediators of the relation between misperception of healthy weight and obesity.

  8. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men.

    PubMed

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-03-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative "gains" to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration.

  9. Relative deprivation and internal migration in the United States: A comparison of black and white men

    PubMed Central

    Flippen, Chenoa

    2013-01-01

    While the link between geographic and social mobility has long been a cornerstone of sociological approaches to migration, recent research has cast doubt on the economic returns to internal U.S. migration. Moreover, important racial disparities in migration patterns remain poorly understood. Drawing on data from the 2000 census, I reappraise the link between migration and social mobility by taking relative deprivation into consideration. I examine the association between migration, disaggregated by region of origin and destination, and absolute and relative earnings and occupational prestige, separately by race. Findings lend new insight into the theoretical and stratification implications of growing racial disparities in migration patterns; while both blacks and whites who move north-south generally average lower absolute incomes than their stationary northern peers, they enjoy significantly higher relative social position. Moreover, the relative “gains” to migration are substantially larger for blacks than whites. The opposite patterns obtain for south-north migration. PMID:24391221

  10. Black gay men as sexual subjects: race, racialisation and the social relations of sex among Black gay men in Toronto.

    PubMed

    Husbands, Winston; Makoroka, Lydia; Walcott, Rinaldo; Adam, Barry D; George, Clemon; Remis, Robert S; Rourke, Sean B

    2013-01-01

    In this study of Black gay and bisexual men in Toronto, sexually active survey participants reported on their sexual behaviours with male partners of different ethnoracial backgrounds, and interview participants reflected on how their sexual relationships emerged in the context of race and interracial desire. Most survey participants reported sexual relationships with other Black men. Participants were more likely to be insertive with White and other ethnoracial men than with Black men. A significant number of participants who were receptive or versatile with Black partners switched to the insertive role when their sexual partners were not Black. Interview participants ascribed a sense of fulfilment to their sexual relationships with other Black men, but avoided relationships with White men or interpreted such relationships as either purely sexual and/or inflected by their racialised objectification. Others avoided sexual relationships with other Black men or preferred relationships with White men, sometimes in opposition to experiences of oppressive masculinity from some Black partners but mindful of the possibility of racialised encounters with their White partners. Study participants emerge as informed sexual subjects, self-conscious about their sexual relationships and variously inclined to negotiate or resist racialisation and oppression in the private and public spheres.

  11. Identification of Genes Related to White and Black Plumage Formation by RNA-Seq from White and Black Feather Bulbs in Ducks

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shijun; Wang, Cui; Yu, Wenhua; Zhao, Shuhong; Gong, Yanzhang

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the genes involved in the formation of white and black plumage in ducks, RNA from white and black feather bulbs of an F2 population were analyzed using RNA-Seq. A total of 2,642 expressed sequence tags showed significant differential expression between white and black feather bulbs. Among these tags, 186 matched 133 annotated genes that grouped into 94 pathways. A number of genes controlling melanogenesis showed differential expression between the two types of feather bulbs. This differential expression was confirmed by qPCR analysis and demonstrated that Tyr (Tyrosinase) and Tyrp1 (Tyrosinase-related protein-1) were expressed not in W-W (white feather bulb from white dorsal plumage) and W-WB (white feather bulb from white-black dorsal plumage) but in B-B (black feather bulb from black dorsal plumage) and B-WB (black feather bulb from white-black dorsal plumage) feather bulbs. Tyrp2 (Tyrosinase-related protein-2) gene did not show expression in the four types of feather bulbs but expressed in retina. C-kit (The tyrosine kinase receptor) expressed in all of the samples but the relative mRNA expression in B-B or B-WB was approximately 10 fold higher than that in W-W or W-WB. Additionally, only one of the two Mitf isoforms was associated with plumage color determination. Downregulation of c-Kit and Mitf in feather bulbs may be the cause of white plumage in the duck. PMID:22615785

  12. The Black Books Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Scholar, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Lists "Black and Black related" books available from American and some British publishing companies. Also provides lists of publishers and bookstores that carry works relevant to Blacks and Black studies. (GC)

  13. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children's Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families.

    PubMed

    Parks, Elizabeth P; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K

    2016-12-01

    Objective In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child's eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful

  14. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children’s Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families

    PubMed Central

    Parks, Elizabeth P.; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children’s eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or grandparents of a child aged 3 to 7 years were recruited from a large, urban Black church to participate in semistructured interviews. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Parents/grandparents described a pathway between how stress affected them personally and their child’s eating, structured (sports/dance) and unstructured (free-play) physical activity, and screen-time usage, as well as strategies to prevent this association. Five themes emerged: stress affects parent behaviors related to food and physical activity variably; try to be healthy even with stress; parent/grandparent stress eating and parenting; stress influences family cooking, food choices, and child free-play; and screen-time use to decrease parent stress. Negative parent/grandparent response to their personal stress adversely influenced food purchases and parenting related to child eating, free-play, and screen-time. Children of parents/grandparents who ate high-fat/high-sugar foods when stressed requested these foods. In addition to structured physical activity, cooking ahead and keeping food in the house were perceived to guard against the effects of stress except during parent cravings. Parent/child screen-time helped decrease parent stress. Conclusion Parents/grandparents responded variably to stress which affected the child eating environment, free-play, and screen-time. Family-based interventions to decrease obesity in Black children should consider how stress influences parents. Targeting parent cravings and coping strategies that utilize structure in eating and physical activity may be useful

  15. HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE IN OVERWEIGHT AND NONOVERWEIGHT BLACK AND WHITE ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Fallon, Erica M.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Norman, Anne-Caroline; McDuffie, Jennifer R.; Taylor, Erica D.; Cohen, Marc L.; Young-Hyman, Deborah; Keil, Margaret; Kolotkin, Ronette L.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To assess the impact of obesity on quality of life (QOL) in black and white adolescents. Study design One hundred ten overweight (body mass index [BMI], 41.7 ± 8.9 kg/m2) and 34 nonoverweight adolescents (BMI, 20.6 ± 2.9 kg/m2) and their parents completed measures of QOL. Results Overweight was associated with poorer adolescent-reported QOL and parent reports of their children’s QOL. Examining groups by weight status and race, overweight whites reported the greatest impairment on Social/Interpersonal, Self-Esteem, and Physical Appearance QOL (all P < .01), whereas parents of overweight blacks reported the poorest General Health Perceptions scores regarding their children. Interactions between BMI z-score and race were detected for Social/Interpersonal, Self-esteem, Daily Living, Self-Efficacy, Self-regard, and Physical Appearance QOL (all P < .05): Higher BMI in whites was associated with greater impairments in QOL than in blacks. Parents reported similar relations for their children. Conclusions According to adolescent and parent reports, overweight is associated with poorer QOL in adolescence, regardless of race; however, compared with overweight white adolescents, blacks report less impairment in QOL. Future research is required to determine whether differences in QOL are predictive of treatment success. PMID:16227028

  16. To be young, Black, and living with breast cancer: a systematic review of health-related quality of life in young Black breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Cleo A; Pinheiro, Laura C; Reeder-Hayes, Katherine E; Walker, Jennifer S; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Fashaw, Shekinah A; Woods-Giscombe, Cheryl; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2016-11-01

    Compared with young White women, young Black women are more likely to present with aggressive breast cancer (BC) subtypes that are potentially linked to worse health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, there is limited consensus regarding HRQOL needs among young Black BC survivors. Employing Ferrell's framework on QOL in BC (i.e., physical, psychological, social, and spiritual well-being), we conducted a systematic review on HRQOL among Black BC survivors aged <50 years and proposed recommendations for advancing HRQOL research and care for this population. Literature searches were conducted in MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PsycINFO to identify relevant articles published from 1995 to 2015. Abstracts and full-text articles were screened using predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria and evaluated for quality. A total of 2533 articles were identified, but six met eligibility criteria. Most studies examined multiple HRQOL domains, with the psychological domain most represented. Compared with their older, White, and BC-free counterparts, young Black BC survivors reported greater fear of dying, unmet supportive care needs, financial distress, and lower physical/functional well-being. However, spiritual well-being appeared favorable for young Black survivors. Research gaps include the absence of longitudinal studies and under-representation of studies examining physical, social, and particularly, spiritual HRQOL in young Black BC survivors. Young Black BC survivors generally experience suboptimal HRQOL after BC diagnosis. As few studies have reported on HRQOL among this group, future research and oncology care should prioritize young Black women in ways that recognize their unique concerns, in order to ensure better HRQOL outcomes both during and after treatment.

  17. Changes in the Relative Labor Force Status of Black and White Youths: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mare, Robert D.; Winship, Christopher

    Since World War II, unemployment rates for black youths have risen much more rapidly than for white youths. This report reviews possible causes of the worsening relative employment status of black youths, including market and structural trends in the sizes of labor force entry cohorts, competition in the low-wage labor market from women and…

  18. Using Simulations of Black Holes to Study General Relativity and the Properties of Inner Accretion Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoormann, Janie Katherine

    2016-06-01

    While Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) has been tested extensively in our solar system, it is just beginning to be tested in the strong gravitational fields that surround black holes. As a way to study the behavior of gravity in these extreme environments, I have used and added to a ray-tracing code that simulates the X-ray emission from the accretion disks surrounding black holes. In particular, the observational channels which can be simulated include the thermal and reflected spectra, polarization, and reverberation signatures. These calculations can be performed assuming GR as well as four alternative spacetimes. These results can be used to see if it is possible to determine if observations can test the No-Hair theorem of GR which states that stationary, astrophysical black holes are only described by their mass and spin. Although it proves difficult to distinguish between theories of gravity, it is possible to exclude a large portion of the possible deviations from GR using observations of rapidly spinning stellar mass black holes such as Cygnus X-1. The ray-tracing simulations can furthermore be used to study the inner regions of black hole accretion flows. I examined the dependence of X-ray reverberation observations on the ionization of the disk photosphere. My results show that X-ray reverberation and X-ray polarization provides a powerful tool to constrain the geometry of accretion disks which are too small to be imaged directly. The second part of my thesis describes the work on the balloon-borne X-Calibur hard X-ray polarimetry mission and on the space-borne PolSTAR polarimeter concept.

  19. Black hole radiation with modified dispersion relation in tunneling paradigm: Static frame

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Jun; Wang, Peng; Yang, Haitang

    2017-09-01

    To study possible deviations from the Hawking's prediction, we assume that the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified at high energies and use the Hamilton-Jacobi method to investigate the corresponding effects on the Hawking radiation in this paper. The preferred frame is the static frame of the black hole. The dispersion relation adopted agrees with the relativistic one at low energies but is modified near the Planck mass mp. We calculate the corrections to the Hawking temperature for massive and charged particles to O (mp-2) and massless and neutral particles to all orders. Our results suggest that the thermal spectrum of radiations near horizon is robust, e.g. corrections to the Hawking temperature are suppressed by mp. After the spectrum of radiations near the horizon is obtained, we use the brick wall model to compute the thermal entropy of a massless scalar field near the horizon of a 4D spherically symmetric black hole. We find that the subleading logarithmic term of the entropy does not depend on how the dispersion relations of matter fields are modified. Finally, the luminosities of black holes are computed by using the geometric optics approximation.

  20. Further evidence for a supermassive black hole mass-pitch angle relation

    SciTech Connect

    Berrier, Joel C.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Hartley, Matthew; Lacy, Claud H. S.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Shields, Doug; Seigar, Marc S.; Bentz, Misty C.

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M {sub BH} of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M {sub ☉}) = (8.21 ± 0.16) – (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  1. Further Evidence for a Supermassive Black Hole Mass-Pitch Angle Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Davis, Benjamin L.; Kennefick, Daniel; Kennefick, Julia D.; Seigar, Marc S.; Barrows, Robert Scott; Hartley, Matthew; Shields, Doug; Bentz, Misty C.; Lacy, Claud H. S.

    2013-06-01

    We present new and stronger evidence for a previously reported relationship between galactic spiral arm pitch angle P (a measure of the tightness of spiral structure) and the mass M BH of a disk galaxy's nuclear supermassive black hole (SMBH). We use an improved method to accurately measure the spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies to generate quantitative data on this morphological feature for 34 galaxies with directly measured black hole masses. We find a relation of log (M/M ⊙) = (8.21 ± 0.16) - (0.062 ± 0.009)P. This method is compared with other means of estimating black hole mass to determine its effectiveness and usefulness relative to other existing relations. We argue that such a relationship is predicted by leading theories of spiral structure in disk galaxies, including the density wave theory. We propose this relationship as a tool for estimating SMBH masses in disk galaxies. This tool is potentially superior when compared to other methods for this class of galaxy and has the advantage of being unambiguously measurable from imaging data alone.

  2. The Black Hole Mass - Pitch Angle Relation of Type I AGN In Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Amanda; Jones, Logan; Hughes, John A.; Barrows, R. Scott; Kennefick, Julia D.

    2017-01-01

    A relationship between the mass of supermassive black holes, M, at the center of galaxies and the pitch angle, P, a measure of tightness of spiral arms, was recently reported by Berrier, et al. (2013 ApJ 769, 132) for late type galaxies. The relationship, established for a local sample, shows that spiral galaxies with tighter pitch angles host higher mass black holes. In this work, we explore the M-P relation for a sample of 50 low to moderate redshift (0.04relations to estimate black-hole mass. Pitch angles were measured using a 2DFFT technique (Davis, et al., 2012 ApJS 199, 33). We find that the M-P relation for the higher redshift, AGN sample differs from that of the local sample and discuss the possibility of AGN feedback by looking at a proposed Fundamental Plane for late-type galaxies - a correlation between bulge mass, disk mass, and spiral-arm pitch angle (Davis, et al. 2015, ApJ 802, L13).

  3. Probing the nonlinear structure of general relativity with black hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arun, K. G.; Iyer, B. R.; Qusailah, M. S. S.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.

    2006-07-01

    Observations of the inspiral of massive binary black holes (BBH) in the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) and stellar mass binary black holes in the European Gravitational Wave Observatory (EGO) offer an unique opportunity to test the nonlinear structure of general relativity. For a binary composed of two nonspinning black holes, the nonlinear general relativistic effects depend only on the masses of the constituents. In a recent paper, we explored the possibility of a test to determine all the post-Newtonian coefficients in the gravitational wave phasing. However, mutual covariances dilute the effectiveness of such a test. In this paper, we propose a more powerful test in which the various post-Newtonian coefficients in the gravitational wave phasing are systematically measured by treating three of them as independent parameters and demanding their mutual consistency. LISA (EGO) will observe BBH inspirals with a signal-to-noise ratio of more than 1000 (100) and thereby test the self-consistency of each of the nine post-Newtonian coefficients that have so-far been computed, by measuring the lower order coefficients to a relative accuracy of ˜10-5 (respectively, ˜10-4) and the higher order coefficients to a relative accuracy in the range 10-4-0.1 (respectively, 10-3-1).

  4. Orbit of the OJ287 black hole binary as determined from the General Relativity centenary flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, Mauri; Gopakumar, Achamveedu; Mikkola, Seppo; Zola, Staszek; Ciprini, Stefano; Matsumoto, Katsura; Sadakane, Kozo; Kidger, Mark; Gazeas, Kosmas; Nilsson, Kari; Berdyugin, Andrei; Piirola, Vilppu; Jermak, Helen; Baliyan, Kiran; Hudec, Rene; Reichart, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    OJ287 goes through large optical flares twice each 12 years. The times of these flares have been predicted successfully now 5 times using a black hole binary model. In this model a secondary black hole goes around a primary black hole, impacting the accretion disk of the latter twice per orbital period, creating a thermal flare. Together with 6 flares from the historical data base, the set of flare timings determines uniquely the 7 parameters of the model: the two masses, the primary spin, the major axis, eccentricity and the phase of the orbit, plus a time delay parameter that gives the extent of time between accretion disk impacts and the related optical flares. Based on observations by the OJ287-15/16 Collaboration, OJ287 went into the phase of rapid flux rise on November 25, on the centenary of Einstein’s General Relativity, and peaked on December 5. At that time OJ287 was the brightest in over 30 years in optical wavelengths. The flare was of low polarization, and did not extend beyond the optical/UV region of the spectrum. On top of the main flare there were a number of small flares; their excess brightness correlates well with the simultaneous X-ray data. With these properties the main flare qualifies as the marker of the orbit of the secondary going around the primary black hole. Since the orbit solution is strongly over-determined, its parameters are known very accurately, at better than one percent level for the masses and the spin. The next flare is predicted to peak on July 28, 2019.Detailed monitoring of this event should allow us to test, for the first time, the celebrated black hole no-hair theorem for a massive black hole at the 10% level. The present data is consistent with the theorem only at a 30% level. The main difficulty in observing OJ287 from Earth at our predicted epoch is its closeness to the sun. Therefore, it is desirable to monitor OJ287 from a space-based telescope not in the vicinity of Earth. Unfortunately, this unique opportunity

  5. Unequal burden of sleep-related obesity among black and white Americans

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Louis, Girardin; Youngstedt, Shawn; Grandner, Michael; Williams, Natasha J.; Sarpong, Daniel; Zizi, Ferdinand; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2015-01-01

    Background This study ascertained whether individuals of the black race/ethnicity are unequally burdened by sleep-related overweight/obesity. Methods Analysis was based on data obtained from Americans (ages, 18–85 years) in the National Health Interview Survey (1977–2009). Sleep duration was coded as either very short sleep (VSS) (≤5 hours), short sleep (SS) (5–6 hours), or long sleep (>8 hours), referenced to 7–8-hour sleepers. Overweight was defined as body mass index (BMI) ≥25.0 and ≤29.9 kg/m2 and obesity, BMI ≥30 kg/m2, referenced to normal weight (BMI = 18.5–24.9 kg/m2). Results Multivariate-adjusted regression analyses indicated that, among whites, VSS was associated with a 10% increased likelihood of being overweight and 51% increased likelihood of being obese, relative to 7–8-hour sleepers. Short sleep was associated with a 13% increased likelihood of being overweight and 45% increased likelihood of being obese. Long sleep was associated with 21% increased likelihood of being obese. Among blacks, VSS was associated with a 76% increased likelihood of being overweight and 81% increased likelihood of being obese. Short sleep was associated with a 16% increased likelihood of being overweight and 32% increased likelihood of being obese. As for the white stratum, long sleep was associated with a 25% increased likelihood of being obese. Conclusion Our investigation demonstrates strong linkages between inadequate sleep and overweight/ obesity among black and white Americans. Although it cannot be said that insufficient sleep causes overweight/obesity, individuals of the black race/ethnicity sleeping ≤5 hours may be unequally burdened by sleep-related overweight/obesity. PMID:26937487

  6. Topics in general relativity: Binary black holes and hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvi, Kashif

    2002-09-01

    This thesis consists of three projects in general relativity on topics related to binary black holes and the gravitational waves they emit. The first project involves calculating a four-metric that is an approximate solution to Einstein's equations representing two widely separated nonrotating black holes in a circular orbit. This metric is constructed by matching a post-Newtonian metric to two tidally distorted Schwarzschild metrics using the framework of matched asymptotic expansions. The four-metric presented here provides physically realistic initial data that are tied to the binary's inspiral phase and can be evolved numerically to determine the gravitational wave output during the late stages of inspiral as well as the merger. The second project is on the tidal interaction of binary black holes during the inspiral phase. The holes' tidal distortion results in the flow of energy and angular momentum into or out of the holes in a process analogous to Newtonian tidal friction in a planet-moon system. The changes in the black holes' masses, spins, and horizon areas during inspiral are calculated for a circular binary with holes of possibly comparable masses. The absorption or emission of energy and angular momentum by the holes is shown to have a negligible influence on the binary's orbital evolution when the holes have comparable masses. The tidal-interaction analysis presented in this thesis is applicable to a black hole in a binary with any companion body (e.g., a neutron star) that is well separated from the hole. The final project is on first-order hyperbolic formulations of Einstein's equations, which are promising as a basis for numerical simulation of binary black holes. This thesis presents two first-order symmetrizable hyperbolic systems that include the lapse and shift as dynamical fields and have only physical characteristic speeds. The first system may be useful in numerical work; the second system allows one to show that any solution to Einstein

  7. Relating follicly-challenged compact stars to bald black holes: A link between two no-hair properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2015-05-01

    Compact stars satisfy certain no-hair relations through which their multipole moments are given by their mass, spin and quadrupole moment. These relations are approximately independent of their equation of state, relating pressure to density. Such relations are similar to the black hole no-hair theorems, but these possess event horizons inside which information that led to their formation can hide. Compact stars do not possess horizons, so whether their no-hair relations are related to the black hole ones is unclear. We investigate how the two relations are related by studying relations among multipole moments for compact stars with anisotropic pressure as a toy model, which allows such stars to be more compact than those with isotropic pressure. We here show numerically that the compact star no-hair relations approach the black hole ones as the compactness approaches that of a black hole. We also prove analytically that the current dipole moment exactly reaches the black hole limit quadratically in compactness as strongly anisotropic stars approach the black hole limit. We moreover show that compact stars become progressively oblate in this limit, even if prolate at low compactness due to strong anisotropies.

  8. The Black Pearl mine, Arizona - Wolframite veins and stockscheider pegmatite related to an albitic stock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Christopher; Burt, Donald M.

    1990-01-01

    Wolframite-bearing quartz veins flanked by greisen alteration occur at and near the Black Pearl mine, Yavapai County, Arizona. The veins are genetically related to a small albitite stock, and cut a series of Proterozoic metasedimentary and intrusive rocks. The largest vein, the only one mined, is located at the apex of the stock. Field relations imply that this stock is a late-stage differentiate of time 1.4-Ga anorogenic Lawler Peak batholith, which crops out about 3 km to the south. The albitites are of igneous origin and have suffered only minor deuteric alteration. A thin (1 to 2 m) pegmatite unit ('stockscheider') occurs at the contact of the Black Pearl Albitite stock with the country rocks. Directional indicators and other evidence suggest that the pegmatite was formed in the presence of a volatile-rich fluid phase close to the time of magma emplacement. The sudden change from coarse-grained microcline-rich pegmatite to fine-grained, albite-rich albitite suggests pressure quenching, possibly due to escape of fluids up the Black Pearl vein. Stockscheider-like textures typically occur near the apical contacts of productive plutons. The presence or absence of this texture is a useful guide in prospecting for lithophile metal deposits.

  9. The Black Pearl mine, Arizona - Wolframite veins and stockscheider pegmatite related to an albitic stock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Christopher; Burt, Donald M.

    Wolframite-bearing quartz veins flanked by greisen alteration occur at and near the Black Pearl mine, Yavapai County, Arizona. The veins are genetically related to a small albitite stock, and cut a series of Proterozoic metasedimentary and intrusive rocks. The largest vein, the only one mined, is located at the apex of the stock. Field relations imply that this stock is a late-stage differentiate of time 1.4-Ga anorogenic Lawler Peak batholith, which crops out about 3 km to the south. The albitites are of igneous origin and have suffered only minor deuteric alteration. A thin (1 to 2 m) pegmatite unit ('stockscheider') occurs at the contact of the Black Pearl Albitite stock with the country rocks. Directional indicators and other evidence suggest that the pegmatite was formed in the presence of a volatile-rich fluid phase close to the time of magma emplacement. The sudden change from coarse-grained microcline-rich pegmatite to fine-grained, albite-rich albitite suggests pressure quenching, possibly due to escape of fluids up the Black Pearl vein. Stockscheider-like textures typically occur near the apical contacts of productive plutons. The presence or absence of this texture is a useful guide in prospecting for lithophile metal deposits.

  10. A massive binary black-hole system in OJ 287 and a test of general relativity.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M J; Lehto, H J; Nilsson, K; Heidt, J; Takalo, L O; Sillanpää, A; Villforth, C; Kidger, M; Poyner, G; Pursimo, T; Zola, S; Wu, J-H; Zhou, X; Sadakane, K; Drozdz, M; Koziel, D; Marchev, D; Ogloza, W; Porowski, C; Siwak, M; Stachowski, G; Winiarski, M; Hentunen, V-P; Nissinen, M; Liakos, A; Dogru, S

    2008-04-17

    Tests of Einstein's general theory of relativity have mostly been carried out in weak gravitational fields where the space-time curvature effects are first-order deviations from Newton's theory. Binary pulsars provide a means of probing the strong gravitational field around a neutron star, but strong-field effects may be best tested in systems containing black holes. Here we report such a test in a close binary system of two candidate black holes in the quasar OJ 287. This quasar shows quasi-periodic optical outbursts at 12-year intervals, with two outburst peaks per interval. The latest outburst occurred in September 2007, within a day of the time predicted by the binary black-hole model and general relativity. The observations confirm the binary nature of the system and also provide evidence for the loss of orbital energy in agreement (within 10 per cent) with the emission of gravitational waves from the system. In the absence of gravitational wave emission the outburst would have happened 20 days later.

  11. Health-Related Stereotype Threat Predicts Health Services Delays Among Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Dexter M.; Dampeer-Moore, Jodi; Van Allen, Katherine L.; Saunders, Darlene R.; Snowden, Cecelia B.; Johnson, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    To our knowledge, no published research has developed an individual difference measure of health-related stereotype threat (HRST). We adapted existing measures of academic stereotype threat to the health domain on a sample of black college students (N = 280). The resulting health-related stereotype threat scale-24 (HRST-24) was assessed for internal consistency, construct and incremental validity, and whether it explains variance in self-reported delays among four preventive health behaviors—blood pressure and cholesterol assays, physical exams, and routine checkups. After adjusting for several control variables, the HRST-24’s (full scale α = 0.96) perceived black health inferiority (18 items; α = 0.96) and perceived physician racial bias (6 items; α = 0.85) sub-scales explained unique variance in delays among two of the four behaviors including a blood cholesterol check (p < .01) and routine checkup—albeit at marginal levels (p = .063) in the case of the latter. Overall, these data provide preliminary evidence of construct and incremental validity for the HRST-24 among blacks. Recommendations for administering the scale are provided and future directions for HRST research are discussed. PMID:24163710

  12. The Supermassive Black Hole Mass - Pitch Angle Relation in Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennefick, Daniel; Berrier, J. C.; Kennefick, J. D.; Seigar, M.; Davis, B. L.; Barrows, R. S.; Shields, D.; Lacy, C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present new and improved evidence for a strong correlation, with low scatter, between supermassive black hole mass and spiral arm pitch angle in disk galaxies. Such a correlation could be a useful tool for developing a SMBH mass function for both local and distant galaxies, because other host galaxy features which correlate with black hole mass either require expensive spectroscopy (as in the M-sigma relation) or work less well for spiral than for other galaxies because of the need to disentangle the bulge component from the disk and bar components (Bulge luminosity or Sersic index). A late-type SMBH mass function derived from pitch angle measurements could complement nicely early-type mass functions derived from these other measurements, especially because the late-type mass function has so far received less attention than the early-type mass function.

  13. Black brane solutions related to non-singular Kac-Moody algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchuk, V. D.; Melnikov, V. N.

    2011-01-01

    A multidimensional gravitational model containing scalar fields and antisymmetric forms is considered. The manifold is chosen in the form M = M_0 x M_1 x ... x M_n, where M_i are Einstein spaces (i > 0). The sigma-model approach and exact solutions with intersecting composite branes (e.g., solutions with harmonic functions and black brane ones) with intersection rules related to non-singular Kac-Moody (KM) algebras (e.g. hyperbolic ones) are considered. Some examples of black brane solutions are presented, e.g., those corresponding to hyperbolic KM algebras: H_2(q,q) (q > 2), HA_2^(1) = A_2^{++} and to the Lorentzian KM algebra P_{10}.

  14. Establishing a relation between the mass and the spin of stellar-mass black holes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Indrani; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata

    2013-08-09

    Stellar mass black holes (SMBHs), forming by the core collapse of very massive, rapidly rotating stars, are expected to exhibit a high density accretion disk around them developed from the spinning mantle of the collapsing star. A wide class of such disks, due to their high density and temperature, are effective emitters of neutrinos and hence called neutrino cooled disks. Tracking the physics relating the observed (neutrino) luminosity to the mass, spin of black holes (BHs) and the accretion rate (M) of such disks, here we establish a correlation between the spin and mass of SMBHs at their formation stage. Our work shows that spinning BHs are more massive than nonspinning BHs for a given M. However, slowly spinning BHs can turn out to be more massive than spinning BHs if M at their formation stage was higher compared to faster spinning BHs.

  15. Numerical Relativity Simulations of Black Holes Binaries, Neutron Star Binaries, and Neutron Star Oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosofsky, Shawn; Gold, Roman; Chirenti, Cecilia; Miller, Cole

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of numerical relativity simulations, using the Einstein Toolkit, of black hole binaries, neutron star binaries, and neutron star oscillations. The black hole binary simulations represent the source of LIGO's first gravitational wave detection, GW150914. We compare the gravitational wave output of this simulation with the LIGO data LIGO on GW150914. The neutron star binaries we simulated have different mass ratios and equations of state. These simulations were compared with each other to illustrate the effect of different mass ratios and equations of state on binary evolution and gravitational wave emission. To perform the neutron star oscillation simulations, we applied pressure and density perturbations to the star using specific eigenmodes. These evolutions of the stars were then compared to the expected oscillation frequencies of those excited eigemodes and contrasted with simulations of unperturbed neutron stars.

  16. Binary Dynamics, Black Holes, and Inflationary Perturbations: Applications in General Relativity and Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, James Brian

    2010-12-01

    General Relativity is the standard framework by which all gravitational systems are analyzed in modern research, and it provides the theme for all the investigations in this thesis. Beyond this common platform, very different gravitating problems are examined here, and several analytical approaches are used to investigate these systems. Effective field theory, a methodological approach prominent in quantum field theory, plays an important role in the analysis of two of the problems in this thesis. In the first instance, an effective field theory for bound gravitational states is used to compute the interaction Lagrangian of a binary system at the second post-Newtonian order. A metric parametrization based on a temporal Kaluza-Klein decomposition is also used. In this effective field theory calculation, the post-Newtonian results for the equations of motion are elegantly reproduced. In the next problem considered, effective field theory is used to investigate the thermodynamics of compactified charged black holes. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are all computed to second order in the perturbation parameter and finite size effects are incorporated through higher order worldline operators. Complete agreement is found with an exact extremal black hole solution constructed with traditional General Relativistic methods. The results indicate that the addition of charge to a compactified black hole may delay the phase transition to a black string. Finally, the third problem examined here concerns the evolution of perturbations at the end of early universe inflation. General Relativity enters this problem through cosmological perturbation theory. It is shown that the coherent oscillations in the inflaton break down at the comoving post-inflationary horizon size, about 14 e-folds after the end of inflation. This is many e-folds before any known constraints, leading to possible implications for the matching problem of inflation, and the generation of stochastic

  17. Obesity and Weight Gain in Relation to Incidence of Sarcoidosis in US Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Patricia F.; Govender, Praveen; Berman, Jeffrey S.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis, a systemic disorder characterized by chronic granulomatous inflammation, occurs more frequently among US black women, as do overweight and obesity. Little is known about the relation of overweight and obesity, which induce chronic inflammation, to incidence of sarcoidosis. METHODS: We assessed the relation of obesity and weight gain to the incidence of sarcoidosis in the Black Women’s Health Study, a follow-up study of 59,000 US black women aged 21 to 69 years at baseline in 1995. Information on weight at age 18 years, height, current weight, incident sarcoidosis, and covariates was collected at baseline and on biennial follow-up questionnaires. Cox regression models adjusted for age, education, geographic region, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs. RESULTS: From 1995 through 2011, 454 incident cases of sarcoidosis occurred during 707,557 person-years of follow-up. The incidence of sarcoidosis increased with increasing BMI and weight gain. The IRR was 1.40 (95% CI, 0.88-2.25) for BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 at age 18 years relative to 20 to 24 kg/m2 (P trend = .18), 1.42 (95% CI, 1.07-1.89) for BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 at baseline relative to 20 to 24 kg/m2 (P trend = .01), and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.10-1.97) for a weight gain between age 18 years and baseline of ≥ 30 kg relative to 0 to 9 kg (P trend = .16). In stratified analyses, there were significant trends of sarcoidosis incidence with increasing BMI and weight gain in women aged ≥ 45 years and ever smokers. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides evidence that weight gain and obesity during adulthood are associated with increased sarcoidosis incidence. PMID:25411869

  18. UPDATED MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR NUCLEAR STAR CLUSTERS AND A COMPARISON TO SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W.

    2013-02-15

    We investigate whether or not nuclear star clusters and supermassive black holes (SMBHs) follow a common set of mass scaling relations with their host galaxy's properties, and hence can be considered to form a single class of central massive object (CMO). We have compiled a large sample of galaxies with measured nuclear star cluster masses and host galaxy properties from the literature and fit log-linear scaling relations. We find that nuclear star cluster mass, M {sub NC}, correlates most tightly with the host galaxy's velocity dispersion: log M {sub NC} = (2.11 {+-} 0.31)log ({sigma}/54) + (6.63 {+-} 0.09), but has a slope dramatically shallower than the relation defined by SMBHs. We find that the nuclear star cluster mass relations involving host galaxy (and spheroid) luminosity and stellar and dynamical mass, intercept with but are in general shallower than the corresponding black hole scaling relations. In particular, M {sub NC}{proportional_to}M {sup 0.55{+-}0.15} {sub Gal,dyn}; the nuclear cluster mass is not a constant fraction of its host galaxy or spheroid mass. We conclude that nuclear stellar clusters and SMBHs do not form a single family of CMOs.

  19. THE M {sub BH}-L {sub SPHEROID} RELATION AT HIGH AND LOW MASSES, THE QUADRATIC GROWTH OF BLACK HOLES, AND INTERMEDIATE-MASS BLACK HOLE CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Alister W.; Scott, Nicholas

    2013-02-20

    From a sample of 72 galaxies with reliable supermassive black hole masses M {sub bh}, we derive the M {sub bh}-(host spheroid luminosity, L) relation for (1) the subsample of 24 core-Sersic galaxies with partially depleted cores, and (2) the remaining subsample of 48 Sersic galaxies. Using K{sub s} -band Two Micron All Sky Survey data, we find the near-linear relation M {sub bh}{proportional_to}L {sup 1.10{+-}0.20} {sub K{sub s}} for the core-Sersic spheroids thought to be built in additive dry merger events, while we find the relation M {sub bh}{proportional_to}L {sup 2.73{+-}0.55}{sub K{sub s}} for the Sersic spheroids built from gas-rich processes. After converting literature B-band disk galaxy magnitudes into inclination- and dust-corrected bulge magnitudes, via a useful new equation presented herein, we obtain a similar result. Unlike with the M {sub bh}-(velocity dispersion) diagram, which is also updated here using the same galaxy sample, it remains unknown whether barred and non-barred Sersic galaxies are offset from each other in the M {sub bh}-L diagram. While black hole feedback has typically been invoked to explain what was previously thought to be a nearly constant M {sub bh}/M {sub Spheroid} mass ratio of {approx}0.2%, we advocate that the near-linear M {sub bh}-L and M {sub bh}-M {sub Spheroid} relations observed at high masses may have instead arisen largely from the additive dry merging of galaxies. We argue that feedback results in a dramatically different scaling relation, such that black hole mass scales roughly quadratically with the spheroid mass in Sersic galaxies. We therefore introduce a revised cold-gas 'quasar' mode feeding equation for semi-analytical models to reflect what we dub the quadratic growth of black holes in Sersic galaxies built amidst gas-rich processes. Finally, we use our new Sersic M {sub bh}-L equations to predict the masses of candidate intermediate mass black holes in almost 50 low-luminosity spheroids containing

  20. HIV-related behaviors among black students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) versus white students attending a traditionally white institution (TWI).

    PubMed

    Hou, Su-I

    2009-08-01

    Recent data indicated the unexpected movement of the HIV epidemic in the Southeastern US and the transmission among college students especially in black campuses. The current study is the first one attempted to assess and compare HIV-related behaviors among black students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and white students attending a traditionally white institution (TWI). Black students were recruited from HBCUs (n=222) and white students from a TWI (n=335) via online surveys. The majority of students in both samples were between 18 and 24 years old (mean = 20.65) and self-identified as heterosexual oriented (91%), although the HBCU sample revealed slightly higher proportion of females (81.1% vs. 72.5%). Data indicated different behavioral patterns. Although, both groups reported similar prevalence of oral and anal sex; after adjusting for age and gender, HBCU blacks were more likely to have had vaginal sex (OR = 1.7) and at younger age (16.3 vs. 17.5 years), more likely to have had Sexually Transmitted Infections (OR = 4.4), have been or gotten someone pregnant (OR = 3.6). They were, however, less likely to use alcohol before sex of any type, and more likely to have been tested for HIV (OR = 8.4), ask partner's status (OR = 3.8) or being asked of status (OR = 2.9). Comparing with TWI whites, HBCU blacks also perceived higher risk of HIV infection, higher peer norms toward vaginal and anal sex. The findings showed HBCU students taking more protective behaviors in some aspects while practicing riskier behaviors in others. Results have implications on developing tailored HIV behavioral interventions.

  1. Numerical relativity waveform surrogate model for generically precessing binary black hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E.; Scheel, Mark A.; Galley, Chad R.; Ott, Christian D.; Boyle, Michael; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Szilágyi, Béla

    2017-07-01

    A generic, noneccentric binary black hole (BBH) system emits gravitational waves (GWs) that are completely described by seven intrinsic parameters: the black hole spin vectors and the ratio of their masses. Simulating a BBH coalescence by solving Einstein's equations numerically is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of computing resources for a single set of parameter values. Since theoretical predictions of the GWs are often needed for many different source parameters, a fast and accurate model is essential. We present the first surrogate model for GWs from the coalescence of BBHs including all seven dimensions of the intrinsic noneccentric parameter space. The surrogate model, which we call NRSur7dq2, is built from the results of 744 numerical relativity simulations. NRSur7dq2 covers spin magnitudes up to 0.8 and mass ratios up to 2, includes all ℓ≤4 modes, begins about 20 orbits before merger, and can be evaluated in ˜50 ms . We find the largest NRSur7dq2 errors to be comparable to the largest errors in the numerical relativity simulations, and more than an order of magnitude smaller than the errors of other waveform models. Our model, and more broadly the methods developed here, will enable studies that were not previously possible when using highly accurate waveforms, such as parameter inference and tests of general relativity with GW observations.

  2. Obesity-related metabolite profiles of black women spanning the epidemiologic transition.

    PubMed

    Dugas, Lara R; Chorell, Elin; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Lambert, Estelle V; Cao, Guichan; Cooper, Richard S; Layden, Brian T; Scholten, Denise; Olsson, Tommy; Luke, Amy; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-03-01

    In developed countries, specific metabolites have been associated with obesity and metabolic diseases, e.g. type 2 diabetes. It is unknown whether a similar profile persists across populations of African-origin, at increased risk for obesity and related diseases. In a cross-sectional study of normal-weight and obese black women (33.3 ± 6.3 years) from the US (N = 69, 65 % obese), South Africa (SA, N = 97, 49 % obese) and Ghana (N = 82, 33 % obese) serum metabolite profiles were characterized via gas chromatography-time of flight/mass spectrometry. In US and SA women, BMI correlated with branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, as well as dopamine and aminoadipic acid. The relationship between BMI and lipid metabolites differed by site; BMI correlated positively with palmitoleic acid (16:1) in the US; negatively with stearic acid (18:0) in SA, and positively with arachidonic acid (20:4) in Ghana. BMI was also positively associated with sugar-related metabolites in the US; i.e. uric acid, and mannitol, and with glucosamine, glucoronic acid and mannitol in SA. While we identified a common amino acid metabolite profile associated with obesity in black women from the US and SA, we also found site-specific obesity-related metabolites suggesting that the local environment is a key moderator of obesity.

  3. THE RELATION BETWEEN BLACK HOLE MASS AND HOST SPHEROID STELLAR MASS OUT TO z {approx} 2

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, Vardha N.; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2011-12-01

    We combine Hubble Space Telescope images from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey with archival Very Large Telescope and Keck spectra of a sample of 11 X-ray-selected broad-line active galactic nuclei in the redshift range 1 < z < 2 to study the black-hole-mass-stellar-mass relation out to a look-back time of 10 Gyr. Stellar masses of the spheroidal component (M{sub sph,*}) are derived from multi-filter surface photometry. Black hole masses (M{sub BH}) are estimated from the width of the broad Mg II emission line and the 3000 A nuclear luminosity. Comparing with a uniformly measured local sample and taking into account selection effects, we find evolution in the form M{sub BH}/M{sub sph,*}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 1.96{+-}}0{sup .55}, in agreement with our earlier studies based on spheroid luminosity. However, this result is more accurate because it does not require a correction for luminosity evolution and therefore avoids the related and dominant systematic uncertainty. We also measure total stellar masses (M{sub host,*}). Combining our sample with data from the literature, we find M{sub BH}/M{sub host,*}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup 1.15{+-}0.15}, consistent with the hypothesis that black holes (in the range M{sub BH} {approx} 10{sup 8-9} M{sub Sun }) pre-date the formation of their host galaxies. Roughly, one-third of our objects reside in spiral galaxies; none of the host galaxies reveal signs of interaction or major merger activity. Combined with the slower evolution in host stellar masses compared to spheroid stellar masses, our results indicate that secular evolution or minor mergers play a non-negligible role in growing both BHs and spheroids.

  4. Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  5. Surrogate models of gravitational waveforms from numerical relativity simulations of precessing binary black hole mergers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott; Galley, Chad; Hemberger, Daniel; Scheel, Mark; Schmidt, Patricia; Smith, Rory

    2017-01-01

    Extracting astrophysical parameters and testing general relativity from gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers requires high-fidelity signal predictions. The effective-one-body model and phenomenological waveform models have been shown to work well for a subset of the possible parameter space. They could be insufficiently accurate for estimating the parameters of a loud gravitational wave detection in other regions of the parameter space. Numerical relativity (NR) surrogate models attempt to rapidly and accurately interpolate the waveforms from a set of NR simulations over a subset of parameter space. Using the Spectral Einstein Code (SpEC), we have built NR surrogate models for precessing binaries with a restricted spin direction on the smaller black hole, and are actively working on extending this to the full 7d parameter space of non-eccentric binaries. The NR surrogate models typically perform an order of magnitude better than other waveform models when compared to NR waveforms which were not included in the surrogate training set, and can be used in gravitational wave parameter estimation.

