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Sample records for black muslim women

  1. Factors that Influence Body Image Representations of Black Muslim Women

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Research on the body image perceptions of black women is limited. Although previous body image studies have explored the intersection between race and gender, the influence of religion has been neglected. Guided by a grounded theory framework, the focus of this investigation, conducted in Upstate New York, USA, was to examine the role of race and religion in the body image perceptions of 22 African-American Sunni Muslim women. Analysis of individual interviews revealed that, in contrast to using standard medical guidelines, participants’ views about their bodies were largely based on positive images of an earlier body size/shape, social and family expectations and contexts, cultural norms and values, and spirituality and religious beliefs. Although the body image perceptions of black Muslim women were similar to those expressed in previous body image studies with black women, participants expressed the importance of highlighting the spiritual versus physical self by adhering to religious guidelines regarding proper dress and appearance. These findings suggest that religion, race, and gender are all important factors to be considered when conducting body image studies with black women. PMID:18384923

  2. Suicidal Behaviors Among Muslim Women. Patterns, Pathways, Meanings, and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2015-01-01

    The literature on Muslim women's suicidality has been growing. Comprehensive reviews are, however, unavailable, and theory needs development. This article reviews and integrates theories and findings about Muslim women's suicidality. Two databases (PsycINFO and Web of Science) were searched for publications about Muslim women's suicidality. There is significant variability in Muslim women's patterns of suicidality across Muslim-majority communities and countries. Muslim women represent half to nearly all cases of nonfatal suicidal behavior. According to the official records of Muslim-majority countries, women's suicide mortality is lower than that of men. Community studies, however, show that in some areas, Muslim women have significantly higher suicide rates than Muslim men. Both nonfatal and fatal suicidal behaviors are most common among uneducated and poor rural young women. Muslim women's typical suicide methods vary by locale, and include self-burning, hanging, and poisoning. With regard to contexts and meanings, a recurring female script is that of suicidality as protest against and desperate escape from the oppressive regulation as well as the abuse many women endure within their families and societies. Understanding and preventing Muslim women's suicidality, and the socially sanctioned oppression it is often a response to, require system-level - not just individual-level - analyses and interventions as well as a human rights perspective.

  3. Counseling Muslim Women: Navigating Cultural and Religious Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook-Masaud, Carema; Wiggins, Marsha I.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors consider strategies for counseling female Muslim clients. First, they review general beliefs and practices of Muslims in the United States. Through the use of a case study, they illustrate a collaborative method of counseling Muslim women that is based on a trusting client-counselor relationship.

  4. Defeating Stereotypes of Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Leila Ahmed's memoir, "A Border Passage: From Cairo to America--A Woman's Journey", pulses with a theme of many women's stories: the struggle to define oneself in the face of social restraints. The 1999 book by Ahmed, the first professor of women's studies in religion at Harvard's Divinity School, came long before the recent wave of memoirs…

  5. Defeating Stereotypes of Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Leila Ahmed's memoir, "A Border Passage: From Cairo to America--A Woman's Journey", pulses with a theme of many women's stories: the struggle to define oneself in the face of social restraints. The 1999 book by Ahmed, the first professor of women's studies in religion at Harvard's Divinity School, came long before the recent wave of memoirs…

  6. Women's autonomy and child survival: a comparison of Muslims and non-Muslims in four Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Sharon J

    2003-08-01

    In this article, I evaluate the hypothesis that higher infant and child mortality among Muslim populations is related to the lower autonomy of Muslim women using data from 15 pairs of Muslim and non-Muslim communities in India, Malaysia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Women's autonomy in various spheres is not consistently lower in Muslim than in non-Muslim settings. Both across and within communities, the association between women's autonomy and mortality is weak, and measures of autonomy or socioeconomic status are generally of limited import for understanding the Muslim disadvantage in children's survival.

  7. Not Too "College-Like," Not Too Normal: American Muslim Undergraduate Women's Gendered Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Shabana

    2009-01-01

    Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…

  8. Not Too "College-Like," Not Too Normal: American Muslim Undergraduate Women's Gendered Discourses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Shabana

    2009-01-01

    Building on an ethnographic study of American Muslim undergraduate women at two universities in Washington, D.C., I examine undergraduate Muslim women's construction of gendered discourses. Stereotypes feed into both majority and minority constructions of Muslim women's gendered identities. I highlight Muslim women's resistance to and adoption of…

  9. Black Muslim Girls Navigating Multiple Oppositional Binaries through Literacy and Letter Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Sherell A.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2017-01-01

    Writing alongside 12 African American Muslim girls, we led a summer literacy program in an effort to understand how Black Muslim adolescent girls write about their identities and ideas. The 4-week literacy program was designed to engage and support Black Muslim girls, aged 12-17 years old, in reading, writing, and understanding the multiple…

  10. Black Muslim Girls Navigating Multiple Oppositional Binaries through Literacy and Letter Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Sherell A.; Muhammad, Gholnecsar E.

    2017-01-01

    Writing alongside 12 African American Muslim girls, we led a summer literacy program in an effort to understand how Black Muslim adolescent girls write about their identities and ideas. The 4-week literacy program was designed to engage and support Black Muslim girls, aged 12-17 years old, in reading, writing, and understanding the multiple…

  11. Higher Education, De-Centred Subjectivities and the Emergence of a Pedagogical Self among Black and Muslim Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Pete; Haywood, Chris; Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin

    2017-01-01

    This article explores late modern Black and Muslim young men's and women's experiences of higher education. Carrying out qualitative research with 14 male and female young people, these students claimed that their Youth and Community Work course at their university made available an alternative representational space, enabling them to develop a…

  12. Higher Education, De-Centred Subjectivities and the Emergence of a Pedagogical Self among Black and Muslim Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Pete; Haywood, Chris; Mac an Ghaill, Mairtin

    2017-01-01

    This article explores late modern Black and Muslim young men's and women's experiences of higher education. Carrying out qualitative research with 14 male and female young people, these students claimed that their Youth and Community Work course at their university made available an alternative representational space, enabling them to develop a…

  13. Psychosocial impact of perinatal loss among Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Sutan, Rosnah; Miskam, Hazlina Mohd

    2012-06-18

    Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed.

  14. Psychosocial impact of perinatal loss among Muslim women

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women of reproductive age are vulnerable to psychosocial problems, but these have remained largely unexplored in Muslim women in developing countries. The aim of this study was to explore and describe psychosocial impact and social support following perinatal loss among Muslim women. Methods A qualitative study was conducted in a specialist centre among Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss. Purposive sampling to achieve maximum variation among Muslims in relation to age, parity and previous perinatal death was used. Data was collected by focus group discussion and in-depth unstructured interview until the saturation point met. Sixteen mothers who had recent perinatal loss of wanted pregnancy, had received antenatal follow up from public or private health clinics, and had delivery in our centre participated for the study. All of them had experienced psychological difficulties including feelings of confusion, emptiness and anxiety over facing another pregnancy. Results Two out of sixteen showed anger and one felt guilt. They reported experiencing a lack of communication and privacy in the hospital during the period of grief. Family members and friends play an important role in providing support. The majority agreed that the decision makers were husbands and families instead of themselves. The respondents felt that repetitive reminder of whatever happened was a test from God improved their sense of self-worth. They appreciated this reminder especially when it came from husband, family or friends closed to them. Conclusion Muslim mothers who had experienced perinatal loss showed some level of adverse psychosocial impact which affected their feelings. Husbands and family members were the main decision makers for Muslim women. Health care providers should provide psychosocial support during antenatal, delivery and postnatal care. On-going support involving husband should be available where needed. PMID:22708998

  15. Young Pakistani Muslim Women's Reflections on Difference, Future, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation employs data collected from multiple sites in Southern California over a period of nine months. Several in-depth ethnographic interviews and participant observations were conducted with Pakistani Muslim women (age 17-22) and their parents in an effort to better understand the influence that parents and ethno-religious communities…

  16. Young Pakistani Muslim Women's Reflections on Difference, Future, and Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidi, Sara M.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation employs data collected from multiple sites in Southern California over a period of nine months. Several in-depth ethnographic interviews and participant observations were conducted with Pakistani Muslim women (age 17-22) and their parents in an effort to better understand the influence that parents and ethno-religious communities…

  17. "Just to Make Sure People Know I Was Born Here": Muslim Women Constructing American Selves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mir, Shabana

    2011-01-01

    The scene for this paper is set in the USA immediately post-9/11 when the meaning of nation shifted dramatically, in turn shaping Muslim American identity. I examine Muslim American undergraduate women's performance of immigrant, gendered, youthful, Muslim and American identities. The findings are framed within symbolic interactionist, Foucauldian…

  18. Feminism and Black Women's Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooks, Bell

    1989-01-01

    Women's studies programs have largely ignored Black women. Until Black women's studies courses are developed, feminist scholarship on Black women will not advance, and the contributions of Black women to women's rights movements and African American literature and scholarship may be neglected. (DM)

  19. Notable Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellin, Nancy

    Readings, activities, and teaching strategies for a secondary unit on black women are included in this teacher handbook. Instructional material is divided into four sections. Following a note on the use of the booklet, section 1 consists of 24 two-page biographies of black women, including Selma Burke, Lena Horne, Leontyne Price, Charlayne…

  20. Muslim Women's Perspectives on Designing Mosque-Based Women's Health Interventions-An Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Vu, Milkie; Muhammad, Hadiyah; Peek, Monica E; Padela, Aasim I

    2017-02-07

    Mosques could serve as a promising setting for health interventions. However, little empirical data are available to guide the development of mosque-based health interventions, especially for women. We aimed to assess Muslim women's views on effective strategies for mosque-based educational interventions to promote women's health. A sample of Muslim women of diverse ethnicity and race were recruited from mosques in Chicago to participate in semi-structured interviews. In interviews, 19 participants (aged 41-67 years) discussed characteristics of the imam and peer educator, aspects of the intervention modality, and content of health messaging that would be effective mosque-based health programs. Participants reported that imams should have health-related knowledge to deliver be successful, while peer educators should be respected women, educated in both religion and health. Sermons and group education classes were believed to be modalities that could reach a large portion of the community for discussions of women's health issues. Participants also suggested that sermons should use scriptural sources to convey the importance of women's health. Participants supported imam-led sermons and peer-led educational classes as effective strategies to promote women's health. Our study results speak to strategies for leveraging religious concepts to promote health among Muslim women.

  1. Education & Agency: Muslim Women and the Tensions of Traditional & Modern Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shabnam Syed

    2010-01-01

    This hermeneutically crafted qualitative study examines how six university-educated middle-class Pakistani Muslim women negotiate the competing expectations of traditional Muslim culture and the emancipated ethos of the university. It uses Robert Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, whose Subject-Object scoring system distinguishes a…

  2. Education & Agency: Muslim Women and the Tensions of Traditional & Modern Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Shabnam Syed

    2010-01-01

    This hermeneutically crafted qualitative study examines how six university-educated middle-class Pakistani Muslim women negotiate the competing expectations of traditional Muslim culture and the emancipated ethos of the university. It uses Robert Kegan's constructive-developmental theory, whose Subject-Object scoring system distinguishes a…

  3. Self-Esteem as a Predictor of Attitudes toward Wife Abuse among Muslim Women and Men in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Alisha; Toner, Brenda B.

    2001-01-01

    Examines the attitudes toward wife abuse in a sample of Muslim women and men in Canada and whether thos e attitudes were influenced by self-esteem. Reveals that Muslim women and men did not differ on levels of self-esteem, but their attitudes were related to self-esteem, and Muslim men had more lenient attitudes toward wife abuse. (CMK)

  4. Attitudes toward cervical cancer screening among Muslim women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Matin, Mina; LeBaron, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    Immigrant Muslim women have low rates of health care utilization, especially preventive care such as breast exams, mammograms, and cervical cancer screening. Religious and cultural beliefs, such as the value placed on modesty and premarital virginity, contribute to reluctance to seek health care. In addition, it has been unclear whether discussions of health care behavior that involve sexuality and reproductive health would be welcomed among immigrant Muslim women. (1) To examine the impact of religious and cultural values on health care behavior of Muslim women from immigrant backgrounds in the San Francisco Bay Area, particularly with regard to cervical cancer screening; (2) To determine whether these women would welcome discussing values and beliefs regarding sexuality and reproductive health. Our key informants were five Muslim women who identified pelvic and Pap smear screening exams as major sources of anxiety for their community, and therefore major barriers to health care. Three focus groups were then convened, including 15 women ages 18-25, to discuss these issues in more detail. Many Muslim women from immigrant backgrounds face challenges in obtaining adequate health care due to some common barriers of language, transportation, insurance, and family pressures. Additionally, many Muslim women resist screening practices that are the standard in the US but which threaten their cultural and religious values. Equally important, many health care professionals contribute to the women's challenges by making inappropriate recommendations regarding physical exams and reproductive health. The women were enthusiastic and candid in discussing these highly sensitive and taboo topics.

