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Sample records for black liquor sprays

  1. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  2. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  3. Gasification of black liquor

    DOEpatents

    Kohl, A.L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediately above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone. 2 figs.

  4. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. Laser Excited Fluorescence Studies Of Black Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of black liquor was investigated as a possible monitoring technique for pulping processes. A nitrogen pumped dye laser was used to examine the fluorescence spectrum of black liquor solutions. Various excitation wavelengths were used between 290 and 403 nm. Black liquor fluorescence spectra were found to vary with both excitation wavelength and black liquor concentration. Laser excited fluorescence was found to be a sensitive technique for measurement of black liquor with good detection limits and linear response over a large dynamic range.

  6. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. )

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  7. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  8. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  10. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  11. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  12. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  13. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Moore; William L. Headrick; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-03-31

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  14. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  15. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-08-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  16. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  17. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in-situ; and

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  19. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  20. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  1. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  2. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    procurement of facility upgrades. Chemrec AB is also operating a pressurized, O2-blown gasifier pilot facility in Piteaa, Sweden. There was an exchange of knowledge with the pressurized projects including utilization of the experimental results from facilities in Piteaa, Sweden. Resources at the Georgia Tech Research Corporation (GTRC, a.k.a., the Institute of Paper Science and Technology) were employed primarily to conduct the fundamental investigations on scaling and plugging mechanisms and characterization of green liquor dregs. The project also tapped GTRC expertise in the development of the critical underlying black liquor gasification rate subroutines employed in the CFD code. The actual CFD code development and application was undertaken by Process Simulation, Ltd (PSL) and Simulent, Ltd. PSL focused on the overall integrated gasifier CFD code, while Simulent focused on modeling the black liquor nozzle and description of the black liquor spray. For nozzle development and testing Chemrec collaborated with ETC (Energy Technology Centre) in Piteae utilizing their test facility for nozzle spray investigation. GTI (Gas Technology Institute), Des Plains, IL supported the team with advanced gas analysis equipment during the gasifier test period in June 2005.

  4. Improved recovery of tall oil from black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, J.

    1980-12-09

    Applying a d.c. of less than 15 V to acidified black liquor separates a significant amount of tall oil remaining in the black liquor sludge. An apparatus with graphite electrodes for this process is described.

  5. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; T'ien, James S.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY) ) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  6. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  7. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 2: Comparisons between different liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Nikkanen, S. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    This continuation of earlier work reports fuel nitrogen release for black liquors at two temperatures during pyrolysis of single droplets in an oxygen-free environment. Approximately half of the 20--60% fuel nitrogen released was ammonia and half was molecular nitrogen. The total amount of fixed nitrogen released during pyrolysis was almost linearly proportional to the liquor nitrogen content. The yield of fixed nitrogen for birch liquors was significantly higher than for pine liquors, and the yield for bagasse liquor was extremely high.

  8. Black liquor decolorization by selected white-rot fungi.

    PubMed

    Da Re, Verónica; Papinutti, Leandro

    2011-09-01

    Five different strains of white-rot fungi have been tested for their ability to decolorize black liquor on plates and on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as the solid inert support. Since the high salt concentration inhibited the growth of all fungi, the black liquor was dialyzed against distilled water prior to use. A preliminary step on plates was carried out to qualitatively determine the capacity of the fungal strains for black liquor decolorization. Out of the five fungi studied, Phanerochaete sordida, Pycnoporus sanguineus, and Trametes elegans exhibited the more conspicuous decolorization halos in malt extract medium, while the decolorization by all the strains was not evident when a defined culture medium was used. Cultures on solid-state fermentation using vermiculite as solid support were also tested, the liquid phase was malt extract or glucose-based medium and supplemented with different black liquor concentrations. Decolorization of black liquor was largely affected by the fungal strain, the concentration of black liquor, and the carbon source. The percentage of color removal ranged from 6.14% to 91.86% depending on the fungal strain and culture conditions. Maximal decolorization was observed in malt extract cultures after 60 cultivation days. Interestingly, decolorization in malt extract medium increased with increasing black liquor concentration. The highest decolorization value was achieved by Steccherinum sp. which reduced up to 91.86% the color of the black liquor in malt extract medium; this percentage is equivalent to 5.2 g L(-1) of decolorized black liquor, the highest value reported to date. Traditional technologies used for the treatment of black liquor are not always effective and may not to be an environmentally friendly process. Vermiculite-white-rot fungi systems are presented in this work as a promising efficient alternative for the treatment of black liquor.

  9. Viscoelastic properties of high solids softwood kraft black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The linear viscoelastic functions of several softwood slash pine kraft black liquors from a two level, four variable factorially designed pulping experiment were determined for solids concentrations from 65% to 81% and temperatures from 40 to 85 C. At high solids and lower temperatures, black liquors behave like un-cross-linked polymers.The exact level of dynamic viscosity and storage modulus at any given condition is dependent upon the solids composition which will vary from liquor to liquor. The linear viscoelastic functions were described using Cross and Carreau-Yasuda models. Superposition principles developed for polymer melts and concentrated polymer solutions were applied to obtain reduced correlations for dynamic viscosity and storage modulus. The data for dynamic viscosity were shifted over the whole range of temperature, solids concentrations, and frequency, and a single curve for dynamic viscosity behavior of every liquor was obtained. The data for storage modulus did not superimpose into a single curve for the effects of solids concentration. The reduced correlations were used to estimate the viscoelasticity of the liquors near normal firing conditions and found that black liquors will not have any problem in droplet formation for concentrations up to 81% solids and temperatures above 120 C. The viscometric and linear viscoelastic functions of black liquors were compared (Cox-Merz rule), and it was shown that at sufficiently low shear rates and frequencies both shear viscosity and the magnitude of the complex viscosity approach zero shear rate viscosity.

  10. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    pressures as high as 32 atmospheres, and at temperatures as high as 1500 C (2730 F). Total black liquor processing capacity under pressurized, oxygen-blown conditions should be in excess of 1 ton black liquor solids per day. Many sampling ports along the conversion section of the system will allow detailed analysis of the environment in the gasifier under industrially representative conditions. Construction was mostly completed before the program was terminated, but resources were insufficient to operate the system. A system for characterizing black liquor sprays in hot environments was designed and constructed. Silhouettes of black liquor sprays formed by injection of black liquor through a twin fluid (liquor and atomizing air) nozzle were videoed with a high-speed camera, and the resulting images were analyzed to identify overall characteristics of the spray and droplet formation mechanisms. The efficiency of liquor atomization was better when the liquor was injected through the center channel of the nozzle, with atomizing air being introduced in the annulus around the center channel, than when the liquor and air feed channels were reversed. Atomizing efficiency and spray angle increased with atomizing air pressure up to a point, beyond which additional atomizing air pressure had little effect. Analysis of the spray patterns indicates that two classifications of droplets are present, a finely dispersed 'mist' of very small droplets and much larger ligaments of liquor that form at the injector tip and form one or more relatively large droplets. This ligament and subsequent large droplet formation suggests that it will be challenging to obtain a narrow distribution of droplet sizes when using an injector of this design. A model for simulating liquor spray and droplet formation was developed by Simulent, Inc. of Toronto. The model was able to predict performance when spraying water that closely matched the vendor specifications. Simulation of liquor spray indicates that

  11. Demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Big Island

    SciTech Connect

    Robert DeCarrera

    2007-04-14

    This Final Technical Report provides an account of the project for the demonstration of Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific LLC's Big Island, VA facility. This report covers the period from May 5, 2000 through November 30, 2006.

  12. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  13. Black liquor gasification phase 2D final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.; Stewart, A.E.

    1988-06-01

    This report covers work conducted by Rockwell International under Amendment 5 to Subcontract STR/DOE-12 of Cooperative Agreement DE-AC-05-80CS40341 between St. Regis Corporation (now Champion International) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The work has been designated Phase 2D of the overall program to differentiate it from prior work under the same subcontract. The overall program is aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of and providing design data for the Rockwell process for gasifying Kraft black liquor. In this process, concentrated black liquor is converted into low-Btu fuel gas and reduced melt by reaction with air in a specially designed gasification reactor.

  14. In situ analysis of ash deposits from black liquor combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Bernath, P. |; Sinquefield, S.A. |; Baxter, L.L.; Sclippa, G.; Rohlfing, C.; Barfield, M. |

    1996-05-01

    Aerosols formed during combustion of black liquor cause a significant fire-side fouling problem in pulp mill recovery boilers. The ash deposits reduce heat transfer effectiveness, plug gas passages, and contribute to corrosion. Both vapors and condensation aerosols lead to the formation of such deposits. The high ash content of the fuel and the low dew point of the condensate salts lead to a high aerosol and vapor concentration in most boilers. In situ measurements of the chemical composition of these deposits is an important step in gaining a fundamental understanding of the deposition process. Infrared emission spectroscopy is used to characterize the composition of thin film deposits resulting from the combustion of black liquor and the deposition of submicron aerosols and vapors. New reference spectra of Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pure component films were recorded and compared with the spectra of the black liquor deposit. All of the black liquor emission bands were identified using a combination of literature data and ab initio calculations. Ab initio calculations also predict the locations and intensities of bands for the alkali vapors of interest. 39 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  16. Solvated liquid-lignin fractions from a Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Velez, Julian; Thies, Mark C

    2013-11-01

    A softwood Kraft black liquor was acidified with carbon dioxide at 115°C and 6.2 bar over a pH range of 13.6-9.5, resulting in the precipitation of liquefied-lignin fractions as a separate phase. Seven such "liquid-lignin" fractions were produced, with each fraction being phase-separated within a narrow pH band of 0.5 units. The fractions were found to be highly hydrated phases, containing 32.3-48.2 wt.% water; as a result, their measured melting points were quite low, 90.7-110.5°C. In contrast, no melting point was detected up to 375°C for any of the lignin fractions after drying. Significant reductions in metals content were observed for the lignin fractions compared to the original black-liquor feed.

  17. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from paper industry.

    PubMed

    Zaied, M; Bellakhal, N

    2009-04-30

    The procedure of electrocoagulation is an effective, fast and economic technique for treatment of black liquor resulting from paper industry. The effect of electrolysis time, current density, type of electrode material and initial pH were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Under the optimal experimental conditions (initial pH 7, t=50 min and J=14 mA cm(-2)), the treatment of black liquor by electrocoagulation has led to a removal capacity of 98% of COD, 92% of polyphenols and 99% of color intensity with a good repeatability (R.S.D.<3%) making it possible to highlight the industrial interest of this electrochemical process.

  18. Solid fuel production by hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shimin; Li, Xianglan; Fan, Juan; Chang, Jie

    2012-04-01

    Formaldehyde was used as a polymerization agent to perform hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor for solid fuel production from 220 to 285°C. Compared to hydrochar prepared without formaldehyde, hydrochar produced in the presence of a 2.8wt.% formaldehyde solution (hydrochar-F) had 1.27-2.13 times higher yield, 1.02-1.36 times higher heating value (HHV), 1.20-2.31 times higher C recovery efficiency, 1.20-2.44 times higher total energy recovery efficiency, 0.51-0.64 times lower sulfur content, and 0.48-0.89 times lower ash content. The HHV of hydrochar-Fs ranged from 2.2×10(4) to 3.0×10(4)kJ/kg, while the HHV of hydrochar-F produced at 285°C was 1.90 times greater than that of the raw material (black liquor solid). These considerable improvements indicated that formaldehyde was an effective additive in hydrothermal carbonization of black liquor.

  19. Determination of oxalate in black liquor by headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Chai, Xin-Sheng; DeMartini, Nikolai; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2008-05-30

    This study demonstrated a headspace gas chromatographic method (HS-GC) for the determination of oxalate content in black liquor (alkaline aqueous solution of inorganic chemicals and dissolved wood species from the alkaline pulping of wood). The method described in this paper is based on the reaction between oxalic and manganese dioxide in an acidic medium, in which oxalic acid is converted to carbon dioxide that is measured with a GC using a thermal conductivity detector. The challenge in developing this method was ensuring complete conversion of oxalic acid while minimizing the contribution of side reactions between carbohydrates, lignin and manganese dioxide to the carbon dioxide measured. It was found that a complete conversion of oxalate to carbon dioxide can be achieved within 3 min at a temperature of 70 degrees C; a MnO(2):C(oxalate) (concentration of H(2)C(2)O(4)+HC(2)O(4)(-)+C(2)O(4)(2-)) mole ratio of 60 and H(2)SO(4) concentration of 0.005-0.01 mol/L in the headspace vial. The method can detect concentrations as low as 0.39 microg of oxalate. The standard deviation was found to be 7% while recovery experiments with black liquor showed recoveries of 93-108% which were deemed acceptable for analysis of oxalate in an industrial sample such as black liquor.

  20. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  1. Antioxidant capacity of Kraft black liquor from the pulp and paper industry.

    PubMed

    Perez-Perez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of Kraft black liquor on the lipid peroxidation of rat homogenates was examined. The lipid peroxidation of homogenates from different organs (kidney, brain, lung, and liver) was induced by Fenton's reagent. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were measured by FOX method and TBA assay, respectively. It was found that black liquor significantly reduced the concentration of TBARS, but not the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides. This inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of Kraft black liquor and the incubation temperature. Conclusively, the black liquor from pulp and paper industry exhibited an antioxidant activity.

  2. Evaluation of lignin-based black liquor decolorization by Trametes versicolor U 80

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amriani, Feni; Sari, Ajeng Arum; R. Irni Fitria, A.; Abimanyu, Haznan; Tachibana, Sanro

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol second generation (G-2) production process generated black liquor that need to treat before the disposal to prevent environmental pollution. Usually, coagulation technology using polyaluminium chloride was employed to precipitate dissolved lignin and intended to decolorize black liquor. However, this single work is not effective to treat black liquor, so that it requires another work to treat remain brownish liquor. Isolated fungal strain from Japan Trametes versicolor U 80 and Phanerochaete chrysosporium are white rot fungi that are known in ligninolytic enzymes secretion to biodegrade soluble lignin. Decolorization of black and brownish liquor is an indicator of fungi works since lignin is known as the colour agent in liquor colouration. This work evaluated black and brownish liquor decolorization using both fungi that correspond to fungal growth. Liquor toxicity was observed based on mycelial dry weight after 30 days incubation as the presumption of the connection of fungal growth and decolorization. The biosorption from the dead cell was also evaluated for fungal adsorption capability in black and brownish decolorization. As the result, T. versicolor U 80 was able to decolorize brownish liquor 51.5% after 21 days incubation and 68.6% black liquor at 15 days incubation. MnP and Laccase enzymes activity in 15 and 21 days are correlated to those decolorized results. The dead cell was also able to decolorize 67.3% brownish liquor and 25.1% black liquor after 15 days incubation as biosorption mechanism. This research described fungal potential in decolorization as the simple black liquor treatment technology and gave valuable information related to environmental friendly decolorization process.

  3. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  4. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1985-10-01

    Kraft Black Liquor (KBL) is ultrafiltered to favorably affect the properties of the KBL permeate. The major property to be changed is viscosity. If the high molecular weight lignin is removed by ultrafiltration, the KBL permeate should show a significant drop in viscosity. An objective of the work reported was to examine how much KBL viscosity is lowered relative to membrane and membrane pore size used in the ultrafiltration. Another objective was an initial evaluation of ultrafiltration equipment and membranes. Operating characteristics were determined for selected equipment and membranes. Decreases in KBL permeate viscosity were indeed seen. (LEW)

  5. Bacterial decolorization of black liquor in axenic and mixed condition and characterization of metabolites.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Abhishek, Amar

    2011-06-01

    The pulping byproducts (black liquor) cause serious environmental problem due to its high pollution load. In order to search the degradability of black liquor, the potential bacterial strains Citrobacter freundii (FJ581026) and Citrobacter sp. (FJ581023) were applied in axenic and mixed condition. Results revealed that the mixed bacterial culture are more effective than axenic condition and can reduce 82% COD, 79% AOX, 79% color and 60% lignin after 144 h of incubation period. Additionally, the optimum activity of lignin degrading enzyme was noted at 96 h and characterized as manganese peroxidase (MnP) by SDS–PAGE analysis. Further, the HPLC analysis of control and bacterial degraded sample has shown the reduction as well as shifting of peaks compared to control indicating the degradation as well as transformation of compounds of black liquor. The comparative GC-MS analysis of control and degraded black liquor revealed that along with lignin fragment some chlorophenolic compounds 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,4,5-tetrachlorophenol and pentachlorophenol were detected in black liquor degraded by axenic culture whereas these chlorophenolic compounds were completely absent in black liquor degraded by mixed bacterial culture. These chlorophenol inhibit the oxidative degradation which seems a major reason behind the low degradability of axenic degradation compared to mixed culture. The innovation of this aerobic treatment of alkaline black liquor opens additional possibilities for the better treatment of black liquor along with its metabolic product.

  6. Polymerisation of Kraft lignin from black liquors by laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila: effect of operational conditions and black liquor origin.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, S; Fernández-Costas, C; Sanromán, M A; Moldes, D

    2013-03-01

    The capacity of laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila to promote the oxidative polymerisation of Kraft lignin (KL) was evaluated in several conditions of pH, temperature, enzyme dosage and treatment time. Moreover, different black liquors from the Kraft cooking of Eucalyptus globulus and mixture of Pinus pinaster/E. globulus were evaluated in order to determine the effect of the KL source on the polymerisation reaction. Furthermore, one of these black liquors was fractionated by sequential organic solvent fractionation and the polymerisation of the corresponding fractions was tested. Polymerisation products were analysed by size exclusion chromatography and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results provide evidence of notable lignin modifications after incubation with laccase. Structural oxidation and a notably molecular weight increase were attained, reaching a polymer of 69-fold its initial molecular weight depending on the raw lignin. Moreover, optimum values of reaction conditions were obtained: pH 7.3, 70°C, 2UmL(-1) and 2h.

  7. Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor: Phase II, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.K.

    1987-09-01

    The major justification for examining ultrafiltration was to lower the viscosity of the Kraft Black Liquor by recovering it as an ultrafiltration permeate from which the highest MW lignin had been removed. The liquor could then be concentrated to a higher percentage solids before firing into the recovery boiler. Consequent energy savings for the 1000 ton/day pulp mill would be 2.05 x 10 Btu/y for each percentage increase in TDS (total dissolved solids) to the recovery boiler. This Phase II report gives data on viscosity with percentage solids of KBL permeates. Another favorable effect of ultrafiltration on the permeate properties is disproportionate removal of multivalent ions including the major scaling ion CaS . If this high-viscosity high-Ca retentate could be treated to lower its viscosity and to release the Ca in a non-scaling form, this would enhance the possibility that ultrafiltration might be useful in a mill situation. Included in this report are data on the results of treating the retentate fraction. Other justifications for this program included further information in KBL properties: lignin MW in the KBL at high pH; elemental and sugar analyses; and differential properties of lignins in the retentate and the permeate fractions. A preliminary economic analysis of ultrafiltration is contained in this report. These analyses indicate that with flux rates now attainable, ultrafiltration would not be economically justified at this time if the only justification is to lower KBL viscosity. For certain situations where high Ca liquors present a scaling problem, especially in an evaporator-limited mill, the economics are more favorable. There are also unsolved problems relating to the use of the high viscosity retentate.

  8. One-pot quantitative hydrolysis of lignocelluloses mediated by black liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zuolin; Sun, Meg M; Su, Chungao; Zhao, Hongmei; Ma, Xuemei; Zhu, Zuodong; Shi, Xianlei; Gu, Kangfu

    2013-01-01

    Black liquor from the kraft process facilitates quantitative biomass hydrolysis converting cellulose and hemicellulose into organic acids such as lactic acid (~50%), and lignin into small molecular aromatics, without gasification and black tar formation. Oxygen transfer between lignin and carbohydrates may be the mechanism. With this method, three tons of lignocellulosic biomass can potentially produce up to one ton of lactic acid, and one ton of small molecular aromatics. This novel usage of black liquor is environmentally viable because it is accompanied by significant emission reduction of particulates, sulfur and nitrogen oxides, most organic sulfur compounds and sulfites of black liquor were converted into sulfates.

  9. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  10. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  11. A novel method for the determination of black liquor viscosity by multiple headspace extraction gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Chao; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2013-12-13

    This work demonstrates a novel method for the determination of viscosity in the concentrated black liquors from pulp mill recovery process. The method is based on the kinetic release of methanol (a vapor tracer) to the headspace in a sample closed vial by a multiple headspace extraction gas chromatographic technique. Both theoretical and empirical models were proposed for establishing the correlation with the reference method. The results showed that the correlation using either of the models is excellent for the tested black liquor samples (at 110°C). The presented method is simple and practical and can be a valuable tool for black liquor viscosity related research and applications.

  12. Assessment of black liquor gasification in supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Sricharoenchaikul, V

    2009-01-01

    Supercritical water gasification of black liquor (waste pulping chemicals) has been examined. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of using this technique to convert such bio-based waste to value added fuel products, as well as recovery of pulping materials. Supercritical gasification may improve overall process efficiency by eliminating the energy intensive evaporation step necessary in conventional process and product gas obtained at high pressure may be ready for utilization without any compression requirement. Appropriate operating parameters, including pressure, temperature, feed concentration, and reaction time, which would yield the highest conversion and energy efficiency were determined. Reaction was performed in a quartz capillary heated in a fluidized bed reactor. Results indicated that pressure between 220 and 400 atm has insignificant influence on the gas products and extent of carbon conversion. Increasing temperature and residence time between 375-650 degrees C and 5-120 s resulted in greater gas production, overall carbon conversion, and energy efficiency. Maximum conversion to H(2), CO, CH(4), and C(2)H(X) was achieved at the highest temperature and longest residence time tested showing an overall carbon conversion of 84.8%, gas energy content of 9.4 MJ/m(3) and energy conversion ratio of 1.2. Though higher carbon conversion and energy conversion ratio were obtained with more dilute liquor, energy content was lower than for those with higher solid contents. Due to anticipated complex design and high initial investment cost of this operation, further studies on overall feasibility should be carried out in order to identify the optimum operating window for this novel process.

  13. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    PubMed

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor.

  14. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  15. Decolorization of black liquor from bioethanol G2 production using iron oxide coating sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlianti, Vera; Triwahyuni, Eka; Waluyo, Joko; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Bioethanol G2 production using oil palm empty fruit bunch as raw material consists of four steps, namely pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, and purification process. Pretreatment process generates black liquor that causes serious environmental pollution if it is released to the environment. The objective of this research is studying the ability of iron oxide coating sands to adsorb the color of black liquor. The iron oxide coating sands were synthesized from FeCl3.6H2O with quartz sands as support material. This research was conducted on batch mode using black liquor in various pH values. Result obtained that kind of iron oxide on quartz sands's surface was goethite. The result also indicated decreasing of color intensity of black liquor after adsorption process. This research supports local material utilization in environmental technology development to solve some environmental problems.

  16. Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production - a techno-economic assessment.

    PubMed

    Mesfun, Sennai; Lundgren, Joakim; Grip, Carl-Erik; Toffolo, Andrea; Nilsson, Rasika Lasanthi Kudahettige; Rova, Ulrika

    2014-08-01

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses.

  17. Effect of pulsation on black liquor gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinn, B.T.; Jagoda, J.; Jeong, H.; Kushari, A.; Rosen, L.J.

    1998-12-01

    Pyrolysis is an endothermic process. The heat of reaction is provided either by partial combustion of the waste or by heat transfer from an external combustion process. In one proposed system black liquor is pyrolized in a fluidized bed to which heat is added through a series of pulse combustor tail pipes submerged in the bed material. This system appears promising because of the relatively high heat transfer in pulse combustors and in fluidized beds. Other advantages of pulse combustors are discussed elsewhere. The process is, however, only economically viable if a part of the pyrolysis products can be used to fire the pulse combustors. The overall goals of this study were to determine: (1) which is the limiting heat transfer rate in the process of transferring heat from the hot combustion products to the pipe, through the pipe, from the tail pipe to the bed and through the bed; i.e., whether increased heat transfer within the pulse combustor will significantly increase the overall heat transfer rate; (2) whether the heat transfer benefits of the pulse combustor can be utilized while maintaining the temperature in the bed within the narrow temperature range required by the process without generating hot spots in the bed; and (3) whether the fuel gas produced during the gasification process can be used to efficiently fire the pulse combustor.

  18. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  19. Degradation of black liquor from bioethanol process using coagulation and Fenton-like methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Sari, Ajeng Arum; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Black liquor is one of the main by-products of the pretreatment process in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches. Black liquor wastewater releases black coloured effluent with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low dissolved oxygen (DO). It had a distinctive dark coloration, high alkalinity (pH=13), high organic content (COD > 50,000 ppm) and a high solid content (TSS > 5,000 ppm). Lignin destruction can be done by using high oxidation from OH radical system such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thereafter, the high concentration of COD, color, and TSS can be removed. The general aim of the present investigation was to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by using a combined coagulation and Fenton-like methods. In this research, we use Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) as a coagulant and FeCl3.6H2O and H2O2 for Fenton-like's reagent. The process was conducted in jar test at 200 rpm for 30 minutes and after that slowly mixed for 2 hours and left for sedimentation 24 hours. 50 ml black liquor was added with variation dose of 1-5% PAC, and 10 % Fenton-like reagent. Hydroxyl radical was generated by the Fenton-like's reagent (ratio FeCl3.6H2O : H2O2 was varied). The highest decolorization of black liquor 70 % was obtained under 5% PAC coagulant. The pH of the wastewater was reduced from 13.00 to 8.07 after the addition of the coagulant. The decolorization of original black liquor was approximately 58% through the Fenton-like process. The combination of PAC and Fenton-like reagent has able to enhance the decolorization of black liquor up to 97%.

  20. Optical properties of black liquor and refractometric methods for monitoring the solid residue concentration in sulfate cellulose production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, N. P.; Lapshov, S. N.; Mayorov, E. E.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yaskov, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of the refractive index, its temperature dependence, and the optical transmission of black liquors produced during sulfate pulping are reported for soluble solid residue concentrations up to k ≅ 60 %. The design features of a commercial refractometer for monitoring the concentration of black liquor are examined briefly. A procedure is proposed for laboratory calibration of commercial sensors that employs black liquor solutions in highly refractive organic liquids as reference samples.

  1. Correlations for viscosity of kraft black liquors at low solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The kinematic viscosities of several kraft black liquors from a two-level, four-variables, factorial-designed experiments for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations from 10 to 50% and temperatures up to 80 C by glass capillary methods. The four pulping variables were cooking time, cooking temperature, sulfidity, and effective alkali. Relationships between temperature and kinematic viscosity have been developed by using free volume and absolute rate theories. The results from these two methods have been compared and discussed. A reduced variables method for dilute polymer solutions was used to correlate the viscosity with the combined effect of temperature and solids concentration. The viscosity of black liquor is an important parameter in the design and performance of kraft recovery systems. The energy efficiency will be increased by firing black liquors at higher solids concentrations. To evaporate the liquor most efficiently and to achieve higher concentrations, knowledge of viscosity over a wide range of temperatures and solids concentrations is essential. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the utility of various fundamentally based models for correlating viscosity data of black liquors as a function of temperature and concentration of nonvolatile components in the region in which the liquors behave a Newtonian fluids.

  2. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and agglomeration problems of

  3. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  4. Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis; Part 1: Laboratory measurements at different conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Aho, K.; Vakkilainen, E. ); Hupa, M. . Chemical Engineering Dept.)

    1994-05-01

    Fuel nitrogen release during black liquor pyrolysis is high. There is only minor release during the drying stage. Ammonia is the main fixed nitrogen species formed. The rate of fixed nitrogen release increases with increasing temperature. The level of fixed nitrogen released by birch liquor is almost twice the level for pine liquor. Assuming complete conversion to NO, fixed nitrogen yields gave NO concentrations near typically measured values for flue gases in full scale recovery boilers. The purpose of this work was to gain more detailed information about the behavior of the fuel nitrogen in black liquor combustion. The work focused on the pyrolysis or devolatilization of the combustion process. Devolatilization is the stage at which the majority (typically 50--80%) of the liquor organics release from a fuel particle or droplet as gaseous species due to the rapid destruction of the organic macromolecules in the liquor. In this paper, the authors use the terms devolatilization and pyrolysis interchangeably with no difference in their meaning.

  5. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fornetti, Micheal; Freeman, Douglas

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  6. [Rapid determination of silicon content in black liquor of straw fibrous material].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Long; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Zhan, Huai-Yu; Liu, Meng-Ru; Fu, Shi-Yu; Sun, Li-Jin

    2012-06-01

    The present paper reports a novel method for the determination of silicon content in straw fibrous material black liquor based on alpha-Si--Mo heteropoly acid spectrophotometry. The selected conditions were as follows: detection wavelength 360 nm, pH 4.0, and reaction time 10 min. It was found that the acidic soluble lignin in the sample liquor was the major interference species in the silicon content determination. The interference of acidic soluble lignin can be eliminated by hydrogen peroxide-nitric acid digestion method. The present method is not only simple, rapid, stable and less interferential, but also of good measurement precision and accuracy, with the relative standard deviations of 0.9%, and recoveries of 99.0%-102%. It is suitable for use in high silicon content of black liquor routine rapid analyses.

  7. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  8. Estimation of Theaflavins (TF) and Thearubigins (TR) Ratio in Black Tea Liquor Using Electronic Vision System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akuli, Amitava; Pal, Abhra; Ghosh, Arunangshu; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Bandhopadhyya, Rajib; Tamuly, Pradip; Gogoi, Nagen

    2011-09-01

    Quality of black tea is generally assessed using organoleptic tests by professional tea tasters. They determine the quality of black tea based on its appearance (in dry condition and during liquor formation), aroma and taste. Variation in the above parameters is actually contributed by a number of chemical compounds like, Theaflavins (TF), Thearubigins (TR), Caffeine, Linalool, Geraniol etc. Among the above, TF and TR are the most important chemical compounds, which actually contribute to the formation of taste, colour and brightness in tea liquor. Estimation of TF and TR in black tea is generally done using a spectrophotometer instrument. But, the analysis technique undergoes a rigorous and time consuming effort for sample preparation; also the operation of costly spectrophotometer requires expert manpower. To overcome above problems an Electronic Vision System based on digital image processing technique has been developed. The system is faster, low cost, repeatable and can estimate the amount of TF and TR ratio for black tea liquor with accuracy. The data analysis is done using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) and Multiple Discriminate Analysis (MDA). A correlation has been established between colour of tea liquor images and TF, TR ratio. This paper describes the newly developed E-Vision system, experimental methods, data analysis algorithms and finally, the performance of the E-Vision System as compared to the results of traditional spectrophotometer.

  9. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production with switchgrass-derived black liquor.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiele; Zhang, Ximing; Cheng, Jay J

    2012-05-01

    To improve the cost-effectiveness of biomass-to-sugar conversion, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) pretreatment of switchgrass was carried out at 21°C using previously determined optimum conditions (2% NaOH (w/v), 6h), and the spent alkaline liquid (black liquor) was collected and used for pretreatment of corn stover, a feedstock exhibiting a higher susceptibility to NaOH attack, for improved enzymatic hydrolysis at a reduced cost. The results showed that, because of the high pH and the appreciable amount of carbohydrates in the black liquor, sugar production during enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover pretreated with black liquor was comparable to that of biomass pretreated with 1% NaOH. After black liquor pretreatment at the best residence time (24h), the total reducing sugar, glucose, and xylose yields of corn stover reached 478.5, 287.7, and 145.3mg/g raw biomass, respectively, indicating the viability of this novel pretreatment technology.

  10. Effect of surfactants on Fenton's reagent-mediated degradation of Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Maybeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J; Araujo, Elisa; González, Aura M; Rojas, Orlando J; Peñaloza, Nancy; Bullón, Johnny; Lara, Mayra A; Dmitrieva, Natalia; Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth

    2005-10-01

    One of the limitations of the biodegradation of hydrophobic chemical compounds, like lignins, is their low solubility in the aqueous solution where this process takes place. To resolve this problem, surfactants have been used to improve the solubility of these hydrophobic compounds. In this investigation, we studied the effect of surfactants (anionic, cationic, and non-ionic) on the treatment of Kraft black liquor with Fenton's reagent. In the Fenton reaction, H2O2 (two different concentrations, 10 mM and 20 mM), FeCl2 (1 mM) and surfactant solution (10%) were used. Black liquor degradation was determined by UV/Visible spectrophotometry and by measuring phenolic groups. In the presence of Fenton's reagent, the optimum conditions for the oxidative degradation of black liquor were 10 mM H2O2, 1 microL of 10% solution of anionic surfactant (SDS). The importance of the use of surfactants for preparing black liquor for subsequent Fenton's reagent-mediated degradation was discussed.

  11. Recovering ultraclean lignins of controlled molecular weight from Kraft black-liquor lignins.

    PubMed

    Klett, A S; Chappell, P V; Thies, M C

    2015-08-18

    By operating in a region of liquid-liquid equilibrium, hot acetic acid-water mixtures can be used to simultaneously clean, fractionate, and solvate Kraft black-liquor lignins. Lignin-rich liquid phases of controlled molecular weight with key metals contents reduced to <50 ppm are obtained without a washing step.

  12. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling, five-year report

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1996-08-01

    The objective of this project was to develop a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The project originated in October 1990 and was scheduled to run for four years. At that time, there was considerable emphasis on developing accurate predictions of the physical carryover of macroscopic particles of partially burnt black liquor and smelt droplets out of the furnace, since this was seen as the main cause of boiler plugging. This placed a major emphasis on gas flow patterns within the furnace and on the mass loss rates and swelling and shrinking rates of burning black liquor drops. As work proceeded on developing the recovery boiler furnace model, it became apparent that some recovery boilers encounter serious plugging problems even when physical carryover was minimal. After the original four-year period was completed, the project was extended to address this issue. The objective of the extended project was to improve the utility of the models by including the black liquor chemistry relevant to air emissions predictions and aerosol formation, and by developing the knowledge base and computational tools to relate furnace model outputs to fouling and plugging of the convective sections of the boilers. The work done to date includes CFD model development and validation, acquisition of information on black liquor combustion fundamentals and development of improved burning models, char bed model development, and model application and simplification.

  13. Effects of black liquor shocks on activated sludge treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Morales, Gabriela; Pesante, Silvana; Vidal, Gladys

    2015-01-01

    Kraft pulp mills use activated sludge systems to remove organic matter from effluents. Process streams may appear as toxic spills in treatment plant effluents, such as black liquor, which is toxic to microorganisms of the activated sludge. The present study evaluates the effects of black liquor shocks in activated sludge systems. Four black liquor shocks from 883 to 3,225 mg chemical oxygen demand-COD L(-1) were applied during 24 hours in a continuously operating lab-scale activated sludge system. Removal efficiencies of COD, color and specific compounds were determined. Moreover, specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), sludge volumetric index (SVI) and indicator microorganisms were evaluated. Results show that the addition of black liquor caused an increase in COD removal (76-67%) immediately post shock; followed two days later by a decrease (-19-50%). On the other hand, SOUR ranged between 0.152 and 0.336 mgO2 g(-1) volatile suspended solids-VSS• min(-1) during shocks, but the initial value was reestablished at hour 24. When the COD concentration of the shock was higher than 1,014 mg/L, the abundance of stalked ciliates and rotifers dropped. Finally, no changes in SVI were observed, with values remaining in the range 65.8-40.2 mL g(-1) total suspended solids-TSS during the entire operating process. Based on the results, the principal conclusion is that the activated sludge system with the biomass adapted to the kraft pulp effluent could resist a black liquor shock with 3,225 mgCOD L(-1) of concentration during 24 h, under this study's conditions.

  14. Final technical report. In-situ FT-IR monitoring of a black liquor recovery boiler

    SciTech Connect

    James Markham; Joseph Cosgrove; David Marran; Jorge Neira; Chad Nelson; Peter Solomon

    1999-05-31

    This project developed and tested advanced Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instruments for process monitoring of black liquor recovery boilers. The state-of-the-art FT-IR instruments successfully operated in the harsh environment of a black liquor recovery boiler and provided a wealth of real-time process information. Concentrations of multiple gas species were simultaneously monitored in-situ across the combustion flow of the boiler and extractively at the stack. Sensitivity to changes of particulate fume and carryover levels in the process flow were also demonstrated. Boiler set-up and operation is a complex balance of conditions that influence the chemical and physical processes in the combustion flow. Operating parameters include black liquor flow rate, liquor temperature, nozzle pressure, primary air, secondary air, tertiary air, boiler excess oxygen and others. The in-process information provided by the FT-IR monitors can be used as a boiler control tool since species indicative of combustion efficiency (carbon monoxide, methane) and pollutant emissions (sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid and fume) were monitored in real-time and observed to fluctuate as operating conditions were varied. A high priority need of the U.S. industrial boiler market is improved measurement and control technology. The sensor technology demonstrated in this project is applicable to the need of industry.

  15. Bio-refinery system of DME or CH4 production from black liquor gasification in pulp mills.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Fröling, M

    2010-02-01

    There is great interest in developing black liquor gasification technology over recent years for efficient recovery of bio-based residues in chemical pulp mills. Two potential technologies of producing dimethyl ether (DME) and methane (CH(4)) as alternative fuels from black liquor gasification integrated with the pulp mill have been studied and compared in this paper. System performance is evaluated based on: (i) comparison with the reference pulp mill, (ii) fuel to product efficiency (FTPE) and (iii) biofuel production potential (BPP). The comparison with the reference mill shows that black liquor to biofuel route will add a highly significant new revenue stream to the pulp industry. The results indicate a large potential of DME and CH(4) production globally in terms of black liquor availability. BPP and FTPE of CH(4) production is higher than DME due to more optimized integration with the pulping process and elimination of evaporation unit in the pulp mill.

  16. Evaluation of the anaerobic degradation of black liquor from a Kraft pulp plant with addition of organic co-substrates.

    PubMed

    Buzzini, A P; Sakamoto, I K; Varesche, M B; Pires, E C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the anaerobic degradation of black liquor with and without additional carbon sources. Batch experiments were conducted using black liquor, from an integrated pulp and paper mill adding ethanol, methanol and nutrients. The PCR/DGGE technique was used to characterize the structure of the microbial community. The addition of extra sources of carbon did not significantly influence the degradation of black liquor under the conditions evaluated and the microbial community was similar in all experiments. It was observed an increase in some members of the archaeal in reactors that had the best efficiencies for removal of black liquor (around 7.5%). Either ethanol or methanol can be used as co-substrates because the produce the same quantitative and qualitative effect.

  17. [Emission of fluorine from black liquor coal-water slurry combustion].

    PubMed

    Ren, Qiang; Liu, Jian-zhong; Sheng, Jun-jie; Ye, Lin; Cao, Xin-yu; Zhou, Jun-hu; Cen, Ke-fa

    2005-01-01

    The paper is about the emission of fluorine from an experimental boiler of 0.25 MW when burning black liquor coal-water slurry (CWS). The result is compared with CWS. And the analysis of effect factors is also carried out. Experimental research show that, the content of fluorine in CWS, which was less than 30 mg/kg, was relatively low. The emission ratio and concentration of fluorine were 70% - 90% and 2.0 - 2.6 mg/m3 respectively when burning common CWS; while the data of those when combusting black liquor CWS were 45% - 80% and 1.7 - 3.0 mg/m3 respectively. The hearth temperature and the element of CWS were two factors of emission fluorine when burning CWS.