  6. Compromised bioavailable IGF-1 of black men relates favourably to ambulatory blood pressure: The SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Schutte, R; Smith, W; Huisman, H W; Mels, C M C; Malan, L; Fourie, C M T; Malan, N T; Van Rooyen, J M; Kruger, R; Conti, E

    2014-03-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has potent endothelial-protective, anti-platelet and anti-thrombotic activities, and also exerts mitogenic and proliferatory actions on vascular smooth muscle cells. Conflicting reports exist regarding the role of IGF-1 in vascular protection and atherogenesis. We therefore investigated the relationships of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) with a range of components of the IGF-1 axis in a bi-ethnic population. We included black (N = 86) and white (N = 101) men and measured growth hormone, total IGF-1, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels. Ambulatory BP was almost 10 mmHg higher in black men (137/88 mmHg versus 128/80 mmHg; both p < 0.001), accompanied by an adverse profile of the IGF-axis for all measured components (all p < 0.01), including reduced bioavailable IGF-1 (IGF-1/IGFBP-3; p = 0.006) and tissue IGF-1 accessibility index as represented by IGF-1.PAPP-A/IGFBP-3 (p < 0.001). Single, partial and multiple regression analyses confirmed an independent inverse association between ambulatory systolic BP and bioavailable IGF-1 in black men (R(2) = 0.24; β = -0.22; p = 0.035). cIMT was similar in the ethnic groups (p = 0.34), and was negatively associated with bioavailable IGF-1 in white men (R(2) = 0.42; β = -0.17; p = 0.039) prior to adjustment for γ-glutamyl transferase (R(2) = 0.45; β = -0.10; p = 0.25). Ambulatory systolic BP is inversely related to bioavailable IGF-1 in black men who displayed low IGF-1 concentrations. An inverse relation was found between cIMT and IGF-1 in white men, which disappeared after correction for γ-glutamyl transferase - opposing reports of a detrimental role of IGF-1 in the early stages of atherogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children's Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Elizabeth P.; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method: Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or…

  8. Figurative Language of Disadvantaged Blacks as Related to Poverty, Music, Poetry, Language and Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter R.

    The unjustified assumption that black children have limited verbal or articulation skills stems from the fact that blacks use figurative, nonliteral, and nonstandard language in the classroom. The language that most disadvantaged blacks learn at home and bring to the classroom is a restricted form born out of poverty and limited exposure to good…

  9. 20 CFR 422.512 - Applications and related forms used in the black lung benefits program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... black lung benefits program. 422.512 Section 422.512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... black lung benefits program. (a) Application forms. The following forms are prescribed for use in... Act of 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972: SSA-46—Application for Benefits Under...

  10. 20 CFR 422.512 - Applications and related forms used in the black lung benefits program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... black lung benefits program. 422.512 Section 422.512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... black lung benefits program. (a) Application forms. The following forms are prescribed for use in... Act of 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972: SSA-46—Application for Benefits...

  11. 20 CFR 422.512 - Applications and related forms used in the black lung benefits program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... black lung benefits program. 422.512 Section 422.512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... black lung benefits program. (a) Application forms. The following forms are prescribed for use in... Act of 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972: SSA-46—Application for Benefits...

  12. 20 CFR 422.512 - Applications and related forms used in the black lung benefits program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... black lung benefits program. 422.512 Section 422.512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... black lung benefits program. (a) Application forms. The following forms are prescribed for use in... Act of 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972: SSA-46—Application for Benefits...

  13. 20 CFR 422.512 - Applications and related forms used in the black lung benefits program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... black lung benefits program. 422.512 Section 422.512 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... black lung benefits program. (a) Application forms. The following forms are prescribed for use in... Act of 1969, as amended by the Black Lung Benefits Act of 1972: SSA-46—Application for Benefits...

  14. Perspectives on Stress, Parenting, and Children's Obesity-Related Behaviors in Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Elizabeth P.; Kazak, Anne; Kumanyika, Shiriki; Lewis, Lisa; Barg, Frances K.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to develop targets for childhood obesity interventions in non-Hispanic-Black (Black) families, this study examined parental perceptions of stress and identified potential links among parental stress and children's eating patterns, physical activity, and screen-time. Method: Thirty-three self-identified Black parents or…

  15. Updating the Trainability Tests Literature on Black-White Subgroup Differences and Reconsidering Criterion-Related Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Philip L.; Buster, Maury A.; Bobko, Philip

    2011-01-01

    A number of applied psychologists have suggested that trainability test Black-White ethnic group differences are low or relatively low (e.g., Siegel & Bergman, 1975), though data are scarce. Likewise, there are relatively few estimates of criterion-related validity for trainability tests predicting job performance (cf. Robertson & Downs,…

  16. Updating the Trainability Tests Literature on Black-White Subgroup Differences and Reconsidering Criterion-Related Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Philip L.; Buster, Maury A.; Bobko, Philip

    2011-01-01

    A number of applied psychologists have suggested that trainability test Black-White ethnic group differences are low or relatively low (e.g., Siegel & Bergman, 1975), though data are scarce. Likewise, there are relatively few estimates of criterion-related validity for trainability tests predicting job performance (cf. Robertson & Downs,…

  17. Bulk supertranslation memories: A concept reshaping the vacua and black holes of general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey

    2016-07-01

    The memory effect is a prediction of general relativity on the same footing as the existence of gravitational waves. The memory effect is understood at future null infinity as a transition induced by null radiation from a Poincaré vacuum to another vacuum. Those are related by a supertranslation, which is a fundamental symmetry of asymptotically flat spacetimes. In this paper, I argue that finite supertranslation diffeomorphisms should be extended into the bulk spacetime consistently with canonical charge conservation. It then leads to fascinating geometrical features of gravitational Poincaré vacua. I then argue that in the process of black hole merger or gravitational collapse, dramatic but computable memory effects occur. They lead to a final stationary metric which qualitatively deviates from the Schwarzschild metric.

  18. Stellar Populations across the Black Hole Mass-Velocity Dispersion Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Navarro, Ignacio; Brodie, Jean P.; van den Bosch, Remco C. E.; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Forbes, Duncan A.

    2016-11-01

    Coevolution between supermassive black holes (BH) and their host galaxies is universally adopted in models for galaxy formation. In the absence of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs), simulated massive galaxies keep forming stars in the local universe. From an observational point of view, however, such coevolution remains unclear. We present a stellar population analysis of galaxies with direct BH mass measurements and the BH mass-σ relation as a working framework. We find that over-massive BH galaxies, i.e., galaxies lying above the best-fitting BH mass-σ line, tend to be older and more α-element-enhanced than under-massive BH galaxies. The scatter in the BH mass-σ-[α/Fe] plane is significantly lower than that in the standard BH mass-σ relation. We interpret this trend as an imprint of AGN feedback on the star formation histories of massive galaxies.

  19. Child and adolescent abuse in relation to obesity in adulthood: the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Boynton-Jarrett, Renée; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Boggs, Deborah A; Wise, Lauren A

    2012-08-01

    To investigate the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence with risk of adult obesity among black women in the United States. Participants were women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study begun in 1995. In 2005, 33298 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on early life experiences of abuse. Log-binomial regression models were used to derive risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of child/teenager abuse with obesity (BMI ≥ 30) and central adiposity (waist circumference >35 inches) reported in 2005. The RR for BMI ≥ 30, a measure of overall obesity, was 1.29 (95% CI 1.20-1.38) for the highest severity of exposure to child/teenager physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse. After controlling for postulated intermediates, including reproductive history, diet, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and socioeconomic status, the RR was 1.14 (95% CI 1.08-1.21). The RR for waist circumference >35 inches, which measures central obesity, for severe physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse was 1.29 (95% CI 1.19-1.38) before adjustment for intermediates and 1.18 (95% CI 1.10-1.27) after adjustment. Early life sexual and physical abuse was associated with an increased risk of overall and central obesity in adulthood. Although the association between abuse and obesity was explained to some extent by health behaviors, reproductive history, and mental health, these factors did not fully account for the associations. Our data suggest that early life adversity is related to adult body size and weight distribution.

  20. Pathways to HIV-Related Behavior Among Heterosexual, Rural Black Men: A Person-Centered Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Steven M; Cho, Junhan; Barnum, Stacey; Barton, Allen; Hicks, Megan R; Brown, Geoffrey L

    2015-12-23

    We investigated the psychosocial mechanisms linking personal and contextual risk factors to HIV-related behavior among 498 rural Black men. We characterized HIV-related behavior in terms of profile groups and hypothesized that contextual and personal risk factors (childhood adversity, community disadvantage, incarceration, and racial discrimination) would predict HIV-related behavior indirectly via two psychosocial mechanisms: impulsivity and negative relational schemas. Study results documented three HIV-related behavior profile groups. The Safer group reported low levels of risky behavior. The Risk-Taking group reported inconsistent condom use and elevated substance use. The Multiple Partners group reported the highest numbers of partners and relatively consistent condom use. Risk factors predicted profile groups directly and indirectly through psychosocial mechanisms. Impulsivity mediated the association between community disadvantage and membership in the risk-taking group. Negative relational schemas mediated the associations of childhood experiences and community disadvantage with membership in the multiple partners group. Specificity in pathways suggests the need for targeted interventions based on multidimensional characterizations of risk behavior.

  1. Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hees, A.; Do, T.; Ghez, A. M.; Martinez, G. D.; Naoz, S.; Becklin, E. E.; Boehle, A.; Chappell, S.; Chu, D.; Dehghanfar, A.; Kosmo, K.; Lu, J. R.; Matthews, K.; Morris, M. R.; Sakai, S.; Schödel, R.; Witzel, G.

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate that short-period stars orbiting around the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center can successfully be used to probe the gravitational theory in a strong regime. We use 19 years of observations of the two best measured short-period stars orbiting our Galactic center to constrain a hypothetical fifth force that arises in various scenarios motivated by the development of a unification theory or in some models of dark matter and dark energy. No deviation from general relativity is reported and the fifth force strength is restricted to an upper 95% confidence limit of |α | <0.016 at a length scale of λ =150 astronomical units. We also derive a 95% confidence upper limit on a linear drift of the argument of periastron of the short-period star S0-2 of |ω˙ S0-2| <1.6 ×10-3 rad /yr , which can be used to constrain various gravitational and astrophysical theories. This analysis provides the first fully self-consistent test of the gravitational theory using orbital dynamic in a strong gravitational regime, that of a supermassive black hole. A sensitivity analysis for future measurements is also presented.

  2. Fast and Accurate Prediction of Numerical Relativity Waveforms from Binary Black Hole Coalescences Using Surrogate Models.

    PubMed

    Blackman, Jonathan; Field, Scott E; Galley, Chad R; Szilágyi, Béla; Scheel, Mark A; Tiglio, Manuel; Hemberger, Daniel A

    2015-09-18

    Simulating a binary black hole coalescence by solving Einstein's equations is computationally expensive, requiring days to months of supercomputing time. Using reduced order modeling techniques, we construct an accurate surrogate model, which is evaluated in a millisecond to a second, for numerical relativity (NR) waveforms from nonspinning binary black hole coalescences with mass ratios in [1, 10] and durations corresponding to about 15 orbits before merger. We assess the model's uncertainty and show that our modeling strategy predicts NR waveforms not used for the surrogate's training with errors nearly as small as the numerical error of the NR code. Our model includes all spherical-harmonic _{-2}Y_{ℓm} waveform modes resolved by the NR code up to ℓ=8. We compare our surrogate model to effective one body waveforms from 50M_{⊙} to 300M_{⊙} for advanced LIGO detectors and find that the surrogate is always more faithful (by at least an order of magnitude in most cases).

  3. Testing General Relativity with Stellar Orbits around the Supermassive Black Hole in Our Galactic Center.

    PubMed

    Hees, A; Do, T; Ghez, A M; Martinez, G D; Naoz, S; Becklin, E E; Boehle, A; Chappell, S; Chu, D; Dehghanfar, A; Kosmo, K; Lu, J R; Matthews, K; Morris, M R; Sakai, S; Schödel, R; Witzel, G

    2017-05-26

    We demonstrate that short-period stars orbiting around the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center can successfully be used to probe the gravitational theory in a strong regime. We use 19 years of observations of the two best measured short-period stars orbiting our Galactic center to constrain a hypothetical fifth force that arises in various scenarios motivated by the development of a unification theory or in some models of dark matter and dark energy. No deviation from general relativity is reported and the fifth force strength is restricted to an upper 95% confidence limit of |α|<0.016 at a length scale of λ=150 astronomical units. We also derive a 95% confidence upper limit on a linear drift of the argument of periastron of the short-period star S0-2 of |ω[over ˙]_{S0-2}|<1.6×10^{-3}  rad/yr, which can be used to constrain various gravitational and astrophysical theories. This analysis provides the first fully self-consistent test of the gravitational theory using orbital dynamic in a strong gravitational regime, that of a supermassive black hole. A sensitivity analysis for future measurements is also presented.

  4. Tests of general relativity from gravitational wave observations of binary black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Pozzo, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational waves emitted during the coalescence of compact binary systems carry a wealth of information about the merging objects, the remnant object as well as their interaction with space-time. The description of the dynamics of such systems is based on solutions of the theory of general relativity. For any given physical configuration of masses, spins and orbital motion, general relativity predicts the dynamical evolution of the binary system as well as the corresponding gravitational wave signal. During the coalescence of extremely compact objects such as binary black holes, the typical curvature and velocity at play are such that, from the observation of the gravitational wave signal, we can access the most extreme dynamical regimes of gravity. In such conditions, we can test our understanding of gravity by looking for potential departures between the solutions of general relativity and the actual dynamics of space-time. The LIGO observations GW150914 and GW151226 provided wonderful testing grounds for general relativity in the, up to now unaccessible, strong-field dynamical regime of gravity. During my talk, I will review and discuss several of the tests that have been devised to detect violations of the predictions of general relativity from the observation of gravitational waves from coalescing binary systems. The discussion will be based on the results of the analysis of GW150914 and GW151226. Finally, I will conclude by discussing some of the future prospects of extending the current state-of-the-art methodologies to further aspects of general relativity.

  5. The Influence of Racism-Related Stress on the Academic Motivation of Black and Latino/a Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sneva, Jacob N.; Beehler, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of racism-related stress on the academic and psychological factors affecting the success of 151 Black and Latino/a college students enrolled at several predominantly White universities in the northeastern United States. Institutional racism-related stress was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation but…

  6. The Influence of Racism-Related Stress on the Academic Motivation of Black and Latino/a Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Amy L.; Sneva, Jacob N.; Beehler, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of racism-related stress on the academic and psychological factors affecting the success of 151 Black and Latino/a college students enrolled at several predominantly White universities in the northeastern United States. Institutional racism-related stress was negatively correlated with extrinsic motivation but…

  7. The building up of the black hole mass -stellar mass relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamastra, Alessandra

    We derive the growth of SMBHs relative to the stellar content of their host galaxy predicted under the assumption of BH accretion triggered by galaxy encounters occurring during their merging histories. The latter are described through Monte Carlo realizations, and are con-nected to gas processes, star formation and BH accretion using a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation in a cosmological framework. This allows us to connect the star formation process in the host galaxies to the growth of Supermassive Black Holes. We show that, within this framework, the ratio Γ ≡ (MBH /M∗ )(z)/(MBH /M∗ )(z = 0) between the Black Hole mass and the galactic stellar mass (normalized to the local value) depends on both BH mass and red-shift. While the average value and the spread of Γ(z) increase with z, such an effect is larger for massive BHs, reaching values Γ ≈ 5 for massive Black Holes (M ≥ 109 M ) at z 4, in agreement with recent observations of high-redshift QSOs; this is due to the the effectiveness of interactions in triggering BH accretion in high-density environments (where massive haloes form) at high redshifts. To test such a model against observations, we worked out specific pre-dictions for sub-samples of the simulated galaxies corresponding to the different observational samples for which measurements of Γ have been obtained. We found that for Broad Line AGNs at intermediate redshifts 1 z 2 values of Γ ≈ 2 are expected, with a mild trend toward larger value for increasing BH mass. Instead, when we select from our Monte Carlo simulations only extremely gas rich, rapidly star forming galaxies at the epoch of peak in the cosmic star formation (2 ≤ z ≤ 3), we find low values 0.3 ≤ Γ ≤ 1.5, consistent with recent observational findings on samples of sub-mm galaxies; in the framework of our model, these objects end up at z = 0 in low-to-intermediate mass BHs (M ≤ 109 M ), and they do not represent typical paths leading to local massive

  8. Monitoring contaminant exposure: Relative concentrations of organochlorines in three tissues of American black ducks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Haseltine, S.D.; Geissler, P.H.

    1989-01-01

    Comparison of organochlorine residues in wildlife must often be made to regulatory standards or to values of known biological significance; this is difficult when dissimilar tissues are analyzed and results are expressed on different bases. To relate levels in the different tissues used for regulatory and monitoring purposes and for biological assessments, we exposed American black ducks to mixtures of three organochlorines. Differences in residue burdens among tissues were not statistically significant when levels were expressed on a lipid weight basis. Levels of heptachlor and Aroclor 1254 in one tissue can be accurately predicted from those in another; such predictions for endrin are less reliable. Lipid weight based residue concentrations in wings may be used to predict whether levels in fat exceed residue standards set for human health or approach those associated with effects on populations of species sampled.

  9. Black bear habitat use in relation to food availability in the Interior Highlands of Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Joseph D.; Clapp, Daniel L.; Smith, Kimberly G.; Ederington, Belinda

    1994-01-01

    A black bear (Ursus americanus) food value index (FVI) was developed and calculated for forest cover type classifications on Ozark Mountain (White Rock) and Ouachita Mountain (Dry Creek) study areas in western Arkansas. FVIs are estimates of bear food production capabilities of the major forest cover types and were calculated using percent cover, mean fruit production scorings, and the dietary percentage of each major plant food species as variables. Goodness-of-fit analyses were used to determine use of forest cover types by 23 radio-collared female bears. Habitat selection by forest cover type was not detected on White Rock but was detected on Dry Creek. Use of habitats on Dry Creek appeared to be related to food production with the exception of regeneration areas, which were used less than expected but had a high FVI ranking. In general, pine cover types had low FVI rankings and were used less than expected by bears. Forest management implications are discussed. 

  10. Modified Dispersion Relations: from Black-Hole Entropy to the Cosmological Constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garattini, Remo

    2012-07-01

    Quantum Field Theory is plagued by divergences in the attempt to calculate physical quantities. Standard techniques of regularization and renormalization are used to keep under control such a problem. In this paper we would like to use a different scheme based on Modified Dispersion Relations (MDR) to remove infinities appearing in one loop approximation in contrast to what happens in conventional approaches. In particular, we apply the MDR regularization to the computation of the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole from one side and the Zero Point Energy (ZPE) of the graviton from the other side. The graviton ZPE is connected to the cosmological constant by means of of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation.

  11. Einstein Corpuscles and Dark Core Black Holes in Spontaneously induced General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, Aharon; Gurwich, Ilya

    2006-11-01

    Suppose General Relativity, provocatively governed by a dimensional coupling constant, is a spontaneously Induced theory. In which case, black hole configurations are naively expected to get gracefully modified. For example, the exterior Schwarzschild solution is fully recovered at the GR-limit of such a theory. Serendipitously, however, due to a phase transition, which takes place exactly at the would have been horizon, it connects with a novel dark core characterized by a varying Newton constant (the word `dark' is borrowed from cosmology, where the one and the same theory gives rise to dark matter superimposed by a rippled structure). Once the strict GR-limit is relaxed, localized Einstein-style gravitational corpuscles (practically massless particle configurations with a Newton constant varying core) make their appearance; they become point-like at the GR-limit.

  12. Examining the Association Between Body Mass Index and Weight Related Quality of Life in Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Ard, Jamy D.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.; Howard, Virginia J.; Kolotkin, Ronnete L.; Crosby, Ross D.; Affuso, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Obesity not only increases risk for morbidity/mortality, but also impacts the quality of life of obese individuals. In the United States, black women have the highest prevalence of obesity of any other group with approximately 80% of black women over age 20 having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2. We aimed to examine the association between BMI and quality of life in this high risk population compared to this association in white women, using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL)-Lite questionnaire. Data from 172 black women (mean BMI= 35.7; age=40.5) and 171 white women (mean BMI= 35.5; age=40.4) were collected between 2000 and 2010 analyzed in 2010. The mean IWQOL-Lite total score was 81.6 for black women compared to 66.9 for white women, a statistically significant difference. Hierarchical linear regression models revealed a significant BMI-by-race interaction indicating that the relationship between BMI and IWQOL-Lite score was moderated by race. Our findings suggest notable differences in weight-related quality of life in black and white women. At similar BMIs, black women consistently reported better quality of life than white women on all IWQOL-Lite subscales. The greatest difference in IWQOL-Lite scores between black and white women was seen in the self-esteem subscale. Additional research is needed to understand how to incorporate the weight perspectives of black women into weight management messages and interventions.

  13. Cognitive-motivational influences on the task-related help-seeking behavior of black children.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Le Gall, S; Jones, E

    1990-04-01

    The present study examined the relation between children's mastery motivation, self-assessment of performance, and task-related help-seeking behavior during task performance. Average-achieving black American children, varying in mastery motivation as measured by subscales of the Harter's Intrinsic-Extrinsic Orientation in the Classroom Scale, performed a multitrial verbal task and were given the opportunity to seek help on each trial after making a tentative response and assessing their performance by rating their confidence in the correctness of the response. A response-contingent payoff system was implemented to encourage children to restrict their help seeking to those instances in which they perceived that they could not make a correct response without assistance. As predicted, children's self-assessments of performance, regardless of their accuracy, appeared to influence help seeking more than the actual performance outcomes. Neither children's self-assessments of performance nor their overall rate of help seeking varied with level of measured mastery motivation. However, the type of help sought varied as expected with mastery motivation. Children characterized by high intrinsic orientations toward independent mastery in academic achievement contexts sought indirect help (i.e., hints) more often than they sought direct help (i.e., answers), whereas children characterized by low intrinsic orientations toward independent mastery showed no preference. These differences in motivational orientation influenced requests for help only when children perceived their initial solutions to be incorrect. These findings are discussed in the context of the analyses of help seeking as an instrumental learning and achievement strategy. The implications of the findings for analyses of black children's achievement styles are highlighted.

  14. Updating the (supermassive black hole mass)-(spiral arm pitch angle) relation: a strong correlation for galaxies with pseudobulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Benjamin L.; Graham, Alister W.; Seigar, Marc S.

    2017-10-01

    We have conducted an image analysis of the (current) full sample of 44 spiral galaxies with directly measured supermassive black hole (SMBH) masses, MBH, to determine each galaxy's logarithmic spiral arm pitch angle, ϕ. For predicting black hole masses, we have derived the relation: log (MBH/M⊙) = (7.01 ± 0.07) - (0.171 ± 0.017)[|ϕ| - 15°]. The total root mean square scatter associated with this relation is 0.43 dex in the log MBH direction, with an intrinsic scatter of 0.30 ± 0.08 dex. The MBH-ϕ relation is therefore at least as accurate at predicting SMBH masses in spiral galaxies as the other known relations. By definition, the existence of an MBH-ϕ relation demands that the SMBH mass must correlate with the galaxy discs in some manner. Moreover, with the majority of our sample (37 of 44) classified in the literature as having a pseudobulge morphology, we additionally reveal that the SMBH mass correlates with the large-scale spiral pattern and thus the discs of galaxies hosting pseudobulges. Furthermore, given that the MBH-ϕ relation is capable of estimating black hole masses in bulge-less spiral galaxies, it therefore has great promise for predicting which galaxies may harbour intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, MBH < 105 M⊙). Extrapolating from the current relation, we predict that galaxies with |ϕ| ≥ 26.7° should possess IMBHs.

  15. Disk Assembly and the M BH-σ e Relation of Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debattista, Victor P.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; van den Bosch, Frank C.

    2013-03-01

    Recent Hubble Space Telescope observations have revealed that a majority of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ~ 1-3 are resident in isolated disk galaxies, contrary to the usual expectation that AGNs are triggered by mergers. Here we develop a new test of the cosmic evolution of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in disk galaxies by considering the local population of SMBHs. We show that substantial SMBH growth in spiral galaxies is required as disks assemble. SMBHs exhibit a tight relation between their mass and the velocity dispersion of the spheroid within which they reside, the M •-σ e relation. In disk galaxies the bulge is the spheroid of interest. We explore the evolution of the M •-σ e relation when bulges form together with SMBHs on the M •-σ e relation and then slowly re-form a disk around them. The formation of the disk compresses the bulge, raising its σ e . We present evidence for such compression in the form of larger velocity dispersion of classical bulges compared with elliptical galaxies at the same mass. This compression leads to an offset in the M •-σ e relation if it is not accompanied by an increased M •. We quantify the expected offset based on photometric data and show that, on average, SMBHs must grow by ~50%-65% just to remain on the M •-σ e relation. We find no significant offset in the M •-σ e relations of classical bulges and of ellipticals, implying that SMBHs have been growing along with disks. Our simulations demonstrate that SMBH growth is necessary for the local population of disk galaxies to have remained on the M •-σ e relation.

  16. Reproduction of black-crowned night-herons related to predation and contaminants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Henny, C.J.

    1996-01-01

    Reproductive characteristics were studied at five colonies of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) in south central Washington (4) and north central Oregon (1) in 1991. Predation (primarily avian) was a major factor that adversely affected reproductive success in three colonies and was relatively unimportant in two colonies. The mean number of young surviving to 14 days of age in each colony ranged from 0.47 to 1.94 per nesting female (includes recycling efforts). Unadjusted nest success at each I colony ranged from 31 to 84% (including recycling efforts). Clutch size and incidence of recycling also varied markedly by colony. Residues of DDE, total PCBs, and related compounds were relatively low in most eggs, and mean eggshell thinning by colony ranged from 7 to 11 %. Cytochrome P-450 enzyme (EROD, PROD, and BROD) induction in livers of pipped embryos by colony ranged from low to average in comparison with other colonies throughout the U.S. Residues of dioxins (TCDD) and furans (TCDF) in eggs were generally low and apparently had little influence on reproductive success at any of the colonies.

  17. HIV-related stigma among African, Caribbean, and Black youth in Windsor, Ontario.

    PubMed

    Mihan, Robert; Kerr, Jelani; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    HIV-related stigma has been shown to undermine prevention, care, treatment, and the well-being of people living with HIV. A disproportion burden of HIV infection, as well as elevated levels of HIV-related stigma, is evidenced in sub-Saharan African (SSA) and African-diasporic populations. This study explores factors that influence HIV-related stigma among 16- to 25-year-old youth residing in a Canadian city who identify as African, Caribbean, or Black. Stigma, as rooted in cultural norms and beliefs and related social institutions, combined with insights from research on stigma in SSA and African-diasporic populations, guided the development of a path analytic structural equation model predicting levels of HIV-related stigmatizing attitudes. The model was tested using survey responses of 510 youth to estimate the direct and indirect influences of ethno-religious identity, religious service attendance, time in Canada, HIV/AIDS knowledge, HIV-testing history, sexual health service contact, and gender on HIV-related stigma. Statistically significant negative associations were found between levels of stigma and knowledge and HIV-testing history. Ethno-religious identity and gender had both direct and indirect effects on stigma. African-Muslim participants had higher levels of stigma, lower knowledge, and were less likely to have been tested for HIV infection than other ethno-religious groups. Male participants had higher levels of stigma and lower knowledge than women. Time in Canada had only indirect effects on stigma, with participants in Canada for longer periods having higher knowledge and less likely to have been tested than more recent arrivals. While the strength of the effect of knowledge on stigmatizing attitudes in this research is consistent with other research on stigma and evaluations of stigma-reduction programs, the path analytic results provide additional information about how knowledge and HIV-testing function as mediators of non

  18. Black Lives, White Lives. Three Decades of Race Relations in America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blauner, Bob

    This book explores the racial experience and consciousness of black and white Americans within the context of their lives over the course of 20 years. The subjects of this book, 16 blacks and 12 whites, were interviewed in 1968, again in 1978-79, and for a third time in 1986. They speak in their own words about how their lives unfolded, how their…

  19. Dark-matter haloes and the M-σ relation for supermassive black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, Adam C.; McLaughlin, Dean E.

    2016-10-01

    We develop models of two-component spherical galaxies to establish scaling relations linking the properties of spheroids at z = 0 (total stellar masses, effective radii Re and velocity dispersions within Re) to the properties of their dark-matter haloes at both z = 0 and higher redshifts. Our main motivation is the widely accepted idea that the accretion-driven growth of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in protogalaxies is limited by quasar-mode feedback and gas blow-out. The SMBH masses, MBH, should then be connected to the dark-matter potential wells at the redshift zqso of the blow-out. We specifically consider the example of a power-law dependence on the maximum circular speed in a protogalactic dark-matter halo: M_{BH}∝ V^4_{d,pk}, as could be expected if quasar-mode feedback were momentum-driven. For haloes with a given Vd,pk at a given zqso ≥ 0, our model scaling relations give a typical stellar velocity dispersion σap(Re) at z = 0. Thus, they transform a theoretical MBH-Vd,pk relation into a prediction for an observable MBH-σap(Re) relation. We find the latter to be distinctly non-linear in log-log space. Its shape depends on the generic redshift evolution of haloes in a Λ cold dark matter cosmology and the systematic variation of stellar-to-dark matter mass fraction at z = 0, in addition to any assumptions about the physics underlying the MBH-Vd,pk relation. Despite some clear limitations of the form we use for MBH versus Vd,pk, and even though we do not include any SMBH growth through dry mergers at low redshift, our results for MBH-σap(Re) compare well to data for local early types if we take zqso ˜ 2-4.

  20. 75 FR 8045 - Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS Hearing on the Department of Justice's Actions Related to the New Black Panther Party Litigation and its Enforcement of Section 11(b) of the Voting Rights Act Correction Notice document 2010-3168 appearing on page...

  1. An Examination of the Relationship between General Life Stress, Racism-Related Stress, and Psychological Health among Black Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.

    2007-01-01

    This study explored the relationship among general life stress, racism-related stress, and psychological health in a sample of 220 Black men. Participants completed a personal data form, the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), a modified version of the Schedule of Racist Events (H. Landrine & E. A. Klonoff,…

  2. The relative stability of black hole threshold solutions in gravitational collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brasoveanu, Theodor; Pretorius, Frans

    2012-03-01

    We present numerical studies of the relative stability of critical solutions in problems of gravitational collapse. These strong-field solutions to Einstein equations, initially discovered by M. Choptuik, arise at the threshold of black hole formation. We study the evolution of systems with multiple matter sources (such as scalar or Yang-Mills fields) that exhibit the same type of threshold solution when studied individually and only interact with each other gravitationally. Given the unstable nature of critical solutions, the central question that we address is how does matter of one type behave in the presence of a critical solution of another type of matter. Preliminary results, using adaptive grid techniques to solve Einstein equations coupled to matter, indicate that the near-critical solution of the combined system seems to switch from one type of threshold to another, as the critical point is approached in parameter space. The overall dynamics (exhibiting time-periodicity or self-similarity) depends on the relative amounts of energy present in the system and on the overlapping region of the fields.

  3. Black yeasts and their filamentous relatives: principles of pathogenesis and host defense.

    PubMed

    Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Netea, Mihai G; Mouton, Johan W; Melchers, Willem J G; Verweij, Paul E; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2014-07-01

    Among the melanized fungi, the so-called "black yeasts" and their filamentous relatives are particularly significant as agents of severe phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma in humans and animals. The pathogenicity and virulence of these fungi may differ significantly between closely related species. The factors which probably are of significance for pathogenicity include the presence of melanin and carotene, formation of thick cell walls and meristematic growth, presence of yeast-like phases, thermo- and perhaps also osmotolerance, adhesion, hydrophobicity, assimilation of aromatic hydrocarbons, and production of siderophores. Host defense has been shown to rely mainly on the ingestion and elimination of fungal cells by cells of the innate immune system, especially neutrophils and macrophages. However, there is increasing evidence supporting a role of T-cell-mediated immune responses, with increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) and low levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) being deleterious during the infection. There are no standardized therapies for treatment. It is therefore important to obtain in vitro susceptibilities of individual patients' fungal isolates in order to provide useful information for selection of appropriate treatment protocols. This article discusses the pathogenesis and host defense factors for these fungi and their severity, chronicity, and subsequent impact on treatment and prevention of diseases in human or animal hosts.

  4. Black Yeasts and Their Filamentous Relatives: Principles of Pathogenesis and Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Netea, Mihai G.; Mouton, Johan W.; Melchers, Willem J. G.; Verweij, Paul E.; de Hoog, G. Sybren

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Among the melanized fungi, the so-called “black yeasts” and their filamentous relatives are particularly significant as agents of severe phaeohyphomycosis, chromoblastomycosis, and mycetoma in humans and animals. The pathogenicity and virulence of these fungi may differ significantly between closely related species. The factors which probably are of significance for pathogenicity include the presence of melanin and carotene, formation of thick cell walls and meristematic growth, presence of yeast-like phases, thermo- and perhaps also osmotolerance, adhesion, hydrophobicity, assimilation of aromatic hydrocarbons, and production of siderophores. Host defense has been shown to rely mainly on the ingestion and elimination of fungal cells by cells of the innate immune system, especially neutrophils and macrophages. However, there is increasing evidence supporting a role of T-cell-mediated immune responses, with increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) and low levels of gamma interferon (IFN-γ) being deleterious during the infection. There are no standardized therapies for treatment. It is therefore important to obtain in vitro susceptibilities of individual patients' fungal isolates in order to provide useful information for selection of appropriate treatment protocols. This article discusses the pathogenesis and host defense factors for these fungi and their severity, chronicity, and subsequent impact on treatment and prevention of diseases in human or animal hosts. PMID:24982320

  5. Motherhood, Psychological Risks, and Resources in Relation to Alcohol Use Disorder: Are There Differences between Black and White Women?

    PubMed

    Balan, Sundari; Widner, Gregory; Chen, Hsing-Jung; Hudson, Darrell; Gehlert, Sarah; Price, Rumi Kato

    2014-04-20

    Rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) are generally low among women who have ever had children (mothers) compared to women who have never had children (nonmothers), presenting a motherhood advantage. It is unclear if this advantage accrues to "Black" and "White" women alike. Using National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 2 cross-sectional data that is rich in alcohol use and psychological measures, we examined the following: (a) if motherhood is protective for past-year AUD among Black (N = 4, 133) and White women (N = 11, 017); (b) potential explanatory psychological mechanisms; and (c) the role of race. Prevalence of a past-year DSM-IV AUD was lower among White mothers compared to White nonmothers, but this same advantage was not observed for Black women. Perceived stress was a risk for all women, but race-ethnic segregated social networks and perceived discrimination predicted current AUD for Black mothers. Unlike White mothers, current psychological factors but not family history of alcohol problems predicted AUD for Black mothers. Future prospective studies should address the mechanisms by which race, motherhood, and psychological factors interactively affect AUD in women.

  6. A Local Baseline of the Black Hole Mass Scaling Relations for Active Galaxies. III.The MBH - σ Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennert, Vardha N.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Cosens, Maren; Park, Daeseong; Rosen, Rebecca; Harris, Chelsea E.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Woo, Jong-Hak

    2015-08-01

    We create a baseline of the black hole (BH) mass (MBH)—stellar-velocity dispersion (σ) relation for active galaxies, using a sample of 66 local (0.02relation for our Seyfert-1 galaxy sample has the same intercept and scatter as that of reverberation-mapped AGNs as well as that of quiescent galaxies, consistent with the hypothesis that our single epoch MBH estimator and sample selection function do not introduce significant biases. Barred galaxies, merging galaxies, and those hosting pseudo-bulges do not represent outliers in the MBH-σ relation. This is in contrast with previous work, although no firm conclusion can be drawn on this matter due to the small sample size and limited resolution of the SDSS images.

  7. Selection bias in dynamically-measured super-massive black hole samples: its consequences and the quest for the most fundamental relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, M.; Sheth, R. K.; Weinberg, D. H.; Miralda-Escudé, J.; Ferrarese, L.; Graham, A.; Sesana, A.; Lapi, A.; Marconi, A.; Allevato, V.; Savorgnan, G.; Laesker, R.

    2016-08-01

    We compare the set of local galaxies having dynamically measured black holes with a large, unbiased sample of galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm earlier work showing that the majority of black hole hosts have significantly higher velocity dispersions sigma than local galaxies of similar stellar mass. We use Monte-Carlo simulations to illustrate the effect on black hole scaling relations if this bias arises from the requirement that the black hole sphere of influence must be resolved to measure black hole masses with spatially resolved kinematics. We find that this selection effect artificially increases the normalization of the Mbh-sigma relation by a factor of at least ~3; the bias for the Mbh-Mstar relation is even larger. Our Monte Carlo simulations and analysis of the residuals from scaling relations both indicate that sigma is more fundamental than Mstar or effective radius. In particular, the Mbh-Mstar relation is mostly a consequence of the Mbh-sigma and sigma-Mstar relations, and is heavily biased by up to a factor of 50 at small masses. This helps resolve the discrepancy between dynamically-based black hole-galaxy scaling relations versus those of active galaxies. Our simulations also disfavour broad distributions of black hole masses at fixed sigma. Correcting for this bias suggests that the calibration factor used to estimate black hole masses in active galaxies should be reduced to values of fvir~1. Black hole mass densities should also be proportionally smaller, perhaps implying significantly higher radiative efficiencies/black hole spins. Reducing black hole masses also reduces the gravitational wave signal expected from black hole mergers.

  8. Exploring the genomic diversity of black yeasts and relatives (Chaetothyriales, Ascomycota).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M M; Moreno, L F; Stielow, B J; Muszewska, A; Hainaut, M; Gonzaga, L; Abouelleil, A; Patané, J S L; Priest, M; Souza, R; Young, S; Ferreira, K S; Zeng, Q; da Cunha, M M L; Gladki, A; Barker, B; Vicente, V A; de Souza, E M; Almeida, S; Henrissat, B; Vasconcelos, A T R; Deng, S; Voglmayr, H; Moussa, T A A; Gorbushina, A; Felipe, M S S; Cuomo, C A; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2017-03-01

    phaeohyphomycosis. An expansion was found in protein degrading peptidase enzyme families S12 (serine-type D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidases) and M38 (isoaspartyl dipeptidases). Based on genomic information, a wide range of abilities of melanin biosynthesis was revealed; genes related to metabolically distinct DHN, DOPA and pyomelanin pathways were identified. The MAT (MAting Type) locus and other sex-related genes were recognized in all 23 black fungi. Members of the asexual genera Fonsecaea and Cladophialophora appear to be heterothallic with a single copy of either MAT-1-1 or MAT-1-2 in each individual. All Capronia species are homothallic as both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 genes were found in each single genome. The genomic synteny of the MAT-locus flanking genes (SLA2-APN2-COX13) is not conserved in black fungi as is commonly observed in Eurotiomycetes, indicating a unique genomic context for MAT in those species. The heterokaryon (het) genes expansion associated with the low selective pressure at the MAT-locus suggests that a parasexual cycle may play an important role in generating diversity among those fungi.

  9. Black Male-Black Female Relationships: The Perceptions of 155 Middle-Class Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    1983-01-01

    Surveyed middle-class Black men (N=155) concerning their perceptions of Black male-female relationships. A majority reported that Black women had more opportunity than Black men; a large minority felt that Black women were partly responsible for the relative low status of Black men. Most preferred traditional gender roles. (WAS)

  10. Disparities in Alcohol-related Problems among White, Black and Hispanic Americans

    PubMed Central

    Mulia, Nina; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K.; Zemore, Sarah E.

    2009-01-01

    Background This study assesses racial/ethnic disparities in negative social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms among white, black and Hispanic Americans. We examine whether and how disparities relate to heavy alcohol consumption and pattern, and the extent to which social disadvantage (poverty, unfair treatment, and racial/ethnic stigma) accounts for observed disparities. Methods We analyzed data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey, an RDD telephone survey conducted with adults ages 18 and older in the 50 states and the District of Columbia (N=6,919). Given large racial/ethnic differences in abstinence rates, core analyses were restricted to current drinkers (N=4,080). Logistic regression was used to assess disparities in alcohol-related problems at three levels of heavy drinking, measured using a composite variable incorporating frequency of heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness, and maximum amount consumed in a single day. A mediational approach was used to assess the role of social disadvantage. Results African American and Hispanic drinkers were significantly more likely than white drinkers to report social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms. Even after adjusting for differences in heavy drinking and demographic characteristics, disparities in problems remained. The racial/ethnic gap in alcohol problems was greatest among those reporting little or no heavy drinking, and gradually diminished to nonsignificance at the highest level of heavy drinking. Social disadvantage, particularly in the form of racial/ethnic stigma, appeared to contribute to racial/ethnic differences in problems. Conclusions These findings suggest that to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems, public health efforts must do more than reduce heavy drinking. Future research should address the possibility of drink size underestimation, identify the particular types of problems that disproportionately affect

  11. Disparities in alcohol-related problems among white, black, and Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Mulia, Nina; Ye, Yu; Greenfield, Thomas K; Zemore, Sarah E

    2009-04-01

    This study assesses racial/ethnic disparities in negative social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms among white, black, and Hispanic Americans. We examine whether and how disparities relate to heavy alcohol consumption and pattern, and the extent to which social disadvantage (poverty, unfair treatment, and racial/ethnic stigma) accounts for observed disparities. We analyzed data from the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey, a nationally representative telephone-based survey of adults ages 18 and older (N = 6,919). Given large racial/ethnic differences in abstinence rates, core analyses were restricted to current drinkers (N = 4,080). Logistic regression was used to assess disparities in alcohol-related problems at 3 levels of heavy drinking, measured using a composite variable incorporating frequency of heavy episodic drinking, frequency of drunkenness, and maximum amount consumed in a single day. A mediational approach was used to assess the role of social disadvantage. African American and Hispanic drinkers were significantly more likely than white drinkers to report social consequences of drinking and alcohol dependence symptoms. Even after adjusting for differences in heavy drinking and demographic characteristics, disparities in problems remained. The racial/ethnic gap in alcohol problems was greatest among those reporting little or no heavy drinking, and gradually diminished to nonsignificance at the highest level of heavy drinking. Social disadvantage, particularly in the form of racial/ethnic stigma, appeared to contribute to racial/ethnic differences in problems. These findings suggest that to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in alcohol-related problems, public health efforts must do more than reduce heavy drinking. Future research should address the possibility of drink size underestimation, identify the particular types of problems that disproportionately affect racial/ethnic minorities, and investigate social and cultural

  12. Diet-related die-off of captive black-crowned night herons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, J.W.; Spann, J.W.; Novilla, M.N.

    1979-01-01

    Several species of herons, which are top-level consumers in aquatic food chains, have experienced population declines in certain areas o f their normal range (7,13) -- areas in which elevated levels of various environmental pollutants are known to occur. (6) To determine the effects of environmental contaminants on the Ardeidae, a colony of black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) was established in 1972 at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The night heron was selected as the model species because of its widespread occurrence and its ability to survive and reproduce in captivity. Birds for the colony were obtained from either the New York Zoological Park and Dallas Zoo or were wild-caught along the Maryland and Virginia coasts in 1972, 1973, and 1975. This report describes a die-off in the colony following a change in the origina of their food source. The data suggest that the mortality was diet-related, most likely caused by vitamin E deficiency. Excessive dietary thiaminase may have resulted in concurrent thiamine deficiency, but evidence for this is equivocal.

  13. Measuring alcohol-related consequences and motives among students attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    PubMed

    Messina, Bryan G; Tseng, Andy; Correia, Christopher J

    2015-07-01

    College student drinkers have the propensity to engage in heavy alcohol consumption. These consumption patterns can be problematic given the well-established relationship between heavy drinking and negative consequences of alcohol consumption. Though the research on college student drinking is abundant, much of the work conducted has been with Caucasian samples and less so with African American samples or at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The current paper assessed the internal reliability and concurrent validity of two popular measures of alcohol related negative consequences (CAPS-r and YAACQ) and a measure of drinking motives (DMQ-R) within a HBCU sample. Total scores for the CAPS-r and YAACQ and all five subscales of the DMQ-R were internally reliable as determined by Cronbach's alpha. Correlations and regressions established concurrent validity for both measures of negative consequences as well as the subscales for the DMQ-R. Findings support the use of these measures in the assessment of negative consequences and motivations for alcohol consumption within a HBCU population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. On the theoretical framework of magnetized outflows from stellar-mass black holes and related observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-09-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly non-linear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behaviour may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion discs is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  15. Relative growth of black holes and the stellar components of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menci, N.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Lamastra, A.