  5. Intentions of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes.

    PubMed

    Ben Natan, Merav; Ashkenazi, Maayan; Masarwe, Safaa

    2016-02-01

    Prenatal education has many benefits to both mother and child. In Israel, prenatal classes are offered to pregnant women in their third trimester from all cultures and sectors. However, Israeli Muslim Arab women often do not attend these classes. To explore factors influencing the intention of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, using the Theory of Planned Behavior. The study was a cross-sectional quantitative correlational design. A convenience sample consisting of 200 Arab Muslim women completed a questionnaire based on the literature review and the theoretical model. The research findings indicate that women's intention to attend prenatal classes increases with more positive beliefs and attitudes toward prenatal education, greater subjective social pressure to attend classes, and with higher perceived control of attending such classes. The higher a woman's age and level of education, the greater her intention to attend classes. This study shows that the spouse is the most significant factor influencing women's decisions on this matter. In order to raise the intentions of Muslim Arab women in Israel to attend prenatal classes, policy makers must design programs to increase the awareness of prenatal education among both women and men in the Muslim Arab sector, emphasizing its benefits for mothers, infants, and families as a whole. Classes should reflect the uniqueness of Israeli Muslim Arab culture and combine traditional and modern outlooks. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A multiculturalism-feminism dispute: Muslim women and the Sharia debate in Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Ghobadzadeh, Naser

    2010-01-01

    Canadian Muslim women, as opposed to their Australian counterparts, have attained prominent social status not only in terms of their contribution to electoral politics but also in other political spheres. With its focus on the Sharia debate, this paper investigates one potential explanation for this difference. Challenging Okin's feminist perspective, which claims that multiculturalism is an undesirable policy for emancipation, it is argued that multiculturalism facilitates agency of female members of Muslim communities. A comparative examination of the Sharia debate between the two secular countries of Canada and Australia demonstrates that the former's more robust multicultural polity in terms of responding to requests to adopt the Sharia have not only culminated in Muslim women's empowerment but have enhanced their political representation. In contrast, Australian Muslim women have neither had the opportunity to articulate their position with regard to Sharia nor to contribute to an important issue that could have empowered them.

  7. Exploring Identity in Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani Immigrant Women

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Cristina; Tagliabue, Semira

    2015-01-01

    This study presents a qualitative investigation of how Muslim Moroccan and Pakistani female immigrants living in Italy conceptualize their cultural identity. Ten Moroccan and 10 Pakistani (adolescent and adult) women were interviewed through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The interviewees expressed a strong attachment to their culture of origin: their religion is a crucial aspect of their identity, along with certain cultural rules and traditional values. At the same time, both Moroccan and Pakistani participants were ambivalent toward and experienced difficulties in developing a connection to the host country, although the two groups exhibit their lack of connection to their host country in different ways: Moroccans’ self-representation is marked by a sense of foreignness and by a lack of an emotional connection with places where they are living while Pakistanis tend to express cultural distance and conflict with the host culture’s values. For both the Moroccan and Pakistani groups, the challenge of integration and biculturalism seems demanding in the Italian context and is marked by a deep feeling of emptiness, a lack of an emotional bond with the new country, and a strong cultural ambivalence. Finally, narrative themes are articulated across four interrelated dimensions (cultural, religious, gendered, spatial), revealing interesting differences based on national origin and generation. PMID:27247642

  8. Behind the Veil: An In-Depth Exploration of Egyptian Muslim Women's Lives through Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toncy, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Muslim women in Arabic countries have unique experiences that are shaped in large part by their cultures' beliefs regarding the female body. Mandated behaviors and men's attitudes towards women's role in society have likewise created oppressive situations which have affected women's sense of self. Because many of those experiences are body-based,…

  9. Behind the Veil: An In-Depth Exploration of Egyptian Muslim Women's Lives through Dance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toncy, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Muslim women in Arabic countries have unique experiences that are shaped in large part by their cultures' beliefs regarding the female body. Mandated behaviors and men's attitudes towards women's role in society have likewise created oppressive situations which have affected women's sense of self. Because many of those experiences are body-based,…

  10. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  11. Health Issues Facing Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Inez Smith

    Black women in the United States experience a high incidence of serious health problems and, as a group, receive insufficient and inadequate medical care. The death rate for black women suffering from breast cancer has increased substantially since 1950. Also of great concern is the high incidence of cervical cancer in low income black women…

  12. Is the hijab protective? An investigation of body image and related constructs among British Muslim women.

    PubMed

    Swami, Viren; Miah, Jusnara; Noorani, Nazerine; Taylor, Donna

    2014-08-01

    Previous studies have reported equivocal findings concerning the impact of wearing a hijab, or Islamic head- and body-cover, on Muslim women's body image. Here, we sought to examine that impact using a larger sample of Muslim women than has been relied upon and a wider range of body image measures. A total of 587 British Muslim women completed a battery of scales assessing their frequency and conservativeness of hijab use, body image variables, attitudes towards the media and beauty ideals, importance of appearance, and religiosity. Preliminary results indicated that 218 women never used the hijab and 369 women used some form of the hijab at least rarely. Controlling for religiosity, women who wore the hijab had more positive body image, lower internalization of media messages about beauty standards, and placed less importance on appearance than women who did not wear the hijab. Among women who wore the hijab, hijab use significantly predicted weight discrepancy and body appreciation over and above religiosity. These results are discussed in terms of the possible protective impact among British Muslim women of wearing the hijab.

  13. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  14. Community History as a Male-Constructed Space: Challenging Gendered Memories among South African Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Doria

    2009-01-01

    The post-Apartheid community history is a male-constructed space, narrated into present-day consciousness by male community leaders and history writers. The patriarchal worldview disparages women's contributions and activisms. This article reports on how Muslim women from a small fishing village in South Africa in the early 1900s strategized to…

  15. Modesty Among Muslim Women: Implications for Nursing Care.

    PubMed

    Mujallad, Alaa; Taylor, Elizabeth Johnston

    2016-01-01

    Modesty is central to Islamic life. Modesty is exemplified in dress and behavior with persons of the opposite sex. Because ethical nursing care requires respecting patient culture and religiosity, nurses should be able to provide care that respects Muslim interpretations of modesty.

  16. Muslim immigrant women's views on cervical cancer screening and HPV self-sampling in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Mandana; Lofters, Aisha

    2016-08-24

    Canada has observed significant decreases in incidence and mortality of cervical cancer in recent decades, and this has been attributed to appropriate screening (i.e., the Pap test). However, certain subgroups including Muslim immigrants show higher rates of cervical cancer mortality despite their lower incidence. Low levels of screening have been attributed to such barriers as lack of a family physician, inconvenient clinic hours, having a male physician, and cultural barriers (e.g., modesty, language). HPV self -sampling helps to alleviate many of these barriers. However, little is known about the acceptability of this evidence-based strategy among Muslim women. This study explored Muslim immigrant women's views on cervical cancer screening and the acceptability of HPV self-sampling. An exploratory community-based mixed methods design was used. A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June-August 2015) in the Greater Toronto Area. All were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through focus groups. This study provides critical insights about the importance of religious and cultural beliefs in shaping the daily and health care experiences of Muslim women and their cancer screening decisions. Our study showed the deterring impact of beliefs and health practices in home countries on Muslim immigrant women's utilization of screening services. Limited knowledge about cervical cancer and screening guidelines and need for provision of culturally appropriate sexual health information were emphasized. The results revealed that HPV self-sampling provides a favorable alternative model of care to the traditional provider-administered Pap testing for this population. To enhance Muslim immigrant women screening uptake, efforts should made to increase 1) their knowledge of the Canadian health care system and preventive services at the time of entry to Canada, and

  17. Marital Happiness of Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Essie M.

    According to a study of 256 black married women between the ages of 26 and 60 living with their spouses, marital happiness is more common among black women than marital unhappiness. This finding is based on the secondary analysis of a sample of data collected in Detroit in 1968-1969. Variables statistically significant to the marital happiness of…

  18. Marital Happiness of Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Essie M.

    According to a study of 256 black married women between the ages of 26 and 60 living with their spouses, marital happiness is more common among black women than marital unhappiness. This finding is based on the secondary analysis of a sample of data collected in Detroit in 1968-1969. Variables statistically significant to the marital happiness of…

  19. A qualitative investigation of Muslim and Christian women's views of religion and feminism in their lives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Mahmood, Amina; Moel, Joy; Hudson, Carolyn; Leathers, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    This qualitative investigation explored a relatively understudied aspect of cultural diversity: feminism and religion in the lives of religiously diverse women. More specifically, structured interviews were used to investigate views of religion, women's issues, gender roles, culture, and feminism for a small group of Muslim and Christian women living in the United States. The data were analyzed using consensual qualitative research methods (Hill, Thompson, & Williams, 1997). Findings indicated a complex relationship between feminism, gender roles, culture, and religion for these women with the majority of the Muslim women reporting that their religion supports feminist principles and identifying themselves as feminist. Christian women were less willing to endorse the feminist label. Implications for multicultural feminist practice are discussed. 2008 APA

  20. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…

  1. Muslim Women in Graduate Studies: Some Insights into the Accessibility of Higher Education for Minority Women Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Lapidot, Orit

    2012-01-01

    Based on semi-structured interviews with 11 Muslim women graduate students in Israel, the current study provides insight into the determinants enabling this group of women in the Arab sector to apply for a second degree and succeed. Among these determinants are the family, the high school, the individual's personal drive for learning, the…

  2. A Transnational Community of Pakistani Muslim Women: Narratives of Rights, Honor, and Wisdom in a Women's Education Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khurshid, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    Using ethnographic data, this article explores how Muslim women teachers from low-income Pakistani communities employ the notion of "wisdom" to construct and perform their educated subjectivity in a transnational women's education project. Through Butler's performativity framework, I demonstrate how local and global discourses overlap to…

  3. Disordered eating & cultural diversity: a focus on Arab Muslim women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Feinson, Marjorie C; Meir, Adi

    2014-04-01

    A dearth of data concerning eating problems among adult women from minority population groups leaves substantial knowledge gaps and constrains evidence-based interventions. To examine prevalence and predictors of disordered eating behaviors (DEB) among Arab Muslim women in Israel, whose eating behaviors have not been previously examined and to compare with second generation Israeli-born Jews of European heritage. Community-based study includes sub-samples of Arab Muslims and Israeli-born Jews. DEB is assessed with fourteen DSM-IV related symptoms. Hierarchical regressions examine influence of weight, self-criticism and psychological distress on DEB severity. Relatively high prevalence rates emerge for Muslims (27%) and Jews (20%), a nonsignificant difference. In contrast, regressions reveal substantially different predictor patterns. For Arab Muslims, weight has the strongest association; for Jews, weight is not significant while self-criticism is the strongest predictor. Explained variance also differs considerably: 45% for Muslims and 28% for Jews. Surprising similarities and distinct differences underscore complex patterns of eating disturbances across culturally diverse groups. Culturally sensitive interventions are warranted along with more illuminating explanatory paradigms than 'one size fits all.' Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-esteem as a predictor of attitudes toward wife abuse among Muslim women and men in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ali, A; Toner, B B

    2001-02-01

    This study was designed (a) to assess attitudes toward wife abuse in a sample of Muslim women and men in Canada and (b) to assess whether those attitudes were influenced by self-esteem. Results suggested that, as in general North American samples, the Muslim women and men did not differ from each other on levels of self-esteem. Also consistent with general North American samples, the Muslim women's and men's attitudes toward wife abuse were related to their self-esteem, with higher self-esteem scores predicting stronger attitudes against wife abuse, independent of gender. However, the results also revealed that the Muslim men had significantly more lenient attitudes toward wife abuse compared with the Muslim women and with North American norms.

  5. U.S. Muslim Women and Body Image: Links among Objectification Theory Constructs and the Hijab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolaymat, Lana D.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This study tested tenets of objectification theory and explored the role of the hijab in body image and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 118 Muslim women in the United States. Results from a path analysis indicated that individual differences in wearing the hijab were related negatively with reported sexual objectification experiences.…

  6. Sports Activities High Performance Athletes Muslim Women in Indonesia and Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitri, M.; Sultoni, K.; Salamuddin, N.; Taib Harun, Mohd

    2017-03-01

    Participation in sports activities was also influenced by sociological factors. This indirectly allows individuals more adaptable in high performance sports compared with individuals who did not engage in sports activities. This study aims to identify high performance sports athletes Muslim women in Indonesia and Malaysia in the sport. The quantitative approach was carried out by the study population consisted of Muslim women athletes Malaysia and Indonesia, which joined The 3rd Islamic Solidarity Games. The study sample consisted of 58 Malaysia and 57 Indonesia. Descriptive analysis also shows that sports activities like Muslim women athletes in the ranking of badminton (Malaysia 46.5% and Indonesia 38.6%), swimming (Malaysia 33.3% and Indonesia 57.9%), sports (Malaysia 27.5% and Indonesia at 22.8%), and balls volleyball (Malaysia and Indonesia 17.2%, 29.8%). The results of this study can serve as a guide for the government to make sports facilities more attractive community of Muslim women.