  18. A Remote Sensing Technique For Combustion Gas Temperature Measurement In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charagundla, S. R.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1986-10-01

    A remote sensing technique, based on the principles of emission spectroscopy, is being developed for temperature measurements in black liquor recovery boilers. Several tests have been carried out, both in the laboratory and at a number of recovery boilers, to characterize the emission spectra in the wavelength range of 300 nm to 800 nm. These tests have pointed out the potential for temperature measurements using the line intensity ratio technique based on a pair of emission lines at 404.4 nm and 766.5 nm observed in the recovery boiler combustion zone; these emission lines are due to potassium, a common constituent found in all the black liquors. Accordingly, a fiber optics based four-color system has been developed. This in-situ, nonintrusive temperature measurement technique, together with some of the more recent results, is described in this paper.

  19. Amination of black liquor and the application in the ready-mixed wet mortar.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Dafeng; Zheng, Tao; Chen, Ran; Li, Xiaokang; Qiu, Xueqing

    2017-02-28

    In order to extend the application of black liquor (BL), amino group was introduced in lignin through Mannich reaction. The structure of the aminated black liquor (ABL) was characterized with FT-IR, elemental analysis, the zeta potential and the inherent viscosity. The foam generated by ABL was more stable, for the surface tension was lower. The results of the mortar test indicated that the water-retention rate of the fresh mortar incorporated with 0.3 wt% ABL was 89.1%; the consistency loss was about 39.7% after 4 h. When the dosage was less than 0.3 wt%, ABL could increase the bond strength of the hardened mortars. The results showed that ABL could be used as an effective ready-mixed wet mortar admixture. This study not only provided a new method to develop new mortar admixture, but also alleviated the pollution of BL.

  20. Metabolic versatility of halotolerant and alkaliphilic strains of Halomonas isolated from alkaline black liquor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyu; Wang, Zhe; Li, Yang; Niu, Yu; Du, Miaofen; He, Xiaofei; Ma, Cuiqing; Tang, Hongzhi; Xu, Ping

    2010-09-01

    Wheat straw black liquor is a notorious pulp mill wastewater with very high pH and pollution load. Two halotolerant and alkaliphilic bacteria, designated as Halomonas sp. 19-A and Y2, were isolated from wheat straw black liquor and shown to be able to use guaiacol, vanillin, dibenzo-p-dioxin, biphenyl and fluorene, as sole carbon and carbazole as sole carbon and nitrogen source at pH 9.5 and in the presence of 10% NaCl. The two strains produced carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), xylanase, lipase, amylase, and pullulanase. High activities of CMCase, xylanase, and amylase were observed at pH 5.0-11.0 and NaCl concentrations of 0-15%. The metabolic versatility of these Halomonas strains even under extreme pH and salinity conditions makes them promising agents for bioremediation and industrial processes.

  1. Comparison of Refractory Performance in Black Liquor Gasifiers and a Smelt Test System

    SciTech Connect

    Peascoe, RA

    2001-09-25

    Prior laboratory corrosion studies along with experience at the black liquor gasifier in New Bern, North Carolina, clearly demonstrate that serious material problems exist with the gasifier's refractory lining. Mullite-based and alumina-based refractories used at the New Bern facility suffered significant degradation even though they reportedly performed adequately in smaller scale systems. Oak Ridge National Laboratory's involvement in the failure analysis, and the initial exploration of suitable replacement materials, led to the realization that a simple and reliable, complementary method for refractory screening was needed. The development of a laboratory test system and its suitability for simulating the environment of black liquor gasifiers was undertaken. Identification and characterization of corrosion products were used to evaluate the test system as a rapid screening tool for refractory performance and as a predictor of refractory lifetime. Results from the test systems and pl ants were qualitatively similar.

  2. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from soda-AQ pulping of wheat straw.

    PubMed

    Rastegarfar, N; Behrooz, R; Bahramifar, N

    2015-02-01

    The effect of electrocoagulation treatment was investigated on black liquor from soda-anthraquinone (AQ) pulping of wheat straw. Removal of phenol, chemical oxygen demand (COD), color, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total solids (TS) from black liquor was investigated at different current densities by using aluminum electrodes at various electrolysis times (10, 25, 40, 55, and 70 min) and pH levels (3, 5, 7, 9, and 10.5). It was observed that at 16 V, electrolysis time of 55 min and current density of 61.8 mA/cm(2) were sufficient for the removal of the pollutants. Energy consumption was evaluated as an important cost-relation parameter. Results showed that the electrocoagulation treatment reduced color intensity from the high initial value of 18,750 to 220 PCU. This was strongly influenced by the pH level of the wastewater. In addition, it was found that the removal efficiency increased with increasing of current density. The maximum efficiencies for removal were 98.8, 81, 80, 92, 61, and 68 % for color, phenol, COD, TSS, TDS, and TS, respectively. The lowest energy consumption values were obtained at neutral pH after 55 min. Electrocoagulation was found to be an effective, simple, and low-cost technique to treat black liquor.

  3. Exploring the antioxidant potential of lignin isolated from black liquor of oil palm waste.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Rajeev; Khalil, H P S A; Karim, A A

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential antioxidant activity of lignin obtained from black liquor, a hazardous waste product generated during the extraction of palm oil. Antioxidant potential of the extracted lignin was evaluated by dissolving the extracted samples in 2 different solvent systems, namely, 2-methoxy ethanol and DMSO. Results revealed high percent inhibition of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical in the lignin sample dissolved in 2-methoxy ethanol over DMSO (concentration range of 1-100 microg/ml). Lignin extracted in 2-methoxy ethanol exhibited higher inhibition percentage (at 50 microg/ml, 84.2%), whereas a concentration of 100 microg/ml was found to be effective in the case of the DMSO solvent (69.8%). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry revealed that the functional groups from the extracted lignin and commercial lignin were highly similar, indicating the purity of the lignin extracted from black liquor. These results provide a strong basis for further applications of lignin in the food industry and also illustrate an eco-friendly approach to utilize oil palm black liquor.

  4. Enhanced remediation of black liquor by activated sludge bioaugmented with a novel exogenous microorganism culture.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Chai, Li-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Hui; Tang, Chong-Jian; Chen, Yue-Hui; Shi, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor (BL) is a notoriously difficult wastewater to treat due to the economic and efficiency limitations of physiochemical methods and intrinsic difficulties with bioremediation strategies caused by the high pH (10-13) and lignin content. This study investigated the feasibility of a novel bioaugmentation strategy for BL treatment, which uses a mixed microorganism culture of lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms isolated from degraded bamboo slips. Black liquor treatment was assessed in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal with a sequencing batch reactor organic loading rate of 9 kg COD/L·day under highly alkaline conditions (pH 10). Results revealed that bioaugmented activated sludge treatment of BL with special mixed microorganisms significantly enhanced the removal efficiency of COD, color, and lignin from the wastewater up to 64.8, 50.5, and 53.2 %, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography profiles showed that the bioaugmentation system could successfully degrade high molecular lignin fragments in black liquor. This work confirms bioaugmentation as a feasible alternative strategy for enhanced biological treatment of wastewater with high lignin content and high organic load rate under strongly alkaline conditions.

  5. Green chemicals from pulp production black liquor by partial wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Muddassar, Hassan Raja; Melin, Kristian; de Villalba Kokkonen, Daniela; Riera, Gerard Viader; Golam, Sarwar; Koskinen, Jukka

    2015-11-01

    To reduce greenhouse gas emissions, more sustainable sources of energy, fuel and chemicals are needed. Biomass side streams such as black liquor, which is a by-product of pulp production, has the potential to be used for this purpose. The aim of the study was the production of carboxylic acids, such as lactic acid, formic acid and acetic acid, from kraft and non-wood black liquor. The processes studied were partial wet oxidation (PWO) and catalytic partial wet oxidation (CPWO). The results show that the yield of carboxylic acid is higher when treated by PWO than the results from CPWO at temperatures of 170 °C and 230 °C. The results shows that the PWO process can increase the yield of carboxylic acids and hydroxy acids in black liquor, reduce lignin content and decrease pH, which makes further separation of the acids more favourable. The hydroxy acids are valuable raw materials for biopolymers, and acetic acid and formic acid are commonly used chemicals conventionally produced from fossil feedstock.

  6. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification. Second annual report, [November 1990--February 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This second annual report summarizes the work accomplished during the period November 1990 through February 1992 for DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC05-90CE40893. The overall project objective is to field test an energy-efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system at a significant industrial scale. This is intended to demonstrate the maturity of the technology in an industrial environment and serve as an example to the industry of the safer and more energy-efficient processing technique. The project structure is comprised of three primary activities: process characterization testing, scale-up hardware development, and field testing. The objective of the process characterization testing was to resolve key technical issues regarding the black liquor recovery process that were identified during earlier laboratory verification tests. This was intended to provide a sound engineering data base for the design, construction and testing of a nominal 1.0 TPH integrated black liquor recovery gasifier. The objective of the scale-up hardware development effort was to ensure that key hardware components, in particular the pulse heater module, would perform reliably and safely in the field. Finally, the objective of the field test is to develop an industrial data base sufficient to demonstrate the capabilities and performance of the operating system with respect to thermal efficiency, product quality, fuel handling, system control, reliability and cost. These tests are to provide long-term and continuous operating data at a capacity unattainable in the bench-scale apparatus.

  7. 'White liquor hits black livers': meanings of excessive liquor consumption in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Mager, Anne

    2004-08-01

    Four years into South Africa's first democracy, the African National Congress Youth League, with the help of the liquor industry's Social Aspects of Alcohol Committee drafted a policy to prevent substance abuse in black communities. They declared that alcohol was 'often not used in a socially acceptable way'. Concerned not so much with post-apartheid policy as with making sense of what socially acceptable alcohol usage might mean, this article explores narratives of alcohol use and abuse in South Africa in the second half of the twentieth century. It demonstrates that while multiple understandings of excess in alcohol consumption were articulated, those notions tied to particular constructions of racial difference prevailed. Ideas pairing drinking habits with race were given effect by state institutions. By tying drinking habits to 'race' and by locating 'race' in a social hierarchy, state institutions determined access to liquor and welfare services. By naturalising Africans as heavy drinkers, the state justified its sale of liquor to African men while denying the need for rehabilitation in the event of alcoholic dependence. By placing 'coloured' closer to 'white' in its racial order, the apartheid state found cause to extend limited rehabilitation services to those designated 'coloured'. By tying liquor revenues to apartheid administration, the ruling regime exonerated its policy of excluding blacks from the retail liquor trade even after lifting prohibition in 1962. This policy encouraged rampant illicit liquor dealing, created a social environment in which alcoholic excess, particularly after 1976, reached new proportions and generated new and dangerous meanings of socially acceptable drinking. Against the grain of these dominant discourses of racially designated meanings of drinking, African people forged a more complex set of practices and meanings not rendered any clearer by the ANC Youth League's discourse of acceptable and unacceptable usage.

  8. Fundamental studies of black liquor combustion: Report No. 2, Phase 1 (October 1984-November 1986)

    SciTech Connect

    Clay, D. T.; Lien, S. J.; Grace, T. M.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H. G.; Amin, N.; Charagundla, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamentals of kraft black liquor combustion are being studied in a five year project. This report covers the second and third years of work by The Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) and the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for the US Department of Energy. The burning processes are being studied in two continuous flow reactor systems designed to both study overall process and single particle phenomena. Black liquor burning is divided into four distinct phases: drying, volatiles burning, char burning, and smelt coalescence. Phase 1, In-flight Processes, is the main focus of this report. In-flight processes include mainly the stages of drying and volatiles burning. Testing results in both flow reactors and in two specially designed single particle reactors are presented. Dynamic droplet velocity and swelling have been measured for the first time. A direct link between initial liquor viscosity and burning behavior in the early stages has also been identified. During the fourth year Phase 1 will be completed and Phases 2 (Char Burning) and 3 (Fume Processes) will begin.

  9. Evaluation of the effect of ultrasound on organosolv black liquor from olive tree pruning residues.

    PubMed

    García, Araceli; Alriols, María González; Labidi, Jalel

    2012-03-01

    Ultrasonic treatments (0, 15, 30, 60 and 120 min) were applied to black liquor resulting from organosolv fractionation of olive tree pruning residues (ethanol/water 60/40 v/v, 180 °C, 60 min) in order to determine their effect on black liquor components. HPLC analyses of ultrasound-treated liquid fractions demonstrated that ultrasonic irradiation promoted up to 20% degradation of monosaccharides for 15 min of sonication and an increase of monomeric sugars from 3% to 16% due lignin-carbohydrate complex rupture. The quality and purity of the lignin precipitated from sonicated liquors by adding acidified water were assessed. Attenuated-total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) confirmed that main lignin structure did not change due sonication, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and chemical composition and antioxidant behavior showed purification of lignin samples. These results established sonication as a suitable intensification technology in biorefinery processes.

  10. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    SciTech Connect

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  11. High-speed interferometric measurement and visualization of the conversion of a black liquor droplet during laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lycksam, Henrik; Sjödahl, Mikael; Gren, Per; Öhman, Marcus; Gebart, Rikard

    2012-11-01

    Black liquor is a mix of organic and inorganic materials that is left after the kraft pulping process. In a modern pulp mill the pulping chemicals and the energy in the black liquor is recovered and used in the pulping cycle by burning the black liquor in a recovery burner. An alternative to the recovery boiler is to gasify the black liquor to produce an energy rich synthesis gas that can be upgraded into synthetic fuels or chemicals. Characterization of black liquor has mostly been done under conditions that are relevant for recovery boilers but the conditions in a gasifier differ significantly from this. In particular the droplets are much smaller and the heating rates are much higher. This paper presents an optical interferometric technique that has the potential to produce data under relevant conditions for gasification. In the paper, results are measured at atmospheric conditions and with relatively low heating rate. However, the method can be applied also for pressurized conditions and at heating rates that are only limited by the frame rate of the digital camera that is used to capture the transient event when the droplets are heated. In the paper the dynamic properties of the gas ejected from and the swelling during conversion of a single droplet are measured.

  12. Improved Materials for Use as Components in Kraft Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.

    2001-10-22

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) was undertaken to evaluate current and improved materials and materials processing conditions for use as components in kraft black liquor recovery boilers and other unit processes. The main areas addressed were: (1) Improved Black Liquor Nozzles, (2) Weld Overlay of Composite Floor Tubes, and (3) Materials for Lime Kilns. Iron aluminide was evaluated as an alternate material for the nozzles used to inject an aqueous solution known as black liquor into recovery boilers as well for the uncooled lining in the ports used for the nozzles. Although iron aluminide is known to have much better sulfidation resistance in gases than low alloy and stainless steels, it did not perform adequately in the environment where it came into contact with molten carbonate, sulfide and sulfate salts. Weld overlaying carbon steel tubes with a layer of stainless weld metal was a proposed method of extending the life of recovery boiler floor tubes that have experienced considerable fireside corrosion. After exposure under service conditions, sections of weld overlaid floor tubes were removed from a boiler floor and examined metallographically. Examination results indicated satisfactory performance of the tubes. Refractory-lined lime kilns are a critical component of the recovery process in kraft pulp mills, and the integrity of the lining is essential to the successful operation of the kiln. A modeling study was performed to determine the cause of, and possible solutions for, the repeated loss of the refractory lining from the cooled end of a particular kiln. The evaluation showed that the temperature, the brick shape and the coefficient of friction between the bricks were the most important parameters influencing the behavior of the refractory lining.

  13. Chemical characterization of lignin from kraft pulping black liquor of Acacia mangium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermiati, Euis; Risanto, Lucky; Lubis, M. Adly Rahandi; Laksana, Raden Permana Budi; Dewi, Aniva Rizkia

    2017-01-01

    In order to know the proper use of lignin derived from pulping process of A. mangium, it is important to study the characteristics of lignin obtained from this species. The objective of this research was to study the characteristics of lignin isolated from kraft pulping black liquor of A. mangium. Lignin was isolated from the black liquor by single step and two step acid precipitation. The lignins were characterized for their moisture, ash, acid soluble lignin (ASL), and acid insoluble lignin (AIL) contents. Elemental composition, FTIR spectra, UV spectra, and microscopic structure using SEM were also analyzed. The yield of lignin obtained through one step precipitation of black liquor (45.76%) was much higher than that through two step precipitation (7.38%), while ash contents of lignin from one step and two step precipitations were almost the same. Ultimate analysis shows that carbon content in lignin from one step precipitation was lower than that from two step precipitation, while hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur content were relatively the same. Two step precipitation could increase the AIL and decrease the ASL content of the lignin isolate. Results of UV analysis show that in neutral medium (dioxane-water) the two lignin isolates had strong absorbance at 240 nm, while in alkaline medium (NaOH pH 12) there were strong absorption at 210 nm, and weak absorption at 280 nm. The FT-IR spectra reveal that the two lignin isolates had similar functional groups. This means that the removal of sugar from lignin did not change the lignin structure. The SEM analysis shows that both lignin isolates still contain some dirts.

  14. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 4 (Appendix IV)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 4 contains the following appendix sections: Radiative heat transfer properties for black liquor combustion -- Facilities and techniques and Spectral absorbance and emittance data; and Radiate heat transfer determination of the optical constants of ash samples from kraft recovery boilers -- Calculation procedure; Computation program; Density determination; Particle diameter determination; Optical constant data; and Uncertainty analysis.

  15. Eucalyptus kraft black liquor enhances growth and productivity of Spirulina in outdoor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, V.S.; Singh, G.; Ramamurthy, V.

    1995-07-01

    Mass cultivation of microalgae for commercial applications suffers from poor productivities when measured against laboratory results or theoretical projections. In an effort to reduce this gap it was discovered that addition of eucalyptus kraft black liquor (BL) enhanced biomass productivity in outdoor cultures of Spirulina by increasing growth rate by 38% and biomass yield by 43%. BL treatment resulted in elevation of nitrogen assimilating enzyme activities and efficiency of phosphate utilization. Analyses of forenoon and afternoon oxygen production rates (OPRs) indicated higher photosynthetic and respiratory activity in BL-treated cultures compared to untreated cultures. 20 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  16. Protocol Development for the Carbohydrate Quantification in Black Liquor with Brix Refractometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baksi, Arnab; Putatunda, Sirsha; Sen, Dwaipayan; Sarkar, Ankur; Bhattacharjee, Chiranjib

    2013-07-01

    Present work is a proposed methodology to quantify carbohydrates even at its trace level in black liquor (BL) in the presence of lignosulphonates (LS) using brix refractometer. Primarily, the detection accuracy was validated with the simulated solutions resembling BL used in the present work. A factor, resembling the weight fraction of LS and inorganics, was multiplied with the brix degree obtained for the simulated solution to convert it into the brix reading for a sole carbohydrate present in the solution along with other chemicals. It was found that the accuracy level of measuring carbohydrate was within ±1-2 % of the actual.

  17. A Constructed Alkaline Consortium and Its Dynamics in Treating Alkaline Black Liquor with Very High Pollution Load

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyu; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Xia; Feng, Jinhui; Zhao, Liping; Xu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial community was found accidentally in a black liquor storing pool in a paper pulp mill of China. The community was effective in pH decreasing, color and COD removing from the high alkaline and high COD black liquor. Findings Thirty-eight strains of bacteria were isolated from the black liquor storing pool, and were grouped as eleven operational taxonomy units (OTUs) using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR profiles (RAPD). Eleven representative strains of each OTU, which were identified as genera of Halomonas and Bacillus, were used to construct a consortium to treat black liquor with a high pH value of 11.0 and very high COD pollution load of 142,600 mg l−1. After treatment by the constructed consortium, about 35.4% of color and 39,000 mg l−1 (27.3%) CODcr were removed and the pH decreased to 7.8. 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis suggested a two-stage treatment mechanism to elucidate the interspecies collaboration: Halomonas isolates were important in the first stage to produce organic acids that contributed to the pH decline, while Bacillus isolates were involved in the degradation of lignin derivatives in the second stage under lower pH conditions. Conclusions/Significance Tolerance to the high alkaline environment and good controllability of the simple consortium suggested that the constructed consortium has good potential for black liquor treatment

  18. A novel microbial habitat of alkaline black liquor with very high pollution load: microbial diversity and the key members in application potentials.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyu; Niu, Yu; Su, Haijun; Wang, Zhe; Tao, Fei; Wang, Xia; Tang, Hongzhi; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2010-03-01

    A microbial community which developed naturally in alkaline black liquor was investigated by culture-based and culture-independent techniques. The community was effective in lowering pH, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) of black liquor, and the community activities varied in different seasons. Both 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) clone library and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses suggested that the seasonal bacterial communities had obvious differences in diversities and compositions. Clostridium species were suggested to be the key agents in black liquor treatment. Moreover, the isolates of the genera Halomonas and Bacillus were shown to be effective in treating very heavily polluted black liquor. The strains of Halomonas, Clostridium and especially Bacillus, might be the key producers of xylanase and CMCase in the community. The worldwide problem of black liquor treatment and renewable resource utilization would benefit from these microorganisms in application potentials.

  19. Integrating black liquor gasification with pulping - Process simulation, economics and potential benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstrom, Erik Vilhelm Mathias

    Gasification of black liquor could drastically increase the flexibility and improve the profit potential of a mature industry. The completed work was focused on research around the economics and benefits of its implementation, utilizing laboratory pulping experiments and process simulation. The separation of sodium and sulfur achieved through gasification of recovered black liquor, can be utilized in processes like modified continuous cooking, split sulfidity and green liquor pretreatment pulping, and polysulfide-anthraquinone pulping, to improve pulp yield and properties. Laboratory pulping protocols have been developed for these modified pulping technologies and different process options evaluated. The process simulation work around BLG has led to the development of a WinGEMS module for the low temperature MTCI steam reforming process, and case studies comparing a simulated conventional kraft process to different process options built around the implementation of a BLG unit operation into the kraft recovery cycle. Pulp yield increases of 1-3% points with improved product quality, and the potential for capital and operating cost savings relative to the conventional kraft process have been demonstrated. Process simulation work has shown that the net variable operating cost for a pulping process using BLGCC is highly dependent on the cost of lime kiln fuel and the selling price of green power to the grid. Under the assumptions taken in the performed case study, the BLGCC process combined with split sulfidity or PSAQ pulping operations had net variable operating cost 2-4% greater than the kraft reference. The influence of the sales price of power to the grid is the most significant cost factor. If a sales price increase to 6 ¢/KWh for green power could be achieved, cost savings of about $40/ODtP could be realized in all investigated BLG processes. Other alternatives to improve the process economics around BLG would be to modify or eliminate the lime kiln unit

  20. Stability and Regeneration of Catalysts for the Destruction of Tars from Bio-mass Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Pradeep Agrawal

    2004-09-07

    The goal of this project was to develop catalytic materials and processes that would be effective in the destruction of tars formed during the gasification of black liquor and biomass. We report here the significant results obtained at the conclusion of this two year project.

  1. Biobutanol production by Clostridium acetobutylicum using xylose recovered from birch Kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Kudahettige-Nilsson, Rasika L; Helmerius, Jonas; Nilsson, Robert T; Sjöblom, Magnus; Hodge, David B; Rova, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    Acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation was studied using acid-hydrolyzed xylan recovered from hardwood Kraft black liquor by CO2 acidification as the only carbon source. Detoxification of hydrolyzate using activated carbon was conducted to evaluate the impact of inhibitor removal and fermentation. Xylose hydrolysis yields as high as 18.4% were demonstrated at the highest severity hydrolysis condition. Detoxification using active carbon was effective for removal of both phenolics (76-81%) and HMF (38-52%). Batch fermentation of the hydrolyzate and semi-defined P2 media resulted in a total solvent yield of 0.12-0.13g/g and 0.34g/g, corresponding to a butanol concentration of 1.8-2.1g/L and 7.3g/L respectively. This work is the first study of a process for the production of a biologically-derived biofuel from hemicelluloses solubilized during Kraft pulping and demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing xylan recovered directly from industrial Kraft pulping liquors as a feedstock for biological production of biofuels such as butanol.

  2. Newtonian viscosity of high solids kraft black liquors: Effects of temperature and solids concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The Newtonian (zero shear rate) viscosities of four different softwood kraft black liquors from a four variable-two level factorially designed experiment for pulping slash pine were determined for solids concentrations up to 84% and temperatures up to 140 C (413.2 K). Methods of measurement and estimation of zero shear rate viscosities from viscosity-shear rate data have been described and compared. The combination of the absolute reaction rates and free-volume concepts were used to express the relationship between the Newtonian viscosity and temperature. Attempts were made to obtain a generalized correlation for Newtonian viscosity as a function of temperature and solids concentrations. The results of this model and results of the previous empirical correlation have been compared and discussed.

  3. Preparation of adsorbent with magnesium sulfate and straw pulp black liquor and its phenol adsorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lugang; Wang, Haizeng

    2009-09-01

    A magnesia adsorbent was prepared from straw pulp black liquor and magnesium sulfate for the first time, and its adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution was examined. The characteristics of the adsorbent were tested through chemical analysis, surface analysis, X-ray diffraction and FT-IR spectroscopy. The effects of various factors, such as dose, adsorption time and adsorption temperature, on phenol adsorption behavior were studied. The results show that the adsorption processes can be fitted to the isotherm Langmuir model very well. It was found that the adsorption process was strongly influenced by temperature and the optimal temperature for phenol removal was 40 °C. The optimum adsorption time was 10 min, and desorption would happen afterwards. Between the models of Langmuir and Freundlich, the adsorption process of phenol onto magnesia fitted the Langmuir equation better.

  4. Black liquor gasification integrated in pulp and paper mills: A critical review.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2010-11-01

    Black liquor gasification (BLG) has potential to replace a Tomlinson recovery boiler as an alternative technology to increase safety, flexibility and energy efficiency of pulp and paper mills. This paper presents an extensive literature review of the research and development of various BLG technologies over recent years based on low and high temperature gasification that include SCA-Billerud process, Manufacturing and Technology Conversion International (MTCI) process, direct alkali regeneration system (DARS), BLG with direct causticization, Chemrec BLG system, and catalytic hydrothermal BLG. A few technologies were tested on pilot scale but most of them were abandoned due to technical inferiority and very fewer are now at commercial stage. The drivers for the commercialization of BLG enabling bio-refinery operations at modern pulp mills, co-producing pulp and value added energy products, are discussed. In addition, the potential areas of research and development in BLG required to solve the critical issues and to fill research knowledge gaps are addressed and highlighted.

  5. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  6. Black liquor-derived carbonaceous solid acid catalyst for the hydrolysis of pretreated rice straw in ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Bai, Chenxi; Zhu, Linfeng; Shen, Feng; Qi, Xinhua

    2016-11-01

    Lignin-containing black liquor from pretreatment of rice straw by KOH aqueous solution was applied to prepare a carbonaceous solid acid catalyst, in which KOH played dual roles of extracting lignin from rice straw and developing porosity of the carbon material as an activation agent. The synthesized black liquor-derived carbon material was applied in catalytic hydrolysis of the residue solid from the pretreatment of rice straw, which was mainly composed of cellulose and hemicellulose, and showed excellent activity for the production of total reducing sugars (TRS) in ionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium chloride. The highest TRS yield of 63.4% was achieved at 140°C for 120min, which was much higher than that obtained from crude rice straw under the same reaction conditions (36.6% TRS yield). Overall, this study provides a renewable strategy for the utilization of all components of lignocellulosic biomass.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin by co-feeding with different plastics in a fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiyan; Xiao, Rui; Nie, Jianlong; Jin, Baosheng; Shao, Shanshan; Xiao, Guomin

    2015-09-01

    Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin and waste plastics (polyethylene, PE; polypropylene PP; polystyrene, PS) was conducted in a fluidized bed. The effects of temperature, plastic to lignin ratio, catalyst and plastic types on product distributions were studied. Both aromatic and olefin yields increased with increasing PE proportion. Petrochemical yield of co-pyrolysis of PE and lignin was LOSA-1 > spent FCC > Gamma-Al2O3 > sand. The petrochemical yield with LOSA-1 is 43.9% which is more than two times of that without catalyst. The feedstock for co-pyrolysis with lignin is polystyrene > polyethylene > polypropylene. Catalytic co-pyrolysis of black-liquor lignin with PS produced the maximum aromatic yield (55.3%), while co-pyrolysis with PE produced the maximum olefin yield (13%).

  8. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane: Ion exchange membrane fouling identification and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Maryam; Mikhaylin, Sergey; Bazinet, Laurent; Savadogo, Oumarou; Paris, Jean

    2017-02-15

    Integrated forest biorefinery offers promising pathways to sustainably diversify the revenue of pulp and paper industry. In this context, lignin can be extracted from a residual stream of Kraft pulping process, called black liquor, and subsequently converted into a wide spectrum of bio-based products. Electrochemical acidification of Kraft black liquor by electrodialysis with bipolar membrane results in lignin extraction and caustic soda production. Even though the implementation of this method requires less chemicals than the chemical acidification process, fouling of the ion exchange membranes and especially bipolar membrane impairs its productivity. Membrane thickness and ash content measurements along with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS) analysis were performed to identify the nature and mechanisms of the membrane fouling. The results revealed that the fouling layer mostly consisted of organic components and particularly lignin. Based on our proposed fouling mechanisms, throughout the electrodialysis process the pH of the black liquor gradually decreased and as a result more proton ions were available to trigger protonation reaction of lignin phenolic groups and decrease the lignin solubility. Due to the abundance of the proton ions on the surface of the cation exchange layers of the bipolar membrane, destabilized lignin macro-molecules started to self-aggregate and formed lignin clusters on its surface. Over the time, these lignin clusters covered the entire surface of the bipolar membrane and the spaces between the membranes and, eventually, attached to the surface of the cation exchange membrane.

  9. Direct Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification in a Circulating Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Sinquefield; Xiaoyan Zeng, Alan Ball

    2010-03-02

    Gasification of black liquor (BLG) has distinct advantages over direct combustion in Tomlinson recovery boilers. In this project we seek to resolve causticizing issues in order to make pressurized BLG even more efficient and cost-effective. One advantage of BLG is that the inherent partial separation of sulfur and sodium during gasification lends itself to the use of proven high yield variants to conventional kraft pulping which require just such a separation. Processes such as polysulfide, split sulfidity, ASAQ, and MSSAQ can increase pulp yield from 1% to 10% over conventional kraft but require varying degrees of sulfur/sodium separation, which requires additional [and costly] processing in a conventional Tomlinson recovery process. However during gasification, the sulfur is partitioned between the gas and smelt phases, while the sodium all leaves in the smelt; thus creating the opportunity to produce sulfur-rich and sulfur-lean white liquors for specialty pulping processes. A second major incentive of BLG is the production of a combustible product gas, rich in H2 and CO. This product gas (a.k.a. “syngas”) can be used in gas turbines for combined cycle power generation (which is twice as efficient as the steam cycle alone), or it can be used as a precursor to form liquid fuels, such as dimethyl ether or Fischer Tropsh diesel. There is drawback to BLG, which has the potential to become a third major incentive if this work is successful. The causticizing load is greater for gasification of black liquor than for combustion in a Tomlinson boiler. So implementing BLG in an existing mill would require costly increases to the causticizing capacity. In situ causticizing [within the gasifier] would handle the entire causticizing load and therefore eliminate the lime cycle entirely. Previous work by the author and others has shown that titanate direct causticizing (i.e. in situ) works quite well for high-temperature BLG (950°C), but was limited to pressures below

  10. Feasibility of reusing the black liquor for enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen; Chen, Xiaoyan; Tan, Xuesong; Wang, Qiong; Liu, Yunyun; He, Minchao; Yu, Qiang; Qi, Wei; Luo, Yu; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2017-03-01

    The black liquor (BL) generated in the alkaline pretreatment process is usually thought as the environmental pollutant. This study found that the pure alkaline lignin hardly inhibited the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose (EHC), which led to the investigation on the feasibility of reusing BL as the buffer via pH adjustment for the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The pH value of BL was adjusted from 13.23 to 4.80 with acetic acid, and the alkaline lignin was partially precipitated. It deposited on the surface of cellulose and negatively influenced the EHC via blocking the access of cellulase to cellulose and adsorbing cellulase. The supernatant separated from the acidified BL scarcely affected the EHC, but inhibited the ethanol fermentation. The 4-times diluted supernatant and the last-time waste wash water of the alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse didn't inhibit the EHC and ethanol production. This work gives a clue of saving water for alkaline pretreatment.

  11. Genoprotective effects of lignin isolated from oil palm black liquor waste.

    PubMed

    Naik, Prashantha; Rozman, Hj Din; Bhat, Rajeev

    2013-07-01

    Black liquor waste (BLW), a major by-product of palm oil extraction process contains lignin as one of the constituents. Lignin isolated from BLW was evaluated for antioxidant and genoprotective properties and was compared with the commercial lignin for overall efficacy. Antioxidant compounds (phenolics and tannins) and antioxidant activities (phosphomolybdenum assay, ABTS(+) and FRAP assays) of lignin isolated from BLW were compared with commercial lignin. Bone marrow micronucleus (MN) test was employed for evaluating the dose-yield protective effect against cyclophosphamide (CP, 50mg/kg b.w.) induced genotoxicity in mouse. Results revealed isolated lignin to exhibit rich antioxidant activities. A decrease in MN frequency and recovery of P/N ratio (P: polychromatic erythrocytes, N: normochromatic erhythocytes) indicated protective effects of lignin against cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and cytotoxicity. The efficacy of BLW-derived lignin as an antioxidant and genoprotective agent was comparable to commercial lignin. Results on lignin isolated from BLW are envisaged to find potential applications in food and/or pharmaceutical industries.

  12. Environmentally safe treatment of black liquor with Comamonas sp. B-9 under high-alkaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Chai, Liyuan; Yang, Zhihui; Chen, Yuehui; Shi, Yan; Wang, Yangyang

    2014-02-01

    The strain Comamonas sp. B-9 was isolated from steeping fluid of erosive bamboo slips derived from Kingdom Wu during the Three-Kingdoms Dynasty of ancient China (A.D. 220-280). It could be used to treat black liquor (BL) with high-alkaline pH and with an initial chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 18,000-25,000 mg L(-1) , without the addition of other carbon and nitrogen sources. The results revealed that Comamonas sp. B-9 was capable of reducing the COD, color, and lignin content of BL by up to 56.8, 35.3, and 43.5%, respectively. High levels of laccase, manganese peroxidase, cellulase, and xylanase enzymatic activities were also observed, and these enzymes could play an important role in the biotreatment of BL. Further, GC-MS analysis showed that most of the compounds detected in BL after biotreatment with Comamonas sp. B-9 were diminished, while 4-methyl benzaldehyde, 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester, and 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxy benzaldehyde were produced as metabolites. The presented results indicate that Comamonas sp. B-9 has potential application for the treatment of wastewaters from pulp and paper processing with high COD load under high-alkaline conditions.

  13. Evaluating the potential of immobilized bacterial consortium for black liquor biodegradation.

    PubMed

    Paliwal, Rashmi; Uniyal, Shivani; Rai, J P N

    2015-05-01

    Two indigenous bacterial strains, Bacillus megaterium ETLB-1 (accession no. KC767548) and Pseudomonas plecoglossicida ETLB-3 (accession no. KC767547), isolated from soil contaminated with paper mill effluent, were co-immobilized on corncob cubes to investigate their biodegradation potential against black liquor (BL). Results exhibit conspicuous reduction in color and lignin of BL upto 913.46 Co-Pt and 531.45 mg l(-1), respectively. Reduction in chlorophenols up to 12 mg l(-1) was recorded with highest release of chloride ions, i.e., 1290 mg l(-1). Maximum enzyme activity for lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and laccase (LAC) was recorded as 5.06, 8.13, and 8.23 U ml(-1), respectively, during the treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed successful immobilization of bacterial strains in porous structures of biomaterial. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) showed formation of certain low molecular weight metabolites such as 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid, 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde, ferulic acid, and t-cinnamic acid and removal of majority of the compounds (such as teratogenic phthalate derivatives) during the period of treatment. Results demonstrated that the indigenous bacterial consortium possesses excellent decolorization and lignin degradation capability which enables its commercial utilization in effluents treatment system.

  14. Effectiveness of coagulation and acid precipitation processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor.

    PubMed

    Garg, Anurag; Mishra, I M; Chand, S

    2010-08-15

    The effectiveness of coagulation (using aluminium-based chemicals and ferrous sulfate) and acid precipitation (using H(2)SO(4)) processes for the pre-treatment of diluted black liquor obtained from a pulp and paper mill is reported. Commercial alum was found to be the most economical among all the aluminium and ferrous salts used as a coagulant. A maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (ca. 63%) and colour reduction (ca. 90%) from the wastewater (COD = 7000 mg l(-1)) at pH 5.0 was obtained with alum. During the acid precipitation process, at pH < 5.0, significant COD reductions (up to 64%) were observed. Solid residue obtained from the alum treatment at a temperature of 95 degrees C showed much better (3 times) settling rate than that for the residue obtained after treatment with the same coagulant at a temperature of 25 degrees C. The settling curves had three parts, namely, hindered, transition and compression zones. Tory plots were used to determine the critical height of suspension-supernatant interface that is used in the design of a clarifier-thickener unit. High heating values and large biomass fraction of the solid residues can encourage the fuel users to use this waste derived sludge as a potential renewable energy source.

  15. Mechanism on microwave-assisted acidic solvolysis of black-liquor lignin.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chengjian; Feng, Chunguang; Liu, Qian; Shen, Dekui; Xiao, Rui

    2014-06-01

    Microwave-assisted degradation of black-liquor lignin with formic acid was studied, concerning the product yield and distribution of phenolic compounds against reaction temperature (110-180°C) and reaction time (5-90 min). The liquid product consisting of bio-oil 1 and bio-oil 2, achieved the maxima yield of 64.08% at 160°C and 30 min (bio-oil 1: 9.69% and bio-oil 2: 54.39%). The chemical information of bio-oil 1 and bio-oil 2 were respectively identified by means of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) and Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), while the solid residue was analyzed by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). A possible mechanism was proposed for the microwave-assisted acidic solvolysis of lignin, specifying the kinetic relationship among the primary cracking of lignin, repolymerization of the oligomers and formation of solid residue.