    2016-10-01

    Recent observations indicate that the mass of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate differently with different galaxy stellar components. Comparing such observations with the results of "ab initio" galaxy formation models can provide insight on the mechanisms leading to the growth of SMBHs. Here we use a state-of-the-art semi-analytic model of galaxy formation to investigate the correlation of the different galaxy stellar components with the mass of the central SMBH. The stellar mass in the disc, in the bulge, and in the pseudo-bulge of galaxies is related to quiescent star formation, to galaxy interactions, and to the loss of angular momentum following disc instabilities, respectively. Consistently with recent findings, we find that while the predicted bulge masses are tightly correlated with the SMBH masses, the correlation between the latter and the galactic discs shows a much larger scatter, in particular when bulgeless galaxies are considered. In addition, we obtain that the predicted masses of pseudo-bulges shows little or no-correlation with the masses of SMBHs. We track the histories of merging, star formation, and SMBH accretion to investigate the physical processes at the origin of such findings within the context of cosmological models of galaxy formation. Finally, we discuss the effects of variations of our assumed fiducial model on the results.

  16. On the Theoretical Framework of Magnetized Outflows from Stellar-Mass Black Holes and Related Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christodoulou, D. M.; Contopoulos, I.; Kazanas, D.; Steiner, J. F.; Papadopoulos, D. B.; Laycock, S. G. T.

    2016-01-01

    The spins of stellar-mass black holes (BHs) and the power outputs of their jets are measurable quantities. Unfortunately, the currently employed methods do not agree and the results are controversial. Two major issues concern the measurements of BH spin and beam (jet) power. The former issue can be resolved by future observations. But the latter issue can be resolved now, if we pay attention to what is expected from theoretical considerations. The question of whether a correlation has been found between the power outputs of few objects and the spins of their BHs is moot because BH beam power does not scale with the square of the spin of the BH. We show that the theoretical BH beam power is a strongly nonlinear function of spin that cannot be approximated by a quadratic relation, as is generally stated when the influence of the magnetic field is not accounted for in the Blandford & Znajek model. The BH beam power of ballistic jets should scale a lot more steeply with BH spin irrespective of the magnetic field assumed to thread the horizon and the spin range considered. This behavior may already be visible in the analyses of radio observations by Narayan & McClintock and Russell et al. In agreement with previous studies, we also find that the power output that originates in the inner regions of the surrounding accretion disks is higher than that from the BHs and it cannot be ignored in investigations of continuous compact jets from these systems.

  17. Trends in Motor Vehicle Emissions in Relation to Ambient Concentrations of Particulate Black and Organic Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcdonald, B. C.; Kirchstetter, T.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    The objectives of this study is to relate long-term trends of particulate black and organic carbon (BC and OC) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by motor vehicles to fine particulate matter concentrations in ambient air. The analysis focuses on the Los Angeles and San Francisco areas in California, for the period between 1990 and 2010. A fuel-based approach is used to estimate vehicular emissions of BC and OC using emission factors measured on-road in highway tunnels, and fuel sales reported at the state level, which are then allocated to each region. Emission results for BC are also compared with coefficient of haze data. A meta-analysis of past field studies is performed to derive trends in ambient OC and BC concentrations over the last 25 years. We try to account for differences in sampling and filter analysis protocols across studies, including the use of backup filters and thermal-optical procedures used to distinguish between BC and OC. Between 1990 and 2010, vehicular emissions of BC and primary OC fell by ~50% and ~60%, respectively. Over the same time period, VOC emissions from gasoline vehicles decreased by a factor of ~7. In contrast, ambient OC concentrations as measured in previous field studies have remained approximately constant. Since a majority of organic aerosol is thought to be secondary organic aerosol (SOA), this suggests that VOC emissions from gasoline engines did not figure prominently as a precursor to SOA formation.

  18. Validating the effective-one-body model of spinning, precessing binary black holes against numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babak, Stanislav; Taracchini, Andrea; Buonanno, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    In Abbott et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041014 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041014], the properties of the first gravitational wave detected by LIGO, GW150914, were measured by employing an effective-one-body (EOB) model of precessing binary black holes whose underlying dynamics and waveforms were calibrated to numerical-relativity (NR) simulations. Here, we perform the first extensive comparison of such an EOBNR model to 70 precessing NR waveforms that span mass ratios from 1 to 5, dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.5, generic spin orientations, and length of about 20 orbits. We work in the observer's inertial frame and include all ℓ=2 modes in the gravitational-wave polarizations. We introduce new prescriptions for the EOB ringdown signal concerning its spectrum and time of onset. For total masses between 10 M⊙ and 200 M⊙ , we find that precessing EOBNR waveforms have unfaithfulness within about 3% to NR waveforms when considering the Advanced-LIGO design noise curve. This result is obtained without recalibration of the inspiral-plunge signal of the underlying nonprecessing EOBNR model. The unfaithfulness is computed with maximization over time and phase of arrival, sky location, and polarization of the EOBNR waveform, and it is averaged over sky location and polarization of the NR signal. We also present comparisons between NR and EOBNR waveforms in a frame that tracks the orbital precession.

  19. Supermassive black hole tests of general relativity with eLISA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huwyler, Cédric; Porter, Edward K.; Jetzer, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by the parametrized post-Einsteinian (ppE) scheme devised by Yunes and Pretorius, which introduces corrections to the post-Newtonian coefficients of the frequency domain gravitational waveform in order to emulate alternative theories of gravity, we compute analytical time domain waveforms that, after a numerical Fourier transform, aim to represent (phase corrected only) ppE waveforms. In this formalism, alternative theories manifest themselves via corrections to the phase and frequency, as predicted by general relativity (GR), at different post-Newtonian (PN) orders. To present a generic test of alternative theories of gravity, we assume that the coupling constant of each alternative theory is manifestly positive, allowing corrections to the GR waveforms to be either positive or negative. By exploring the capabilities of massive black hole binary GR waveforms in the detection and parameter estimation of corrected time domain ppE signals, using the current eLISA configuration (as presented for the European Space Agency Cosmic Vision L3 mission), we demonstrate that for corrections arising at higher than 1PN order in phase and frequency GR waveforms are sufficient for both detecting and estimating the parameters of alternative theory signals. However, for theories introducing corrections at the 0 and 0.5PN orders, GR waveforms are not capable of covering the entire parameter space, requiring the use of non-GR waveforms for detection and parameter estimation.

  20. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.

  1. Employment Gains and Wage Declines: The Erosion of Black Women’s Relative Wages Since 1980

    PubMed Central

    PETTIT, BECKY; EWERT, STEPHANIE

    2009-01-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women’s employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap. PMID:19771940

  2. Variation in the Volatile Profiles of Black and Manchurian Ash in Relation to Emerald Ash Borer Oviposition Preferences.

    PubMed

    Rigsby, Chad M; McCartney, Nathaniel B; Herms, Daniel A; Tumlinson, James H; Cipollini, Don

    2017-07-27

    Emerald ash borer (EAB; Agrilus planipennis) is a devastating pest of ash (Fraxinus spp.) in its invaded range in North America. Its coevolved Asian hosts are more resistant and less preferred for oviposition than susceptible North American species. We compared EAB oviposition preferences and bark and canopy volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of resistant Manchurian ash and susceptible black ash, and examined relationships between VOC profiles and oviposition. In the field, black ash was highly preferred for oviposition while no eggs were laid on Manchurian ash, and we found clear differences in the VOC profiles of Manchurian and black ash. We detected 78 compounds emitted from these species, including 16 compounds that elicited EAB antennal activity in prior studies. Four compounds were unique to black and 11 to Manchurian ash. Emission rates of 14 canopy and 19 bark volatiles varied among the two species, including four previously reported as antennally active. Specifically, 7-epi-sesquithujene (bark) emissions were greater from black ash, while β-caryophyllene (canopy), linalool (bark), and α-cubebene (bark) were emitted at higher rates by Manchurian ash. No relationships were found between the emission rate of any single compound or group of compounds (e.g. monoterpenes) suggesting that preference may be based on complex profile combinations. This is the first study to directly compare VOCs of black and Manchurian ash as well as the first to examine bark- and canopy-specific VOCs. The unique bark and canopy VOC profiles of these two species implicates potentially important variation in VOCs between a closely related resistant and susceptible species that provides a foundation for future studies of host preferences of EAB.

  3. I-Love-Q relations: from compact stars to black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagi, Kent; Yunes, Nicolás

    2016-05-01

    The relations between most observables associated with a compact star, such as the mass and radius of a neutron star or a quark star, typically depend strongly on their unknown internal structure. The recently discovered I-Love-Q relations (between the moment of inertia, the tidal deformability and the quadrupole moment) are however approximately insensitive to this structure. These relations become exact for stationary black holes (BHs) in General Relativity as shown by the no-hair theorems, mainly because BHs are vacuum solutions with event horizons. In this paper, we take the first steps toward studying how the approximate I-Love-Q relations become exact in the limit as compact stars become BHs. To do so, we consider a toy model for compact stars, i.e. incompressible stars with anisotropic pressure, which allows us to model an equilibrium sequence of stars with ever increasing compactness that approaches the BH limit arbitrarily closely. We numerically construct such a sequence in the slow-rotation and in the small-tide approximations by extending the Hartle-Thorne formalism, and then extract the I-Love-Q trio from the asymptotic behavior of the metric tensor at spatial infinity. We find that the I-Love-Q relations approach the BH limit in a nontrivial way, with the quadrupole moment and the tidal deformability changing sign as the compactness and the amount of anisotropy are increased. Through a generalization of Maclaurin spheroids to anisotropic stars, we show that the multipole moments also change sign in the Newtonian limit as the amount of anisotropy is increased because the star becomes prolate. We also prove analytically that the stellar moment of inertia reaches the BH limit as the compactness reaches a critical BH value in the strongly anisotropic limit. Modeling the BH limit through a sequence of anisotropic stars, however, can fail when considering other theories of gravity. We calculate the scalar dipole charge and the moment of inertia in a

  4. The Local Black Hole Mass Function Derived from the MBH-Pitch Angle and the MBH-Sersic Index Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu Pakdil, Burcin; Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.

    2016-01-01

    We determined the local supermassive black hole mass function (BHMF) for all galaxy types with complementing the local BHMF for spiral galaxies derived by Davis et al. (2014). We used the empirical relation between supermassive black hole mass and the Sersic index for early type (E/S0) galaxies from the same parent sample with Davis et al. (2014), which is selected from galaxies in the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) which is a very complete sample of the nearby galaxies.The observational simplicity of our approach and direct measurements from the statistically tightest correlations with black hole mass, which are the Sersic index for E/S0 galaxies and pitch angle for spiral galaxies, make it straightforward to estimate an accurate local BHMF. Integrating over the best-fitting mass function, the local mass density of SMBHs from early- and late-type galaxies combined is ρ=3.61+3.80-1.75 x105 M⊙ Mpc-3. The errors are estimated from Monte Carlo simulations which include uncertainities in the emprical relations and measurement errors in both Sersic index and Pitch angle. Assuming supermassive black holes form via baryonic accretion, we find that 0.013+0.013-0.006 per cent of baryons are contained in SMBHs at the centers of galaxies in the local universe.

  5. Correlates of Age Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black and White Adults in a Community

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The risk factors for middle-age onset of type 2 diabetes are well known. However, information is scant regarding the age onset of type 2 diabetes and its correlates in community-based black and white relatively young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 2,459) and type 2 diabetic (n = 144) adults aged 18–50 years who were followed for an average of 16 years. RESULTS The incidence rate of the onset of type 2 diabetes was 1.6, 4.3, 3.9, and 3.4 per 1,000 person-years for age-groups 18–29, 30–39, and 40–50 and total sample, respectively. Incidences of diabetes increased with age by race and sex groups (P for trend ≤0.01); higher in black females versus white females and blacks versus whites in total sample (P < 0.05). In a multivariable Cox model, baseline parental diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24) and plasma insulin were significantly associated with diabetes incidence at the youngest age (18–29 years); black race, BMI, and glucose at age 30–39 years; female sex, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, ratio of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and glucose at age 40–50 years; and black race, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and glucose in whole cohort. Further, patients with diabetes, regardless of age onset, displayed a significantly higher prevalence of maternal history of diabetes at baseline (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In relatively young adults, predictability of baseline cardiometabolic risk factors along with race, sex, and parental history of diabetes for the onset of type 2 diabetes varied by age-group. These findings have implications for early prevention and intervention in relatively young adults. PMID:22399694

  6. Cosmic Evolution of Black Holes And Spheroids. 1, the M(BH)-Sigma Relation at Z=0.36

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Jong-Hak; Treu, Tommaso; Malkan, Matthew A.; Blandford, Roger D.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-04-17

    We test the evolution of the correlation between black hole mass and bulge velocity dispersion (M{sub BH} - {sigma}), using a carefully selected sample of 14 Seyfert 1 galaxies at z = 0.36 {+-} 0.01. We measure velocity dispersion from stellar absorption lines around Mgb (5175 {angstrom}) and Fe (5270 {angstrom}) using high S/N Keck spectra, and estimate black hole mass from the H{beta} line width and the optical luminosity at 5100 {angstrom}, based on the empirically calibrated photo-ionization method. We find a significant offset from the local relation, in the sense that velocity dispersions were smaller for given black hole masses at z = 0.36 than locally. We investigate various sources of systematic uncertainties and find that those cannot account for the observed offset. The measured offset is {Delta} log M{sub BH} = 0.62 {+-} 0.10 {+-} 0.25, i.e. {Delta} log {sigma} = 0.15 {+-} 0.03 {+-} 0.06, where the error bars include a random component and an upper limit to the systematics. At face value, this result implies a substantial growth of bulges in the last 4 Gyr, assuming that the local M{sub BH} - {sigma} relation is the universal evolutionary end-point. Along with two samples of active galaxies with consistently determined black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion taken from the literature, we quantify the observed evolution with the best fit linear relation, {Delta} log M{sub BH} = (1.66 {+-} 0.43)z + (0.04 {+-} 0.09) with respect to the local relationship of Tremaine et al. (2002), and {Delta} log M{sub BH} = (1.55 {+-} 0.46)z +(0.01 {+-} 0.12) with respect to that of Ferrarese (2002). This result is consistent with the growth of black holes predating the final growth of bulges at these mass scales (<{sigma}> = 170 km s{sup -1}).

  7. The evaluation of Pat-Pat related injuries in the western black sea region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accidents caused by motorized vehicle in the agricultural sector are frequently observed. In Turkey; accidents arising from motorized vehicles, named Pat-Pat, which are used by farmers in the Western Black Sea region is not unusual. Methods One hundred five patients who were brought into the Emergency Department of Duzce University, Medical Faculty Hospital between September 2009 and August 2010 due to Pat-Pat related accidents were evaluated. Results The cases consisted of 73 (69.5%) males and 32 (30.5%) females, ranging from 2 to 73 years of age. In the 10-39 age group, a total of 63 (60.0%) cases were determined. The months when the greatest rate of cases applied to the hospital consisted of July, August, September and the season is summer. The cases were exposed to trauma in roads in 54 (51.4%), and 51 (48.6%) occurred in agricultural area without roads. Eighty seven (82.9%) cases were injured due to the overturning of vehicle. The patients were brought to the hospital using a private vehicle in 54 (51.4%) of the cases and in 51 (48.6%) cases, 112 ambulance system was used. The cases were determined to apply to the hospital most frequently between 6 pm-12 am. The injuries frequently consisted of head-neck and spine traumas, thorax traumas and upper extremity traumas. In 55 (52.4%) cases, open wound-laceration was determined. Seventy five (71.4%) cases were treated in the Emergency Department, and 28 (26.7%) were hospitalized. Three (2.9%) cases were deceased. Conclusions Serious injuries can occur in Pat-Pat related accidents, and careful systematic physical examination should be conducted. In order to prevent these accidents, education of farm operators and engineering studies on the mechanics and safety of these vehicles should be taken and legal regulations should be created. PMID:21699689

  8. RELATIONS BETWEEN CENTRAL BLACK HOLE MASS AND TOTAL GALAXY STELLAR MASS IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Reines, Amy E.; Volonteri, Marta

    2015-11-10

    Scaling relations between central black hole (BH) mass and host galaxy properties are of fundamental importance to studies of BH and galaxy evolution throughout cosmic time. Here we investigate the relationship between BH mass and host galaxy total stellar mass using a sample of 262 broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the nearby universe (z < 0.055), as well as 79 galaxies with dynamical BH masses. The vast majority of our AGN sample is constructed using Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectroscopy and searching for Seyfert-like narrow-line ratios and broad Hα emission. BH masses are estimated using standard virial techniques. We also include a small number of dwarf galaxies with total stellar masses M{sub stellar} ≲ 10{sup 9.5} M{sub ⊙} and a subsample of the reverberation-mapped AGNs. Total stellar masses of all 341 galaxies are calculated in the most consistent manner feasible using color-dependent mass-to-light ratios. We find a clear correlation between BH mass and total stellar mass for the AGN host galaxies, with M{sub BH} ∝ M{sub stellar}, similar to that of early-type galaxies with dynamically detected BHs. However, the relation defined by the AGNs has a normalization that is lower by more than an order of magnitude, with a BH-to-total stellar mass fraction of M{sub BH}/M{sub stellar} ∼ 0.025% across the stellar mass range 10{sup 8} ≤ M{sub stellar}/M{sub ⊙} ≤ 10{sup 12}. This result has significant implications for studies at high redshift and cosmological simulations in which stellar bulges cannot be resolved.

  9. The evaluation of Pat-Pat related injuries in the Western Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karapolat, Sami; Saritas, Ayhan; Kandis, Hayati; Cikman, Mehmet; Gezer, Suat; Ozaydin, Ismet; Iskender, Abdulkadir; Calikoglu, Cagatay; Baltaci, Davut; Uslu, Mustafa; Karapolat, Banu; Dumlu, Talha

    2011-06-23

    Accidents caused by motorized vehicle in the agricultural sector are frequently observed. In Turkey; accidents arising from motorized vehicles, named Pat-Pat, which are used by farmers in the Western Black Sea region is not unusual. One hundred five patients who were brought into the Emergency Department of Duzce University, Medical Faculty Hospital between September 2009 and August 2010 due to Pat-Pat related accidents were evaluated. The cases consisted of 73 (69.5%) males and 32 (30.5%) females, ranging from 2 to 73 years of age. In the 10-39 age group, a total of 63 (60.0%) cases were determined. The months when the greatest rate of cases applied to the hospital consisted of July, August, September and the season is summer. The cases were exposed to trauma in roads in 54 (51.4%), and 51 (48.6%) occurred in agricultural area without roads. Eighty seven (82.9%) cases were injured due to the overturning of vehicle. The patients were brought to the hospital using a private vehicle in 54 (51.4%) of the cases and in 51 (48.6%) cases, 112 ambulance system was used. The cases were determined to apply to the hospital most frequently between 6 pm-12 am. The injuries frequently consisted of head-neck and spine traumas, thorax traumas and upper extremity traumas. In 55 (52.4%) cases, open wound-laceration was determined. Seventy five (71.4%) cases were treated in the Emergency Department, and 28 (26.7%) were hospitalized. Three (2.9%) cases were deceased. Serious injuries can occur in Pat-Pat related accidents, and careful systematic physical examination should be conducted. In order to prevent these accidents, education of farm operators and engineering studies on the mechanics and safety of these vehicles should be taken and legal regulations should be created.

  10. Otitis media in childhood in relation to preschool language and school readiness skills among black children.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J E; Burchinal, M R; Jackson, S C; Hooper, S R; Roush, J; Mundy, M; Neebe, E C; Zeisel, S A

    2000-10-01

    To examine whether otitis media with effusion (OME) and associated hearing loss (HL) during the first 5 years of life were related to children's language skills during the preschool years and to school readiness skills at entry to kindergarten. In a prospective study, the ears of 85 black children primarily from low-income families and recruited from community-based childcare programs were repeatedly examined from 6 months to 5 years of age for the presence of OME and from 6 months to 4 years of age for HL when well and ill with OME. Assessments were made annually of the children's child-rearing environments at home and in childcare, and children's language skills between 3 and 5 years of age and readiness skills in literacy and math were evaluated at entry into kindergarten. Children had either bilateral or unilateral OME approximately 30.4% and HL 19.6% of the observation time. OME and associated HL were significantly positively correlated with some measures of expressive language at 3 and 4 years of age; however, these direct relationships were no longer significant when the child's gender, socioeconomic status, maternal educational level, and the responsiveness and support of the home and childcare environments were also considered. Further, both OME and HL were moderately correlated with school readiness skills at entry to school, with children having more OME scoring lower in verbal math problems and with children with more HL scoring lower in math and recognizing incomplete words. These associations continued to remain significant even after partialing out the child and family background factors. There was not a significant relationship between children's early OME history or HL and language skills during the preschool years. However, children with more frequent OME had lower scores on school readiness measures. These associations were moderate in degree, however, and the home environment was more strongly related to academic outcomes than was OME or HL

  11. THE SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE MASS-SPHEROID STELLAR MASS RELATION FOR SERSIC AND CORE-SERSIC GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Nicholas; Graham, Alister W; Schombert, James

    2013-05-01

    We have examined the relationship between supermassive black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and the stellar mass of the host spheroid (M{sub sph,*}) for a sample of 75 nearby galaxies. To derive the spheroid stellar masses we used improved Two Micron All Sky Survey K{sub s}-band photometry from the ARCHANGEL photometry pipeline. Dividing our sample into core-Sersic and Sersic galaxies, we find that they are described by very different M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relations. For core-Sersic galaxies-which are typically massive and luminous, with M{sub BH} {approx}> 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to} M{sub sph,*}{sup 0.97{+-}0.14}, consistent with other literature relations. However, for the Sersic galaxies-with typically lower masses, M{sub sph,*} {approx}< 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }-we find M{sub BH}{proportional_to}M{sub sph,*}{sup 2.22{+-}0.58}, a dramatically steeper slope that differs by more than 2 standard deviations. This relation confirms that, for Sersic galaxies, M{sub BH} is not a constant fraction of M{sub sph,*}. Sersic galaxies can grow via the accretion of gas which fuels both star formation and the central black hole, as well as through merging. Their black hole grows significantly more rapidly than their host spheroid, prior to growth by dry merging events that produce core-Sersic galaxies, where the black hole and spheroid grow in lockstep. We have additionally compared our Sersic M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*} relation with the corresponding relation for nuclear star clusters, confirming that the two classes of central massive object follow significantly different scaling relations.

  12. “Triply cursed”: Racism, homophobia, and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence, and disclosure among young Black gay men

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, Emily A.; Rebchook, Gregory M.; Kegeles, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and 9 service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community, and from friends within the Black gay community, that otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with their alienation and rejection. PMID:24784224

  13. 'Triply cursed': racism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma are barriers to regular HIV testing, treatment adherence and disclosure among young Black gay men.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Emily A; Rebchook, Gregory M; Kegeles, Susan M

    2014-06-01

    In the USA, young Black gay men are disproportionately impacted upon by HIV. In this qualitative study consisting of in-depth interviews with 31 young Black gay men and nine service providers, where we used thematic analysis to guide our interpretations, we found that HIV-related stigma and homophobia, within the larger societal context of racism, were related to sexual risk behaviour, reluctance to obtain HIV testing or care, lower adherence to treatment medication, and non-disclosure of a positive HIV status to sexual partners. Participants experienced homophobia and HIV-related stigma from churches and families within the Black community and from friends within the Black gay community, which otherwise provide support in the face of racism. Vulnerability to HIV was related to strategies that young Black gay men enacted to avoid being stigmatised or as a way of coping with alienation and rejection.

  14. Mental Health of African Americans and Caribbean Blacks in the United States: Results From the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Mayumi; Oquendo, Maria A.; Lawson, William B.; Wang, Shuai; Thomas, Yonette Felicity; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Previous epidemiological studies have found lower mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder prevalence in Black Americans, in general, compared with White Americans. We estimated the prevalence and persistence of psychiatric disorders in African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. Methods. We drew data from wave 1 (2001–2002) of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults, which included 7529 African Americans, 469 Caribbean Blacks, and 24 502 non-Hispanic Whites. Results. Blacks had equal or lower prevalence than Whites of lifetime (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.6 for African Americans; 0.3 for Caribbean Blacks) and 12-month (AOR = 0.7 for African Americans; 0.4 for Caribbean Blacks) Axis I psychiatric disorders, but higher prevalence of several personality disorders. Among Blacks, Caribbean Blacks had higher prevalence of 12-month psychotic disorders and lower lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and drug abuse than African Americans. There were no differences in persistence of disorders between Caribbean Blacks and African Americans. Conclusions. This study yielded new data on prevalence of mental disorders in these groups, which has important implications for clinical work with US Blacks. PMID:23237171

  15. Mental health of African Americans and Caribbean blacks in the United States: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Tresha A; Okuda, Mayumi; Oquendo, Maria A; Lawson, William B; Wang, Shuai; Thomas, Yonette Felicity; Blanco, Carlos

    2013-02-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have found lower mood, anxiety, and substance use disorder prevalence in Black Americans, in general, compared with White Americans. We estimated the prevalence and persistence of psychiatric disorders in African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites. We drew data from wave 1 (2001-2002) of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative sample of US adults, which included 7529 African Americans, 469 Caribbean Blacks, and 24 502 non-Hispanic Whites. Blacks had equal or lower prevalence than Whites of lifetime (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.6 for African Americans; 0.3 for Caribbean Blacks) and 12-month (AOR =0.7 for African Americans; 0.4 for Caribbean Blacks) Axis I psychiatric disorders, but higher prevalence of several personality disorders. Among Blacks, Caribbean Blacks had higher prevalence of 12-month psychotic disorders and lower lifetime prevalence of major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and drug abuse than African Americans. There were no differences in persistence of disorders between Caribbean Blacks and African Americans. This study yielded new data on prevalence of mental disorders in these groups, which has important implications for clinical work with US Blacks.

  16. Winter movements of American black ducks in relation to natural and impounded wetlands in New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conroy, M.J.; Costanzo, G.R.; Stotts, D.B.; Whitman, William R.; Meredith, William H.

    1987-01-01

    Radio telemetry was used to follow the movements and habitat use of female American Black ducks (Anas rubripes) trapped at Brigantine Division. Edwin B. Forsythe NWR (BNW) during three field seasons (1983-1896). Use of the BNWR impoundments was strongly associated with open vs. closed hunting seasons and with presence or absence of ice cover. Black ducks primarily used the impoundments for daytime roost sites and fed in saltmarsh areas at night during the hunting season. Following the hunting season use generally dispersed to saltmarsh and inland freshwater habitats. Freeze-up of the impoundments resulted in dispersal of black ducks to saltmarsh, inland freshwater, or areas to the south of New Jersey. We conclude that the BNWR impoundments only partially meet the habitat requirements of wintering black ducks. Access to saltmarsh habitats for feeding, and to inland freshwater habitats during periods of hard freeze, may be critical. The utility of the BNWR impoundments to black ducks, needs to be considered in conjunction with the availability of these other important habitats.

  17. Black holes and fundamental fields in numerical relativity: Initial data construction and evolution of bound states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okawa, Hirotada; Witek, Helvi; Cardoso, Vitor

    2014-05-01

    Fundamental fields are a natural outcome in cosmology and particle physics and might therefore serve as a proxy for more complex interactions. The equivalence principle implies that all forms of matter gravitate, and one therefore expects relevant, universal imprints of new physics in strong field gravity, such as that encountered close to black holes. Fundamental fields in the vicinities of supermassive black holes give rise to extremely long-lived, or even unstable, configurations, which slowly extract angular momentum from the black hole or simply evolve nonlinearly over long time scales, with important implications for particle physics and gravitational-wave physics. Here, we perform a fully nonlinear study of scalar-field condensates around rotating black holes. We provide novel ways to specify initial data for the Einstein—Klein—Gordon system, with potential applications in a variety of scenarios. Our numerical results confirm the existence of long-lived bar modes, which act as lighthouses for gravitational wave emission: the scalar field condenses outside the black hole geometry and acts as a constant frequency gravitational-wave source for very long time scales. This effect could turn out to be a potential signature of beyond standard model physics and also a promising source of gravitational waves for future gravitational-wave detectors.

  18. A SCALING RELATION BETWEEN MEGAMASER DISK RADIUS AND BLACK HOLE MASS IN ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Wardle, Mark; Yusef-Zadeh, Farhad E-mail: zadeh@northwestern.edu

    2012-05-10

    Several thin, Keplerian, sub-parsec megamaser disks have been discovered in the nuclei of active galaxies and used to precisely determine the mass of their host black holes. We show that there is an empirical linear correlation between the disk radius and the black hole mass. We demonstrate that such disks are naturally formed by the partial capture of molecular clouds passing through the galactic nucleus and temporarily engulfing the central supermassive black hole. Imperfect cancellation of the angular momenta of the cloud material colliding after passing on opposite sides of the hole leads to the formation of a compact disk. The radial extent of the disk is determined by the efficiency of this process and the Bondi-Hoyle capture radius of the black hole, and naturally produces the empirical linear correlation of the radial extent of the maser distribution with black hole mass. The disk has sufficient column density to allow X-ray irradiation from the central source to generate physical and chemical conditions conducive to the formation of 22 GHz H{sub 2}O masers. For initial cloud column densities {approx}< 10{sup 23.5} cm{sup -2} the disk is non-self-gravitating, consistent with the ordered kinematics of the edge-on megamaser disks; for higher cloud columns the disk would fragment and produce a compact stellar disk similar to that observed around Sgr A* at the galactic center.

  19. Numerical evolutions of a black hole-neutron star system in full general relativity: Head-on collision

    SciTech Connect

    Loeffler, Frank; Rezzolla, Luciano; Ansorg, Marcus

    2006-11-15

    We present the first simulations in full general relativity of the head-on collision between a neutron star and a black hole of comparable mass. These simulations are performed through the solution of the Einstein equations combined with an accurate solution of the relativistic hydrodynamics equations via high-resolution shock-capturing techniques. The initial data is obtained by following the York-Lichnerowicz conformal decomposition with the assumption of time symmetry. Unlike other relativistic studies of such systems, no limitation is set for the mass ratio between the black hole and the neutron star, nor on the position of the black hole, whose apparent horizon is entirely contained within the computational domain. The latter extends over {approx}400M and is covered with six levels of fixed mesh refinement. Concentrating on a prototypical binary system with mass ratio {approx}6, we find that although a tidal deformation is evident the neutron star is accreted promptly and entirely into the black hole. While the collision is completed before {approx}300M, the evolution is carried over up to {approx}1700M, thus providing time for the extraction of the gravitational-wave signal produced and allowing for a first estimate of the radiative efficiency of processes of this type.

  20. Geographic Region Matters in the Relation Between Perceived Racial Discrimination and Psychiatric Disorders Among Black Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Giyeon; Parmelee, Patricia; Bryant, Ami N; Crowther, Martha R; Park, Soohyun; Parton, Jason M; Chae, David H

    2016-12-07

    This study examined whether the relation between perceived racial discrimination and psychiatric disorders varied by large geographic region among Black older adults in the United States. Black adults aged 55 or older who had experienced racial/ethnic-specific discrimination were drawn from the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine main and interaction effects. Results show that there was a significant main effect of perceived racial discrimination, indicating that greater perceived discrimination was significantly associated with increased odds of having any past-year psychiatric disorder. The interaction of region by perceived racial discrimination was significant: The effect of perceived racial discrimination on any past-year psychiatric disorder was stronger among Blacks in the West than those in the South. Findings suggest that whereas, in general, perceived racial discrimination is a risk factor for poor mental health among older Blacks, this association may differ by geographic region. Additional research examining reasons for this variation is needed. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. A prospective epidemiological study on odontogenic tumours in a black African population, with emphasis on the relative frequency of ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Oginni, F O; Stoelinga, P J W; Ajike, S A; Obuekwe, O N; Olokun, B Aluko; Adebola, R A; Adeyemo, W L; Fasola, O; Adesina, O A; Akinbami, B O; Iwegbu, I O; Ogunmuyiwa, S A; Obimakinde, O S; Uguru, C C

    2015-09-01

    The persistent view in the literature is that the relative frequency of ameloblastomas is higher in the black population than in Caucasians. The aim of this study was to determine the relative frequency of all odontogenic tumours (OT) in a 100% black population and to compare our findings with those of previous studies. A prospective study was undertaken of all patients presenting with OT to all 16 Nigerian departments of oral and maxillofacial surgery over a 4-year period. The following data were obtained: patient demographics, delay to presentation, extent of the lesion, and histological diagnosis. Six hundred and twenty-two cases were studied. A slight male preponderance was observed (male to female ratio 1.17:1). Patients ranged in age from 5 to 89 years, with a peak incidence in the third decade. The relative frequency of OT was 0.99 per million and that of ameloblastoma was 0.76 per million. Ameloblastoma was the most prevalent OT (76.5%), followed by adenomatoid odontogenic tumours (5.6%), odontogenic myxoma (4.5%), and keratocystic odontogenic tumours (KCOT) (3.1%). The relative frequency of ameloblastoma among Nigerians was not different from frequencies reported previously among Caucasian and Tanzanian black populations. KCOTs were, however, rarely diagnosed in Nigerians as compared to the white population in the Western world. Copyright © 2015 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  3. Primary Black Hole Spin in OJ 287 as Determined by the General Relativity Centenary Flare

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valtonen, M. J.; Zola, S.; Ciprini, S.; Gopakumar, A.; Matsumoto, K.; Sadakane, K.; Kidger, M.; Gazeas, K.; Nilsson, K.; Berdyugin, A.; Piirola, V.; Jermak, H.; Baliyan, K. S.; Alicavus, F.; Boyd, D.; Campas Torrent, M.; Campos, F.; Carrillo Gómez, J.; Caton, D. B.; Chavushyan, V.; Dalessio, J.; Debski, B.; Dimitrov, D.; Drozdz, M.; Er, H.; Erdem, A.; Escartin Pérez, A.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Filippenko, A. V.; Ganesh, S.; Garcia, F.; Gómez Pinilla, F.; Gopinathan, M.; Haislip, J. B.; Hudec, R.; Hurst, G.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Jelinek, M.; Joshi, A.; Kagitani, M.; Kaur, N.; Keel, W. C.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Lee, B. C.; Lindfors, E.; Lozano de Haro, J.; Moore, J. P.; Mugrauer, M.; Naves Nogues, R.; Neely, A. W.; Nelson, R. H.; Ogloza, W.; Okano, S.; Pandey, J. C.; Perri, M.; Pihajoki, P.; Poyner, G.; Provencal, J.; Pursimo, T.; Raj, A.; Reichart, D. E.; Reinthal, R.; Sadegi, S.; Sakanoi, T.; Salto González, J.-L.; Sameer; Schweyer, T.; Siwak, M.; Soldán Alfaro, F. C.; Sonbas, E.; Steele, I.; Stocke, J. T.; Strobl, J.; Takalo, L. O.; Tomov, T.; Tremosa Espasa, L.; Valdes, J. R.; Valero Pérez, J.; Verrecchia, F.; Webb, J. R.; Yoneda, M.; Zejmo, M.; Zheng, W.; Telting, J.; Saario, J.; Reynolds, T.; Kvammen, A.; Gafton, E.; Karjalainen, R.; Harmanen, J.; Blay, P.

    2016-03-01

    OJ 287 is a quasi-periodic quasar with roughly 12 year optical cycles. It displays prominent outbursts that are predictable in a binary black hole model. The model predicted a major optical outburst in 2015 December. We found that the outburst did occur within the expected time range, peaking on 2015 December 5 at magnitude 12.9 in the optical R-band. Based on Swift/XRT satellite measurements and optical polarization data, we find that it included a major thermal component. Its timing provides an accurate estimate for the spin of the primary black hole, χ =0.313+/- 0.01. The present outburst also confirms the established general relativistic properties of the system such as the loss of orbital energy to gravitational radiation at the 2% accuracy level, and it opens up the possibility of testing the black hole no-hair theorem with 10% accuracy during the present decade.

  4. Green and black tea intake in relation to prostate cancer risk among Singapore Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Montague, Julia A.; Wu, Anna H.; Genkinger, Jeanine M.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Wong, Alvin S.; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Yu, Mimi C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Tea is one of the most commonly consumed beverages worldwide. To date, observational data from prospective cohort studies investigating the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk are sparse and equivocal. In a population-based, prospective cohort study of Chinese men in Singapore, we investigated the relationship between green and black tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Methods Tea consumption data for 27,293 men were collected at baseline (between 1993 and 1998) using a validated food frequency questionnaire. After an average of 11.2 years of follow-up, 298 men had developed prostate cancer. Proportional hazards regression methods were used to assess the associations between tea intake and prostate cancer risk. Results There was no association between daily green tea intake and prostate cancer risk, compared with no green tea intake [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.79, 1.47]. For black tea, a statistically significant positive association and trend were observed for daily intake compared with no black tea intake (HR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.03, 1.92; p for trend <0.01) Conclusions Few prospective data are available from populations that have both a high level and wide range of black and green tea intake; this study represents a unique opportunity to evaluate their individual effects on prostate cancer risk. Our findings support the notion that green tea intake does not protect against prostate cancer and that black tea intake may increase prostate cancer risk. PMID:22864870

  5. Hispanic and black American adolescents' beliefs relating to sexuality and contraception.

    PubMed

    Scott, C S; Shifman, L; Orr, L; Owen, R G; Fawcett, N

    1988-01-01

    Popular beliefs and level of scientific knowledge regarding sexuality and contraception were elicited from black and Hispanic inner-city adolescents. Significant differences were found: Hispanic males were the most knowledgeable, Hispanic females the least, and black males and females were intermediate. A cultural basis for the dramatic difference between Hispanic male and female scores is suggested and the need to design culturally appropriate sexuality education classes is discussed. In addition, the data depicted two conflicting beliefs that were held simultaneously by many of the adolescents: Contraception is "good" because it prevents pregnancy, and it is "bad" because the various birth control methods carry serious health hazards for users.

  6. Alcohol outlet density and related use in an urban Black population in Philadelphia public housing communities

    PubMed Central

    Cederbaum, Julie A.; Petering, Robin; Hutchinson, M. Katherine; He, Amy S.; Wilson, John P.; Jemmott, John B.; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent alcohol use behaviors are influenced by familial patterns and neighborhood factors. This work explored the influence of individual, family, and environment on alcohol use. Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial with Black mothers son dyads (n=382) were paired with census tract and alcohol control board data. Among mothers, younger age, along with neighborhood factors of alcohol outlet density, race, and education were significantly associated with use. Among sons, older age and alcohol outlet density in the neighborhood predicted use. Findings highlight neighborhood influence, beyond family qualities, as a significant determinant of disadvantaged Black mothers’ alcohol use. Implications for public health policy are discussed. PMID:25463915

  7. How Adaptive and Maladaptive Perfectionism Relate to Positive and Negative Psychological Functioning: Testing a Stress-Mediation Model in Black and White Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Edward C.; Watkins, Angela; Banks, Kira Hudson

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed racial variations in how adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism relate to psychological functioning in a sample of 150 Black and 150 White female college students. Comparative results indicated that Black women, as compared with White women, reported less adaptive perfectionism, less life satisfaction, greater stress, and…

  8. Effects of black tea on body composition and metabolic outcomes related to cardiovascular disease risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bøhn, Siv K; Croft, Kevin D; Burrows, Sally; Puddey, Ian B; Mulder, Theo P J; Fuchs, Dagmar; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-07-25

    There is increasing evidence that tea and its non-caffeine components (primarily flavonoids) contribute to cardiovascular health. Randomized controlled trials have shown that tea can improve cardiovascular disease risk factors. We have previously reported a non-caffeine associated beneficial effect of regular black tea consumption on blood pressure and its variation. To explore the non-caffeine associated effects of black tea on body weight and body fat distribution, and cardiovascular disease related metabolic outcomes. regular tea-drinking men and women (n = 111; BMI 20-35 kg m(-2)) were recruited to a randomized controlled double-blind 6 month parallel-designed trial. Participants consumed 3 cups per day of either powdered black tea solids (tea) or a flavonoid-free flavour- and caffeine-matched placebo (control). Body weight, waist- and hip-circumference, endothelial function and plasma biomarkers were assessed at baseline, 3 months and 6 months. Compared to control, regular ingestion of black tea over 3 months inhibited weight gain (-0.64 kg, p = 0.047) and reduced waist circumference (-1.88 cm, P = 0.035) and waist-to-hip ratio (-0.03, P = 0.005). These effects were no longer significant at 6 months. There were no significant effects observed on fasting glucose, insulin, plasma lipids or endothelial function. Our study suggests that short-term regular ingestion of black tea over 3 months can improve body weight and body fat distribution, compared to a caffeine-matched control beverage. However, there was no evidence that these effects were sustained beyond 3 months.

  9. Hypersensitivity reactions due to black henna tattoos and their components: are the clinical pictures related to the immune pathomechanism?

    PubMed

    Calogiuri, Gianfranco; Di Leo, Elisabetta; Butani, Lavjay; Pizzimenti, Stefano; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Macchia, Luigi; Nettis, Eustachio

    2017-01-01

    Hypersensitivity to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) and related compounds induced by temporary black henna tattoos has become a serious health problem worldwide. Different patterns of sensitization with various clinical aspects are described in literature due to PPD associated to henna tattoo and these manifestations are likely correlated with the immunological and dermatological pathomechanisms involved. Henna is the Persian name of the plant Lawsonia inermis, Fam. Lythraceae. It is a woody shrub that grow in regions of North Africa, South Asia, India and Sri Lanka. Nowadays it is rather frequent to see temporary "tattoos" performed with henna. To make tattoos darker and long-lasting PPD has been associated to henna in tattoo drawings mixtures, so obtaining "black henna". In these years there has been a rise of contact sensitization to PPD and in medical literature an increased number of cases have been reported on temporary henna tattoo application. Here we review the various clinical patterns related to PPD and henna tattoo, to investigate the possible link between clinic-morphological pictures and the immunological response to PPD and henna. The literature underlines that different clinical manifestations are related to black henna containing PPD, and its derivative products may cause delayed-type as well as immediate-type reactions. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between clinical and morphological aspects of PPD contact dermatitis and the T cell subsets predominance.

  10. AGN wind scaling relations and the co-evolution of black holes and galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Shankar, F.; Bischetti, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Carniani, S.; Cicone, C.; Duras, F.; Lamastra, A.; Mainieri, V.; Marconi, A.; Menci, N.; Maiolino, R.; Piconcelli, E.; Vietri, G.; Zappacosta, L.