  7. U.S. Muslim Women and Body Image: Links among Objectification Theory Constructs and the Hijab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolaymat, Lana D.; Moradi, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    This study tested tenets of objectification theory and explored the role of the hijab in body image and eating disorder symptoms with a sample of 118 Muslim women in the United States. Results from a path analysis indicated that individual differences in wearing the hijab were related negatively with reported sexual objectification experiences.…

  8. Swimming against the Tide: Characteristics of Muslim-Arab Women in Israel Who Initiated Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat; Klein, Dana

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared Muslim-Arab women in Israel who initiated divorce (n=45) with those who stayed in stressful marital relationships (n=46). Based on an ecological approach and using a cross-sectional design, we explored the differences between the two groups with regard to the following variables: personal resources (education, paid…

  9. Young Muslim Women's Experiences of Islam and Physical Education in Greece and Britain: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagkas, Symeon; Benn, Tansin

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that Muslim women can experience particular problems when taking physical education (PE) lessons, for example with dress codes, mixed-teaching and exercise during Ramadan; and they can face restrictions in extra-curricular activities for cultural and religious reasons. The area is under-researched and there is little…

  10. Muslim Women's Views on Dress Code and the "Hijaab": Some Issues for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Recent French and Turkish bans on Muslim women wearing Islamic head coverings in schools, colleges and universities starts this discussion of religious discrimination and the value of inter-religious open dialogue in which neither side holds entrenched positions. The paper links dialogue with the ethnographic methodology and uses this to examine…

  11. Swimming against the Tide: Characteristics of Muslim-Arab Women in Israel Who Initiated Divorce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat; Klein, Dana

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared Muslim-Arab women in Israel who initiated divorce (n=45) with those who stayed in stressful marital relationships (n=46). Based on an ecological approach and using a cross-sectional design, we explored the differences between the two groups with regard to the following variables: personal resources (education, paid…

  12. Young Muslim Women's Experiences of Islam and Physical Education in Greece and Britain: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagkas, Symeon; Benn, Tansin

    2006-01-01

    Previous research suggests that Muslim women can experience particular problems when taking physical education (PE) lessons, for example with dress codes, mixed-teaching and exercise during Ramadan; and they can face restrictions in extra-curricular activities for cultural and religious reasons. The area is under-researched and there is little…

  13. Muslim Women's Views on Dress Code and the "Hijaab": Some Issues for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigger, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Recent French and Turkish bans on Muslim women wearing Islamic head coverings in schools, colleges and universities starts this discussion of religious discrimination and the value of inter-religious open dialogue in which neither side holds entrenched positions. The paper links dialogue with the ethnographic methodology and uses this to examine…

  14. Perspectives on cervical cancer screening among educated Muslim women in Dubai (the UAE): a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sarah; Woolhead, Gillian

    2015-10-24

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the seventh leading cause of death among women in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), with most deaths attributed to late detection of this cancer. The UAE lacks a national CC screening programme. Thus, cervical screening is only performed opportunistically during women's visits to health facilities. CC screening rates in the UAE are as low as 16.9 %, and little is known about the perspectives of the nation's educated Muslim women regarding screening. Consequently, the aim of this study is to explore Muslim women's perspectives towards cervical screening in Dubai to promote strategies for increasing its uptake, thereby leading to a decrease in morbidity and mortality associated with CC. Interpretivist and social constructivist epistemological approaches were applied for this qualitative study. Data were obtained through 13 in-depth interviews. Purposive and snowballing methods were used to recruit six South Asian women and seven Emirati women living in Dubai. Thematic content analysis was concurrently applied with comparative analysis to the data. Four themes regarding women's perceptions of CC emerged from the data. First, CC was considered a 'silent disease' that could be detected with early screening. However, it was also associated with extramarital sexual relations, which negatively influenced screening uptake. Second, women's fear, pain and embarrassment, along with cultural influences, deterred them from undergoing screening. Third, a growing mistrust of allopathic medicine and impersonal healthcare promoted a negative view of screening. Last, women became aware of screening mainly when they were pregnant or receiving fertility treatment. The study highlighted a number of important factors relating to cultural, religious and sexual behaviour that shaped educated Muslim women's perspectives on CC screening. Evidently, the current opportunistic approach to screening is flawed. A national awareness programme on CC screening should be

  15. Barriers to higher education: commonalities and contrasts in the experiences of Hindu and Muslim young women in urban Bengaluru

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women’s access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and explores the barriers they confronted in fulfilling their aspirations. We highlight the similarities amongst the young women, as well as the distinctive experiences of the Hindu and Muslim interviewees. Financial constraints, lack of safety for women in public space, and gender bias, gossip and social control within the family and the local community affected Hindu and Muslim interviewees in substantially similar ways. For the Muslim interviewees, however, gender disadvantage was compounded by their minority status. This both underlines the importance of incorporating communal politics into our analysis and undermines popular discourses that stereotype Muslims in India as averse to girls’ and young women’s education. PMID:28392620

  16. Muslim women and foreign prostitutes: victim discourse, subjectivity, and governance.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Christine M; Stenvoll, Dag

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we juxtapose the ways “Muslim women” and “foreign prostitutes” are commonly constituted as victims in media and politics. We analyze the functions of these two prototypical female victims in terms of the role they play in epitomizing “the problems of globalization” and in reinforcing the existing social and political structures. Victim discourse, when tied to the transnational proliferation of the sex industry and of (radical) Islam, has depoliticizing effects because it places nonindividual causes of victimization outside of “our” polity and society and casts the state as protector and neutral arbiter of national and global inequalities, marginalization, and social conflict.

  17. B Is for "Burqa," C Is for Censorship: The Miseducative Effects of Censoring Muslim Girls and Women's Sartorial Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruitenberg, Claudia W.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, I add a discursive analysis to the discussion about Muslim girls and women's dress in non-Muslim educational contexts. I argue that a law or policy that prohibits the wearing of "khimar," "burqa," "chador," "niqab," "hijab," or "jilbab" in the context of public schools is a form of censorship in educational contexts. This…

  18. Contraceptive decision making in a sample of Jordanian Muslim women: delineating salient beliefs.

    PubMed

    Libbus, K; Kridli, S

    1997-01-01

    In this article, the authors identify attitudes, normative beliefs, and behavioral control beliefs of Muslim Jordanian women with regard to avoiding unplanned pregnancy and using specific contraceptive methods. Based on Ajzen and Fishbein's theory of planned behavior, open-ended questions were used in audio-taped face-to-face interviews with 25 married 19-44-year-old Jordanian Muslim women. A majority of respondents interviewed were currently using an intrauterine device (IUD) for contraception. Few women were using oral contraceptives, condoms, or the rhythm method and none of them reported using foam or a diaphragm. Content analyses of narrative transcriptions suggest the individual's concerns for family and individual well-being, as well as husbands' and families' opinions, may influence women's contraceptive behavior in this population.

  19. Muslim Women in America and Hijab: A Study of Empowerment, Feminist Identity, and Body Image.

    PubMed

    Al Wazni, Anderson Beckmann

    2015-10-01

    This article presents an exploratory, qualitative study of 12 Muslim women living in the Triangle area of North Carolina, who were interviewed regarding their voluntary practice of hijab (Muslim tradition of veiling), exercise of choice in hijab, their relationship to feminist belief and identity, female empowerment, and body image. Through examining the influence of political movements in concert with market capitalism, this article examines how the hijab and those who voluntarily practice this Muslim tradition challenge or contradict mainstream images of what is marketed in the West as feminist. Moreover, this article seeks to examine how, if at all, the hijab empowers those women who practice it, whether it offers an avenue of female empowerment and liberation not traditionally included in prevailing feminist thought, and how this may contribute to third-wave feminist theory. This article informs social work practitioners of the strength of Muslim women, the exercise of choice in hijab, and contributions to feminist thought as participants respond to assumptions of oppression, patriarchal control, and prejudice in a post-9/11 society.

  20. Intersectionality at Work: South Asian Muslim Women's Experiences of Employment and Leadership in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Memoona; Syed, Jawad

    2017-01-01

    Drawing on qualitative interviews with 20 South Asian heritage, Muslim, female leaders, managers, and supervisors in the United Kingdom, we examine the multi-layered issues and challenges they face in pursuit of employment and leadership positions. The paper offers an intersectional perspective taking into account interconnected and overlapping factors (gender, ethnicity, religion, and family status) that affect not only the issues and challenges these women face in the labour market but also the individual agency and strategies they use to overcome any obstacles in the way of their employment and career. The results show that although Muslim women continue to face a myriad of challenges in the workplace, they are also able to tackle some of these issues through their individual strategies and networks, such as personal networks and further education. The study highlights the need for policymakers and employers to consider intersectionality to enable ethnic minority women's inclusion and leadership within and outside the workplace.

  1. Muslim and Hindu Women's public and private behaviors: gender, family, and communalized politics in India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Temsah, Gheda

    2014-12-01

    Prior research on fundamentalist religious movements has focused attention on the complicated relationship among gender, family, and religion. Using data from a nationally representative survey of 30,000 Hindu and Muslim women, this study compares the daily public and private behaviors of women in India to examine how gender and family norms are shaped in the context of communalized identity politics. Building on the theoretical framework of "doing gender," we argue that because communal identities are expressed through externally visible behaviors, greater religious differences are expected in external markers of gendered behaviors and family norms. Results indicate that Muslim women are more likely to engage in veiling and less likely to venture outside the home for recreation and employment. However, religious differences are absent when attention is directed at private behaviors, such as household decision-making power, gender segregation within households, and discrimination against daughters. Results underscore the multidimensionality of gender.

  2. Exploring the acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women

    PubMed Central

    Lofters, Aisha K; Vahabi, Mandana; Fardad, Mitra; Raza, Afrah

    2017-01-01

    Background With appropriate screening (ie, the Papanicolaou [Pap] test), cervical cancer is highly preventable, and high-income countries, including Canada, have observed significant decreases in cervical cancer mortality. However, certain subgroups, including immigrants from countries with large Muslim populations, experience disparities in cervical cancer screening. Little is known about the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a screening strategy among Muslim immigrant women in Canada. This study assessed cervical cancer screening practices, knowledge and attitudes, and acceptability of HPV self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women. Methods A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June–August 2015) in the Greater Toronto Area. All women were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, and self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. Results More than half of the participants falsely indicated that Pap tests may cause cervical infection, and 46.7% indicated that the test is an intrusion on privacy. The majority of women reported that they would be willing to try HPV self-sampling, and more than half would prefer this method to provider-administered sampling methods. Barriers to self-sampling included confidence in the ability to perform the test and perceived cost, and facilitators included convenience and privacy being preserved. Conclusion The results demonstrate that HPV self-sampling may provide a favorable alternative model of care to the traditional provider-administered Pap testing. These findings add important information to the literature related to promoting cancer screening among women who are under or never screened for cervical cancer. PMID:28769590

  3. Exploring the acceptability of human papillomavirus self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lofters, Aisha K; Vahabi, Mandana; Fardad, Mitra; Raza, Afrah

    2017-01-01

    With appropriate screening (ie, the Papanicolaou [Pap] test), cervical cancer is highly preventable, and high-income countries, including Canada, have observed significant decreases in cervical cancer mortality. However, certain subgroups, including immigrants from countries with large Muslim populations, experience disparities in cervical cancer screening. Little is known about the acceptability of human papillomavirus (HPV) self-sampling as a screening strategy among Muslim immigrant women in Canada. This study assessed cervical cancer screening practices, knowledge and attitudes, and acceptability of HPV self-sampling among Muslim immigrant women. A convenience sample of 30 women was recruited over a 3-month period (June-August 2015) in the Greater Toronto Area. All women were between 21 and 69 years old, foreign-born, and self-identified as Muslim, and had good knowledge of English. Data were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. More than half of the participants falsely indicated that Pap tests may cause cervical infection, and 46.7% indicated that the test is an intrusion on privacy. The majority of women reported that they would be willing to try HPV self-sampling, and more than half would prefer this method to provider-administered sampling methods. Barriers to self-sampling included confidence in the ability to perform the test and perceived cost, and facilitators included convenience and privacy being preserved. The results demonstrate that HPV self-sampling may provide a favorable alternative model of care to the traditional provider-administered Pap testing. These findings add important information to the literature related to promoting cancer screening among women who are under or never screened for cervical cancer.

  4. Equality in the division of household labor: a comparative study of Jewish women and Arab Muslim women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat

    2007-08-01

    In this study, the author compared perceptions of gender-based equality in the division of household labor among Jewish women (n = 60) and Arab Muslim women (n = 62) from dual-earner families in Israel. Guided by theories regarding the division of household labor, the author also explored the impact of 3 sets of variables--resources, gender-role attitudes, and job flexibility (flextime)--on perceived equality in the division of household labor. The findings revealed that the Jewish women tended to perceive the division of household labor as more egalitarian than did their Arab Muslim counterparts. Furthermore, the Jewish women had more egalitarian gender-role attitudes and more job flexibility than did the Arab Muslim women. However, all 3 sets of variables predicted perceived equality in the division of household labor to the same extent for both groups of women. Moreover, for both groups, education level correlated with attitudes toward household labor and with extent of job flexibility. Overall, the findings suggest that education may contribute to improving women's quality of life in both traditional and modem sociocultural contexts.

  5. Effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice among Muslim women in Amman, Jordan.

    PubMed

    Sueyoshi, S; Al-Khozahe, H O; Ohtsuka, R

    2006-06-01

    Based on the authors' interview survey for 275 Muslim women of an ethnically divergent community in Amman, Jordan, this study examined the psychosocial effects of reproduction norms on contraception practice, using the normative interpretations of legal provisions in Islam (hukm). The categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) reduced the eight items regarding family planning and contraception use to two factors, i.e. the pressures of childbearing and acceptability of contraception use, accounting for 55% of the total variance. Even though the majority of the female subjects were conservative rather than innovative in terms of reproduction norms and significant interrelations were observed between their reproduction norms and contraception practice, approximately 70% of the female subjects who were closely in consonance with the normative interpretations of their religious leader had used contraception. It is thus indicated that religious leaders may play significant roles in increase of contraception practice among Muslim women.

  6. Constructions and experiences of sexual health among young, heterosexual, unmarried Muslim women immigrants in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wray, Anneke; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette

    2014-01-01

    Minority ethnic immigrant women are frequently vulnerable to poor sexual health outcomes, due to poor use of sexual health services, lack of knowledge and social stigma associated with the discussion of sexuality. This paper explores the sexual health accounts provided by a group of young, unmarried heterosexual Muslim women immigrants residing and studying in Sydney, an under-researched group in the Australian context. Ten semi-structured interviews were conducted, focusing on sex before marriage, spouse selection and contraceptive use. Feminist discourse analysis identified 'purity versus corruption' as the primary construction of women's sexuality, where women positioned their sexual behaviour as that of purity and uninvolvement or corruption through unwedded participation. The subthemes 'maintaining ignorance and naivety', 'remaining virginal', 'sex segregation' and 'the fallen woman' capture women's personal sexuality-related experiences and values within the context of their religious and cultural communities. Additional research with this community is needed to examine the effects of negative social constructions of sex on young sexually active Muslim women, as well as further research on young women's sexual health within immigrant communities.