  16. Encapsulation of black carrot juice using spray and freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Murali, S; Kar, Abhijit; Mohapatra, Debabandya; Kalia, Pritam

    2015-12-01

    Black carrot juice extracted using pectinase enzyme was encapsulated in three different carrier materials (maltodextrin 20DE, gum arabic and tapioca starch) using spray drying at four inlet temperatures (150, 175, 200 and 225 ℃) and freeze drying at a constant temperature of - 53 ℃ and vacuum of 0.22-0.11 mbar with the constant feed mixture. The products were analyzed for total anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and total colour change. For both the drying methods followed in this study, maltodextrin 20DE as the carrier material has proven to be better in retaining maximum anthocyanin and antioxidant activity compared to gum arabic and tapioca starch. The best spray dried product, was obtained at 150 ℃. The most acceptable was the freeze dried product with maximum anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, water solubility index, encapsulation efficiency and colour change.

  17. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance

    PubMed Central

    Piller, Kyle R; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish assemblage structure in the impacted area following the event. We compared downstream (impacted) assemblages to upstream (unimpacted) assemblages to determine initial impacts on structure. Additionally, we incorporated historic fish collections (1988–2011) to examine impacts on assemblage structure across broad temporal scales. Based on NMDS, upstream and downstream sites generally showed similar assemblage structure across sample periods with the exception of the 2 months postdischarge, where upstream and downstream sites visually differed. Multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicated significant seasonal variation among samples, but found no significant interaction between impacted and unimpacted assemblages following the discharge event. However, multivariate dispersion (MVDISP) showed greater variance among assemblage structure following the discharge event. These results suggest that 2 months following the disturbance represent a time period of stochasticity in regard to assemblage structure dynamics, and this was followed by rapid recovery. We term this dynamic the “hangover effect” as it represents the time frame from the cessation of the perturbation to the assemblage's return to predisturbance conditions. The availability and proximity of tributaries and upstream refugia, which were not affected by the disturbance, as well as the rapid recovery of abiotic parameters likely played a substantial role in assemblage recovery. This study not only

  18. Black liquor and the hangover effect: fish assemblage recovery dynamics following a pulse disturbance.

    PubMed

    Piller, Kyle R; Geheber, Aaron D

    2015-06-01

    Anthropogenic perturbations impact aquatic systems causing wide-ranging responses, from assemblage restructuring to assemblage recovery. Previous studies indicate the duration and intensity of disturbances play a role in the dynamics of assemblage recovery. In August 2011, the Pearl River, United States, was subjected to a weak black liquor spill from a paper mill which resulted in substantial loss of fish in a large stretch of the main channel. We quantified resilience and recovery of fish assemblage structure in the impacted area following the event. We compared downstream (impacted) assemblages to upstream (unimpacted) assemblages to determine initial impacts on structure. Additionally, we incorporated historic fish collections (1988-2011) to examine impacts on assemblage structure across broad temporal scales. Based on NMDS, upstream and downstream sites generally showed similar assemblage structure across sample periods with the exception of the 2 months postdischarge, where upstream and downstream sites visually differed. Multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) indicated significant seasonal variation among samples, but found no significant interaction between impacted and unimpacted assemblages following the discharge event. However, multivariate dispersion (MVDISP) showed greater variance among assemblage structure following the discharge event. These results suggest that 2 months following the disturbance represent a time period of stochasticity in regard to assemblage structure dynamics, and this was followed by rapid recovery. We term this dynamic the "hangover effect" as it represents the time frame from the cessation of the perturbation to the assemblage's return to predisturbance conditions. The availability and proximity of tributaries and upstream refugia, which were not affected by the disturbance, as well as the rapid recovery of abiotic parameters likely played a substantial role in assemblage recovery. This study not only demonstrates

  19. Pyrometric temperature measurement method and apparatus for measuring particle temperatures in hot furnaces: Application to reacting black liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenberg, J.; Frederick, W. J.; Boström, S.; Hernberg, R.; Hupa, M.

    1996-05-01

    A specialized two-color pyrometric method has been developed for the measurement of particle surface temperatures in hot, radiating environments. In this work, the method has been applied to the measurement of surface temperatures of single reacting black liquor char particles in an electrically heated muffle furnace. Black liquor was introduced into the hot furnace as wet droplets. After drying, the resulted particles were processed in different atmospheres corresponding to combustion, pyrolysis, and gasification at furnace temperatures of 700-900 °C. The pyrometric measurement is performed using two silicon photodiode detectors and 10 nm bandpass filters centered at 650 and 1050 nm. Thermal radiation is transferred using an uncooled fiberoptic probe brought into the vicinity of the char particle. The key features of the pyrometric apparatus and analysis method are: (1) Single particle temperature is resolved temporally at high speed. (2) The thermal radiation originating from the furnace and reflected by the particle is accounted for in the measurement of the surface temperature. (3) Particle temperatures above or below the furnace temperature can be measured without the need of a cooled background assisting the measurement in the hot furnace. To accomplish this, a minimum particle size is needed that is a function of the temperature difference between the particle and furnace. Particles cooler than the furnace can be measured if their diameter is more than 0.7 mm. Surface temperatures of 300-400 °C above the furnace temperature were measured during combustion of black liquor char particles in air. In atmospheres corresponding to gasification, endothermic reactions occurred, and char temperature remained typically 40° below the furnace temperature.

  20. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 2 (Appendices I, section 5 and II, section 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 2 contains the last section of Appendix I, Radiative heat transfer in kraft recovery boilers, and the first section of Appendix II, The effect of temperature and residence time on the distribution of carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen between gaseous and condensed phase products from low temperature pyrolysis of kraft black liquor.

  1. Determination of low-molecular-mass aliphatic carboxylic acids and inorganic anions from kraft black liquors by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Käkölä, Jaana M; Alén, Raimo J; Isoaho, Jukka Pekka; Matilainen, Rose B

    2008-05-09

    An ion chromatographic (IC) method with suppressed conductivity detection (CD) was developed and validated for the quantitative determination of several low-molecular-mass aliphatic mono- and dicarboxylic acids as their carboxylate anions together with some inorganic anions (chloride, sulfate, and thiosulfate) from kraft black liquors. To confirm the identification of some carboxylate anions which lack commercial model substances, a qualitative IC method with suppressed electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was also developed. The separations were performed on an IonPac AS 11-HC anion-exchange column operated at 25 degrees C within 25 min by a gradient elution with aqueous potassium hydroxide (suppressed CD in the AutoRegen mode) or sodium hydroxide (suppressed ESI-MS in the pressurized bottle mode). In the validation process a mixture of carboxylic acids and inorganic anions in aqueous media and in seven different types of wood and non-wood black liquor samples were quantitatively analyzed by IC-CD. As a result, calibration lines with correlation coefficients of 1.00 for all analytes were achieved at a concentration range from 0.05 to 105 mg L(-1). In black liquor samples intra-day (n=6) precision values ranged from 0.9 to 5%. Day-to-day (n1=3) and intermediate precision values were less than 5% for all other compounds except sulfate and thiosulfate. The variability in the thiosulfate and sulfate results is due in large part to the oxidation of sulfide and thiosulfate, respectively. Recoveries were close to 100% with standard deviations less than 8%. Depending of the analyte, the limits of detection and quantification were, respectively, between 1 and 8 microg L(-1) and between 3 and 27 microg L(-1) for standard compounds in aqueous media and between 6 and 106 microg L(-1) and between 14 and 148 microg L(-1) for black liquor samples. These validation results clearly indicated that with respect to selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and

  2. Structural analysis of lignin residue from black liquor and its thermal performance in thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jun; Xiao, Rui; Shen, Dekui; Zhang, Huiyan

    2013-01-01

    Structural characteristics of benzene-ethanol-extracted lignin (BEL) and acetone-extracted lignin (AL) precipitated from black liquor were identified by elemental analysis, FTIR, (13)C NMR, and (1)H NMR, while the thermal behaviors were examined with thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR). The frequency of β-O-4 bonds per 100 C9 monomeric units was 28 and 17 for BEL and AL. Two-stage pyrolysis processes were observed for the two lignins. The mass loss rate of the initial solvent evolution stage (110-180 °C) of BEL was greater than that of AL. The two lignins presented slightly different mass loss curves and evolution profiles of gases in the main pyrolysis stage (280-500 °C). A global kinetic model was proposed for lignin pyrolysis and activation energies of 39.5 and 38.8 kJ/mol was obtained for BEL and AL. The results enhance understanding of lignin pyrolysis and facilitate commercial utilization of black-liquor lignin.

  3. Energy conversion performance of black liquor gasification to hydrogen production using direct causticization with CO(2) capture.

    PubMed

    Naqvi, M; Yan, J; Dahlquist, E

    2012-04-01

    This paper estimates potential hydrogen production via dry black liquor gasification system with direct causticization integrated with a reference pulp mill. The advantage of using direct causticization is elimination of energy intensive lime kiln. Pressure swing adsorption is integrated in the carbon capture process for hydrogen upgrading. The energy conversion performance of the integrated system is compared with other bio-fuel alternatives and evaluated based on system performance indicators. The results indicated a significant hydrogen production potential (about 141MW) with an energy ratio of about 0.74 from the reference black liquor capacity (about 243.5MW) and extra biomass import (about 50MW) to compensate total energy deficit. About 867,000tonnes of CO(2) abatement per year is estimated i.e. combining CO(2) capture and CO(2) offset from hydrogen replacing motor gasoline. The hydrogen production offers a substantial motor fuel replacement especially in regions with large pulp and paper industry e.g. about 63% of domestic gasoline replacement in Sweden.

  4. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry Kraft recovery boilers. Final report, Phase 1, Volume 1: Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The objectives are to develop a preliminary design of a recovery furnace simulator; evaluate the economics of high-solids; and delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies to improve chemical recovery.

  5. Bacterial decolorization and detoxification of black liquor from rayon grade pulp manufacturing paper industry and detection of their metabolic products.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Abhishek, Amar; Sankhwar, Monica

    2011-06-01

    This study deals with the decolorization of black liquor (BL) by isolated potential bacterial consortium comprising Serratia marcescens (GU193982), Citrobacter sp. (HQ873619) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (GU193983). The decolorization of BL was studied by using the different nutritional as well as environmental parameters. In this study, result revealed that the ligninolytic activities were found to be growth associated and the developed bacterial consortium was efficient for the reduction of COD, BOD and color up to 83%, 74% and 85%, respectively. The HPLC analysis of degraded samples of BL has shown the reduction in peak area compared to control. Further, the GC-MS analysis showed that, most of the compounds detected in control were diminished after bacterial treatment while, formic acid hydrazide, 4-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, carbamic acid, 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid and erythropentanoic acid were found as new metabolites. Further, the seed germination test using Phaseolus aureus has supported the detoxification of bacterial decolorized BL.

  6. Thermogravimetric-Fourier transform infrared spectrometric analysis of CO2 gasification of reed (Phragmites australis) kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qing; Yin, Xiuli; Wu, Chuangzhi; Wu, Shubin; Guo, Daliang

    2012-03-01

    CO(2) gasification of the reed (Phragmites australis) kraft black liquor (KBL) and its water-soluble lignin (WSL) was analyzed by thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR). In KBL gasification, major mass loss of KBL occurred between 150 and 1000°C, followed by a further slow mass loss until the heating was stopped and the TG curve leveled off. The TG profiles of the WSL and the KBL were similar during gasification; however, the differential thermogravimetry (DTG) curves and mass decrease from 300°C of the TG curves of the WSL and the KBL were different because of their dissimilar ingredients. The CO formation mechanism was the same and independent of structural types of lignins between reed and wood in their KBL CO(2) gasification.

  7. Increasing the lignin yield of the Alkaline Polyol Pulping process by treating black liquor with laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila.

    PubMed

    Engel, Norman; Hundt, Martin; Schapals, Tino

    2016-03-01

    The Alkaline Polyol Pulping process separates cellulose from lignocellulosic biomass by dissolving lignin to a great extent. Due to the pulping conditions the dissolved lignin depolymerises and only 75% can be precipitated. To increase this amount, a 24 h reaction of laccases of Myceliophthora thermophila with lignin dissolved in black liquor of the AlkaPolP process was investigated. The influence of pH, temperature, enzyme concentration and partial oxygen pressure was examined in a batch stirred tank reactor using a Box-Behnken factorial design. Due to the enzymatic reaction the lignin polymerises which results in an enhanced lignin precipitation. The addition of a mediator improves the polymerisation but decreases the amount of precipitable lignin. The influence of the parameters on precipitation yield and molecular mass can sufficiently be described with a second-order model and optimum conditions can be assessed. FT-IR spectra of the obtained lignins revealed that its typical phenolic structure is preserved.

  8. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 3 (Appendices II, sections 2--3 and III)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 3 contains the following appendix sections: Formation and destruction of nitrogen oxides in recovery boilers; Sintering and densification of recovery boiler deposits laboratory data and a rate model; and Experimental data on rates of particulate formation during char bed burning.

  9. Black liquor combustion validated recovery boiler modeling: Final year report. Volume 1 (Main text and Appendix I, sections 1--4)

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, T.M.; Frederick, W.J.; Salcudean, M.; Wessel, R.A.

    1998-08-01

    This project was initiated in October 1990, with the objective of developing and validating a new computer model of a recovery boiler furnace using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code specifically tailored to the requirements for solving recovery boiler flows, and using improved submodels for black liquor combustion based on continued laboratory fundamental studies. The key tasks to be accomplished were as follows: (1) Complete the development of enhanced furnace models that have the capability to accurately predict carryover, emissions behavior, dust concentrations, gas temperatures, and wall heat fluxes. (2) Validate the enhanced furnace models, so that users can have confidence in the predicted results. (3) Obtain fundamental information on aerosol formation, deposition, and hardening so as to develop the knowledge base needed to relate furnace model outputs to plugging and fouling in the convective sections of the boiler. (4) Facilitate the transfer of codes, black liquid submodels, and fundamental knowledge to the US kraft pulp industry. Volume 1 contains the main body of the report and the first 4 sections of Appendix 1: Modeling of black liquor recovery boilers -- summary report; Flow and heat transfer modeling in the upper furnace of a kraft recovery boiler; Numerical simulation of black liquor combustion; and Investigation of turbulence models and prediction of swirling flows for kraft recovery furnaces.

  10. Detection of estrogen- and dioxin-like activity in pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent using in vitro bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Zacharewski, T.; Berhane, K.; Gillesby, B.; Burnison, K. |

    1995-12-31

    Pulp and paper mill effluent contains a complex mixture of compounds which adversely affect fish physiologically and at the population level. These effects include compromised reproductive fitness and the induction of mixed-function oxidase activities; two classic responses mediated by the estrogen and/or Ah receptor. In vitro recombinant receptor/reporter gene assays were used to examine pulp and paper mill black liquor and effluent for estrogenic, dioxin-like and antiestrogenic activities. Using MCF7 cells transiently transfected with a Gal4-estrogen receptor chimeric construct (Gal4-HEGO) and a Gal4-regulated luciferase reporter gene (17m5-G-Luc), it was estimated that black liquor contains 4 {+-} 2 ppb ``estrogen equivalents``, while negligible estrogenic activity was observed in a methanol-extracted pulp and paper mill effluent fraction (MF). A dioxin response element (DRE)-regulated luciferase reporter gene (pGudLucl.1) transiently transfected into Hepalclc7 wild type cells exhibited a dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity following treatment with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDO), black liquor and MF. Based on the dose response curves, black liquor and MF contain 10 {+-} 4 ppb and 20 {+-} 6 ppt ``TCDD equivalents``, respectively. Moreover, MF exhibited significant AhR-mediated antiestrogenic activity. These results demonstrate the utility of these bioassays and suggest that the effects observed in fish exposed to pulp and paper mill effluent may be due to unidentified ER and AhR ligands not detected by conventional chemical analysis due to the lack of appropriate chemical standards.

  11. Optimization the soda-AQ process for cellulose pulp production and energy content of black liquor from L. leucocephala K360.

    PubMed

    Feria, M J; García, J C; Díaz, M J; Garrote, G; López, F

    2012-09-01

    A commercial variety of Leucaena leucocephala K360 was used for pulp production and papermaking employing the soda-anthraquinone process. Also, the chemical and energy contents of the resultant black liquors were determined to simultaneously optimize: pulp and paper production and energy generation. A process temperature of (185°C), an operating time of (120 min) and an active alkali concentration of (21%) provided sheets of paper with good strength (tensile index of 12.12 Nm/g, burst index of 0.38 kPa m(2)/g, tear index of 1.29 mN m(2)/g and a Kappa number of 20.5) and black liquor with a greater calorific value (14.1 MJ/kg) than that obtained with higher active alkali concentrations. However, reducing the active alkali concentration to a level in the low operation range led to less marked degradation of cellulose and allowed paper sheets with good properties to be obtained and energy to be optimally produced from the black liquor.

  12. Fast carbonization using fluidized bed for biochar production from reed black liquor: optimization for H2S removal.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Jing Ping; Wen, Chao

    2016-10-01

    The biochar was produced from fast pyrolysis of reed black liquor using fluidized bed. Response surface methodology and the central composite design (CCD) were employed for determining optimal adsorbents with maximum H2S removal capacity. The operational parameters such as carbonization temperature (°C), duration (min) and space velocity (SV, L min(-1) kg(-1)) were chosen as independent variables in CCD. The statistical analysis indicates that the effects of carbonization temperature, duration, SV and combined effect of carbonization temperature and duration are all significant to the H2S removal capacity. The optimal condition for achieving the maximum H2S adsorption capacity for biochar is obtained as the follows: carbonization temperature (500°C), duration (5.7 min), SV (7300 L min(-1) kg(-1)) with H2S removal reaching 60 mg g(-1). The dynamic experimental results indicate a good performance in H2S removal by the produced biochar.

  13. Biological treatment of high-pH and high-concentration black liquor of cotton pulp by an immediate aerobic-anaerobic-aerobic process.

    PubMed

    Lihong, Miao; Furong, Li; Jinli, Wen

    2009-01-01

    In this study, an immediate aerobic-anaerobic-aerobic (O/A/O) biological process was established for the treatment of black liquor of cotton pulp and was tested by both laboratory-scale batch experiment and pilot-scale continuous experiment. The effects of the hydraulic retention time (HRT) were studied, as were the alkaliphilic bacteria number, the culturing temperature and the concentration of black liquor on COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal. The total COD (COD(tot)) removal rate of the novel O/A/O process, for a black liquor with influent COD(tot) over 8,000 mg/L and pH above 12.8, was 68.7+/-4% which is similar with that of the traditional acidic-anaerobic-aerobic process (64.9+/-3%). The first aerobic stage based on alkaliphilic bacteria was the crucial part of the process, which was responsible for decreasing the influent pH from above 12 to an acceptable level for the following treatment unit. The average generation time of the alkaliphilic bacteria in the black liquor was about 36 minutes at 40 degrees C in a batch aerobic activated sludge system. The efficiency of the first aerobic stage was affected greatly by the temperature. The COD(tot) removal at 55 degrees C was much lower in comparison with the COD(tot) removal at 45 degrees C or 50 degrees C. Both the laboratory-scale batch experiments and the pilot-scale continuous experiment showed that the COD(tot) removal rate could reach about 65% for original black liquor with a pH of about 13.0 and a COD of 18,000-22,000 mg/L by the immediate O/A/O process. The first aerobic stage gave an average COD(tot) removal of 45.5% at 35 degrees C (HRT = 72 h) at a volume loading rate of 3.4 kg COD m(-3) d(-1).

  14. Materials for the pulp and paper industry. Section 1: Development of materials for black liquor recovery boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, J.R.; Hubbard, C.R.; Payzant, E.A.

    1997-04-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are essential components of kraft pulp and paper mills because they are a critical element of the system used to recover the pulping chemicals required in the kraft pulping process. In addition, the steam produced in these boilers is used to generate a significant portion of the electrical power used in the mill. Recovery boilers require the largest capital investment of any individual component of a paper mill, and these boilers are a major source of material problems in a mill. The walls and floors of these boilers are constructed of tube panels that circulate high pressure water. Molten salts (smelt) accumulate on the floor of recovery boilers, and leakage of water into the boiler can result in a violent explosion when the leaked water instantly vaporizes upon contacting the molten smelt. Because corrosion of the conventionally-used carbon steel tubing was found to be excessive in the lower section of recovery boilers, use of stainless steel/carbon steel co-extruded tubing was adopted for boiler walls to lessen corrosion and reduce the likelihood of smelt/water explosions. Eventually, this co-extruded or composite (as it is known in the industry) tubing was selected for use as a portion or all of the floor of recovery boilers, particularly those operating at pressures > 6.2 MPa (900 psi), because of the corrosion problems encountered in carbon steel floor tubes. Since neither the cause of the cracking nor an effective solution has been identified, this program was established to develop a thorough understanding of the degradation that occurs in the composite tubing used for walls and floors. This is being accomplished through a program that includes collection and review of technical reports, examination of unexposed and cracked tubes from boiler floors, computer modeling to predict residual stresses under operating conditions, and operation of laboratory tests to study corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, and thermal fatigue.

  15. Laccase-initiated cross-linking of lignocellulose fibres using a ultra-filtered lignin isolated from kraft black liquor.

    PubMed

    Elegir, G; Bussini, D; Antonsson, S; Lindström, M E; Zoia, L

    2007-12-01

    In this work, the effect of Trametes pubescens laccase (TpL) used in combination with a low-molecular-weight ultra-filtered lignin (UFL) to improve mechanical properties of kraft liner pulp and chemi-thermo-mechanical pulp was studied. UFL was isolated by ultra-filtration from the kraft cooking black liquor obtained from softwood pulping. This by-product from the pulp industry contains an oligomeric lignin with almost twice the amount of free phenolic moieties than residual kraft pulp lignin. The reactivity of TpL on UFL and kraft pulp was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. Laccase was shown to polymerise UFL and residual kraft pulp lignin in the fibres, seen by the increase in their average molecular weight and in the case of UFL as a decrease in the amount of phenolic hydroxyls. The laccase initiated cross-linking of lignin, mediated by UFL, which gives rise to more than a twofold increase in wet strength of kraft liner pulp handsheets without loosing other critical mechanical properties. Hence, this could be an interesting path to decrease mechano-sorptive creep that has been reported to lessen in extent as wet strength is given to papers. The laccase/2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) mediator system showed a greater increase in wet tensile strength of the resulting pulp sheets than the laccase/UFL system. However, other mechanical properties such as dry tensile strength, compression strength and Scott Bond internal strength were negatively affected by the laccase/ABTS system.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of high photocatalytic activity and stable Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers for photocatalytic degradation of black liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Li; Long, Qiyi; Yin, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The TiO2 fiber was prepared by using cotton fiber as a template, and then Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were synthesized via in situ Ag3PO4 particles onto the surface of TiO2 fiber. Their structure and physical properties were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis absorption spectra and photoluminescence spectra (PL). SEM analysis indicated that the well-defined surface morphology of natural cotton fiber was mostly preserved in TiO2 and Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers. Compared with TiO2 fiber, the absorbance wavelengths of Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were apparently red shifted and the PL intensities revealed a significant decrease. By using the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor as a model reaction, the visible light and ultraviolet light catalytic efficiencies of TiO2, Ag3PO4 and Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers were evaluated. The reaction results showed that Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers had stronger photocatalytic activity and excellent chemical stability in repeated and long-term applications. Therefore, the prepared Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers could act as an efficient catalyst for the photocatalytic degradation of black liquor, which suggested their promising applications. It was proposed that the •OH radicals played the leading role in the photocatalytic degradation of the black liquor by Ag3PO4/TiO2 fibers system.

  17. Engineering Study for a Full Scale Demonstration of Steam Reforming Black Liquor Gasification at Georgia-Pacific's Mill in Big Island, Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Robert De Carrera; Mike Ohl

    2002-03-19

    Georgia-Pacific Corporation performed an engineering study to determine the feasibility of installing a full-scale demonstration project of steam reforming black liquor chemical recovery at Georgia-Pacific's mill in Big Island, Virginia. The technology considered was the Pulse Enhanced Steam Reforming technology that was developed and patented by Manufacturing and Technology Conversion, International (MTCI) and is currently licensed to StoneChem, Inc., for use in North America. Pilot studies of steam reforming have been carried out on a 25-ton per day reformer at Inland Container's Ontario, California mill and on a 50-ton per day unit at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina mill.

  18. Effect of Carbon Black on Dielectric and Microwave Absorption Properties of Carbon Black/Cordierite Plasma-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jinbu; Zhou, Wancheng; Liu, Yi; Qing, Yuchang; Luo, Fa; Zhu, Dongmei

    2015-06-01

    Carbon black (CB)/cordierite composite coatings with different CB contents were fabricated by a multi-function micro-plasma spraying system developed by the Second Artillery Engineering College. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the microstructure of the spray-dried powders and as-sprayed coatings. The complex permittivities of the coatings and powders with different CB contents were investigated at the frequency of 8.2-12.4 GHz. The results show that both real and imaginary part of the permittivity increase with increasing CB content, which can be ascribed to the increase of the number of micro-capacitors and the polarization centers. Reflection loss of the as-sprayed coatings with different CB contents and thicknesses was calculated according to the transmission line theory. The coating with 4.54% CB content and 3.0 mm thickness shows optical microwave absorption with a minimum reflection loss of -23.90 dB at 10.13 GHz and reflection loss less than -9 dB over the whole investigated frequency.

  19. Evaluating the efficiency of a mixed culture biofilm for the treatment of black liquor and molasses in a mediator-less microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Ali, Naeem; Yousaf, Sameen; Anam, Maira; Bangash, Zain; Maleeha, Sehrish

    2016-11-01

    A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is an emerging environment-friendly technology to recover the useful energy available in waste by using microorganisms as catalyst. In this study, double chamber mediator-less MFCs separated by proton exchange membrane (PEM; Nafion) were constructed to determine the efficiency of mixed culture in using complex substrates (molasses and black liquor). It was found that activated sludge can serve as efficient source of electricigens for biofilm development on an anode. Power density of 2.425 W/m² was generated from molasses with chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of 67% as compared to power density of 3.55 W/m² produced from black liquor along with COD removal efficiency of 78%. Moreover, it was demonstrated that surface area of PEM has a significant effect on power generation. An almost 5- to 8-fold increase in voltage was observed as the size of PEM was increased from 6.5 to 25 cm².

  20. Mammalian cell-line based toxicological evaluation of paper mill black liquor treated in a soil microcosm by indigenous alkalo-tolerant Bacillus sp.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Monika; Das, Mihir Tanay; Thakur, Indu Shekhar

    2014-02-01

    Organic pollutants present in the soil of a microcosm containing pulp and paper mill black liquor were extracted with hexane/acetone (1:1 v/v) to study the biodegradation and detoxification potential of a Bacillus sp. gas chromatography-mass spectroscopic (GC-MS) analysis performed after biodegradation showed formation of simpler compounds like p-hydroxyhydrocinnamic acid (retention time [RT] 19.3 min), homovanillic acid methyl ester (RT 21.6 min) and 3,5-dimethoxy-p-coumaric alcohol (RT 24.7 min). The methyltetrazolium (MTT) assay for cytotoxicity, 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) assay for dioxin-like behavior and alkaline comet assay for genotoxicity were carried out in the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HuH-7 before and after bacterial treatment. Bioremediation for 15 days reduced toxicity, as shown by a 139-fold increase in black liquor's LC50 value, a 343-fold reduction in benzo(a)pyrene equivalent value and a 5-fold reduction in olive tail moment. The EROD assay positively correlated with both the MTT and comet assays in post biodegradation toxicity evaluation.

  1. High-solids black liquor firing in pulp and paper industry kraft recovery boilers: Phase 1 -- Final report. Volume 2: Project technical results

    SciTech Connect

    Southards, W.T.; Clement, J.L.; McIlroy, R.A.; Tharp, M.R.; Verrill, C.L.; Wessell, R.A.

    1995-11-01

    This project is a multiple-phase effort to develop technologies to improve high-solids black liquor firing in pulp mill recovery boilers. The principal means to this end is to construct and operate a pilot-scale recovery furnace simulator (RFS) in which these technologies can be tested. The Phase 1 objectives are to prepare a preliminary design for the RFS, delineate a project concept for evaluating candidate technologies, establish industrial partners, and report the results. Phase 1 addressed the objectives with seven tasks: Develop a preliminary design of the RFS; estimate the detailed design and construction costs of the RFS and the balance of the project; identify interested parties in the paper industry and key suppliers; plan the Phase 2 and Phase 3 tests to characterize the RFS; evaluate the economic justification for high-solids firing deployment in the industry; evaluate high-solids black liquor property data to support the RFS design; manage the project and reporting results, which included planning the future program direction.

  2. Equipment Design and Cost Estimation for Small Modular Biomass Systems, Synthesis Gas Cleanup, and Oxygen Separation Equipment; Task 2: Gas Cleanup Design and Cost Estimates -- Black Liquor Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Nexant Inc.

    2006-05-01

    As part of Task 2, Gas Cleanup and Cost Estimates, Nexant investigated the appropriate process scheme for removal of acid gases from black liquor-derived syngas for use in both power and liquid fuels synthesis. Two 3,200 metric tonne per day gasification schemes, both low-temperature/low-pressure (1100 deg F, 40 psi) and high-temperature/high-pressure (1800 deg F, 500 psi) were used for syngas production. Initial syngas conditions from each of the gasifiers was provided to the team by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Princeton University. Nexant was the prime contractor and principal investigator during this task; technical assistance was provided by both GTI and Emery Energy.

  3. Integration of the Mini-Sulfide Sulfite Anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) Pulping Process and Black Liquor Gasification in a Pulp Mill

    SciTech Connect

    Hasan Jameel, North Carolina State University; Adrianna Kirkman, North Carolina State University; Ravi Chandran,Thermochem Recovery International Brian Turk Research Triangle Institute; Brian Green, Research Triangle Institute

    2010-01-27

    As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification with a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also

  4. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  5. Effect of coagulant/flocculant dosage and pH to water recovery of black liquor wastewater in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch using response surface methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burhani, Dian; Winarni, Anissa; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-01-01

    Coagulation and flocculation process was used to treat black liquor wastewater from alkali pretreatment of bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunch. The optimization and the effect of pH, coagulant and flocculant dosage against decolorization, TSS reduction, final pH and sludge volume were investigated using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Six combination were used, however, no combination gave good result to all four responses. Decolorization percentage of 99.69% was obtained by the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. The combination of alum and anionic polyacrylamide gave 91.12% TSS reduction. Final pH of 7.3 was resulted also from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide While, 50 ml sludge volume was generated from the combination of PAC and anionic polyacrylamide. From RSM with Central Composite Design (CCD) analysis, strong interaction between coagulant dosage and pH revealed to be the significant factor for black liquor wastewater treatment.

  6. Furnace endoscope—measuring fuel spray properties in hot and corrosive environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miikkulainen, P.; Kankkunen, A.; Järvinen, M. P.

    2004-12-01

    A furnace endoscope was developed to carry out in-furnace measurements of black liquor sprays in order to discover the initial velocity, opening angle and trajectory of the spray, and compare spray disintegration mechanisms and spray appearance with the ones measured in a spray chamber. An error analysis of the velocity measurement method was carried out, and the meaning of the optimum measurement distance from the optics to the observed object is discussed. Some details of the development process of the probe are also presented, especially the definition of the scale of the image and the cooling system of the protection tubes. The furnace endoscope can be used in difficult conditions, such as those found inside a chemical recovery boiler (~1,200°C and corrosive chemicals) with promising and accurate measurement results. The equipment has been tested in several furnaces.

  7. Factors affecting the corrosivity of pulping liquors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazlewood, Patrick Evan

    Increased equipment failures and the resultant increase in unplanned downtime as the result of process optimization programs continue to plague pulp mills. The failures are a result of a lack of understanding of corrosion in the different pulping liquors, specifically the parameters responsible for its adjustment such as the role and identification of inorganic and organic species. The current work investigates the role of inorganic species, namely sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide, on liquor corrosivity at a range of process conditions beyond those currently experienced in literature. The role of sulfur species, in the activation of corrosion and the ability of hydroxide to passivate carbon steel A516-Gr70, is evaluated with gravimetric and electrochemical methods. The impact of wood chip weathering on process corrosion was also evaluated. Results were used to identify black liquor components, depending on the wood species, which play a significant role in the activation and inhibition of corrosion for carbon steel A516-Gr70 process equipment. Further, the effect of black liquor oxidation on liquor corrosivity was evaluated. Corrosion and stress corrosion cracking performance of selected materials provided information on classes of materials that may be reliably used in aggressive pulping environments.

  8. Acidification of prehydrolysis liquor and spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping process.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, Pedram; Gao, Weijiue; Sun, Yonghui; Dashtban, Mehdi

    2016-10-01

    Acidification has been commercialized for producing kraft lignin from black liquor of kraft pulping process. This work intended to evaluate the effectiveness of acidification in extracting lignocelluloses from the spent liquor of neutral sulfite semichemical pulping (NSSC) process and from prehydrolysis liquor (PHL) of kraft-based dissolving pulp production process. The results showed that the NSSC and PHL spent liquors had some lignin-carbohydrate complexes (LCC), and that the square weighted counts of particles with a chord length of 50-150μm in the spent liquors were significantly increased as pH dropped to 1.5. Interestingly, the acidification reduced the lignosulfonate/lignin content of NSSC and PHL by 13% or 20%, while dropped their oligosugars content by 75% and 38%, respectively. On a dry basis, the precipitates had more carbon, hydrogen and a high heating value of 18-22MJ/kg, but less oxygen, than spent liquors. The precipitates of PHL could be used as fuel.

  9. Influence of Excipients and Spray Drying on the Physical and Chemical Properties of Nutraceutical Capsules Containing Phytochemicals from Black Bean Extract.

    PubMed

    Guajardo-Flores, Daniel; Rempel, Curtis; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2015-12-03

    Black beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are a rich source of flavonoids and saponins with proven health benefits. Spray dried black bean extract powders were used in different formulations for the production of nutraceutical capsules with reduced batch-to-batch weight variability. Factorial designs were used to find an adequate maltodextrin-extract ratio for the spray-drying process to produce black bean extract powders. Several flowability properties were used to determine composite flow index of produced powders. Powder containing 6% maltodextrin had the highest yield (78.6%) and the best recovery of flavonoids and saponins (>56% and >73%, respectively). The new complexes formed by the interaction of black bean powder with maltodextrin, microcrystalline cellulose 50 and starch exhibited not only bigger particles, but also a rougher structure than using only maltodextrin and starch as excipients. A drying process prior to capsule production improved powder flowability, increasing capsule weight and reducing variability. The formulation containing 25.0% of maltodextrin, 24.1% of microcrystalline cellulose 50, 50% of starch and 0.9% of magnesium stearate produced capsules with less than 2.5% weight variability. The spray drying technique is a feasible technique to produce good flow extract powders containing valuable phytochemicals and low cost excipients to reduce the end-product variability.

  10. Fortification of dark chocolate with spray dried black mulberry (Morus nigra) waste extract encapsulated in chitosan-coated liposomes and bioaccessability studies.

    PubMed

    Gültekin-Özgüven, Mine; Karadağ, Ayşe; Duman, Şeyma; Özkal, Burak; Özçelik, Beraat

    2016-06-15

    Fine-disperse anionic liposomes containing black mulberry (Morus nigra) extract (BME) were prepared by high pressure homogenization at 25,000 psi. Primary liposomes were coated with cationic chitosan (0.4, w/v%) using the layer-by-layer depositing method and mixed with maltodextrin (MD) (20, w/v%) prior to spray drying. After that, spray dried liposomal powders containing BME were added to chocolates with alkalization degrees (pH 4.5, 6, 7.5) at conching temperatures of 40 °C, 60 °C, and 80 °C. The results showed that, compared to spray dried extract, chitosan coated liposomal powders provided better protection of anthocyanin content in both increased temperature and pH. In addition, encapsulation in liposomes enhanced in vitro bioaccessability of anthocyanins. Chocolate was fortified with encapsulated anthocyanins maximum 76.8% depending on conching temperature and pH.

  11. Optimization of Arc-Sprayed Ni-Cr-Ti Coatings for High Temperature Corrosion Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-04-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-spray coatings have proven successful in resisting the high temperature sulfidizing conditions found in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. The corrosion resistance of the coatings is dependent upon the coating composition, to form chromium sulfides and oxides to seal the coating, and on the coating microstructure. Selection of the arc-spray parameters influences the size, temperature and velocity of the molten droplets generated during spraying, which in turn dictates the coating composition and formation of the critical coating microstructural features—splat size, porosity and oxide content. Hence it is critical to optimize the arc-spray parameters in order to maximize the corrosion resistance of the coating. In this work the effect of key spray parameters (current, voltage, spray distance and gas atomizing pressure) on the coating splat thickness, porosity content, oxide content, microhardness, thickness, and surface profile were investigated using a full factorial design of experiment. Based on these results a set of oxidized, porous and optimized coatings were prepared and characterized in detail for follow-up corrosion testing.

  12. Scrubbing liquors for nitrogen tetroxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Once it was determined that the wet scrubbing concept was the most practical solution to the N2O4 emission problem, it became important to optimize the composition of the scrubbing liquor. Several reagents were cited in the literature as being advantageous in scrubbing NO2. Experiments were conducted on a model wet scrubber in order to verify and rank the performances of these scrubbing liquors. The most efficient scrubbing liquor found experimentally was a 10% sodium sulfite solution.

  13. Sunday Liquor Laws and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Many jurisdictions have considered relaxing Sunday alcohol sales restrictions, yet such restrictions' effects on public health remain poorly understood. This paper analyzes the effects of legalization of Sunday packaged liquor sales on crime, focusing on the phased introduction of such sales in Virginia beginning in 2004. Differences-in-differences and triple-differences estimates indicate the liberalization increased minor crime by 5% and alcohol-involved serious crime by 10%. The law change did not affect domestic crime or induce significant geographic or inter-temporal crime displacement. The costs of this additional crime are comparable to the state's revenues from increased liquor sales. PMID:22125348

  14. Recycling paper-pulp waste liquors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarbolouki, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Papermills in U.S. annually produce 3 million tons of sulfite waste liquor solids; other fractions of waste liquor are monomeric sugars and lignosulfonates in solution. Recovery of lignosulfonates involves precipitation and cross-linking of sulfonates to form useful solid ion-exchange resin. Contamination of sugars recovered from liquor is avoided by first converting them to ethanol, then removing ethanol by distillation.

  15. A field experimental study of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM) extracted from spent-liquor of straw pulping paper mills.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Jie; Li, Jing; Lu, Xiao-Zhen; Jin, Yong-Can

    2005-01-01

    A new technique was introduced for sand stabilization and re-vegetation by use of lignin sand stabilizing material (LSSM). LSSM is a reconstructed organic compound with lignin as the most dominant component from the extracts of black-liquor issued by straw pulp paper mills. Unlike the polyvinyl acetate or foamed asphalt commonly used for dune stabilization, the new material is plant-friendly and can be used with virescence actions simultaneously. The field experimental study was conducted since 2001 in China's Northwest Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and has been proved that LSSM is effective in stabilizing the fugitive dunes, making the arenaceous plants survive and the bare dune vegetative. The advisable solution concentration is 2% and the optimal field spraying quantity is 2.5 L/m2. The soil nutrients of the stabilized and greened dune, such as organic matter, available phosphorous and total nitrogen are all increased compared with the control treatment, which is certainly helpful to the growth of arenaceous plants. The technique is worthwhile to be popularized because it is provided not only a new method for desertification control but also an outlet for cleaning contaminants issued from the straw paper mills.