    2017-05-01

    Context. Feedback from accreting supermassive black holes (SMBHs) is often identified as the main mechanism responsible for regulating star formation in active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies. However, the relationships between AGN activity, radiation, winds, and star formation are complex and still far from being understood. Aims: We study scaling relations between AGN properties, host galaxy properties, and AGN winds. We then evaluate the wind mean impact on the global star formation history, taking into account the short AGN duty cycle with respect to that of star formation. Methods: We first collect AGN wind observations for 94 AGN with detected massive winds at sub-pc to kpc spatial scales. We then fold AGN wind scaling relations with AGN luminosity functions, to evaluate the average AGN wind mass-loading factor as a function of cosmic time. Results: We find strong correlations between the AGN molecular and ionised wind mass outflow rates and the AGN bolometric luminosity. The power law scaling is steeper for ionised winds (slope 1.29 ± 0.38) than for molecular winds (0.76 ± 0.06), meaning that the two rates converge at high bolometric luminosities. The molecular gas depletion timescale and the molecular gas fraction of galaxies hosting powerful AGN driven winds are 3-10 times shorter and smaller than those of main sequence galaxies with similar star formation rate (SFR), stellar mass, and redshift. These findings suggest that, at high AGN bolometric luminosity, the reduced molecular gas fraction may be due to the destruction of molecules by the wind, leading to a larger fraction of gas in the atomic ionised phase. The AGN wind mass-loading factor η = ṀOF/SFR is systematically higher than that of starburst driven winds. Conclusions: Our analysis shows that AGN winds are, on average, powerful enough to clean galaxies from their molecular gas only in massive systems at z ≲ 2, i.e. a strong form of co-evolution between SMBHs and galaxies appears to

  11. Perceived racism in relation to weight change in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cozier, Yvette C; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is more common in black women than in white women. Racial discrimination is a form of chronic stress that may influence weight. We assessed the association of perceived racism with weight change between 1997 and 2005 in 43,103 women from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective follow-up of U.S. black women aged 21-69 years at entry in 1995. Eight questions about perceptions and experiences of racism were asked in 1997 from which two summary variables were created: everyday racism (e.g., how often do people act "as if you are not intelligent?"), and lifetime racism (e.g., unfair treatment due to race "on the job"). Mixed linear regression models were used to calculate the multivariate adjusted means for changes in body weight across categories of perceived racism. Weight gain increased as levels of everyday and lifetime racism increased. The mean multivariable-adjusted difference in weight change between the highest and the lowest quartile of everyday racism was 0.56 kg. The mean difference comparing the highest category of lifetime racism to the lowest was 0.48 kg. These prospective data suggest that experiences of racism may contribute to the excess burden of obesity in U.S. black women.

  12. Comparative Studies of Blacks and Whites in the United States. Quantitative Studies in Social Relations Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kent S., Ed.; Dreger, Ralph Mason, Ed.

    The contents of this book are organized in seventeen chapters, as follows: (1) "Perspective and Overview," K. S. Miller and R. M. Dreger; (2) "Racial Experimenter Effects," J. M. Sattler; (3) "Behavior-genetic Analysis and its Biosocial Consequences," J. Hirsch; (4) Biological Substrata," R. M. Malina; (5) "Language Abilities of Black Americans,"…

  13. On Relating Health Care Policy to the Provision of Health Care to Black Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darity, William A.

    This paper addresses health and social issues as well as other socioeconomic problems which affect the black family, and the development of appropriate policy and programs to deal with those problems. Data on infant mortality, life expectancy, maternal mortality, physician and dental visits, and some selected death rates from specific causes are…

  14. Depression-Related Stress Generation: A Longitudinal Study of Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingate, LaRicka R.; Joiner, Thomas E., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    The authors examined Hammen's (1991) model of stress generation in depression in a Black adolescent population. The longitudinal sample of 1,766 participants entered the study at ages 13 to 18. Stressful events and depressive and other symptom occurrence over a 1-year period were analyzed. Results supported the stress generation model. Depressive…

  15. The relative role of galaxy mergers and cosmic flows in feeding black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Bellovary, Jillian; Brooks, Alyson; Volonteri, Marta; Governato, Fabio; Quinn, Thomas; Wadsley, James

    2013-12-20

    Using a set of zoomed-in cosmological simulations of high-redshift progenitors of massive galaxies, we isolate and trace the history of gas that is accreted by central supermassive black holes. We determine the origins of the accreted gas, in terms of whether it entered the galaxy during a merger event or was smoothly accreted. Furthermore, we designate whether the smoothly accreted gas is accreted via a cold flow or is shocked upon entry into the halo. For moderate-mass (10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M {sub ☉}) black holes at z ∼ 4, there is a preference to accrete cold flow gas as opposed to gas of shocked or merger origin. However, this result is a consequence of the fact that the entire galaxy has a higher fraction of gas from cold flows. In general, each black hole tends to accrete the same fractions of smooth- and merger-accreted gas as is contained in its host galaxy, suggesting that once gas enters a halo it becomes well-mixed, and its origins are erased. We find that the angular momentum of the gas upon halo entry is a more important factor; black holes preferentially accrete gas that had low angular momentum when it entered the galaxy, regardless of whether it was accreted smoothly or through mergers.

  16. Spectral methods in general relativity and large Randall-Sundrum II black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Abdolrahimi, Shohreh; Cattoën, Céline; Page, Don N.; Yaghoobpour-Tari, Shima E-mail: celine.cattoen-gilbert@canterbury.ac.nz E-mail: yaghoobp@ualberta.ca

    2013-06-01

    Using a novel numerical spectral method, we have found solutions for large static Randall-Sundrum II (RSII) black holes by perturbing a numerical AdS{sub 5}-CFT{sub 4} solution to the Einstein equation with a negative cosmological constant Λ that is asymptotically conformal to the Schwarzschild metric. We used a numerical spectral method independent of the Ricci-DeTurck-flow method used by Figueras, Lucietti, and Wiseman for a similar numerical solution. We have compared our black-hole solution to the one Figueras and Wiseman have derived by perturbing their numerical AdS{sub 5}-CFT{sub 4} solution, showing that our solution agrees closely with theirs. We have obtained a closed-form approximation to the metric of the black hole on the brane. We have also deduced the new results that to first order in 1/(−ΛM{sup 2}), the Hawking temperature and entropy of an RSII static black hole have the same values as the Schwarzschild metric with the same mass, but the horizon area is increased by about 4.7/(−Λ)

  17. Relational Mentoring of Doctoral Social Work Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal; Berry Edwards, Janice; Orme, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the distinctive mentoring experiences of social work doctoral students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). With a philosophical emphasis on social justice, self-determination, racial identity and pride, and social integration, social work faculty at HBCUs mentor African American and other students in PhD…

  18. Relational Mentoring of Doctoral Social Work Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross-Sheriff, Fariyal; Berry Edwards, Janice; Orme, Julie

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the distinctive mentoring experiences of social work doctoral students at historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs). With a philosophical emphasis on social justice, self-determination, racial identity and pride, and social integration, social work faculty at HBCUs mentor African American and other students in PhD…

  19. The Relative Economic Status of Chinese, Japanese, Black, and White Men in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Harold H.

    This study hypothesizes that Chinese, Japanese, and blacks in California earn less at each level of education and age than do whites, and that the situation is not improving. Hypothesized reasons include a lower return on education, exclusion from high earning occupations, nonadvancement within an occupation, and greater unemployment. A basic…

  20. Leisure Time Physical Activity in Relation to Depressive Symptoms in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Lauren A.; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity might reduce the risk of depressive symptoms, but there are limited data on Black women. Purpose The objective was to evaluate the association between leisure time physical activity and depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. Methods Participants included 35,224 women ages 21 to 69 from the Black Women’s Health Study, a follow-up study of African American women in which data are collected biennially by mail questionnaire. Women answered questions on past and current exercise levels at baseline (1995) and follow-up (1997). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in 1999. Women who reported a diagnosis of depression before 1999 were excluded. We used multivariate logistic regression models to compute odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for physical activity in relation to depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥ 16) with control for potential confounders. Results Adult vigorous physical activity was inversely associated with depressive symptoms. Women who reported vigorous exercise both in high school (≥ 5 hr per week) and adulthood (≥ 2 hr per week) had the lowest odds of depressive symptoms (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.71–0.82) relative to never active women; the OR was 0.90 for women who were active in high school but not adulthood (95% CI = 0.85–0.96) and 0.83 for women who were inactive in high school but became active in adulthood (95% CI = 0.77–0.91). Although walking for exercise was not associated with risk of depressive symptoms overall, there was evidence of a weak inverse relation among obese women (Body Mass Index ≥ 30). Conclusions Leisure time vigorous physical activity was associated with a reduced odds of depressive symptoms in U.S. Black women. PMID:16827631

  1. The overlap of numerical relativity, perturbation theory and post-Newtonian theory in the binary black hole problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Tiec, Alexandre

    2014-09-01

    Inspiralling and coalescing binary black holes are promising sources of gravitational radiation. The orbital motion and gravitational-wave emission of such system can be modeled using a variety of approximation schemes and numerical methods in general relativity: The post-Newtonian (PN) formalism, black hole perturbation theory (BHP), numerical relativity (NR) simulations and the effective one-body (EOB) model. We review recent work at the multiple interfaces of these analytical and numerical techniques, emphasizing the use of coordinate-invariant relationships to perform meaningful comparisons. Such comparisons provide independent checks of the validity of the various calculations, they inform the development of a universal, semi-analytical model of the binary dynamics and gravitational-wave emission and they help to delineate the respective domains of validity of each approximation method. For instance, several recent comparisons suggest that perturbation theory may find applications in a broader range of physical problems than previously thought, including the radiative inspiral of intermediate mass-ratio and comparable-mass black hole binaries.

  2. Patterns of methane-related carbonate formation in the black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitner, J.; Peckmann, J.; Reimer, A.; Thiel, V.

    2003-04-01

    Methane seeps on the northwestern Black Sea shelf were investigated during the GHOSTDABS expedition in 2001. Seep areas close to the Dniepr Canyon are sites of intense carbonate formation. In anoxic waters, at depths between 200 and 400 m, we found three different modes of seepage-induced carbonate precipitation. The most spectacular type comprises up to 4 m high Ca-carbonate towers flushed by methane gas (type 1). These buildups are constructed of cm to dm-scale calcified hollow spheres which are made and later surrounded by microbial mats. At the base of these microbial mats the spheres are stabilized by a continuous rim of carbonate cement. At a later stage, the fragile spheres are entirely cemented by fibrous aragonite and Mg calcite. The towers harbour a highly diverse microbial community, which are, at least in part, based on the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM). A second variety of methane-derived carbonates was observed in the vicinity of the large carbonate towers and consists of lenticular concretions growing within the sediment (type 2). The concretions are up to several decimeters in size and consist of Mg calcite crystal aggregates that progressively fuse together, thereby incorporating ambient sedimentary matter. Associated biofilms surrounding the concretions clearly show AOM related populations but exhibit a different community structure and a smaller microbial diversity than type 1 carbonates. Type 3 encompasses background sediments irregularly cemented with microcrystalline Mg-calcite (automicrite). These precipitates may show very thin internal biofilms, and are further characterized by small, “birds eye”-type cavities. These cavities appear to arise from ascending gas bubbles, and are partly cemented by granular to blocky Mg calcites. The internal surfaces are frequently coated by thin biofilms resembling those found associated with type 2 concretions. All studied Ca-carbonates have low d13C values (-25 to -35 permille vs. PDB) and show

  3. Gravity Shifting Due to Distribution of Momentum in Black Hole and its Relation with Time Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeygian, Mohammad Hossein

    2017-04-01

    There are many local convection systems of heat and mass in black holes. These large scale coupled systems including planets and molten masses which generate momentum in black hole and consequently generate coupled gravitational and electromagnetic waves. Therefore black hole's gravity is shifting due to distribution of masses/momentum in its convection systems. Two massive black holes which merged at a distance of 1.3 billion light years far from the Earth, produced different momentum and energy before, during, and after the event in different locations of the black hole. This energy and momentum produced gravitational waves which radiated away and recorded on September 14, 2015 by two detectors of the Laser Interferometry Gravitational Observatories (LIGO) in USA. On the other hand, the nature of time is wavy-like motion of the matter and nature of space is jerky-like motion of the matter. These two natures of space-time can be matched on wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics. And also magnitude of the time for an atom is momentum of its involved fundamental particles [Gholibeigian, adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016APS.APR.D1032G]. ∑ ⃗R(mv, σ,τ ) = (pnucleons + pelectrons) In which ⃗Ris time flux, σ&τare space and time coordinates on the string world sheet and p is momentum. Therefore, gravitational waves which travel from black hole to us including different fluxes of time which accompaniment propagated gravitational waves of momentum. As an observable factor, we can look at the 7 milliseconds difference of recorded at the time of arrival of the signals on September 14, 2015 by detector in Livingston before detector in Hanford. This difference of recorded time of signal GW150914 by LIGO cannot be due to warped space-time, because 3002 kilometers distance between two detectors with respect to the 1.3 billion light years (distance of black hole to detectors) is like zero! So, this 7 milliseconds difference between two time's fluxes can be due to

  4. The relation of residential segregation to all-cause mortality: a study in black and white.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S A; Anderson, R T; Johnson, N J; Sorlie, P D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the influence of an aggregate measure of the social environment on racial differences in all-cause mortality. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Mortality Study were analyzed. RESULTS: After adjustment for family income, age-adjusted mortality risk increased with increasing minority residential segregation among Blacks aged 25 to 44 years and non-Blacks aged 45 to 64 years. In most age/race/gender groups, the highest and lowest mortality risks occurred in the highest and lowest categories of residential segregation, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that minority residential segregation may influence mortality risk and underscore the traditional emphasis on the social underpinnings of disease and death. PMID:10754978

  5. Radiative, two-temperature simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion flows in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Abarca, David; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chael, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    We present a numerical method that evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components - ions and electrons - which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric space-time of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low-luminosity black hole accretion. In the case of a model with a mass accretion rate dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-8} dot{M}_Edd, we find that radiation has a negligible effect on either the dynamics or the thermodynamics of the accreting gas. In contrast, a model with a larger dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-4} dot{M}_Edd behaves very differently. The accreting gas is much cooler and the flow is geometrically less thick, though it is not quite a thin accretion disc.

  6. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND SPHEROIDS. V. THE RELATION BETWEEN BLACK HOLE MASS AND HOST GALAXY LUMINOSITY FOR A SAMPLE OF 79 ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Daeseong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bennert, Vardha N.; Treu, Tommaso; Auger, Matthew W.; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the cosmic evolution of the black hole (BH) mass-bulge luminosity relation using a sample of 52 active galaxies at z ∼ 0.36 and z ∼ 0.57 in the BH mass range of 10{sup 7.4}-10{sup 9.1} M {sub ☉}. By consistently applying multicomponent spectral and structural decomposition to high-quality Keck spectra and high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope images, BH masses (M {sub BH}) are estimated using the Hβ broad emission line combined with the 5100 Å nuclear luminosity, and bulge luminosities (L {sub bul}) are derived from surface photometry. Comparing the resulting M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation to local active galaxies and taking into account selection effects, we find evolution of the form M {sub BH}/L {sub bul}∝(1 + z){sup γ} with γ = 1.8 ± 0.7, consistent with BH growth preceding that of the host galaxies. Including an additional sample of 27 active galaxies with 0.5 < z < 1.9 taken from the literature and measured in a consistent way, we obtain γ = 0.9 ± 0.7 for the M {sub BH} – L {sub bul} relation and γ = 0.4 ± 0.5 for the M {sub BH}-total host galaxy luminosity (L {sub host}) relation. The results strengthen the findings from our previous studies and provide additional evidence for host galaxy bulge growth being dominated by disk-to-bulge transformation via minor mergers and/or disk instabilities.

  7. Why Black Officers Still Fail

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    White youth is smaller than it once was. They all pointed to the fact that today’s youth, both white and black, tend to be attracted to rap music and...papers touching on the experiences of black officers as they relate to representation, promotions, influence , and culture. They can best be...they relate to Black officer representation in the Army, Black officer promotion rates, Black officer influence on policy and decision making, black

  8. Propagation of the Sea of Azov plume in the Black Sea and its relation with atmospheric forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavialov, Ivan; Osadchiev, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    This work is devoted to research of the influence of wind forcing on propagation of the Sea of Azov water plume in the Black Sea. The Sea of Azov water is characterized by relatively low salinity and high concentrations of suspended matter, terrigenic nutrients, and anthropogenic pollutants. Thus, the Sea of Azov inflow has significant impacts on physical, chemical, and biological processes in the Black Sea. The increased concentration of the suspended matter in the Sea of Azov plume allows to determine accurately its borders based on remote sensing data. For this purpose, data of the satellite color scanner MERIS/EnviSat with 300-meter spatial resolution were used. Atmospheric forcing on the Sea of Azov plume was investigated with the data of 6-hour reanalysis of winds (MERRA and NCAR/NCEP) with spatial resolution at 1/2 degrees in latitude and 2/3 degrees in longitude. Based on satellite images and wind reanalysis data for 2002-2012 period, it was established that the Azov Sea water inflow is favored by strong N and NE winds, which prevail in the region. It is evident in the processed satellite data that the Sea of Azov plume mainly extends along the east coast of the Crimean peninsula. In some cases under sufficiently strong winds, the Azov waters spread to the southern coast of the Crimea, and sometimes even to its south-west extremity. Factors influencing the propagation of the Azov Sea plume include intensity of water exchange between the Azov and the Black seas, the Rim Current, mesoscale eddies and other dynamic processes. However, the study demonstrated that the influence of wind forcing is dominant. Empirical regressions are derived expressing the dependence of the Azov plume area and its orientation on the magnitude and directions of the wind stress. Satellite-derived statistics of the Azov plume in the Black Sea characteristics are obtained.

  9. Scaling relations between black holes and their host galaxies: comparing theoretical and observational measurements, and the impact of selection effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGraf, C.; Di Matteo, T.; Treu, T.; Feng, Y.; Woo, J.-H.; Park, D.

    2015-11-01

    We use the high-resolution simulation MassiveBlackII to examine scaling relations between black hole (BH) mass and host galaxy properties (σ, total M* and LV), finding good agreement with recent observational data, especially at the high-mass end. We find Gaussian intrinsic scatter (˜half the observed scatter) about all three relations, except among the most massive objects. Below z ˜ 2 the slope of the relations remain roughly z-independent, and only steepen by 50 per cent by z ˜ 4. The normalization of the σ, LV relations evolve by 0.3, 0.43 dex, while the M* correlation does not evolve out to at least z ˜ 2. Testing for selection biases, we find MBH- or M*-selected samples have steeper slopes than random samples, suggesting a constant-mass selection function can exhibit faster evolution than a random sample. We find a potential bias among high-LBH subsamples due to their more massive hosts, but that bright (active) active galactic nuclei exhibit no intrinsic bias relative to fainter (inactive) BHs in equivalent-mass hosts. Finally, we show that BHs below the local relation tend to grow faster than their host (72 per cent of BHs >0.3 dex below the mean relation have an MBH-M* trajectory steeper than the local relation), while those above have shallower trajectories (only 14 per cent are steeper than local). Thus BHs tend to grow faster than their hosts until surpassing the local relation, when their growth is suppressed, bringing them back towards the mean relation.

  10. A new type of nonsingular black-hole solution in general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkhamer, F. R.

    2014-05-01

    Certain exact solutions of the Einstein field equations over nonsimply-connected manifolds are reviewed. These solutions are spherically symmetric and have no curvature singularity. They provide a regularization of the standard Schwarzschild solution with a curvature singularity at the center. Spherically symmetric collapse of matter in ℝ4 may result in these nonsingular black-hole solutions, if quantum-gravity effects allow for topology change near the center or if nontrivial topology is already present as a remnant from a quantum spacetime foam.

  11. Intermediate-mass-ratio black-hole binaries: numerical relativity meets perturbation theory.

    PubMed

    Lousto, Carlos O; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Zlochower, Yosef; Campanelli, Manuela

    2010-05-28

    We study black-hole binaries in the intermediate-mass-ratio regime 0.01≲q≲0.1 with a new technique that makes use of nonlinear numerical trajectories and efficient perturbative evolutions to compute waveforms at large radii for the leading and nonleading (ℓ, m) modes. As a proof-of-concept, we compute waveforms for q=1/10. We discuss applications of these techniques for LIGO and VIRGO data analysis and the possibility that our technique can be extended to produce accurate waveform templates from a modest number of fully nonlinear numerical simulations.

  12. Perceived racial, sexual identity, and homeless status-related discrimination among Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness: Relations with depressive symptoms and suicidality.

    PubMed

    Gattis, Maurice N; Larson, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of empirical evidence that addresses how racial minority, sexual minority, and homeless statuses, with their accompanying experiences of stigma and discrimination, are related to mental health in adolescent and young adult populations. The current study addresses this gap by examining the associations between multiple forms of discrimination, depressive symptoms, and suicidality in a sample of 89 Black adolescents and young adults (52% female; 47% nonheterosexual, ages 16-24) experiencing homelessness. Results from a series of ordinary least squares and logistic regressions suggested that perceived homelessness stigma and racial discrimination were associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms, controlling for gender, age, and other types of discrimination, while perceived sexual identity discrimination showed no association. Having ever spent a homeless night on the street, an indicator of homelessness severity, accounted for a substantial amount of the association between homelessness stigma and depressive symptoms. In contrast, suicidality was not significantly associated with any measure of discrimination, homelessness severity, or personal characteristics. We also found no indication that the associations between perceived discrimination targeted at racial and homelessness statuses and mental health differed by sexual minority status. Our results suggest that depressive symptoms and suicidality are prevalent among Black homeless youth, and that depressive symptoms are particularly associated with racial discrimination and indicators of homelessness. The roles of discrimination and a lack of safe housing may be taken into account when designing programs and policies that address the mental health of Black adolescents and young adults experiencing homelessness.

  13. Relative Content of Black Carbon in Submicron Aerosol as a Sign of the Effect of Forest Fire Smokes

    SciTech Connect

    Kozlov, V.S.; Panchenko, M.V.; Yauscheva, E.P.

    2005-03-18

    Biomass burning occurs often in regions containing vast forest tracts and peat-bogs. These processes are accompanied by the emission of a large amount of aerosol particles and crystal carbon (black carbon [BC], soot). BC is the predominant source of solar absorption in atmospheric aerosol, which impacts climate. (Jacobson 2001; Rozenberg 1982). In this paper, we analyze the results of laboratory and field investigations that focused on the relative content of BC in aerosol particles. Main attention is given to the study of possibility using this parameter as an informative sign for estimating the effect of remote forest fire smokes on the near-ground aerosol composition.

  14. Serum immune-related proteins are differentially expressed during hibernation in the American black bear.

    PubMed

    Chow, Brian A; Donahue, Seth W; Vaughan, Michael R; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears.

  15. High Energy Plasmas, General Relativity and Collective Modes in the Vicinity of Black Holes*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2009-05-01

    Plasmas around black holes can take different equilibrium configurations^1 from those known from fluid theory as the vertical Lorentz compression due to plasma currents can overtake that of the gravitational force. In a disk with a ``seed'' magnetic field, axisymmetric modes as well as tri-dimensional spirals can be excited by the combined effects of the radial gradient of the plasma rotation frequency and of the plasma pressure gradient^2. The spirals' properties depend strongly on their vertical structure^3. Axisymmetric modes can produce vertical counter-flows of thermal energy and particles and be candidates for the origin of the winds emanating from disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN's)^2. The excitation of radially localized density spirals corotating with the plasma near a black hole can provide an explanation for^4 the observed Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPO's) of the X-ray emission from compact objects. Convective spiral modes^3 that are purely oscillatory in time and not localized radially can acquire their amplitudes from coupling to unstable modes and provide transport^3 of angular momentum toward the outer region of the disk structure.*Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. ^1B. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J., 641, 458 (2006). ^2B. Coppi, Europhys. Letters 82, 19001 (2008). ^3B. Coppi, MIT/LNS Report 08/08, submitted to A&A (2008). ^4B. Coppi and P. Rebusco, Paper P5.154, E.P.S. Conf. Pl. Phys. (Crete, 2008).

  16. Physiological and behavioral factors related to physical activity in black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nancy A; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    To describe relationships among physical activity (PA), physiological factors, and psychological factors in Black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional design was used (N = 109). Data were collected on PA(activity/inactivity, TV hours, bed confinement), physiology (blood pressure, lipids, hemoglobin A1c), psychology (anxiety,emotional distress, physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality), and health care provider (HCP) support. Walking was the preferred PA; TV viewing averaged 3.7 hours/day, and 24% reported confinement to bed >1 week in the last year. Inactive women had greater physiological and psychological problems than active women. Women watching TV >2 hours/day had more physiological problems than women watching TV <2 hours/day. Women reporting >1 week of confinement to bed in the last year had more physiological and psychological problems than those confined to bed <1 week. PA interventions in Black women with T2DM should promote walking, address TV viewing time, incorporate HCP’s role of PA counseling/support,and address several psychological factors.

  17. Inorganic Macro- and Micronutrients in “Superberries” Black Chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) and Related Teas

    PubMed Central

    Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Zeiner, Michaela; Mihajlov-Konanov, Darija; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2017-01-01

    Black chokeberries (Aronia melanocarpa) are considered to be functional food containing high amounts of anthocyanins, phenols, antioxidants, vitamins and minerals. Whereas organic compounds are well studied, there is little research on the mineral composition of the chokeberries. Thus, the presented study is focused on the determination of Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr and Zn in black chokeberry fruits and infusions to study the metals’ extractability. The nutrients Ca, K and Mg are present in the fruits (dried matter) at g/kg level, whereas the other elements are present from µg/kg up to mg/kg level. The extraction yields of the metals from the infusion range from 4 (Al, Mn) up to 44% (Na). The toxic elements present do not pose any health risk when berries or infusions are consumed. Concluding, Aronia berries, as well as infusions derived from them, are a good dietary source of essential metals in addition to the organic compounds also contained. PMID:28524107

  18. Serum Immune-Related Proteins are Differentially Expressed during Hibernation in the American Black Bear

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Brian A.; Donahue, Seth W.; Vaughan, Michael R.; McConkey, Brendan; Vijayan, Mathilakath M.

    2013-01-01

    Hibernation is an adaptation to conserve energy in the face of extreme environmental conditions and low food availability that has risen in several animal phyla. This phenomenon is characterized by reduced metabolic rate (∼25% of the active basal metabolic rate in hibernating bears) and energy demand, while other physiological adjustments are far from clear. The profiling of the serum proteome of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) may reveal specific proteins that are differentially modulated by hibernation, and provide insight into the remarkable physiological adaptations that characterize ursid hibernation. In this study, we used differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) analysis, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry, and subsequent MASCOT analysis of the mass spectra to identify candidate proteins that are differentially expressed during hibernation in captive black bears. Seventy serum proteins were identified as changing by ±1.5 fold or more, out of which 34 proteins increased expression during hibernation. The majority of identified proteins are involved in immune system processes. These included α2-macroglobulin, complement components C1s and C4, immunoglobulin μ and J chains, clusterin, haptoglobin, C4b binding protein, kininogen 1, α2-HS-glycoprotein, and apoplipoproteins A-I and A-IV. Differential expression of a subset of these proteins identified by proteomic analysis was also confirmed by immunodetection. We propose that the observed serum protein changes contribute to the maintenance of the hibernation phenotype and health, including increased capacities for bone maintenance and wound healing during hibernation in bears. PMID:23825529

  19. The adrenocortical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, J.F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short-and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  20. The adrenocorical stress-response of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks in relation to dietary restrictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kitaysky, A.S.; Piatt, John F.; Wingfield, J.C.; Romano, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this study we examined hormonal responses of Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) chicks to experimental variations in energy content and nutritional quality (low or high lipid to protein ratio, LPR) of their food. Starting at the age of 10 days, chicks were fed either high or low LPR fish at 30, 50, 70 and 100% of ad libitum energy intake. After 20 days of treatment, chicks were exposed to a standardized acute handling and restraint stress protocol, where a baseline sample was taken immediately after taking a chick from the nest, and three additional blood samples were taken at intervals up to 50 min. Testosterone and corticosterone titres in plasma were measured via radioimmunoassay. We found that baseline testosterone levels were not significantly affected by the experimental treatments. Food-restricted chicks had elevated baseline and acute stress-induced levels of corticosterone compared to chicks fed ad libitum. An elevation of circulating levels of corticosterone in energetically stressed individuals was further magnified by low nutritional quality of food. Baseline and acute stress-induced corticosterone levels of chicks were negatively correlated with their fat reserves. We conclude that the physiological condition of Black-legged Kittiwake chicks can be assessed reliably by measuring circulating levels of corticosterone. We discuss short- and long-term effects of elevated corticosterone secretion in food-stressed nest-bound chicks.

  1. The Megamaser Cosmology Project: precise black hole mass measurement and the implication for the M BH-σ* relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Cheng-Yu; Braatz, James A.; Condon, James J.; Impellizzeri, Caterina M. V.; Lo, Kwok-Yung; Zaw, Ingyin; Henkel, Christian; Reid, Mark J.; Greene, Jenny E.; Gao, Feng; Zhao, Wei

    2016-02-01

    We made dynamical black hole mass measurements from nineteen Seyfert 2 galaxies which host sub-parsec H2O maser disks using the H2O megamaser technique. The nearly perfect Keplerian rotation curves in many of these maser systems guarantee the high accuracy and precision of the black hole mass measurements. With the stellar velocity dispersion (σ*) of the galaxy bulges measured with the Dupont 2.5 m telescope at Las Campanas Observatory in the South and the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5m telescope in the North, we found that H2O maser galaxies, most of which host pseudo bulges rather than classical bulges, do not all follow the M BH -σ* relation shown in the literature. This result is well consistent with the latest findings by Kormendy & Ho (2013) that only early type galaxies and galaxies with classical bulges follow a tight MBH-σ* relation. Such a tight correlation may not exist in pseudo bulge galaxies.

  2. Immune status, carotenoid coloration, and wing feather growth in relation to organochlorine pollutants in great black-backed gulls.

    PubMed

    Bustnes, Jan Ove; Kristiansen, Kai Ove; Helberg, Morten

    2007-07-01

    Previous ecotoxicological studies have documented relationships between residues of various organochlorines (OCs) and immune status, carotenoid colors, and wing feather growth in different bird species. In this study, the density of white blood cells (WBC), carotenoid colors, and length of the same feathers on each wing were measured in breeding great black-backed gulls (Larus marinus) on the coast of northern Norway, and related to the blood residues of five OCs, including HCB (hexachlorobenzene), beta-HCH (beta-hexachlorocyclohexane), p,p'-DDE (p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), oxychlordane, and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), in addition to SigmaOC. Neither, WBC density nor carotenoid colors were significantly related to blood residues of any of the OCs, suggesting that OC levels may have been too low to significantly affect these outcome parameters. However, in the colony where the OC concentrations were highest, there was a weak but significantly positive relationship between the probability of having different length of feathers on each wing and levels of PCB and SigmaOC, in males. Thus varying length of the wing primaries may reflect adverse impacts of OCs in great black-backed gulls. However, in gulls with moderate levels of OCs, it is probably not a sensitive indicator of progressing ecological impacts of OCs, since such adverse ecological relationships were found in the breeding colonies where there were no relationships between differences in wing feather lengths and OCs.

  3. Risk of uterine leiomyomata in relation to tobacco, alcohol and caffeine consumption in the Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    A.Wise, Lauren; R.Palmer, Julie; L.Harlow, Bernard; Spiegelman, Donna; A.Stewart, Elizabeth; L.Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND Tobacco, alcohol and caffeine consumption may influence risk of uterine leiomyomata via changes in ovarian function or hormone metabolism. METHODS We prospectively assessed the relation of these exposures to risk of self-reported uterine leiomyomata in the Black Women’s Health Study. From 1997 to 2001, we followed 21 885 premenopausal women with intact uteri and no prior myoma diagnosis. Cox regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS During 73 426 person-years of follow-up, 2177 incident cases of uterine leiomyomata confirmed by ultrasound (n = 1920) or hysterectomy (n = 257) were reported. Cigarette smoking was not associated with risk of uterine leiomyomata. Risk was positively associated with years of alcohol consumption and current consumption of alcohol, particularly beer. Relative to non-drinkers, multivariate IRRs for beer consumption of <1, 1–6 and 7+ drinks/week were 1.11 (95% CI 0.98–1.27), 1.18 (95% CI 1.00–1.40) and 1.57 (95% CI 1.17–2.11), respectively. Heavy coffee and caffeine consumption were not associated with risk overall, but IRRs were increased among women aged <35 years. CONCLUSIONS In US black women, risk of uterine leiomyomata was positively associated with current consumption of alcohol, particularly beer. Cigarette smoking and caffeine consumption were unrelated to risk overall. PMID:15218005

  4. A note on black-hole physics, cosmic censorship, and the charge-mass relation of atomic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hod, Shahar

    2016-02-01

    Arguing from the cosmic censorship principle, one of the fundamental cornerstones of black-hole physics, we have recently suggested the existence of a universal upper bound relating the maximal electric charge of a weakly self-gravitating system to its total mass: Z(A)≤slant {Z}*(A)\\equiv {α }-1/3{A}2/3, where Z is the number of protons in the system, A is the total baryon (mass) number, and α ={e}2/{{\\hslash }}c is the dimensionless fine-structure constant. In order to test the validity of this suggested bound, we here explore the Z(A) functional relation of atomic nuclei as deduced from the Weizsäcker semi-empirical mass formula. It is shown that all atomic nuclei, including the meta-stable maximally charged ones, conform to the suggested charge-mass upper bound. Our results support the validity of the cosmic censorship conjecture in black-hole physics.

  5. Environmental variation and experience-related differences in the demography of the long-lived black-browed albatross.

    PubMed

    Nevoux, Marie; Weimerskirch, Henri; Barbraud, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    1. It has been largely demonstrated that demographic performances of animals increase with age or experience as a result of an improvement of foraging skills, an increasing reproductive effort or a selection process. However, little is known about the age or experience-related response of populations to environmental variations. Theoretical studies consider that age-related variations of the performances are greater under more restricting conditions, but this has rarely been tested. 2. We tested this hypothesis on a long-lived species, black browed albatross Thalassarche melanophrys Temminck, using a long-term capture-mark-recapture data set. We investigated the responses of a population to climate, by studying the effects of climatic factors and breeding experience on survival and breeding success. 3. First-time breeders appear to be poorer performers compared with experienced adults, with lower reproductive success and lower survival. In addition, interannual variations of demographic traits were partly explained by climatic indices, reflecting environmental variations. The survival probability of black-browed albatrosses varied with experience and climate, and differences being greater under harsh conditions. By contrast, the reproductive success of inexperienced individuals was affected by climatic fluctuations in the same way as the experienced ones. 4. First breeding event acts as a strong selective process on the highly heterogeneous class of inexperienced individuals, suggesting the increase in survival and breeding success with experience may mainly reflect a reduction in the heterogeneity among individual qualities.

  6. Labor market segmentation and relative black/white teenage birth rates.

    PubMed

    Mccrate, E

    1990-01-01

    "Teenage mothers typically have lower educational attainment than other women. Most observers have argued that this is a major reason for their greater risk of poverty. This article takes the opposite view: that circumstances associated with poverty contribute to a greater likelihood of teenage childbearing. In particular, poor educational quality and the chances of secondary sector employment are more common for black women, regardless of their age at first birth. Hence the payoffs to education may be quite low for these women, which may be the reason for early motherhood. This argument is presented in terms of segmented labor market theory. Data to support it is presented from the [U.S.] National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Other common explanations of teenage motherhood are critiqued." excerpt

  7. Impact of warming and drought on carbon balance related to wood formation in black spruce

    PubMed Central

    Deslauriers, Annie; Beaulieu, Marilène; Balducci, Lorena; Giovannelli, Alessio; Gagnon, Michel J.; Rossi, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Wood formation in trees represents a carbon sink that can be modified in the case of stress. The way carbon metabolism constrains growth during stress periods (high temperature and water deficit) is now under debate. In this study, the amounts of non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) for xylogenesis in black spruce, Picea mariana, saplings were assessed under high temperature and drought in order to determine the role of sugar mobilization for osmotic purposes and its consequences for secondary growth. Methods Four-year-old saplings of black spruce in a greenhouse were subjected to different thermal conditions with respect to the outside air temperature (T0) in 2010 (2 and 5 °C higher than T0) and 2011 (6 °C warmer than T0 during the day or night) with a dry period of about 1 month in June of each year. Wood formation together with starch, NSCs and leaf parameters (water potential and photosynthesis) were monitored from May to September. Key Results With the exception of raffinose, the amounts of soluble sugars were not modified in the cambium even if gas exchange and photosynthesis were greatly reduced during drought. Raffinose increased more than pinitol under a pre-dawn water potential of less than –1 Mpa, presumably because this compound is better suited than polyol for replacing water and capturing free radicals, and its degradation into simple sugar is easier. Warming decreased the starch storage in the xylem as well the available hexose pool in the cambium and the xylem, probably because of an increase in respiration. Conclusions Radial stem growth was reduced during drought due to the mobilization of NSCs for osmotic purposes and due to the lack of cell turgor. Thus plant water status during wood formation can influence the NSCs available for growth in the cambium and xylem. PMID:24950772

  8. Modeling temporal and spatial variability of traffic-related air pollution: Hourly land use regression models for black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dons, Evi; Van Poppel, Martine; Kochan, Bruno; Wets, Geert; Int Panis, Luc

    2013-08-01

    Land use regression (LUR) modeling is a statistical technique used to determine exposure to air pollutants in epidemiological studies. Time-activity diaries can be combined with LUR models, enabling detailed exposure estimation and limiting exposure misclassification, both in shorter and longer time lags. In this study, the traffic related air pollutant black carbon was measured with μ-aethalometers on a 5-min time base at 63 locations in Flanders, Belgium. The measurements show that hourly concentrations vary between different locations, but also over the day. Furthermore the diurnal pattern is different for street and background locations. This suggests that annual LUR models are not sufficient to capture all the variation. Hourly LUR models for black carbon are developed using different strategies: by means of dummy variables, with dynamic dependent variables and/or with dynamic and static independent variables. The LUR model with 48 dummies (weekday hours and weekend hours) performs not as good as the annual model (explained variance of 0.44 compared to 0.77 in the annual model). The dataset with hourly concentrations of black carbon can be used to recalibrate the annual model, resulting in many of the original explaining variables losing their statistical significance, and certain variables having the wrong direction of effect. Building new independent hourly models, with static or dynamic covariates, is proposed as the best solution to solve these issues. R2 values for hourly LUR models are mostly smaller than the R2 of the annual model, ranging from 0.07 to 0.8. Between 6 a.m. and 10 p.m. on weekdays the R2 approximates the annual model R2. Even though models of consecutive hours are developed independently, similar variables turn out to be significant. Using dynamic covariates instead of static covariates, i.e. hourly traffic intensities and hourly population densities, did not significantly improve the models' performance.

  9. Child and Adolescent Abuse in Relation to Obesity in Adulthood: The Black Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R; Boggs, Deborah A.; Wise, Lauren A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adolescence with risk of adult obesity among black women in the United States. METHODS: Participants were women enrolled in the Black Women’s Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study begun in 1995. In 2005, 33 298 participants completed a self-administered questionnaire on early life experiences of abuse. Log-binomial regression models were used to derive risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relation of child/teenager abuse with obesity (BMI ≥30) and central adiposity (waist circumference >35 inches) reported in 2005. RESULTS: The RR for BMI ≥30, a measure of overall obesity, was 1.29 (95% CI 1.20–1.38) for the highest severity of exposure to child/teenager physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse. After controlling for postulated intermediates, including reproductive history, diet, physical activity, depressive symptoms, and socioeconomic status, the RR was 1.14 (95% CI 1.08–1.21). The RR for waist circumference >35 inches, which measures central obesity, for severe physical and sexual abuse relative to no abuse was 1.29 (95% CI 1.19–1.38) before adjustment for intermediates and 1.18 (95% CI 1.10–1.27) after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS: Early life sexual and physical abuse was associated with an increased risk of overall and central obesity in adulthood. Although the association between abuse and obesity was explained to some extent by health behaviors, reproductive history, and mental health, these factors did not fully account for the associations. Our data suggest that early life adversity is related to adult body size and weight distribution. PMID:22753562

  10. Black Talk and Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book…

  11. Historical emissions of black and organic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850-2000 - article no. GB2018

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, T.C.; Bhardwaj, E.; Dong, R.; Jogani, R.; Jung, S.K.; Roden, C.; Streets, D.G.; Trautmann, N.M.

    2007-05-15

    We present an emission inventory of primary black carbon (BC) and primary organic carbon (OC) aerosols from fossil fuel and biofuel combustion between 1850 and 2000. We reconstruct fossil fuel consumption and represent changes in technology on a national and sectoral basis. Our estimates rely on new estimates of biofuel consumption, and updated emission factors for old technologies. Emissions of black carbon increase almost linearly, totaling about 1000 Gg in 1850, 2200 Gg in 1900, 3000 Gg in 1950, and 4400 Gg in 2000. Primary organic carbon shows a similar pattern, with emissions of 4100 Gg, 5800 Gg, 6700 Gg, and 8700 Gg in 1850, 1900, 1950, and 2000, respectively. Biofuel is responsible for over half of BC emission until about 1890, and dominates energy-related primary OC emission throughout the entire period. Coal contributes the greatest fraction of BC emission between 1880 and 1975, and is overtaken by emissions from biofuel around 1975, and by diesel engines around 1990. Previous work suggests a rapid rise in BC emissions between 1950 and 2000. This work supports a more gradual increase between 1950 and 2000, similar to the increase between 1850 and 1925; implementation of clean technology is a primary reason.

  12. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Healthy White and Black Adolescents: Relations to Race, Sex, Adiposity, Adipokines and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Haidong; Wang, Xiaoling; Gutin, Bernard; Davis, Catherine L.; Keeton, Daniel; Thomas, Jeffrey; Stallmann-Jorgensen, Inger; Mooken, Grace; Bundy, Vanessa; Snieder, Harold; van der Harst, Pim; Dong, Yanbin

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relations of race, sex, adiposity, adipokines and physical activity to telomere length in adolescents. Study design Leukocyte telomere length (T/S ratio) was assessed cross-sectionally in 667 adolescents (aged 14–18 years, 48% blacks, 51% girls) using a quantitative PCR method. Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were performed. Results Black adolescents had longer telomeres than white adolescents (age and sex adjusted T/S ratio ± SE: 1.32 ± 0.01 vs. 1.27 ± 0.01, p=0.014) and girls had longer telomeres than boys (age and race adjusted T/S ratio ± SE: 1.31 ± 0.01 vs. 1.27 ± 0.01, p=0.007). None of the adiposity or adipokine measures explained a significant proportion of the variance in telomere length. Vigorous physical activity was positively associated with telomere length (adjusted R2=0.019, p=0.009) and accounted for 1.9% of the total variance only in girls. Conclusion This study, conducted in a biracial adolescent cohort, demonstrated that: (1) race and sex differences in telomere length have already emerged during adolescence; (2) adiposity and adipokines are not associated with telomere length at this age; and (3) the anti-aging effect of vigorous physical activity may begin in youth especially in girls. PMID:20855079

  13. Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Sherrill; Cherepanav, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari

    2013-08-01

    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination compared to white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  14. Comparing Black hole Shadow Widths in the Equatorial Plane for General Relativity and Selected Alternative Theories of Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graber, James

    2017-01-01

    Results from ongoing efforts to measure the black hole shadows expected from Sgr A* and M87, e.g. by the Event-Horizon Telescope, could soon confirm or refute the Kerr nature of the black-hole shadow, thereby helping confirm or refute General Relativity. It is fairly easy to precisely calculate the width of the shadow of a compact, cylindrically symmetric rotating object in its equatorial plane. We have calculated these shadow widths for three different metrics: 1) the standard Kerr metric, 2) a rotating perturbed Kerr object with a quadrupole moment similar to a neutron star's, as computed by Frutos-Alfaro based on the earlier Manko et al. neutron-star metric, and 3) also for a new rotating metric based on the Yilmaz exponential metric. For reasonable (plausible) parameter values, the differences in calculated shadow widths are of the order of ten percent, which may be difficult to measure. We graphically present comparisons between the expected Kerr value for the shadow width, and the widths computed for the alternative metrics as a numerically computed function of the rotation and the quadrupole moment. If time allows, we may present similar calculations and graphs for the shadow widths of rotating compact objects from other alternative theories of gravity.