  7. Circumventing problems of accessibility to rural muslim women.

    PubMed

    Safai, M

    1979-01-01

    A study of rural women's work was undertaken in 1977 by the Center for National Spatial Planning of the Plan and Budget Organization of Iran. Within the dehestan (smallest administrative unit) of Amlash, a region near the Caspian seacoast, 2-stage probability sampling procedures were used: villages were divided into 4 population strata, then 1 village selected randomly from each 1. A 20% random sample of women was selected. The women were interviewed in the field or working at home. Most of the men in the villages were quick to give credit to their wives and seemed eager for their wives to be interviewed. The rural women were willing and able to discuss the work they do; they know the steps and the technology involved and provide exact answers. With the exception of the 1st stage of rice production, women do considerable work. The assumption that women's work can be measured proved to be accurate. Generally, it was found that little impact has been made on the traditional division of labor. The tasks that have been known to be done primarily by women, including transplanting, weeding, and tea picking, are still done by women. The experience in Amlash demonstrates that random sampling is possible at the village level and within villages; that men need not feel threatened by a female research team; that it is possible to obtain reliable information from women about what they do and how much work is theirs; and that the women are willing and eager to discuss the work they do.

  8. Sharing beliefs: what sexuality means to Muslim Iranian women living in Australia.

    PubMed

    Merghati Khoei, Effat; Whelan, Anna; Cohen, Jeffrey

    2008-04-01

    In Iran, women's sexual self-understandings are strongly determined by religious teaching. This study explores the meanings generated through the lived experience of sexuality of women residing in Australia that may challenge certain received Islamic notions of sexuality. Interviews and focus group discussions were conducted with 51 Iranian women in Sydney alongside 10 semi-structured interviews with Shi'ite clergy in Iran. Findings suggest that the concept of sexual obedience within marriage is regarded as symbolic of an idealised Muslim femininity. Sexual obedience demonstrates women's high level of religious commitment but is also an indicator of modesty and self-respect. While some participants felt that it was a woman's duty to satisfy her husband on any sexual occasion, they did not utilize notions of subordination in their sexual lives. For other informants, however, concepts of subordination were more salient and tied to conservative religious leaders' interpretations of Quranic concepts and Iranian women's understandings of these same interpretations. Religion is an important factor influencing Iranian women's sexual self-understandings, being relevant both to sexual education and public health. Recognition of this issue will facilitate understanding of the cultural foundations of sexuality among Muslims and assist health providers in suggesting more culturally compatible forms of healthcare.

  9. Do Black Women Need Liberating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theresa I.

    1975-01-01

    Among the findings of this survey are that black women place high values on intelligence, desire an equalitarian type of marriage, desire to combine marriage, career and children, oppose receiving alimony, want more than two children, stress discipline in raising children and have mixed feelings about today's new sexual morality. (Author/AM)

  10. Changes in the timing of sexual initiation among young Muslim and Christian women in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Agha, Sohail

    2009-12-01

    Sexual initiation during adolescence has important demographic and health consequences for a population, yet no systematic analysis of changes in the timing of sexual initiation has been conducted in Nigeria. Two rounds of national surveys conducted in 1990 and 2003 were used to examine changes in the timing of sexual initiation among female adolescents in Nigeria. Multivariate survival analysis using Cox proportional hazards models was used to assess changes in the risk of sexual initiation and to identify the correlates of first sex. Contrary to what has been reported in several Nigerian studies, there was no decline in age at first sex among Christian adolescents. Age at first sex did not change significantly for Christian adolescents, although premarital sex appears to have increased-primarily due to an increase in the age at marriage. Age at first sex did increase among Muslim women. Premarital sex remained low among Muslim women. A number of socioeconomic variables were associated with the timing of sexual initiation. Weekly exposure to the mass media was associated with earlier sexual initiation. The degree to which an environment was liberal or restrictive was a key determinant of the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. The findings also illustrate the important role of socioeconomic factors in determining the timing of sexual initiation in Nigeria. As secondary education increases in Northern Nigeria, additional increases in the age at sexual debut are likely among Muslim women. The study raises concerns about the influence of the mass media on the timing of first sex in Nigeria. The evidence of an absence of changes in the timing of sexual initiation among Christian women in more than a decade implies that programs which aim to delay the timing of sexual initiation in Southern Nigeria may have limited success. With age at marriage already high among Christian women, programs that focus on abstinence until marriage may also be pursuing an approach with

  11. Black Women, Crime and Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Elsie L.

    Several factors indicate that there is a relationship between economic conditions and crime among black women. Crime statistics show that outside of the misdemeanors of drunkenness and disorderly conduct, black women tend to be arrested for larceny and prostitution, both economic crimes. The fact that black women are at the bottom of the economic…

  12. Purification of Body and Soul for the Next Journey. Practices Surrounding Death and Dying Among Muslim Women.

    PubMed

    Ahaddour, Chaïma; Van den Branden, Stef; Broeckaert, Bert

    2017-01-01

    This study aims, first, to compare normative Islamic practices toward death and dying and actual practices of Moroccan Muslim women. Second, it seeks to compare the views and practices of middle-aged and elderly women. Qualitative empirical research was conducted with 30 middle-aged and elderly Moroccan Muslim women living in Antwerp (Belgium) and with 15 experts in the field. Our study shows that religious beliefs and worldview have a great impact on Muslims' practices surrounding death and dying. More specifically, practices are strongly shaped by their eschatological beliefs. The rituals are perceived as preparations for the hereafter, entailing purification of both soul and body, and demonstrate the belief in a continued existence of the soul. We found striking similarities between our participants' views and normative Islamic views. We did not find a more secular understanding of death and dying among the middle-aged women.

  13. Barriers to Higher Education: Commonalities and Contrasts in the Experiences of Hindu and Muslim Young Women in Urban Bengaluru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahu, Biswamitra; Jeffery, Patricia; Nakkeeran, N.

    2017-01-01

    Gender inequalities in educational attainment have attracted considerable attention and this article aims to contribute to our understanding of young women's access to higher education. The article is based on our in-depth interviews with 26 Hindu and Muslim young women attending colleges in urban Bengaluru (formerly Bangalore), south India, and…

  14. Health beliefs and practices related to cancer screening among Arab Muslim women in an urban community.

    PubMed

    Salman, Khlood Faik

    2012-01-01

    In this exploratory study I investigated the participation status in breast and cervical cancer screening of a group of American immigrant Arab Muslim women (AMW). Perceived knowledge of and barriers to screening participation, relationships among demographic variables, health practice and beliefs, and self-reports of traditionalism and acculturation also are studied. Factors including religious and cultural beliefs, economic concerns, and modesty and embarrassment were considered. To reach the goals of Healthy People 2010 (HP 2010), an effective and meaningful educational initiative to raise awareness about breast and cervical cancer of AMW will require specific interventions consistent with their cultural and religious traditions.

  15. Characteristics of fibromyalgia in Muslim Bedouin women in a primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Peleg, Roni; Ablin, Jacob N; Peleg, Aya; Neumann, Lily; Rabia, Rasmia Abu; Buskila, Dan

    2008-06-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) has been described and studied in various sociocultural settings in both developed and developing countries. To study the clinical manifestations of FM and to describe its effect on quality of life in the unique setting of Muslim Bedouin women in the southern Israel Negev desert area. One hundred two Bedouin women were recruited from a primary health care clinic in the Negev area. All patients fulfilled American College of Rheumatology criteria for the diagnosis of FM. Tenderness was assessed by manual dolorimetry and the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire was utilized to estimate the severity of FM symptoms. Anxiety and depression were assessed by the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales subscales and quality of life was evaluated by the SF-36 questionnaire. The study population was characterized by a low educational level, a high rate of consanguinity, a high number of children per mother, and a high rate of polygamy. There was a high frequency of classic FM symptoms such as pain and fatigue, as well as anxiety and depression. The overall impact of FM on quality of life was exceedingly high (8.9 on a scale of 0 to 10). FM is relatively common in the unique setting of Muslim Bedouin women and has a very significant impact on their quality of life as well as on their dependents. Physicians involved in the primary care of this population should be attentive to the manifestations of FM and related disorders.

  16. Health seeking behavior during pregnancy and child birth among Muslim women of Biratnagar, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, B R; Sharma, P; Bhatta, B; Bhandari, B; Jha, N

    2012-06-01

    Maternal mortality remains one of the biggest public health challenges in Nepal. This paper explores the health seeking behavior, during pregnancy and child birth in certain ethnic group. The poverty, illiteracy, women's low status in the society, lack of access and difficult geographical terrain are major reasons for poor maternal health status in Nepal. Cross-sectional study was conducted among 200 Muslim women of ward # 7 of Biratnagar municipality. They were interviewed to understand their health seeking behavior during pregnancy and childbirth, factors associated with use of health services and their role in the family. Information's on usages of health services, education level, family stricture, and occupational status, information were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire. The overall institutional delivery in study population was found 24.5%. Low socio-economic status, Illiteracy and poverty in women are the major challenging features of pregnancy and child birth.

  17. A Case Study on the Experiences of University-Based Muslim Women in Physical Activity during Their Studies at One UK Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Claire; Benn, Tansin

    2016-01-01

    The case study explores the experiences of Muslim women in the area of physical activity participation conducted whilst they were studying at one UK University. Previous research in the field indicated that Muslim women can be denied opportunities to participate in areas of sport-related physical activity through multiple factors such as…

  18. A Case Study on the Experiences of University-Based Muslim Women in Physical Activity during Their Studies at One UK Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Claire; Benn, Tansin

    2016-01-01

    The case study explores the experiences of Muslim women in the area of physical activity participation conducted whilst they were studying at one UK University. Previous research in the field indicated that Muslim women can be denied opportunities to participate in areas of sport-related physical activity through multiple factors such as…

  19. Ramadan fasting and newborn's birth weight in pregnant Muslim women in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Savitri, Ary I; Yadegari, Nasim; Bakker, Julia; van Ewijk, Reyn J G; Grobbee, Diederick E; Painter, Rebecca C; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Roseboom, Tessa J

    2014-11-14

    Many Muslim women worldwide are pregnant during Ramadan and adhere to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy. In the present study, we determined whether maternal adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy has an impact on the birth weight of the newborn, and whether the effects differed according to trimester in which Ramadan fasting took place. A prospective cohort study was conducted in 130 pregnant Muslim women who attended antenatal care in Amsterdam and Zaanstad, The Netherlands. Data on adherence to Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and demographics were self-reported by pregnant women, and the outcome of the newborn was retrieved from medical records after delivery. The results showed that half of all the women adhered to Ramadan fasting. With strict adherence to Ramadan fasting in pregnancy, the birth weight of newborns tended to be lower than that of newborns of non-fasting mothers, although this was not statistically significant ( - 198 g, 95 % CI - 447, 51, P= 0·12). Children of mothers who fasted in the first trimester of pregnancy were lighter at birth than those whose mothers had not fasted ( - 272 g, 95 % CI - 547, 3, P= 0·05). There were no differences in birth weight between children whose mothers had or had not fasted if Ramadan fasting had taken place later in pregnancy. Ramadan fasting during early pregnancy may lead to lower birth weight of newborns. These findings call for further confirmation in larger studies that should also investigate potential implications for perinatal and long-term morbidity and mortality.

  20. The Faith Is the Pace: Educational Perspectives of Three Women Principals of Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Ultra-Orthodox Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnieli, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Israel is a multicultural state where ultra-Orthodox groups run their own separate schools. The present phenomenological study examined and compared the management patterns and educational emphases of three women principals of religious schools (Muslim, Christian [Franciscan], and ultra-Orthodox Jewish). The findings show that the ultra-Orthodox…

  1. The Faith Is the Pace: Educational Perspectives of Three Women Principals of Jewish, Christian, and Muslim Ultra-Orthodox Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnieli, Mira

    2014-01-01

    Israel is a multicultural state where ultra-Orthodox groups run their own separate schools. The present phenomenological study examined and compared the management patterns and educational emphases of three women principals of religious schools (Muslim, Christian [Franciscan], and ultra-Orthodox Jewish). The findings show that the ultra-Orthodox…

  2. "They can't understand it": maternity health and care needs of immigrant Muslim women in St. John's, Newfoundland.

    PubMed

    Reitmanova, Sylvia; Gustafson, Diana L

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to document and explore the maternity health care needs and the barriers to accessing maternity health services from the perspective of immigrant Muslim women living in St. John's, Canada. A purposive approach was used in recruiting six individuals to participate in in-depth semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using a two-step process of content analysis. Three metathemes were identified and compared to previous research on maternity health and the care needs of immigrant women. Women experienced discrimination, insensitivity and lack of knowledge about their religious and cultural practices. Health information was limited or lacked the cultural and religious specificity to meet their needs during pregnancy, labor and delivery, and postpartum phases. There were also significant gaps between existing maternity health services and women's needs for emotional support, and culturally and linguistically appropriate information. This gap was further complicated by the functional and cultural adjustments associated with immigration. Maternity health care information and practices designed to meet the needs of mainstream Canadian-born women lacked the flexibility to meet the needs of immigrant Muslim women. Recommendations for change directed at decision makers include improving access to culturally and linguistically appropriate maternity and health related information, developing the diversity responsiveness of health care providers and the organizations where they work and establishing social support networks and partnerships with immigrant communities. Changes that address the needs of immigrant Muslim women have the potential to create more inclusive and responsive maternity health services for all Canadian women.