  16. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate...

  17. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  18. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  19. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  20. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  1. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  2. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  3. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  4. Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in African American neighborhood.

    PubMed

    LaVeist, T A; Wallace, J M

    2000-08-01

    In this paper we examine whether the physical availability of alcohol is greater in predominantly African American communities compared to predominantly white communities as indicated by the presence of off premises liquor stores. We investigate the extent to which the income status of the residents of a community mediates the relationship between community racial composition and alcohol availability; and explore whether the intersection of race and class places low income African American communities at increased risk to have such stores located in their communities. Multivariate analytic techniques are used to examine the relationship between community racial composition, median income of neighborhood residents and per capita number of alcohol outlets in 194 census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland. The analysis found that liquor stores are disproportionately located in predominantly black census tracts, even after controlling for census tract socioeconomic status. Census tracts that are both low income and predominantly African American have substantially more liquor stores per capita than other census tracts. Although it is beyond the scope of the present study, our data reveal significant associations between the presence of liquor stores and the risk of health-related social problems in low income neighborhoods. More research needs to be done on the impact of alcohol on the social, psychological, and physiological health of low income urban populations.

  5. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors with meals. 31.42 Section 31.42 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if...

  6. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  7. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  8. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  9. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  10. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recycling or reclaiming the glass or other approved liquor bottle material. (26 U.S.C. 5301) ... bottles. 31.203 Section 31.203 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  11. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  12. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Release of articles or... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  13. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors... Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of... other than a dealer is a retail dealer in liquors for purposes of this part. Every retail dealer...

  14. 75 FR 75694 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... the Federal Register of October 22, 2010, concerning the Liquor Control Ordinance of the Klamath... publishes the Secretary's certification of the Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance. The first...

  15. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-07-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO{sub 2} into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results.

  16. 77 FR 61778 - Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community-Liquor Ordinance To Allow for On-Sale Liquor Transactions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Transactions (Ordinance). The Ordinance regulates and controls the sale, consumption and possession of liquor... Constitution of the Tribe. C. ``License'' shall mean permission to sell liquor for consumption at a Tribally... liquor for consumption on licensed premises only. H. ``Tribe'' shall mean the Shakopee Mdewakanton...

  17. High-Temperature Oxidation and Smelt Deposit Corrosion of Ni-Cr-Ti Arc-Sprayed Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, S.; Schweizer, M.

    2013-08-01

    High Cr content Ni-Cr-Ti arc-sprayed coatings have been extensively applied to mitigate corrosion in black liquor recovery boilers in the pulp and paper industry. In a previous article, the effects of key spray parameters on the coating's microstructure and its composition were investigated. Three coating microstructures were selected from that previous study to produce a dense, oxidized coating (coating A), a porous, low oxide content coating (coating B), and an optimized coating (coating C) for corrosion testing. Isothermal oxidation trials were performed in air at 550 and 900 °C for 30 days. Additional trials were performed under industrial smelt deposits at 400 and 800 °C for 30 days. The effect of the variation in coating microstructure on the oxidation and smelt's corrosion response was investigated through the characterization of the surface corrosion products, and the internal coating microstructural developments with time at high temperature. The effect of long-term, high-temperature exposure on the interaction between the coating and substrate was characterized, and the mechanism of interdiffusion was discussed.

  18. Agricultural Spraying

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    AGDISP, a computer code written for Langley by Continuum Dynamics, Inc., aids crop dusting airplanes in targeting pesticides. The code is commercially available and can be run on a personal computer by an inexperienced operator. Called SWA+H, it is used by the Forest Service, FAA, DuPont, etc. DuPont uses the code to "test" equipment on the computer using a laser system to measure particle characteristics of various spray compounds.

  19. The corrosion of titanium in alkaline peroxide bleach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Wyllie, W.E. II; Brown, B.E.; Duquette, D.J.

    1994-12-31

    An experimental program to determine the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and of potential corrosion inhibitors on the corrosion behavior of titanium has been developed. Corrosion rates less than 0.25 mm/y were observed in laboratory bleach liquor at pH 12 to which 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were added. At pH 13, with 10 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, the corrosion rates were unacceptably high in both sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and laboratory bleach liquor solutions (>8.38 mm/y). The preliminary results of inhibitor studies indicated that the addition of 3.7 g/l sodium silicate or 0.01 g/l calcium nitrate (Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}) effectively inhibited the corrosion of titanium exposed to 5 g/l of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in NaOH solutions of pH 12. It was also found that in simulated paper mill chemistries, i.e., basic solutions containing 3.7 g/l sodium silicate and 0.6 g/l EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid), corrosion rates increased markedly with the addition of 5 g/l H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. However, subsequent additions of peroxide resulted in corrosion rates which were even lower than those found in NaOH. This is believed to be due to the formation of a black scale on the surface of the sample. The addition of magnesium sulfate (MgSO{sub 4}) in the 0.1--0.5 g/l range also was shown to inhibit corrosion in the NaOH solution, but only after prior exposure to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}.

  20. Bacterial and fungal diversity in the starter production process of Fen liquor, a traditional Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Ran; Ma, En-Bo; Yan, Liang-Zhen; Meng, Han; Du, Xiao-Wei; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2013-08-01

    Fermented foods and beverages are important parts of human diet. Fen liquor, a Chinese liquor is a fermented beverage that uses a traditional fermentation process. Starters are the main microbial source and also provide nutrients for microorganisms during fermentation. In this study, starters of Fen liquor were produced through a complex traditional fermentation process. To investigate the community structure and the composition of microorganisms in the starter production process, bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions were sequenced using clone libraries and pyrosequencing, respectively. There was much higher diversity among the bacteria than among the fungi in the starter production process. Bacteria on the surface of the starters belonged mostly to the Lactobacillaceae family, while members of the Bacillacae family were dominant in the interior of the samples that lacked access to air and water. In the fungi population, diversity was high only in the raw material. In all other samples, nearly all of the fungal sequences were from Pichia kudriavzevii, a member of the Saccharomycetaceae family. Nearly all samples showed similar fungal community structures, indicating that there was little change in the fungal community. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to reveal the whole process of the starter production of Chinese traditional liquor. The findings obtained in this study provide new insights into understanding the composition of the microbial community during the traditional Chinese liquor starter production process and information about the production process control and monitoring.

  1. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands...

  2. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  3. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  4. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....C. 5232, the formula shall include a statement to that effect. If any product contains liquors...

  5. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26.50 Section 26.50 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....C. 5232, the formula shall include a statement to that effect. If any product contains liquors...

  6. 27 CFR 10.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 10.603 Section 10.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  7. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  8. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  9. The antioxidative substances in cacao liquor.

    PubMed

    Osakabe, N; Yamagishi, M; Sanbongi, C; Natsume, M; Takizawa, T; Osawa, T

    1998-04-01

    The antioxidative substances contained in cacao liquor, which is one of the major ingredients of chocolate, were separated by column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. Three major compounds were purified and two of them were identified by 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectra as (-)-epicatechin (EC) and (+)-catechin (CA). Their antioxidative activity was measured by monitoring the peroxide value of linoleic acid and the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values of erythrocyte ghost membranes and microsomes. EC and CA had strong antioxidative effects in all three methods, but one unidentified peak was found to be less effective. Additionally, we analyzed the polyphenol concentration of cacao liquor extractions produced in several countries. The total polyphenol concentration was 7.0 to 13.0%, catechin concentration was 0.31 to 0.49%, and epicatechin concentration was 0.35 to 1.68% in the extractions. It is believed that chocolate is stable against oxidative deterioration on account of the presence of these polyphenolic compounds, and it is also expected to have a protective role against lipid peroxidation in living systems.

  10. Effects of spent liquor recirculation in hydrothermal carbonization.

    PubMed

    Kabadayi Catalkopru, Arzu; Kantarli, Ismail Cem; Yanik, Jale

    2017-02-01

    In this study, the effect of the recirculation of spent liquor from hydrothermal carbonization was investigated depending on the biomass type (grape pomace, orange pomace and poultry litter). The yield and fuel properties of hydrochars and spent liquor characteristics were determined for each recirculation step. By recirculation, mass and energy yields of the hydrochar increased, but their combustion characteristics changed: the ignition temperature and combustion reactivity decreased. The organic and inorganic load of liquor was increased with recirculation number, but not as much as would be expected after the first recycle. It was concluded that the load of organic and inorganic species in spent liquor decreased the leaching of some inorganics and diffusion of the degraded soluble fragments from biomass in the subsequent hydrothermal carbonization. Overall, this study showed that spent liquor recirculation makes the overall hydrothermal carbonization process environmentally friendly.

  11. Hair spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002705.htm Hair spray poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hair spray poisoning occurs when someone breathes in (inhales) ...

  12. Triamcinolone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies. Triamcinolone nasal spray should not ... germs.Triamcinolone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever and allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  13. Mometasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. It is also used to ... using mometasone nasal spray to prevent or relieve hay fever or allergy symptoms, it is usually sprayed in ...

  14. Flunisolide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies. Flunisolide nasal spray should not ... germs.Flunisolide nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  15. Nasal corticosteroid sprays

    MedlinePlus

    ... or concerns about your symptoms Trouble using the medicine Alternative Names Steroid nasal sprays; Allergies - nasal corticosteroid sprays References American Academy of ... of Medicine, Division of Allergy, Immunology, and Rheumatology, Georgetown University ...

  16. Remotely controlled spray gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, William C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A remotely controlled spray gun is described in which a nozzle and orifice plate are held in precise axial alignment by an alignment member, which in turn is held in alignment with the general outlet of the spray gun by insert. By this arrangement, the precise repeatability of spray patterns is insured.

  17. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Handling of liquor kits. An aircraft may land at an airport where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  18. Characterization of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.; Mao, C.-P.

    1984-01-01

    It is pointed out that most practical power generation and propulsion systems involve the burning of different types of fuel sprays, taking into account aircraft propulsion, industrial furnaces, boilers, gas turbines, and diesel engines. There has been a lack of data which can serve as a basis for spray model development and validation. A major aim of the present investigation is to fill this gap. Experimental apparatus and techniques for studying the characteristics of fuel sprays are discussed, taking into account two-dimensional still photography, cinematography, holography, a laser diffraction particle sizer, and a laser anemometer. The considered instruments were used in a number of experiments, taking into account three different types of fuel spray. Attention is given to liquid fuel sprays, high pressure pulsed diesel sprays, and coal-water slurry sprays.

  19. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26...

  20. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26...

  1. Determination of the microbial origin of geosmin in Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2012-03-07

    Geosmin is the major cause of the common earthy off-flavor in light-aroma type Chinese liquor and, thus, highly detrimental to the aromatic quality. To find out its origin, the evolving process of geosmin in light-aroma type liquor making was monitored, and microbial analysis of Daqu containing geosmin was carried out. The results showed that geosmin appeared in all the fermented sorghums at different fermentation periods. About 57% geosmin in the fermented sorghums was distilled into liquor. During the distillation process, the peak of geosmin concentration appeared when alcohol content was 50-60% vol. More importantly, high geosmin content was observed during the Daqu-making process. Furthermore, five Streptomyces strains were isolated from different types of Daqu used for the fermentation of light-aroma type liquor. All of them produced only geosmin as the main volatile metabolite but no 2-methylisoborneol (2-MIB). It appears that microorganisms developing in Daqu are responsible for the presence of geosmin in liquor. Because of the relatively low detection threshold estimated at 110 ng/L in 46 vol % hydroalcoholic solution, the presence of geosmin in Daqu may pose a risk for Chinese liquor producers.

  2. Nitrogen removal from the saline sludge liquor by electrochemical denitrification.

    PubMed

    Xie, Z M; Li, X Y; Chan, K Y

    2006-01-01

    Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4(+) - N content of around 500 mg/L. The sludge liquor had a high salinity due to seawater being used for toilet flushing in Hong Kong. The results show that the EC process is highly effective for denitrification of the saline sludge liquor. Complete nitrogen removal could be achieved within 1 hr or so. The rate of EC denitrification increased with the current intensity applied. The best current efficiency for nitrogen removal was obtained for a gap distance between the electrodes at 8 mm. Electro-chlorination was considered to be the major mechanism of EC denitrification. The formation of chlorination by-products (CBPs) appeared to be minimal with the total trihalomethanes (THM) detected at a level of 300 microg/L or lower. The power consumption for EC denitrification was around 23 kWh/kg N. Additional electro-flocculation with a pair of iron needle electrodes could enhance the flocculation and subsequent sedimentation of colloidal organics in the sludge liquor, increasing the organic removal from less than 30% to more than 70%. Therefore, the EC process including both electro-denitrification and electro-flocculation can be developed as the most cost-effective method for treatment of the saline sludge liquor.

  3. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  4. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    PubMed Central

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products. PMID:28059090

  5. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p < 0.05) in the fifth year. On the contrary, a significant increase was observed in propionic acid, furfural and phenylethanol. Ethyl lactate was found to be the most stable aroma component during aging process. Results of PCA and CA demonstrated that young liquor (fresh) and aged liquors were well separated from each other, which is in consistent with the evolution of aroma components along with the aging process. These findings provide a quantitative basis for discriminating the Chinese liquor age and a scientific basis for further research on elucidating the liquor aging process, and a possible tool to guard against counterfeit and defective products.

  6. Bear Spray Safety Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blome, C.D.; Kuzniar, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    A bear spray safety program for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was officially initiated by the Firearms Safety Committee to address accident prevention and to promote personnel training in bear spray and its transportation, storage, and use for defense against wild animals. Used as part of a system including firearms, or used alone for those who choose not to carry a firearm, bear spray is recognized as an effective tool that can prevent injury in a wild animal attack.

  7. Ciclesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Wash the dust cap and applicator with warm water. Dry and replace the applicator and press down and release the pump one time or until you see a fine spray. Replace the dust cap. Do not use pins or other sharp objects in the tiny spray hole on the nasal applicator to remove the blockage. ...

  8. Cold spray nozzle design

    DOEpatents

    Haynes, Jeffrey D.; Sanders, Stuart A.

    2009-06-09

    A nozzle for use in a cold spray technique is described. The nozzle has a passageway for spraying a powder material, the passageway having a converging section and a diverging section, and at least the diverging section being formed from polybenzimidazole. In one embodiment of the nozzle, the converging section is also formed from polybenzimidazole.

  9. Environmentally compatible spray cement

    SciTech Connect

    Loeschnig, P.

    1995-12-31

    Within the framework of a European research project, Heidelberger Zement developed a quickly setting and hardening binder for shotcrete, called Chronolith S, which avoids the application of setting accelerators. Density and strength of the shotcrete produced with this spray cement correspond to those of an unaccelerated shotcrete. An increased hazard for the heading team and for the environment, which may occur when applying setting accelerators, can be excluded here. Owing to the special setting properties of a spray cement, the process engineering for its manufacturing is of great importance. The treatment of a spray cement as a dry concrete with kiln-dried aggregates is possible without any problems. The use of a naturally damp pre-batched mixture is possible with Chronolith S but requires special process engineering; spray cement and damp aggregate are mixed with one another immediately before entering the spraying machinery.

  10. Spray Rolling Aluminum Strip

    SciTech Connect

    Lavernia, E.J.; Delplanque, J-P; McHugh, K.M.

    2006-05-10

    Spray forming is a competitive low-cost alternative to ingot metallurgy for manufacturing ferrous and non-ferrous alloy shapes. It produces materials with a reduced number of processing steps, while maintaining materials properties, with the possibility of near-net-shape manufacturing. However, there are several hurdles to large-scale commercial adoption of spray forming: 1) ensuring strip is consistently flat, 2) eliminating porosity, particularly at the deposit/substrate interface, and 3) improving material yield. Through this program, a new strip/sheet casting process, termed spray rolling, has been developed, which is an innovative manufacturing technique to produce aluminum net-shape products. Spray rolling combines the benefits of twin-roll casting and conventional spray forming, showing a promising potential to overcome the above hurdles associated with spray forming. Spray rolling requires less energy and generates less scrap than conventional processes and, consequently, enables the development of materials with lower environmental impacts in both processing and final products. Spray Rolling was developed as a collaborative project between the University of California-Davis, the Colorado School of Mines, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, and an industry team. The following objectives of this project were achieved: (1) Demonstration of the feasibility of the spray rolling process at the bench-scale level and evaluation of the materials properties of spray rolled aluminum strip alloys; and (2) Demonstration of 2X scalability of the process and documentation of technical hurdles to further scale up and initiate technology transfer to industry for eventual commercialization of the process.

  11. Coal as a Substitute for Carbon Black

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.

    1982-01-01

    New proposal shows sprayed coal powder formed by extrusion of coal heated to plastic state may be inexpensive substitute for carbon black. Carbon black is used extensively in rubber industry as reinforcing agent in such articles as tires and hoses. It is made from natural gas and petroleum, both of which are in short supply.

  12. An overview of spray drift reduction testing of spray nozzles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The importance of the development and testing of drift reduction technologies (DRTs) is increasing. Common spray drift reduction technologies include spray nozzles and spray adjuvants. Following draft procedures developed for a DRT program, three spray nozzles were tested under high air speed cond...

  13. Chromatic signatures of broadband optical spectra for liquor discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, G. R.; Deakin, A. G.; Spencer, J. W.

    2009-02-01

    Methods based upon chromatic analysis are described for quantifying broadband optical absorption spectra in discriminating between different types of liquors. The absorption spectra are quantified by three chromaticity coordinates, which can be represented by two points, one on each of two chromatic diagrams. Various types of liquors may then be distinguished on such chromatic maps and groups of similar samples conveniently identified. Examples of the deployment of the approach are given for distinguishing between and classifying various types, brands and mixtures of alcoholic beverages and for identifying an authentic brand. The method provides a high level of traceability and is not restricted to a particular type of optical spectrum.

  14. Thermal Arc Spray Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafiz Abd Malek, Muhamad; Hayati Saad, Nor; Kiyai Abas, Sunhaji; Mohd Shah, Noriyati

    2013-06-01

    Usage of protective coating for corrosion protection was on highly demand during the past decade; and thermal spray coating played a major part during that time. In recent years, the thermal arc spray coating becomes a popular coating. Many big players in oil and gas such as PETRONAS, EXXON MOBIL and SHELL in Malaysia tend to use the coating on steel structure as a corrosion protection. Further developments in coating processes, the devices, and raw materials have led to expansion of functional coatings and applications scope from conventional coating to specialized industries. It is widely used because of its ability to withstand high process temperature, offer advantages in efficiency, lower cost and acts as a corrosion protection. Previous research also indicated that the thermal arc spray offers better coating properties compared to other methods of spray. This paper reviews some critical area of thermal spray coating by discussing the process/parameter of thermal arc spray technology and quality control of coating. Coating performance against corrosion, wear and special characteristic of coating are also described. The field application of arc spray technology are demonstrated and reviewed.

  15. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... director: (1) A list of names of all airline employees authorized to break Customs seals on liquor kits in... the seals on aircraft liquor kits shall check the contents at once. The employees shall immediately... on the liquor kits and those recorded on the stores list; and (3) Differences in quantity as shown...

  16. A new insert sample approach to paper spray mass spectrometry: a paper substrate with paraffin barriers.

    PubMed

    Colletes, T C; Garcia, P T; Campanha, R B; Abdelnur, P V; Romão, W; Coltro, W K T; Vaz, B G

    2016-03-07

    The analytical performance for paper spray (PS) using a new insert sample approach based on paper with paraffin barriers (PS-PB) is presented. The paraffin barrier is made using a simple, fast and cheap method based on the stamping of paraffin onto a paper surface. Typical operation conditions of paper spray such as the solvent volume applied on the paper surface, and the paper substrate type are evaluated. A paper substrate with paraffin barriers shows better performance on analysis of a range of typical analytes when compared to the conventional PS-MS using normal paper (PS-NP) and PS-MS using paper with two rounded corners (PS-RC). PS-PB was applied to detect sugars and their inhibitors in sugarcane bagasse liquors from a second generation ethanol process. Moreover, the PS-PB proved to be excellent, showing results for the quantification of glucose in hydrolysis liquors with excellent linearity (R(2) = 0.99), limits of detection (2.77 mmol L(-1)) and quantification (9.27 mmol L(-1)). The results are better than for PS-NP and PS-RC. The PS-PB was also excellent in performance when compared with the HPLC-UV method for glucose quantification on hydrolysis of liquor samples.

  17. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refilling of liquor bottles. 31.201 Section 31.201 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used...

  18. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... the sale of liquor by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 1.1.3. ``Beer'' means any... bitters, and all drinks or drinkable liquids and all preparations or mixtures capable of human consumption... identification which falsely purports to show the individual as being over the age of 21 years, or 2.1.11....

  19. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  20. 27 CFR 19.603 - Liquor bottle records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Liquor bottle records. 19.603 Section 19.603 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Processing Records §...

  1. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  2. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  3. Budesonide Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneezing, runny, stuffy, or itchy nose caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused by an allergy to ... germs.Budesonide nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  4. Fluticasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... itchy nose and itchy, watery eyes caused by hay fever or other allergies (caused by an allergy to ... germs.Fluticasone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  5. Beclomethasone Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... runny, stuffy, or itchy nose (rhinitis) caused by hay fever, other allergies, or vasomotor (nonallergic) rhinitis. It is ... germs.Beclomethasone nasal spray controls the symptoms of hay fever or allergies but does not cure these conditions. ...

  6. Supersonic-Spray Cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caimi, Raoul E. B.; Lin, Feng-Nan; Thaxton, Eric A.

    1995-01-01

    Spraying system for cleaning mechanical components uses less liquid and operates at pressures significantly lower. Liquid currently used is water. Designed to replace chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) solvent-based cleaning and cleanliness verification methods. Consists of spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, source of gas at regulated pressure, pressurized liquid tank, and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. Parameters of nozzles set so any of large variety of liquids and gases combined in desired ratio and rate of flow. Size and number of nozzles varied so system built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. Also used to verify part adequately cleaned. Runoff liquid from spray directed at part collected. Liquid analyzed for presence of contaminants, and part recleaned if necessary.

  7. Butorphanol Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... spray is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Butorphanol is in a class of medications called ... works by changing the way the body senses pain. ... This branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.

  8. Bug spray poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... effective bug sprays contain pyrethrins. Pyrethrins are a pesticide made from the chrysanthemum flower. It is generally ... death. References Borron SW. Pyrethrins, repellants, and other pesticides. In: Shannon MW, Borron SW, Burns MJ, eds. ...

  9. Sumatriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... spray is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes are accompanied ... that cause pain, nausea, and other symptoms of migraine. Sumatriptan does not prevent migraine attacks or reduce ...

  10. Zolmitriptan Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... spray is used to treat the symptoms of migraine headaches (severe, throbbing headaches that sometimes are accompanied ... that cause pain, nausea, and other symptoms of migraine. Zolmitriptan does not prevent migraine attacks or reduce ...

  11. Sensors in Spray Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauchais, P.; Vardelle, M.

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents what is our actual knowledge about sensors, used in the harsh environment of spray booths, to improve the reproducibility and reliability of coatings sprayed with hot or cold gases. First are described, with their limitations and precisions, the different sensors following the in-flight hot particle parameters (trajectories, temperatures, velocities, sizes, and shapes). A few comments are also made about techniques, still under developments in laboratories, to improve our understanding of coating formation such as plasma jet temperature measurements in non-symmetrical conditions, hot gases heat flux, particles flattening and splats formation, particles evaporation. Then are described the illumination techniques by laser flash of either cold particles (those injected in hot gases, or in cold spray gun) or liquid injected into hot gases (suspensions or solutions). The possibilities they open to determine the flux and velocities of cold particles or visualize liquid penetration in the core of hot gases are discussed. Afterwards are presented sensors to follow, when spraying hot particles, substrate and coating temperature evolution, and the stress development within coatings during the spray process as well as the coating thickness. The different uses of these sensors are then described with successively: (i) Measurements limited to particle trajectories, velocities, temperatures, and sizes in different spray conditions: plasma (including transient conditions due to arc root fluctuations in d.c. plasma jets), HVOF, wire arc, cold spray. Afterwards are discussed how such sensor data can be used to achieve a better understanding of the different spray processes, compare experiments to calculations and improve the reproducibility and reliability of the spray conditions. (ii) Coatings monitoring through in-flight measurements coupled with those devoted to coatings formation. This is achieved by either maintaining at their set point both in-flight and

  12. Portable Spray Booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Timothy D.; Bardwell, Micheal J.

    1996-01-01

    Portable spray booth provides for controlled application of coating materials with high solvent contents. Includes contoured shroud and carbon filter bed limiting concentration of fumes in vicinity. Designed to substitute spraying for brush application of solvent-based adhesive prior to installing rubber waterproof seals over joints between segments of solid-fuel rocket motor. With minor adjustments and modifications, used to apply other solvent-based adhesives, paints, and like.

  13. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, T.J.

    1993-11-16

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal. 6 figures.

  14. Metal atomization spray nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Huxford, Theodore J.

    1993-01-01

    A spray nozzle for a magnetohydrodynamic atomization apparatus has a feed passage for molten metal and a pair of spray electrodes mounted in the feed passage. The electrodes, diverging surfaces which define a nozzle throat and diverge at an acute angle from the throat. Current passes through molten metal when fed through the throat which creates the Lorentz force necessary to provide atomization of the molten metal.

  15. Directed spray mast

    DOEpatents

    Nance, Thomas A.; Siddall, Alvin A.; Cheng, William Y.; Counts, Kevin T.

    2005-05-10

    Disclosed is an elongated, tubular, compact high pressure sprayer apparatus for insertion into an access port of vessels having contaminated interior areas that require cleaning by high pressure water spray. The invention includes a spray nozzle and a camera adjacent thereto with means for rotating and raising and lowering the nozzle so that areas identified through the camera may be cleaned with a minimum production of waste water to be removed.

  16. Spray applicator for spraying coatings and other fluids in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuminecz, J. F.; Lausten, M. F. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A self contained spray application is developed for one handed operation in a zero gravity vacuum environment by a free flying astronaut not attached to any spacecraft. This spray applicator eliminates contamination of the operator by back spray. This applicator includes a rigid accumulator containment of a fluid within a flexible bladder the fluid being urged out of the accumulator under pressure through a spray gun. The spray gun includes a spring loaded lockable trigger which controls a valve. When in an open position, the fluid passes through the valve into the ambient environment in the form of a spray. A spray shield is provided which directs the flow of the spray from the applicator by trapping errant particles of spray yet allowing the passage of escaping gases through its material.

  17. Plasma-sprayed coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, H.

    1988-09-01

    Plasma spraying is one way to apply protective coatings. The hot, high-speed flame of a plasma gun can melt a powder of almost any ceramic or metal and spray it to form a coating for protection against corrosion, wear or high temperature. The technique carries much less risk of degrading the coating and substrate than many other high-temperature processes do, because the gas in the plasma flame is chemically inert and the target can be kept fairly cool. And yet a plasma gun can be only a little more cumbersome than a paint sprayer. Investigators are applying this technique to new materials. The General Electric Company is using vacuum plasma spraying to make freestanding components: intricate aircraft engine parts formed by plasma-spraying a superalloy on a removable substrate. Other workers spray ceramic particles or fibers and metal powder simulatious wrong, stiff composite materials: the ceramic particles dispersed in a matrix of metal. The author and colleagues at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory have fabricated a thick film of high-temperature superconductor by plasma-spraying the compound in the form of a powder. 7 figs.

  18. Calculation of the liquor system pliability using the mathematical simulation method.

    PubMed

    Koshurnikov, D S; Petraikin, A V; Martynov, A K; Sergienko, V I

    2011-10-01

    Liquor circulation is a directed flow of the liquor from sites of its secretion to sites of resorption. This slow flow is modulated by pulsation caused by heart work. Phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging is a method for noninvasive measurements of the linear velocity of these pulses in the cerebral aqueduct. A mathematical model reproducing pulsed flow of the liquor in the cerebral aqueduct is proposed and the procedure of evaluation of these parameters is presented. The pliability liquor system can be calculated from the values of liquor flow linear velocity in the cerebral aqueduct, measured by noninvasive method.

  19. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2–3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  20. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-01-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2–3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors. PMID:27922117

  1. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse (14)C.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G S; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-06

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon ((14)C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in "the golden triangular region" in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ(14)C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  2. Measurements in liquid fuel sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chigier, N.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for studying the events directly preceding combustion in the liquid fuel sprays are being used to provide information as a function of space and time on droplet size, shape, number density, position, angle of flight and velocity. Spray chambers were designed and constructed for: (1) air-assist liquid fuel research sprays; (2) high pressure and temperature chamber for pulsed diesel fuel sprays; and (3) coal-water slurry sprays. Recent results utilizing photography, cinematography, and calibration of the Malvern particle sizer are reported. Systems for simultaneous measurement of velocity and particle size distributions using laser Doppler anemometry interferometry and the application of holography in liquid fuel sprays are being calibrated.

  3. Bioabsorption of chromium from retan chrome liquor by cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Pandi, M; Shashirekha, V; Swamy, Mahadeswara

    2009-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of chromium from retan chrome liquor by Spirulina fusiformis was investigated under laboratory as well as field conditions. At the optimal conditions, metal ion uptake increased with initial metal ion concentration up to 300mg/l. The effect on various physico-chemical parameters like total solids (TS), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorides, sulphates, phenols, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical studies related to biomass, chlorophyll-a and protein were also carried out. The present study indicates that S. fusiformis is very effective in removal of chromium (93-99%) besides removing other toxicants from retan chrome liquor. The sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and FTIR studies indicate the interaction/complexation between Cr and alga. The mechanism involved in bioaccumulation of chromium is also discussed. The process when upgraded can be applied for detoxification of tannery effluents.

  4. Determination of opiate alkaloids in process liquors using capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Hindson, Benjamin J; Francis, Paul S; Purcell, Stuart D; Barnett, Neil W

    2007-02-19

    This paper describes the determination of opiate alkaloids (morphine, codeine, oripavine and thebaine) in industrial process liquors using capillary zone electrophoresis with UV-absorption detection at 214 nm. A study of cyclodextrin type and concentration revealed that the addition of 30 mM hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin to the electrolyte solution (100mM Tris adjusted to pH 2.8) was suitable to resolve the four analytes of interest. Typical analysis time was 12 min and the limit of detection for each alkaloid was 2.5 x 10(-6) M. The results for the proposed methodology were in good agreement with those of a conventional HPLC procedure. Under the same conditions, short-end injection was used to reduce the effective separation length from 41.5 to 8.5 cm, which allowed the determination of morphine and thebaine in process liquors within 2.5 min.

  5. Miniature spray-painting booth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fee, K. W.

    1970-01-01

    Transparent spray booth provides method for quality painting and repair of surfaces in clean room or other specialized environments. Overspray and virtually all contaminating vapor and odor can be eliminated. Touch-up painting is achieved with spray gun.

  6. Nasal spray flu vaccine (image)

    MedlinePlus

    The flu vaccine can also be administered as a nasal spray instead of the usual injection method. It can be ... the recombinant influenza vaccine (RIV). The nasal spray flu vaccine (live attenuated influenza vaccine or LAIV) should not ...

  7. The study on the reaction of rutile in Bayer liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Bi Shiwen; Li Dianfeng; Yang Yihong; Fu Gaofeng; Zhang Xin; Li Yan

    1996-10-01

    TiO{sub 2} is a harmful impurity in the digestion of producing alumina. TiO{sub 2} in bauxite usually exists in the forms of rutile, anatase and brookite. In this paper, the authors studied the reaction of rutile in sodium aluminate liquor, examined the effects of OH{sup {minus}} ion concentration, adding amount of CaO and temperature on the reaction, achieved the kinetics equation and calculated the activation energy of the reaction.

  8. Controlled overspray spray nozzle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, W. P. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A spray system for a multi-ingredient ablative material wherein a nozzle A is utilized for suppressing overspray is described. The nozzle includes a cyclindrical inlet which converges to a restricted throat. A curved juncture between the cylindrical inlet and the convergent portion affords unrestricted and uninterrupted flow of the ablative material. A divergent bell-shaped chamber and adjustable nozzle exit B is utilized which provides a highly effective spray pattern in suppressing overspray to an acceptable level and producing a homogeneous jet of material that adheres well to the substrate.

  9. Fermentation to ethanol of pentose-containing spent sulphite liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.; Wayman, M.; Parekh, S.K.

    1987-06-01

    Ethanolic fermentation of spent sulphite liquor with ordinary bakers' yeast is incomplete because this yeast cannot ferment the pentose sugars in the liquor. This results in poor alcohol yields, and a residual effluent problem. By using the yeast Candida shehatae (R) for fermentation of the spent sulphite liquor from a large Canadian alcohol-producing sulphite pulp and paper mill, pentoses as well as hexoses were fermented nearly completely, alcohol yields were raised by 33%, and sugar removal increased by 46%. Inhibitors were removed prior to fermentation by steam stripping. Major benefits were obtained by careful recycling of this yeast, which was shown to be tolerant both of high sugar concentrations and high alcohol concentrations. When sugar concentrations over 250 g/L (glucose:xylose 70:30) were fermented, ethanol became an inhibitor when its concentration reached 90 g/L. However, when the ethanol was removed by low-temperature vacuum distillation, fermentation continued and resulted in a yield of 0.50 g ethanol/g sugar consumed. Further improvement was achieved by combining enzyme saccharification of sugar oligomers with fermentation. This yeast is able to ferment both hexoses and pentoses simultaneously, efficiently, and rapidly. Present indications are that it is well suited to industrial operations wherever hexoses and pentoses are both to be fermented to ethanol, for example, in wood hydrolysates. (Refs. 6).

  10. Alberta's and Ontario's liquor boards: why such divergent outcomes?

    PubMed

    Bird, Malcolm G

    2010-01-01

    The provinces of Alberta and Ontario have chosen very different methods to distribute alcoholic beverages: Alberta privatized the Alberta Liquor Control Board (ALCB) in 1993 and established a private market to sell beverage alcohol, while Ontario, in stark contrast, opted to retain and expand the Liquor Control Board of Ontario (LCBO). This article examines the reasons for the divergent policy choices made by Ralph Klein and Mike Harris' Conservative governments in each province. The article draws on John Kingdon's “multiple streams decision-making model,” to examine the mindsets of the key decision-makers, as well as “historical institutionalism,” to organize the pertinent structural, historical and institutional variables that shaped the milieu in which decision-makers acted. Unique, province-specific political cultures, histories, institutional configurations (including the relative influence of a number of powerful actors), as well as the fact that the two liquor control boards were on opposing trajectories towards their ultimate fates, help to explain the different decisions made by each government. Endogenous preference construction in this sector, furthermore, implies that each system is able to satisfy all relevant stakeholders, including consumers.

  11. Sprayed Coating Renews Butyl Rubber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. B.

    1982-01-01

    Damaged butyl rubber products are renewed by spray technique originally developed for protective suits worn by NASA workers. A commercial two-part adhesive is mixed with Freon-113 (or equivalent) trichlorotrifluoroethane to obtain optimum viscosity for spraying. Mix is applied with an external-air-mix spray gun.

  12. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1992-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort to date so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology.

  13. Picosecond imaging of sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breisacher, Kevin; Liou, Larry; Wang, L.; Liang, X.; Galland, P.; Ho, P. P.; Alfano, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary results from applying a Kerr-Fourier imaging system to a water/air spray produced by a shear coaxial element are presented. The physics behind ultrafast time-gated optical techniques is discussed briefly. A typical setup of a Kerr-Fourier time gating system is presented.

  14. Ocean Spray Lubricates Winds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    According to a new study by two University of California, Berkeley, mathematicians and their Russian colleague, the water droplets kicked up by rough seas serve to lubricate the swirling winds of hurricanes and cyclones, letting them build to speeds approaching 200 miles per hour. Without the lubricating effect of the spray, the mathematicians…

  15. Oxymetazoline Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rinse the tip of the dispenser with hot water or wipe it clean after you use it.Follow the directions for using the nasal spray that appear on the package label. If you are using a product that comes in a pump dispenser, press down on the rim several times ...

  16. Process for the recovery of heat and chemicals from spent liquor

    SciTech Connect

    Petaenen, P.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for the recovery of heat and chemicals from spent liquors consisting essentially of the steps of: (a) evaporating water from the liquor in a concentrator vessel to increase the solids concentration by heating under pressure greater than atmospheric to a temperature above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor; (b) feeding the liquor from the concentrator vessel to an expansion vessel where the pressure and temperature are lowered but still maintained above the atmospheric pressure and above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor to further increase the solids concentration of the liquor; (c) feeding the liquor from the expansion vessel to a second expansion vessel and mixing the liquor therein with ashes fed into said second expansion vessel under pressure and further expansion evaporating the mixture while still maintaining the mixture above atmospheric pressure and above the atmospheric boiling point of the liquor; and (d) feeding the mixture into a soda-ash furnace while maintaining the raised pressure and temperature in the second expansion vessel.

  17. Malt liquor marketing in inner cities: the role of neighborhood racial composition.

    PubMed

    McKee, Pat; Jones-Webb, Rhonda; Hannan, Peter; Pham, Lan

    2011-01-01

    In response to anecdotal reports that African American neighborhoods are targeted for high-alcohol malt liquor advertising, the authors observed alcohol ads on off-premise alcohol outlets, billboards, and transit structures in 10 U.S. cities over 3 years. Malt liquor ads were prevalent on storefronts, but rare on billboards. Using Poisson regression, the authors found that storefront malt liquor ads were more common in neighborhoods with higher percentages of African Americans, even after controlling for social and physical disorder. Results suggest that policymakers attempting to reduce malt liquor-related harms may do well to consider regulations that limit storefront advertising exposure.

  18. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2013-09-02

    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor.

  19. Optimisation of a vertical spray boom for greenhouse spraying applications.

    PubMed

    Nuyttens, D; Windey, S; Braekman, P; De Moor, A; Sonck, B

    2003-01-01

    The European Crop Protection Association (ECPA) and CLO-DVL joined forces in a project to stimulate a safe use of pesticides in Southern European countries. CLO-DVL optimised a method with mineral chelates to evaluate deposition tests. This quantitative method to evaluate spray deposits and to check spray distributions is used to assess two novel spraying techniques. Deposition tests with water-sensitive paper and mainly with the manganese and molybdenum chelates as tracer elements were performed with a manually pulled trolley and a motorised vehicle both equipped with vertical spray booms. Filter papers were attached to the tomato and pepper plants at several heights to obtain an indication of the spray distribution in the crop. Particular attention was paid to the effect on the spray distribution of the vertical nozzle distance (35 cm vs. 50 cm) and the spray distance to the crop. The tests proved that a nozzle spacing of 35 cm delivers a much better spray distribution than one of 50 cm. The optimal spray distance for flat fan nozzles with a spray angle of 80 degrees and a nozzle spacing of 35 cm is about 30 cm.