  15. The most powerful astrophysical events: Gravitational-wave peak luminosity of binary black holes as predicted by numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keitel, David; Forteza, Xisco Jiménez; Husa, Sascha; London, Lionel; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano; Harms, Enno; Nagar, Alessandro; Hannam, Mark; Khan, Sebastian; Pürrer, Michael; Pratten, Geraint; Chaurasia, Vivek

    2017-07-01

    For a brief moment, a binary black hole (BBH) merger can be the most powerful astrophysical event in the visible Universe. Here we present a model fit for this gravitational-wave peak luminosity of nonprecessing quasicircular BBH systems as a function of the masses and spins of the component black holes, based on numerical relativity (NR) simulations and the hierarchical fitting approach introduced by X. Jiménez-Forteza et al. [Phys. Rev. D 95, 064024 (2017)., 10.1103/PhysRevD.95.064024]. This fit improves over previous results in accuracy and parameter-space coverage and can be used to infer posterior distributions for the peak luminosity of future astrophysical signals like GW150914 and GW151226. The model is calibrated to the ℓ≤6 modes of 378 nonprecessing NR simulations up to mass ratios of 18 and dimensionless spin magnitudes up to 0.995, and includes unequal-spin effects. We also constrain the fit to perturbative numerical results for large mass ratios. Studies of key contributions to the uncertainty in NR peak luminosities, such as (i) mode selection, (ii) finite resolution, (iii) finite extraction radius, and (iv) different methods for converting NR waveforms to luminosity, allow us to use NR simulations from four different codes as a homogeneous calibration set. This study of systematic fits to combined NR and large-mass-ratio data, including higher modes, also paves the way for improved inspiral-merger-ringdown waveform models.

  16. Reproductive success of black skimmers in Texas relative to environmental pollutants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, D.H.; Mitchell, C.A.; Swineford, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    We studied the nesting ecology of Black Skimmers along the lower Texas coast during 1978-1981 to learn more of their reproductive status and to evaluate the effects of organochlorine pollutants, such as DDE, on productivity. For 542 nests, the average clutch size was 3.3 eggs. Flooding was the major cause of colony destruction and abandonment. Clutch size in renest attempts decreased significantly from that in first attempts. Overall fledging success (fledglings/total pairs) averaged 1 0 fledgling per pair. There was a significant negative correlation between number of nest attempts and fledging success on a colony basis. Also, clutch size and fledging success were significantly correlated. DDE residues in some skimmer eggs were high (up to 51 ppm, wet weight), with 35% of all eggs sampled containing- >1 0 ppm DDE. However, eggshell thinning of only 4-12% was demonstrated on a colony basis and log DDE residues in individual eggs were not significantly correlated with shell thickness. DDE residues in Texas eggs were 5-fold higher than in South Carolina eggs where no shell thinning was detected.

  17. Development of the black soldier fly (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in relation to temperature.

    PubMed

    Tomberlin, Jeffery K; Adler, Peter H; Myers, Heidi M

    2009-06-01

    The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L., was reared on a grain-based diet at 27, 30, and 36 degrees C. Survival of 4- to 6-d-old larvae to adults averaged 74-97% at 27 and 30 degrees C but was only 0.1% at 36 degrees C. Flies required a mean of approximately 4 d (11%) longer to complete larval and pupal development at 27 degrees C than at 30 degrees C. At 27 and 30 degrees C, females weighed an average of 17-19% more than males but required an average of 0.6-0.8 d (3.0-4.3%) longer to complete larval development. At both temperatures, adult females lived an average of approximately 3.5 d less than adult males. The duration of larval development was a significant predictor of adult longevity. Temperature differences of even 3 degrees C produce significant fitness tradeoffs for males and females, influencing life history attributes and having practical applications for forensic entomology.

  18. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  19. Black raspberries suppress colonic adenoma development in ApcMin/+ mice: relation to metabolite profiles.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pan; Skaer, Chad W; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Stirdivant, Steven M; Young, Matthew R; Oshima, Kiyoko; Stoner, Gary D; Lechner, John F; Huang, Yi-Wen; Wang, Li-Shu

    2015-10-01

    Freeze-dried black raspberries (BRBs) have demonstrated chemopreventive effects in a dietary intervention trial with human colorectal cancer patients. The aim of this study was to investigate BRB-caused metabolite changes using the Apc(Min/+) mouse as a model of human colorectal cancer. Wild-type (WT) mice were fed control diet, and Apc(Min/+) mice were fed either control diet or control diet supplemented with 5% BRBs for 8 weeks. Colonic and intestinal polyp size and number were measured. A non-targeted metabolomic analysis was conducted on colonic mucosa, liver and fecal specimens. Eight weeks of BRB treatment significantly decreased intestinal and colonic polyp number and size in Apc(Min/+) mice. The apc gene mutation significantly changed 52 metabolites in colonic mucosa associated with increased amino acid and decreased lipid metabolites, as well as 39 liver and 8 fecal metabolites. BRBs significantly reversed 23 apc-regulated metabolites, including 13 colonic mucosa, 8 liver and 2 fecal metabolites that were involved in amino acid, glutathione, lipid and nucleotide metabolism. Of these, changes in eight metabolites were linearly correlated with decreased colonic polyp number and size in BRB-treated Apc(Min/+) mice. Elevated levels of putrescine and linolenate in Apc(Min/+) mice were significantly decreased by BRBs. Ornithine decarboxylase expression, the key enzyme in putrescine generation, was fully suppressed by BRBs. These results suggest that BRBs produced beneficial effects against colonic adenoma development in Apc(Min/+) mice and modulated multiple metabolic pathways. The metabolite changes produced by BRBs might potentially reflect the BRB-mediated chemopreventive effects in colorectal cancer patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Racial and Ethnic-Related Stressors as Predictors of Perceived Stress and Academic Performance for African American Students at a Historically Black College and University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, Tawanda M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether racial and ethnic-related stressors were associated with overall levels of perceived stress and academic performance among African American students at a historically Black college and university (HBCU). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test racial and ethnic-related stressors…

  1. Microlensing of sub-parsec massive binary black holes in lensed QSOs: Light curves and size-wavelength relation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Chang-Shuo; Lu, Youjun; Mao, Shude; Yu, Qingjuan; Wambsganss, Joachim E-mail: luyj@nao.cas.cn

    2014-04-01

    Sub-parsec binary massive black holes (BBHs) have long been thought to exist in many QSOs but remain observationally elusive. In this paper, we propose a novel method to probe sub-parsec BBHs through microlensing of lensed QSOs. If a QSO hosts a sub-parsec BBH in its center, it is expected that the BBH is surrounded by a circumbinary disk, each component of the BBH is surrounded by a small accretion disk, and a gap is opened by the secondary component in between the circumbinary disk and the two small disks. Assuming such a BBH structure, we generate mock microlensing light curves for some QSO systems that host BBHs with typical physical parameters. We show that microlensing light curves of a BBH QSO system at the infrared-optical-UV bands can be significantly different from those of corresponding QSO system with a single massive black hole (MBH), mainly because of the existence of the gap and the rotation of the BBH (and its associated small disks) around the center of mass. We estimate the half-light radii of the emission region at different wavelengths from mock light curves and find that the obtained half-light radius versus wavelength relations of BBH QSO systems can be much flatter than those of single MBH QSO systems at a wavelength range determined by the BBH parameters, such as the total mass, mass ratio, separation, accretion rates, etc. The difference is primarily due to the existence of the gap. Such unique features on the light curves and half-light radius-wavelength relations of BBH QSO systems can be used to select and probe sub-parsec BBHs in a large number of lensed QSOs to be discovered by current and future surveys, including the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, the Large Synoptic Survey telescope, and Euclid.

  2. The stress of being contaminated? Adrenocortical function and reproduction in relation to persistent organic pollutants in female black legged kittiwakes.

    PubMed

    Tartu, Sabrina; Angelier, Frédéric; Herzke, Dorte; Moe, Børge; Bech, Claus; Gabrielsen, Geir W; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-04-01

    High levels of environmental pollutants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including PCB and DDT have been found in the Arctic and many of those pollutants may impair reproduction through endocrine disruption. Nevertheless, their effects on stress hormones remain poorly understood, especially in free-ranging birds. Corticosterone, the principal glucocorticoid in birds, can indirectly impair reproduction. The aim of the present study was to examine the relationships between POPs and reproduction through their potential consequences on different reproductive traits (breeding decision, egg-laying date, breeding success) and corticosterone secretion (baseline and stress-induced levels). We addressed those questions in an Arctic population of female black-legged kittiwakes during the pre-breeding stage and measured several legacy POPs (PCBs and pesticides: HCB, p,p'-DDE, CHL) in whole blood. POP levels were not related to breeding decision neither to breeding success, whereas females with high levels of pesticides laid their eggs earlier in the season. We found a negative relationship between POP levels and body condition index in non-breeding females. Black-legged kittiwakes with higher levels of PCB showed stronger adrenocortical response when subjected to a capture-handling stress protocol. We suggest that PCBs may disrupt corticosterone secretion whereas the positive relationship between pesticides and egg-laying date could either originate from a direct effect of pesticides or may be related to other confounding factors such as age or individual's quality. Although no direct negative reproduction output of POPs was found in this study, it is possible that the most contaminated individuals would be more sensitive to environmental stress and would be less able to maintain parental investment than less polluted individuals.

  3. Microlensing of Sub-parsec Massive Binary Black Holes in Lensed QSOs: Light Curves and Size-Wavelength Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Chang-Shuo; Lu, Youjun; Yu, Qingjuan; Mao, Shude; Wambsganss, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    Sub-parsec binary massive black holes (BBHs) have long been thought to exist in many QSOs but remain observationally elusive. In this paper, we propose a novel method to probe sub-parsec BBHs through microlensing of lensed QSOs. If a QSO hosts a sub-parsec BBH in its center, it is expected that the BBH is surrounded by a circumbinary disk, each component of the BBH is surrounded by a small accretion disk, and a gap is opened by the secondary component in between the circumbinary disk and the two small disks. Assuming such a BBH structure, we generate mock microlensing light curves for some QSO systems that host BBHs with typical physical parameters. We show that microlensing light curves of a BBH QSO system at the infrared-optical-UV bands can be significantly different from those of corresponding QSO system with a single massive black hole (MBH), mainly because of the existence of the gap and the rotation of the BBH (and its associated small disks) around the center of mass. We estimate the half-light radii of the emission region at different wavelengths from mock light curves and find that the obtained half-light radius versus wavelength relations of BBH QSO systems can be much flatter than those of single MBH QSO systems at a wavelength range determined by the BBH parameters, such as the total mass, mass ratio, separation, accretion rates, etc. The difference is primarily due to the existence of the gap. Such unique features on the light curves and half-light radius-wavelength relations of BBH QSO systems can be used to select and probe sub-parsec BBHs in a large number of lensed QSOs to be discovered by current and future surveys, including the Panoramic Survey Telescope and Rapid Response System, the Large Synoptic Survey telescope, and Euclid.

  4. THE L{proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 8} CORRELATION FOR ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES WITH CORES: RELATION WITH BLACK HOLE MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf E-mail: bender@mpe.mpg.de

    2013-05-20

    We construct the Faber-Jackson correlation between velocity dispersion {sigma} and total galaxy luminosity L{sub V} separately for elliptical galaxies with and without cores. The coreless ellipticals show the well-known, steep relationship dlog {sigma}/dlog L{sub V} = 0.268 or L{sub V} {proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 3.74}. This corresponds to dlog {sigma}/dlog M = 0.203, where M is the stellar mass and we use M/L{proportional_to}L {sup 0.32}. In contrast, the velocity dispersions of core ellipticals increase much more slowly with L{sub V} and M: dlog {sigma}/dlog L{sub V} = 0.120, L{sub V} {proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 8.33}, and dlog {sigma}/dlog M = 0.091. Dissipationless major galaxy mergers are expected to preserve {sigma} according to the simplest virial-theorem arguments. However, numerical simulations show that {sigma} increases slowly in dry major mergers, with dlog {sigma}/dlog M {approx_equal} +0.15. In contrast, minor mergers cause {sigma} to decrease, with dlog {sigma}/dlog M {approx_equal} -0.05. Thus, the observed relation argues for dry major mergers as the dominant growth mode of the most massive ellipticals. This is consistent with what we know about the formation of cores. We know no viable way to explain galaxy cores except through dissipationless mergers of approximately equal-mass galaxies followed by core scouring by binary supermassive black holes. The observed, shallow {sigma}{proportional_to}L{sub V}{sup +0.12} relation for core ellipticals provides further evidence that they formed in dissipationless and predominantly major mergers. Also, it explains the observation that the correlation of supermassive black hole mass with velocity dispersion, M{sub .}{proportional_to}{sigma}{sup 4}, ''saturates'' at high M{sub .} such that M{sub .} becomes almost independent of {sigma}.

  5. Holocene sea level and climate change in the Black Sea: Multiple marine incursions related to freshwater discharge events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, R.E.; Leorri, E.; McLaughlin, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea during the Holocene have been inferred by many eastern scientists as resulting from episodes of marine inflow from the Mediterranean beneath a brackish outflow from the Black Sea. We support this scenario but a fundamental question remains: What caused the repeated marine invasions? We offer an hypothesis for the repeated marine invasions of the Black Sea based on: (1) the overall similarity of sea-level curves from both tectonically quiescent and active margins of the Black Sea and their similarity to a sequence stratigraphic record from the US mid-Atlantic coast. The similarity of the records from two widely-separated regions suggests their common response to documented Holocene climate ocean-atmosphere reorganizations (coolings); (2) the fact that in the modern Black Sea, freshwater runoff from surrounding rivers dominates over evaporation, so that excess runoff might have temporarily raised Black Sea level (although the Black Sea would have remained brackish). Following the initial invasion of the Black Sea by marine Mediterranean waters (through the Marmara Sea) in the early Holocene, repeated marine incursions were modulated, or perhaps even caused, by freshwater discharge to the Black Sea. Climatic amelioration (warming) following each documented ocean-atmosphere reorganization during the Holocene likely shifted precipitation patterns in the surrounding region and caused mountain glaciers to retreat, increasing freshwater runoff above modern values and temporarily contributing to an increase of Black Sea level. Freshwater-to-brackish water discharges into the Black Sea initially slowed marine inflow but upon mixing of runoff with more marine waters beneath them and their eventual exit through the Bosphorus, marine inflow increased again, accounting for the repeated marine invasions. The magnitude of the hydrologic and sea-level fluctuations became increasingly attenuated through the Holocene, as reflected by Black

  6. ASTROPHYSICS AND COSMOLOGY RELATED TO PARTICLES AND NUCLEI: Non-thermal Hawking radiation from the Kerr black hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yi-Wen; Hao, Jia-Bo

    2009-02-01

    We present a short and direct derivation of Hawking radiation by using the Damour-Ruffini method, as taking into account the self-gravitational interaction from the Kerr black hole. It is found that the radiation is not exactly thermal, and because the derivation obeys conservation laws, the non-thermal Hawking radiation can carry information from the black hole. So it can be used to explain the black hole information paradox, and the process satisfies unitary.

  7. Body image as a mediator of the relationship between body mass index and weight-related quality of life in black women.

    PubMed

    Cox, Tiffany L; Ard, Jamy D; Beasley, T Mark; Fernandez, Jose R; Howard, Virginia J; Affuso, Olivia

    2011-10-01

    Body image (BI) may be important in understanding weight-related attitudes and behaviors in black women. Specifically, body dissatisfaction may mediate the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and weight-related quality of life (QOL) in black women. We examined the relationship between BMI and weight-related QOL in black women and tested for mediation by body dissatisfaction. The sample included 149 black women recruited from Birmingham, Alabama, for a one-time clinic visit. BIs were self-reported using the Pulvers figure rating scale. Body discrepancy (BD), a surrogate measure of body dissatisfaction, was calculated as perceived current image minus ideal image. QOL was self-reported using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite (IWQOL-Lite). Baron and Kenny's test for mediation was conducted where BMI was the predictor, IWQOL-Lite score was the outcome, and BD was the mediator under investigation. Mean age was 40.5 years, and mean BMI was 36.1 kg/m(2). The mean IWQOL-Lite score was 81.1±15.8 out of 100. Participants had a BD score of 2.3, indicating a desire to be two figure sizes smaller than their current perceived body size. Tests for mediation revealed that BD partially mediated the relationship between BMI and IWQOL-Lite scores in this sample. BD was in the pathway of the association between BMI and IWQOL-Lite scores. BI dissatisfaction may contribute to explaining more about black women's weight-related QOL beyond actual BMI alone. Additional research is needed to better understand black women's perception of weight and subsequent weight-related behaviors.

  8. Comparison of attitudes and behaviors related to nutrition, body size, dieting, and hunger in Russian, black-American, and white-American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J; Alexandrov, A A; Smirnova, S G; Deev, A D; Gershunskaya YuB; Davis, C E; Thomas, R

    1997-05-01

    Attitudes and behaviors related to nutrition are known to differ between white-American and black-American adolescents, however, little is known about teenagers from Russia. We hypothesized that, compared with white-American or black-American teenagers, Russian teenagers would prefer a larger body size, be less likely to diet, and be less concerned about being overweight. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 196 students in Moscow, 326 white-American, and 239 black-American adolescents who attended school in North Carolina (mean age = 16). Ideal body mass index (BMI) was calculated from measured height and the response to the question, "What do you consider to be your ideal weight?" Mean ideal BMI was higher in black-American boys (25.1) and girls (21.4) than in white-American boys (22.1) and girls (19.2), and Russian boys (21.8) and girls (19.1). After controlling for BMI, black-American girls were less than half as likely to report dieting compared with white-American girls. There were no significant differences among white-American girls and Russian girls, and there were no ethnic differences between boys in the prevalence of dieting. White-American girls and black-American girls were much more likely to identify being overweight as an important nutritional concern than were Russian girls (odds ratios > 10), and there were no ethnic differences among boys. We conclude that preferences for body size, the prevalence of dieting, and concerns about being overweight were similar in Russian and white-American teens, with the exception of Russian teenaged girls who were less likely than American girls to identify being overweight as an important concern. Overall, weight-related attitudes and behaviors in Russian teenagers were more similar to those of white-American teenagers than those of black-American teenagers.

  9. Black Voices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGowan, Jr., Martin J.

    1969-01-01

    "A television show by blacks for blacks--coupled with a program of training for black television technicians--was the basic concept of the Black Voices" series aired over KTCA-TV and KTCI-TV in Minneapolis and St. Paul during the 1968-1969 television season. The series was designed to provide understanding among blacks of the Twin…

  10. The Local Black Hole Mass Function Derived from the MBH-P and the MBH-n Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu-Pakdil, Burçin; Seigar, Marc S.; Davis, Benjamin L.

    2016-10-01

    We present a determination of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) mass function for early- and late-type galaxies in the nearby universe (z < 0.0057), established from a volume-limited sample consisting of a statistically complete collection of the brightest spiral galaxies in the southern hemisphere. The sample is defined by limiting luminosity (redshift-independent) distance, D L = 25.4 Mpc, and a limiting absolute B-band magnitude, {{M}}B=-19.12. These limits define a sample of 140 spiral, 30 elliptical (E), and 38 lenticular (S0) galaxies. We established the Sérsic index distribution for early-type (E/S0) galaxies in our sample. Davis et al. established the pitch angle distribution for their sample, which is identical to our late-type (spiral) galaxy sample. We then used the pitch angle and the Sérsic index distributions in order to estimate the SMBH mass function for our volume-limited sample. The observational simplicity of our approach relies on the empirical relation between the mass of the central SMBH and the Sérsic index for an early-type galaxy or the logarithmic spiral-arm pitch angle for a spiral galaxy. Our SMBH mass function agrees well at the high-mass end with previous values in the literature. At the low-mass end, although inconsistencies exist in previous works that still need to be resolved, our work is more in line with expectations based on modeling of black hole evolution.

  11. The Relation between Globular Cluster Systems and Supermassive Black Holes in Spiral Galaxies: The Case Study of NGC 4258

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Lópezlira, Rosa A.; Lomelí-Núñez, Luis; Álamo-Martínez, Karla; Órdenes-Briceño, Yasna; Loinard, Laurent; Georgiev, Iskren Y.; Muñoz, Roberto P.; Puzia, Thomas H.; Bruzual A., Gustavo; Gwyn, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    We aim to explore the relationship between globular cluster total number, {N}{GC}, and central black hole mass, M •, in spiral galaxies, and compare it with that recently reported for ellipticals. We present results for the Sbc galaxy NGC 4258, from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope data. Thanks to water masers with Keplerian rotation in a circumnuclear disk, NGC 4258 has the most precisely measured extragalactic distance and supermassive black hole mass to date. The globular cluster (GC) candidate selection is based on the ({u}* -{i}\\prime ) versus ({i}\\prime -{K}s) diagram, which is a superb tool to distinguish GCs from foreground stars, background galaxies, and young stellar clusters, and hence can provide the best number counts of GCs from photometry alone, virtually free of contamination, even if the galaxy is not completely edge-on. The mean optical and optical-near-infrared colors of the clusters are consistent with those of the Milky Way and M 31, after extinction is taken into account. We directly identify 39 GC candidates; after completeness correction, GC luminosity function extrapolation, and correction for spatial coverage, we calculate a total {N}{GC}=144+/- {31}-36+38 (random and systematic uncertainties, respectively). We have thus increased to six the sample of spiral galaxies with measurements of both M • and {N}{GC}. NGC 4258 has a specific frequency {S}{{N}}=0.4+/- 0.1 (random uncertainty), and is consistent within 2σ with the {N}{GC} versus M • correlation followed by elliptical galaxies. The Milky Way continues to be the only spiral that deviates significantly from the relation.

  12. Vocal repertoire of free-ranging black howler monkeys' (Alouatta pigra): Call types, contexts, and sex-related contributions.

    PubMed

    Briseño-Jaramillo, Margarita; Biquand, Véronique; Estrada, Alejandro; Lemasson, Alban

    2017-01-17

    Alouatta species utter the most powerful primate vocalizations in the Neotropics and are well-known for their loud and long-lasting male howling bouts. However, the diversity of acoustic structures used in these howling bouts, as well as in non-howling contexts, and the relative contribution of the different group members to the entire vocal repertoire, needed to be explored further. This report provides the first detailed description of the vocal repertoire of black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra), focusing on acoustic structures and contexts of emission of both loud and soft calls as well as on the contribution rate of males and females to the different call types. Three free-ranging social groups of black howler monkeys living in Palenque National Park, Mexico were monitored. We identified twelve acoustically discriminable call types, eight described previously and four described here for the first time. A few call types were systematically emitted either isolated or during howling bouts, but most of them could be heard in both calling contexts. Three call types were emitted only by females and two only by males. Adult males' call rates (for the seven shared call types) were higher than those of females but only when considering calls emitted within howling bouts. Our contextual analysis enabled us to divide call types into potential functional categories, according to their degree of contribution, to intra-group versus inter-group interactions and to neutral-positive versus negative situations. We then discussed how socio-ecological factors, notably sex differences in social behaviors, may explain the variability found in the vocal repertoire of this species and compared our findings with the literature on other primate species.

  13. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dückers, Michel L A; Spreeuwenberg, Peter; Wagner, Cordula; Groenewegen, Peter P

    2009-11-17

    Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementation of QICs, applied changes, perceived successes, and actual outcomes. Twenty-four Dutch hospitals participated in a dissemination programme based on QICs. A questionnaire was sent to 237 leaders of teams who joined 18 different QICs to measure changes in working methods and activities, overall perceived success, team organisation, and supportive conditions. Actual outcomes were extracted from a database with team performance indicator data. Multi-level analyses were conducted to test a number of hypothesised relations within the cross-classified hierarchical structure in which teams are nested within QICs and hospitals. Organisational and external change agent support is related positively to the number of changed working methods and activities that, if increased, lead to higher perceived success and indicator outcomes scores. Direct and indirect positive relations between conditions and perceived success could be confirmed. Relations between conditions and actual outcomes are weak. Multi-level analyses reveal significant differences in organisational support between hospitals. The relation between perceived successes and actual outcomes is present at QIC level but not at team level. Several of the expected relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes, and perceived successes could be verified. However, because QICs vary in topic, approach, complexity, and promised advantages, further research is required: first, to understand why some QIC innovations fit better within the context of the units where they are implemented; second, to assess the influence of perceived success and actual outcomes on the further dissemination of projects over new patient groups.

  14. Exploring the black box of quality improvement collaboratives: modelling relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Despite the popularity of quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) in different healthcare settings, relatively little is known about the implementation process. The objective of the current study is to learn more about relations between relevant conditions for successful implementation of QICs, applied changes, perceived successes, and actual outcomes. Methods Twenty-four Dutch hospitals participated in a dissemination programme based on QICs. A questionnaire was sent to 237 leaders of teams who joined 18 different QICs to measure changes in working methods and activities, overall perceived success, team organisation, and supportive conditions. Actual outcomes were extracted from a database with team performance indicator data. Multi-level analyses were conducted to test a number of hypothesised relations within the cross-classified hierarchical structure in which teams are nested within QICs and hospitals. Results Organisational and external change agent support is related positively to the number of changed working methods and activities that, if increased, lead to higher perceived success and indicator outcomes scores. Direct and indirect positive relations between conditions and perceived success could be confirmed. Relations between conditions and actual outcomes are weak. Multi-level analyses reveal significant differences in organisational support between hospitals. The relation between perceived successes and actual outcomes is present at QIC level but not at team level. Discussion Several of the expected relations between conditions, applied changes and outcomes, and perceived successes could be verified. However, because QICs vary in topic, approach, complexity, and promised advantages, further research is required: first, to understand why some QIC innovations fit better within the context of the units where they are implemented; second, to assess the influence of perceived success and actual outcomes on the further dissemination of

  15. Sequestration of soil nitrogen as tannin-protein complexes may improve the competitive ability of sheep laurel (Kalmia angustifolia) relative to black spruce (Picea mariana).

    PubMed

    Joanisse, G D; Bradley, R L; Preston, C M; Bending, G D

    2009-01-01

    The role of litter tannins in controlling soil nitrogen (N) cycling may explain the competitive ability of Kalmia relative to black spruce (Picea mariana), although this has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, the protein-precipitation capacities of purified tannins and leaf extracts from Kalmia and black spruce were compared. The resistance to degradation of tannin-protein precipitates from both species were compared by monitoring carbon (C) and N dynamics in humus amended with protein, purified tannins or protein-tannin precipitates. The purity of the precipitates was verified using solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The ability of mycorrhizal fungi associated with both species to grow on media amended with tannin-protein complexes as the principal N source was also compared. The protein precipitation capacity of Kalmia tannins was superior to those of black spruce. Humus amended with protein increased both mineral and microbial N, whereas humus amended with tannin-protein precipitates increased dissolved organic N. Mycorrhizal fungi associated with Kalmia showed better growth than those associated with black spruce when N was provided as tannin-protein precipitates. These data suggest that Kalmia litter increases the amount of soil N sequestered as tannin-protein complexes, which may improve the competitive ability of Kalmia relative to black spruce by favouring N uptake by mycorrhizas associated with the former.

  16. The M {sub BH} versus M {sub G}σ{sup 2} relation and the accretion of supermassive black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Feoli, A.

    2014-03-20

    We propose a possible scenario that can explain the physical processes underlying the relation log{sub 10}(M {sub BH}) = b + mlog{sub 10}(M {sub G}σ{sup 2}/c {sup 2}) between the mass M {sub BH} of supermassive black holes, growing in the center of many galaxies, and the kinetic energy of the corresponding bulges (M {sub G} being the bulge mass and σ the velocity dispersion). In a series of papers, this scaling law proved to be very useful to describe the evolution of galaxies thanks to its close similarity to the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Studying the relation with different samples of galaxies, we have generally found a slope that can vary between two extremal theoretical possibilities, m = 3/4 and m = 1. We will try to describe a possible scenario compatible with the second one. Finally, we also examine a case of a relation that is linear, not in kinetic energy, but in momentum parameter.

  17. Stage-discharge relations for Black Warrior River at Warrior Dam near Eutaw, Alabama; updated 1985

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, G.H.; Ming, C.O.

    1986-01-01

    The construction of Warrior Dam, completed in 1962, has resulted in changes to the stage-discharge relations in the vicinity. The scarcity of current-meter measurements, coupled with backwater conditions, make definition of a single stage-discharge relation impossible without considerable error. However, as a useful alternative, limit curves were developed in 1983 that defined the limits of possible stage-discharge relations at the dam tailwater section. Since the 1983 report, 37 discharge values computed through the dam for the flood of December 1983 were used to verify or update the lower end of the limit curves. Data obtained from a current-meter measurement of the February 1961 flood (furnished by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) were used to update the upper end of the curves. This report presents the updated information. (USGS)

  18. A Comprehensive Reevaluation of the Relation Between Black Hole Mass and Bulge Luminosity in Nearby Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Luis

    2010-09-01

    The scaling relations between black hole {BH} mass and bulge properties serve as powerful tools to study the interplay between BH growth and galaxy formation. The BH mass-bulge luminosity relation for galaxies hosting AGNs holds special promise because it can be more easily traced out to earlier epochs when both BH growth and star formation were more active. Recent studies suggest that at higher redshifts BH growth outpaced bulge assembly, but this potentially very important result critically depends on our knowledge of the local scaling relations, which are still poorly known. In an archival study approved for Cycle 15, we characterized, for the first time, the intrinsic scatter of the BH mass-bulge luminosity relation and its dependence on AGN properties for a sample of 45 local quasars containing the most massive BHs hosted by early-type galaxies. Our analysis employs a sophisticated new technique to decompose the two-dimensional structure of the host galaxies with unprecedented accuracy. Here we propose to extend our program to a large, comprehensive sample of 223 lower mass, lower luminosity AGNs at z < 0.35, most of which are hosted by disk galaxies. We will derive accurate photometric parameters for the bulge, taking into account, when necessary complex components such as bars, spiral arms, and nonaxisymmetric structures. We will use these measurements to reevaluate the slope, zero point, and scatter of the BH mass-bulge luminosity relation, and their possible dependence on AGN and host galaxy properties. Combined with our previous analysis, our study covers the largest possible dynamic range in BH mass, AGN luminosity, and host galaxy morphological type. It will serve as a fundamental reference point for all future investigations of the cosmic evolution of the BH-host scaling relations.

  19. Relational Teaching with Black Boys: Strategies for Learning at a Single-Sex Middle School for Boys of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joseph Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Positive teacher-student relationships are critical for Black boys' learning across single-sex and coeducational environments. Limited attention to these relationships by school professionals is rooted in deficit-oriented conceptions of boyhood and Black masculinity. The popular message of deficiency and pathology is clear:…

  20. Relational Teaching with Black Boys: Strategies for Learning at a Single-Sex Middle School for Boys of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Joseph Derrick

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Positive teacher-student relationships are critical for Black boys' learning across single-sex and coeducational environments. Limited attention to these relationships by school professionals is rooted in deficit-oriented conceptions of boyhood and Black masculinity. The popular message of deficiency and pathology is clear:…

  1. Black Sea mud volcanoes and their relation to the search for methane gas hydrates and environmental security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shnyukov, Evgeny; Yanko-Hombach, Valentina; Motnenko, Irena

    2016-04-01

    As of today, the number of known offshore mud volcanoes in the Black Sea is 68. The areas possessing the greatest abundance include the northern part of the Black Sea (Sorokin trough, Tuapsinskaya trough, Shatskiy arch) and the Kerch downfold (the area south of the Kerch peninsula). An intensive study of mud volcanoes has been performed in the course of on-shore and off-shore expeditions carried out by Ukrainian scientists since 1990. They brought to light new geological, geophysical, and geochemical data on the properties of mud volcanoes by (1) high resolution hydro-acoustic, seismic-acoustic, and gravity methods, (2) geothermal observations of the thermal regime of the water and uppermost sediments, (3) gravity core sampling of bottom deposits, (4) dredges and buckets, and (5) study of these samples by lithological, geochemical, paleontological, and biological methods. Methane gas hydrates have been recovered in about 28 localities largely associated with mud volcanoes below 600-700 m water depth, which suggests their close genetic relationships. Age of the sediments hosting methane gas hydrates as well as their lithological properties (e.g., grain-size) vary significantly. Relatively coarse-grained sediments make better hydrate reservoirs than fine-grained sediments. The area of the Black Sea suitable for gas hydrate formation is estimated at 288,100 km2, representing about 68% of the total Black Sea, or almost 91% of the deep-water basin; the volume of gas hydrates has been set at 4.8 km3 corresponding to 0.1-11012 m3 of free methane. A peculiar morphological structure of the sea bottom - conical hills (anticlinals) with low geostatic pressure and subsidence in their central part - provide a target in the search for underwater mud volcanoes. Our data show that such structures are formed by mud breccia and rock debris that are brought to the surface by methane flows, which escape along tectonic ruptures from the deep part of the lithosphere located beneath a

  2. The Declining Relative Status of Black Women Workers, 1980-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Raine

    2010-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, industrial restructuring led to a marked increase in wage inequality. Women, however, were not as negatively affected by declining manufacturing employment because their pay was relatively low within the industry, and their already high representation in the service sector provided access to newly created opportunities.…

  3. The Declining Relative Status of Black Women Workers, 1980-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dozier, Raine

    2010-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, industrial restructuring led to a marked increase in wage inequality. Women, however, were not as negatively affected by declining manufacturing employment because their pay was relatively low within the industry, and their already high representation in the service sector provided access to newly created opportunities.…

  4. A Selected List of Films Related to Black Literature. WCTE Service Bulletin No. 24.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, David C., Comp.; Davis, Madeline, Comp.

    The 29 entries listed in this document cover a variety of topics and include titles of films (listed alphabetically) and titles of literary items--prose and poetry--related to film topics (listed by reading level). Some of the film topics are ancient Africans, heritage of slavery, the city in winter, diary of a Harlem family, discovering the music…

  5. The Relationship between Optimism about Race Relations, Black Awareness, and Attitudes toward Transracial Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenster, Judy

    2004-01-01

    Social workers in the United States were queried on their attitudes toward transracial adoption (TRA), defined here as African American children being adopted by White parents. An analysis of 363 questionnaires found that optimism about the future of race relations was the most powerful predictor of TRA attitudes. For both African American and…

  6. White Racism/Black Signs: Censorship and Images of Race Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Cindy

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the simultaneous establishment of legal rights to censor film and proscriptions on particular racial representations. Describes several changes in the Hays Code that demonstrate a change in the censor's theory of the image. Suggests that these changes substituted the censorship of race-related images with a new prohibition on racial…

  7. Differences in substance use, psychosocial characteristics and HIV-related sexual risk behavior between Black men who have sex with men only (BMSMO) and Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW) in six US cities.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Typhanye P; Regan, Rotrease; Wilton, Leo; Harawa, Nina T; Ou, San San; Wang, Lei; Shoptaw, Steve

    2013-12-01

    We assessed associations in substance use, psychosocial characteristics, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors, comparing characteristics of Black men who only have sex with other men only (BMSMO; n = 839) to Black men who have sex with men and women (BMSMW; n = 590). The study analyzed baseline data from the HIV Prevention Trials Network Brothers Study (HPTN 061), a feasibility study of a multi-component intervention for Black MSM in six US cities. Bivariate analyses compared BMSMO to BMSMW along demographics, substance use, psychosocial characteristics, and HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Logistic regression models then assessed multivariable associations between being BMSMW and the odds of engaging in HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. Adjusted analyses revealed that BMSMW remained more likely to have unprotected anal intercourse while under the influence of alcohol (AOR: 1.45; 95 % CI:1.11-1.90) and were more likely to receive money/drugs for sex (AOR: 2.11; 95 % CI:1.48-3.03), compared to BMSMO. Substance use is an important factor to be considered when developing risk-reduction interventions for BMSMW. Structural interventions that address factors that may contribute to exchange sex among these men are also warranted.

  8. BOOK REVIEW Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr Cracking the Einstein Code: Relativity and the Birth of Black Hole Physics With an Afterword by Roy Kerr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bernard

    2011-02-01

    General relativity is arguably the most beautiful scientific theory ever conceived but its status within mainstream physics has vacillated since it was proposed in 1915. It began auspiciously with the successful explanation of the precession of Mercury and the dramatic confirmation of light-bending in the 1919 solar eclipse expedition, which turned Einstein into an overnight celebrity. Though little noticed at the time, there was also Karl Schwarzschild's discovery of the spherically symmetric solution in 1916 (later used to predict the existence of black holes) and Alexander Friedmann's discovery of the cosmological solution in 1922 (later confirmed by the discovery of the cosmic expansion). Then for 40 years the theory was more or less forgotten, partly because most physicists were turning their attention to the even more radical developments of quantum theory but also because the equations were too complicated to solve except in situations involving special symmetries or very weak gravitational fields (where general relativity is very similar to Newtonian theory). Furthermore, it was not clear that strong gravitational fields would ever arise in the real universe and, even if they did, it seemed unlikely that Einstein's equations could then be solved. So research in relativity became a quiet backwater as mainstream physics swept forward in other directions. Even Einstein lost interest, turning his attention to the search for a unified field theory. This book tells the remarkable story of how the tide changed in 1963, when the 28-year-old New Zealand mathematician Roy Kerr discovered an exact solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating black hole, thereby cracking the code of the title. The paper was just a few pages long, it being left for others to fill in the extensive beautiful mathematics which underlay the result, but it ushered in a golden age of relativity and is now one of the most cited works in physics. Coincidentally, Kerr

  9. Phytophthora megakarya and P. palmivora, closely related causal agents of cacao black pod rot, underwent increases in genome sizes and gene numbers by different mechanisms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phytophthora megakarya (Pmeg) and P. palmivora (Ppal) are closely related species causing black pod rot of cacao. While Ppal is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen, cacao is the only known host of importance for Pmeg. Pmeg is more virulent on cacao than Ppal. Therefore, we have sequenced both the Pmeg and...

  10. Bibliography for a Research of the Literature in Nonverbal Communication and Its Applications, As Related to the Study of Black American Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Barbara L.

    This bibliography provides a general review of nonverbal communication--background and applications--in specific relation to Black American nonverbal communication. Approximately 230 entries from 140 authors, spanning the years 1932 to 1972, are arranged alphabetically by author. Professional journal articles and studies are the primary sources of…

  11. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  12. Limited Life Opportunities for Black and Latino Youth. Report on a Public Hearing by the Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations (Compton, California, April 26, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations held a public hearing to examine the effects of poverty on the hundreds of thousands of low income Blacks and Latinos under the age of 18 residing in Los Angeles County (California). The Commission's findings, recommendations, and concerns are presented. The following findings are presented: (1)…

  13. Limited Life Opportunities for Black and Latino Youth. Report on a Public Hearing by the Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations (Compton, California, April 26, 1990).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations, CA.

    The Los Angeles County Commission on Human Relations held a public hearing to examine the effects of poverty on the hundreds of thousands of low income Blacks and Latinos under the age of 18 residing in Los Angeles County (California). The Commission's findings, recommendations, and concerns are presented. The following findings are presented: (1)…

  14. The Relation of Racial Identity, Ethnic Identity, and Racial Socialization to Discrimination-Distress: A Meta-Analysis of Black Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Debbiesiu L.; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial…

  15. Impact of cluster thinning on transcriptional regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes in 'Summer Black' grapes.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xiaojun; Zha, Qian; Jiang, Aili; Tian, Yihua

    2016-07-01

    Cluster thinning is an agronomic practice that strongly affects anthocyanin biosynthesis in the skin of grape berries. However, the impact of cluster thinning on anthocyanin biosynthesis has not been fully elucidated at the molecular level. Here, we investigated its effects on the berry quality, the biosynthesis of anthocyanins, and the expression levels of related genes from the onset of véraison to harvest in 'Summer Black' grapes. It was observed that the total soluble solid and anthocyanin content in berry skin significantly increased under cluster thinning, whereas the berry weight and titratable acidity showed no differences from the beginning of véraison to harvest. The expression level of most anthocyanin biosynthesis-related genes was significantly up-regulated by cluster thinning from the beginning of véraison and was higher at its end compared to the control. Up-regulation of flavonoid 3',5'-hydroxylase (F3'5'H) and O-methyltransferase (OMT) expression, and down-regulation of flavonoid 3'-hydroxylase (F3'H) expression were observed, which might be the cause of shift in the anthocyanin profile. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of the relationship between cluster thinning and anthocyanin biosynthesis in the grape berry skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. ON THE COSMIC EVOLUTION OF THE SCALING RELATIONS BETWEEN BLACK HOLES AND THEIR HOST GALAXIES: BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE zCOSMOS SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Merloni, A.; Bongiorno, A.; Brusa, M.; Bolzonella, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lusso, E.; Mignoli, M.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Hao, H.; Fiore, F.; Jahnke, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mainieri, V.; Miyaji, T.; Renzini, A.; Salvato, M.; Silverman, J.; Trump, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the physical properties (rest-frame K-band luminosity and total stellar mass) of the hosts of 89 broad-line (type-1) active galactic nuclei (AGNs) detected in the zCOSMOS survey in the redshift range 1 < z < 2.2. The unprecedented multi-wavelength coverage of the survey field allows us to disentangle the emission of the host galaxy from that of the nuclear black hole in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We derive an estimate of black hole masses through the analysis of the broad Mg II emission lines observed in the medium-resolution spectra taken with VIMOS/VLT as part of the zCOSMOS project. We found that, as compared to the local value, the average black hole to host-galaxy mass ratio appears to evolve positively with redshift, with a best-fit evolution of the form (1+z){sup 0.68+}-{sup 0.12+0.6{sub -0.3}}, where the large asymmetric systematic errors stem from the uncertainties in the choice of initial mass function, in the calibration of the virial relation used to estimate BH masses and in the mean QSO SED adopted. On the other hand, if we consider the observed rest-frame K-band luminosity, objects tend to be brighter, for a given black hole mass, than those on the local M{sub BH}-M{sub K} relation. This fact, together with more indirect evidence from the SED fitting itself, suggests that the AGN hosts are likely actively star-forming galaxies. A thorough analysis of observational biases induced by intrinsic scatter in the scaling relations reinforces the conclusion that an evolution of the M{sub BH}-M{sub *} relation must ensue for actively growing black holes at early times: either its overall normalization, or its intrinsic scatter (or both) appear to increase with redshift. This can be interpreted as signature of either a more rapid growth of supermassive black holes at high redshift, a change of structural properties of AGN hosts at earlier times, or a significant mismatch between the typical growth times of

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease—Another Black Box in Hepatology

    PubMed Central

    Staufer, Katharina; Halilbasic, Emina; Trauner, Michael; Kazemi-Shirazi, Lili

    2014-01-01

    Due to improved medical care, life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has veritably improved over the last decades. Importantly, cystic fibrosis related liver disease (CFLD) has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in CF patients. However, CFLD might be largely underdiagnosed and diagnostic criteria need to be refined. The underlying pathomechanisms are largely unknown, and treatment strategies with proven efficacy are lacking. This review focuses on current invasive and non-invasive diagnostic standards, the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of CFLD, treatment strategies, and possible future developments. PMID:25093717

  18. Cystic fibrosis related liver disease--another black box in hepatology.

    PubMed

    Staufer, Katharina; Halilbasic, Emina; Trauner, Michael; Kazemi-Shirazi, Lili

    2014-08-04

    Due to improved medical care, life expectancy in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has veritably improved over the last decades. Importantly, cystic fibrosis related liver disease (CFLD) has become one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in CF patients. However, CFLD might be largely underdiagnosed and diagnostic criteria need to be refined. The underlying pathomechanisms are largely unknown, and treatment strategies with proven efficacy are lacking. This review focuses on current invasive and non-invasive diagnostic standards, the current knowledge on the pathophysiology of CFLD, treatment strategies, and possible future developments.