  3. The Elusive Access to Education for Muslim Women in Kenya from the Late Nineteenth Century to the "Winds of Change" in Africa (1890s to 1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavjee, Rashida

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the denial of access to education to Ismaili Muslim women in colonial Kenya during the 1890s and the 1960s. The Ismailis were part of the "Asians" in Africa, a working class, religious, Muslim immigrant group from India, circumscribed by poverty and a traditional culture, the orthodox elements of which, with regard…

  4. The Elusive Access to Education for Muslim Women in Kenya from the Late Nineteenth Century to the "Winds of Change" in Africa (1890s to 1960s)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keshavjee, Rashida

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the denial of access to education to Ismaili Muslim women in colonial Kenya during the 1890s and the 1960s. The Ismailis were part of the "Asians" in Africa, a working class, religious, Muslim immigrant group from India, circumscribed by poverty and a traditional culture, the orthodox elements of which, with regard…

  5. Black Women in the Emerging Services Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woody, Bette

    1989-01-01

    Examines the impact of a services economy on the work and income of Black women in relation to current labor theory, employment patterns of Black and White women, and future policy implications. Discusses the growing feminization of poverty as the product of a growing subculture of low-wage work. (JS)

  6. Aging Black Women and Public Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Johnson

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the following questions: (1) what is the effect of the stereotyped characterization of old black women on their well-being; (2) what are the major issues surrounding the social, economic, and health conditions of subgroups of aging black women; and (3) what should be the substantive content of advocatory efforts on their behalf? (BJV)

  7. Black Women Workers in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Debra Lynn

    1986-01-01

    At the beginning of the twentieth century one-third of black women worked; most did agricultural or domestic work. Gradually as employment benefits increased and anti-discrimination laws were enforced, work opportunities for black women became more varied and better paying. (VM)

  8. Health problems, complex life, and consanguinity among ethnic minority Muslim women in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Bhatta, Dharma Nand; Haque, Anwarul

    2015-01-01

    Marriage between blood relatives is common among Muslim ethnic minority population in Nepal. Albeit, the adverse effects of such a consanguineous marriage on health are controversial. To determine the prevalence, characteristics and health outcomes related to consanguineous marriage. A cross-sectional survey was carried out using a cluster sampling technique to select the respondents. A total of 400 women aged 15-49 years were interviewed from September 2011 to February 2012. A structured questionnaire was administered through face-to-face meetings. Adjusted odds ratios (AOR) were estimated by a stepwise likelihood ratio method with binary logistic regression. The overall prevalence of consanguinity was 36.7%. The median age at marriage and age at first childbirth was 15 and 18 years, respectively. The association of being in a consanguineous marriage among women whose husband's education level were secondary or higher was 3.35 (95% CI 1.56, 7.12) times greater than among those whose husbands were unable to read and write. Woman who have consanguineous marriage were less likely to have (AOR 0.46, 95% CI 0.26, 0.82) used contraceptive than those who have non-consanguineous marriage. Women who have consanguineous marriage were more (AOR 1.80; 95% CI 0.90, 3.61) likely to have birth defect in their children than those who have non-consanguineous marriage. The association of having a history of death after live birth among women who experienced emotional violence was 2.60 (95% CI 1.36, 5.00) and physical violence 2.15 (95% CI 1.16, 3.93) times greater than among those who did not experience violence. Several factors like husband's education and dowry practices are associated with consanguineous marriage. Further, these factors including consanguineous marriage and marital violence are also accountable for negative health consequences. Thus, multicomponent interventions are needed in order to improve the health condition of Nepalese Muslim community in rural area.

  9. Black Women in the Labor Force. Facts on Working Women No. 90-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    During the 1980s, the population of black women aged 16 years and older in the United States increased by 17.2%, and labor force participation for black women increased by 29%. In 1987, black women accounted for 50% of total black employment. The unemployment rate for black teenagers in 1990 was 30% (versus 10.8% for all black women). Labor force…

  10. Evaluating Religious Influences on the Utilization of Maternal Health Services among Muslim and Christian Women in North-Central Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mujtaba, Maryam; Cornelius, Llewellyn J.; Galadanci, Hadiza; Erekaha, Salome; Okundaye, Joshua N.; Adeyemi, Olusegun A.; Sam-Agudu, Nadia A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Uptake of antenatal services is low in Nigeria; however, indicators in the Christian-dominated South have been better than in the Muslim-dominated North. This study evaluated religious influences on utilization of general and HIV-related maternal health services among women in rural and periurban North-Central Nigeria. Materials and Methods. Targeted participants were HIV-positive, pregnant, or of reproductive age in the Federal Capital Territory and Nasarawa. Themes explored were utilization of facility-based services, provider gender preferences, and Mentor Mother acceptability. Thematic and content approaches were applied to manual data analysis. Results. Sixty-eight (68) women were recruited, 72% Christian and 28% Muslim. There were no significant religious influences identified among barriers to maternal service uptake. All participants stated preference for facility-based services. Uptake limitations were mainly distance from clinic and socioeconomic dependence on male partners rather than religious restrictions. Neither Muslim nor Christian women had provider gender preferences; competence and positive attitude were more important. All women found Mentor Mothers highly acceptable. Conclusion. Barriers to uptake of maternal health services appear to be minimally influenced by religion. ANC/PMTCT uptake interventions should target male partner buy-in and support, healthcare provider training to improve attitudes, and Mentor Mother program strengthening and impact assessment. PMID:27006944

  11. Twentieth-Century Black Women in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Mary Frances

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the impact of numerous Black women on American education. Discusses how, because of their overriding interest in educational opportunity, these leaders have often overlooked the issue of educational quality. Indicates that those who subscribe to educating Blacks for social assimilation encounter less opposition than those who emphasize…

  12. "I Don't Want My Parents' Respect Going down the Drain": South Asian, Muslim Young Women Negotiating Family and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stride, Annette; Flintoff, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Young women's relationship with physical activity has been explored extensively, yet the focus is often upon young women who are White. This paper considers South Asian, Muslim young women's experiences of physical activity and how these are influenced by family. A "middle ground" feminist approach is used, drawing upon the work of Hill…

  13. Abortion index and mortality of offspring among women of different age, caste and population groups of north Indian Muslims.

    PubMed

    Ara, Gulshan; Siddique, Yasir Hasan; Beg, Tanveer; Afzal, Mohammad

    2008-05-01

    The Muslims of Aligarh city are predominantly Sunnis, although there are also a considerable number of Shias. Among the Sunnis, approximately a quarter belong to Syed, Sheikh, Moghal and Pathan groups, and three-quarters belong to various lower biradaris. In the present study, 304 women attending the Primary Health Centre of the J. N. Medical College and Hospital, Aligarh Muslim University, Uttar Pradesh, were surveyed and the following recorded among Muslim women of high-rank (Ashraf) and low-rank (Ajlaf) castes: incidence of marriage, age of the mother at the time of marriage, present age of the mother, abortions, still births, pre-reproductive mortality and overall mortality. The Ashraf are comprised of the Sheikh, Syed and Pathan, whereas the Ajlafs have Qureshi, Saifi and Ansari biradaris. Maternal age was scored as above and below 45 years in each biradari. Significant effects of maternal age were seen on mortality of offspring, whereas populations did not show consistent differences, except when Ashrafs and Ajlafs were considered separately. The results show higher mortality and abortions for various groups. This may be due to various biological and socio-cultural factors, including hidden inbreeding in the remote past.

  14. Women and Blacks in College Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Robert; Tuthill, Catherine

    1995-01-01

    Examines the effects of racism, market forces, and structural changes on the status of women and blacks in college sports. Discusses the formation of the Association for Intercollegiate Athletics for Women (AIAW) and its controversial consolidation within the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). (MJP)

  15. Complicated Contradictions Amid Black Feminism and Millennial Black Women Teachers Creating Curriculum for Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachae, Tiffany M.

    2016-01-01

    Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…

  16. Complicated Contradictions Amid Black Feminism and Millennial Black Women Teachers Creating Curriculum for Black Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachae, Tiffany M.

    2016-01-01

    Millennial Black women teachers wrestle with two simultaneous burdens: disrupting the racist and sexist status quo of schooling through curriculum, and employing tactics to survive school politics among their majority White women colleagues. This article describes how the "Sisters of Promise" (SOP) curriculum aligned with Black feminism…

  17. Beliefs, recommendations and intentions are important explanatory factors of mammography screening behavior among Muslim Arab women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Soskolne, Varda; Marie, Saed; Manor, Orly

    2007-10-01

    The rates of mammography screening by Muslim Arab women in Israel are lower compared with the general population. The current study aimed to examine factors related to screening mammography behavior among Arab women by employing components from the Health Belief Model and the Theory of Reasoned Action. Sociodemographic factors, knowledge, beliefs about breast cancer and mammography, self-efficacy, cues to action, norms and intention to perform mammography were examined as explanatory variables for mammography use. Face-to-face interviews with a random sample of 510 Muslim Arab women, aged 50-69 years, were conducted. The women had limited knowledge about breast cancer and mammography, and the rate of mammography screening behavior (at the recommended interval) was only 20%. The women who were significantly more likely to undergo mammography were those who received a recommendation from a health professional or from family/friends, perceived themselves as vulnerable to getting breast cancer, believed in the efficacy of the test, perceived it as not painful, were younger, were more educated and were only of borderline significance among those who expressed an intention to undergo mammography. The findings indicate that professional recommendation and beliefs sets are essential factors for developing effective mammography screening interventions in this unique population.

  18. Attitudes Toward Women's Family Role Among Black and White Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmann, Anne; Fox, David J.

    1970-01-01

    The self perceptions and ideal women of black and white women were slightly self achieving. White women as in previous samples said men prefer a home oriented woman. Black women, however, felt men wanted a woman balanced between home and career aspirations, and black men agreed. White men also delineated a balanced ideal woman unlike what white…

  19. Prevalent Vertebral Fractures in Black Women and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Cauley, Jane A; Palermo, Lisa; Vogt, Molly; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ewing, Susan; Hochberg, Marc; Nevitt, Michael C; Black, Dennis M

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral fractures are the most common osteoporotic fracture. Hip and clinical fractures are less common in black women, but there is little information on vertebral fractures. We studied 7860 white and 472 black women ≥65 yr of age enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Prevalent vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs using vertebral morphometry and defined if any vertebral height ratio was >3 SD below race-specific means for each vertebral level. Information on risk factors was obtained by questionnaire or examination. Lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck BMD and BMC were measured by DXA. The prevalence of vertebral fractures was 10.6% in black and 19.1% in white women. In age-adjusted logistic regression models, a 1 SD decrease in femoral neck BMD was associated with 47% increased odds of fracture in black women (OR = 1.47; 95% CI, 1.12–1.94) and 80% increased odds in white women (OR = 1.80; 95% CI, 1.68–1.94; interaction p = 0.14). The overall lower odds of fracture among black women compared with white women was independent of femoral neck BMD and other risk factors (OR = 0.51; 95% CI, 0.37–0.72). However, the prevalence of vertebral fractures increased with increasing number of risk factors in both groups. The prevalence of vertebral fractures is lower in black compared with white women but increases with age, low BMD, and number of risk factors. PMID:18442309

  20. Muslim Women and Women’s Organizations: Allies in the War of Ideas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    women began to form women’s groups. The first such group was the Union Nationale des Femmes Algeriennes (UNFA). Formed in 1963, UNFA was the...homes et les femmes (Egalite) brought together some thirty women’s organizations’’ working toward the amendment or abolishment of the Family Code.117...pour la Défense et la promotion des droits de la femme and Association pour la promotion de la femme represented the Islamic feminist approach, and

  1. Black Women in Film Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Describes a symposium sponsored in April of last year by the Afro-American and American Studies Departments at Boston University on "Black Image in Films, Stereotyping and Self-Perception"; participants included Susan Batson, Cynthia Belgrave, Ruby Dee, Beah Richards, and Cicely Tyson. (Author/JM)

  2. Black Women in Film Symposium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara

    1974-01-01

    Describes a symposium sponsored in April of last year by the Afro-American and American Studies Departments at Boston University on "Black Image in Films, Stereotyping and Self-Perception"; participants included Susan Batson, Cynthia Belgrave, Ruby Dee, Beah Richards, and Cicely Tyson. (Author/JM)

  3. Feminism versus Minority Group Identity: Not for Black Women Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Pamela Trotman

    1984-01-01

    Identifies four hypotheses that researchers investigating Black women and their relationships have adopted: "weakening,""double whammy,""Black matriarchy," and "Black racism." Discusses the implications of these hypotheses and suggests new approaches for future research. (CJM)

  4. Perception of efficacy and safety as determinants for use and discontinuation of birth control methods in Muslim Jordanian women.

    PubMed

    Albsoul-Younes, A M; Saleh, F; El-Khateeb, W

    2003-09-01

    This study was conducted to identify the perceptions of working Muslim Jordanian women regarding the efficacy and safety of their contraceptive methods, and whether these perceptions affected method choice or discontinuation. A prospective study on 207 married working women of reproductive age was conducted between March and June 2002. The majority of women were using an intrauterine device (IUD), fewer were using traditional methods and oral contraceptive pills. Effectiveness was the main reason for choosing IUD and pill methods, while concerns about safety were the main reason for discontinuation. Safety was the main reason for choosing traditional methods and poor efficacy was the reason for discontinuation. Health-care professionals need to increase the use of proper contraceptive methods and compliance by providing counseling services and correcting any misperceptions regarding birth control methods before and during use.