  20. Improved Orifice Plate for Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, W.

    1986-01-01

    Erratic spray pattern of commercial spray gun changed to repeatable one by simple redesign of two parts. In modified spray gun orifice plate and polytetrafluoroethylene bushing redesigned to assure centering and alignment with nozzle. Such improvement useful in many industrial applications requiring repeatable spray patterns. Might include spraying of foam insulation, paint, other protective coatings, detergents, abrasives, adhesives, process chemicals, or fuels. Unmodified spray gun produces erratic spray because lateral misalignment between orifice plate and nozzle.

  1. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms

    PubMed Central

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K.

    2015-01-01

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB. PMID:27682089

  2. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  3. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K

    2015-06-08

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  4. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    PubMed

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-20

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  5. Facilitating normal physiology in the presence of meconium stained liquor.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Julika

    2015-06-01

    There is sufficient evidence to support the practice of optimal cord clamping in normal labour and birth. In this paper, the physiology of meconium stained liquor (MSL), meconium aspiration syndrome and the practice of optimal cord clamping in babies born through MSL, is discussed. Guidelines suggest not stimulating babies born through MSL, at birth, to avoid aspiration. However, the obvious stimulation resulting from early clamping and cutting the cord, leaves a baby with no choice but to inhale, but this appears to be overlooked in practice. Midwives in their role as supporters of normal physiology are in a position to question this routine intervention in the absence of any evidence to support it.

  6. Spray combustion stability project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeng, San-Mou; Litchford, Ron J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes research activity on the Spray Combustion Stability Project, characterizes accomplishments and current status, and discusses projected future work. The purpose is to provide a concise conceptual overview of the research effort so the reader can quickly assimilate the gist of the research results and place them within the context of their potential impact on liquid rocket engine design technology. Therefore, this report does not elaborate on many of the detailed technical aspects of the research program.

  7. Spray Nozzle Calibrations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-01-01

    1984. The manuscript was submitted for publication on October 2, 1985. AEOC-TR-85-eO CONTENTS Page J.O INTRODUCTION 1.1 General 5 1.2...1.1 GENERAL The formation of ice on aircraft surfaces occurs during flight through clouds of supercooled water droplets. Ice accretion on these... wind tunnel. Both the LWC and mean effective droplet size are set and maintained through variations in the water and air supply pressures of the spray

  8. Combustion Characteristics of Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    regarded by implication or otherwise, or in any way licensing the holder or any other person or corporation, or conveying any rights or permission to...00 _’N 1. TI TLE inctuat Security CZaaafication5 Combustion Characteristics of Sprays 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Sohrab, Siavash H. 13& TYPE OF REPORT...to ?!HF of rich butane/air 3unsen flames. .lso, the rotacion speed and :he oerodic temDeracure fluc:uations of rotacfng ?HF are examined. :’!naily

  9. Ketorolac Nasal Spray

    MedlinePlus

    ... such as ketorolac may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Ketorolac may cause an increased ...

  10. Fundamental studies of spray combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Li, S.C.; Libby, P.A.; Williams, F.A.

    1997-12-31

    Our research on spray combustion involves both experiment and theory and addresses the characteristics of individual droplets and of sprays in a variety of flows: laminar and turbulent, opposed and impinging. Currently our focus concerns water and fuel sprays in two stage laminar flames, i.e., flames arising, for example from a stream of fuel and oxidizer flowing opposite to an air stream carrying a water spray. Our interest in these flames is motivated by the goals of reducing pollutant emissions and extending the range of stable spray combustion. There remains considerable research to be carried out in order to achieve these goals. Thus far our research on the characteristics of sprays in turbulent flows has been limited to nonreacting jets impinging on a plate but this work will be extended to opposed flows with and without a flame. In the following we discuss details of these studies and our plans for future work.

  11. Marketing Booze to Blacks. A Report from the Center for Science in the Public Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacker, George A.; And Others

    Beer, wine, and liquor manufacturers aggressively seek to maximize sales of their products to blacks, despite public health and safety problems associated with those products. Rather than act to protect the public from the over-promotion of alcohol, government has set few effective constraints on the sales stratagems of alcoholic beverage…

  12. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Control Law contains provisions requiring the Nation to issue licenses to all businesses that intend to... Bureau of Indian Affairs Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes Liquor Control Law No. LB-06-08 of the...

  13. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of... this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Lummi...

  14. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts...

  15. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... regulating liquor transactions in Indian country. The Business Committee of the Ponca Tribe of Indians of... Interior to the Assistant Secretary--Indian Affairs. I certify that the Business Committee of the Ponca... Liquor on Tribal Lands Be it enacted by the Ponca Business Committee as follows: Article 1. Title....

  16. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  17. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  18. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  19. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  20. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  1. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b)...

  2. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... previously regulated the introduction, possession, sale and consumption of liquor under Ordinance 14...-Sparks Indian Colony will continue to be a ``dry'' reservation where the possession or consumption of... Council, but even where a License is issued, the Tribal Council can prohibit or limit liquor...

  3. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  4. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  5. Closed loop spray cooling apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alger, D. L.; Schwab, W. B.; Furman, E. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A closed loop apparatus for jet spraying coolant against the back of a radiation target is described. The coolant is circulated through a closed loop with a bubble of inert gas being maintained around the spray. Mesh material is disposed between the bubble and the surface of the liquid coolant which is below the bubble at a predetermined level. In a second arrangement no inert gas is used, the bubble consists of vapor produced when the coolant is sprayed against the target.

  6. Photomicrographic Studies of Fuel Sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Dana W; Spencer, Robert C

    1934-01-01

    A large number of photomicrographs of fuel sprays were taken for the purpose of studying the spray structure and the process of spray formation. They were taken at magnifying powers of 2.5, 3.25, and 10, using a spark discharge of very short duration for illumination. Several types and sizes of nozzles were investigated, different liquids were used, and a wide range of injection pressures was employed. The sprays were photographed as they were injected into a glass-walled chamber in which the air density was varied from 14 atmospheres to 0.0013 atmosphere.

  7. Vacuum Plasma Spraying Replaces Electrodeposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Richard R.; Power, Chris; Burns, David H.; Daniel, Ron; Mckechnie, Timothy N.

    1992-01-01

    Vacuum plasma spraying used to fabricate large parts with complicated contours and inner structures, without uninspectable welds. Reduces time, and expense of fabrication. Wall of combustion chamber built up inside of outer nickel-alloy jacket by plasma spraying. Particles of metal sprayed partially melted in plasma gun and thrown at supersonic speed toward deposition surface. Vacuum plasma-spray produces stronger bond between the grooves and covering layer completing channels and wall of combustion chamber. In tests, bond withstood pressure of 20 kpsi, three times allowable limit by old method.

  8. It does the job: Young adults discuss their malt liquor consumption.

    PubMed

    Bradizza, Clara M; Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Falco, Diana L

    2006-09-01

    Young adult men and women (N=53) who regularly consume malt liquor (i.e., 40 oz/week) participated in 10 semi-structured focus groups. Group transcripts were analyzed using a multilevel process that focused on recurring themes across multiple groups. Commonly identified themes encompassed positive and negative qualities of malt liquor as well as contexts in which malt liquor was consumed. Some of the themes were corroborated by quantitative data on drinking behavior and other variables. The focus groups were designed to explore the unique characteristics of malt liquor (low price, high alcohol content, large volume packaging) that enhance consumption patterns and increase risk for excessive alcohol use. The combination of qualitative and quantitative data provides a unique and useful perspective for identifying issues for future research on malt liquor consumption.

  9. Black holes

    PubMed Central

    Brügmann, B.; Ghez, A. M.; Greiner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries. PMID:11553801

  10. Black holes.

    PubMed

    Brügmann, B; Ghez, A M; Greiner, J

    2001-09-11

    Recent progress in black hole research is illustrated by three examples. We discuss the observational challenges that were met to show that a supermassive black hole exists at the center of our galaxy. Stellar-size black holes have been studied in x-ray binaries and microquasars. Finally, numerical simulations have become possible for the merger of black hole binaries.

  11. Biomass production and nutrient removal by Chlorella sp. as affected by sludge liquor concentration.

    PubMed

    Åkerström, Anette M; Mortensen, Leiv M; Rusten, Bjørn; Gislerød, Hans Ragnar

    2014-11-01

    The use of microalgae for biomass production and nutrient removal from the reject water produced in the dewatering process of anaerobically digested sludge, sludge liquor, was investigated. The sludge liquor was characterized by a high content of total suspended solids (1590 mg L(-1)), a high nitrogen concentration (1210 mg L(-1)), and a low phosphorus concentration (28 mg L(-1)). Chlorella sp. was grown in sludge liquor diluted with wastewater treatment plant effluent water to different concentrations (12, 25, 40, 50, 70, and 100%) using batch mode. The environmental conditions were 25 °C, a continuous lightning of 115 μmol m(-2) s(-1), and a CO2 concentration of 3.0%. The highest biomass production (0.42-0.45 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1)) was achieved at 40-50% sludge liquor, which was comparable to the production of the control culture grown with an artificial fertilizer. The biomass production was 0.12 and 0.26 g dry weight L(-1) Day(-1) at 12% and 100% sludge liquor, respectively. The percentage of nitrogen in the algal biomass increased from 3.6% in 12% sludge liquor and reached a saturation of ∼10% in concentrations with 50% sludge liquor and higher. The phosphorus content in the biomass increased linearly from 0.2 to 1.5% with increasing sludge liquor concentrations. The highest nitrogen removal rates by algal biosynthesis were 33.6-42.6 mg TN L(-1) Day(-1) at 40-70% sludge liquor, while the highest phosphorus removal rates were 3.1-4.1 mg TP L(-1) Day(-1) at 50-100% sludge liquor.

  12. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth Tobacco Survey was used to assess usual alcohol beverage consumption and liquor consumption and the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks by Michigan high school students. Beverage preferences were analyzed by demographic characteristics and drinking patterns. Results Overall, 34.2% of Michigan high school students consumed alcohol in the past month, and 20.8% reported binge drinking. Among current drinkers, liquor was the most common type of alcohol consumed (51.2%), and vodka was the most prevalent type of liquor consumed by those who drank liquor (53.0%). The prevalence of liquor consumption was similar among binge drinkers and nonbinge drinkers, but binge drinkers who drank liquor were significantly more likely than nonbinge drinkers to consume vodka and to mix alcohol with energy drinks (49.0% vs 18.2%, respectively). Conclusions Liquor is the most common type of alcoholic beverage consumed by Michigan high school students; vodka is the most common type of liquor consumed. Mixing alcohol and energy drinks is common, particularly among binge drinkers. Community Guide strategies for reducing excessive drinking (eg, increasing alcohol taxes) can reduce underage drinking. PMID:26564010

  13. Characterization of geosmin as source of earthy odor in different aroma type Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Fan, Wenlai; Xu, Yan

    2011-08-10

    Earthy odor is one of the most frequent and serious causes for the aroma deterioration in Chinese liquor, which causes a dirty and dusty impression. The odor in Chinese liquor is similar to that of rice husk, one kind of auxiliary material widely used as a filler in the distillation process. So it is experientially hypothesized that such odor may derive from rice husk. In this paper, the gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) technique and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to discover and identify the characteristic odoriferous zone of Chinese liquor marked by earthy odor. Geosmin was found to be responsible for this odor. The levels of the compound in ten bottled liquors and thirty liquors aging for different years belonging to four different aroma types were determined by the optimized headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS) method. Quantitative analysis of bottled liquor revealed the presence of geosmin in all aroma type liquors with concentrations ranging from 1.10 μg/L to 9.90 μg/L, except for strong-aroma type liquor. Meanwhile in the aged liquors belonging to the same aroma type, geosmin was detected with significant concentrations and high odor activity values (OAVs) during different years of aging. However, geosmin was not detected in steamed rice husk nor in nonsteamed rice husk, which suggests that rice husk is not the origin of earthy odor in Chinese liquor, and there may be another origin of it during the brewing process.

  14. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  15. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  16. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who...

  17. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. (a) Sales of wines. Any wholesale dealer in liquors (including the proprietor of a bonded wine...

  18. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. (a) Sales of wines. Any wholesale dealer in liquors (including the proprietor of a bonded wine...

  19. Spray algorithm without interface construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Kadhem Majhool, Ahmed Abed; Watkins, A. P.

    2012-05-01

    This research is aimed to create a new and robust family of convective schemes to capture the interface between the dispersed and the carrier phases in a spray without the need to build up the interface boundary. The selection of the Weighted Average Flux (WAF) scheme is due to this scheme being designed to deal with random flux scheme which is second-order accurate in space and time. The convective flux in each cell face utilizes the WAF scheme blended with Switching Technique for Advection and Capturing of Surfaces (STACS) scheme for high resolution flux limiters. In the next step, the high resolution scheme is blended with the WAF scheme to provide the sharpness and boundedness of the interface by using switching strategy. In this work, the Eulerian-Eulerian framework of non-reactive turbulent spray is set in terms of theoretical proposed methodology namely spray moments of drop size distribution, presented by Beck and Watkins [1]. The computational spray model avoids the need to segregate the local droplet number distribution into parcels of identical droplets. The proposed scheme is tested on capturing the spray edges in modelling hollow cone sprays without need to reconstruct two-phase interface. A test is made on simple comparison between TVD scheme and WAF scheme using the same flux limiter on convective flow hollow cone spray. Results show the WAF scheme gives a better prediction than TVD scheme. The only way to check the accuracy of the presented models is by evaluating the spray sheet thickness.

  20. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2002-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  1. Substrate system for spray forming

    DOEpatents

    Chu, Men G.; Chernicoff, William P.

    2000-01-01

    A substrate system for receiving a deposit of sprayed metal droplets including a movable outer substrate on which the sprayed metal droplets are deposited. The substrate system also includes an inner substrate disposed adjacent the outer substrate where the sprayed metal droplets are deposited on the outer substrate. The inner substrate includes zones of differing thermal conductivity to resist substrate layer porosity and to resist formation of large grains and coarse constituent particles in a bulk layer of the metal droplets which have accumulated on the outer substrate. A spray forming apparatus and associated method of spray forming a molten metal to form a metal product using the substrate system of the invention is also provided.

  2. Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Xie, Ming; Xu, Yanhua

    2011-02-15

    Partial desalination and concentration of glyphosate liquor by nanofiltration under different operation modes were investigated experimentally in this study. These operation modes were direct nanofiltration, diafiltration, dilute-diafiltration and interval washing-nanofiltration. The four different operation modes were evaluated and compared in terms of glyphosate recovery and NaCl removal. Diafiltration and dilute-diafiltration performed better than direct nanofiltration. The glyphosate loss was between 11.5% and 18.8% when the dilution factor varied from 0.4 to 0.8. Interval washing-nanofiltration alleviated the concentration polarization and membrane fouling to a certain extent. Dilute-diafiltration may be the best operation mode in terms of glyphosate recovery, salt removal and cost.

  3. Solvent extraction of cobalt from laterite-ammoniacal leach liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Nilsen, D.N.; Siemens, R.E.; Rhoads, S.C.

    1980-01-01

    The Bureau of Mines is developing a method to recover Ni, Co, and Cu from laterites containing less than 1.2% Ni and 0.25% Co. The method consists of the following basic unit operations: (1) reduction roasting, (2) leaching, (3) solvent extraction, and (4) electrowinning. The method reflects three Bureau of Mines objectives: (1) recovery of critical minerals that are domestically in short supply from low-grade domestic laterites, (2) lower processing energy requirements, and (3) solution recycling. This report deals with the extraction of cobalt and the preparation of a suitable cobalt electrolyte by solvent extraction from liquor produced by this method. Nickel and copper are coextracted with LIX64N from an ammoniacal ammonium sulfate leach liquor containing about 1.00 g/1 Ni, 0.30 g/1 Co, 0.03 g/1 Cu, and 0.02 g/1 Zn. Cobalt (III) in the nickel-copper barren raffinate is reduced to cobalt (II) with cobalt metal. Reduction of cobalt (III) to cobalt (II) greatly aids subsequent extraction. Commercially available XI-51 extracts about 94% of the cobalt from the treated raffinate in one stage in a laboratory mixer-settler continuous circuit. Ammonia loaded on the solvent is removed in two washing steps. About 94% of the cobalt then is stripped from the XI-51 in one stage with spent cobalt electrolyte containing about 77 g/1 Co and 18 g/1 sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). Electrolytes containing less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ also may be used. Preliminary data indicate that coextracted zinc may be removed from pregnant cobalt electrolyte containing 3 g/1 or less H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ with di-(2 ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA).

  4. Spectroscopic Combustion Temperature Measurements: Effect Of Optical Depth In Black Liquor Recovery Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whetstone, J. R.; Charagundla, S. R.; Macek, A.; Semerjian, H. G.

    1988-11-01

    Results of a study directed toward using observed spectroscopic features for the measurement of temperature in the combustion zone of recovery boilers are described. Emissions of the potassium doublets at 404 and 766 nanometers (nm) have been observed in recovery boilers and temperature and self absorption effects on lines shapes have been modeled. Predicted emission line shapes are strongly dependent upon predicted concentration values of potassium. Proper selection of concentration ranges results in good qualitative agreement of predicted line shapes with those observed in boilers and laboratory flame experiments. These results indicate that the temperature dependence of potassium emissions is complicated by self-absorption effects which limit the optical pathlength over which emissions are practically observable. Temperature measurement may be feasible using pattern recognition methods coupled with algorithms based on an emission model and realistic estimates of the emitting species concentration.

  5. Characterization of a novel metagenome-derived 6-phospho-β-glucosidase from black liquor sediment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunyu; Niu, Yu; Li, Chunfang; Zhu, Deyu; Wang, Wei; Liu, Xinqiang; Cheng, Bin; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-04-01

    The enzyme 6-phospho-β-glucosidase is an important member of the glycoside hydrolase family 1 (GH1). However, its catalytic mechanisms, especially the key residues determining substrate specificity and affinity, are poorly understood. A metagenome-derived gene sequence, encoding a novel 6-phospho-β-glucosidase designated Pbgl25-217, was isolated and characterized. The optimal conditions for enzymatic activity were 37°C and pH 7; Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Mn(2+) stabilized the activity of Pbgl25-217, whereas Ni(2+), Fe(2+), Zn(2+), Cu(2+), and Fe(3+) inhibited its activity. The Km and Vmax of Pbgl25-217 were 4.8 mM and 1,987.0 U mg(-1), respectively. Seven conserved residues were recognized by multiple alignments and were tested by site-directed mutagenesis for their functions in substrate recognition and catalytic reaction. The results suggest that residues S427, Lys435, and Tyr437 act as "gatekeepers" in a phosphate-binding loop and play important roles in phosphate recognition. This functional identification may provide insights into the specificity of 6-phospho-β-glycosidases in GH1 and be useful for designing further directed evolution.

  6. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors.

  7. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors. PMID:25857434

  8. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  9. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality.

  10. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  11. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  12. Effects of policies to restrict malt liquor sales on neighborhood crime.

    PubMed

    Barajas, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Hannan, Peter J; Nelson, Toben F; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effectiveness of malt liquor sales restrictions adopted in 2005 in three liquor stores in a large Midwestern U.S. city. We hypothesized that the restrictions would be associated with crime reductions in adjacent neighborhoods. Using Poisson regression modeling, we compared crime rates two years prior to, and two years following policy adoption. Findings were mixed; malt liquor restrictions were associated with reductions in disorderly conduct citations, but increases in larceny/theft, beyond citywide trends. Limitations and implications of our study are discussed, and further research suggested. The study was funded by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

  13. Fluidic spray control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Kuo-Tung

    An original fluidic control method in an axisymmetric spray orifice is investigated using both experiments and existing CFD. Cavitation images, droplet size measurements, discharge coefficient, unsteadiness measurements and CFD are incorporated to find out the causes resulting in small droplets. A flow rig delivering pressurized water flow to an orifice is constructed. A secondary flow is introduced through an annular slot in the orifice wall to control the cavitation, and thus the spray, at pressures up to 550 kPa driving pressure difference. The orifice used is nominally axisymmetric with a diameter 0.81 mm and length 5.08 mm. Two types of orifices are made. Orifice 1 has the slot located 0.81 mm below the orifice inlet, and the slot orientation is angled at 67.5° to the hole axis. Orifice 2 has the slot situated at 0.41 mm below the orifice inlet, and the slot orientation is angled at 15° to the hole axis. Devices, including a CCD camera, a particle-sizer and a He-Ne laser system, were utilized for flow visualization and relevant measurements. The cavitation and spray were photographed with a high resolution CCD digital camera. Droplet size measurements were made with a laser diffraction particle-sizer. Moreover, the cavitation frequencies were explored using a He-Ne laser along with a photodiode and an oscilloscope. CFD codes developed by Chen and Heister were used to model the internal flow. 54 cases were run, including 5 slot locations, 5 slot orientations, and 4 secondary flow rates. Compared with the experimental results, the agreement between CFD and experimental results is good except for hydraulic flip. Generally the high pressure region upstream of the slot, the large high pressure variation over time, and the long cavitation length are the favorable conditions for creating small droplets. The CFD together with experimental measurements correlate the flow structures with droplet sizes. Understanding the relationship between flow structures and droplet

  14. INEL Spray-forming Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mchugh, Kevin M.; Key, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing without sacrificing, and oftentimes substantially improving, product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offers property improvements resulting from rapid solidification (e.g., refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials. Results from several spray forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the technique as well as the accompanying technical and economic benefits. Low-carbon steel strip greater than 0.75 mm thick and polymer membranes for gas/gas and liquid/liquid separations that were spray formed are discussed; recent advances in spray forming molds, dies, and other tooling using low-melting-point metals are described.

  15. Plasma spraying with wire feedstock

    SciTech Connect

    Scholl, M.

    1994-12-31

    Plasma spraying has been limited to using powder feedstocks for a number of reasons. One limitation has been the low energy output of conventional plasma guns. The advent of high energy plasma spraying (HEPS) devices and the associated technology has effectively removed this functional limitation. With HEPS, the combination of high gas velocities and high thermal plasma temperatures coupled with a large exit gas volume enables wire and rod feedstocks to be effectively utilized. Rather than a bulk melting mechanism, a model based on ablation phenomena is considered. The paper examines an analysis of melting phenomena and presents a simple model for molten droplet formation for plasma spraying using wire feedstocks.

  16. Gas Dynamic Spray Technology Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, Pattie Lewis

    2011-01-01

    Zinc primer systems are currently used across NASA and AFSPC for corrosion protection of steel. AFSPC and NASA have approved the use of Thermal Spray Coatings (TSCs) as an environmentally preferable alternative. TSCs are approved in NASA-STD-5008 and AFSPC and KSC is currently looking for additional applications in which TSC can be used. Gas Dynamic Spray (GDS, also known as Cold Spray) is being evaluated as a means of repairing TSCs and for areas such as corners and edges where TSCs do not work as well. Other applications could include spot repair/maintenance of steel on structures, facilities, and ground support equipment.

  17. Black Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry

    The black student revolt did not start with the highly publicized activities of the black students at San Francisco State College. The roots of the revolt lie deeply imbedded within the history and structure of the overall black liberation struggle in America. The beginnings of this revolt can be found in the students of Southern Negro colleges in…

  18. Black Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Reginald L., Ed.

    The contents of the present volume, designed to bring together in a single place writings by the new black psychologists and other black social and behavioral scientists, are organized in seven parts, as follows: Part I, "Black Psychology: Perspectives," includes articles by Cedric Clark, Wade W. Nobles, Doris P. Mosby, Joseph White, and William…

  19. Exposure of spray-men to dieldrin in residual spraying.

    PubMed

    FLETCHER, T E; PRESS, J M; WILSON, D B

    1959-01-01

    A study of the exposure of spray-men to dieldrin was made in a pilot scheme of residual spraying in the Taveta-Pare area of East Africa. A detailed work study was completed on the operators, and sources of contamination were enumerated. Filter paper pads were placed on the skin and outside clothing and the pick-up was estimated chemically. A spray-man, while using the daily average of 2.12 kg (4.7 pounds) of dieldrin and observing the protective measures laid down, received a dermal exposure of 1.8 mg of dieldrin per kg of body-weight per day. This was possibly reduced somewhat by washing with soap and water upon completion of each day's work. The sixteen spray-men and assistants were exposed for 180 days per year and there was an interim period of 2 months between spray cycles. No clinical symptoms of poisoning were observed.Comparison is made with certain programmes where dieldrin poisoning has occurred. Attention is drawn to the reduced time of exposure in the Taveta-Pare scheme, personal washing, the great value of protective clothing and of its daily washing in soap and water and the need to use a dilute suspension of wettable powder for spraying.

  20. 75 FR 51102 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation.'' DATES: Effective Date: This correction is effective as of August 18..., remove the sentence: ``The amended Liquor Ordinance of the Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation reads...

  1. A review of the determination of organic compounds in Bayer process liquors.

    PubMed

    Power, Greg; Loh, Joanne S C; Wajon, Johannes E; Busetti, Francesco; Joll, Cynthia

    2011-03-09

    Bayer process liquors present a difficult and complex matrix to the analytical chemist, and the history of the application of modern analytical techniques to this problem is a case study in innovation. All Bayer process liquors contain organic compounds, in amounts varying from traces to several grams per litre. The total organic carbon content of Bayer liquors may be less than 5 g/L up to as much as 40 g/L. The presence of these organic impurities is of concern to Bayer technologists because they can have significant impacts on the economics of the process and the quality of the product. This review examines the history and current state-of-the-art of the analysis of organics in Bayer process liquors, and provides guidance on the applicable techniques matched to a comprehensive list of the compounds most likely to be present.

  2. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    DOEpatents

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  3. Modifications Of A Commercial Spray Gun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial spray gun modified to increase spray rate and make sprayed coats more nearly uniform. Consists of gun head and pneumatic actuator. Actuator opens valves for two chemical components, called "A" and "B," that react to produce foam. Components flow through orifices, into mixing chamber in head. Mixture then flows through control orifice to spray tip. New spray tip tapered to reduce area available for accumulation of foam and makes tip easier to clean.

  4. Analysis of Price Changes in Washington Following the 2012 Liquor Privatization

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, William C.; Williams, Edwina; Greenfield, Thomas K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims In June, 2012 the state of Washington ended a wholesale and retail monopoly on liquor sales resulting in about five times as many stores selling liquor. Three-tier restrictions were also removed on liquor, while beer and wine availability did not increase. Substantial taxes at both the wholesale and retail levels were implemented and it was expected that prices would rise. Methods To evaluate price changes after privatization we developed an index of about 68 brands that were popular in Washington during early 2012. Data on final liquor prices (including all taxes) in Washington were obtained through store visits and on-line sources between November 2013 and March of 2014. Primary analyses were conducted on five or six brand indexes to allow the inclusion of most stores. Results Washington liquor prices rose by an average of 15.5% for the 750 ml size and by 4.7% for the 1.75 l size, while only small changes were seen in the bordering states of Oregon and Idaho. Prices were found to vary greatly by store type. Liquor Superstores had generally the lowest prices while drugstore, grocery and especially smaller Liquor Store prices were found to be substantially higher. Conclusion Our findings indicate that liquor prices in Washington increased substantially after privatization and as compared to price changes in bordering states, with a much larger increase seen for the 750 ml size and with wide variation across store types. However, persistent drinkers looking for low prices will be able to find them in certain stores. PMID:26109262

  5. Spray nozzle for fire control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papavergos, Panayiotis G.

    1990-09-01

    The design of a spray nozzle for fire control is described. It produces a spray of gas and liquid having an oval transverse cross section and it comprises a mixing chamber with an oval transverse cross section adapted to induce a toroidal mixing pattern in pressurized gas and liquid introduced to the mixing chamber through a plurality of inlets. In a preferred embodiment the mixing chamber is toroidal. The spray nozzle produces an oval spray pattern for more efficient wetting of narrow passages and is suitable for fire control systems in vehicles or other confined spaces. Vehicles to which this invention may be applied include trains, armoured vehicles, ships, hovercraft, submarines, oil rigs, and most preferably, aircraft.

  6. Characteristics of sprinklers and water spray mists for fire safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackman, Louise A.; Lavelle, Stephen P.; Nolan, P. F.

    1991-04-01

    In order to predict the type of sprinkler or spray head required for fire safety in buildings and transport systems (e.g. aircraft) it is necessary to model the interaction of water droplets with the thermally buoyant fire gases. Such modelling requires a detailed knowledge of the mean droplet size, the droplet size distribution, droplet velocity and trajectory. Many existing systems for the characterisation of droplets are indirect in that an optical property is measured and the results are subject to "black box" data processing. A direct method can be developed using a synchronised metal vapour laser and high speed cine camera with appropriate optics. Results on both sprinkler and spray mist will be presented and a basis for the choice of active fire protection systems will be outlined.

  7. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln.

    PubMed

    Bai, Y; Bao, Y B; Cai, X L; Chen, C H; Ye, X C

    2014-08-15

    The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  8. Alcohol and malt liquor availability and promotion and homicide in inner cities.

    PubMed

    Jones-Webb, Rhonda; McKee, Pat; Hannan, Peter; Wall, Melanie; Pham, Lan; Erickson, Darin; Wagenaar, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the role of the alcohol environment in explaining disparities in homicide rates among minorities in 10 cities in the United States using 2003 data from the Malt Liquor and Homicide study. We hypothesized that (a) higher concentrations of African Americans would be associated with higher homicide rates, as well as higher alcohol and malt liquor availability and promotion, and (b) the relationship between neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration and homicide would be attenuated by the greater alcohol and malt liquor availability and promotion in African American neighborhoods. Hypotheses were tested using separate Poisson, linear, and logistic regression models that corrected for spatial autocorrelation. Census block groups served as the unit of analysis (n = 450). We found that higher concentrations of African Americans were associated with higher homicide rates as well as greater alcohol availability, especially malt liquor availability. The promotion of malt liquor on storefronts was also significantly greater in African American than in other neighborhoods. However, none of the measures representing alcohol or malt liquor availability and promotion variables changed the effect of neighborhood racial/ethnic concentration on homicide. Limitations and implications of our findings are discussed.

  9. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    PubMed Central

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-01-01

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications. PMID:25116725

  10. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed

    Pauly, P J

    1994-02-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates.

  11. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase.

  12. Anaerobic treatment of coconut husk liquor for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Leitão, R C; Araújo, A M; Freitas-Neto, M A; Rosa, M F; Santaella, S T

    2009-01-01

    The market for coconut water causes environmental problems as it is one of the major agro-industrial solid wastes in some developing countries. With the aim of reusing the coconut husk, Embrapa developed a system for processing this raw material. During the dewatering stage Coconut Husk Liquor (CHL) is generated with chemical oxygen demand (COD) varying from 60 to 70 g/L due to high concentrations of sugars and tannins. The present study evaluated the feasibility of anaerobic treatment of CHL through Anaerobic Toxicity Assay and the operation of a lab-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor. Results showed that CHL can be treated through a UASB reactor operating with an OLR that reaches up to 10 kg/m3.d and that is maintained stable during the whole operation. With this operational condition, the removal efficiency was higher than 80% for COD and approximately 78% for total tannins, and biogas production was 20 m3 of biogas or 130 KWh per m3 of CHL. Seventy-five percent of the biogas composition was methane and toxicity tests demonstrated that CHL was not toxic to the methanogenic consortia. Conversely, increasing the concentration of CHL leads to increased methanogenic activity.

  13. Is liquor intoxicating? Scientists, prohibition, and the normalization of drinking.

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, P J

    1994-01-01

    The reliance of current advocates of recreational drug legalization on parallels between "drug prohibition" and the repudiated experiment of National Prohibition in the 1920s invites renewed attention to the history of the legalization and normalization of drinking. A new scientific conception of the nature and effects of alcohol formed an important element in both the politics of repeal and the ensuing legitimation of alcohol consumption. The industrial toxicologist Yandell Henderson argued that alcohol should be considered analogous to carbon monoxide--clearly a poison, yet a normal part of civilized life and only problematic above a determinable and manageable exposure threshold. This argument had political force in the early 1930s as part of the contention that beer was not an "intoxicating liquor." It was more broadly persuasive because it was consistent with Americans' experience with industrial poisons, for which exposure levels had been set by toxicologists such as Henderson. This historical perspective illuminates the more recent reassessment of the risks of alcohol consumption. It also challenges the applicability of the model of the normalization of drinking to proposals to legalize cocaine and opiates. Images p307-a p309-a PMID:8296962

  14. Liquor legislation, last drinks, and lockouts: the Newcastle (Australia) solution.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, G R; Palazzi, K; Oteng Boateng, B K; Oldmeadow, C

    2017-02-18

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the regional implementation of prohibitive liquor legislation, introduced in order to limit the sale of and access to alcohol, can lead to a sustained reduction in the incidence of assault occasioning facial injury, as seen in patients presenting to a level 1 trauma hospital. A retrospective observational cohort study was conducted to document patients who were identified as an acute hospital presentation of assault occasioning facial injury. The period of study was 2003-2015; this ensured a similar period of time before and after the implementation of the legislation in 2008. A statistical analysis was undertaken to assess the rates of change in oral and maxillofacial (OMF) assault admissions pre and post legislation. The study found that pre-legislation numbers of OMF assaults increased at a rate of 14% per annum and then decreased at a rate of 21% per annum post legislation (31% relative rate ratio reduction). Similar trends were seen for all males, males aged 18-35 years, and males where alcohol was recorded at clinical presentation. The introduction of 'last drinks' and 'lock out' legislation has led to a significant and sustained reduction in assaultive alcohol-related facial injury in Newcastle.

  15. Antioxidative properties of phenolic antioxidants isolated from corn steep liquor.

    PubMed

    Niwa, T; Doi, U; Kato, Y; Osawa, T

    2001-01-01

    With the immersion of corn into dilute sulfur oxide during starch-manufacturing processes, corn steep liquor (CSL) remains as leftover material. CSL is often used for fermentation, but its components are not fully understood. To determine the properties of CSL, 12 p-coumaric acid-related compounds were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of CSL with the guidance of antioxidative activity on the rabbit erythrocyte membrane ghost system. The activity of these compounds was compared against oxidative damages, and it was elucidated that the activity of p-coumaric acid derivatives was mainly affected by their functional groups at the 3-position and less by the conjugated side chain. Moreover, p-coumaric acid derivatives exhibited inhibitory activity stronger than that of tocopherols and ascorbic acid on peroxynitrite-mediated lipoprotein nitration. These findings that p-coumaric acid derivatives, which might play a beneficial role against oxidative damage, exist in CSL suggest this byproduct might be a useful resource of phenolic antioxidants.

  16. Microchip sonic spray ionization.

    PubMed

    Pól, Jaroslav; Kauppila, Tiina J; Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Franssila, Sami; Ketola, Raimo A; Kotiaho, Tapio; Kostiainen, Risto

    2007-05-01

    The first microchip version of sonic spray ionization (SSI) as an atmospheric pressure ionization source for mass spectrometry (MS) is presented. The microchip used for SSI has recently been developed in our laboratory, and it has been used before as an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source. Now the ionization is achieved simply by applying high (sonic) speed nebulizer gas, without heat, corona discharge, or high voltage. The microchip SSI was applied to the analysis of tetra-N-butylammonium, verapamil, testosterone, angiotensin I, and ibuprofen. The limits of detection were in the range of 15 nM to 4 microM. The technique was found to be highly dependent on the position of the chip toward the mass spectrometer inlet, and on the gas and the sample solution flow rates. The microchip SSI provided dynamic linearity following a pattern similar to that used with electrospray, good quantitative repeatability (RSD=16%), and long-term signal stability.

  17. Plasma Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings: Influence of Spraying Power on Microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Mohd, S. M.; Abd, M. Z.; Abd, A. N.

    2010-03-11

    The plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are used on metallic implants to enhance the bonding between the implant and bone in human body. The coating process was implemented at different spraying power for each spraying condition. The coatings formed from a rapid solidification of molten and partly molten particles that impact on the surface of substrate at high velocity and high temperature. The study was concentrated on different spraying power that is between 23 to 31 kW. The effect of different power on the coatings microstructure was investigated using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and phase composition was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coatings surface morphology showed distribution of molten, partially melted particles and some micro-cracks. The produced coatings were found to be porous as observed from the cross-sectional morphology. The coatings XRD results indicated the presence of crystalline phase of HA and each of the patterns was similar to the initial powder. Regardless of different spraying power, all the coatings were having similar XRD patterns.

  18. Protective effect of Zhuyeqing liquor, a Chinese traditional health liquor, on acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The study first evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of Zhuyeqing Liquor (ZYQL) against acute alcohol-induced liver injury in mice. Animals were administered orally with 50% alcohol 12 ml/kg at 4 h after the doses of ZYQL everyday for fourteen consecutive days except mice in normal group. The protective effect was evaluated by biochemical parameters including serum aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transferase (ALT), total-bilirubin (TBIL) and reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue. The result were confirmed histopathologically and the expression of TNF-α in mice liver was determined by immunohistochemistry analysis. HPLC-PDA was used for phytochemical analysis of ZYQL, and the plant source of each compound was claritied by UPLC-TOF-MS. The result showed that pretreatment with ZYQL exhibited a significant protective effect by reversing the biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in a dose depended manner. HPLC analysis indicated that ZYQL contained flavonoids, iridoids, terpenoids and phenolic acids, which might be the active chemicals. This study demonstrated the hepatoprotective activity of ZYQL, thus scientifically supported the function of its health care. PMID:24090365

  19. Comparison of the performance between a spray gun and a spray boom in ornamentals.

    PubMed

    Foqué, D; Nuyttens, D

    2011-01-01

    Flemish greenhouse growers predominantly use handheld spray guns and spray lances for their crop protection purposes although these techniques are known for their heavy workload and their high operator exposure risks. Moreover, when these techniques are compared with spray boom equipment, they are often found to be less effective. On the other hand, handheld spraying techniques are less expensive and more flexible to use. Additionally, many Flemish growers are convinced that a high spray volume and spray pressure is needed to assure a good plant protection. The aim of this work was to evaluate and compare the spray deposition, penetration and uniformity between a manually pulled horizontal spray boom and a spray gun under controlled laboratory conditions. In total, six different spray application techniques were evaluated. In general, the total deposition results were comparable between the spray boom and the spray gun applications but the boom applications resulted in a more uniform spray distribution over the crop. On a plant level, the spray distribution was not uniform for the different techniques with highest deposits on the upper side of the top leaves. Using spray guns at a higher spray pressure did not improve spray penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves. From the different nozzle types, the XR 80 03 gave the best results. Plant density clearly affected crop penetration and deposition on the bottom side of the leaves.

  20. Effects of cacao liquor polyphenols on cardiovascular and autonomic nervous functions in hypercholesterolaemic rabbits.