  19. How does thinking in Black and White terms relate to eating behavior and weight regain?

    PubMed

    Palascha, Aikaterini; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2015-05-01

    This study explores the role of dichotomous thinking on eating behavior and its association with restraint eating and weight regain in a wide range of people. In a web-based survey with 241 adults, dichotomous thinking and behavioral outcomes related to eating (restraint eating, weight regain, body mass index, dieting) were assessed. Results showed that eating-specific dichotomous thinking (dichotomous beliefs about food and eating) mediates the association between restraint eating and weight regain. We conclude that holding dichotomous beliefs about food and eating may be linked to a rigid dietary restraint, which in turn impedes people's ability to maintain a healthy weight. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. A comparative analysis of methamphetamine use: black gay and bisexual men in relation to men of other races.

    PubMed

    Halkitis, Perry N; Jerome, Roy C

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the patterns and correlates of methamphetamine use among Black gay and bisexual men who participated in a large-scale study of club drug use, and sexual behavior in combination with club drug use in New York City. Almost half of the Black men (49%) in the sample indicated use of methamphetamine in the 4 months prior to assessment, a proportion somewhat lower than their White counterparts. In terms of the overall sample, the proportion of the Black men in the study was equivalent to the proportion of methamphetamine users who identified as Black. Black methamphetamine users tended not to reside in neighborhoods considered traditionally gay, were more likely to be HIV-positive, have lower educational attainment, and have lower levels of income than other methamphetamine users. In terms of frequency and reasons for use, Black methamphetamine users did not differ in any substantive way compared to other races and ethnicities. In addition, they did not differ along any key demographic lines from Black non-methamphetamine users. Poly-drug use was common among all Black men in the sample, with almost all methamphetamine users also reporting use of cocaine, but cocaine users not necessarily reporting methamphetamine use. Once a drug that was considered popular only among White gay men, methamphetamine use has been shown to transcend racial and ethnic lines. Because of the synergy that exists between use of the drug, the concentrated levels of HIV in the Black gay population, and the sexual disinhibition engendered with methamphetamine use, this drug presents a potentially mounting public health challenge.

  1. Shaping the relation between the mass of supermassive black holes and the velocity dispersion of galactic bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, M. H.

    2013-05-01

    I use the fact that the radiation emitted by the accretion disk of supermassive black hole can heat up the surrounding gas in the protogalaxy to achieve hydrostatic equilibrium during the galaxy formation. The correlation between the black hole mass M BH and velocity dispersion σ thus naturally arises. The result generally agrees with empirical fittings from observational data, even with M BH ≤106 M ⊙. This model provides a clear picture on how the properties of the galactic supermassive black holes are connected with the kinetic properties of the galactic bulges.

  2. Physical mapping of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia) by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masashi; Terakami, Shingo; Takada, Norio; Yamamoto, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Black spot disease, caused by Alternaria alternata Japanese pear pathotype, is one of the most harmful diseases in Japanese pear cultivation. In the present study, the locations of black spot disease resistance/susceptibility-related genome regions were studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC clone (BAC-FISH) on Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia (Burm. f.) Nakai) chromosomes. Root tips of self-pollinated seedlings of 'Osa Gold' were used as materials. Chromosome samples were prepared by the enzymatic maceration and air-drying method. The BAC clone adjacent to the black spot disease-related gene was labeled as a probe for FISH analysis. Black spot disease-related genome regions were detected in telomeric positions of two medium size chromosomes. These two sites and six telomeric 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA sites were located on different chromosomes as determined from the results of multi-color FISH. The effectiveness of the physical mapping of useful genes on pear chromosomes achieved by the BAC-FISH method was unequivocally demonstrated.

  3. The Nearest Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Garcia, M.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitates this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.

  4. The Nearest Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M.; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this program is to study black holes, both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies. We aim to study both 'stellar mass' x-ray binaries containing black holes (both in our Galaxy and in nearby galaxies), and super-massive black holes in nearby galaxies. This program facilitate this study by funding related travel, computer equipment, and partial salary for a post-doc.

  5. Consumption of dairy and meat in relation to breast cancer risk in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Genkinger, Jeanine M; Makambi, Kepher H; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2013-04-01

    Dairy and meat consumption may impact breast cancer risk through modification of hormones (e.g., estrogen), through specific nutrients (e.g., vitamin D), or through products formed in processing/cooking (e.g., heterocyclic amines). Results relating meat and dairy intake to breast cancer risk have been conflicting. Thus, we examined the risk of breast cancer in relation to intake of dairy and meat in a large prospective cohort study. In the Black Women's Health Study, 1,268 incident breast cancer cases were identified among 52,062 women during 12 years of follow-up. Multivariable (MV) relative risks (RRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Null associations were observed for total milk (MV RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 0.74-1.46 comparing ≥1,000-0 g/week) and total meat (MV RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 0.85-1.28 comparing ≥1,000 < 400 g/week) intake and risk of breast cancer. Associations with intakes of specific types of dairy, specific types of meat, and dietary calcium and vitamin D were also null. The associations were not modified by reproductive (e.g., parity) or lifestyle factors (e.g., smoking). Associations with estrogen receptor (ER) positive (+), ER negative (-), progesterone receptor (PR) +, PR-, ER+/PR+, and ER-/PR- breast cancer were generally null. This analysis of African-American women provides little support for associations of dairy and meat intake with breast cancer risk.

  6. Reproduction of black-crowned night-herons related to predation and contaminants in Oregon and Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Henny, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied reproductive characteristics of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycticorax nycticorax) at four colonies in south central Washington and one colony in north central Oregon in 1991. Nest success, adjusted using the Mayfield method, was significantly different between colonies and ranged from 12-84% to hatching and 12-73% to 14 days post-hatching. The mean number of young surviving to 14 days of age in each colony ranged from 0.47-1.94 per nesting female (includes recycling efforts that involve laying more than one clutch). They were marked intercolony differences in clutch size and incidence of recycling. Predation (primarily avian) was a major factor that adversely affected nest success in three colonies and was relatively unimportant in two colonies. Residues of DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and other compounds in eggs were generally low and apparently had little influence on reproductive success at any of the colonies. Mean eggshell thinning ranged from 7-1 1 % in comparison to a pre-1947 norm for eggs measured in museum collections. Cytochrome P450 enzyme (EROD, PROD, and BROD) induction in livers of pipped embryos by colony ranged from low to average in comparison with other colonies throughout the U.S. Average EROD and BROD activities were highest at Sand Dune Island and were lowest at Potholes Reservoir which was designated the reference colony. In relation to our study of three of the five colonies in the early 1980s, residues of DDE and several related compounds appeared to decline, nest predation rates increased, and nest success decreased at all three colonies.

  7. Reproduction of Black-crowned Night-Herons related to predation and contaminants in Oregon and Washington, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, L.J.; Rattner, B.A.; Melancon, M.J.; Henny, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    We studied reproductive characteristics of Black-crowned Night-Herons (Nycitcorax nycticorax) at 4 colonies in south central Washington and 1 colony in north central Oregon in 1991. Nest success, adjusted using the Mayfield method, was significantly different between colonies and ranged from 12-84% to hatching and 12-73% to 14 days post-hatching. The mean number of young surviving to 14 days of age in each colony ranged from 0.47-1.94 per nesting female (includes recycling efforts that involve laying more than 1 clutch). There were marked intercolony differences in clutch size and incidence of recycling. Predation (primarily avian) was a major factor that adversely affected nest success in 3 colonies and was relatively unimportant in 2 colonies. Residues of DDE, total polychlorinated biphenyls, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, and other compounds in eggs were generally low and apparently had little influence on reproductive success at any of the colonies. Mean eggshell thinning ranged from 7-11% in comparison to a pre-1947 norm for eggs measured in museum collections. Cytochrome P450 enzyme (EROD, PROD, and BROD) induction in livers of pipped embryos by colony ranged from low to average in comparison with other colonies throughout the U.S. Average EROD and BROD activities were highest at Sand Dune Island and were lowest at Potholes Reservoir which was designated the reference colony. In relation to our study of 3 of the 5 colonies in the early 1980s, residues of DDE and several related compounds appeared to decline, nest predation rates increased, and nest success decreased at all 3 colonies.

  8. The Origin of the Intrinsic Scatter in the Relation Between Black Hole Mass and Bulge Luminosity for Nearby Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minjin; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Barth, Aaron J.; Im, Myungshin; Martini, Paul; Nelson, Charles H.

    2008-11-01

    We investigate the origin of the intrinsic scatter in the correlation between black hole mass (MBH) and bulge luminosity (Lbul) in a sample of 45 massive, local (zlesssim 0.35) type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We derive MBH from published optical spectra assuming a spherical broad-line region, and Lbul from detailed two-dimensional decomposition of archival optical Hubble Space Telescope images. AGNs follow the MBH - Lbul relation of inactive galaxies, but the zero point is shifted by an average of Δ log MBH ≈ - 0.3 dex. We show that the magnitude of the zero point offset, which is responsible for the intrinsic scatter in the MBH - Lbul relation, is correlated with several AGN and host galaxy properties, all of which are ultimately related to, or directly impact, the BH mass accretion rate. At a given bulge luminosity, sources with higher Eddington ratios have lower MBH. The zero point offset can be explained by a change in the normalization of the virial product used to estimate MBH, in conjunction with modest BH growth (~10%-40%) during the AGN phase. Galaxy mergers and tidal interactions appear to play an important role in regulating AGN fueling in low-redshift AGNs. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with program AR-10969 and GO-9763.

  9. Selection bias in dynamically measured supermassive black hole samples: scaling relations and correlations between residuals in semi-analytic galaxy formation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Dubois, Yohan; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2017-07-01

    Recent work has confirmed that the scaling relations between the masses of supermassive black holes and host-galaxy properties such as stellar masses and velocity dispersions may be biased high. Much of this may be caused by the requirement that the black hole sphere of influence must be resolved for the black hole mass to be reliably estimated. We revisit this issue with a comprehensive galaxy evolution semi-analytic model. Once tuned to reproduce the (mean) correlation of black hole mass with velocity dispersion, the model cannot account for the correlation with stellar mass. This is independent of the model's parameters, thus suggesting an internal inconsistency in the data. The predicted distributions, especially at the low-mass end, are also much broader than observed. However, if selection effects are included, the model's predictions tend to align with the observations. We also demonstrate that the correlations between the residuals of the scaling relations are more effective than the relations themselves at constraining models for the feedback of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). In fact, we find that our model, while in apparent broad agreement with the scaling relations when accounting for selection biases, yields very weak correlations between their residuals at fixed stellar mass, in stark contrast with observations. This problem persists when changing the AGN feedback strength, and is also present in the hydrodynamic cosmological simulation Horizon-AGN, which includes state-of-the-art treatments of AGN feedback. This suggests that current AGN feedback models are too weak or simply not capturing the effect of the black hole on the stellar velocity dispersion.

  10. Breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers and gull-billed terns in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blus, Lawrence J.; Stafford, Charles J.

    1980-01-01

    The breeding biology and relation of pollutants to black skimmers (Ryn chops niger) and gull-billed terns (Gelochelidon nilotica) were investigated in South Carolina from 1969 through 1975. With few exceptions, the two species nested together in colonies located on barrier islands. We located 10 colonies, 7 of which were on the Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge (Cape Romain); references were located that described nesting on seven other islands in South Carolina that no longer support colonies. Gull-billed terns nested from early May through July; the skimmers started later (late May) but also continued later (early September). Both species nested in areas subject to tidal flooding, and the two species persisted in nesting in several colonies despite intense predation by rats and gulls. Estimated reproductive success varied greatly from year to year and colony to colony; success in most colonies seemed low, particularly for the gull-billed tern. Residues of organochlorine pollutants in several eggs seemed of sufficient magnitude to induce adverse effects on reproductivity and eggshell thickness: however, the overall effect of organochlorines appeared negligible. Maximum numbers of nests located in a single year were 790 for the skimmer and 340 for the gull-billed tern: the total breeding population in South Carolina is unknown. Although nesting islands at Cape Romain and Deveaux Bank are sanctuaries for nesting birds, both species will continue to lose nesting habitat as additional sea islands are developed and inhabited by man.

  11. Physical, chemical and pedogenetical properties of soil in relation with altitude at Kazdagi upland black pine forest.

    PubMed

    Sevgi, Orhan; Tecomen, Huseyin Baris

    2009-05-01

    In this study an attempt was made to investigate the physical, chemical and pedogenetical soil properties of black pine forests at over 1400 metre (m) altitude of Kazdagi mountainous uplands. Soil profiles (37 numbers) were dug, examined and sampled considering the horizons and soil volume weight, fine soil weight, stoniness, pH, total nitrogen, soil organic carbon and pedogenesis alterations were tried to be explored in relation with elevating altitude. While the altitude increased, soil organic carbon and total nitrogen values decreased at A horizon, and pH decreased at Bw horizons. Soil volume weight, fine soil weight, stoniness values of A horizon has positively and strong correlation with elevation with the coefficient values 0.699, 0.518 and 0.573 respectively at 0.01 significance. The highest regression values between altitude and volume weight, soil organic carbon contents (%) and soil total nitrogen contents (%) were detected with R2 coefficients 0.489, 0.295 and 0.247 for A and 0.556, 0.311 and 0.286 for Bw horizons respectively. The achieved results reveal that the elevation effect is remarkable in particular for the uppermost soil horizons. Furthermore the soil generation in fact functions well up to 1550 m altitude at Kazdagi mountainous land where we determined that at upper elevations Inceptisols replace with Alfisols in comparison with each other.

  12. Quantum statistical relation for black holes in nonlinear electrodynamics coupled to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Miskovic, Olivera; Olea, Rodrigo

    2011-03-15

    We consider curvature-squared corrections to Einstein-Hilbert gravity action in the form of a Gauss-Bonnet term in D>4 dimensions. In this theory, we study the thermodynamics of charged static black holes with anti-de Sitter (AdS) asymptotics, and whose electric field is described by nonlinear electrodynamics. These objects have received considerable attention in recent literature on gravity/gauge dualities. It is well-known that, within the framework of anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence, there exists a nonvanishing Casimir contribution to the internal energy of the system, manifested as the vacuum energy for global AdS spacetime in odd dimensions. Because of this reason, we derive a quantum statistical relation directly from the Euclidean action and not from the integration of the first law of thermodynamics. To this end, we employ a background-independent regularization scheme which consists, in addition to the bulk action, of counterterms that depend on both extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures of the boundary (Kounterterm series). This procedure results in a consistent inclusion of the vacuum energy and chemical potential in the thermodynamic description for Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet AdS gravity regardless of the explicit form of the nonlinear electrodynamics Lagrangian.

  13. Looking for a Relation Between Black hole Mass and Radio/IR Emission in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorjian, Varoujan; GAVRT-Spitzer Team

    2007-12-01

    We have combined space-based Spitzer data at 8 um with ground-based, continuum radio data to search for a relation between the ratio of radio to infrared emission and the black hole mass in a sample of twenty-one 3C Active Galactic Nuclei. The radio data were collected at 2.3 GHz (S-band) and 8.5 GHz (X-band), by middle and high-school students using the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT). The IR data were collected with the IRAC imaging instrument on Spitzer. The GAVRT students carried out the initial data analysis at both IR and radio wavelengths. GAVRT is a science-education partnership between NASA/JPL and the Lewis Center for Educational Research, which allows K-12 students to participate in real research as part of their standard classroom education. The GAVRT-Spitzer Team is a collaboration among GAVRT, the Spitzer Science Center, and K-12 students across the country to carry out research projects utilizing both radio and IR data.

  14. Improved effective-one-body description of coalescing nonspinning black-hole binaries and its numerical-relativity completion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damour, Thibault; Nagar, Alessandro; Bernuzzi, Sebastiano

    2013-04-01

    We improve the effective-one-body (EOB) description of nonspinning coalescing black-hole binaries by incorporating several recent analytical advances, notably: (i) logarithmic contributions to the conservative dynamics; (ii) resummed horizon-absorption contribution to the orbital angular momentum loss; and (iii) a specific radial component of the radiation-reaction force implied by consistency with the azimuthal one. We then complete this analytically improved EOB model by comparing it to accurate numerical-relativity (NR) simulations performed by the Caltech-Cornell-CITA group for mass ratios q=(1,2,3,4,6). In particular, the comparison to NR data allows us to determine with high accuracy (˜10-4) the value of the main EOB radial potential: A(u;ν), where u=GM/(Rc2) is the interbody gravitational potential and ν=q/(q+1)2 is the symmetric mass ratio. We introduce a new technique for extracting from NR data an intrinsic measure of the phase evolution [Qω(ω) diagnostics]. Aligning the NR-completed EOB quadrupolar waveform and the NR one at low frequencies, we find that they keep agreeing (in phase and amplitude) within the NR uncertainties throughout the evolution for all mass ratios considered. We also find good agreement for several subdominant multipoles without having to introduce and tune any extra parameters.

  15. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  16. Black Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2013-01-01

    The migration of blacks in North America through slavery became united. The population of blacks passed down a tradition of artist through art to native born citizens. The art tradition involved telling stories to each generation in black families. The black culture elevated by tradition created hope to determine their personal freedom to escape…

  17. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  18. Black Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watts, Thomas D.; Wright, Roosevelt

    1988-01-01

    Examines some aspects of the problem of alcoholism among Blacks, asserting that Black alcoholism can best be considered in an ecological, environmental, sociocultural, and public health context. Notes need for further research on alcoholism among Blacks and for action to reduce the problem of Black alcoholism. (NB)

  19. Molecular cloning, sequence characteristics, and polymorphism analyses of the tyrosinase-related protein 2 / DOPAchrome tautomerase gene of black-boned sheep (Ovis aries).

    PubMed

    Deng, Weidong; Tan, Yuwen; Wang, Xinyu; Xi, Dongmei; He, Yiduo; Yang, Shuli; Mao, Huaming; Gao, Shizheng

    2009-12-01

    Tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TYRP2) plays a pivotal role in the biosynthesis of eumelanin. Black-boned sheep have excessive melanin and eumelanin, resulting in dark (black) muscles and organs. This study was designed to investigate the effects of variants of the TYRP2 gene on black traits and coat colour of black-boned sheep. Melanin traits were measured in three populations of sheep (Nanping black-boned, Nanping normal, and Romney Marsh) and compared in this study. From the TYRP2 cDNA, all 8 exons and their flanking regions were amplified and characterized. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the exons and their flanking regions. Five exonic polymorphic sites, including two synonymous (c.93T>G and c.1140C>T) and three non-synonymous mutations (c.163C>T (p.R55W), c.605G>A (p.R202H), and c.1141A>G (p.T381A)), were retrieved. PCR-RFLP analysis of c.605G>A showed that the frequencies of allele G in the Nanping black-boned, Nanping normal, and Romney Marsh sheep were 0.632, 0.603, and 0.886, respectively. Sheep with the GG genotype had significantly (P < 0.05) lower tyrosinase activity, alkali-soluble melanin content, and ratio of eumelanin : total melanin than sheep with GA and AA genotypes when measured across all investigated samples but not when samples within each population of sheep were compared. However, there was no association of TYRP2 genotype at a single SNP position with coat colour across populations. Nonetheless, the two breeds with higher overall tyrosinase activity did produce darker and more varied coat colours than the breed with lower tyrosinase activity.

  20. COSMIC EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND SPHEROIDS. IV. THE M{sub BH}-L{sub sph} RELATION

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Treu, Tommaso; Le Bris, Alexandre; Auger, Matthew W.; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A.; Gallagher, Sarah; Blandford, Roger D. E-mail: tt@physics.ucsb.ed E-mail: woo@astro.ucla.ed E-mail: alexandrelebris@gmail.co E-mail: rdb@slac.stanford.ed

    2010-01-10

    From high-resolution images of 23 Seyfert-1 galaxies at z = 0.36 and z = 0.57 obtained with the Near-Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), we determine host-galaxy morphology, nuclear luminosity, total host-galaxy luminosity, and spheroid luminosity. Keck spectroscopy is used to estimate black hole mass (M{sub BH}). We study the cosmic evolution of the M{sub BH}-spheroid luminosity (L{sub sph}) relation. In combination with our previous work, totaling 40 Seyfert-1 galaxies, the covered range in BH mass is substantially increased, allowing us to determine for the first time intrinsic scatter and correct evolutionary trends for selection effects. We re-analyze archival HST images of 19 local reverberation-mapped active galaxies to match the procedure adopted at intermediate redshift. Correcting spheroid luminosity for passive luminosity evolution and taking into account selection effects, we determine that at fixed present-day V-band spheroid luminosity, M{sub BH}/L{sub sph} propor to(1 + z){sup 2.8+}-{sup 1.2}. When including a sample of 44 quasars out to z = 4.5 taken from the literature, with luminosity and BH mass corrected to a self-consistent calibration, we extend the BH mass range to over 2 orders of magnitude, resulting in M{sub BH}/L{sub sph} propor to(1 + z){sup 1.4+}-{sup 0.2}. The intrinsic scatter of the relation, assumed constant with redshift, is 0.3 +- 0.1 dex (<0.6 dex at 95% CL). The evolutionary trend suggests that BH growth precedes spheroid assembly. Interestingly, the M{sub BH}-total-host-galaxy-luminosity relation is apparently non-evolving. It hints at either a more fundamental relation or that the spheroid grows by a redistribution of stars. However, the high-z sample does not follow this relation, indicating that major mergers may play the dominant role in growing spheroids above z approx = 1.

  1. A LOCAL BASELINE OF THE BLACK HOLE MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR ACTIVE GALAXIES. I. METHODOLOGY AND RESULTS OF PILOT STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Bennert, Vardha Nicola; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: mauger@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2011-01-10

    We present high-quality Keck/LRIS long-slit spectroscopy of a pilot sample of 25 local active galaxies selected from the SDSS (0.02 {<=}z {<=} 0.1; M{sub BH}>10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) to study the relations between black hole mass (M{sub BH}) and host-galaxy properties. We determine stellar kinematics of the host galaxy, deriving stellar-velocity dispersion profiles and rotation curves from three spectral regions (including CaH and K, MgIb triplet, and Ca II triplet). In addition, we perform surface photometry on SDSS images, using a newly developed code for joint multi-band analysis. BH masses are estimated from the width of the H{beta} emission line and the host-galaxy free 5100 A active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity. Combining results from spectroscopy and imaging allows us to study four M{sub BH} scaling relations: M{sub BH}-{sigma}, M{sub BH}-L{sub sph}, M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,*}, and M{sub BH}-M{sub sph,dyn}. We find the following results. First, stellar-velocity dispersions determined from aperture spectra (e.g., SDSS fiber spectra or unresolved data from distant galaxies) can be biased, depending on aperture size, AGN contamination, and host-galaxy morphology. However, such a bias cannot explain the offset seen in the M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation at higher redshifts. Second, while the CaT region is the cleanest to determine stellar-velocity dispersions, both the MgIb region, corrected for Fe II emission, and the CaHK region, although often swamped by the AGN power-law continuum and emission lines, can give results accurate to within a few percent. Third, the M{sub BH} scaling relations of our pilot sample agree in slope and scatter with those of other local active and inactive galaxies. In the next papers of the series we will quantify the scaling relations, exploiting the full sample of {approx}100 objects.

  2. Evidence for black holes.

    PubMed

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2003-06-20

    Black holes are common objects in the universe. Each galaxy contains large numbers-perhaps millions-of stellar-mass black holes, each the remnant of a massive star. In addition, nearly every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole at its center, with a mass ranging from millions to billions of solar masses. This review discusses the demographics of black holes, the ways in which they interact with their environment, factors that may regulate their formation and growth, and progress toward determining whether these objects really warp spacetime as predicted by the general theory of relativity.

  3. Supermassive Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeb, Abraham

    2007-04-01

    Recent data indicates that almost all galaxies possess a supermassive black hole at their center. When gas accretes onto the black hole it heats-up and shines, resulting in the appearance of a bright quasar. The earliest quasars are found to exist only a billion years after the big-bang. I will describe recent observations of both the nearest and the most distant supermassive black holes in the universe. The formation and evolution of the black hole population can be described in the context of popular models for galaxy formation. I will describe the key questions that drive current research on supermassive black holes and present theoretical work on the radiative and hydrodynamic effects that quasars have on their cosmic habitat. Within the coming decade it would be possible to test general relativity by monitoring over time, and possibly even imaging, the polarized emission from hot spots around the black hole in the center of our Galaxy (SgrA*).

  4. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen H; Jenkinson, Jesse I R; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health.

  5. A Structural Equation Model of HIV-Related Stigma, Racial Discrimination, Housing Insecurity and Wellbeing among African and Caribbean Black Women Living with HIV in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Logie, Carmen H.; Jenkinson, Jesse I. R.; Earnshaw, Valerie; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona R.

    2016-01-01

    African and Caribbean Black women in Canada have new HIV infection rates 7 times higher than their white counterparts. This overrepresentation is situated in structural contexts of inequities that result in social, economic and health disparities among African and Caribbean Black populations. Economic insecurity is a distal driver of HIV vulnerability, reducing access to HIV testing, prevention and care. Less is known about how economic insecurity indicators, such as housing security, continue to influence the lives of women living with HIV following HIV-positive diagnoses. The aim of this study was to test a conceptual model of the pathways linking HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, housing insecurity, and wellbeing (depression, social support, self-rated health). We implemented a cross-sectional survey with African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV in 5 Ontario cities, and included 157 participants with complete data in the analyses. We conducted structural equation modeling using maximum likelihood estimation to evaluate the hypothesized conceptual model. One-fifth (22.5%; n = 39) of participants reported housing insecurity. As hypothesized, racial discrimination had significant direct effects on: HIV-related stigma, depression and social support, and an indirect effect on self-rated health via HIV-related stigma. HIV-related stigma and housing insecurity had direct effects on depression and social support, and HIV-related stigma had a direct effect on self-rated health. The model fit the data well: χ2 (45, n = 154) = 54.28, p = 0.387; CFI = 0.997; TLI = 0.996; RMSEA = 0.016. Findings highlight the need to address housing insecurity and intersecting forms of stigma and discrimination among African and Caribbean Black women living with HIV. Understanding the complex relationships between housing insecurity, HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, and wellbeing can inform multi-level interventions to reduce stigma and enhance health. PMID

  6. On the formation of compact, massive subsystems in stellar clusters and its relation with intermediate-mass black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arca-Sedda, M.

    2016-01-01

    During their evolution, star clusters undergo mass segregation, by which the orbits of the most massive stars shrink, while the lighter stars move outwards from the cluster centre. In this context, recent observations and dynamical modelling of several galactic and extragalactic globular clusters (GCs) suggest that most of them show, close to their centre, an overabundance of mass whose nature is still matter of debate. For instance, many works show that orbitally segregated stars may collide with each other in a runaway fashion, leading to the formation of a very massive star or an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) with a mass comparable to the observed mass excess. On the other hand, segregated stars can form a dense system if the IMBH formation fails. In this paper we study the early formation phase of a dense, massive subsystem (MSS) in several GCs models using a recently developed semi-analytical treatment of the mass segregation process. In order to investigate how the MSS properties depend on the host cluster properties, we varied initial mass function (IMF), total mass, spatial distribution and metallicity of our models. Our results show how the IMF contributes to determine the final mass of the MSS, while the metallicity and the spatial distribution play a minor role. The method presented in this paper allowed us to provide scaling relations that connect the MSS mass and the host cluster mass in agreement with the observed correlation. In order to follow the early formation stage of the MSSs and improve our statistical results, we performed several N-body simulations of stellar clusters with masses between 103 and 2 × 105 M⊙.

  7. Foraging strategies of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) in relation to food availability in a seasonal tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Nagy-Reis, Mariana B; Setz, Eleonore Z F

    2017-01-01

    Many primates have to cope with a temporal scarcity in food availability that shapes their foraging strategies. Here we investigated the changes in diet, activity, and ranging behavior of a group of black-fronted titi monkeys (Callicebus nigrifrons) according to the availability of the main high-nutritional-density item in their diet and the foraging strategy adopted when this food is scarce. We monitored one habituated group using instantaneous scan sampling over 1 year (533 h of observation, 61 days) in a seasonal tropical forest fragment (245 ha). We simultaneously collected data on food availability with fruit traps. The titi monkeys consumed fleshy fruits, the main high-nutritional-density item of their diet, in accordance with its availability, and the availability of this item modulated the ingestion of vegetative plant parts, a relatively low-nutritional-density food. During high fleshy fruit availability, the titi monkeys consumed more fleshy fruits, flowers, and invertebrates. They also traveled more, but concentrated their activity in a central area of their home range. Conversely, during fleshy fruit scarcity, they increased the breadth of their diet, switching to one richer in seeds and vegetative plant parts, and with greater plant diversity. At the same time, they reduced most energy-demanding activities, traveling less and over shorter distances, but using their home range more broadly. Corroborating the optimal foraging theory, titi monkeys altered foraging strategies according to temporal food fluctuations and responded to low fleshy fruit availability by changing their diet, activity, and ranging behavior. The adoption of a low-cost/low-yield strategy allowed us to classify them as energy minimizers.

  8. (1 + 1)-dimensional gauge symmetric gravity model and related exact black hole and cosmological solutions in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoseinzadeh, S.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.

    2017-10-01

    We introduce a four-dimensional extension of the Poincaré algebra (N) in (1 + 1)-dimensional space-time and obtain a (1 + 1)-dimensional gauge symmetric gravity model using the algebra N. We show that the obtained gravity model is dual (canonically transformed) to the (1 + 1)-dimensional anti de Sitter (AdS) gravity. We also obtain some black hole and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solutions by solving its classical equations of motion. Then, we study A4,8A1/⊗A1 gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) model and obtain some exact black hole and cosmological solutions in string theory. We show that some obtained black hole and cosmological metrics in string theory are same as the metrics obtained in solutions of our gauge symmetric gravity model.

  9. Aspects of black-fly control and entomology in the New World in relation to the Simulium problem in Nigeria*

    PubMed Central

    Crosskey, R. W.

    1959-01-01

    A general account is given of insecticidal control of black-flies in North and Central America, and the problems are contrasted with those arising in the control of Simulium damnosum Theo. in Nigeria. Some recent biological observations on Canadian black-flies are described, and it is emphasized that these have materially contributed to successful control. It is pointed out that S. damnosum control is being practised in the absence of much fundamental biological knowledge of this pest. Entomological aspects of onchocerciasis in Mexico and Guatemala are discussed, and compared with S. damnosum and its relationship to onchocerciasis in Nigeria. PMID:13813021

  10. Black-spot poison ivy.

    PubMed

    Schram, Sarah E; Willey, Andrea; Lee, Peter K; Bohjanen, Kimberly A; Warshaw, Erin M

    2008-01-01

    In black-spot poison ivy dermatitis, a black lacquerlike substance forms on the skin when poison ivy resin is exposed to air. Although the Toxicodendron group of plants is estimated to be the most common cause of allergic contact dermatitis in the United States, black-spot poison ivy dermatitis is relatively rare.

  11. Observing Black Hole Spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Christopher S.

    2015-08-01

    Black hole spin is important in both the fundamental physics and astrophysics realms. In fundamental terms, many extensions and alternatives to General Relativity (GR) reveal themselves through effects related to (or at least of the same order as) spin. Astrophysically, spin is a fossil record of how black holes have grown and may, in addition, be an important source of energy (e.g., powering relativistic jets from black hole systems). I shall review recent progress on observational studies of black hole spin, especially those made in the X-ray waveband. We now have multiple techniques that can be applied in our search for black hole spin; I shall discuss the concordance (or, sometimes, lack thereof) between these techniques. Finally, I shall discuss what we can expect in the next few years with the launch of new X-ray instrumentation as well as the deployment of the Event Horizon Telescope.

  12. Black Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baraka, Amiri

    1987-01-01

    Discusses black art as not only an expression of black life but as revolutionary art. It must be collective, functional, and committing. It must also be anti-racist, anti-capitalist, and anti-imperialist. (LHW)

  13. Beyond the Black-White Binary of U.S. Race Relations: A Next Step in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2017-01-01

    Many if not most people in the academy as well as the public sphere tend to regard race and racism in the United States in terms of a default frame of reference (i.e., a paradigm): the black-white binary. Although this frame is constructive as well as compelling, it displays serious liabilities. This article outlines, for religious educators, nine…

  14. Toward a Relational Perspective on Young Black and Latino Males: The Contextual Patterns of Disclosure as Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, David J. Knight investigates where and when Black and Latino male adolescents engage in self-disclosure--sharing their emotions, thoughts, and social perceptions--with their peers. Building from asset-based research and ecological theories of development, Knight analyzes in-depth interviews and finds that these adolescents may…

  15. We're Graduating, What's Next? Relational Contribution to the Educational Attainment of Black Bermudian Adolescent Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jethwani-Keyser, Monique; Mincy, Ronald; Haldane, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Guided by ecological and integrative theories of child development, this article examined the associations between multiple systems of influence (school and family) and the educational aspirations of Black Bermudian adolescent boys. This study used qualitative data gleaned from semistructured interviews with students in their senior year at a…

  16. Toward a Relational Perspective on Young Black and Latino Males: The Contextual Patterns of Disclosure as Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, David J.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, David J. Knight investigates where and when Black and Latino male adolescents engage in self-disclosure--sharing their emotions, thoughts, and social perceptions--with their peers. Building from asset-based research and ecological theories of development, Knight analyzes in-depth interviews and finds that these adolescents may…

  17. [Splash erosion of black soil with different reclamation years and its relations to soil aggregates selective characteristics].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi-Yang; Wang, En-Heng; Chen, Xiang-Wei

    2009-10-01

    Taking the typical black soil with a reclamation history of 8, 30, and 50 years and the un-reclaimed secondary forest land as test objects, a simulation study was made on the process of splash erosion and the selective characteristics of soil aggregates under artificial rainfall condition, with the effects of reclamation on the splash erosion in black soil region analyzed. The splash amount of reclaimed black soil was evidently higher than that of un-reclaimed secondary forest land, and increased with increasing reclamation years, with a variation range of 0.95-7.06 g x cm(-1). There was a significant exponential correlation between splash amount and splash distance, and the percentages of small size water-stable aggregates increased with increasing splash distance. The critical particle size of soil aggregates for the enrichment and depletion of splash erosion was 1.0 mm. Soil water-stable aggregates larger than 2 mm and smaller than 0.25 mm in size and soil organic matter content were the main factors affecting the splash erosion characteristics of typical black soil.

  18. Coping and Social Support as Mediators of the Relation of Optimism to Depressive Symptoms among Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Prelow, Hazel M.; Chen, William W.; Yackel, Molly E.

    2006-01-01

    This investigation examines mechanisms through which optimism may influence psychological adjustment among 133 Black college students. Specifically, this study evaluates the extent to which active and avoidant coping and social support account for the association between optimism and depressive symptoms. Participants completed questionnaires that…

  19. Beyond the Black-White Binary of U.S. Race Relations: A Next Step in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goto, Courtney T.

    2017-01-01

    Many if not most people in the academy as well as the public sphere tend to regard race and racism in the United States in terms of a default frame of reference (i.e., a paradigm): the black-white binary. Although this frame is constructive as well as compelling, it displays serious liabilities. This article outlines, for religious educators, nine…

  20. A Selected Annotated Bibliography of Material Relating to Racism, Blacks, Chicanos, Native Americans and Multi-Ethnicity. Vol. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Education Association, East Lansing. Div. of Minority Affairs.

    Volume Four of this selected annotated bibliography is composed of the most recently discovered materials, pertaining to blacks, Latinos, Native Americans, multi-ethnicity and racism. Like the three previous annotated bibliographies, it is considered to reflect only that material which is held to be most representative and most relevant in terms…

  1. Visualizing tissue molecular structure of a black type of canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-02-20

    Heat-related processing of cereal grains, legume seeds, and oil seeds could be used to improve nutrient availability in ruminants. However, different types of processing may have a different impact on intrinsic structure of tissues. To date, there is little research on structure changes after processing within intact tissues. The synchrotron-based molecular imaging technique enables us to detect inherent structure change on a molecular level. The objective of this study was to visualize tissue of black-type canola (Brassica) seed with a thick seed coat after heat-related processing in a chemical way using the synchrotron imaging technique. The results showed that the chemical images of protein amides were obtained through the imaging technique for the raw, wet, and dry heated black type of canola seed tissues. It seems that different types of processing have a different impact on the protein spectral profile in the black type of canola tissues. Wet heating had a greater impact on the protein α-helix to β-sheet ratio than dry heating. Both dry and wet heating resulted in different patterns in amide I, the second derivative, and FSD spectra. However, the exact differences in the tissue images are relatively difficult to be obtained through visual comparison. Future studies should focus on (1) comparing the response and sensitivity of canola seeds to various processing methods between the yellow-type and black-type of canola seeds; (2) developing a sensitive method to compare the image difference between tissues and between treatments; (3) developing a method to link images to nutrient digestion, and (4) revealing how structure changes affect nutrient absorption in humans and animals.

  2. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  3. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  4. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  5. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y.; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T.

    2010-01-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy. PMID:22822291

  6. The Massive-black-hole-Velocity-dispersion Relation and the Halo Baryon Fraction: A Case for Positive Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silk, Joseph; Nusser, Adi

    2010-12-01

    Force balance considerations put a limit on the rate of active galactic nucleus radiation momentum output, L/c, capable of driving galactic superwinds and reproducing the observed M BH-σ relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion. We show that black holes cannot supply enough momentum in radiation to drive the gas out by pressure alone. Energy-driven winds give a M BH-σ scaling favored by a recent analysis but also fall short energetically once cooling is incorporated. We propose that outflow triggering of star formation by enhancing the intercloud medium turbulent pressure and squeezing clouds can supply the necessary boost and suggest possible tests of this hypothesis. Our hypothesis simultaneously can account for the observed halo baryon fraction.

  7. THE MASSIVE-BLACK-HOLE-VELOCITY-DISPERSION RELATION AND THE HALO BARYON FRACTION: A CASE FOR POSITIVE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, Joseph; Nusser, Adi E-mail: adi@physics.technion.ac.i

    2010-12-10

    Force balance considerations put a limit on the rate of active galactic nucleus radiation momentum output, L/c, capable of driving galactic superwinds and reproducing the observed M{sub BH}-{sigma} relation between black hole mass and spheroid velocity dispersion. We show that black holes cannot supply enough momentum in radiation to drive the gas out by pressure alone. Energy-driven winds give a M{sub BH}-{sigma} scaling favored by a recent analysis but also fall short energetically once cooling is incorporated. We propose that outflow triggering of star formation by enhancing the intercloud medium turbulent pressure and squeezing clouds can supply the necessary boost and suggest possible tests of this hypothesis. Our hypothesis simultaneously can account for the observed halo baryon fraction.

  8. Generating Conflict for Greater Good: Utilizing Contingency Theory to Assess Black and Mainstream Newspapers as Public Relations Vehicles to Promote Better Health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Lumpkins, Crystal Y; Bae, Jiyang; Cameron, Glen T

    2010-03-01

    The potential use of strategic conflict management ( Wilcox and Cameron, 2006; Cameron, Wilcox, Reber and Shin ( in press) as a health advocacy tool in US African-American and mainstream newspapers, arguing that escalation of conflict can increase effectiveness of health-related news releases. For health communicators focusing on at-risk populations with poor health outcomes, such goals would include increased awareness of health problems and solutions, along with increased motivation arising from indignation over health disparities. Content analysis of 1,197 stories in 24 Black and 12 mainstream newspapers showed that more conflict factors were present in Black vs. mainstream newspapers, suggesting a way to strategically place health messages in news releases disseminated to newspapers that motivate at-risk publics to better health. The findings suggest that conflict factors such as racial disparity data regarding health issues may enhance media advocacy.

  9. Illuminating black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barr, Ian A.; Bull, Anne; O'Brien, Eileen; Drillsma-Milgrom, Katy A.; Milgrom, Lionel R.

    2016-07-01

    Two-dimensional shadows formed by illuminating vortices are shown to be visually analogous to the gravitational action of black holes on light and surrounding matter. They could be useful teaching aids demonstrating some of the consequences of general relativity.

  10. Black phosphorous optoelectronic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Xia, Fengnian

    2017-05-01

    Black phosphorus recently emerged as a promising two-dimensional material due to its widely tunable and direct bandgap, high carrier mobility and remarkable in-plane anisotropic electrical, optical and phonon properties. It serendipitously bridges the zero-gap graphene and the relatively large-bandgap transition metal dichalcogenides such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). In this brief review manuscript, we will first cover the basic properties of few-layer and thin-film black phosphorus. Then we will present a few potential applications of black phosphorus such as radiofrequency transistors and wideband photodetectors. Finally we will discuss the recent observation of efficient bandgap tuning in black phosphorus thin films in a dual-gate transistor, and conclude with the discussion of synthesis of large area and high quality black phosphorus thin films.