  5. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  6. Who Is to Blame? Rape of Hindu-Muslim Women in Interethnic Violence in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera

    2009-01-01

    This research examined attitudes that predict rape blame in contexts of interethnic violence between minority Muslims and dominant Hindu communities in Mumbai, India. I hypothesized that, in contexts of interethnic violence, prejudicial attitudes toward communities and attitudes that view rape as a conflict tool (i.e., an effective strategy to…

  7. [The black death in Christian and Muslim Occident, 1347-1353].

    PubMed

    Barry, Stephane; Gualde, Norbert

    2008-01-01

    Between the years 1346 and 1353, a terrible epidemic swept over Western Asia, the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, causing catastrophic losses of population everywhere, both in the rural areas and in towns and cities. The Black Death was a disease of such magnitude that it not only shook the Old World to its economic and social foundations but changed the course of human history. The authors considered and analyzed many studies on the Black Death published in different languages. In the present paper they report medical and epidemiological specificities of the pandemic as well as its geographical origins and the routes of its spread.

  8. Black Women with Multiple Sex Partners

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Stephanie; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2017-01-01

    Motivations of low-income substance using heterosexual Black women in New York City for having multiple sexual partners are explored in this paper. Analysis of in-depth interviews with 50 study participants demonstrates that their relationships consisted of those who had: (1) a main sex partner and a secondary sex partner; or (2) two or more “casual” partners. Individual-level motivations for extra relational sex fell into four dominant themes: sexual pleasure, partner infidelity, sex exchange and past main partners. Using a Black feminist framework, we describe how participants displayed considerable autonomy by actively forming and withdrawing from sexual relationships with men. However, women described low rates of condom use with main partners and inconsistent use of condoms with more casual sexual partners. This contradiction becomes an important area for sexual health interventions. Women who had sexual relations with only one current mate in the past two years were recruited as a monogamous comparison group. PMID:28730162

  9. On Being a Muslim Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rana, Anniqua

    2007-01-01

    What does it mean to be a Muslim woman? Even a basic understanding could help to dispel generalizations and stereotypes, especially in the context of education. With the controversies related to the wearing of the headscarf in educational institutions, to the general assumption that Muslim women are disempowered, this is even more important for…

  10. Education, Gender and Islam in China: The Place of Religious Education in Challenging and Sustaining "Undisputed Traditions" among Chinese Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschok, Maria; Chan, Hau Ming Vicky

    2009-01-01

    The essay investigates the place of religious and secular education in the lives of Chinese Muslim women. Education is treated as a site where state and society are reproduced and/or challenged, where tensions arise over control of minds and bodies, and over interpretations and uses of religion and culture. Specifically, the essay compares…

  11. The Urgency of Visual Media Literacy in Our Post-9/11 World: Reading Images of Muslim Women in the Print News Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Diane Patricia

    2012-01-01

    A decade after the 9/11 attacks, educators concerned with social justice issues are faced with the question of how media representations powerfully constitute the subjectivities of teachers and students. The roles of Muslim women in society are often narrowly construed and projected via media cultures--an unofficial curriculum of the everyday much…

  12. Education, Gender and Islam in China: The Place of Religious Education in Challenging and Sustaining "Undisputed Traditions" among Chinese Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaschok, Maria; Chan, Hau Ming Vicky

    2009-01-01

    The essay investigates the place of religious and secular education in the lives of Chinese Muslim women. Education is treated as a site where state and society are reproduced and/or challenged, where tensions arise over control of minds and bodies, and over interpretations and uses of religion and culture. Specifically, the essay compares…

  13. Decision-making on terminating pregnancy for Muslim Arab women pregnant with fetuses with congenital anomalies: maternal affect and doctor-patient communication.

    PubMed

    Gesser-Edelsburg, Anat; Shahbari, Nour Abed Elhadi

    2017-04-04

    This study focused on decision-making on terminating pregnancy for Arab Muslim women in Israel who were pregnant with fetuses diagnosed with congenital anomalies. It examined the impact of the doctor-patient interaction on the women's decision, especially in light of social and religious pressures not to terminate under any circumstances. Our goal was to identify perceptions and attitudes of Muslim Arab women who choose to continue their pregnancy following the detection of congenital anomalies in prenatal tests. Specific objectives included (1) To examine the Muslim Arab women's perceptions on genetic testing, and ascertain the reasons for their decision to continue the pregnancy following the detection of a congenital anomaly in the fetus; and (2) To examine risk communication of gynecologists regarding genetic testing and abortions, and regarding the decision of continuing or terminating a pregnancy following detection of a congenital anomaly. The research framework used the constructivist classical qualitative method to understand the experience of women at high risk for congenital anomalies and their experience of how doctors communicate the risk. It showed that the emotional element is no less dominant than religious and social elements. The findings emphasized the disparities between doctors and women regarding emotional involvement (non-directive counselling). The women interviewees (N = 24) felt that this expressed insensitivity. As far as we know, the emotional component has not been raised in previous studies of Muslim women at high risk for congenital defects in their fetus, and therefore comprises a significant contribution of the present study. To mitigate gaps, doctors should take affect into consideration in their communication with patients. It is important for doctors to understand the emotional element in risk communication, both in how they respect women's emotions and in creating an emotional interaction between themselves and the women.

  14. Reconceptualizing successful aging among black women and the relevance of the strong black woman archetype.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tamara A; Buchanan, NiCole T; Mingo, Chivon A; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S

    2015-02-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman's ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully.

  15. Reconceptualizing Successful Aging Among Black Women and the Relevance of the Strong Black Woman Archetype

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Tamara A.; Buchanan, NiCole T.; Mingo, Chivon A.; Roker, Rosalyn; Brown, Candace S.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are multiple pathways to successful aging, little is known of what it means to age successfully among black women. There is a growing body of literature suggesting that black women experience a number of social challenges (sexism and racism) that may present as barriers to aging successfully. Applying aspects of the Strong Black Women ideal, into theoretical concepts of successful aging, may be particularly relevant in understanding which factors impair or promote the ability of black women to age successfully. The Strong Black Women archetype is a culturally salient ideal prescribing that black women render a guise of self-reliance, selflessness, and psychological, emotional, and physical strength. Although this ideal has received considerable attention in the behavioral sciences, it has been largely absent within the gerontology field. Nevertheless, understanding the dynamics of this cultural ideal may enhance our knowledge while developing an appreciation of the black woman’s ability to age successfully. Rather than summarize the social, physical, and mental health literature focusing on health outcomes of black women, this conceptual review examines the Strong Black Women archetype and its application to the lived experiences of black women and contributions to current theories of successful aging. Focusing on successful aging exclusively among black women enhances our understanding of this group by considering their identity as women of color while recognizing factors that dictate their ability to age successfully. PMID:25416685

  16. Becoming Black Women: Intimate Stories and Intersectional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…

  17. Becoming Black Women: Intimate Stories and Intersectional Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I argue that intimate stories are an important resource for the achievement of intersectional identities. Drawing on in-depth interviews with black college students at two predominantly white universities, I examine the stories black college women tell about interracial relationships between black men and white women. I argue that…

  18. Race and Class Barriers to Black Women's College Attendance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    1985-01-01

    Educated Black women are often wrongly viewed as a homogeneous group, obscuring important differences of social class. Black women of different social classes do not face the same route to college. Both race and class operate within urban settings to either create or limit the options and strategies available to Blacks for attaining educational…

  19. Black Women Workers' Earnings Progress in Three Industrial Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gwartney-Gibbs, Patricia A.; Taylor, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    An examination of data from 1960 and 1980 reveals the following: (1) black women's earnings increased during these decades; (2) gaps in earnings remain between women and men; and (3) black women received more equitable treatment in government than in industry. The comparable worth policy and more affirmative action are necessary. (VM)

  20. Images of Black Women in Afro-American Poetry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushing, Andrea Benton

    1975-01-01

    Notes that, in recent years, the image of Black Women in Afro-American poetry has become more autobiographical and that categories used images of white women -- i.e. formlessness, passivity, instability, confinement, the shrew, and the witch, and others -- are mostly not appropriate to Afro-American images of black women because they are rarely…

  1. Black Views of American Women: The View From Black Newspapers, 1865-1900.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatty, Bess

    Although black journalists from 1865 to 1900 were more sensitive to stereotyping and discrimination than their white counterparts, the black papers approached women idealistically, rather than through the realistic situation in which black women existed or through their own awareness of the fact of oppression. The images and proscriptions of women…

  2. Comparative Analysis of Black Women's and White Women's Sex-Role Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gump, Janice Porter

    1975-01-01

    An assessment of the sex-role attitudes of 77 black college women and 40 white college women refuted the characterization of the black woman as matriarchal and the white woman as home centered and submissive. Black women were more likely to define their identity with respect to the roles of wife and mother. (Author)

  3. Two Black Women in Media: A Minority within a Minority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Gloria C.

    The contributions of two black women journalists--Ida Baker Wells and Ethel L. Payne--are examined in this paper. The paper first discusses the life and work of Phillis Wheatley and traces the history of the black press in the pre- and post-Civil War eras, noting types of black publications that existed, major problems they faced, and limitations…

  4. Making Meaning: Identity Development of Black Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christa J.; Dean, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, phenomenological study was to identify factors that influence identity development and meaning-making of Black undergraduate women at a predominately White institution. The goal of this research was two-fold: to share diverse experiences of Black undergraduate women in order to understand the essence of their lived…

  5. Evaluating Culturally Responsive Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.; Warner, Lynn A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the efficacy of a culturally congruent group treatment model, entitled "Claiming Your Connections" (CYC) aimed at reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress, and enhancing psychosocial competence (i.e., locus of control and active coping) among Black women. Method: A total of 58 Black women recruited from health…

  6. Making Meaning: Identity Development of Black Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Christa J.; Dean, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary, phenomenological study was to identify factors that influence identity development and meaning-making of Black undergraduate women at a predominately White institution. The goal of this research was two-fold: to share diverse experiences of Black undergraduate women in order to understand the essence of their lived…

  7. Race Still Matters: Considerations for Mentoring Black Women in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Sharon L.; Land, Lynette Danley; Hinton-Hudson, Veronica D.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the experiences of Black women faculty employed by predominantly White institutions. Using extant literature interwoven with narrative data, we provided an analysis of how some Black women experience mentoring and/or the mentor-mentee relationship. Emergent themes suggested two significant career trajectory points for the faculty…

  8. Mental Health and Service Delivery Systems for Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elsie H.

    1981-01-01

    Examines mental health issues, especially alcoholism, suicide, and social depression, related to the counseling of Black women. Recommends improved mental health services, counselor/clinical training programs, and additional research focusing on the causes of stress among Black women. (Author/MW)

  9. Programs Provide a History Lesson -- Blacks and Women in Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrather, Joan

    1983-01-01

    Highlights American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)-sponsored programs: "Black Americans in Science" and "Women in Science: Historical Perspectives." Six Black scientists discussed their education and careers and described how they had overcome obstacles they encountered. Progress made by women in science was the subject of the…

  10. Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Spiritual Well-Being/Religious Activities in Muslim Women with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Khoramirad, Ashraf; Mousavi, Maryam; Dadkhahtehrani, Tahmineh; Pourmarzi, Davoud

    2015-12-01

    For determining relationship between quality of sleep and spiritual well-being/religious activities in Muslim women with breast cancer (WBC), we conducted a cross-sectional study on 80 WBC who presented at all chemotherapy clinics in Qom, Iran, in 2012. We used Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), spiritual well-being scale (SWBS), and religious activities (RA) questionnaire. Global PSQI score and its seven components score were not significantly correlated with total score of SWBS and its two subscales. Global PSQI score was not significantly correlated with total score of RA questionnaire (P = 0.278), but its "sleep latency" (r = 0.235, P = 0.044) and "use of sleep medications" (r = 0.237, P = 0.040) components were significantly correlated with total score of RA. Global PSQI was significantly correlated with "I don't get much personal strength and support from my God," "I believe there is some real purpose for my life" questions in SWBS, and "Attendance in mosque or religious places" subscale of RA.

  11. A Typological Study of the Women's Rights Movements: Implications for Black Women and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Dorothy

    The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the differences between the women's rights movements of the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States, focusing upon origins, issues, problems, attempted solutions, and outcomes pertaining to white and black women. The study attempted to predict benefits black women could expect from the current…

  12. A Typological Study of the Women's Rights Movements: Implications for Black Women and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Dorothy

    The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the differences between the women's rights movements of the 19th and 20th centuries in the United States, focusing upon origins, issues, problems, attempted solutions, and outcomes pertaining to white and black women. The study attempted to predict benefits black women could expect from the current…

  13. The Black/White History of Women's Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, William Loren

    The coalition of women has roots that reach back through more than a century of American history. In the decades before the Civil War, women spoke out against men on the issue of slavery, and this served a new breed of brilliant and aggressive women who found themselves talking about female as well as black rights and who recognized that white…

  14. Health disparity in black women: lack of pharmaceutical advertising in black vs. white-oriented magazines.

    PubMed Central

    Omonuwa, S. C.