    PubMed

    Akita, Megumi; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Itoh, Fumi; Nakano, Yoshihisa; Osakabe, Naomi; Kurosawa, Tohru; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2008-12-01

    Many epidemiological studies have shown that polyphenols can reduce the risk of mortality from cardiovascular diseases. This study tested the hypothesis that cacao liquor polyphenols have the properties to restore the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous function in an animal model of familial hypercholesterolaemia. Male Kurosawa and Kusanagi-hypercholesterolaemic rabbits were housed in individual cages in a room where a 12-hr light:dark cycle (lights-on at 8:00 and lights-off at 20:00) was maintained. At 3 months of age, they were divided into two groups (standard diet and cacao liquor polyphenol) and the animals received 100 g of the respective diets per day and were provided with tap water ad libitum. Heart rate and blood pressure were measured by a telemetry system. To clarify the autonomic nervous function, power spectral analysis of heart rate variability, baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic nervous tone were measured. After 6 months of dietary administration of cacao liquor polyphenols, heart rate and blood pressure were lowered but plasma lipid concentrations were unchanged. The area of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta in the cacao liquor polyphenol group was significantly smaller than that in the standard diet group. The high-frequency power of heart rate variability in the rabbits in the standard diet group was significantly decreased with ageing, but that in the cacao liquor polyphenol group was not different between short-term and long-term treatment. Moreover, cacao liquor polyphenols preserved parasympathetic nervous tone, although that in the standard diet group was significantly decreased with ageing. We conclude that cacao liquor polyphenols may play an important role to protect cardiovascular and autonomic nervous functions.

  1. SPRAY CALCINATION REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, B.M.

    1963-08-20

    A spray calcination reactor for calcining reprocessin- g waste solutions is described. Coaxial within the outer shell of the reactor is a shorter inner shell having heated walls and with open regions above and below. When the solution is sprayed into the irner shell droplets are entrained by a current of gas that moves downwardly within the inner shell and upwardly between it and the outer shell, and while thus being circulated the droplets are calcined to solids, whlch drop to the bottom without being deposited on the walls. (AEC) H03 H0233412 The average molecular weights of four diallyl phthalate polymer samples extruded from the experimental rheometer were redetermined using the vapor phase osmometer. An amine curing agent is required for obtaining suitable silver- filled epoxy-bonded conductive adhesives. When the curing agent was modified with a 47% polyurethane resin, its effectiveness was hampered. Neither silver nor nickel filler impart a high electrical conductivity to Adiprenebased adhesives. Silver filler was found to perform well in Dow-Corning A-4000 adhesive. Two cascaded hot-wire columns are being used to remove heavy gaseous impurities from methane. This purified gas is being enriched in the concentric tube unit to approximately 20% carbon-13. Studies to count low-level krypton-85 in xenon are continuing. The parameters of the counting technique are being determined. The bismuth isotopes produced in bismuth irradiated for polonium production are being determined. Preliminary data indicate the presence of bismuth207 and bismuth-210m. The light bismuth isotopes are probably produced by (n,xn) reactions bismuth-209. The separation of uranium-234 from plutonium-238 solutions was demonstrated. The bulk of the plutonium is removed by anion exchange, and the remainder is extracted from the uranium by solvent extraction techniques. About 99% of the plutonium can be removed in each thenoyltrifluoroacetone extraction. The viscosity, liquid density, and

  2. Miniature paint-spray gun for recessed areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanasse, M. A.

    1968-01-01

    Miniature spray gun regulates paints and other liquids to spray at close range, facilitating spraying of remote or recessed areas. Individual valves for regulating air pressure and paint maximizes atomization for low pressure spraying.

  3. [Antibacterial effect of Ankerplast Spray].

    PubMed

    Oehring, H; Karl, P; Döring, K; Herrberger, U

    1979-04-01

    The diffusion test yielded no satisfactory results. In the tube test, both the spray and the solvent (in a dilution of 1:4 and 1:8, respectively) proved to be bacteriostatically active against enterococci, Staphylococcus aureus, Escheria coli, Proteus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These germs were killed within 30 minutes in the test for bactericidal activity, whereas the reference substance (1% phenol) required 1--2 hours, except against the last-named germ. Even the copolymer exerted a bactericidal effect, it is true, but only within 8 or 24 hours. The following results were obtained from the spray test with agar plate cultures: Streptococcus viridans species, streptococci, Diplococcus pneumoniae, Escheria coli, and Proteus were killed, whereas others survived under the plastic film for up to 9 days. Klebsiella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa had grown through the film within 7 days. In vivo experiments demonstrated a very potent antibacterial activity on the skin under the spray film.

  4. The 2016 Thermal Spray Roadmap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardelle, Armelle; Moreau, Christian; Akedo, Jun; Ashrafizadeh, Hossein; Berndt, Christopher C.; Berghaus, Jörg Oberste; Boulos, Maher; Brogan, Jeffrey; Bourtsalas, Athanasios C.; Dolatabadi, Ali; Dorfman, Mitchell; Eden, Timothy J.; Fauchais, Pierre; Fisher, Gary; Gaertner, Frank; Gindrat, Malko; Henne, Rudolf; Hyland, Margaret; Irissou, Eric; Jordan, Eric H.; Khor, Khiam Aik; Killinger, Andreas; Lau, Yuk-Chiu; Li, Chang-Jiu; Li, Li; Longtin, Jon; Markocsan, Nicolaie; Masset, Patrick J.; Matejicek, Jiri; Mauer, Georg; McDonald, André; Mostaghimi, Javad; Sampath, Sanjay; Schiller, Günter; Shinoda, Kentaro; Smith, Mark F.; Syed, Asif Ansar; Themelis, Nickolas J.; Toma, Filofteia-Laura; Trelles, Juan Pablo; Vassen, Robert; Vuoristo, Petri

    2016-12-01

    Considerable progress has been made over the last decades in thermal spray technologies, practices and applications. However, like other technologies, they have to continuously evolve to meet new problems and market requirements. This article aims to identify the current challenges limiting the evolution of these technologies and to propose research directions and priorities to meet these challenges. It was prepared on the basis of a collection of short articles written by experts in thermal spray who were asked to present a snapshot of the current state of their specific field, give their views on current challenges faced by the field and provide some guidance as to the R&D required to meet these challenges. The article is divided in three sections that deal with the emerging thermal spray processes, coating properties and function, and biomedical, electronic, aerospace and energy generation applications.

  5. Spray coated nanosilver functional layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzemiński, J.; Szałapak, J.; Dybowska-Sarapuk, L.; Jakubowska, M.

    2016-09-01

    Silver coatings are highly conductive functional layers. There are many different ways to product the silver coating but most of them need vacuum or high temperature. Spray coating is a technique that is free of this disadvantages - it doesn't need a cleanroom or high temperature. What's more the layer thickness is about 10 μm. In this article the spray coating process of silver nanolayer is described. Four different inks were tested and measured. The layer resistance was measured and show as a graph. After the layer resistance was measured the adhesion test was performed. The pull-off test was performed on testing machine with special self made module. To conclude the article include the test and measurements of spray coated nanosilver functional layers. The layers was examined for the current conductivity and adhesion force.

  6. Black Appalachians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waage, Fred, Ed.; Cabbell, Ed, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    This issue of "Now and Then" focuses on black Appalachians, their culture, and their history. It contains local histories, articles, and poems and short stories by Appalachian blacks. Articles include: "A Mountain Artist's Landscape," a profile of artist Rita Bradley by Pat Arnow; "A Part and Apart," a profile of…

  7. Spray casting project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Churnetski, S.R.; Thompson, J.E.

    1996-08-01

    Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), along with other participating organizations, has been exploring the feasibility of spray casting depleted uranium (DU) to near-net shape as a waste minimization effort. Although this technology would be useful in a variety of applications where DU was the material of choice, this effort was aimed primarily at gamma-shielding components for use in storage and transportation canisters for high-level radioactive waste, particularly in the Multipurpose Canister (MPC) application. In addition to the waste-minimization benefits, spray casting would simplify the manufacturing process by allowing the shielding components for MPC to be produced as a single component, as opposed to multiple components with many fabrication and assembly steps. In earlier experiments, surrogate materials were used to simulate the properties (specifically reactivity and density) of DU. Based on the positive results from those studies, the project participants decided that further evaluation of the issues and concerns that would accompany spraying DU was warranted. That evaluation occupied substantially all of Fiscal Year 1995, yielding conceptual designs for both an intermediate facility and a production facility and their associated engineering estimates. An intermediate facility was included in this study to allow further technology development in spraying DU. Although spraying DU to near-net shape seems to be feasible, a number of technical, engineering, and safety issues would need to be evaluated before proceeding with a production facility. This report is intended to document the results from the spray-casting project and to provide information needed by anyone interested in proceeding to the next step.

  8. The Impact of Single-Container Malt Liquor Sales Restrictions on Urban Crime.

    PubMed

    McKee, Patricia; Erickson, Darin J; Toomey, Traci; Nelson, Toben; Less, Elyse Levine; Joshi, Spruha; Jones-Webb, Rhonda

    2017-03-07

    Many US cities have adopted legal restrictions on high-alcohol malt liquor sales in response to reports of crime and nuisance behaviors around retail alcohol outlets. We assessed whether these policies are effective in reducing crime in urban areas. We used a rigorous interrupted time-series design with comparison groups to examine monthly crime rates in areas surrounding alcohol outlets in the 3 years before and after adoption of malt liquor sales restrictions in two US cities. Crime rates in matched comparison areas not subject to restrictions served as covariates. Novel methods for matching target and comparison areas using virtual neighborhood audits conducted in Google Street View are described. In Minneapolis, Minnesota, sales of single containers of 16 oz or less were prohibited in individual liquor stores (n = 6). In Washington, D.C., the sale of single containers of any size were prohibited in all retail alcohol outlets within full or partial wards (n = 6). Policy adoption was associated with modest reductions in crime, particularly assaults and vandalism, in both cities. All significant outcomes were in the hypothesized direction. Our results provide evidence that retail malt liquor sales restrictions, even relatively weak ones, can have modest effects on a range of crimes. Policy success may depend on community support and concurrent restrictions on malt liquor substitutes.

  9. Separation of humic acids from Bayer process liquor by membrane filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Awadalla, F.T.; Kutowy, O.; Tweddle, A. ); Hazlett, J.D. )

    1994-05-01

    Humic acids of high molecular weight were removed from spent Bayer liquor by polymeric ultrafiltration membranes. Among the commercial and laboratory-cast membranes tested, Radel-R polyphenylsulfone on a polypropylene backing material was found to be the most promising candidate for this separation. However, the maximum separation of humic acids obtained at operating conditions of 50[degree]C and 0.34 MPa, as measured by spectrophotometric analysis, was only in the 50 to 55% range. In order to explain this limited membrane separation of humic acids in spent Bayer liquor, a synthetic alkaline solution of humic acids was treated using the same membranes. These tests indicated much higher separation of humic acids (92%). Humic substances in Bayer liquor appear to be hydrolyzed and degraded to low molecular weight fractions (molecular weight < 1000 daltons) by the combined action of the strongly alkaline Bayer liquor and high digestion temperatures. These low molecular weight fractions cannot be retained by standard ultrafiltration membranes. However, some preliminary tests with laboratory-cast Radel-R nanofiltration membranes showed improved color separation (> 70%) when treating spent Bayer liquor. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. "Teaching" an Industrial Robot To Spray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, A. R.; Sweet, G. K.

    1982-01-01

    Teaching device, consisting of spacer rod or tube with three-pointed tip and line level, is used during pattern "teach-in" to make sure that robot manipulator holds spray gun perpendicular to surface to be sprayed and at right distance from it. For slanted surfaces angle adapter is added between spacer rod and line-level indicator. Angle is determined by slope of surface to be sprayed, thus allowing a perpendicular spray pattern against even slanted surfaces.

  11. Thermal Spray Coatings for Coastal Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, BernardS. Jr.; Cramer, S.D.; Bullard, S.J.

    1997-11-01

    Several protection strategies for coastal infrastructure using thermal-spray technology are presented from research at the Albany Research Center. Thermal-sprayed zinc coatings for anodes in impressed current cathodic protection systems are used to extend the service lives of reinforced concrete bridges along the Oregon coast. Thermal-sprayed Ti is examined as an alternative to the consumable zinc anode. Sealed thermal-sprayed Al is examined as an alternative coating to zinc dust filled polyurethane paint for steel structures.

  12. Feedback enhanced plasma spray tool

    DOEpatents

    Gevelber, Michael Alan; Wroblewski, Donald Edward; Fincke, James Russell; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C.; Bewley, Randy Lee

    2005-11-22

    An improved automatic feedback control scheme enhances plasma spraying of powdered material through reduction of process variability and providing better ability to engineer coating structure. The present inventors discovered that controlling centroid position of the spatial distribution along with other output parameters, such as particle temperature, particle velocity, and molten mass flux rate, vastly increases control over the sprayed coating structure, including vertical and horizontal cracks, voids, and porosity. It also allows improved control over graded layers or compositionally varying layers of material, reduces variations, including variation in coating thickness, and allows increasing deposition rate. Various measurement and system control schemes are provided.

  13. Influence of the spray velocity on arc-sprayed coating structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffens, H.-D.; Nassenstein, K.

    1999-09-01

    Thermal spray processes such as plasma spraying and HVOF have gained markets due to a steady process of development of materials and equipment. One disadvantage of thermal spray processes is that costs must be competitive compared to techniques such as PTA and electroplating. In order to reduce costs, the more economical spray processes like conventional wire flame spraying, as well as arc spraying, are becoming more popular. There are modern arc spray gun designs on the market that meet the requirements of modern coating properties, for example aviation overhaul applications as well as the processing of cored wires. Nevertheless, the physical basis of arc spraying is well known. The aim of the present investigation is to show how the influence of spray velocity (not particle velocity) affects coating structure with respect to arc spray parameters.

  14. How to Use Nasal Pump Sprays

    MedlinePlus

    Using Nasal Pump SpraysBlow your nose gently before using the spray. Prime the pump bottle by spraying it into the air a ... Breathe in quickly while squeezing down on the pump bottle one time. Repeat in other nostril. Do ...

  15. Continuous acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation using SO2-ethanol-water spent liquor from spruce.

    PubMed

    Survase, Shrikant A; Sklavounos, Evangelos; Jurgens, German; van Heiningen, Adriaan; Granström, Tom

    2011-12-01

    SO2-ethanol-water (SEW) spent liquor from spruce chips was successfully used for batch and continuous production of acetone, butanol and ethanol (ABE). Initially, batch experiments were performed using spent liquor to check the suitability for production of ABE. Maximum concentration of total ABE was found to be 8.79 g/l using 4-fold diluted SEW liquor supplemented with 35 g/l of glucose. The effect of dilution rate on solvent production, productivity and yield was studied in column reactor consisting of immobilized Clostridium acetobutylicum DSM 792 on wood pulp. Total solvent concentration of 12 g/l was obtained at a dilution rate of 0.21 h(-1). The maximum solvent productivity (4.86 g/l h) with yield of 0.27 g/g was obtained at dilution rate of 0.64 h(-1). Further, to increase the solvent yield, the unutilized sugars were subjected to batch fermentation.

  16. Rapid determination of ethanol in fermentation liquor by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Li, Hailong; Chai, Xin-Sheng; Deng, Yulin; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu

    2009-01-02

    This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (GC) method for rapid determination of ethanol in fermentation liquor. The data show that ethanol in the fermentation liquor was transferred to the vapor phase (headspace) almost completely within 3 min at a temperature of 105 degrees C when a very small volume (< 50 microL) of sample was directly added to a sealed headspace sample vial (20 mL). The ethanol in the vapor phase was then measured by headspace GC using a flame ionization detector. The results show that the present method has an excellent measurement precision (RSD=1.62%) and accuracy (recovery=98.1 (+/-1.76%)) for the ethanol quantification in fermentation liquors. The method requires no sample pretreatment and is very simple and rapid.

  17. Effect of yeast species on the terpenoids profile of Chinese light-style liquor.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Zhu, Weian; Wang, Wei; Xu, Yan

    2015-02-01

    Terpenoids are important trace flavour constituents in Chinese light-style liquors, and are formed by the various yeast species present during fermentation of liquor from cereal and legume materials. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia kudriavzevii and Wickerhamomyces anomalus are three such yeast species, and we found S. cerevisiae capable of generating thirteen different terpenoids in cereal and legume extract fermentation, by both de novo and biotransformation pathways. We also found that cereals such as sorghum and barley, and legumes such as peas, contained different terpenoids precursors, which differentially affected the formation and profile of terpenoids mixtures. This work gives new insights into the role of yeast species in generating the various terpenoids mixtures found in Chinese light-style liquors.

  18. Maqui berry vs Sloe berry--liquor-based beverage for new development.

    PubMed

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Moreno, Diego A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    "Pacharin" is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.) that has been produced in northern Spain. On the other hand, maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) is a common edible berry from Chile, and currently under study because of its multiple beneficial effects on health. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry, as an industrial alternative to a traditional alcoholic product with bioactive berries. The characterization of its composition, compared with the traditional "Pacharin", and its evolution during maceration (6 and 12 months) showed that the new maqui liquor had significantly-higher anthocyanin retention over time. More studies on the organoleptic properties and bioactivity are underway.

  19. Removing Al and regenerating caustic soda from the spent washing liquor of Al etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barakat, M. A.; El-Sheikh, S. M.; Farghly, F. E.

    2005-08-01

    Spent liquor from washing of aluminum section materials after etching with caustic soda (NaOH) has been treated. Aluminum was removed from the liquor and caustic soda was regenerated by adding precipitating agents to hydrolyze sodium aluminate (Na2AlO2), separating the aluminumprecipitate, and concentrating free NaOH in the resulting solution for reuse in the etching process. Four systems were investigated: hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2], hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), H2O2/Ca(OH)2 mixture, and dry lime (CaO). Results revealed that CaO was more efficient in the removal of aluminum from the spent liquor with a higher hydrolyzing rate of Na2AlO2 than Ca(OH)2, H2O2, or their mixture.

  20. Advanced process for precipitation of lignin from ethanol organosolv spent liquors.

    PubMed

    Schulze, Peter; Seidel-Morgenstern, Andreas; Lorenz, Heike; Leschinsky, Moritz; Unkelbach, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    An advanced process for lignin precipitation from organosolv spent liquors based on ethanol evaporation was developed. The process avoids lignin incrustations in the reactor, enhances filterability of the precipitated lignin particles and significantly reduces the liquor mass in downstream processes. Initially, lignin solubility and softening properties were understood, quantified and exploited to design an improved precipitation process. Lignin incrustations were avoided by targeted precipitation of solid lignin at specific conditions (e.g. 100 mbar evaporation pressure, 43°C and 10%wt. of ethanol in lignin dispersion) in fed-batch operation at lab and pilot scale. As result of evaporation the mass of spent liquor was reduced by about 50%wt., thus avoiding large process streams. By controlled droplet coalescence the mean lignin particle size increased from below 10 μm to sizes larger than 10 μm improving the significantly filterability.

  1. Influence of Cold-Sprayed, Warm-Sprayed, and Plasma-Sprayed Layers Deposition on Fatigue Properties of Steel Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cizek, J.; Matejkova, M.; Dlouhy, I.; Siska, F.; Kay, C. M.; Karthikeyan, J.; Kuroda, S.; Kovarik, O.; Siegl, J.; Loke, K.; Khor, Khiam Aik

    2015-06-01

    Titanium powder was deposited onto steel specimens using four thermal spray technologies: plasma spray, low-pressure cold spray, portable cold spray, and warm spray. The specimens were then subjected to strain-controlled cyclic bending test in a dedicated in-house built device. The crack propagation was monitored by observing the changes in the resonance frequency of the samples. For each series, the number of cycles corresponding to a pre-defined specimen cross-section damage was used as a performance indicator. It was found that the grit-blasting procedure did not alter the fatigue properties of the steel specimens (1% increase as compared to as-received set), while the deposition of coatings via all four thermal spray technologies significantly increased the measured fatigue lives. The three high-velocity technologies led to an increase of relative lives to 234% (low-pressure cold spray), 210% (portable cold spray), and 355% (warm spray) and the deposition using plasma spray led to an increase of relative lives to 303%. The observed increase of high-velocity technologies (cold and warm spray) could be attributed to a combination of homogeneous fatigue-resistant coatings and induction of peening stresses into the substrates via the impingement of the high-kinetic energy particles. Given the intrinsic character of the plasma jet (low-velocity impact of semi/molten particles) and the mostly ceramic character of the coating (oxides, nitrides), a hypothesis based on non-linear coatings behavior is provided in the paper.

  2. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Beetz, Charles

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  3. Plasma Spraying Reclaims Compressor Housings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leissler, George W.; Yuhas, John S.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-spraying process used to build up material in worn and pitted areas. Newly applied material remachined to specified surface contours. Effective technique for addition of metal to out-of-tolerance magnesium-alloy turbine-engine compressor housings.

  4. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2005-11-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  5. Electrokinetically pumped high pressure sprays

    DOEpatents

    Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Paul, Phillip H.; Schoeniger, Luke

    2002-01-01

    An electrokinetic pump capable of producing high pressure is combined with a nozzle having a submicron orifice to provide a high pressure spray device. Because of its small size, the device can be contained within medical devices such as an endoscope for delivering biological materials such as DNA, chemo therapeutic agents, or vaccines to tissues and cells.

  6. Aqueous-Spray Cleaning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Gene E.; Hoult, William S.; Simpson, Gareth L.

    1996-01-01

    Simple aqueous-spray cleaning system with overall dimensions comparable to large kitchen refrigerator constructed for use in cleaning hardware in shop. Made of commercially available parts and materials. Incorporates economical cleaner-and-rinse-recycling subsystem, as well as programmable logic-controller device for either manual or automatic operation.

  7. Ultrafiltration of sulfite liquors for separation of lignosulfonates removed from water by coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Medvedev, Yu.M.; Medvedev, M.I.; Tsapyuk, E.A.

    1986-04-10

    This paper attempts to select an ultrafilter retaining lignosulfonate (LS) fractions precipitated by coagulants and to study the relationships of their concentration and efficiency of removal from water by coagulants. The material studied - sulfite liquor from the Syas' pulp and paper combine - was fractionated with the use of ''Vladipor'' cellulose acetate ultrafiltration membranes of various pore sizes. Data on the efficiency of removal from water of LS fractions retained by membranes differing in pore size are presented. It is concluded that ecologically safe LS fractions (removed almost completely by the coagulant) can be obtained by ultrafiltration of technical liquor through UAM-500 membranes under 0.7 MPA pressure.

  8. Epidemiological and histopathological study of relevance of Guizhou Maotai liquor and liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Cheng, Ming-Liang; Zhang, Guo-Hao; Zhai, Rong-Wei; Huang, Neng-Hui; Li, Cheng-Xiu; Luo, Tian-Yong; Lu, Shuang; Yu, Zhi-Qin; Yao, Yu-Mei; Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ren, Lan-Zhen; Ye, Lan; Li, Ling; Zhang, Hui-Na

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To explore the relevance of Maotai liquor and liver diseases. METHODS: Epidemiological study was conducted on groups of subjects, each consisting of 3 subjects from the Maotai liquor group consisting of 99 individuals and one from the non-alcoholic control group consisting of 33 individuals. Liver biopsy was performed on 23 volunteers from Guizhou Maotai Distillery who had a constant and long history of drinking Maotai liquor. Experimental histopathological study was conducted as follows: sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups randomly and fed with Maotai liquor, ordinary white wine, and physiological saline respectively for a period of 8 and 12 weeks. The rats were sacrificed in batches, then serum ALT, AST, TBil, and AKP were measured. Rat livers were harvested to measure the liver indexes, GSH, and MDA. Histopathological examinations were also performed. Another eighty mice were randomly divided into 4 groups and fed with Maotai (at different dosages of 10 mL·kg-1 and 20 mL·kg-1), ethanol, and physiological saline. The animals were sacrificed after 4 weeks and serum ALT was determined. Then the livers were harvested and liver indexes and MDA were measured. RESULTS: The incidence rate of hepatic symptoms, splenomegaly, liver function impairment, reversal of Albumin/Globulin and increased diameter of portal veins in the Maotai liquor group were 1.0% (1/99), 1.0% (1/99), 1.0% (1/99), 1.0% (1/99), 0 (0/99) and 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), 0 (0/99), respectively. There was no significant difference between the Maotai group and the non-alcoholic control group (P > 0.05). Various degree of fatty infiltration of hepatocytes was found in the 23 volunteers receiving liver biopsy, but there was no obvious hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis. A comparison was made between the Maotai liquor group and the ordinary white wine group. It was found that hepatic MDA in rats and mice were 0.33 ± 0.10 and 0.49 ± 0.23 respectively in Maotai group and 0.61

  9. Review of black surfaces for space-borne infrared systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persky, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    Low reflectivity (``black'') surface treatments for space-borne infrared systems are reviewed. The uses of black surfaces in general, as well as for specific space-borne applications are discussed. Compositions of a wide variety of surface treatments with examples of experimental data to characterize performances are provided. Specific treatments included are: Ames 24E paint; AZKO 463 (Sikkens, Cat-A-Lac) paint; Ball IR black paint; Chemglaze (Aeroglaze) Z306 and Z302 paints; Eccosorb 268E paint; Parsons Black paint; black anodize; black Hardlub; black Hardcoat; Martin Black; InfraBlack; Enhanced Martin Black; Ebonal C; Teflon; ion beam textured; appliqués black chrome; black etched beryllium on beryllium; plasma sprayed boron on beryllium; plasma sprayed beryllium on beryllium; boron carbide on POCO graphite; and Kapton. Data presented for some but not all of the surfaces include: spectrally integrated, 5-25 μm hemispherical-directional reflectance; spectral reflectance at wavelengths between 2 and 500 μm for a variety of incident angles from 5° to 80° and bidirectional reflectance at a number of wavelengths between 5 and 300 μm for a variety of incident angles from 0° to 80°. The instrumentation employed to obtain these data is briefly described. Long term stability of optical performance, as well as manufacturing reproducibility is demonstrated for several of the surfaces. Outgassing and atomic oxygen interaction information is also included. Methodology for calorimetric measurement of hemispherical emittance as an alternative to optical measurements is given.

  10. Test plan for non-radioactive testing of vertical calciner for development of direct denitration conversion of Pu-bearing liquors to stable, storage solids

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, F.D.

    1995-03-30

    Plutonium-bearing liquors, including ANL scrap liquors, will be used for development and demonstration of a vertical calciner direct denitration process for conversion of those liquors to stable, storable PuO{sub 2}-rich solids. This test plan is to test with non-radioactive stand-in materials to demonstrate adequate performance of the vertical calciner and ancillary equipment.

  11. Dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated with black raspberry, black carrot and rosella juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tekerek, S.; Kudret, A.; Alver, Ü.

    2011-10-01

    In this work, dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's) were constructed from black raspberry ( Rubus Ideaus), black carrot ( Daucuscarota L.) and rosella juice ( Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.). In order to fabricate a DSSC the fluorine-doped tin (IV) oxide (FTO) thin films obtained by using spray pyrolysis technique were used as a substrate. TiO2 films on FTO layers were prepared by doctor-blading technique. Platinum-coated counter electrode and liquid Iodide/Iodine electrolyte solution were used to fabricate DSSC's. The efficiencies of solar cells produced with black carrot, rosella and black raspberry juice were calculated as 0.25%, 0.16% and 0.16% respectively, under a sunny day in Kahramanmaraş-Turkey.

  12. Triacylglycerol profile in cocoa liquors using MALDI-TOF and LC-ESI tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bono, Luca; Seraglia, Roberta; Roverso, Marco; Di Carro, Marina; Magi, Emanuele

    2014-09-01

    Triacylglycerols are responsible for chocolate's peculiar melting behavior: the type and position of fatty acids on the glycerol molecule strongly affect the melting range of cocoa butter. For this reason, the characterization of triglyceride composition in cocoa products is particularly important. In this work, triacylglycerols extracted from cocoa liquor samples were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) coupled to liquid chromatography. Extracted samples were initially analyzed by direct injection in MS to obtain information on triglyceride molecular weights; relevant MS parameters were optimized, and the possible formation of the adducts [M + Na](+) and [M + NH(4)](+) was studied. Tandem mass experiments (both with triple quadrupole and TOF/TOF) were performed to study the fragmentation pathways (in particular, the loss of palmitic, stearic and oleic acid) and identify the triacylglycerols in cocoa liquors. Some signals of the spectra obtained with both MS techniques could indicate the presence of diacylglycerols in the cocoa extract, but different experimental evidences demonstrated that they were generated by the in-source fragmentation of triglycerides. A nonaqueous reversed-phase chromatographic separation was also developed and used to support the identification of the analytes; nine triacylglycerols were recognized in the cocoa liquor extracts. The three different batches of Ecuador cocoa liquor did not show significant differences in the triacylglycerol profile.

  13. Maleic acid treatment of bioabated corn stover liquors improves cellulose conversion to ethanol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elimination of inhibitory compounds released during pretreatment of lignocellulose is critical for efficient cellulose conversion and ethanol fermentation. This study examined the effect of bioabated liquor from pretreated corn stover on enzyme hydrolysis of Solka Floc or pretreated corn stover soli...

  14. Generator-Absorber heat exchange transfer apparatus and method using an intermediate liquor

    DOEpatents

    Phillips, Benjamin A.; Zawacki, Thomas S.

    1996-11-05

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use the working solution of the absorption system for the heat transfer medium where the working solution has an intermediate liquor concentration.

  15. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... Ordinance may be cited as the ``Gun Lake Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance.'' Section 2 The purpose of this... the State of Michigan. Chapter 2 Definitions For purposes of this Ordinance the following definitions apply: (a) ``Alcohol'' means that substance known as ethyl alcohol, hydrated oxide of ethyl, or...

  16. Protozoan biomass relation to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand removal in activated sludge mixed liquor.

    PubMed

    Akpor, Oghenerobor B; Momba, Maggy N B; Okonkwo, Jonathan O

    2008-08-01

    The relationship between biomass concentration to nutrient and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal in mixed liquor supplemented with sodium acetate was investigated, using three protozoan isolates and three different initial biomass concentrations (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) cells/mL). The study was carried out in a shaking flask environment at a shaking speed of 100 rpm for 96 h at 25 degrees C. Aliquot samples were taken periodically for the determination of phosphate, nitrate, COD and dissolved oxygen, using standard methods. The results revealed remarkable phosphate removal of 82-95% at biomass concentration of 10(3)cells/mL. A high nitrate removal of over 87% was observed at all initial biomass concentration in mixed liquor. There was an observed COD increase of over 50% in mixed liquor in at the end of 96-h incubation and this was irrespective of initial biomass concentration used for inoculation. The study shows the trend in nutrient and COD removal at different biomass concentrations of the test isolates in mixed liquor.

  17. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    PubMed

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  18. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  19. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  20. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  1. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  2. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ...: Pursuant to the Act of August 15, 1953; Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C. 1161, as interpreted by... Graton Rancheria (``Tribal Council'') to enact laws, policies, and regulations as authorized under... liquor while ensuring that such activity conforms with all applicable laws of the State of California...

  3. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Pursuant to the Act of August 15, 1953, Public Law 83-277, 67 Stat. 586, 18 U.S.C.... Additional authority for the adoption of this ordinance is found in Federal Law at 18 U.S.C. 1161, providing in part that the Indian Liquor Laws found in the United States Code, shall not apply to any act...

  4. 77 FR 31381 - Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake-Tribal Liquor Ordinance No. 2008-01

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-25

    ... employees; c. To issue licenses permitting the sale or manufacture or distribution of liquor on Tribal Lands... Council or its designee at all reasonable times, which includes the hours the business is open to the... Businesses. No sales of Alcoholic Beverages shall be made on Tribal Lands, except at a tribally licensed...

  5. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... intoxicating beverage business'' means either maintaining a retail liquor, beer and/or wine establishment... jurisdiction of the Tribe, regardless of whether the principal place of business is or is not located outside... for Tribal License Before the Senate issues a Tribal License, the applicant shall be investigated...

  6. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... which a person licensed to sell alcoholic beverages under this ordinance carries on such business, and... licensed premises, outlet or liquor outlet. Moreover, where a Licensee's business is carried on as part of... good moral character; (b) That applicant has never been convicted of violating any of the...

  7. Growth of Chaetomium cellulolyticum on Alkali-Pretreated Hardwood Sawdust Solids and Pretreatment Liquor

    PubMed Central

    Pamment, N.; Moo-Young, M.; Hsieh, F.-H.; Robinson, C. W.

    1978-01-01

    The treatment of a hardwood sawdust with 1% NaOH solution at 121°C dissolved 19.7% of the dry matter, mainly hemicellulose and lignin. Fermentation of the treated solids by Chaetomium cellulolyticum for 48 h gave a product containing 12.5% crude protein (total N × 6.25) on a dry weight basis. The in vitro rumen digestibility of the 48-h fermentation product was 30%, compared to 24% for the alkali-treated but unfermented sawdust. Growth was independent of sawdust particle size in the range 40 to 100 mesh. Fermentation of the pretreatment liquor gave a product containing up to 50% crude protein (dry weight basis) with an in vitro rumen digestibility of 65 to 76%. Approximately 6.7 g of crude protein was obtained from the treated solids and 2.2 g from the pretreatment liquor per 100 g of sawdust treated. The product from the pretreatment liquor fermentation has potential as a high-protein animal feed supplement but could not be produced economically without an outlet for the relatively indigestible product from the solids fermentation. Growth on the pretreatment liquor was strongly pH dependent; there was a considerable increase in the lag phase when the pH was lowered from 7.5 to 5.2. This effect appears to be due to an inhibitor whose toxicity is reduced at high pH. PMID:16345308

  8. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell...

  9. The Readership of Liquor Ads Employing Appeals to Affiliation, Achievement, and Product-Attributes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined whether advertising appeals based on product affiliation, achievement, and attributes would account for differences in male readership of liquor advertisements. The investigation focused on the relationship between the content of alcholic beverage advertisements and attention engagement, the first state in consumer information…

  10. 6. Building E9; view of glass lines for dilute liquor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Building E-9; view of glass lines for dilute liquor and spent acid; second floor, looking ESE. Bottom of wash tank is at the top of the view. (Ryan and Harms) - Holston Army Ammunition Plant, RDX-and-Composition-B Manufacturing Line 9, Kingsport, Sullivan County, TN

  11. CFD Simulation of Aerial Crop Spraying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omar, Zamri; Qiang, Kua Yong; Mohd, Sofian; Rosly, Nurhayati

    2016-11-01

    Aerial crop spraying, also known as crop dusting, is made for aerial application of pesticides or fertilizer. An agricultural aircraft which is converted from an aircraft has been built to combine with the aerial crop spraying for the purpose. In recent years, many studies on the aerial crop spraying were conducted because aerial application is the most economical, large and rapid treatment for the crops. The main objective of this research is to study the airflow of aerial crop spraying system using Computational Fluid Dynamics. This paper is focus on the effect of aircraft speed and nozzle orientation on the distribution of spray droplet at a certain height. Successful and accurate of CFD simulation will improve the quality of spray during the real situation and reduce the spray drift. The spray characteristics and efficiency are determined from the calculated results of CFD. Turbulence Model (k-ɛ Model) is used for the airflow in the fluid domain to achieve a more accurate simulation. Furthermore, spray simulation is done by setting the Flat-fan Atomizer Model of Discrete Phase Model (DPM) at the nozzle exit. The interaction of spray from each flat-fan atomizer can also be observed from the simulation. The evaluation of this study is validation and grid dependency study using field data from industry.

  12. Predictions of spray combustion interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuen, J. S.; Solomon, A. S. P.; Faeth, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    Mean and fluctuating phase velocities; mean particle mass flux; particle size; and mean gas-phase Reynolds stress, composition and temperature were measured in stationary, turbulent, axisymmetric, and flows which conform to the boundary layer approximations while having well-defined initial and boundary conditions in dilute particle-laden jets, nonevaporating sprays, and evaporating sprays injected into a still air environment. Three models of the processes, typical of current practice, were evaluated. The local homogeneous flow and deterministic separated flow models did not provide very satisfactory predictions over the present data base. In contrast, the stochastic separated flow model generally provided good predictions and appears to be an attractive approach for treating nonlinear interphase transport processes in turbulent flows containing particles (drops).

  13. Sprays and Cartan projective connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, D. J.

    2004-10-01

    Around 80 years ago, several authors (for instance H. Weyl, T.Y. Thomas, J. Douglas and J.H.C. Whitehead) studied the projective geometry of paths, using the methods of tensor calculus. The principal object of study was a spray, namely a homogeneous second-order differential equation, or more generally a projective equivalence class of sprays. At around the same time, E. Cartan studied the same topic from a different point of view, by imagining a projective space attached to a manifold, or, more generally, attached to a `manifold of elements'; the infinitesimal `glue' may be interpreted in modern language as a Cartan projective connection on a principal bundle. This paper describes the geometrical relationship between these two points of view.

  14. Vacuum Plasma Sprayed Metallic Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankar, S.; Koenig, D. E.; Dardi, L. E.

    1981-10-01

    Recognizing the fundamental cost advantage, technical capabilities, and compositional flexibility of reduced pressure (vacuum) plasma spraying compared to other overlay coating methods, an advanced, second generation, closed chamber deposition process called VPX (a Howmet trademark) was developed. An automated experimental facility for coating gas turbine engine components was also constructed. This paper describes several important features of the process and equipment. It shows that the use of optimized spray parameters combined with an appropriate schedule of relative orientations between the gun and work-piece can be used to produce dense and highly reproducible coatings of either uniform or controlled thickness distributions. The chemical composition, microstructure, and interfacial characteristics of typical MCrAlY coatings are reported. Some effects of operating procedures and MCrAlY chemical composition on coating density are noted. The results of mechanical property and burner rig tests of coated material are also described.

  15. Evaluation of the chromium oxide arc spraying treatment on solar energy collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandezarroyo, Gloria; Gonzalezgarcia-Conde, Antonio; Moralespoyato, Francisco; Arrerajaraiz, Jose Maria; Blancotemprano, Cristina; Camonalvarez, Francisco

    Accelerated aging tests were performed on steel specimens coated with plasma gun Cr2O3 arc sprays. The chromium oxide coating is attractive due to its radiation absorptance characteristic, especially for solar thermal energy absorption applications. The use of plasma blowpipes gives low porosity coatings. Collector efficiency curves were determined and compared to the curves of conventional black paint collectors. The efficiency is close to conventional painting. The excellent behavior at high temperatures makes this treatment applicable to concentrated radiation absorbers.

  16. High Power Density Spray Cooling

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    to subcooled flow boiling . Above this point, the percentage of heat removal attributed to evaporation increases. After the majority of the coolant is...concerning the spray characteristics Was obtained using a laser phase Doppler system . Table 5.1.1: Nozzle characteristics Nozzle Orifice Flow Rate (1/hr...in section 6.2.1. A study of the air/droplet inpingetmet flow field on the surface clearly shows the advantages of such a system . The air jet on

  17. Uniform-droplet spray forming

    SciTech Connect

    Blue, C.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Chun, Jung-Hoon; Ando, T.