  11. “It’s Killing Us!” Narratives of Black Adults About Microaggression Experiences and Related Health Stress

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Joanne M.; Fields, Becky

    2015-01-01

    Perceived racism contributes to persistent health stress leading to health disparities. African American/Black persons (BPs) believe subtle, rather than overt, interpersonal racism is increasing. Sue and colleagues describe interpersonal racism as racial microaggressions: “routine” marginalizing indignities by White persons (WPs) toward BPs that contribute to health stress. In this narrative, exploratory study, Black adults (n = 10) were asked about specific racial microaggressions; they all experienced multiple types. Categorical and narrative analysis captured interpretations, strategies, and health stress attributions. Six iconic narratives contextualized health stress responses. Diverse mental and physical symptoms were attributed to racial microaggressions. Few strategies in response had positive outcomes. Future research includes development of coping strategies for BPs in these interactions, exploration of WPs awareness of their behaviors, and preventing racial microaggressions in health encounters that exacerbate health disparities. PMID:28462310

  12. Subclinical atherosclerotic changes related to chronic kidney disease in asymptomatic black and white young adults: The Bogalusa Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    DasMahapatra, Pronabesh; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Mokha, Jasmeet; Fernandez, Camilo; Chen, Wei; Xu, Jihua; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains asymptomatic until its late stage, and also significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease morbidity and mortality. However, information in scant on the prevalence of CKD, and its association with subclinical atherosclerosis as depicted by carotid-intima media thickness (IMT) in younger adults. Methods This cross-sectional study included 1193 participants (43% males, 30% blacks) aged 23–43 years, residing in the semi-rural biracial (black-white) community of Bogalusa, LA. The measured variables include estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to determine functional renal changes and urine album creatinine ratio (ACR) to diagnose albuminuria, along with CV risk factor variables, and both segmental and composite carotid IMT. Results Ninety nine (8.5%) subjects had CKD, with blacks showing higher prevalence than whites (p=0.01). Subjects with albuminuria had significantly higher internal carotid IMT (p=0.03), common carotid IMT (p=0.005), and composite carotid IMT (p=0.04) than those without. In the multivariate logistic regression model, albuminuria was associated with black race (OR 1.92, p=0.005), female sex (OR 2.24, p=0.002), diabetes (OR 6.26. p <0.001), hypertension (OR 2.36, p <0.001), obesity (OR 1.73, p=0.02), and composite carotid IMT (OR 1.83, p=0.02), after adjusting for age. However, reduction in eGFR did not show significant independent association with carotid IMT. Conclusions Among asymptomatic young adults, subclinical atherosclerosis and structural renal damage depicted by albuminuria coexist, which have implications for early prevention and control. PMID:21458723

  13. Global simulations of axisymmetric radiative black hole accretion discs in general relativity with a mean-field magnetic dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Abarca, David; Zhu, Yucong; McKinney, Jonathan C.

    2015-02-01

    We present a mean-field model that emulates the magnetic dynamo operating in magnetized accretion discs. We have implemented this model in the general relativisic radiation magnetohydrodynamic (GRRMHD) code KORAL, using results from local shearing sheet simulations of the magnetorotational instability to fix the parameters of the dynamo. With the inclusion of this dynamo, we are able to run 2D axisymmetric GRRMHD simulations of accretion discs for arbitrarily long times. The simulated discs exhibit sustained turbulence, with the poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components driven towards a state similar to that seen in 3D studies. Using this dynamo code, we present a set of long-duration global simulations of super-Eddington, optically thick discs around non-spinning and spinning black holes. Super-Eddington discs around non-rotating black holes exhibit a surprisingly large efficiency, η ≈ 0.04, independent of the accretion rate, where we measure efficiency in terms of the total energy output, both radiation and mechanical, flowing out to infinity. This value significantly exceeds the efficiency predicted by slim disc models for these accretion rates. Super-Eddington discs around spinning black holes are even more efficient, and appear to extract black hole rotational energy through a process similar to the Blandford-Znajek mechanism. All the simulated models are characterized by highly super-Eddington radiative fluxes collimated along the rotation axis. We also present a set of simulations that were designed to have Eddington or slightly sub-Eddington accretion rates (dot{M} ≲ 2dot{M}_Edd). None of these models reached a steady state. Instead, the discs collapsed as a result of runaway cooling, presumably because of a thermal instability.

  14. Black phosphorus gas sensors.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Ahmad N; Liu, Bilu; Chen, Liang; Ma, Yuqiang; Cong, Sen; Aroonyadet, Noppadol; Köpf, Marianne; Nilges, Tom; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-05-26

    The utilization of black phosphorus and its monolayer (phosphorene) and few-layers in field-effect transistors has attracted a lot of attention to this elemental two-dimensional material. Various studies on optimization of black phosphorus field-effect transistors, PN junctions, photodetectors, and other applications have been demonstrated. Although chemical sensing based on black phosphorus devices was theoretically predicted, there is still no experimental verification of such an important study of this material. In this article, we report on chemical sensing of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) using field-effect transistors based on multilayer black phosphorus. Black phosphorus sensors exhibited increased conduction upon NO2 exposure and excellent sensitivity for detection of NO2 down to 5 ppb. Moreover, when the multilayer black phosphorus field-effect transistor was exposed to NO2 concentrations of 5, 10, 20, and 40 ppb, its relative conduction change followed the Langmuir isotherm for molecules adsorbed on a surface. Additionally, on the basis of an exponential conductance change, the rate constants for adsorption and desorption of NO2 on black phosphorus were extracted for different NO2 concentrations, and they were in the range of 130-840 s. These results shed light on important electronic and sensing characteristics of black phosphorus, which can be utilized in future studies and applications.

  15. On the instability of the n = 1 Einstein-Yang-Mills black holes and mathematically related systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wald, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    The usual approach to analyze the linear stability of a static solution of some system of equations consists of searching for linearized solutions which satisfy suitable boundary conditions spatially and which grow exponentially in time. In the case of the n = 1 Einstein-Yang-Mills (EYM) black hole, an interesting situation occurs. There exists a perturbation which grows exponentially in time-and spatially decreases to zero at the horizon-but nevertheless is physically singular on the horizon. Thus, this unstable mode is unacceptable as initial data, and the question arises as to whether the n = 1 EYM black hole is stable. The author analyzes this issue here in the more general case. He proves that there exists smooth initial data of compact support in M which give rise to a solution which grows unboundedly with time. This implies that the n = 1 EYM black hole and other mathematically similar systems are unstable despite the nonexistence of physically acceptable exponentially growing modes.

  16. The Black Culture Ghetto Cycle Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chochezi; And Others

    This learning component provides interns with insight into the dynamics of black culture and the ghetto cycle syndrome, develops positive attitudes toward black people and black culture as reflected in the behaviors of black people, and relates this knowledge and information to the understanding of other cultures. Activities within the component…

  17. The Black Community: Diversity and Unity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, James E.

    The black community is defined in this book as a diversified set of interrelated structures and aggregates of people who are held together by the forces of racism. The need for theoretical perspectives for understanding black-white relations and for analyzing the nature of the black community is explained. The black family, patterns of family…

  18. Adolescent experiences of violence and relation to violence perpetration beyond young adulthood among an urban sample of Black and African American males.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Lawrence, Danielle A; Santana, M C; Welles, C Seth L; Horsburgh, C Robert; Silverman, Jay G; Rich, John A; Raj, Anita

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if experiences of physical violence during early and late adolescence (12-21 years) places urban Black males at increased risk for interpersonal violence perpetration beyond young adulthood (30 years and older). Participants of this cross-sectional study were Black and African American men (N = 455) between the ages of 30 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the Northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of adolescent experiences of violence to: (1) past 6 month street violence involvement and (2) past year intimate partner violence perpetration. Ten percent of the sample reported that they experienced adolescent victimization. Men reporting adolescent victimization were significantly more likely to report past 6-month street violence involvement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 3.2, 95 % CI = 1.7-6.3) and past 6 month intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.8-5.4) compared to men who did not report such victimization. Study findings suggest that in order to prevent adulthood perpetration of violence, more work is needed to address experiences of victimization among young Black males, particularly violence experienced during adolescence.

  19. HIV-related risk factors among black African migrants and refugees in Christchurch, New Zealand: results from the Mayisha-NZ survey.

    PubMed

    Birukila, Gerida; Brunton, Cheryl; Dickson, Nigel

    2013-06-14

    To describe the demographic characteristics of, and HIV-related risk behaviours among, black African migrants and refugees in Christchurch. A cross-sectional survey of black African migrants and refugees in Christchurch was carried out. Ten trained African community researchers recruited study participants in social venues and events frequented by Africans. A short self-completed questionnaire collected data on demographic characteristics, previous HIV testing, HIV risk perception, previous STI diagnosis, utilization of health services and sexual behaviours. Valid questionnaires were obtained from 245 respondents (150 men and 95 women) with a mean age of 28 years (range 16 to 58). Participants came from 13 different African countries. Risk factors for HIV identified in this study included: low condom use, low HIV risk perception, having more than one sexual partner, previous STI diagnosis and lack of voluntary testing for HIV. Our findings justify the need for developing an HIV prevention strategy for black Africans in New Zealand that is informed by local evidence. This strategy should also address sexual health needs of Africans including barriers to condom use, the availability of HIV/STI screening services and targeting sexual behaviours that increase vulnerability to HIV infection.

  20. Determination of vitamin D in relation to body mass index and race in a defined population of black and white women.

    PubMed

    Coney, Ponjola; Demers, Laurence M; Dodson, William C; Kunselman, Allen R; Ladson, Gwinnett; Legro, Richard S

    2012-10-01

    To examine the contributions of obesity and race to levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and parathyroid hormone (PTH) in a defined cohort of black and white women. An interventional study was conducted from October 2004 to March 2008, among 219 healthy female volunteers. Serum 25(OH)D and PTH levels were determined in 117 African American women and 102 white women and the results were compared with body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, serum lipids, and PTH levels. Black women had lower median levels of 25(OH)D compared with white women (27.3 nmol/L vs 52.4 nmol/L; P<0.001). Serum levels of 25(OH)D below 50 nmol/L were found in 98% of black women and 45% of white women (P<0.001). The differences between the racial groups in the levels of 25(OH)D persisted despite adjustments for body weight, percentage body fat, and BMI. Black women had higher median serum levels of PTH than white women (31.9 pg/mL vs 22.3 pg/mL; P<0.01). African American women are at significant risk for low vitamin D levels. Studies are needed to determine if low vitamin D status in young African American women is associated with a greater risk for vitamin D-related chronic diseases that can be reduced with vitamin D supplementation. Copyright © 2012 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 Polymorphisms in Relation to Serum Adiponectin Levels and Body Mass Index in Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Sarah S.; Gammon, Marilie D.; North, Kari E.; Millikan, Robert C.; Lange, Ethan M.; Williams, Scott M.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Long, Jirong; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Blot, William J.; Matthews, Charles E.

    2012-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipose-secreted protein with influence on several physiologic pathways including those related to insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and atherogenesis. Adiponectin levels are highly heritable and several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in adiponectin-related genes (ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, ADIPOR2) have been examined in relation to circulating adiponectin levels and obesity phenotypes, but despite differences in adiponectin levels and obesity prevalence by race, few studies have included black participants. Using cross-sectional interview data and blood samples collected from 990 black and 977 white women enrolled in the Southern Community Cohort Study from 2002 to 2006, we examined 25 SNPs in ADIPOQ, 19 in ADIPOR1, and 27 in ADIPOR2 in relation to serum adiponectin levels and body mass index (BMI) using race-stratified linear regression models adjusted for age and percentage African ancestry. SNP rs17366568 in ADIPOQ was significantly associated with serum adiponectin levels in white women only (adjusted mean adiponectin levels = 15.9 for G/G genotype, 13.7 for A/G, and 9.3 for A/A, p=0.00036). No other SNPs were associated with adiponectin or BMI among blacks or whites. Because adiponectin levels as well as obesity are highly heritable and vary by race but associations with polymorphisms in the ADIPOQ, ADIPOR1, and ADIPOR2 genes have been few in this and other studies, future work including large populations from diverse racial groups is needed to detect additional genetic variants that influence adiponectin and BMI. PMID:21273992

  2. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  3. Hierarchical data-driven approach to fitting numerical relativity data for nonprecessing binary black holes with an application to final spin and radiated energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Forteza, Xisco; Keitel, David; Husa, Sascha; Hannam, Mark; Khan, Sebastian; Pürrer, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Numerical relativity is an essential tool in studying the coalescence of binary black holes (BBHs). It is still computationally prohibitive to cover the BBH parameter space exhaustively, making phenomenological fitting formulas for BBH waveforms and final-state properties important for practical applications. We describe a general hierarchical bottom-up fitting methodology to design and calibrate fits to numerical relativity simulations for the three-dimensional parameter space of quasicircular nonprecessing merging BBHs, spanned by mass ratio and by the individual spin components orthogonal to the orbital plane. Particular attention is paid to incorporating the extreme-mass-ratio limit and to the subdominant unequal-spin effects. As an illustration of the method, we provide two applications, to the final spin and final mass (or equivalently: radiated energy) of the remnant black hole. Fitting to 427 numerical relativity simulations, we obtain results broadly consistent with previously published fits, but improving in overall accuracy and particularly in the approach to extremal limits and for unequal-spin configurations. We also discuss the importance of data quality studies when combining simulations from diverse sources, how detailed error budgets will be necessary for further improvements of these already highly accurate fits, and how this first detailed study of unequal-spin effects helps in choosing the most informative parameters for future numerical relativity runs.

  4. Perceptions relating to body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions in black South African women: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Draper, Catherine E; Davidowitz, Kesiah J; Goedecke, Julia H

    2016-02-01

    A higher tolerance for a larger body size has been associated with obesity in black South African (SA) women. The aim of the present study was to explore perceptions regarding body size and weight loss in a sample of black women from a low-income community in Cape Town, SA. Qualitative pilot study including five focus groups. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Khayelitsha, Cape Town, SA. Twenty-one black SA women. The majority of participants had positive perceptions of overweight/obesity, which were influenced by community and cultural perceptions, but some inconsistencies were observed as overweight/obesity was also associated with ill health. Participants identified many benefits to weight loss, but due to the association with sickness, they were concerned about being stigmatised in their community. Although participants had knowledge about healthy eating, the main barrier to eating healthily included the perceived higher cost of healthier food and food insecurity. All participants saw exercise as a strategy to lose weight and improve health, and were interested in participating in a community-based exercise intervention, but negative community perceptions and conflicting views regarding who should lead the intervention were identified as barriers. These findings highlight the complexities surrounding participants' perceptions regarding body size, weight loss and weight-loss interventions, and emphasise low socio-economic status as a barrier to change. The study also highlights the strong influence of cultural ideals and community perceptions on personal perceptions. These findings underscore the necessity for culturally appropriate weight-loss interventions in low-income, transitioning communities.

  5. Relative importance of black carbon, brown carbon, and absorption enhancement from clear coatings in biomass burning emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Rudra P.; Beamesderfer, Eric R.; Wagner, Nick L.; Langridge, Justin M.; Lack, Daniel A.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Stone, Elizabeth A.; Stockwell, Chelsea E.; Yokelson, Robert J.; Murphy, Shane M.

    2017-04-01

    A wide range of globally significant biomass fuels were burned during the fourth Fire Lab at Missoula Experiment (FLAME-4). A multi-channel photoacoustic absorption spectrometer (PAS) measured dry absorption at 405, 532, and 660 nm and thermally denuded (250 °C) absorption at 405 and 660 nm. Absorption coefficients were broken into contributions from black carbon (BC), brown carbon (BrC), and lensing following three different methodologies, with one extreme being a method that assumes the thermal denuder effectively removes organics and the other extreme being a method based on the assumption that black carbon (BC) has an Ångström exponent of unity. The methodologies employed provide ranges of potential importance of BrC to absorption but, on average, there was a difference of a factor of 2 in the ratio of the fraction of absorption attributable to BrC estimated by the two methods. BrC absorption at shorter visible wavelengths is of equal or greater importance to that of BC, with maximum contributions of up to 92 % of total aerosol absorption at 405 nm and up to 58 % of total absorption at 532 nm. Lensing is estimated to contribute a maximum of 30 % of total absorption, but typically contributes much less than this. Absorption enhancements and the estimated fraction of absorption from BrC show good correlation with the elemental-carbon-to-organic-carbon ratio (EC / OC) of emitted aerosols and weaker correlation with the modified combustion efficiency (MCE). Previous studies have shown that BrC grows darker (larger imaginary refractive index) as the ratio of black to organic aerosol (OA) mass increases. This study is consistent with those findings but also demonstrates that the fraction of total absorption attributable to BrC shows the opposite trend: increasing as the organic fraction of aerosol emissions increases and the EC / OC ratio decreases.

  6. Three studies of factors affecting the attitudes of blacks and females toward the pursuit of science and science-related careers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Oliver W.; Pettus, W. Clinton; Hedin, Barbara A.

    This study involved the development of an instrument, the Science Career Predictor Scale (SCPS), which assesses seven factors thought to be involved with science career choices: teacher/counselor encouragement, participation in science-related hobbies and activities, academic self-image, science-related career interest, parental encouragement and support, the perceived relevance of mathematics and science, and mathematics and science ability. This instrument was administered to a sample of 522 middle and high school students, and a sample of 185 students from an historically black university, and the effects of such factors as sex, race, personal acquaintance with a scientist, and type of community (rural or urban) on the above-mentioned variables were ascertained using a multivariate analysis of covariance with age as the covariate. A separate study on a sample of 81 high school students looked at race and gender differences in critical thinking abilities as measured by the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking appraisal, and how these abilities correlated with scores on the Science Career Predictor Scale. These studies produced several significant findings. Female subjects did produce significantly lower scores on the career interest factor. Black students actually had significantly higher science-career preference scores than their white counterparts. However, blacks scored significantly lower on the measure of critical thinking ability. Across both races and both sexes, however, the major factor affecting science-related career decisions appears to be personal contact with a scientist. The implications of these findings are discussed, along with possible strategies for increasing the participation of these groups in science.

  7. 20 Years of Observing Campaigns of OJ287: The Black Hole Binary Model As Witness Of The Validity Of The General Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    A peculiar and controversial phenomenology is the periodicity of AGN and blazars. A representative case study with multifrequency radio-optical and X-ray data by Swift is presented, namely the BL Lac object OJ 287. The source is extensively monitored at radio and optical bands since 90's, with also coordinated intensive multifrequency campaigns. The data obtained during the last two observing multifrequency campaigns of 2004-2007 and 2015-2016, allowed to put some indirect tests of the General Relativity, under the assumption that the driving model is a binary supermassive black hole system with sub- parsec separation.

  8. Addendum to ‘The NINJA-2 catalog of hybrid post-Newtonian/numerical-relativity waveforms for non-precessing black-hole binaries’

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, P.; Boyle, Michael; Brown, Duncan A.; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Cadonati, Laura; Campanelli, Manuela; Chu, Tony; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Hannam, Mark; Healy, James; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Liu, Yuk Tung; London, Lionel; Lousto, Carlos O.; Lovelace, Geoffrey; MacDonald, Ilana; Marronetti, Pedro; Mohapatra, Satya; Mösta, Philipp; Müller, Doreen; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ohme, Frank; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pekowsky, Larne; Pollney, Denis; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Ponce, Marcelo; Pürrer, Michael; Reifenberger, George; Reisswig, Christian; Santamaría, Lucía; Scheel, Mark A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Szilágyi, Béla; Taylor, Nicholas W.; Tichy, Wolfgang; Tsatsin, Petr; Zlochower, Yosef

    2013-10-01

    A recent paper (Ajith et al 2012 Class. Quantum Grav. 29 124001) described a catalog of 56 hybrid post-Newtonian/numerical-relativity waveforms modeling the inspiral, merger and ringdown of binary black hole systems spanning a range of mass ratios and spins. This catalog has been created and validated for use in the NINJA-2 project to study the sensitivity of gravitational-wave search and parameter-estimation algorithms. The contents of this catalog are being made available for public use. This addendum describes the public release.

  9. The Relative Impact of Socioeconomic Status and Childhood Trauma on Black-White Differences in Paranoid Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Iacovino, Juliette M.; Jackson, Joshua J.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examines mechanisms of racial differences in symptoms of paranoid personality disorder (PPD) in a sample of adults ages 55–64 from the St. Louis, MO area. Socioeconomic status (SES) and childhood trauma were tested as intervening variables in the association between race and PPD symptoms using structural equation modeling. PPD symptoms were modeled as a latent variable composed of items from the PPD scales of the Multi-Source Assessment of Personality Pathology self and informant reports and the Structured Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM–IV) Personality. Childhood trauma was measured using the Traumatic Life Events Questionnaire, and SES was a composite of parent education, participant education, and annual household income. Blacks exhibited higher levels of PPD symptoms across the 3 personality measures, reported significantly lower SES, and reported greater childhood trauma. The proposed model was a good fit to the data, and the effect of race on PPD symptoms operated mainly through SES. The indirect effect through SES was stronger for males. Findings suggest that racial differences in PPD symptoms are partly explained by problems more commonly experienced by Black individuals. PMID:24661172

  10. 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity in black and white youth.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Kumaravel; de las Heras, Javier; Lee, SoJung; Holick, Michael F; Arslanian, Silva A

    2012-03-01

    To examine the relationships between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity, disposition index (DI), in black and white youth. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were analyzed in banked specimens in healthy youth aged 8 to 18 years who had existing data on hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic and hyperglycemic clamp to assess insulin sensitivity and secretion, and measurements of body composition, and abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). A total of 183 research volunteers (mean ± SD; age, 12.6 ± 2.2 years; 98 white, 98 male, 92 obese) were studied. Analysis of HbA(1c), fasting glucose and insulin, insulin sensitivity, and DI across quartiles of plasma 25(OH)D revealed no differences among whites. In blacks, the observed significance of higher insulin sensitivity and DI in the highest quartile of 25(OH)D disappeared after adjusting for any of the adiposity measures (BMI or fat mass or VAT or SAT). The difference in insulin sensitivity (9.4 ± 1.2 vs. 5.6 ± 0.5 mg/kg/min per μU/mL; P = 0.006) between 25(OH)D nondeficient (≥20 ng/mL) versus deficient (<20 ng/mL) black youth also was negated when adjusted for adiposity. In healthy youth, plasma 25(OH)D concentrations bear no independent relationship to parameters of glucose homeostasis and in vivo insulin sensitivity and β-cell function relative to insulin sensitivity. It remains to be determined whether in youth with dysglycemia the relationships are different and whether vitamin D optimization enhances insulin sensitivity and β-cell function.

  11. Relationship between Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Knowledge, HIV-Related Stigma, and HIV Testing among Young Black Adults in a Southeastern City

    PubMed Central

    Okumu, Eunice; Jolly, David H.; Alston, Le’Marus; Eley, Natalie T.; Laws, Michelle; MacQueen, Kathleen M.

    2017-01-01

    The southeast is identified as the epicenter of the nation’s human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, accounting for nearly 44% of all persons living with a HIV diagnosis in the United States. HIV stigma and knowledge have been cited as some of the complex factors increasing risk of acquiring HIV within African-American communities. We sought to understand how HIV knowledge and HIV-related stigma impact HIV testing experience among young Black adults who completed a community-based participatory research survey in a Southeastern city. Survey measures were developed with active engagement among the research team and community members, with the goal of balancing community knowledge, interests and concerns with scientific considerations, and the realities of funding and the project timeline. A total of 508 of the 513 audio computer-assisted self-interview questionnaires completed were analyzed. Eighty-one percent of participants had ever tested and had an intention-to-test for HIV in the next 12 months. Overall, analyses revealed low HIV-related stigma and relatively moderate to high HIV knowledge among young Black adults in the Southeastern city. Logistic regression indicated that having ever tested for HIV was positively correlated with HIV knowledge [odds ratio (OR): 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.23–1.84, p < 0.001], but inversely correlated with low HIV-related stigma (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01–0.76, p < 0.03). However, there were no significant relationships between HIV-related stigma, HIV knowledge, and intention-to test for HIV in the future. These findings suggest that reducing HIV-related stigma and increasing HIV knowledge are not sufficient in promoting HIV testing (i.e., intention-to-test) among young Black adults in this city, unless specific emphasis is placed on addressing internalized HIV-related stigma and misperceptions about HIV prevention and control. PMID:28349049

  12. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  13. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  14. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  15. Abundance of Black-backed woodpeckers and other birds in relation to disturbance and forest structure in the Black Hills and Bear Lodge Mountains of South Dakota and Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Elizabeth A. Matseur

    2017-01-01

    Natural disturbances, such as wildfire and mountain pine beetle (Dentroctonus ponderosae, hereafter MPB) infestations, are two sources of large-scale disturbance that can significantly alter forest structure in the Black Hills. The Black Hills has recently experienced one of the largest MPB outbreaks in the last 100 years, along with varying levels of wildfires...

  16. Experiences of racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men.

    PubMed

    Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.

  17. Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Time Admitting Evolving Null Horizons Related to a Black Hole Event Horizon

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called “Evolving Null Horizons” (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time (M¯,g¯) such that the metric g¯ satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in (M¯,g¯). Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems. PMID:27722202

  18. Generalized Robertson-Walker Space-Time Admitting Evolving Null Horizons Related to a Black Hole Event Horizon.

    PubMed

    Duggal, K L

    2016-01-01

    A new technique is used to study a family of time-dependent null horizons, called "Evolving Null Horizons" (ENHs), of generalized Robertson-Walker (GRW) space-time [Formula: see text] such that the metric [Formula: see text] satisfies a kinematic condition. This work is different from our early papers on the same issue where we used (1 + n)-splitting space-time but only some special subcases of GRW space-time have this formalism. Also, in contrast to previous work, we have proved that each member of ENHs is totally umbilical in [Formula: see text]. Finally, we show that there exists an ENH which is always a null horizon evolving into a black hole event horizon and suggest some open problems.

  19. The BlackBerry Project: The Hidden World of Adolescents’ Text Messaging and Relations With Internalizing Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Marion K.; Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; More, David; Solis, Jerome S.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.

    2013-01-01

    In this naturalistic study of adolescents’ text messaging, participants (N = 172, 81 girls, age 14) were given BlackBerry devices configured to save their text messages to a secure archive for coding. Two, 2-day transcripts collected four months apart within the same academic year were microcoded for content. Results showed that most text message utterances were positive or neutral, and that adolescents sent text messages primarily to peers and to romantic partners. Only a few sex differences emerged. Frequency of text messages containing negative talk positively predicted overall internalizing symptoms and anxious depression. Text messaging about sex was positively associated with overall internalizing and somatic complaints for girls, but not for boys. PMID:25750494

  20. Discoid lupus erythematosus-related squamous cell carcinoma of the lip in an HIV-seropositive black male.

    PubMed

    Molomo, Edward M; Bouckaert, Michael; Khammissa, Razia A G; Motswaledi, Hendrick M; Lemmer, Johan; Feller, Liviu

    2015-01-01

    Discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE) is an autoimmune disease commonly affecting sun-exposed areas of the skin. Subjects with DLE have high-levels of plasmacytoid dendritic cells -derived interferon-α, which mediates both loss of immune tolerance to self-antigens and exaggerated inflammatory state, and supports proliferation and differentiation of hyperactive B-cells. In a few cases, DLE of the lips, scalp, ears or nose may eventually progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Photosensitivity and the long-standing immune-mediated chronic inflammation and dysregulated healing characterized by atrophy, hypopigmentation or scarring inherent to DLE are risk factors for progression to SCC. We review some aspects of the pathogenesis of DLE and the possible roles of inflammation and photosensitivity in the carcinomatous transformation of DLE keratinocytes, and present an illustrative case of DLE of the lower lip in an HIV-tuberculosis co-infected black person, that progressed to SCC.

  1. Black Suicide and the Relational System: Theoretical and Empirical Implications of Communal and Familial Ties. Discussion Papers No. 481-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert

    The findings of a national study of black suicide are reported in this paper. A suitable explanation is sought for the increasing suicide rate among young blacks. The possibility of a link between suicide and the weakening of black community and family ties is explored. Specifically, the isolating effects of inmigration and living alone are…

  2. Black Suicide and the Relational System: Theoretical and Empirical Implications of Communal and Familial Ties. Discussion Papers No. 481-78.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Robert

    The findings of a national study of black suicide are reported in this paper. A suitable explanation is sought for the increasing suicide rate among young blacks. The possibility of a link between suicide and the weakening of black community and family ties is explored. Specifically, the isolating effects of inmigration and living alone are…

  3. The relation of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress: a meta-analysis of Black Americans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Debbiesiu L; Ahn, Soyeon

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized the results of 27 studies examining the relations of racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization to discrimination-distress for Black Americans. The purpose was to uncover which constructs connected to racial identity, ethnic identity, and racial socialization most strongly correlate with racial discrimination and psychological distress. Discrimination significantly related to aspects of racial identity, including immersion-emersion, public regard, encounter, Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard, and internalization. Distress significantly correlated with preencounter/assimilation, encounter, public regard, immersion-emersion, and Afrocentricity/racial centrality/private regard. Several of these relationships were significantly moderated by the measure of racial identity or demographic variables (gender or age). Implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. Relation of Black Race between High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Content, High Density Lipoprotein Particles and Coronary Events (From the Dallas Heart Study)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Alvin; Neeland, Ian J.; Das, Sandeep R.; Khera, Amit; Turer, Aslan T.; Ayers, Colby R.; McGuire, Darren K.; Rohatgi, Anand

    2015-01-01

    Therapies targeting high density lipoprotein cholesterol content (HDL-C) have not improved coronary heart disease (CHD) outcomes. HDL particle concentration (HDL-P) may better predict CHD. However, the impact of race/ethnicity on the relations between HDL-P and subclinical atherosclerosis/ incident CHD events has not been described. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study, a multiethnic, probability-based, population cohort of Dallas County adults had the following baseline measurements: HDL-C, HDL-P by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMR), and coronary artery calcium (CAC) by electron beam computed tomography. Participants were followed for a median of 9.3 years for incident CHD events (composite of first myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death). The study comprised 1977 participants free from CHD (51% women, 46% Black). In adjusted models, HDL-C was not associated with prevalent CAC (p=0.13) or incident CHD overall (HR per 1SD: 0.89, 95% CI 0.76–1.05). However, HDL-C was inversely associated with incident CHD among non-Black (adjusted HR per 1SD 0.67, 95% CI 0.46–0.97) but not Black participants (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78–1.13, pinteraction = 0.05). Conversely, HDL-P, adjusted for risk factors and HDL-C, was inversely associated with prevalent CAC (p=0.009) and with incident CHD overall (adjusted HR per 1SD: 0.73, 95% CI 0.62–0.86) with no interaction by Black race/ethnicity (pinteraction = 0.57). In conclusion, in contrast to HDL-C, the inverse relationship between HDL-P and incident CHD events is consistent across ethnicities. These findings suggest that HDL-P is superior to HDL-C in predicting both prevalent atherosclerosis as well as incident CHD events across a diverse population and should be considered as a therapeutic target. PMID:25661572

  5. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black- crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85- fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r super(2) often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah- active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  6. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  7. Relation among cytochrome P450, AH-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P-450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P-450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r-2 often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the Ah receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  8. Relation among cytochrome P450, Ah-active PCB congeners and dioxin equivalents in pipping black-crowned night-heron embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Rattner, B.A.; Hatfield, J.S.; Melancon, M.J.; Custer, T.W. . Patuxent Environmental Science Center); Tillitt, D.E. . Midwest Science Center)

    1994-11-01

    Pipping black-crowned night-heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) embryos were collected from a relatively uncontaminated site (next to Chincoteague National Wildlife Refuge, VA) and three polluted sites (Cat Island, Green Bay, Lake Michigan, WI; Bair Island, San Francisco Bay, CA; West Marin Island, San Francisco Bay, CA). Hepatic cytochrome P450-associated mono-oxygenates and cytochrome P450 proteins, induced up to 85-fold relative to the reference site, were associated with concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and 11 PCB congeners that are presumed to express toxicity through the arylhydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Multiple regression revealed that up to 86% of the variation of cytochrome P450 measurements was accounted for by variation in the concentration of these PCB congeners. Toxic equivalents (TEQs) of sample extracts, predicted mathematically (summed product of PCB congener concentrations and toxic equivalency factors), and dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQs), derived by bioassay (ethoxyresorufin-O-dealkylase activity of treated H4IIE rat hepatoma cells), were greatest in Cat Island samples. Cytochrome P450-associated monooxygenases and cytochrome P450 proteins were related to TEQs and TCDD-EQs; adjusted r[sup 2] often exceeded 0.5 for the relation among mathematically predicted TEQs and cytochrome P450 measurements. These data extend previous observations in heron embryos of an association between P450 and total PCB burdens to include Ah-active PCB congeners, and presumably other compounds, which interact similarly with the AH receptor. Benzyloxyresorufin O-dealkylase, ethoxyresorufin O-dealkylase, and cytochrome P450 1A appear to be the most reliable measures of exposure to Ah-active PCB congeners in black-crowned night-heron embryos. These findings provide further evidence that cytochrome P450-associated parameters have considerable value as a biomarker for assessing environmental contamination of wetlands.

  9. Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephani, Hans

    2004-02-01

    Preface; Notation; Part I. Special Relativity: 1. Introduction: inertial systems and Galilei invariance of classical mechanics; 2. Light propagation in moving coordinate systems and Lorentz transformations; 3. Our world as a Minkowski space; 4. Mechanics of special relativity; 5. Optics of plane waves; 6. Four-dimensional vectors and tensors; 7. Electrodynamics in vacuo; 8. Transformation properties of electromagnetic fields: examples; 9. Null vectors and the algebraic properties of electromagnetic field tensors; 10. Charged point particles and their field; 11. Pole-dipole particles and their field; 12. Electrodynamics in media; 13. Perfect fluids and other physical theories; Part II. Riemannian Geometry: 14. Introduction: the force-free motion of particles in Newtonian mechanics; 15. Why Riemannian geometry?; 16. Riemannian space; 17. Tensor algebra; 18. The covariant derivative and parallel transport; 19. The curvature tensor; 20. Differential operators, integrals and integral laws; 21. Fundamental laws of physics in Riemannian spaces; Part III. Foundations of Einstein's Theory of Gravitation: 22. The fundamental equations of Einstein's theory of gravitation; 23. The Schwarzschild solution; 24. Experiments to verify the Schwarzschild metric; 25. Gravitational lenses; 26. The interior Schwarzschild solution; Part IV. Linearized Theory of Gravitation, Far Fields and Gravitational Waves: 27. The linearized Einstein theory of gravity; 28. Far fields due to arbitrary matter distributions and balance equations for momentum and angular momentum; 29. Gravitational waves; 30. The Cauchy problem for the Einstein field equations; Part V. Invariant Characterization of Exact Solutions: 31. Preferred vector fields and their properties; 32. The Petrov classification; 33. Killing vectors and groups of motion; 34. A survey of some selected classes of exact solutions; Part VI. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes: 35. The Schwarzschild singularity; 36. Gravitational collapse

  10. Relation of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Depression to Risk Factors for HIV Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in 6 US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Leo; Magnus, Manya; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Koblin, Beryl A.; Hucks-Ortiz, Christopher; Fields, Sheldon D.; Shoptaw, Steve; Stephenson, Rob; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Cummings, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the relation of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression to HIV sexual risk behaviors among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Participants were 1522 Black MSM recruited from 6 US cities between July 2009 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results. Participants reported sex before age 12 years with someone at least 5 years older (31.1%), unwanted sex when aged 12 to 16 years (30%), IPV (51.8%), and depression (43.8%). Experiencing CSA when aged 12 to 16 years was inversely associated with any receptive condomless anal sex with a male partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.86). Pressured or forced sex was positively associated with any receptive anal sex (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.57, 3.20). Experiencing CSA when younger than 12 years, physical abuse, emotional abuse, having been stalked, and pressured or forced sex were positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Among HIV-positive MSM (n = 337), CSA between ages 12 and 16 years was positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Conclusions. Rates of CSA, IPV, and depression were high, but associations with HIV sexual risk outcomes were modest. PMID:26469666

  11. TESTS OF GENERAL RELATIVITY IN THE STRONG-GRAVITY REGIME BASED ON X-RAY SPECTROPOLARIMETRIC OBSERVATIONS OF BLACK HOLES IN X-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczynski, Henric

    2012-08-01

    Although general relativity (GR) has been tested extensively in the weak-gravity regime, similar tests in the strong-gravity regime are still missing. In this paper, we explore the possibility to use X-ray spectropolarimetric observations of black holes in X-ray binaries to distinguish between the Kerr metric and the phenomenological metrics introduced by Johannsen and Psaltis (which are not vacuum solutions of Einstein's equation) and thus to test the no-hair theorem of GR. To this end, we have developed a numerical code that calculates the radial brightness profiles of accretion disks and parallel transports the wave vector and polarization vector of photons through the Kerr and non-GR spacetimes. We used the code to predict the observational appearance of GR and non-GR accreting black hole systems. We find that the predicted energy spectra and energy-dependent polarization degree and polarization direction do depend strongly on the underlying spacetime. However, for large regions of the parameter space, the GR and non-GR metrics lead to very similar observational signatures, making it difficult to observationally distinguish between the two types of models.

  12. Spatial variability of soil organic carbon in relation to environmental factors of a typical small watershed in the black soil region, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Jian-Bing, Wei; Du-Ning, Xiao; Xing-Yi, Zhang; Xiu-Zhen, Li; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2006-10-01

    A total of 292 soil samples were taken from surface soil (0-20 cm) of a typical small watershed-Tongshuang in the black soil region of Heilongjiang province, northeast China in June 2005 for examining the concentration of soil organic carbon (SOC). Spatial variability of SOC in relation to topography and land use was evaluated using classical statistics, geostatistics and geographic information system (GIS) analyses. The objective of this study was to provide a scientific basis for land management targeting at improving soil quality in this region. Classical statistical analysis results indicated that the variability of SOC was moderate (C (V) = 0.30). Slope position and land use types were discriminating factors for its spatial variability. Geostatistics analyses showed that SOC had a strong spatial autocorrelation, which was mainly induced by structural factors. Mean concentration of SOC in surface soil was 2.27% in this watershed, which was a very low level in the northern black soil region of northeast China. In this small watershed, present soil and water conservation measures played an important role in controlling soil loss. But SOC's restoration was unsatisfactory. Nearly three-quarters of the area had worrisome productivity. How to improve SOC concentration targeting at soil fertility is a pressing need in the future.

  13. Erratum to: Interpersonal discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Sherrill L; Cherepanov, Dasha; Hanmer, Janel; Fryback, Dennis G; Palta, Mari

    2013-08-01

    We assessed associations between discrimination and health-related quality of life among black and white men and women in the United States. We examined data from the National Health Measurement Study, a nationally representative sample of 3,648 adults aged 35-89 in the non-institutionalized US population. These data include self-reported lifetime and everyday discrimination as well as several health utility indexes (EQ-5D, HUI3, and SF-6D). Multiple regression was used to compute mean health utility scores adjusted for age, income, education, and chronic diseases for each race-by-gender subgroup. Black men and women reported more discrimination than white men and women. Health utility tended to be worse as reported discrimination increased. With a few exceptions, differences between mean health utility scores in the lowest and highest discrimination groups exceeded the 0.03 difference generally considered to be a clinically significant difference. Persons who experienced discrimination tended to score lower on health utility measures. The study also revealed a complex relationship between experiences of discrimination and race and gender. Because of these differential social and demographic relationships caution is urged when interpreting self-rated health measures in research, clinical, and policy settings.

  14. Effects of nutritional level of concentrate-based diets on meat quality and expression levels of genes related to meat quality in Hainan black goats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingfa; Zhou, Luli; Zhou, Hanlin; Hou, Guanyu; Shi, Liguang; Li, Mao; Huang, Xianzhou; Guan, Song

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the nutritional levels of diets on meat quality and related gene expression in Hainan black goat. Twenty-four goats were divided into six dietary treatments and were fed a concentrate-based diet with two levels of crude protein (CP) (15% or 17%) and three levels of digestive energy (DE) (11.72, 12.55 or 13.39 MJ/kg DM) for 90 days. Goats fed the concentrate-based diet with 17% CP had significantly (P < 0.05) higher average daily gains (ADG) and better feed conversion rates (FCR). The pH 24h value tended to decrease (P < 0.05) with increasing DE levels. The tenderness of Longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) and Semimembranosus muscle (SM) reduced with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). With increasing DE levels, tenderness was increased (P < 0.05). The heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) mRNA expression levels in LD and SM increased with increasing DE levels (P < 0.05), but decreased with increasing CP levels (P < 0.05). The calpastatin (CAST) and μ-calpain mRNA expressions levels in LD and SM were affected significantly (P < 0.05) by CP and DE levels in the diet. Therefore, the nutritional levels of diets affect meat quality and expression levels of genes associated with meat quality in Hainan black goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. A LOCAL BASELINE OF THE BLACK HOLE MASS SCALING RELATIONS FOR ACTIVE GALAXIES. II. MEASURING STELLAR VELOCITY DISPERSION IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Chelsea E.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Auger, Matthew W.; Treu, Tommaso; Woo, Jong-Hak; Malkan, Matthew A. E-mail: mauger@physics.ucsb.edu E-mail: vbennert@calpoly.edu E-mail: malkan@astro.ucla.edu

    2012-08-01

    We derive spatially resolved stellar kinematics for a sample of 84 out of 104 observed local (0.02 < z < 0.09) galaxies hosting type-1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), based on long-slit spectra obtained at the 10 m W. M. Keck-1 Telescope. In addition to providing central stellar velocity dispersions, we measure major axis rotation curves and velocity dispersion profiles using three separate wavelength regions, including the prominent Ca H and K, Mg Ib, and Ca II NIR stellar features. In this paper, we compare kinematic measurements of stellar velocity dispersion obtained for different apertures, wavelength regions, and signal-to-noise ratios, and provide recipes to cross-calibrate the measurements reducing systematic effects to the level of a few percent. We also provide simple recipes based on readily observable quantities such as global colors and Ca H and K equivalent width that will allow observers of high-redshift AGN hosts to increase the probability of obtaining reliable stellar kinematic measurements from unresolved spectra in the region surrounding the Ca H and K lines. In subsequent papers in this series, we will combine this unprecedented spectroscopic data set with surface photometry and black hole mass measurements to study in detail the scaling relations between host galaxy properties and black hole mass.

  16. Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Allen D.

    1981-01-01

    Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

  17. Unemployment among Black Youths, Demographics, and Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Allen D.

    1981-01-01

    Erroneous conclusions relating to the interrelationship among unemployment rates, demographics, and crime rates of Black youths are discussed. A reexamination of the data shows that crime by Black youths bears a close relationship with prevailing economic conditions. (Author/RC)

  18. Teaching the Black Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Howard

    1968-01-01

    Instructional materials and teaching approaches can be used to get students to seriously and constructively confront problems in race relations which they will eventually have to solve. For example, Richard Wright's "Black Boy," an anthology of Negro poetry or a collection of poems on race relations, and such films as "Where is Prejudice?" can…

  19. Teaching the Black Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirschenbaum, Howard

    1968-01-01

    Instructional materials and teaching approaches can be used to get students to seriously and constructively confront problems in race relations which they will eventually have to solve. For example, Richard Wright's "Black Boy," an anthology of Negro poetry or a collection of poems on race relations, and such films as "Where is Prejudice?" can…

  20. Differential accumulation of phenolic compounds and expression of related genes in black- and yellow-seeded Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xinfu; Wang, Min; Lu, Junxing; Wan, Huafang; Zhanglin, Tang; Li, Jiana

    2013-07-01

    Developing yellow-seeded Brassica napus (rapeseed) with improved qualities is a major breeding goal. The intermediate and final metabolites of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways affect not only oil quality but also seed coat colour of B. napus. Here, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was analysed in the seed coats of black-seeded (ZY821) and yellow-seeded (GH06) B. napus. Using toluidine blue O staining and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, histochemical and biochemical differences were identified in the accumulation of phenolic compounds between ZY821 and GH06. Two and 13 unique flavonol derivatives were detected in ZY821 and GH06, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed significant differences between ZY821 and GH06 in the expression of common phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (BnPAL and BnC4H), common flavonoid biosynthetic genes (BnTT4 and BnTT6), anthocyanin- and proanthocyandin-specific genes (BnTT3 and BnTT18), proanthocyandin-specific genes (BnTT12, BnTT10, and BnUGT2) and three transcription factor genes (BnTTG1, BnTTG2, and BnTT8) that function in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. These data provide insight into pigment accumulation in B. napus, and serve as a useful resource for researchers analysing the formation of seed coat colour and the underlying regulatory mechanisms in B. napus.