    2001-01-01

    CONTEXT: Racial disparities in health care between black women and white women may be attributed in part to socioeconomic status and lack of insurance, but also may be due to lack of the dissemination of health information in black communities via black popular magazines. OBJECTIVE: Comparison of the number and type of pharmaceutical advertisements between black-oriented magazines and white-oriented magazines. DESIGN: Descriptive study. SETTING: Morehouse School of Medicine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recording of the type and number of over-the-counter and prescription drug advertisements. RESULTS: Five black-oriented magazines (Black Woman, Black Elegance, Essence, Ebony, and Upscale) and 5 white-oriented magazines (Family Circle, Working Mother, Good Housekeeping, Ladies' Home Journal, Women's Day) were evaluated for 3 months from June-August, 2000. White-oriented magazines had four to eight times more pharmaceutical ads than black-oriented magazines. Types of medications advertised in the white-oriented magazines and not the black-oriented magazines were, for example, cholinesterase inhibitors, calcium supplements, COX II-inhibitors, intranasal steroids, anorexiants, proton pump inhibitors, and smoking deterrent agents. Conversely, medications advertised in the black-oriented magazines and not the white-oriented magazines were antiviral agents and oral contraceptives. Pharmaceutical companies gave several reasons for the disparity, including the explanation that their particular company was advertising about HIV in the black community. CONCLUSIONS: A barrier to equitable health care for black women may be a low prioritization for health prevention and health management. This low prioritization or disinterest may be a reflection of the black magazine that she is reading due to the lack of pharmaceutical advertisements in black-oriented magazines. The result of this disinterest of black females may be seen in the increased morbidity and mortality for selected

  15. Hijabistas, Mosques and Force: Muslim Women’s Search for Self in Britain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Marriage , Gender 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF REPORT Unclassified 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE Unclassified 19...35 III. FIGHTING THE MAN: FORCED MARRIAGE AND IMMIGRANT WOMEN IN BRITAIN...37 A. INTRODUCTION—THE PROBLEM OF FORCED MARRIAGE ........37 1

  16. Exploring Women's "Madrasahs" in South Africa: Implications for the Construction of Muslim Personhood and Religious Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoel, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of a changing pluralistic South African society, this article traces the shifts concerning religion in public education, followed by an examination of the discernible motivations that undergirded the establishment of women's "madrasahs" (Islamic educational institutions). Collectively representing an alternative…

  17. Exploring Women's "Madrasahs" in South Africa: Implications for the Construction of Muslim Personhood and Religious Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoel, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Set against the backdrop of a changing pluralistic South African society, this article traces the shifts concerning religion in public education, followed by an examination of the discernible motivations that undergirded the establishment of women's "madrasahs" (Islamic educational institutions). Collectively representing an alternative…

  18. Muslim Women and the Politics of Religious Identity in a (Post) Secular Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    Women's bodies, states Benhabib ("Dignity in adversity: human rights in troubled times," Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011: 168), have become the site of symbolic confrontations between a re-essentialized understanding of religious and cultural differences and the forces of state power, whether in their civic-republican,…

  19. Muslim Women and the Politics of Religious Identity in a (Post) Secular Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Nuraan

    2014-01-01

    Women's bodies, states Benhabib ("Dignity in adversity: human rights in troubled times," Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011: 168), have become the site of symbolic confrontations between a re-essentialized understanding of religious and cultural differences and the forces of state power, whether in their civic-republican,…

  20. The angry black woman: the impact of pejorative stereotypes on psychotherapy with black women.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In the aftermath of slavery and the resulting social, economic, and political effects, Black women have become the victims of negative stereotyping in mainstream American culture. Such stereotypes include the myth of the angry Black woman that characterizes these women as aggressive, ill tempered, illogical, overbearing, hostile, and ignorant without provocation. Symptoms presented by Black women during mental health treatment may reinforce this myth. However, many of the negative characteristics of the angry Black woman developed in response to external stressors and historical factors. Black women also have a unique experience with and expressions of anger that shape the presenting symptoms interpreted by the mental health clinician. This myth and corresponding negative stereotypes significantly affect Black women intrapsychically, interpersonally, and are likely to influence the efficacy of mental health treatment. Understanding and treatment of Black women in a mental health context should be influenced by the cultural norms and sociopolitical dynamics affecting these clients. Successful mental health treatment requires cultural competence and clinicians who are well prepared to navigate the inherent complexities of culture with clients. Awareness of the angry Black woman mythology, including its genesis, manifestations, and the unique experiences of Black women, may raise the standards of cultural competence for clinicians and provide more successful treatment outcomes in working with this population. A case example illustrates the assiduity essential to practicing in a culturally competent manner. A client is presented from a traditional psychotherapeutic perspective and then viewed through a lens that integrates psychotherapeutic practice with conscious awareness of the mythology and stereotypes impacting Black women. Implications for culturally relevant practice are discussed.

  1. Reverse Migration: Western European Muslim Women’s Flights to ISIL Territory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    ix LIST OF ACRONYMS AQI Al Qaeda in Iraq GTI Global Terrorism Index ICSR International Centre for the Study of Radicalization ISI...January 2015): 8. http://www.strategicdialogue.org/ISDJ2969_Becoming_Mulan_01.15_WEB.PDF. 2 religious and political terrorism for decades...women could not consciously choose to participate in terrorism of their own volition. We need to work past gender stereotypes and begin to examine the

  2. Anemia among Muslim Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in Southern Israel.

    PubMed

    Treister-Goltzman, Yulia; Peleg, Roni; Biderman, Aya

    2015-11-01

    There are inequalities in health indicators among different ethnic groups living in the same region and receiving the same medical services. Anemia is a global problem. Although the prevalence of anemia is not high in Israel, differences among ethnic groups have not been studied. Our objective was to assess anemia among Bedouin and Jewish women of childbearing age in southern Israel. A retrospective observational study was conducted based on data from computerized medical records. Seven thousand eight hundred seventy-one women in the study clinics underwent complete blood counts and had blood hemoglobin levels of 11 g/dl or below. The Jewish patients were older (31.7 vs. 29.7 years, P < 0.001), practiced birth control more (24.2 vs. 9.9 %, P < 0.001), and adhered to it more (81.1 vs. 61.9 %, P < 0.001). Bedouin women had more children (3.7 vs. 1.9, P < 0.001), and more Bedouin women were pregnant during the study period (49.3 vs. 35.0 %, P < 0.001). The most prevalent types of anemia were iron deficiency and anemia of chronic disease. Two types of anemia were proportionally higher among Jewish women, anemia of chronic disease (18.1 vs. 9.7 %, P < 0.001) and folic acid deficiency (3.3 vs. 2.2 %, P > 0.001). The adherence rates for treatment were very low. Three factors associated with severe anemia (hemoglobin below 8 g/dl) were being Bedouin (odds ratio (OR) = 1.295, P < 0.001), use of birth control (OR = 0.419, P < 0.001), and pregnancy (OR = 0.447, P < 0.001). Being a Bedouin woman is a risk factor for severe anemia, and adherence to treatment for anemia is very low in both groups. These findings should be addressed in a national program to reduce health inequalities.

  3. Perceptions of breast health awareness in Black British women.

    PubMed

    Banning, Maggi

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer is a global concern. Published studies indicate that 43% of Black and ethnic minority women interviewed have reported that they did not practice breast awareness because they did not know the relevant breast changes that occur in breast cancer. Black women are also more likely to receive a diagnosis of breast cancer when it is in an advanced stage. This pilot study aimed to address the views of Black British women on breast health awareness and breast health screening practices. In this qualitative study I used semi-structured interviews were used to investigate breast health perceptions, practices and education in a pilot sample of ten women. Women held numerous perceptions of breast cancer which ranged from no knowledge to well informed through receiving extensive education. Two out of ten women were relatively uneducated with regard to breast self examination (BSE). The remaining eight women participated in a variety of screening routines which varied from undertaking BSE everyday to once every few months. Women's experience of breast health education was also variable. One woman, younger woman, had not received any health education advice in relation to breast health awareness or BSE. The remaining nine women had received some health advice following visit to their General Practitioners, Medical consultant, media information or as a result of participating in mammographic screening. Black British women require health education that focuses on breast cancer and its associated risk factors, technique of BSE, and national breast cancer screening recommendations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. How Black women make sense of 'White' and 'Black' fashion magazines: a qualitative think aloud study.

    PubMed

    Ogden, Jane; Russell, Sheriden

    2013-12-01

    This qualitative think aloud study explored how Black women (n = 32) processed information from a White or Black fashion magazine. Comments to the 'White' magazine were characterised by rejection, being critical of the media and ambivalence, whereas they responded to the 'Black' magazine with celebration, identification and a search for depth. Transcending these themes was their self-identity of being a Black woman that was brought to the fore either by a sense of exclusion (White magazine) or engagement (Black magazine). Such an identity provides resilience against the media's thin ideals by minimising the processes of social comparison and internalisation.

  5. Pioneering Women: Black Women as Senior Leaders in Traditionally White Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Debra Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the lived leadership experiences of Black women senior-level administrators in traditionally White community colleges. Research suggests that Black women administrators, particularly those employed on White college campuses are often faced with multiple challenges as they attempt to maintain their…

  6. Pioneering Women: Black Women as Senior Leaders in Traditionally White Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, Debra Antoinette

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the lived leadership experiences of Black women senior-level administrators in traditionally White community colleges. Research suggests that Black women administrators, particularly those employed on White college campuses are often faced with multiple challenges as they attempt to maintain their…

  7. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  8. Sexual Debut of Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women: Implications for STI/HIV Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timm, Tina M.; Reed, Sarah J.; Miller, Robin Lin; Valenti, Maria T.

    2013-01-01

    Young Black women continue to be at high risk for HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). However, little is known about the risks specifically to young Black women who primarily have sex with women (YWSW). As part of a larger sexual health project, in-depth qualitative interviews were completed with 14 Black women ages 16-24, who…

  9. Say the Word Islam: School Counselors and Muslim Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleem, Daa'iyah; Rasheed, Sakinah

    2010-01-01

    Two Muslim women who hold Ph.D.'s, a clinical and developmental psychologist and a teacher educator speak personally and professionally about important information school counselors need to know about Islam and providing services to Muslim children. First, the authors draw from personal experiences in parenting Muslim children who have come of age…

  10. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  11. Black Baptist Women and African Mission Work, 1870-1925

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sandy D.

    1986-01-01

    This historical look at black women mission workers focuses on some organizers and supporters of the missions and on some missionaries. Females were allowed to do these jobs but the ministry remained off limits to them. The leadership capabilities shown by these women support efforts to purge sexism from the contemporary church. (Author/VM)

  12. Correlates of Family Role Strain among Employed Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Mitchell H.; Piotrkowski, Chaya S.

    1983-01-01

    Examined job and family correlates of family role strain for 51 employed Black women. Job autonomy and demands and family size significantly predicted strain. Number of hours worked per week related only to difficulty completing household chores. Nonmarried women reported no higher levels of strain than married ones. (WAS)

  13. Free Women and the Antebellum Black Press: Gender Oppression Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Frankie

    Black newspapers and journals published between 1827 and 1860, such as "Freedom's Journal,""The Weekly Advocate," and the "Mirror of Liberty," worked to dispel negative images and to set the record straight about women of color, in contrast to the unfounded hyperboles against these women which had been pervasive…

  14. Elderly Black Farm Women: A Population at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-LaNey, Iris

    1992-01-01

    Elderly black farm women are neglected segment of elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. Ten such women recalled their productive lifestyles in oral-history interviews and described problems faced because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities,…

  15. Free Women and the Antebellum Black Press: Gender Oppression Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutton, Frankie

    Black newspapers and journals published between 1827 and 1860, such as "Freedom's Journal,""The Weekly Advocate," and the "Mirror of Liberty," worked to dispel negative images and to set the record straight about women of color, in contrast to the unfounded hyperboles against these women which had been pervasive…

  16. "A Women's Place:" The Attitudes of Middle Class Black Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazenave, Noel A.

    1983-01-01

    Black, middle class males generally supported nontraditional roles for women, women's issues, and egalitarian marital relationships. These data, along with results of an earlier study, indicated that this group's preferences concerning female roles were determined not only by social class, but also by ethnic/class-related values, needs, and…

  17. Preventing Depression: Culturally Relevant Group Work with Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Lani V.

    2008-01-01

    Recent estimates indicate that 10% to 25% of women in the United States report clinically significant depressive symptoms and that Black women are less likely to obtain care for depression and to receive appropriate treatment when they do seek care. Current mental and social health services necessitate a search for strength-based treatment models…

  18. Presenting Symptoms Among Black and White Women with Provoked Vulvodynia

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Davis C.; Bachour, Candi C.; Rawlinson, Leslie A.; Wan, Jim Y.; Bachmann, Gloria Ann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The prevalence of vulvodynia has been reported to be lower in black compared to white and Latina women. Use of different terminology to describe vulvar pain symptoms may play a role in lower prevalence. The objectives were to compare pain descriptors used by black and white women with provoked vulvodynia (PVD) to determine the effect of race on symptom reporting. Methods: Ninety-two women, self-identified as black (n = 55) and white (n = 37) with clinically confirmed PVD completed a questionnaire containing demographic information and vulvar pain characteristics. Variables that were significant with race retained in the logistic regression model were included in multivariate analysis to determine the effect of race on reporting of vulvar pain symptoms. Results: Of statistical significance, white women more often described their pain as burning as compared with black women (84% vs. 22%, p ≤ 0.0001). White women more frequently reported their pain as stinging (51% vs. 29%, p = 0.03) and itching (32% vs. 15%, p = 0.04) as well, whereas there was a trend for black women to more often describe their pain as aching (67% vs. 49%, p = 0.07). Overall, white women were 19 times as likely to report their pain as burning (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 18.51, 99% confidence interval [CI] 4.46–76.86). Conclusions: These data suggest that black women are less likely to self-report their vulvar pain as burning, the classic symptom of PVD. Cultural influences and different underlying pain mechanisms may contribute to differences in symptom reporting by race. PMID:26291682

  19. Stress and preterm labor and birth in Black women.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Susan; Shults, Justine; Garry, David J

    2008-01-01

    To examine (a) 3 commonly used measures of stress during pregnancy, (b) changes in stress over time to determine when stress is highest, and (c) whether any of the stress measures predict who will deliver preterm in pregnant Black women. Prospective descriptive study. Perinatal evaluation center and outpatient clinics of a teaching hospital in the northeast. Fifty-nine Black women: 39 were recruited in preterm labor from a Perinatal Evaluation Center, and 20 experiencing healthy pregnancies were recruited from the prenatal clinic. Stress was measured using 2 paper and pencil tests (the Prenatal Distress Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale) and corticotropin-releasing hormone. There was not a high correlation between stress measures. Stress at 28 weeks as measured by Prenatal Distress Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale was at its highest, but corticotropin-releasing hormone increased to 32 weeks and then decreased. Perceived stress, prenatal distress, and corticotropin-releasing hormone do not all appear to be measuring the same phenomenon. Screening for stress in Black women at 28 weeks requires further research as perceived stress levels in Black women experiencing preterm labor around 28 weeks differentiated women who delivered preterm infants from Black women who delivered at term.