    1997-04-01

    The uniform-droplet process is a new method of liquid-metal atomization that results in single droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on to substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructure. The mono-sized powder-production capability of the uniform-droplet process also has the potential of permitting engineered powder blends to produce components of controlled porosity. Metal and alloy powders are commercially produced by at least three different methods: gas atomization, water atomization, and rotating disk. All three methods produce powders of a broad range in size with a very small yield of fine powders with single-sized droplets that can be used to produce mono-size powders or sprayed-on substrates to produce near-net shapes with tailored microstructures. The economical analysis has shown the process to have the potential of reducing capital cost by 50% and operating cost by 37.5% when applied to powder making. For the spray-forming process, a 25% savings is expected in both the capital and operating costs. The project is jointly carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Tuffs University, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Preliminary interactions with both finished parts and powder producers have shown a strong interest in the uniform-droplet process. Systematic studies are being conducted to optimize the process parameters, understand the solidification of droplets and spray deposits, and develop a uniform-droplet-system (UDS) apparatus appropriate for processing engineering alloys.

  18. Magnesium Repair by Cold Spray

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    were conducted using microstructural analysis, hardness, bond strength, and corrosion testing. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cold spray, magnesium, aluminum ... corrosion pitting are the primary causes for removing the components from service. In addition, any repair must be confined to nonstructural areas of...unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The U.S. Army has experienced significant corrosion problems with magnesium alloys that are used to

  19. Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabey, Katie; Smith, Barton; Archibald, Reid; West, Brian

    2009-11-01

    An overview of research on a flow control technique called Coanda-assisted Spray Manipulation (CSM) is presented. CSM uses a high-momentum control jet under the influence of the Coanda effect to vector a high volume-flow jet or spray. Actuators provide the capability of moving the location of applied control flow making rotary or arbitrary motion of the vectored flow possible. The presented work includes a fundamental isothermal study on the effects of rotation speed and Reynolds number on a vectored jet using a belt-driven CSM actuator. Three-component velocity data were acquired for three Reynolds numbers and three rotation speeds using timed resolved high-speed stereo Particle Image Velocimetry. A second CSM system with 16 pneumatically-driven control ports has been retrofitted to a flame spray gun. This combination provides the capability to rapidly alter the direction of applied metal powders. High speed video of this process will also be presented. Finally, a fundamental study on the pneumatic system's response to minor losses and connection lines of varying lengths is presented.

  20. Novel Pulping Technology: Directed Green Liquor Utilization (D-GLU) Pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Lucian A. Lucia

    2005-11-15

    The general objectives of this new project are the same as those described in the original proposal. Conventional kraft pulping technologies will be modified for significant improvements in pulp production, such as strength, bleachability, and yield by using green liquor, a naturally high, kraft mill-derived sulfidity source. Although split white liquor sulfidity and other high sulfidity procedures have the promise of addressing several of the latter important economic needs of pulp mills, they require considerable engineering/capital retrofits, redesigned production methods, and thus add to overall mill expenditures. Green liquor use, however, possesses the required high sulfidity to obtain in general the benefits attributable to higher sulfidity cooking, without the required capital constraints for implementation. Before introduction of green liquor in our industrial operations, a stronger understanding of its fundamental chemical interaction with the lignin and carbohydrates in US hardwood and softwoods must be obtained. In addition, its effect on bleachability, enhancement of pulp properties, and influence on the overall energy and recovery of the mill requires further exploration before the process witnesses widespread mill use in North America. Thus, proof of principle will be accomplished in this work and the consequent effect of green liquor and other high sulfide sources on the pulping and bleaching operations will be explored for US kraft mills. The first year of this project will generate the pertinent information to validate its ability for implementation in US pulping operations, whereas year two will continue this work while proceeding to analyze pulp bleachability and final pulp/paper properties and develop a general economic and feasibility analysis for its eventual implementation in North America.

  1. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu; Xu, Yan

    2015-10-16

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor.

  2. Flavor Profile of Chinese Liquor Is Altered by Interactions of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Microbes

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Kong, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The flavor profile of Chinese liquor is the result of the metabolic activity of its microbial community. Given the importance of the microbial interaction, a novel way to control the liquor's flavor is by regulating the composition of the community. In this study, we efficiently improved the liquor's flavor by perturbing the intrinsic microbial metabolism with extrinsic microbes. We first constructed a basic microbial group (intrinsic) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Issatchenkia orientalis and added special flavor producers (extrinsic), Saccharomyces uvarum and Saccharomyces servazzii, to this intrinsic group. Upon the addition of the extrinsic microbes, the maximum specific growth rates of S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis increased from 6.19 to 43.28/day and from 1.15 to 14.32/day, respectively, but that of W. anomalus changed from 1.00 to 0.96/day. In addition, most volatile compounds known to be produced by the extrinsic strains were not produced. However, more esters, alcohols, and acids were produced by S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis. Six compounds were significantly different by random forest analysis after perturbation. Among them, increases in ethyl hexanoate, isobutanol, and 3-methylbutyric acid were correlated with S. cerevisiae and I. orientalis, and a decrease in geranyl acetone was correlated with W. anomalus. Variations in ethyl acetate and 2-phenylethanol might be due to the varied activity of W. anomalus and S. cerevisiae. This work showed the effect of the interaction between the intrinsic and extrinsic microbes on liquor flavor, which would be beneficial for improving the quality of Chinese liquor. PMID:26475111

  3. Wire Whip Keeps Spray Nozzle Clean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, H. R.

    1982-01-01

    Air-turbine-driven wire whip is clamped near spray-gun mount. When spray gun is installed, wire whip is in position to remove foam buildup from nozzle face. Two lengths of wire 1 to 2 inches long and about 0.03 inch in thickness are used. Foam spray would be prevented from accumulating on nozzle face by increasing purge flow and cutting vortex-generating grooves inside cap and on nozzle flats.

  4. Planar Droplet Sizing in Dense Sprays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-01

    Transactions of the ASME 121(3): 409-414. Sick, V. and B. Stojkovic (2001). "Attenuation effects on imaging diagnostics of hollow - cone sprays ...considered in the data processing method. Imaging of the scattered light from the spray was performed by a 12bit CCD camera ( Model PCO sensical QE...the spray was performed using a laser power meter. The motorised linear stage was acquired from Thorlabs MTS50 models (Figure 5). The positioning

  5. Spray combustion model improvement study, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. P.; Kim, Y. M.; Shang, H. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study involves the development of numerical and physical modeling in spray combustion. These modeling efforts are mainly motivated to improve the physical submodels of turbulence, combustion, atomization, dense spray effects, and group vaporization. The present mathematical formulation can be easily implemented in any time-marching multiple pressure correction methodologies such as MAST code. A sequence of validation cases includes the nonevaporating, evaporating and_burnin dense_sprays.

  6. Liquid spray cooling of a heated surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grissom, W. M.; Wierum, F. A.

    1981-01-01

    The lowest surface temperature possible for the existance of spray evaporative cooling is determined experimentally to be a linear function of the impinging spray mass flux. A conduction-controlled analytical model of droplet evaporation gives fairly good agreement with experimental measurements at atmospheric pressure. At reduced pressures droplet evaporation rates are decreased significantly such that an optimum operating pressure exists for each desired surface heat flux. The initiation of the 'Leidenfrost state' provides the upper surface temperature bound for spray evaporative cooling.

  7. Plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Douglas S.; Folser, George R.

    2006-01-10

    A plasma sprayed ceria-containing interlayer is provided. The interlayer has particular application in connection with a solid oxide fuel cell used within a power generation system. The fuel cell advantageously comprises an air electrode, a plasma sprayed interlayer disposed on at least a portion of the air electrode, a plasma sprayed electrolyte disposed on at least a portion of the interlayer, and a fuel electrode applied on at least a portion of the electrolyte.

  8. [Study on the Recognition of Liquor Age of Gujing Based on Raman Spectra and Support Vector Regression].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-xiang; Wang, Hai-yan; Wang, Hu; Zhang, Zheng-yong; Liu, Jun

    2016-03-01

    It is an important and difficult research point to recognize the age of Chinese liquor rapidly and exactly in the field of liquor analyzing, which is also of great significance to the healthy development of the liquor industry and protection of the legitimate rights and interests of consumers. Spectroscopy together with the pattern recognition technology is a preferred method of achieving rapid identification of wine quality, in which the Raman Spectroscopy is promising because of its little affection of water and little or free of sample pretreatment. So, in this paper, Raman spectra and support vector regression (SVR) are used to recognize different ages and different storing time of the liquor of the same age. The innovation of this paper is mainly reflected in the following three aspects. First, the application of Raman in the area of liquor analysis is rarely reported till now. Second, the concentration of studying the recognition of wine age, while most studies focus on studying specific components of liquor and studies together with the pattern recognition method focus more on the identification of brands or different types of base wine. The third one is the application of regression analysis framework, which cannot be only used to identify different years of liquor, but also can be used to analyze different storing time, which has theoretical and practical significance to the research and quality control of liquor. Three kinds of experiments are conducted in this paper. Firstly, SVR is used to recognize different ages of 5, 8, 16 and 26 years of the Gujing Liquor; secondly, SVR is also used to classify the storing time of the 8-years liquor; thirdly, certain group of train data is deleted form the train set and put into the test set to simulate the actual situation of liquor age recognition. Results show that the SVR model has good train and predict performance in these experiments, and it has better performance than other non-liner regression method such

  9. Modeling Multi-Arc Spraying Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.

    2016-06-01

    The use of plasma as energy source in thermal spraying enables among others the processing of feed stock materials with very high melting temperatures as coating materials. New generation multi-arc plasma spraying systems are widely spread and promise several advantages in comparison to the conventional single-arc systems. Numerical modeling of multi-arc plasma spraying offers the possibility to increase the understanding about this process. This study focuses on the numerical modeling of three-cathode spraying systems, introducing the recent activities in this field and discussing the numerical aspects which influence the prediction power of the models.

  10. Dynamic characteristics of pulsed supersonic fuel sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pianthong, K.; Matthujak, A.; Takayama, K.; Milton, B. E.; Behnia, M.

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes the dynamic characteristics of pulsed, supersonic liquid fuel sprays or jets injected into ambient air. Simple, single hole nozzles were employed with the nozzle sac geometries being varied. Different fuel types, diesel fuel, bio-diesel, kerosene, and gasoline were used to determine the effects of fuel properties on the spray characteristics. A vertical two-stage light gas gun was employed as a projectile launcher to provide a high velocity impact to produce the liquid jet. The injection pressure was around 0.88-1.24 GPa in all cases. The pulsed, supersonic fuel sprays were visualized by using a high-speed video camera and shadowgraph method. The spray tip penetration and velocity attenuation and other characteristics were examined and are described here. An instantaneous spray tip velocity of 1,542 m/s (Mach number 4.52) was obtained. However, this spray tip velocity can be sustained for only a very short period (a few microseconds). It then attenuates very quickly. The phenomenon of multiple high frequency spray pulses generated by a single shot impact and the changed in the angle of the shock structure during the spray flight, which had already been observed in previous studies, is again noted. Multiple shock waves from the conical nozzle spray were also clearly captured.

  11. Pulsed spray structure and atomisation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yule, A. J.

    1987-08-01

    The process of atomisation from diesel injectors is found to persist for a significant proportion of the spray length before impaction on the cylinder wall. Both aerodynamic shear and cavitation appear to be of importance for the liquid jet breakdown. In addition cyclic variations are found in the atomisation and penetration of sprays. The transient nature of the spray initial conditions can cause pile up and coagulation of droplets at the leading edge of the spray pulse for certain cases. Improved modeling of diesel injection requires recognition of these phenomena and this is supported by both modeling and experimental data which have been obtained under realistic engine conditions in a specially developed rig.

  12. Wind tunnel and field evaluation of drift from aerial spray applications with multiple spray formulations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of different spray tank modifiers into an active ingredient spray mixture on spray atomization and in-field behavior under aerial application conditions were examined. Wind tunnel tests demonstrated that active ingredient solutions potentially results in significantly different atomizati...

  13. Spray drift reduction evaluations of spray nozzles using a standardized testing protocol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The development and testing of drift reduction technologies has come to the forefront of application research in the past few years in the United States. Drift reduction technologies (DRTs) can be spray nozzles, sprayer modifications, spray delivery assistance, spray property modifiers (adjuvants),...

  14. Black Molecular Adsorber Coatings for Spaceflight Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abraham, Nithin Susan; Hasegawa, Mark Makoto; Straka, Sharon A.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular adsorber coating is a new technology that was developed to mitigate the risk of on-orbit molecular contamination on spaceflight missions. The application of this coating would be ideal near highly sensitive, interior surfaces and instruments that are negatively impacted by outgassed molecules from materials, such as plastics, adhesives, lubricants, epoxies, and other similar compounds. This current, sprayable paint technology is comprised of inorganic white materials made from highly porous zeolite. In addition to good adhesion performance, thermal stability, and adsorptive capability, the molecular adsorber coating offers favorable thermal control characteristics. However, low reflectivity properties, which are typically offered by black thermal control coatings, are desired for some spaceflight applications. For example, black coatings are used on interior surfaces, in particular, on instrument baffles for optical stray light control. Similarly, they are also used within light paths between optical systems, such as telescopes, to absorb light. Recent efforts have been made to transform the white molecular adsorber coating into a black coating with similar adsorptive properties. This result is achieved by optimizing the current formulation with black pigments, while still maintaining its adsorption capability for outgassing control. Different binder to pigment ratios, coating thicknesses, and spray application techniques were explored to develop a black version of the molecular adsorber coating. During the development process, coating performance and adsorption characteristics were studied. The preliminary work performed on black molecular adsorber coatings thus far is very promising. Continued development and testing is necessary for its use on future contamination sensitive spaceflight missions.

  15. Counseling Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vontress, Clemmont E.

    1970-01-01

    Blacks have developed unique environmental perceptions, values, and attitudes, making it difficult for counselors to establish and maintain positive rapport. This article examines attitudinal ingredients posited by Carl Rogers for relevance to this problem, and suggests in-service training to help counselors and other professionals relate…

  16. Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Charles-James N.

    This paper, presented as part of a military lecture series given by the Division of Continuing Education and Community Service Speakers' Bureau of the University of Hawaii to military personnel at Schofield Barracks and Fort Shafter, investigates the origins and present status of Black English. A discussion of early studies in the Gullah dialect…

  17. Black America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Francisco Unified School District, CA.

    This is a selected bibliography of some good and some outstanding audio-visual educational materials in the library of the Educational Materials Bureau, Audio-Visual Education Section, that may be considered by particular interest in the study of black Americans. The bibliography is arranged alphabetically within these subject areas: I. African…

  18. Comparison Between Sodium Nitrite & Sodium Hydroxide Spray Accident

    SciTech Connect

    WILLIAMS, J.C.; HEY, B.E.

    2001-11-07

    The purpose of this analysis is to compare the consequences of an 8 molar NaNO2 spray leak to the Tank Farm Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) evaluation of sprays of up to 19 molar (50%) NaOH. Four conditions were evaluated. These are: a spray during transfers from a one-inch pipe, a spray resulting from a truck tank Crack, a spray resulting from a truck tank rupture, and a spray in the 204-AR Waste Unloading Facility.

  19. Spray forming lead strip. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.

    1996-04-10

    A cooperative research project was conducted between the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and Johnson Controls, Inc. (JCI) to adapt the INEL spray forming process to produce near-net-shape lead alloy strip. The emphasis of the work was to spray form lead strip samples at INEL, using a variety of spray conditions, for characterization at JCI. An existing glove box apparatus was modified at INEL to spray form lead. The main spray forming components were housed inside the glove box. They included a spray nozzle, tundish (crucible), substrate assembly, gas heater and furnaces to heat the nozzle and tundish. To spray form metal strip, liquid metal was pressure-fed at a controlled rate through a series of circular orifices that span the width of the nozzle. There the metal contacted high velocity, high temperature inert gas (nitrogen) which atomized the molten material into fine droplets, entrained the droplets in a directed flow, and deposited them onto glass plates that were swept through the spray plume to form strip samples. In-flight convection cooling of the droplets followed by conduction and convection cooling at the substrate resulted in rapid solidification of the deposit. During operation, the inside of the glove box was purged with an inert gas to limit the effects of in-flight oxidation of the particles and spray-formed strips, as well as to protect personnel from exposure to airborne lead particulate. Remote controls were used to start/stop the spray and control the speed and position of the substrate. In addition, substrate samples were loaded into the substrate translator manually using the gloved side ports of the box. In this way, the glove box remained closed during a series of spray trials, and was opened only when loading the crucible with a lead charge or when removing lead strip samples for shipment to JCI.

  20. Effectiveness of crime prevention through environmental design in reducing criminal activity in liquor stores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Casteel, Carri; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Howard, John; Kraus, Jess F

    2004-05-01

    Liquor store employees experience disproportionately higher rates of workplace injury death than employees in any other retail setting. However, efforts to introduce workplace violence prevention programs into liquor stores have been minimal. This study examines the effectiveness of a Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design intervention in reducing criminal activity in Santa Monica, California liquor stores. Nine stores enrolling in the study received an individualized intervention safety plan; the remaining 13 served as a comparison group. Mixed-effects Poisson regression was used to examine intervention effectiveness. The largest reductions in criminal activity occurred for robbery and shoplifting outcomes. We conclude that the Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design program reduced crime and injury in liquor stores and educated small businesses about the risks associated with retail violence and the countermeasures that can be taken.

  1. Black Talk and Black Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahams, Roger D.

    1969-01-01

    Demonstrates the need for cultural relativity in avoiding stereotyped reactions to the language of the lower-class black child. Appears in "The Florida FL Reporter special anthology issue, "Linguistic-Cultural Differences and American Education. The central portion of this essay is part of the opening argument of the author's forthcoming book…

  2. Preparation and characterization of microparticles of piroxicam by spray drying and spray chilling methods

    PubMed Central

    Dixit, M.; Kini, A.G.; Kulkarni, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Piroxicam, an anti-inflammatory drug, exhibits poor water solubility and flow properties, poor dissolution and poor wetting. Consequently, the aim of this study was to improve the dissolution of piroxicam. Microparticles containing piroxicam were produced by spray drying, using isopropyl alcohol and water in the ratio of 40:60 v/v as solvent system, and spray chilling technology by melting the drug and chilling it with a pneumatic nozzle to enhance dissolution rate. The prepared formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution and solubility. The prepared drug particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Dissolution profile of the spray dried microparticles was compared with spray-chilled microparticles, pure and recrystallized samples. Spray dried microparticles and spray chilled microparticles exhibited decreased crystallinity and improved micromeritic properties. The dissolution of the spray dried microparticle and spray chilled particles were improved compared with recrystallized and pure sample of piroxicam. Consequently, it was believed that spray drying of piroxicam is a useful tool to improve dissolution but not in case of spray chilling. This may be due to the degradation of drug or variations in the resonance structure or could be due to minor distortion of bond angles. Hence, this spray drying technique can be used for formulation of tablets of piroxicam by direct compression with directly compressible tablet excipients. PMID:21589797

  3. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  4. Uniform spray coating for large tanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    System employs spray facility located within ventilated plastic booth to uniformly coat exterior of large cylindrical tanks with polyurethane foam insulation. Coating target is rotated on turntable while movable spray guns apply overlapping spirals of foam. Entire operation may be controlled by single operator from remote station.

  5. Non-Markov effects in intersecting sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchagnula, Mahesh; Kumaran, Dhivyaraja; Deevi, Sri Vallabha; Tangirala, Arun

    2016-11-01

    Sprays have been assumed to follow a Markov process. In this study, we revisit that assumption relying on experimental data from intersecting and non-intersecting sprays. A phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) is used to measure particle diameter and velocity at various axial locations in the intersection region of two sprays. Measurements of single sprays, with one nozzle turned off alternatively are also obtained at the same locations. This data, treated as an unstructured time series is classified into three bins each for diameter (small, medium, large) and velocity (slow, medium, fast). Conditional probability analysis on this binned data showed a higher static correlation between droplet velocities, while diameter correlation is significantly alleviated (reduced) in intersecting sprays, compared to single sprays. Further analysis using serial correlation measures: auto-correlation function (ACF) and partial auto-correlation function (PACF) shows that the lagged correlations in droplet velocity are enhanced while those in the droplet diameter are significantly debilitated in intersecting sprays. We show that sprays are not necessarily Markov processes and that memory persists, even though curtailed to fewer lags in case of size, and enhanced in case of droplet velocity.

  6. Spray Drift Issues and Technologies for Mitigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Herbicide-induced plant damage due to off-target spray drift has become a major problem in some regions prompting States to take regulatory action regarding drift mitigation. For example, the Arkansas Plant Board has proposed new regulations regarding spray of Glyphosate and 2, 4-D. These regulation...

  7. Spray Deflector For Water-Jet Machining

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cawthon, Michael A.

    1989-01-01

    Disk on water-jet-machining nozzle protects nozzle and parts behind it from erosion by deflected spray. Consists of stainless-steel backing with neoprene facing deflecting spray so it does not reach nut or other vital parts of water-jet apparatus.

  8. Variations on Black Themes: English, Black Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Gloria D.

    Variations on Black Themes, an introductory course in the study of black literature, permits students to make cursory examination of representative works of many black writers for the purpose of identifying major writers and recurring themes. The course content includes: introduction to some works of major Black American authors; identification of…

  9. Pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite with lime in sodium aluminate liquor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Xiao-lin; Yu, Hai-yan; Dong, Kai-wei; Tu, Gan-feng; Bi, Shi-wen

    2012-11-01

    The effect of lime on the pre-desilication and digestion of gibbsitic bauxite in synthetic sodium aluminate liquor at different temperatures was investigated. The bauxite is comprised of gibbsite, aluminogoethite, hematite, kaolin, quartz, and minor boehmite. Lime increases the desilication efficiency of the bauxite during the pre-desilication process by promoting the conversion of sodalite and cancrinite to hydrogarnet. Desilication reactions during the digestion process promoted by lime result in the loss of Al2O3 entering the red mud, but the amount of aluminogoethite-to-hematite conversion promoted by lime leads to the increase of aluminogoethitic Al2O3 entering the digested liquor. The alumina digestion rate at 245°C is higher than that at 145°C due to the more pronounced conversion of aluminogoethite to hematite. The soda consumption during the digestion process decreases due to lime addition, especially at higher temperatures.

  10. Dry powder preparation of inulin fructotransferase from Arthrobacter aurescens SK 8.001 fermented liquor.

    PubMed

    Hang, Hua; Li, Yungao; Zhao, Meng; Jiang, Bo; Miao, Ming; Mu, Wanmeng; Zhang, Tao

    2013-06-20

    Difructosan anhydrides III (DFA III) are usually obtained by inulin conversion with inulin fructotransferase (IFTase). IFTase liquor is difficult to store for a long time, which could greatly restrict its application and DFA III production. To meet DFA III scale-up preparation, this work was explored to research dry powder preparation of IFTase from Arthrobacter aurescens SK 8.001 fermented liquor by ultrafiltration concentration, ammonium sulfate precipitation and freeze drying. IFTase powder (10.2g) was obtained from IFTase precipitation (126.4 g) and its specific activity determined was 16.4 U/mg. Dry powder of IFTase could maintain over 120 days at different temperatures. These results showed that it is easy to scale up DFA III preparation for industrial capacity.

  11. Physicochemical and functional properties of dietary fiber from maca (Lepidium meyenii Walp.) liquor residue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jinjin; Zhao, Qingsheng; Wang, Liwei; Zha, Shenghua; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Bing

    2015-11-05

    Using maca (Lepidium meyenii) liquor residue as the raw material, dietary fiber (DF) was prepared by chemical (MCDF) and enzymatic (MEDF) methods, respectively, of which the physicochemical and functional properties were comparatively studied. High contents of DF were found in MCDF (55.63%) and MEDF (81.10%). Both fibers showed good functional properties, including swelling capacity, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, glucose adsorption capacity and glucose retardation index. MEDF showed better functional properties, which could be attributed to its higher content of DF, more irregular surface and more abundant monosaccharide composition. The results herein suggest that maca DF prepared by enzymatic method from liquor residue is a good functional ingredient in food products.

  12. Relationship Between Liquor Yield, Plant Capacity Increases, and Energy Savings in Alumina Refining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ter Weer, Peter-Hans

    2014-09-01

    The mechanisms of alumina trihydrate precipitation and controlling parameters, and the methods and technologies affecting liquor yield/productivity in alumina refining, have been described in several publications [e.g., Refs. Alamdari et al. ( Light Metals 1998, pp. 133-137, 1998), Moretto and Power ( Proc. 1990 Alumina Quality Workshop, Perth, Australia, pp. 154-165, 1990)]. However, the relationship between increasing liquor yield, on the one hand, and plant production capacity increases and related energy savings, on the other, has been under-emphasized. This article addresses this issue and provides estimates of plant production capacity increases and steam and power energy savings as a function of precipitation yield increases resulting from the implementation of plant adaptations. Conclusions are that increasing precipitation yield in an alumina refinery results overall in a significant improvement of project economics and interestingly improves a refinery's direct and indirect environmental performance, thus, addressing two of the three "pillars" of sustainable development (economic, environmental, and social).

  13. A Beverage-Specific Measure of Expectancies for Malt Liquor: Development and Initial Testing

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Bradizza, Clara M.; Kubiak, Audrey J.; Falco, Diana L.

    2011-01-01

    Malt liquor (ML) is a unique, high alcohol content beverage marketed to encourage heavy drinking. We developed the Malt Liquor Expectancy Questionnaire (MLEQ), a beverage-specific measure of alcohol expectancies and examined its association with ML use, total alcohol use and alcohol problems. Forty positive and 40 negative expectancy items were administered to a sample of 639 young adults who regularly consumed ML. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led to the development of the 30-item MLEQ. The MLEQ consists of two positive (i.e., Social Facilitation and Enjoyment, Enhanced Sexuality) and two negative factors (i.e., Aggression and Negative Consequences; Impairment and Physical Symptoms) that possess good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. The psychometrically sound MLEQ contributes to the limited research on beverage-specific expectancies and heavy drinking. PMID:21928870

  14. Liquor Bilirubin Levels in Normal Pregnancy: A Reassessment of Early Prediction of Haemolytic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Murray, John; Norrie, D. L.; Ruthven, C. R. J

    1970-01-01

    A comparison was made between chemically and spectrophotometrically determined concentrations of total bile pigment in the liquor amnii. For the period 16 to 26 weeks' gestation the upper limit of normal bile pigment to protein ratio was found to be 0·4. Levels above this would be required as an indication for intrauterine transfusion. In 110 cases of isoimmunization of pregnancy these criteria were applied in the diagnosis of severity of the condition. The ratio of the bile pigment to protein was used rather than a simple bile pigment measurement, and found to be valuable. Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that fallacious high bilirubin readings may arise by using whatever method, particularly owing to bilirubin and other breakdown products of blood contaminating the liquor. PMID:4991485

  15. A beverage-specific measure of expectancies for malt liquor: development and initial testing.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Bradizza, Clara M; Kubiak, Audrey J; Falco, Diana L

    2011-12-01

    Malt liquor (ML) is a unique, high alcohol content beverage marketed to encourage heavy drinking. We developed the Malt Liquor Expectancy Questionnaire (MLEQ), a beverage-specific measure of alcohol expectancies, and examined its association with typical weekly ML use, typical weekly alcohol use, and alcohol problems. Forty positive and 40 negative expectancy items were administered to a sample of 639 young adults who regularly consumed ML. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses led to the development of the 30-item MLEQ. The MLEQ consists of two positive (i.e., Social Facilitation and Enjoyment, Enhanced Sexuality) and two negative factors (i.e., Aggression and Negative Consequences; Impairment and Physical Symptoms) that possess good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent validity. The psychometrically sound MLEQ contributes to the limited research on beverage-specific expectancies and heavy drinking.

  16. Characteristic of a novel composite inorganic polymer coagulant-PFAC prepared by hydrochloric pickle liquor.

    PubMed

    Lan, Wei; Qiu, Huiqin; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Yanjing; Yang, Kailiang; Liu, Zhongzhe; Ding, Guoji

    2009-02-15

    A composite inorganic polymer coagulant, polyferric aluminum chloride (PFAC) was prepared by using hydrochloric pickle liquor and calcium aluminate as main materials. The optimum conditions for preparing PFAC with the hydrochloric pickle liquor and the calcium aluminate were studied. The coagulation performance of PFAC was investigated by studying the turbidity, COD, total phosphate (TP) and NH(3)-N removal efficiency in municipal sewage treatment. Results indicated that the effective composition, basicity (simplified as B, B=[OH]/(3[Fe(T)+Al(T)])x100%), coagulation performance and stability of PFAC were affected by calcium aluminate dosage, reaction time, reaction temperature and stabilizing agents. The COD and turbidity removal efficiency of PFAC was better than that of PFS and FeCl(3), and the TP and NH(3)-N removal efficiency of PFAC was much better than that of PFS, FeCl(3) and PAC. PFAC not only possessed a good coagulation performance, but also had good stability when stored.

  17. PCR-DGGE analysis of the microbial communities in three different Chinese "Baiyunbian" liquor fermentation starters.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xiaomao; Hu, Yuanliang; Yan, Nanfeng; Huang, Yingna; Peng, Nan; Liang, Yunxiang; Zhao, Shumiao

    2014-08-01

    A systematic investigation was performed on the bacterial, Bacillus, fungal, and yeast communities of the three types of Daqu (mechanically prepared, manually prepared, and mixed prepared) used in Baiyunbian Company by reconditioning PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). The DGGE results showed that the microbes in the three types of Daqu were mainly thermotolerant and thermophilic microbes, and the most dominant bacterial species were Bacillus and Virgibacillus, followed by Lactobacillus and Trichococcus. Furthermore, the dominant fungi were found to be molds, such as Rasamsonia, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Monascus, and the dominant yeasts were Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, Pichia anomala, and Debaryomyces hansenii. In general, the three types of Daqu showed slight differences in microbial communities, and the Shannon indexes (H') of the manually prepared and mechanically prepared Daqu were similar. The results suggest that mechanically prepared Daqu can replace manually prepared Daqu in liquor production, and this research provides useful information for liquor production and process improvement.

  18. Combustion of liquid sprays at high pressures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, A. J.; Faeth, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    The combustion of pressure atomized fuel sprays in high pressure stagnant air was studied. Measurements were made of flame and spray boundaries at pressures in the range 0.1-9 MPa for methanol and n-pentane. At the higher test pressure levels, critical phenomena are important. The experiments are compared with theoretical predictions based on a locally homogeneous two-phase flow model. The theory correctly predicted the trends of the data, but underestimates flame and spray boundaries by 30-50 percent, indicating that slip is still important for the present experiments (Sauter mean diameters of 30 microns at atmospheric pressure under cold flow conditions). Since the sprays are shorter at high pressures, slip effects are still important even though the density ratio of the phases approach one another as the droplets heat up. The model indicates the presence of a region where condensed water is present within the spray and provides a convenient means of treating supercritical phenomena.

  19. Tapered plug foam spray apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, Peter B. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A two-component foam spray gun is readily disassembled for cleaning. It includes a body (1) with reactant (12, 14) and purge gas (16) inlet ports. A moldable valve packing (32) inside the body has a tapered conical interior surface (142), and apertures which match the reactant ports. A valve/tip (40) has a conical outer surface (48) which mates with the valve packing (32). The valve/tip (40) is held in place by a moldable packing washer (34), held at non-constant pressure by a screw (36, 38). The interior of the valve/tip (40) houses a removable mixing chamber (50). The mixing chamber (50) has direct flow orifices (60) and an auxiliary flow path (58, 60) which ameliorate pressure surges. The spray gun can be disassembled for cleaning without disturbing the seal, by removing the valve/tip (40) to the rear, thereby breaking it free of the conical packing. Rotation of the valve/tip (40) relative to the body (1) shuts off the reactant flow, and starts the purge gas flow.

  20. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa; 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p < 0.05) changes in aroma components of the liquor. An increase in total ester content and a decrease in total acid content were observed for all treated samples (p < 0.05), which was verified by gas chromatography analysis. In addition, a slight decrease in alcohol content was found for HP treatment at 400 MPa for 30 min. These changes and trends were in accordance with the natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential. PMID:27484292

  1. Classification of Multiple Chinese Liquors by Means of a QCM-based E-Nose and MDS-SVM Classifier

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Gu, Yu; Jia, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquors are internationally well-known fermentative alcoholic beverages. They have unique flavors attributable to the use of various bacteria and fungi, raw materials, and production processes. Developing a novel, rapid, and reliable method to identify multiple Chinese liquors is of positive significance. This paper presents a pattern recognition system for classifying ten brands of Chinese liquors based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic nose (e-nose) we designed. We evaluated the comprehensive performance of the MDS-SVM classifier that predicted all ten brands of Chinese liquors individually. The prediction accuracy (98.3%) showed superior performance of the MDS-SVM classifier over the back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) classifier (93.3%) and moving average-linear discriminant analysis (MA-LDA) classifier (87.6%). The MDS-SVM classifier has reasonable reliability, good fitting and prediction (generalization) performance in classification of the Chinese liquors. Taking both application of the e-nose and validation of the MDS-SVM classifier into account, we have thus created a useful method for the classification of multiple Chinese liquors. PMID:28146111

  2. Effect of high pressure treatment on the aging characteristics of Chinese liquor as evaluated by electronic nose and chemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, S. M.; Xu, M. L.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Yang, M. Y.; Yu, Y.

    2016-08-01

    Several high pressure (HP) treatments (100–400 MPa 15 and 30 min) were applied to Chinese “Junchang” liquor, and aging characteristics of the liquor were evaluated. Results from the principal component analysis and the discriminant factor analysis of E-Nose demonstrated that HP treatment at 300 and 400 MPa resulted in significant (p < 0.05) changes in aroma components of the liquor. An increase in total ester content and a decrease in total acid content were observed for all treated samples (p < 0.05), which was verified by gas chromatography analysis. In addition, a slight decrease in alcohol content was found for HP treatment at 400 MPa for 30 min. These changes and trends were in accordance with the natural aging process of Chinese liquor. However, HP treatment caused a slight increase in solid content, which might be somewhat undesirable. Sensory evaluation results confirmed that favorable changes in color and flavor of Chinese liquor were induced by HP treatment; however, overall gaps still existed between the quality of treated and six-year aged samples. HP treatment demonstrated a potential to accelerate the natural aging process for Chinese liquor, but long term studies may be needed further to realize the full potential.

  3. Investigating the Variation of Volatile Compound Composition in Maotai-Flavoured Liquor During Its Multiple Fermentation Steps Using Statistical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zheng-Yun; Lei, Xue-Jun; Zhu, De-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Summary The use of multiple fermentations is one of the most specific characteristics of Maotai--flavoured liquor production. In this research, the variation of volatile composition of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its multiple fermentations is investigated using statistical approaches. Cluster analysis shows that the obtained samples are grouped mainly according to the fermentation steps rather than the distillery they originate from, and the samples from the first two fermentation steps show the greatest difference, suggesting that multiple fermentation and distillation steps result in the end in similar volatile composition of the liquor. Back-propagation neural network (BNN) models were developed that satisfactorily predict the number of fermentation steps and the organoleptic evaluation scores of liquor samples from their volatile compositions. Mean impact value (MIV) analysis shows that ethyl lactate, furfural and some high-boiling-point acids play important roles, while pyrazine contributes much less to the improvement of the flavour and taste of Maotai-flavoured liquor during its production. This study contributes to further understanding of the mechanisms of Maotai-flavoured liquor production. PMID:27904415

  4. Headspace solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography-olfactometry dilution analysis of young and aged Chinese "Yanghe Daqu" liquors.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenlai; Qian, Michael C

    2005-10-05

    The aroma compounds of young and aged Chinese "Yanghe Daqu" liquor samples were extracted by solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography (GC)-olfactometry dilution analysis. The original liquor samples were diluted with deionized water to give a final alcohol content of 14% (v/v). The samples were stepwise diluted (1:1) with 14% (by volume) ethanol-water solution and then extracted by headspace SPME. The samples were preequilibrated at 50 degrees C for 15 min and extracted with stirring at the same temperature for 30 min prior to injection into GC. The aroma compounds were identified by both GC-MS and GC-olfactometry using DB-Wax and DB-5 columns. The results suggested that esters were the major contributors to Yanghe Daqu liquor aroma. Ethyl hexanoate, ethyl butanoate, and ethyl pentanoate had very high flavor dilution values in both young and aged liquors (FD > 8192). Methyl hexanoate, ethyl heptanoate, ethyl benzoate, and butyl hexanoate could also be very important because of their high flavor dilution values (FD > or = 256). Moreover, two acetals, 1,1-diethoxyethane and 1,1-diethoxy-3-methylbutane, also were shown high flavor dilution values in Yanghe Daqu liquors (FD > or = 256). Other aroma compounds having moderate flavor dilution values included acetaldehyde, 3-methylbutanol, and 2-pentanol (FD > or = 32). Comparing young and aged liquors, the aroma profiles were similar, but the aroma compounds in the aged sample had higher flavor dilution values than in the young ones.

  5. Classification of Multiple Chinese Liquors by Means of a QCM-based E-Nose and MDS-SVM Classifier.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Gu, Yu; Jia, Jing

    2017-01-30

    Chinese liquors are internationally well-known fermentative alcoholic beverages. They have unique flavors attributable to the use of various bacteria and fungi, raw materials, and production processes. Developing a novel, rapid, and reliable method to identify multiple Chinese liquors is of positive significance. This paper presents a pattern recognition system for classifying ten brands of Chinese liquors based on multidimensional scaling (MDS) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms in a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM)-based electronic nose (e-nose) we designed. We evaluated the comprehensive performance of the MDS-SVM classifier that predicted all ten brands of Chinese liquors individually. The prediction accuracy (98.3%) showed superior performance of the MDS-SVM classifier over the back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) classifier (93.3%) and moving average-linear discriminant analysis (MA-LDA) classifier (87.6%). The MDS-SVM classifier has reasonable reliability, good fitting and prediction (generalization) performance in classification of the Chinese liquors. Taking both application of the e-nose and validation of the MDS-SVM classifier into account, we have thus created a useful method for the classification of multiple Chinese liquors.

  6. Biocontrol of geosmin-producing Streptomyces spp. by two Bacillus strains from Chinese liquor.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Yan; Wu, Qun; Du, Hai; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-16

    Streptomyces spp. producing geosmin have been regarded as the most frequent and serious microbial contamination causing earthy off-flavor in Chinese liquor. It is therefore necessary to control the Streptomyces community during liquor fermentation. Biological control, using the native microbiota present in liquor making, appears to be a better solution than chemical methods. The objective of this study was to isolate native microbiota antagonistic toward Streptomyces spp. and then to evaluate the possible action mode of the antagonists. Fourteen Bacillus strains isolated from different Daqu (the fermentation starter) showed antagonistic activity against Streptomyces sampsonii, which is one of the dominant geosmin producers. Bacillus subtilis 2-16 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 1-45 from Maotai Daqu significantly inhibited the growth of S. sampsonii by 57.8% and 84.3% respectively, and effectively prevented the geosmin production in the simulated fermentation experiments (inoculation ratio 1:1). To probe the biocontrol mode, the ability of strain 2-16 and 1-45 to produce antimicrobial metabolites and to reduce geosmin in the fermentation system was investigated. Antimicrobial substances were identified as lipopeptides by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem electrospray ionization/quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI/Q-TOF MS) and in vitro antibiotic assay. In addition, strains 2-16 and 1-45 were able to remove 45% and 15% of the geosmin respectively in the simulated solid-state fermentation. This study highlighted the potential of biocontrol, and how the use of native Bacillus species in Daqu could provide an eco-friendly method to prevent growth of Streptomyces spp. and geosmin contamination in Chinese liquor fermentation.