  1. Germinated Thai Black Rice Extract Protects Experimental Diabetic Rats from Oxidative Stress and Other Diabetes-Related Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Chaiyasut, Chaiyavat; Sivamaruthi, Bhagavathi Sundaram; Pengkumsri, Noppawat; Keapai, Waranya; Kesika, Periyanaina; Saelee, Manee; Tojing, Parichart; Sirilun, Sasithorn; Chaiyasut, Khontaros; Peerajan, Sartjin; Lailerd, Narissara

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM), particularly type 2 DM (T2DM), is one of the most common metabolic disorder worldwide. The prevention measures and treatment strategies for DM are improving steadily. The current study explains the impact of germination on phytochemical content of Thai black rice (BR), and the influence of germinated BR extract (GBRE) supplementation on diabetic conditions in rats. Methods: BR was germinated and the phenolic, anthocyanin, and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content of the extract were analyzed using HPLC and spectrophotometric methods. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were supplemented with high and low doses of GBRE. The plasma glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, antioxidant status, and antioxidant enzyme levels of treated animals were assessed using ELISA and spectrophotometric methods. Results: Germination enhanced the GABA content of BR, and GBRE intervention improved the total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzymes levels in diabetic rats. The plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride levels, insulin resistance and glucose tolerance were reduced, and the degree of insulin secretion in rat plasma was significantly increased upon GBRE treatment. Both pre and post-treatment approaches showed the anti-diabetic ability of GBRE. In most of the analyzed parameters, GBRE was quite equal to the performance of drug-metformin. Conclusions: GBRE supplementation helps prevent and manage the consequences of DM. PMID:28036014

  2. Assessment of shoreline vegetation in relation to use by molting black brant Branta bernicla nigricans on the Alaska Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weller, Milton W.; Jensen, K.C.; Taylor, Eric J.; Miller, Mark W.; Bollinger, Karen S.; Derksen, Dirk V.; Esler, Daniel N.; Markon, Carl J.

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the importance of large thaw lakes on the Alaska Coastal Plain for molting Pacific black brant Branta bernicla nigricans, distribution and life form of shoreline vegetation were assessed using several scales: satellite imagery, point-intercept transects, cover quadrats, and a parameter for water regime. Brant population and distribution estimates from aerial surveys were used to classify large lakes into high, moderate, and low use. Correlations between brant and abundance of their preferred feeding site - moss flats - were best demonstrated by satellite imagery. Intercepts and cover ratings were not correlated, presumably because these techniques were less efficient at assessing area. General observations suggested that the presence of islands, large ice floes, and possibly other physical attributes of the habitat, influenced brant distribution. This area is unique because of low-lying, drained-lake basins that have ideal combinations of moss flats and large water areas where brant seek protection disturbance is vital to the success of this declining species because alternate habitats may not be available elsewhere on the Coastal Plain. in water or on ice floes. Protection of the area from disturbance is vital to the success of this declining species because alternate habitats may not be available elsewhere on the Coastal Plain.

  3. Relations of zoned pegmatites to other pegmatites, granite, and metamorphic rocks in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Norton, J.J.; Redden, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The pegmatite field and the Harney Peak Granite of the southern Black Hills, South Dakota, form an igneous system that progresses from slightly biotitic muscovite granite through layered pegmatitic granite, with alternating sodic and potassic rocks, to simple plagioclase-quartz-perthite pegmatites, and on to zoned pegmatites. Most of the country rocks are Lower Proterozoic mica schists. At 1700 Ga, intrusion of the Harney Peak Granite created a large dome in these rocks, a thermal aureole with a staurolite, a first sillimanite isograd, and a small area of metamorphism above the second sillimanite isograd. The zoned pegmatites have a strong tendency to occur in clusters, and the types of pegmatites are different in different clusters. A less obvious tendency is a regional zonation in which rare-mineral pegmatites become more abundant and muscovite pegmatites less abundant toward the outskirts of the region. The composition of the granite indicates that its magma originated by partial melting of metasedimentary mica schists similar to those at the present surface. The pegmatitic nature of most of the granite probably reflects exsolution of an aqueous phase. -from Authors

  4. Investigating AGN black hole masses and the MBH-σe relation for low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, S.; Ramya, S.; Das, M.; George, K.; Sivarani, T.; Prabhu, T. P.

    2016-01-01

    We present an analysis of the optical nuclear spectra from the active galactic nuclei (AGN) in a sample of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), we derived the virial black hole (BH) masses of 24 galaxies from their broad Hα parameters. We find that our estimates of nuclear BH masses lie in the range 105-107 M⊙, with a median mass of 5.62 × 106 M⊙. The bulge stellar velocity dispersion σe was determined from the underlying stellar spectra. We compared our results with the existing BH mass-velocity dispersion (MBH-σe) correlations and found that the majority of our sample lie in the low BH mass regime and below the MBH-σe correlation. We analysed the effects of any systematic bias in the MBH estimates, the effects of galaxy orientation in the measurement of σe and the increase of σe due to the presence of bars and found that these effects are insufficient to explain the observed offset in MBH-σe correlation. Thus, the LSB galaxies tend to have low-mass BHs which probably are not in co-evolution with the host galaxy bulges. A detailed study of the nature of the bulges and the role of dark matter in the growth of the BHs is needed to further understand the BH-bulge co-evolution in these poorly evolved and dark matter dominated systems.

  5. Integument colouration in relation to persistent organic pollutants and body condition in arctic breeding black-legged kittiwakes (Rissa tridactyla).

    PubMed

    Blévin, Pierre; Tartu, Sabrina; Angelier, Frédéric; Leclaire, Sarah; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Moe, Børge; Herzke, Dorte; Gabrielsen, Geir Wing; Chastel, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    Vertebrates cannot synthetize carotenoids de novo but have to acquire them through their diet. In birds, carotenoids are responsible for the yellow to red colouration of many secondary sexual traits. They are also involved in physiological functions such as immunostimulation and immunoregulation. Consequently, carotenoid-based colouration is very often considered as a reliable signal for health and foraging abilities. Although a few studies have suggested that carotenoid-based coloured traits could be sensitive to environmental pollution such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) contamination, the relationships between pollutants and colouration remain unclear. Here, we examined the relationships between the colouration of carotenoid-based integuments and individual POP levels in pre-laying female black-legged kittiwakes from very high latitudes. In this area, these arctic seabirds are exposed to high POPs contamination. Additionally, we investigated the relationships between colouration and body condition, a frequently used index of individual quality. We found a negative relationship between POP levels and several components of integument colouration: saturation of eye-ring, gapes and tongue, suggesting that POPs could disrupt colouration of labile integuments in female kittiwakes. In addition, we found that females in better body condition displayed more orange and brighter gapes and tongue than females in poor body condition. These results demonstrate that hue and brightness are sensitive to the current health and nutritional status of female kittiwakes. Overall, our study shows that carotenoid-based colour integuments can be affected by several environmental-driven variables.

  6. Morphology and chemical composition relation of Rapana thomasiana shell sampled from the Romanian Coast of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sereanu, Viviana; Meghea, Irina; Vasile, Gabriela; Simion, Marius; Mihai, Mihaela

    2016-09-01

    Rapana thomasiana is a predatory gastropod and a successful invader, which is found in abundance in the Black Sea. The aim of this study is to determine whether there is a relationship between morphology and chemical composition of rapana shell and therefore if the maturation of R. thomasiana shells, quantified by morphological parameters, has influence on their mineralization level, assessed by chemical composition analysis. For this purpose, integer individuals of R. thomasiana were collected from Limanu, Midia Cape and Vadu-Corbu beaches and morphological parameters of shells, such as length (L), mass (m), thickness (th) were investigated using specific mathematical statistic methods. Characteristic features of rapana whelk were found according to the corresponding marine substrate. Age classification was done using Bhattacharya method which has divided R. thomasiana population within three to four age-groups. In order to determine if there are significant differences between age classes in terms of chemical composition, for each determined age-group a chemical analysis was conducted. In this respect, the mineral content and total organic carbon (TOC) determined, showed in general, statistically significant differences (p<0.025 and p>0.975) among Ca, Mg and organic C values for almost all age-classes. The statistical trend suggests a slight growth of the organic matter and a drop of mineral composition with age.

  7. Differential accumulation of phenolic compounds and expression of related genes in black- and yellow-seeded Brassica napus

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Cunmin; Fu, Fuyou; Lu, Kun; Zhang, Kai; Wang, Rui; Xu, Xinfu; Wang, Min; Lu, Junxing; Wan, Huafang; Zhanglin, Tang; Li, Jiana

    2013-01-01

    Developing yellow-seeded Brassica napus (rapeseed) with improved qualities is a major breeding goal. The intermediate and final metabolites of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways affect not only oil quality but also seed coat colour of B. napus. Here, the accumulation of phenolic compounds was analysed in the seed coats of black-seeded (ZY821) and yellow-seeded (GH06) B. napus. Using toluidine blue O staining and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry, histochemical and biochemical differences were identified in the accumulation of phenolic compounds between ZY821 and GH06. Two and 13 unique flavonol derivatives were detected in ZY821 and GH06, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed significant differences between ZY821 and GH06 in the expression of common phenylpropanoid biosynthetic genes (BnPAL and BnC4H), common flavonoid biosynthetic genes (BnTT4 and BnTT6), anthocyanin- and proanthocyandin-specific genes (BnTT3 and BnTT18), proanthocyandin-specific genes (BnTT12, BnTT10, and BnUGT2) and three transcription factor genes (BnTTG1, BnTTG2, and BnTT8) that function in the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway. These data provide insight into pigment accumulation in B. napus, and serve as a useful resource for researchers analysing the formation of seed coat colour and the underlying regulatory mechanisms in B. napus. PMID:23698630

  8. Antioxidant capacity of seed coat, dehulled bean, and whole black soybeans in relation to their distributions of total phenolics, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Xu, Baojun; Chang, Sam K C

    2008-09-24

    Black soybeans have been used as an excellent dietary source for disease prevention and health promotion in China for hundreds of years. However, information about the distribution of health-promoting phenolic compositions in different physical parts of black soybean and the contribution of phenolic compositions to overall antioxidant capacity is limited. To elucidate the distribution of phenolic composition and their contribution to antioxidant activities in black soybean, the total and individual phenolic profiles, and antioxidant capacities of seed coat, dehulled and whole black soybean were systematically investigated. The seed coat exhibited much higher total phenolic indexes and antioxidant activities than whole and dehulled black soybean. Dehulled black soybean possessed similar levels of total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, 2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) activities as compared to whole yellow soybean. Cyanidin-3-glucoside, petunidin-3-glucoside, and peonidin-3-glucoside were detected in the seed coat but not in dehulled black soybean and yellow soybean. Among benzoic acid detected, caffeic and chlorogenic acid were the predominant phenolic acids. Whole black soybean and dehulled black soybean exhibited similar isoflavone contents in 7- O-beta-glucosides and malonylglucosides of daidzein and genistein. The seed coat possessed significantly ( p < 0.05) lower 7- O-beta-glucosides and malonylglucosides of daidzein and genistein, acetylglycitin, and total isoflavones than whole and dehulled black soybean. The contribution of phenolics in the seed coat to the antioxidant activity of black soybean parts depends on the assay methods. When measured with the DPPH and FRAP methods, the seed coat contributed 90% of the total antioxidant capacity of black soybean. However, when measured with the ORAC method, the seed coat and dehulled

  9. Microorganisms and typical organic matter responsible for lacustrine "black bloom".

    PubMed

    Feng, Ziyan; Fan, Chengxin; Huang, Weiyi; Ding, Shiming

    2014-02-01

    Identifying the causation of the black substance in lacustrine "black bloom" is of great significance for forecasting and preventing black bloom in many waters of the world. In this research, an array of black bloom was simulated in a laboratory to investigate how microorganisms and organic matter affect black bloom. Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are the main biological factor, and protein is the key organic factor contributing to lacustrine black bloom. The black colour of black bloom is strongly associated with a relatively high SRB population density. Hydrogen sulphide concentration can serve as a predictor of black bloom. © 2013.

  10. Black tea

    MedlinePlus

    ... But this does not seem to occur in humans.Flutamide (Eulexin)The body breaks down flutamide (Eulexin) ... much medicine the body absorbs. To avoid this interaction, avoid black tea 1 hour before and 2 ...

  11. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  12. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, John

    2009-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  13. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  14. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  15. Fidelity and breeding probability related to population density and individual quality in black brent geese Branta bernicla nigricans

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sedinger, J.S.; Chelgren, N.D.; Ward, D.H.; Lindberg, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    1. Patterns of temporary emigration (associated with non-breeding) are important components of variation in individual quality. Permanent emigration from the natal area has important implications for both individual fitness and local population dynamics. 2. We estimated both permanent and temporary emigration of black brent geese (Branta bernicla nigricans Lawrence) from the Tutakoke River colony, using observations of marked brent geese on breeding and wintering areas, and recoveries of ringed individuals by hunters. We used the likelihood developed by Lindberg, Kendall, Hines & Anderson 2001 (Combining band recovery data and Pollock's robust design to model temporary and permanent emigration. Biometrics, 57, 273-281) to assess hypotheses and estimate parameters. 3. Temporary emigration (the converse of breeding) varied among age classes up to age 5, and differed between individuals that bred in the previous years vs. those that did not. Consistent with the hypothesis of variation in individual quality, individuals with a higher probability of breeding in one year also had a higher probability of breeding the next year. 4. Natal fidelity of females ranged from 0.70 ?? 0.07-0.96 ?? 0.18 and averaged 0.83. In contrast to Lindberg et al. (1998), we did not detect a relationship between fidelity and local population density. Natal fidelity was negatively correlated with first-year survival, suggesting that competition among individuals of the same age for breeding territories influenced dispersal. Once females nested at the Tutakoke River, colony breeding fidelity was 1.0. 5. Our analyses show substantial variation in individual quality associated with fitness, which other analyses suggest is strongly influenced by early environment. Our analyses also suggest substantial interchange among breeding colonies of brent geese, as first shown by Lindberg et al. (1998).

  16. Shoot water relations of mature black spruce families displaying a genotype × environment interaction in growth rate. III. Diurnal patterns as influenced by vapor pressure deficit and internal water status

    Treesearch

    John E. Major; Kurt H. Johnsen

    2001-01-01

    Pressure­volume curves were constructed and shoot water potentials measured for +20-year-old black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP) trees from four full-sib families growing on a moist site and a dry site at the Petawawa Research Forest, Ontario, to determine whether differences in diurnal water relations traits were related to productivity. To...

  17. Relation of black race between high density lipoprotein cholesterol content, high density lipoprotein particles and coronary events (from the Dallas Heart Study).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Alvin; Neeland, Ian J; Das, Sandeep R; Khera, Amit; Turer, Aslan T; Ayers, Colby R; McGuire, Darren K; Rohatgi, Anand

    2015-04-01

    Therapies targeting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol content (HDL-C) have not improved coronary heart disease (CHD) outcomes. High-density lipoprotein particle concentration (HDL-P) may better predict CHD. However, the impact of race/ethnicity on the relations between HDL-P and subclinical atherosclerosis and incident CHD events has not been described. Participants from the Dallas Heart Study (DHS), a multiethnic, probability-based, population cohort of Dallas County adults, underwent the following baseline measurements: HDL-C, HDL-P by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging, and coronary artery calcium by electron-beam computed tomography. Participants were followed for a median of 9.3 years for incident CHD events (composite of first myocardial infarction, stroke, coronary revascularization, or cardiovascular death). The study comprised 1,977 participants free of CHD (51% women, 46% black). In adjusted models, HDL-C was not associated with prevalent coronary artery calcium (p = 0.13) or incident CHD overall (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD 0.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.76 to 1.05). However, HDL-C was inversely associated with incident CHD among nonblack (adjusted HR per 1 SD 0.67, 95% CI 0.46 to 0.97) but not black participants (HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.13, pinteraction = 0.05). Conversely, HDL-P, adjusted for risk factors and HDL-C, was inversely associated with prevalent coronary artery calcium (p = 0.009) and with incident CHD overall (adjusted HR per 1 SD 0.73, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.86), with no interaction by black race/ethnicity (pinteraction = 0.57). In conclusion, in contrast to HDL-C, the inverse relation between HDL-P and incident CHD events is consistent across ethnicities. These findings suggest that HDL-P is superior to HDL-C in predicting prevalent atherosclerosis as well as incident CHD events across a diverse population and should be considered as a therapeutic target. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Genome-wide association study for carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition, sugar, and the effects of related candidate genes in Japanese Black cattle.

    PubMed

    Sasago, Nanae; Abe, Tsuyoshi; Sakuma, Hironori; Kojima, Takatoshi; Uemoto, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and candidate gene analysis to: (i) evaluate the effectiveness of the GWAS in our small population by performing GWAS for carcass weight (CW) and fatty acid composition; (ii) detect novel candidate regions affecting non-CW carcass traits, chemical composition and sugar; and (iii) evaluate the association of the candidate genes previously detected in CW and fatty acid composition with other economically important traits. A total of 574 Japanese Black cattle and 40 657 Single nucleotide polymorphisms were used. In addition, candidate gene analyses were performed to evaluate the association of three CW-related genes and two fatty acid-related genes with carcass traits, fatty acid composition, chemical composition and sugar. The significant regions with the candidate genes were detected for CW and fatty acid composition, and these results showed that a significant region would be detectable despite the small sample size. The novel candidate regions were detected on BTA23 for crude protein and on BTA19 for fructose. CW-related genes associated with the rib-eye area and fatty acid composition were identified, and fatty acid-related genes had no relationship with other traits. Moreover, the favorable allele of CW-related genes had an unfavorable effect on fatty acid composition.

  19. Sleeping sites, sleeping trees, and sleep-related behaviors of black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) at Mt. Wuliang, Central Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Fan, Peng-Fei; Jiang, Xue-Long

    2008-02-01

    Data on sleep-related behaviors were collected for a group of central Yunnan black crested gibbons (Nomascus concolor jingdongensis) at Mt. Wuliang, Yunnan, China from March 2005 to April 2006. Members of the group usually formed four sleeping units (adult male and juvenile, adult female with one semi-dependent black infant, adult female with one dependent yellow infant, and subadult male) spread over different sleeping trees. Individuals or units preferred specific areas to sleep; all sleeping sites were situated in primary forest, mostly (77%) between 2,200 and 2,400 m in elevation. They tended to sleep in the tallest and thickest trees with large crowns on steep slopes and near important food patches. Factors influencing sleeping site selection were (1) tree characteristics, (2) accessibility, and (3) easy escape. Few sleeping trees were used repeatedly by the same or other members of the group. The gibbons entered the sleeping trees on average 128 min before sunset and left the sleeping trees on average 33 min after sunrise. The lag between the first and last individual entering the trees was on average 17.8 min. We suggest that sleep-related behaviors are primarily adaptations to minimize the risk of being detected by predators. Sleeping trees may be chosen to make approach and attack difficult for the predator, and to provide an easy escape route in the dark. In response to cold temperatures in a higher habitat, gibbons usually sit and huddle together during the night, and in the cold season they tend to sleep on ferns and/or orchids.

  20. Milankovitch climate cyclicity and its effect on relative sea level changes and organic carbon storage, Late Cretaceous black shales of Colombia and Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Villamil, T.; Kauffman, E.G. )

    1993-02-01

    The Late Cretaceous Villeta Group and La Luna Formation shows remarkable depositional cyclicity attributable to Milankovitch climate cycles. Each 30-60 cm thick hemicycle is composed of a basal gray shale, a medial black, organic-rich shale, and an upper gray shale with a dense argillaceous limestone cap. Fourier time-series analysis revealed peak frequencies of 500, 100, and 31 ka (blending 21 and 42 ka data). ThiS cyclicity reflects possibly wet cooler (shale) to dry, possibly warm (limestone) climatic changes and their influence on relative sea level, sedimentation rates/patterns, productivity, water chemistry and stratification. Wet/cool hemicycles may produce slight lowering of sealevel, increased rates of clay sedimentation, diminished carbonate production, water stratification, increased productivity among noncalcareous marine plankton, and increased Corg production and storage. Dry/warm hemicycles may produce a slight rise in sealevel, and return to normal marine conditions with low Corg storage. Source rock quality may depend upon the predominance of wet over dry climatic phases. Differences between climate-forced cyclicity and random facies repetition, are shown by contrasting observed lithological patterns and geochemical signals with litho- and chemostratigraphy generated from random models. Accomodation space plots (Fischer plots) for cyclically interbedded black shale-pelagic limestone sequences, allowed prediction of facies behavior, shoreline architecture, and quantitative analysis of relative sea level. The synchroneity of Milankovitch cycles and changes in hemicycle stacking patterns, were tested against a new high-resolution event-chronostratigraphic and biostratigraphic framework for NW South America. Geochemical spikes and hemicycle stacking patterns occur consistently throughout the sections measured, supporting the correlation potential of cyclostratigraphy.

  1. Signal enhancement in electrospray laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry by using a black oxide-coated metal target and a relatively low laser fluence.

    PubMed

    Kononikhin, Alexey; Huang, Min-Zong; Popov, Igor; Kostyukevich, Yury; Kukaev, Evgeny; Boldyrev, Alexey; Spasskiy, Alexander; Leypunskiy, Ilya; Shiea, Jentaie; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2013-01-01

    The electrospray Laser desorption/ionization (ELDI) method is actively used for direct sample analysis and ambient mass spectrometry imaging. The optimizing of Laser desorption conditions is essential for this technology. In this work, we propose using a metal target with a black oxide (Fe3O4) coating to increase the signal in ELDI-MS for peptides and small proteins. The experiments were performed on an LTQ-FT mass spectrometer equipped with a home-made ELDI ion source. A cutter blade with black oxide coating was used as a target. A nitrogen laser was used with the following parameters: 337 nm, pulse duration 4ns, repetition rate 10 Hz, fluence to approximately 700 Jm(-2). More than a five times signal increase was observed for a substance P peptide when a coated and a non-coated metal target were compared. No ion signal was observed for proteins if the same fluence and the standard stainless steel target were used. With the assistance of the Fe3O4 coated metal target and a relatively low laser fluence < or =700 Jm(-2)), proteins such as insulin, ubiquitin and myoglobin were successfully ionized. It was demonstrated that the Fe3O4-coated metal target can be used efficiently to assist laser desorption and thus significantly increase the analyte signal in ELDI-MS. A relatively low laser fluence (< or = 700 Jm(-2)) was enough to desorb peptides and proteins (up to 17 kDal with the assistance of the Fe3O4-coated metal target under ambient conditions.

  2. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  3. Black hole entropy quantization.

    PubMed

    Corichi, Alejandro; Díaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernández-Borja, Enrique

    2007-05-04

    Ever since the pioneering works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that the black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps, can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show consistency with the Bekenstein framework when an oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation is properly interpreted.

  4. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  5. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wove detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  6. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as the space-based LISA. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on the resulting gold rush of new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  7. Whites' Beliefs about Blacks' Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kluegel, James R.; Smith, Eliot R.

    1982-01-01

    Cites data which show that Whites tend to perceive widespread reverse discrimination, to see Blacks' opportunities as having greatly improved in recent years, and to deny structural limits to Black opportunity. Posits that these perceptions are related to (1) prevailing public beliefs about stratification and (2) peoples' own social positions and…

  8. Black raspberry: Korean vs. American

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This fact sheet shows Korean black raspberry (Rubus coreanus) fruit, flower, and leaf features that distinguish them from their Rubus relatives, black raspberry (R. occidentalis) native to America. Common names with fruit characteristics, including berry size and pigment fingerprints, are summarized...

  9. Health Policies and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David P., Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on the impact of health policy on black Americans by examining the relation between public policy and the distribution of health needs and effects. The book includes an introduction by David P. Willis and is divided into seven sections. Section I, "Who Are Black Americans?" includes the following…

  10. Health Policies and Black Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, David P., Ed.

    This collection of essays focuses on the impact of health policy on black Americans by examining the relation between public policy and the distribution of health needs and effects. The book includes an introduction by David P. Willis and is divided into seven sections. Section I, "Who Are Black Americans?" includes the following…

  11. A general glance at theoretical black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chia, Han-Yu

    This thesis is a general review based on the materials of black hole physics that ordinary graduate course such as the General Relativity and Cosmology do not cover. The thesis mainly covers the studies of four-dimensional black holes and black hole thermodynamics. Then, a brief discussion on higher dimensional black holes of Kerr-Schwarzschild class follows. Advanced topics in higher dimensional black holes are also discussed in the thesis. Those advanced topics include extra dimension, black hole production in particle accelerators and evaporation in both colliders and atmosphere.

  12. Feasibility study to develop a marketing plan and strategy for increasing the participation of minority business enterprises and black colleges and universities in energy-related industries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-31

    This study was designed to identify and test an alternative method for more effective means of involving Minority Business Enterprises (MBEs) and historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) in energy-related business opportunities. Based upon the analysis of MBE and HBCU technical assistance programs, DOD's, DOE's, and TVA's procurement processes and the results of the test used to validate the adaptability of a performance tested alternative marketing system to energy-related industries. Based on the findings and conclusions of this study and in order to meet the objectives of: (1) increasing participation of MBEs and HBCUs in TVA and energy-related industries; (2) ensuring that the statutory objectives of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Public Law 95-507 are achieved in the public and private energy market sectors; and (3) meeting President Reagan's goal of realizing $22 billion in minority contracts within the next three years, BTW recommends that the Portfolio System be adapted, demonstrated, installed and deployed in large-scale, complex, energy-related research and development facilities and power utilities' procurement programs.

  13. Black Holes at the LHC: Progress since 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Seong Chan

    2008-11-23

    We review the recent noticeable progresses in black hole physics focusing on the up-coming super-collider, the LHC. We discuss the classical formation of black holes by particle collision, the greybody factors for higher dimensional rotating black holes, the deep implications of black hole physics to the 'energy-distance' relation, the security issues of the LHC associated with black hole formation and the newly developed Monte-Carlo generators for black hole events.

  14. Hidden Structures of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercnocke, Bert

    2010-11-01

    This thesis investigates two main topics concerning black holes in extensions of general relativity inspired by string theory. First, the structure of the equations of motion underlying black hole solutions is considered, in theories of D-dimensional gravity coupled to scalars and vectors. For solutions preserving supersymmetry, the equations of motion have a dramatic simplification: they become first-order instead of the second-order equations one would expect. Recently, it was found that this is a feature some non-supersymmetric black hole solutions exhibit as well. We investigate if this holds more generally, by examining what the conditions are to have first-order equations for the scalar fields of non-supersymmetric black holes, that mimic the form of their supersymmetric counterparts. This is illustrated in examples. Second, the structure of black holes themselves is investigated. String theory has been successful in explaining the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for (mainly supersymmetric) black holes from a microscopic perspective. However, it is not fully established what the interpretation of the corresponding 'microstates' should be in the gravitational description where the black hole picture is valid. There have been recent advances to understand the nature of black hole microstates in the gravity regime, such as the fuzzball proposal. A related idea says that black hole configurations with multiple centers are related to microstates of single-centered black holes. We report on work relating both pictures. As an aside, a relation between violations of causality for certain spacetimes (presence of closed timelike curves in the geometry) and a breakdown of unitarity in the dual conformal field theory is given.

  15. Acceleration of black hole universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  16. Associations between HIV-related stigma, racial discrimination, gender discrimination, and depression among HIV-positive African, Caribbean, and Black women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Logie, Carmen; James, Llana; Tharao, Wangari; Loutfy, Mona

    2013-02-01

    Abstract African, Caribbean, and Black (ACB) women are greatly overrepresented in new HIV infections in comparison with Canada's general population. Social and structural factors such as HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination converge to increase vulnerability to HIV infection among ACB women by reducing access to HIV prevention services. Stigma and discrimination also present barriers to treatment, care, and support and may contribute to mental health problems. We administered a cross-sectional survey to HIV-positive ACB women (n=173) across Ontario in order to examine the relationships between HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination, and depression. One-third of participants reported moderate/severe depression scores using the Beck Depression Inventory Fast-Screen guidelines. Hierarchical block regression, moderation, and mediation analyses were conducted to measure associations between independent (HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, racial discrimination), moderator/mediator (social support, resilient coping), and dependent (depression) variables. Findings included: (1) HIV-related stigma was associated with increased depression; (2) resilient coping was associated with reduced depression but did not moderate the influence of HIV-related stigma on depression; and (3) the effects of HIV-related stigma on depression were partially mediated through resilient coping. HIV-related stigma, gender discrimination, and racial discrimination were significantly correlated with one another and with depression, highlighting the salience of examining multiple intersecting forms of stigma. Generalizability of findings may be limited due to nonrandom sampling. Findings emphasize the importance of multi-component interventions, including building resilient coping skills, mental health promotion and assessment, and stigma reduction programs.

  17. Optimization approaches to ameliorate humidity and vibration related issues using the microAeth black carbon monitor for personal exposure measurement

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jing; Yan, Beizhan; Kinney, Patrick L.; Perzanowski, Matthew S.; Jung, Kyung-Hwa; Li, Tiantian; Xiu, Guangli; Zhang, Danian; Olivo, Cosette; Ross, James; Miller, Rachel L.; Chillrud, Steven N.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ambient black carbon (BC) is associated with adverse health effects. Black carbon levels display large spatial and temporal variability in many settings, such as cities and rural households where fossil fuel and biomass, respectively, are commonly burned for transportation, heat and cooking. This paper addresses the optimization of the miniaturized personal BC monitor, the microAeth® for use in epidemiology studies. To address false positive and negative peaks in real time BC concentrations resulting from changes in temperature and humidity, an inlet with a diffusion drier was developed. In addition, we developed data cleaning algorithms to address occasional false positive and negative fluctuations in BC readings related to physical vibration, due in part to both dirt accumulations in the optical inserts and degraded components. These methods were successfully used to process real-time BC data generated from a cohort of 9-10 year old children (N= 54) in NYC, who wore 1 or 2 microAeth units for six 24hr time periods. Two hour and daily BC averages after data cleaning were consistent with averaged raw data (slopes near 1 with R =0.99, p<0.001; R= 0.95, p<0.001, respectively), strongly suggesting that the false positive and negative excursions balance each other out when averaged for at least 2 hrs. Data cleaning of identified suspect events allows more confidence in the interpretation of the real-time personal monitoring data generated in environmental exposure studies, with mean percent difference <10% for 19 duplicate deployments. PMID:25558122

  18. Hepatic CYP1A induction by chlorinated dioxins and related compounds in the endangered black-footed albatross from the North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Akira; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Kim, Eun-Young; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Iwata, Hisato

    2010-05-01

    The present study assesses effects of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) including polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) on cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) expression level in liver of black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes) collected from the North Pacific. Total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-T(4)CDD) toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from toxic equivalency factor for birds proposed by World Health Organization were in the range of 2100 to 10 000 pg/g lipid wt (120-570 pg/g wet wt). Simultaneously, microsomal alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase (AROD) activities, including methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxy-, and benzyloxy-resorufin O-dealkylase activities were also measured in the same specimens. Total TEQs and TEQ (on wet wt basis) from some individual DRC congeners had significant positive correlations with AROD activities, suggesting induction of CYP1A by DRCs. Congeners like 2,3,7,8-T(4)CDD and most of the DL-PCBs that showed no significant positive correlations between the concentrations and AROD activities, exhibited significant negative correlations between AROD activities and the concentration ratio of the congener to a recalcitrant CB169, suggesting preferential metabolism of these congeners by induced CYP1A. As far as we know, this is the first direct evidence revealing that hepatic CYP1A level is elevated with the accumulation of DRCs in the wild black-footed albatross population. The present study gives more robust estimate of impacts of DRCs on CYP1A induction in this rare pelagic species than indexes like hazard quotient and TEQ-threshold comparison that have been so far carried out.

  19. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  20. Two Views of Black and White Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, John W.

    1972-01-01

    Examines the nature-nurture question particularly in relation to body density and attitude of black and white swimmers. No claim is made to posing a definitive answer to the problems facing the prospective black swimmer, but it is contended that many black students can succeed in the water if a positive climate for learning is established. (SB)

  1. Black Task Force Report: Project on Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Anita J., Ed.

    The major aim of this report is to develop a model of mental health service delivery to the urban, low-income black community. The model assumes that racism and poverty have placed constraints on the development and functioning of systems related to the black family and that the family is the primary source of mental health in the black community.…

  2. The Family Hero in Black Alcoholism Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brisbane, Francis L.

    1989-01-01

    Uses data from 20 case studies of Black adult female children of alcoholic parents to discuss Family Hero role often assumed by oldest or only female child in Black alcoholism families. Explains how female-dominated survival role of Family Hero in Black families is significantly more related to racial and cultural factors than numbers alone may…

  3. African (Black) Psychology: Issues and Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the recent attempts of Black psychologists and social scientists to formulate a conceptual-operational framework for the study of psychological phenomena as they bear on the cultural-survival conditions of Black-African people. Outlines issues and problems in the attempt to define African (Black) psychology and discusses its relation to…

  4. Oral History and the Black Studies Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Henry E.

    Black Studies means an indepth investigation of the Black Experience. Without oral history methods, this will be prostituted to mean a superficial view of opinions set forth by white society. All the broad areas of Black scholarship must begin to relate to the problems of capturing the life of the race on tape and retaining it for posterity. Oral…

  5. Two Views of Black and White Swimmers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, John W.

    1972-01-01

    Examines the nature-nurture question particularly in relation to body density and attitude of black and white swimmers. No claim is made to posing a definitive answer to the problems facing the prospective black swimmer, but it is contended that many black students can succeed in the water if a positive climate for learning is established. (SB)

  6. Numerical Simulation of Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teukolsky, Saul

    2003-04-01

    Einstein's equations of general relativity are prime candidates for numerical solution on supercomputers. There is some urgency in being able to carry out such simulations: Large-scale gravitational wave detectors are now coming on line, and the most important expected signals cannot be predicted except numerically. Problems involving black holes are perhaps the most interesting, yet also particularly challenging computationally. One difficulty is that inside a black hole there is a physical singularity that cannot be part of the computational domain. A second difficulty is the disparity in length scales between the size of the black hole and the wavelength of the gravitational radiation emitted. A third difficulty is that all existing methods of evolving black holes in three spatial dimensions are plagued by instabilities that prohibit long-term evolution. I will describe the ideas that are being introduced in numerical relativity to deal with these problems, and discuss the results of recent calculations of black hole collisions.

  7. Black Families: Sociological Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Hylan

    This paper has a dual purpose. First, it relates the research and writings of DuBois, a social scientist and humanist in the best intellectual tradition of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, to the sociology of the black family in the United States; and second, it presents selected data having to do with the structure and functioning of…

  8. Gravitation without black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Agnese, A.G.; La Camera, M.

    1985-03-15

    The Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstroem, and Kerr exterior solutions in general relativity are reconsidered adding to the vacuum a massless scalar field. The event horizons in the modified solutions all reduce to a point, thus preventing the formation of black holes.

  9. Association of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and a SNP in the CDC10 gene with growth-related traits in Japanese Black beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Tong, B; Li, G P; Sasaki, S; Muramatsu, Y; Ohta, T; Kose, H; Yamada, T

    2015-04-01

    Growth performance, as well as marbling, is the main breeding objective in Japanese Black (JB) cattle, the major beef breed in Japan. The septin 7 (CDC10) gene, involved in cellular proliferation, is located within a genomic region of a quantitative trait locus for growth-related traits. In this study, we first showed that the expression levels of the CDC10 gene in the skeletal muscle were higher in JB steers with extremely high growth performance than in JB steers with extremely low growth, using real-time PCR. Further, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), NC_007302.5:g.63264949G>C, was detected in the promoter region of the CDC10 gene and genotyped in three Japanese cattle breeds (known as 'Wagyu' in Japan) and the Brown Swiss dairy cattle breed. All four cattle populations showed a moderate genetic diversity at the SNP of the CDC10 gene. An association analysis indicated that the SNP was associated with growth-related traits in JB cattle. These findings suggest possible effects of the expression levels in the skeletal muscle and the SNP of the CDC10 gene on growth-related traits in JB cattle. The CDC10 SNP may be useful for effective marker-assisted selection to increase beef productivity in JB beef cattle.

  10. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.

  11. Black Holes Collide

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    When two black holes collide, they release massive amounts of energy in the form of gravitational waves that last a fraction of a second and can be "heard" throughout the universe - if you have the right instruments. Today we learned that the #LIGO project heard the telltale chirp of black holes colliding, fulfilling Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. NASA's LISA mission will look for direct evidence of gravitational waves. go.nasa.gov/23ZbqoE This video illustrates what that collision might look like.

  12. Merging Black Holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Centrella, Joan; Baker, John G.; Kelly, Bernard J.; vanMeter, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Black-hole mergers take place in regions of very strong and dynamical gravitational fields, and are among the strongest sources of gravitational radiation. Probing these mergers requires solving the full set of Einstein's equations of general relativity numerically. For more than 40 years, progress towards this goal has been very slow, as numerical relativists encountered a host of difficult problems. Recently, several breakthroughs have led to dramatic progress, enabling stable and accurate calculations of black-hole mergers. This article presents an overview of this field, including impacts on astrophysics and applications in gravitational wave data analysis.

  13. Are black holes springlike?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-02-01

    A (3 +1 )-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed Ω+ can be used to define an effective spring constant, k =m Ω+2. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, k =κ , which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: 2 π T =κ -k . Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force F =1 /4 , which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  14. The NINJA-2 catalog of hybrid post-Newtonian/numerical-relativity waveforms for non-precessing black-hole binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajith, P.; Boyle, Michael; Brown, Duncan A.; Brügmann, Bernd; Buchman, Luisa T.; Cadonati, Laura; Campanelli, Manuela; Chu, Tony; Etienne, Zachariah B.; Fairhurst, Stephen; Hannam, Mark; Healy, James; Hinder, Ian; Husa, Sascha; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Krishnan, Badri; Laguna, Pablo; Liu, Yuk Tung; London, Lionel; Lousto, Carlos O.; Lovelace, Geoffrey; MacDonald, Ilana; Marronetti, Pedro; Mohapatra, Satya; Mösta, Philipp; Müller, Doreen; Mundim, Bruno C.; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ohme, Frank; Paschalidis, Vasileios; Pekowsky, Larne; Pollney, Denis; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Ponce, Marcelo; Pürrer, Michael; Reifenberger, George; Reisswig, Christian; Santamaría, Lucía; Scheel, Mark A.; Shapiro, Stuart L.; Shoemaker, Deirdre; Sopuerta, Carlos F.; Sperhake, Ulrich; Szilágyi, Béla; Taylor, Nicholas W.; Tichy, Wolfgang; Tsatsin, Petr; Zlochower, Yosef

    2012-06-01

    The numerical injection analysis (NINJA) project is a collaborative effort between members of the numerical-relativity and gravitational wave data-analysis communities. The purpose of NINJA is to study the sensitivity of existing gravitational-wave search and parameter-estimation algorithms using numerically generated waveforms and to foster closer collaboration between the numerical-relativity and data-analysis communities. The first NINJA project used only a small number of injections of short numerical-relativity waveforms, which limited its ability to draw quantitative conclusions. The goal of the NINJA-2 project is to overcome these limitations with long post-Newtonian—numerical-relativity hybrid waveforms, large numbers of injections and the use of real detector data. We report on the submission requirements for the NINJA-2 project and the construction of the waveform catalog. Eight numerical-relativity groups have contributed 56 hybrid waveforms consisting of a numerical portion modeling the late inspiral, merger and ringdown stitched to a post-Newtonian portion modeling the early inspiral. We summarize the techniques used by each group in constructing their submissions. We also report on the procedures used to validate these submissions, including examination in the time and frequency domains and comparisons of waveforms from different groups against each other. These procedures have so far considered only the (ℓ, m) = (2, 2) mode. Based on these studies, we judge that the hybrid waveforms are suitable for NINJA-2 studies. We note some of the plans for these investigations.

  15. Bringing Black Holes Home

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furmann, John M.

    2003-03-01

    Black holes are difficult to study because they emit no light. To overcome this obstacle, scientists are trying to recreate a black hole in the laboratory. The article gives an overview of the theories of Einstein and Hawking as they pertain to the construction of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva, Switzerland, scheduled for completion in 2006. The LHC will create two beams of protons traveling in opposing directions that will collide and create a plethora of scattered elementary particles. Protons traveling in opposite directions at very high velocities may create particles that come close enough to each other to feel their compacted higher dimensions and create a mega force of gravity that can create tiny laboratory-sized black holes for fractions of a second. The experiments carried out with LHC will be used to test modern string theory and relativity.

  16. Noncommutative black hole thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2008-06-15

    We give a general derivation, for any static spherically symmetric metric, of the relation T{sub h}=(K/2{pi}) connecting the black hole temperature (T{sub h}) with the surface gravity (K), following the tunneling interpretation of Hawking radiation. This derivation is valid even beyond the semi-classical regime, i.e. when quantum effects are not negligible. The formalism is then applied to a spherically symmetric, stationary noncommutative Schwarzschild space-time. The effects of backreaction are also included. For such a black hole the Hawking temperature is computed in a closed form. A graphical analysis reveals interesting features regarding the variation of the Hawking temperature (including corrections due to noncommutativity and backreaction) with the small radius of the black hole. The entropy and tunneling rate valid for the leading order in the noncommutative parameter are calculated. We also show that the noncommutative Bekenstein-Hawking area law has the same functional form as the usual one.

  17. Administrators' Perceptions of Factors Related to Student Retention at Colleges with a Significant Black Student Enrollment Affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Wesley B.

    2013-01-01

    This study described and explored the factors perceived as relevant to student retention by administrators at colleges and universities with significant Black student populations. The sample was 31 institutions affiliated with the Association for Biblical Higher Education (ABHE) that had Black student enrollment of 20% or more. The study sought to…

  18. Relations Among Maternal Racial Identity, Maternal Parenting Behavior, and Child Outcomes in Low-Income, Urban, Black Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halgunseth, Linda C.; Ispa, Jean M.; Csizmadia, Annamaria; Thornburg, Kathy R.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined maternal racial identity and its relations to maternal depression, maternal age, maternal parenting behavior, and 5-year-old children's social and cognitive outcomes. Participants included 62 African American mother-child dyads enrolled in the Early Head Start Research and Evaluation Project. Mothers completed measures on their…

  19. Future Directions in Research on Racism-Related Stress and Racial-Ethnic Protective Factors for Black Youth.

    PubMed

    Jones, Shawn C T; Neblett, Enrique W

    2016-05-04

    Research on racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors represents an important enterprise for optimizing the mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth. However, there has been a relative dearth of work on these factors in the clinical psychology research literature, and more work is needed in outlets such as these. To this end, the current article adopts a developmental psychopathology framework and uses recent empirical findings to outline our current understanding of racism-related stress and racial-ethnic protective factors (i.e., racial identity, racial socialization, Africentric worldview) for African American youth. We then provide nine recommendations-across basic, applied, and broader/cross-cutting research lines-that we prioritize as essential to advancing the future scientific investigation of this crucial research agenda. Within and across these recommendations, we issue a charge to researchers and clinicians alike, with the ultimate goal of alleviating the negative mental health impact that racism-related stress can have on the well-being and mental health of African American and other racial and ethnic minority youth.

  20. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…