  7. Inhibition and deactivation effects in catalytic wet oxidation of high-strength alcohol-distillery liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Belkacemi, K.; Larachi, F.; Hamoudi, S.; Turcotte, G.; Sayari, A.

    1999-06-01

    The removal efficiency of total organic carbon (TOC) from raw high-strength alcohol-distillery waste liquors was evaluated using three different treatments: thermolysis (T), noncatalytic wet oxidation (WO), and solid-catalyzed wet oxidation (CWO). The distillery liquors (TOC = 22,500 mg/l, sugars = 18,000 mg/l, and proteins = 13,500 mg/l) were produced by alcoholic fermentation of enzymatic hydrolyzates from steam-exploded timothy grass. TOC-abatement studies were conducted batchwise in a stirred autoclave to evaluate the influence of the catalyst (7:3, MnO{sub 2}/CeO{sub 2} mixed oxide), oxygen partial pressure (0.5--2.5 MPa), and temperature (453--523 K) on T, WO, and CWO processes. Although CWO outperformed T and WO, TOC conversions did not exceed {approximately}60% at the highest temperature used. Experiments provided prima facie evidence for a gradual fouling of the catalyst and a developing inhibition in the liquors which impaired deep TOC removals. Occurrence of catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proven experimentally through quantitative and qualitative experiments such as elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Inhibition toward further degradation of the liquors was ascribed to the occurrence of highly stable antioxidant intermediates via the Maillard reactions between dissolved sugars and proteins. A lumping kinetic model involving both reaction inhibition by dissolved intermediates and catalyst deactivation by carbonaceous deposits was proposed to account for the distribution of carbon in the liquid, solid, and the vapor phases.

  8. Transcriptional characteristics associated with lichenysin biosynthesis in Bacillus licheniformis from Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor making.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qun; Zhang, Rong; Peng, Suqin; Xu, Yan

    2015-01-28

    This work investigated the biosynthetic mechanism of lichenysin, the newly identified nonvolatile matrix component in Chinese liquors. Transcriptomes were analyzed in three producers, Bacillus licheniformis CGMCC 3961, 3962, and 3963, which were isolated from Maotai-flavor liquor-making process and produced 386.3, 553.5, and 795.2 μg/L lichenysin in a simulative liquor fermentation process. Lichenysin synthetase genes lchAA-AD in these three producers were expressed much more highly than those of the nonproducer B. licheniformis ATCC 14580 (>18.4-fold). In addition, ABC transporters were the most significant responsive metabolic pathway, and the expression levels of peptide transporter genes dppABCDE all increased more than 19.2-fold. When B. licheniformis CGMCC 3963 was cultured in synthetic medium, the expression of dppABCDE and lichenysin both increased with the addition of casein hydrolysate (containing various peptides). This indicated that peptide would act as a substrate for lichenysin synthesis. This work sheds new light on the mechanism for lichenysin biosynthesis.

  9. Immunization of mice with concentrated liquor from male zooid of Antheraea pernyi

    PubMed Central

    Li, Sheng; Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ma, Ting-Hang; Huang, Yong; Yi, Long-Hai; Yu, Jin-Ming

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of concentrated liquor from male zooid of Antheraea pernyi on immunological mice. METHODS: For each experiment, 40 mice were randomly divided into normal saline group (control group) and three tested groups that were administered different dosages of concentrated liquor from male zooid of A. pernyi and food for 15 d. The typical FSR and HC50 value, monocyte-phagocytic exponent K and emendated monocyte-phagocytic exponent α were determined and calculated respectively. RESULTS: After 24 and 48 h, the FSR values of the three tested groups improved significantly in comparison to the control group by variance analysis. The HC50 values showed a significant difference between the high dosage group and the control group, as well as between the high dosage group and other two tested groups. The monocyte-phagocytic exponent K and emendated exponent α showed rising tendencies, but no significant differences were found by variance analysis. CONCLUSION: The concentrated liquor from male zooid of A. pernyi can significantly enhance cellular and humoral immune function in mice, but has no distinct influence on the monocyte-phagocytic system in mice. PMID:16015701

  10. Results of limestone clear liquor scrubbing tests at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center (ECTC)

    SciTech Connect

    Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Skarupa, R.C.; Wilhelm, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    In a continuing effort to offer lower cost SO{sub 2} control alternatives for its member utilities, EPRI has developed and tested a limestone clear liquor scrubbing using the 0.4-MW{sub e} mini-pilot FGD system at EPRI`s Environmental Control Technology Center. In the first-phase of testing, existing equipment was used to evaluate the feasibility of the process concept. Following the encouraging Phase I results, a pilot-scale sludge bed limestone reactor was designed and fabricated for a second-phase of testing. Tests have been conducted in both inhibited and forced oxidation modes. Variables investigated include: type of organic acid, buffer concentration, solid-phase residence time, pH, L/G, and chloride level. Results show that the clear liquor process can achieve SO{sub 2} removal and solids properties equivalent to or better than that of an enhanced slurry process without scale build-up. Preliminary economics indicate that the clear liquor gypsum process could reduce overall capital and operating expense by 5 to 10% relative to an organic acid-enhanced slurry process and by 15 to 20% relative to a conventional, unenhanced limestone process.

  11. Enzymes extracted from apple peels have activity in reducing higher alcohols in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Han, Qi'an; Shi, Junling; Zhu, Jing; Lv, Hongliang; Du, Shuangkui

    2014-10-01

    As the unavoidable byproducts of alcoholic fermentation, higher alcohols are unhealthy compounds widespread in alcoholic drinks. To investigate the activity of apple crude enzymes toward higher alcohols in liquors, five kinds of apple peels, namely, Fuji, Gala, Golden Delicious, Red Star, and Jonagold, were chosen to prepare enzymes, and three kinds of Chinese liquors, namely, Xifeng (containing 45% ethanol), Taibai (containing 50% ethanol), and Erguotou (containing 56% ethanol), were tested. Enzymes were prepared in the forms of liquid solution, powder, and immobilized enzymes using sodium alginate (SA) and chitosan. The treatment was carried out at 37 °C for 1 h. The relative amounts of different alcohols (including ethanol, 1-propanol, isobutanol, 1-butanol, isoamylol, and 1-hexanol) were measured using gas chromatography (GC). Conditions for preparing SA-immobilized Fuji enzymes (SA-IEP) were optimized, and the obtained SA-IEP (containing 0.3 g of enzyme) was continuously used to treat Xifeng liquor eight times, 20 mL per time. Significant degradation rates (DRs) of higher alcohols were observed at different degrees, and it also showed enzyme specificity according to the apple varieties and enzyme preparations. After five repeated treatments, the DRs of the optimized Fuji SA-IEP remained 70% for 1-hexanol and >15% for other higher alcohols.

  12. Community of environmental streptomyces related to geosmin development in Chinese liquors.

    PubMed

    Du, Hai; Lu, Hu; Xu, Yan; Du, Xiaowei

    2013-02-13

    Diverse Streptomyces species act as geosmin producers in the Chinese liquor-making process. In this paper, the ecology of these Streptomyces species was analyzed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of amplified Actinobacteria -specified rDNA. The result showed that Streptomyces were widely distributed during Daqu incubation, and multiple processing, geographic, and climate factors can affect their distribution and diversity. The genes associated with geosmin production were characterized in four geosmin-producing Streptomyces strains, all of which were isolated from geosmin-contaminated Daqu. On the basis of this information, a real-time PCR method was developed, enabling the detection of traces of Streptomyces in complex solid-state matrices. The primer was targeted at the gene coding for geosmin synthase (geoA). The real-time PCR method was found to be specific for geosmin-producing Streptomyces and did not show any cross-reactivity with geosmin-negative isolates, which are frequently present in the Chinese liquor-brewing process. Quantification of geoA in the Chinese liquor-making process could permit the monitoring of the level of geosmin producers prior to the occurrence of geosmin production. Comparison of the qPCR results based on the gene encoding geosmin synthase and Actinobacteria-specified rDNA showed that about 1-10% of the Actinobacteria carry the geosmin synthesis gene.

  13. Electrochemical treatment of evaporated residue of soak liquor generated from leather industry.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2013-09-15

    The organic and suspended solids present in soak liquor, generated from leather industry, demands treatment. The soak liquor is being segregated and evaporated in solar evaporation pans/multiple effect evaporator due to non availability of viable technology for its treatment. The residue left behind in the pans/evaporator does not carry any reuse value and also faces disposal threat due to the presence of high concentration of sodium chloride, organic and bacterial impurities. In the present investigation, the aqueous evaporated residue of soak liquor (ERSL) was treated by electrochemical oxidation. Graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite systems were used in electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL. Among these, graphite/graphite system was found to be effective over SS304/graphite system. Hence, the optimised conditions for the electrochemical oxidation of organics in ERSL using graphite/graphite system was evaluated by response surface methodology (RSM). The mass transport coefficient (km) was calculated based on pseudo-first order rate kinetics for both the electrode systems (graphite/graphite and SS304/graphite). The thermodynamic properties illustrated the electrochemical oxidation was exothermic and non-spontaneous in nature. The calculated specific energy consumption at the optimum current density of 50 mA cm(-2) was 0.41 kWh m(-3) for the removal of COD and 2.57 kWh m(-3) for the removal of TKN.

  14. Pretreatment of spent sulphite liquor via ultrafiltration and nanofiltration for bio-based succinic acid production.

    PubMed

    Pateraki, Chrysanthi; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Stragier, Lutgart; Verstraete, Willy; Kookos, Ioannis; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2016-09-10

    Ultrafiltration and nanofiltration of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) has been employed to evaluate the simultaneous production of lignosulphonates and bio-based succinic acid using the bacterial strains Actinobacillus succinogenes and Basfia succiniciproducens. Ultrafiltration with membranes of 10, 5 and 3kDa molecular weight cut-off results in significant losses of lignosulphonates (26-50%) in the permeate stream, while nanofiltration using membrane with 500Da molecular weight cut-off results in high retention yields of lignosulphonates (95.6%) in the retentate stream. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures using permeates from ultrafiltrated SSL resulted in similar succinic acid concentration (27.5g/L) and productivity (0.4g/L/h) by both strains. When permeates from nanofiltrated SSL were used, the strain B. succiniciproducens showed the highest succinic acid concentration (33.8g/L), yield (0.58g per g of consumed sugars) and productivity (0.48g/L/h). The nanofiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor could lead to the production of 306.3kg of lignosulphonates and 52.7kg of succinic acid, whereas the ultrafiltration of 1t of thick spent sulphite liquor using a 3kDa membrane could result in the production of 237kg of lignosulphonates and 71.8kg of succinic acid when B. succiniproducens is used in both cases.

  15. Xylitol production from xylose mother liquor: a novel strategy that combines the use of recombinant Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Xylose mother liquor has high concentrations of xylose (35%-40%) as well as other sugars such as L-arabinose (10%-15%), galactose (8%-10%), glucose (8%-10%), and other minor sugars. Due to the complexity of this mother liquor, further isolation of xylose by simple method is not possible. In China, more than 50,000 metric tons of xylose mother liquor was produced in 2009, and the management of sugars like xylose that present in the low-cost liquor is a problem. Results We designed a novel strategy in which Bacillus subtilis and Candida maltosa were combined and used to convert xylose in this mother liquor to xylitol, a product of higher value. First, the xylose mother liquor was detoxified with the yeast C. maltosa to remove furfural and 5-hydromethylfurfural (HMF), which are inhibitors of B. subtilis growth. The glucose present in the mother liquor was also depleted by this yeast, which was an added advantage because glucose causes carbon catabolite repression in B. subtilis. This detoxification treatment resulted in an inhibitor-free mother liquor, and the C. maltosa cells could be reused as biocatalysts at a later stage to reduce xylose to xylitol. In the second step, a recombinant B. subtilis strain with a disrupted xylose isomerase gene was constructed. The detoxified xylose mother liquor was used as the medium for recombinant B. subtilis cultivation, and this led to L-arabinose depletion and xylose enrichment of the medium. In the third step, the xylose was further reduced to xylitol by C. maltosa cells, and crystallized xylitol was obtained from this yeast transformation medium. C. maltosa transformation of the xylose-enriched medium resulted in xylitol with 4.25 g L-1·h-1 volumetric productivity and 0.85 g xylitol/g xylose specific productivity. Conclusion In this study, we developed a biological method for the purification of xylose from xylose mother liquor and subsequent preparation of xylitol by C. maltosa-mediated biohydrogenation of xylose

  16. Smoking Cessation among Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stotts, R. Craig; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Lung cancer is a serious health problem among blacks, with a mortality rate of 119 per 100,000 black males, compared to 81 per 100,000 for white males. Smoking cessation efforts are most successful when tailored to the black community, using black community networks and broadcast media for black audiences. (SLD)

  17. Contemporary Black Theatre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Pearl

    The distinguishable black theatre in America, mirroring a distinguishable black experience, is an artistic product which demands audience involvement. Both the Afro-American oral tradition and the art of gesture are integral aspects of black theatre. In addition, the tragedy found black theatre is not tragedy in the classic sense, as blacks feel…

  18. LSPRAY-IV: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    LSPRAY-IV is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray. Some important research areas covered as a part of the code development are: (1) the extension of combined CFD/scalar-Monte- Carlo-PDF method to spray modeling, (2) the multi-component liquid spray modeling, and (3) the assessment of various atomization models used in spray calculations. The current version contains the extension to the modeling of superheated sprays. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers.

  19. 40 CFR 61.146 - Standard for spraying.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... spray applied shall comply with the following requirements: (a) For spray-on application on buildings... Microscopy, except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section. (b) For spray-on application of materials... requirements of this paragraph. (2) Discharge no visible emissions to the outside air from spray-on...

  20. DRIFTSIM, A Computer Program for Estimating Spray Drift Distances

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of the severe problems with spraying pesticides is the spray drift. Drift is a problem if chemicals are sprayed too close to residential areas, livestock facilities, bodies of water, or sensitive crops. Complaints regarding spray drift are routinely brought to state departments of agriculture,...

  1. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  2. Spray-formed tooling and aluminum strip

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.

    1995-11-01

    Spray forming is an advanced materials processing technology that converts a bulk liquid metal to a near-net-shape solid by depositing atomized droplets onto a suitably shaped substrate. By combining rapid solidification processing with product shape control, spray forming can reduce manufacturing costs while improving product quality. De Laval nozzles offer an alternative method to the more conventional spray nozzle designs. Two applications are described: high-volume production of aluminum alloy strip, and the production of specialized tooling, such as injection molds and dies, for rapid prototyping.

  3. Diazinon residues in insects from sprayed tobacco

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; Beyer, W.N.; Kolbe, E.

    1982-01-01

    Pooled samples of tobacco hornworms collected from a field sprayed with 0.84 kg/ha of diazinon were analyzed for residues at various intervals after application. No residues of the toxic metabolite diazoxon were detected (sensitivity 0.5 ppm) in any sample. Only one sample exceeded 1.0 ppm of the parent compound and was collected 4 hours after spraying. Residues declined over time (P<0.01) and none were detected (sensitivity 0.1 ppm) 18 days after spraying. the potential hazard to birds eating these insects appeared to be minimal.

  4. Laser Sheet Dropsizing of dense sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gal, P.; Farrugia, N.; Greenhalgh, D. A.

    1999-02-01

    A new technique has been developed that produces instantaneous or time-averaged two-dimensional images of Sauter Mean Diameter from a spray. Laser Sheet Dropsizing (LSD) combines elastic and inelastic light scattered from a laser sheet. Compared with Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA), the new technique offers advantages in increased spatial and temporal resolution and more rapid spray characterisation. Moreover, the technique can also be applied to dense sprays. Successful implementation requires careful calibration, particularly of the effect of dye concentration on the dropsize dependence of the inelastic scattered light.

  5. Organophosphate residues in grasshoppers from sprayed rangelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stromborg, K.L.; McEwen, L.C.; Lamont, Thair

    1984-01-01

    Grasshoppers (Orthoptera) were collected in pastures that had been sprayed with malathion and acephate to estimate the secondary exposure of insectivorous birds to these pesticides. Residues of malathion were below 3 ppm at 30 'and 54 hours after spraying and no malaoxon was detected. In contrast, acephate was found at 8 and 9 ppm 4 hours after spray; 3-5 ppm of the toxic metabolite methamidophos were also detected at that time. By 53 hours postspray, acephate levels declined to 2 ppm and methamidophos to less than 1 ppm. These results suggest that although malathion may not be a hazard to insectivorous species. acephate may be hazardous through metabolic transformation to methamidophos.

  6. Laser Doppler velocimeter aerial spray measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalay, A. D.; Eberle, W. R.; Howle, R. E.; Shrider, K. R.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental research program for measuring the location, spatial extent, and relative concentration of airborne spray clouds generated by agricultural aircraft is described. The measurements were conducted with a ground-based laser Doppler velocimeter. The remote sensing instrumentation, experimental tests, and the results of the flight tests are discussed. The cross section of the aerial spray cloud and the observed location, extent, and relative concentration of the airborne particulates are presented. It is feasible to use a mobile laser Doppler velocimeter to track and monitor the transport and dispersion of aerial spray generated by an agricultural aircraft.

  7. Large-scale sodium spray fire code validation (SOFICOV) test

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppson, D.W.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-01-01

    A large-scale, sodium, spray fire code validation test was performed in the HEDL 850-m/sup 3/ Containment System Test Facility (CSTF) as part of the Sodium Spray Fire Code Validation (SOFICOV) program. Six hundred fifty eight kilograms of sodium spray was sprayed in an air atmosphere for a period of 2400 s. The sodium spray droplet sizes and spray pattern distribution were estimated. The containment atmosphere temperature and pressure response, containment wall temperature response and sodium reaction rate with oxygen were measured. These results are compared to post-test predictions using SPRAY and NACOM computer codes.

  8. Solvent vapor exposures in booth spray painting and spray glueing, and associated operations.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, L W; Ball, G L; Fine, L J; Langolf, G D

    1984-11-01

    Time-weighted average exposures for all solvents present at detectable levels were obtained for eighty-nine solvent-using workers and thirty-six control-group (unexposed) workers in seven plants of three companies applying paints and glues, primarily by spraying. Over twenty solvents were quantified if detected. Concentrations of specific solvents and cumulative fractions of TLVs were measured for various job types. All spray painting and most spray glueing was conducted in operating spray booths. Only low to moderate exposures were observed, with one TWA exceeding the cumulative TLV and three additional TWAs exceeding 50 percent of the cumulative TLV. It may be concluded that solvent TWA exposures in spraying of paints and glues are often well-controlled by common spray booths, and further, that other solvent-use operations including light-duty solvent wiping and manual paint mixing do not frequently produce high exposures (relative to TLV levels) in the presence of ordinary general room ventilation.

  9. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by 'equivalent' monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1987-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  10. Representation of the vaporization behavior of turbulent polydisperse sprays by equivalent monodisperse sprays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggarwal, S. K.; Shuen, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of using an equivalent monodisperse spray to represent the vaporization behavior of polydisperse sprays has been examined by numerically solving two turbulent vaporizing sprays. One involves the injection of Freon-11 in a still environment, whereas the other is a methanol spray in a still but hot environment. The use of three different mean sizes, namely, Sauter mean diameter, volume median diameter, and surface-area mean diameter, has been investigated. Results indicate a good degree of correlation between the polydisperse spray and its equivalent monodisperse sprays represented by the volume median diameter and the Sauter mean diameter, the former giving slightly better results. The surface-area mean diameter does not provide as good a correlation as the other two mean diameters.

  11. Visual characterization of heated water spray jet breakup induced by full cone spray nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naz, M. Y.; Sulaiman, S. A.; Ariwahjoedi, B.; Zilati, K.

    2015-03-01

    The present work with specific objectives places a greater emphasis on measurements of the breakup lengths and phenomenological analysis of a hot water jet under reduced pumping pressures in still environment. Therefore, visual and comparative studies are conducted on full cone jet disintegration of heated water for low pumping pressures. A further analysis of the grabbed images confirms the strong influence of the input processing parameters on full cone spray patternation. It is also predicted that the heated liquids generate a dispersed spray pattern by utilizing partial evaporation of the spraying medium. The radial spray cone width and angle do not vary significantly with increasing Reynolds and Weber numbers at early injection phases, leading to enhanced macroscopic spray propagation. The discharge coefficient, mean flow rate, and mean flow velocity are significantly influenced by the load pressure, but less affected by the temperature. The fine scale image analysis also predicts toroidal-shaped vortex formation in the spray structure near the water boiling point.

  12. Influence of aircraft vortices on spray cloud behavior.

    PubMed

    Mickle, R E

    1996-06-01

    For small droplet spraying, the spray cloud is initially entrained into the wingtip vortices so that the ultimate fate of the spray is controlled by the motion of these vortices. In close to 100 aerial sprays, the emitted spray cloud has been mapped using a scanning laser system that displays diffusion and transport of the spray cloud. Results detailing the concentrations within the spray cloud in space and time are given for sprays in parallel and crosswinds. Wind direction is seen to potentially alter the vortex motion and hence the fate of the spray cloud. In crosswind spraying, the vortex behavior associated with the 2 wings is found to differ, which leads to enhanced deposition from the upwind wing and enhanced drift from the downwind wing.

  13. Black widow spider

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002858.htm Black widow spider To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The black widow spider has a shiny black body with a red ...

  14. Evaluation of Convergent Spray Technology(TM) Spray Process for Roof Coating Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpa, J.; Creighton, B.; Hall, T.; Hamlin, K.; Howard, T.

    1998-01-01

    The overall goal of this project was to demonstrate the feasibility of(CST) Convergent Spray Technology (Trademark) for the roofing industry. This was accomplished by producing an environmentally compliant coating utilization recycled materials, a CST(Trademark) spray process portable application cart, and hand-held applicator with a CST(Trademark) spray process nozzle. The project culminated with application of this coating to a nine hundred sixty square foot metal for NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.

  15. Direct morphological comparison of vacuum plasma sprayed and detonation gun sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings for orthopaedic applications.

    PubMed

    Gledhill, H C; Turner, I G; Doyle, C

    1999-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite coatings on titanium substrates were produced using two thermal spray techniques vacuum plasma spraying and detonation gun spraying. X-ray diffraction was used to compare crystallinity and residual stresses in the coatings. Porosity was measured using optical microscopy in conjunction with an image analysis system. Scanning electron microscopy and surface roughness measurements were used to characterise the surface morphologies of the coatings. The vacuum plasma sprayed coatings were found to have a lower residual stress, a higher crystallinity and a higher level of porosity than the detonation gun coatings. It is concluded that consideration needs to be given to the significance of such variations within the clinical context.

  16. Why Black-on-Black Homicide?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeff, Morris F. X., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The causes of homicides committed against Blacks by Blacks are examined. Major preventive measures are said to be equal opportunity, better jobs, reduction of racial discrimination, elimination of organized crime, removal of drugs from community, and better schools. (JCD)

  17. Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons

    DOEpatents

    Eschbach, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  18. LSPRAY-III: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    LSPRAY-III is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-III, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  19. Ventilation Guidance for Spray Polyurethane Foam Application

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Properly designed ventilation can reduce airborne levels of aerosols, mists, and vapors generated during spray application and can help protect SPF applicators, helpers, and others who may be working in adjacent areas.

  20. Spray bottle apparatus with pressure multiplying pistons

    DOEpatents

    Moss, Owen R.; Gordon, Norman R.; DeFord, Henry S.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is acted upon the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

  1. LSPRAY-V: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    LSPRAY-V is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with unstructured grids and massively parallel computers. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray encountered over a wide range of operating conditions in modern aircraft engine development. It could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-V, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  2. Plasma-Sprayed Photocatalytic Zinc Oxide Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navidpour, A. H.; Kalantari, Y.; Salehi, M.; Salimijazi, H. R.; Amirnasr, M.; Rismanchian, M.; Azarpour Siahkali, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fabrication of semiconductor coatings with photocatalytic action for photodegradation of organic pollutants is highly desirable. In this research, pure zinc oxide, which is well known for its promising photocatalytic activity, was deposited on stainless-steel plates by plasma spraying. The phase composition and microstructure of the deposited films were studied by x-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Despite the low-energy conditions of the plasma spraying process, the zinc oxide coatings showed good mechanical integrity on the substrate. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated using aqueous solution of methylene blue at concentration of 5 mg L-1. The results showed the potential of the plasma spraying technique to deposit zinc oxide coatings with photocatalytic action under ultraviolet illumination. Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy confirmed that the plasma spraying method could deposit zinc oxide films with higher photoabsorption ability relative to the initial powder.

  3. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed.

  4. Turbulent group reaction model of spray dryer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, H.K.; Huang, H.S.; Chiu, H.H.

    1987-01-01

    A turbulent group reaction model consisting of several sub-models was developed for the prediction of SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in spray dryers. Mathematical models are developed on the basis of Eulerian-type turbulent Navier-Stokes equations for both gas and condensed phases with interphase transport considerations. The group reaction number, G, is defined as the ratio of the SO/sub 2/ absorption rate to a reference convective mass flux. This number represents the fraction of SO/sub 2/ absorbed into the lime slurry. The model is incorporated into a computer code which permits the investigation of spray dryer design concepts and operating conditions. Hence, it provides a theoretical basis for spray dryer performance optimization and scale-up. This investigation can be a practical guide to achieve high SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in a spray dryer.

  5. Nasal Sprays: How to Use Them Correctly

    MedlinePlus

    ... two different kinds of containers: pressurized canisters and pump bottles.Steps for using a pressurized canisterGently blow ... after using the spray.Steps for using a pump bottleGently blow your nose to clear it of ...

  6. Dynamics of flare sprays. [in sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tandberg-Hanssen, E.; Martin, S. F.; Hansen, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    During solar cycle No. 20 new insight into the flare-spray phenomenon has been attained due to several innovations in solar optical-observing techniques (higher spatial resolution cinema-photography, tunable passband filters, multislit spectroscopy and extended angular field coronagraphs). From combined analysis of 13 well-observed sprays which occurred between 1969-1974 it is concluded that (1) the spray material originates from a preexisting active region filament which undergoes increased absorption some tens of minutes prior to the abrupt chromospheric brightening at the 'flare-start', and (2) the spray material is confined within a steadily expanding, loop-shaped (presumable magnetically controlled) envelope with part of the materials draining back down along one or both legs of the loop.

  7. LSPRAY-II: A Lagrangian Spray Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raju, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    LSPRAY-II is a Lagrangian spray solver developed for application with parallel computing and unstructured grids. It is designed to be massively parallel and could easily be coupled with any existing gas-phase flow and/or Monte Carlo Probability Density Function (PDF) solvers. The solver accommodates the use of an unstructured mesh with mixed elements of either triangular, quadrilateral, and/or tetrahedral type for the gas flow grid representation. It is mainly designed to predict the flow, thermal and transport properties of a rapidly vaporizing spray because of its importance in aerospace application. The manual provides the user with an understanding of various models involved in the spray formulation, its code structure and solution algorithm, and various other issues related to parallelization and its coupling with other solvers. With the development of LSPRAY-II, we have advanced the state-of-the-art in spray computations in several important ways.

  8. Heinz body anemia in a dog that had been sprayed with skunk musk.

    PubMed

    Zaks, Karen L; Tan, Emmeline O; Thrall, Mary Anna

    2005-05-01

    A 5-year-old pit bull-type dog was examined because of lethargy and black feces, and a presumptive diagnosis of methemoglobinemia was made on the basis of grossly visible brown discoloration of the mucous membranes and urine. Heinz body formation was seen on examination of blood smears, and severe anemia developed 3 days later. The dog did not have any history of exposure to toxins or drugs that have been associated with Heinz body formation. The only remarkable historical finding was that the dog had been wandering loose the day prior to initial examination and returned home smelling strongly of skunk spray. Skunk spray contains thiols and other compounds that are strong oxidizing agents. It was speculated that the methemoglobinemia and Heinz body anemia were a result of exposure to these compounds. Skunk interactions with dogs usually have malodorous but otherwise harmless results. However, findings in this dog suggest that more serious consequences may develop in isolated cases.

  9. Automatic targeting of plasma spray gun

    DOEpatents

    Abbatiello, Leonard A.; Neal, Richard E.

    1978-01-01

    A means for monitoring the material portion in the flame of a plasma spray gun during spraying operations is provided. A collimated detector, sensitive to certain wavelengths of light emission, is used to locate the centroid of the material with each pass of the gun. The response from the detector is then relayed to the gun controller to be used to automatically realign the gun.

  10. Nanofiber spraying method using a supplementary electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, GeunHyung; Kim, WanDoo

    2006-07-01

    Using a supplementary electrode, electrospun poly(ɛ-carprolactone) fibers were deposited on various substrates with different electrical properties. The ability to coat the substrates was independent of the surface electric resistance of the substrates. This was due to the charge reduction of the sprayed fibers, which resulted from passing through the supplementary electrode. The sprayed fibers might find applications in smart textiles, advanced coating technology, and as biomedical wound dressings.

  11. Plasma spray forming metals, intermetallics, and composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampath, Sanjay; Herman, Herbert

    1993-07-01

    Plasma spray processing is a droplet deposition method that combines the steps of melting, rapid solidification, and consolidation into a single step. The versatility of the technology enables the processing of freestanding bulk, near-net shapes of a wide range of alloys, intermetallics, ceramics, and composites, while still retaining the benefits of rapid solidification processing. In particular, it is possible to produce dense forms through vacuum plasma spraying.

  12. Laser modification of thermally sprayed coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, A. A.; Fomin, A. D.; Naumkin, A. O.; Pekshev, P. Iu.; Smurov, I. Iu.

    1987-08-01

    Experimental results are reported on the modification of thermally sprayed coatings on steels and aluminum alloys using pulsed YAG and CW CO2 lasers. In particular, results obtained for self-fluxing Ni9CrBSi powders, ZRO2 ceramic, and titanium are examined. It is shown that the laser treatment of thermally sprayed coatings significantly improves their physicomechanical properties; it also makes it possible to obtain refractory coatings on low-melting substrates with good coating-substrate adhesion.

  13. Integration of pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion--use of aqueous liquor from digestate pyrolysis for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Tobias; Mumme, Jan

    2015-05-01

    Anaerobic digestion of aqueous pyrolysis liquor derived from pyrolysis of solid digestate was tested in batch mode using an un-adapted inoculum. Three pyrolysis liquors produced at 330°C, 430°C and 530°C in four COD-based concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 30 g L(-1) were investigated. The three lower concentrations showed considerable biogas production, whereas the 30 g L(-1) dosage caused process inhibition. The highest methane yield of 199.1±18.5 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 56.9±5.3%) was observed for the 330°C pyrolysis liquor, followed by the 430°C sample with only slightly lower values. The 530°C sample dropped to a yield of 129.3±19.7 mL g(COD)(-1) (COD removal: 36.9±5.6%). Most VOCs contained in the pyrolysis liquor (i.e. furfural, phenol, catechol, guaiacol, and levoglucosan) were reduced below detection limit (cresol by 10-60%). Consequently, integrated pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion in addition to thermochemical conversion of digestate also promises bioconversion of pyrolysis liquors.

  14. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Regeneration of the Fe{sup II}-EDTA scrubbing liquors for simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in flue gas involves removing the nitrogen-sulfur (N-S) compounds accumulated in the liquor. In this paper, the authors investigated a simple regeneration process which selectively precipitates the N-S compounds as potassium salts and then hydrolyzes them to yield ammonium/potassium sulfate as a marketable byproduct. They believe this is the first report on precipitation and hydrolysis characteristics of the N-S compounds in actual waste scrubbing liquor. Precipitation of the N-S compounds was achieved by adding K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the scrubbing liquor. Effects of the amount of added K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} on the amount of removed N-S compounds, precipitated crystals, and the potassium left over in the scrubbing liquor were studied. Hydrolysis of the precipitated N-S compounds to ammonium sulfate was performed in a sulfuric acid environment. Effects of acidity, concentration of N-S compounds, and temperature on the hydrolysis are discussed. Analysis of the observed hydrolysis pattern showed that the reaction proceeded following first order kinetics in terms of N-S compound concentration.

  15. Starter Culture Selection for Making Chinese Sesame-Flavored Liquor Based on Microbial Metabolic Activity in Mixed-Culture Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qun; Ling, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Selection of a starter culture with excellent viability and metabolic activity is important for inoculated fermentation of traditional food. To obtain a suitable starter culture for making Chinese sesame-flavored liquor, the yeast and bacterium community structures were investigated during spontaneous and solid-state fermentations of this type of liquor. Five dominant species in spontaneous fermentation were identified: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranaefaciens, Issatchenkia orientalis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. The metabolic activity of each species in mixed and inoculated fermentations of liquor was investigated in 14 different cocultures that used different combinations of these species. The relationships between the microbial species and volatile metabolites were analyzed by partial least-squares (PLS) regression analysis. We found that S. cerevisiae was positively correlated to nonanal, and B. licheniformis was positively associated with 2,3-butanediol, isobutyric acid, guaiacol, and 4-vinyl guaiacol, while I. orientalis was positively correlated to butyric acid, isovaleric acid, hexanoic acid, and 2,3-butanediol. These three species are excellent flavor producers for Chinese liquor. Although P. membranaefaciens and B. amyloliquefaciens were not efficient flavor producers, the addition of them alleviated competition among the other three species and altered their growth rates and flavor production. As a result, the coculture of all five dominant species produced the largest amount of flavor compounds. The result indicates that flavor producers and microbial interaction regulators are important for inoculated fermentation of Chinese sesame-flavored liquor. PMID:24814798

  16. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-12-31

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  17. Recent INEL spray-forming developments

    SciTech Connect

    McHugh, K.M.; Key, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    Spray forming is a near-net-shape fabrication technology in which a spray of finely atomized liquid droplets is deposited onto a suitably shaped substrate or mold to produce a coherent solid. The technology offers unique opportunities for simplifying materials processing, oftentimes while substantially improving product quality. Spray forming can be performed with a wide range of metals and nonmetals, and offersproperty improvements resulting from rapid solidification (eg. refined microstructures, extended solid solubilities and reduced segregation). Economic benefits result from process simplification and the elimination of unit operations. Researchers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing spray-forming technology for producing near-net-shape solids and coatings of a variety of metals, polymers, and composite materials using de Laval nozzles. Results from several spray-forming programs are presented to illustrate the range of capabilities of the approach as well as the technical and economic benefits. These programs involved the production of low-carbon steel strip and SiC particulate reinforced aluminum strip; recent advances in spray forming tooling using low-melting-point metals are also described.

  18. Structure of high-speed sprays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracco, Frediano V.

    1995-01-01

    This work covered both measurements and computations and its results are documented in eight appendices. Measurements were made of drop velocity in vaporizing, steady, full-cone sprays and of drop velocity and drop size in non-vaporizing steady full-cone sprays. In similar conditions, measurements had previously been made of the intact core and of the size of the drops in the immediate vicinity of the injector, thus generating an extensive set of data which were particularly useful for the assessment and the development of multidimensional models of engine sprays. On the computational side, a line source technique was introduced to simulate the intact-core in engine sprays and two extensive numerical studies were carried out to explain the strong anisotropy of the drop velocity fluctuations that had been found in the measurements. In another interesting and timely study, the accuracy of the stochastic method of computing drop collisions and coalescence (which is the one universally used) was assessed by corresponding deterministic computations (more accurate but much more time consuming). It was concluded that the accuracy of the stochastic method in practical computations can be wanting. Finally, a numerical study of the structure of hollow-cone sprays was initiated that has since been followed by significant experimental and computational work on liquid-only and air-assisted hollow-cone injectors and sprays.

  19. Monte-Carlo Spray Cooling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreitzer, Paul J.; Kuhlman, John M.

    2010-01-01

    Spray cooling is a tremendously complex phenomenon that has yet to be completely and successfully modeled. This is due to the complexity of the detailed droplet impingement processes and the subsequent heat transfer process. Numerous assumptions must be made in order to accurately model spray behavior. Current computational limitations restrict CFD simulations to single droplet simulations. Additional complexity due to droplet interactions negates the possibility of combining multiple single droplet studies to represent the complete spray process. Therefore, a need has been established for the development of a comprehensive spray impingement simulation with adequate physical complexity to yield accurate results within a relatively short run time. The present work attempts to develop such a model using modeling assumptions from the best available literature, and to combine them into a single spray impingement simulation. Initial flow parameters that have been chosen include flow rate of 10 GPH with a velocity of 12 m/s and average droplet diameter of 48 μm. These values produce the following non-dimensional number ranges: We 100-1800, Re 200-4500, Oh 0.01-0.05. Numerical and experimental correlations have been identified that represent crater formation, splashing, film thickness, and droplet size and spatial flux distributions. A combination of these methods has resulted in an initial spray impingement simulation that is capable of simulating 100,000 drops or an actual simulation time of 0.0167 seconds. Comparisons of results from this code with experimental results show a similar trend in surface behavior.

  20. [The elixir of doctor Garrus. Drug or liquor? Original formula or imitation?].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P

    2010-04-01

    Elixirs were formerly very used drugs or drinks. They are alcoholized and sugared, often offered as liquors, pleasant to drink, and contain drugs or not. Many are uncommon now, but Garrus elixir has passed through the centuries. Digestive stimulative, tonic, flavour of potions, aperitive and liquor, it is obtained by maceration of aloes, saffron, myrrh, clove, cinnamon and nutmeg in alcohol before distillation, then addition of vanilla, maiden-hair, orangeflower water and sugar. It seems to have been discovered at the end of the 17th century or the beginning of 18th century by Joseph Garrus, medicine doctor, living in Paris. When he died, in 1722, the elixir was already well known. During the Regency, it was administered to Duchess of Berry, who died nevertheless, and to some important members of the royal Court. During all the 18th century, it was considered as a panacea with many useful properties, inscribed in some pharmacopoeias and disposable in the drugstores. However, Garrus was acused of having simply improved the formula of the "élixir de propriété" of Paracelsius, also called tincture of aloes, myrrh and saffron. Taking in account the great number of formulas containing these same drugs and plants, it is difficult today to elucidate their origins and to discover who was imitated by another. The elixir of Doctor Garrus is also known in literature since its name is used in Madame Bovary and Tartarin sur les Alpes. At the beginning of our 21st century, some of us consider it as one of the best aperitive liquors.