  20. Predictors of depression in black women with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Abel, Willie M; Crane, Patricia B; McCoy, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Black women have the highest prevalence of hypertension in the world, and depression is associated with both hypertension and lack of health promoting behaviors. Thus, it is important to identify factors that may contribute to depression in hypertensive women. This cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 80 black women ages 18-60 who were prescribed anti-hypertensive medication. Data were collected using self-report instruments. The study showed that lower income level, greater number of comorbidities, lower active coping scores, and poorer medication adherence were significantly associated with higher depression scores. These findings have important implications for the development of screening protocols and interventions for black women.

  1. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the…

  2. "Sometimes I Am Spanish and Sometimes Not": A Study of the Identity and Integration of Spanish Muslim Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibai, Salam Adlbi

    2010-01-01

    This article reports part of a wider investigation which is still being developed and analyzes in depth the lives of female university students who are both Spanish and Muslim. The first part of this research was published in the "Revista Espanola de Educacion Comparada," where the results of the study in Madrid are presented. Here, the…

  3. Elderly black farm women: a population at risk.

    PubMed

    Carlton-LaNey, I

    1992-11-01

    Elderly black farm women are a neglected segment of the elderly population. Their self-reliance, mutual support, and rurality have helped keep them isolated and underserved. This article describes the productive life-styles that 10 such women in southeastern North Carolina recalled in oral-history interviews and the problems these women face because of their advancing age, poor health, caregiving responsibilities, and isolation and the deterioration of traditional resources.

  4. US White and Black Women Do Not Represent the Bone Mineral Density of Sub-Saharan Black Women.

    PubMed

    Mukwasi, Cynthia; Stranix Chibanda, Lynda; Banhwa, Josephat; Shepherd, John A

    2015-01-01

    Reference populations from the United States (US) are often used around the world for representative measures of bone mineral density (BMD) by sex, age, and race. We examined BMD in adult black Zimbabwean women and compared it to that of US women (white and black). In a cross-sectional study, we recruited healthy black Zimbabwean women working at Parirenyatwa Hospital regardless of designation, who were not pregnant and had no diseases or medications known to affect BMD. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of the left hip and lumbar spine (L1-L4) were performed for each participant by 1 operator, on 1 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry machine. Results are presented for 289 participants aged 20-69 years, with a mean weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) of 71.7 ± 15.1 cm, 164.9 ± 6.3 kg, and 26.3 ± 5.3 kg/m(2), respectively. At 5% level of significance, age and BMD were weakly associated for the total lumbar spine (p ≤ 0.001) but not for the total hip (p = 0.890) and femur neck (p = 0.062). BMI and weight were positively correlated with BMD for all 3 sites (p ≤ 0.001). Compared to US white women, mean BMD for black Zimbabwean women in this study was 4.5%-7.4% lower for the lumbar spine but 2.0%-4.8% higher for the total hip and 0.2%-10.2% higher for the femur neck for 20-59 years. Compared to US black women, mean BMD for black Zimbabwean women was 9.1%-11.5% lower for the lumbar spine and 1.4%-8.1% lower for the total hip for 20-59 years. Black Zimbabwean women also had lower mean weight and BMI per decade age group as compared to US women. Differences in weight and BMI offer a possible explanation for the differences in BMD between black Zimbabwean women and US white and black women. Including adjustments for body frame when calculating Z-scores may accurately reflect BMD. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black Women Leaders in Fortune 500 Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, LaTonya R.

    2012-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…

  6. The Self-Efficacy Beliefs of Black Women Leaders in Fortune 500 Companies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, LaTonya R.

    2012-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented in leadership positions within organizations. The extent to which self-efficacy influences the advancement potential of Black females is unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the self-efficacy beliefs of black women in leadership positions and to determine how Black women leaders' careers are…

  7. Sanitary product use by white, black, and Mexican American women.

    PubMed Central

    Finkelstein, J W; von Eye, A

    1990-01-01

    In 1988-89, the use of menstrual sanitary products was surveyed among 699 white, 477 black, and 425 Mexican American women to detect age and racial or ethnic differences in product use that might explain the differences in the incidence of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in these demographic categories. Forty percent of the women had never used tampons. Significantly more whites used tampons alone (26 percent) or with pads (36 percent) than did blacks. Proportionately more blacks used tampons alone (16 percent) or with pads (27 percent) compared with Mexican Americans, 11 percent of whom used tampons alone and 21 percent of whom used tampons and pads. Since a substantial proportion of black women used tampons, racial-ethnic variations in use patterns alone cannot completely explain the low incidence of TSS among black women. Tampon use started in the early teen years, but women in the age group 20-29 had the highest frequency of use of tampons either alone (26 percent) or with pads (33 percent). These percentages suggest that age-related differences in product use may not explain the age-related differences in the incidence of TSS. Fear was the most common specific reason for not using tampons in response to information about TSS. Decreased use of tampons in response to information about TSS was reported by 39 percent of whites, 50 percent of blacks, 46 percent of Mexican Americans, and by 36 percent of women less than 19 years, 41 percent of 20-29-year-olds, and 47 percent of women 30 years and older. PMID:2120726

  8. Sanitary product use by white, black, and Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, J W; von Eye, A

    1990-01-01

    In 1988-89, the use of menstrual sanitary products was surveyed among 699 white, 477 black, and 425 Mexican American women to detect age and racial or ethnic differences in product use that might explain the differences in the incidence of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) in these demographic categories. Forty percent of the women had never used tampons. Significantly more whites used tampons alone (26 percent) or with pads (36 percent) than did blacks. Proportionately more blacks used tampons alone (16 percent) or with pads (27 percent) compared with Mexican Americans, 11 percent of whom used tampons alone and 21 percent of whom used tampons and pads. Since a substantial proportion of black women used tampons, racial-ethnic variations in use patterns alone cannot completely explain the low incidence of TSS among black women. Tampon use started in the early teen years, but women in the age group 20-29 had the highest frequency of use of tampons either alone (26 percent) or with pads (33 percent). These percentages suggest that age-related differences in product use may not explain the age-related differences in the incidence of TSS. Fear was the most common specific reason for not using tampons in response to information about TSS. Decreased use of tampons in response to information about TSS was reported by 39 percent of whites, 50 percent of blacks, 46 percent of Mexican Americans, and by 36 percent of women less than 19 years, 41 percent of 20-29-year-olds, and 47 percent of women 30 years and older.

  9. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  10. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target’s race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes. PMID:27821904

  11. Stereotypes of Black American Women Related to Sexuality and Motherhood.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2016-09-01

    Intersectionality theorists and researchers suggest the importance of examining unique stereotypes associated with intersecting group identities. We focus on the unique stereotypes of Black women in the United States related to sexuality and motherhood. In an online experimental study, 435 undergraduates from a Northeastern U.S. university were randomly assigned to one of the four conditions in which they viewed a photograph and read a description of a target young woman. The target's race (Black vs. White) and pregnancy status (pregnant vs. no pregnancy information) were varied. A Black female target (pregnant or not) was perceived more negatively on items related to historically rooted societal stereotypes about sexual activity, sexual risk, motherhood status, and socioeconomic status than was a White female target, but there were no differences on items unrelated to societal stereotypes. A Black target described as pregnant was also perceived as more likely to be a single mother and to need public assistance than was a White target described as pregnant. Current findings, along with evidence that societal stereotypes have damaging effects, underscore the importance of diversifying images of Black women and increasing awareness of how stereotypes affect perceptions of Black women. Findings also highlight the value of research employing intersectionality to understand stereotypes.

  12. Black Women's Recommendations for Developing Effective Type 2 Diabetes Programming.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Tera R; Seawell, Asani H; Cutrona, Carolyn; O'Connor, Margaret C; Camp, Randie D; Duran, Roxanne; Elderts, Reid; Green, Chrishelda; Hara, Vanessa; Pattee, Jenna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn from 29 Black women how to develop effective Type 2 diabetes programming. Three focus groups were held in Des Moines, Iowa, during fall 2012. Results highlighted themes related to diabetes knowledge, diabetes management and prevention, physical activity, diet, and diabetes management programming. Opinions were shared as to whether family members should be included in programs for supporting those diagnosed with diabetes. These results provided guidance and ideas to scholars and health care professionals aiming to improve effectiveness of diabetes programs for Black women and families.

  13. Black women and intimate partner violence: new directions for research.

    PubMed

    West, Carolyn M

    2004-12-01

    African American women are at elevated risk for nonfatal and lethal intimate partner violence (IPV). Accordingly, the purpose of this article is to review our current knowledge, with a focus on the sociodemographic factors that make this population particularly vulnerable to abuse. Future research directions include using more diverse Black samples, considering how living at the intersection of multiple forms of oppression shapes Black women's experience with violence, exploring the influence of historical events and oppressive images on victimization, and focusing on survivors' resilience and activism.

  14. Sexual Safety and Sexual Security among Young Black Women Who Have Sex with Women and Men

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Kamila Anise; Fannin, Ehriel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine sexuality narratives of Black women who have sex with women and men and explore factors that influence their sexual safety and sexual security. Design Secondary qualitative content analysis. Setting We recruited young self-identified Black women from beauty salons and community-based organizations. Participants Our sample included a subset of five sexually active, Black women age 19 to 25 who reported engaging in sexual relationships with women and men. Participants were selected from a larger parent study that included sexuality narratives from 25 women. Methods We analyzed interview transcripts in which participants described sexual relationships. We used constant comparative techniques and conventional content analysis methodology. Results We uncovered three themes illustrating influences on sexual safety and sexual security: institutional expectations, emotional connectedness, and sexual behaviors. Conclusions From this analysis, we derive valuable insights into decision-making processes within sexual relationships from the perspectives of young Black women who have sex with women and men. Clinicians and investigators can use these findings to inform programs designed to improve the sexual health of this often invisible group of women. Nurses are uniquely positioned to support young women as they navigate societal institutions and emotional experiences that inform future sexual decisions and behaviors. PMID:24942676

  15. Centering perspectives on Black women, hair politics, and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae

    2014-05-01

    As researchers categorize issues facing Black women's health, obesity and physical exercise continue to be significant topics of debate. General interventions targeted toward Black women to address obesity and increase physical exercise have been largely ineffective. In this article, I situate the current public health discourse on obesity and related interventions within a sociocultural context of body appearance, with a specific focus on hair. Why do some African American women feel such strong ties to their hair that they will avoid exercise? What can be done to understand this phenomenon and address alternatives that may make both hair maintenance and regular exercise feasible? I map a theoretical argument for why hair matters for some women, and discuss how physical activity intervention strategies might be improved by considering such complexities.

  16. An Angle of Vision: Black Women and the United States Constitution, 1787-1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hine, Darlene Clark

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes how Black women fought for and won basic citizenship rights in the United States. Cites examples which show how the struggle of Black women helped to transform the U.S. Constitution. (Author/BSR)

  17. Mammography utilization rates among young white and black women in the USA.

    PubMed

    Scharpf, T Pollack; Rimm, Alfred A

    2006-10-01

    To determine mammography utilization rates for randomly selected white and black women in the USA. This was an observational study using data from 1988 to 2000. Data were extracted from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, an annual self-report telephone survey conducted nationally by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The main outcome measure was the mammography utilization rates of women ages 18-40 years responding to 'Have you ever had a mammogram?'. In total, 354097 women were included in this study [310336 (87.6%) white women and 43761 (12.4%) black women]. In women ages 18-33, black women showed consistently higher mammography utilization rates than white women. Utilization rates among women ages 18-23 years were 20.0% and 11.0% for black and white women, respectively. Among women ages 24-29 years, rates were 22.2% and 11.5% for black and white women, respectively. For women ages 30-33 years, rates were 25.7% and 18.1% for black and white women, respectively. Utilization rates were similar in black and white women over 33 years of age. This study found that young black women were receiving more mammography screening than young white women between 1988-2000. This may be due to the increased risk of fibroid masses in young black women.

  18. Spoke"tokenism": Black Women "Talking Back" about Graduate School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Subrina J.

    2013-01-01

    Black women still experience racial oppression in the academy. In this study, I draw on Black feminist theory and oral narrative research to examine the narratives of Black women graduate students discussing their educational experiences. Black female graduate students deal with acts of everyday racism and instances of structural and internalized…

  19. Spoke"tokenism": Black Women "Talking Back" about Graduate School Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Subrina J.

    2013-01-01

    Black women still experience racial oppression in the academy. In this study, I draw on Black feminist theory and oral narrative research to examine the narratives of Black women graduate students discussing their educational experiences. Black female graduate students deal with acts of everyday racism and instances of structural and internalized…

  20. Early Family Formation among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Schoen, Robert; Daniels, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, this study examines early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) are estimated using discrete-time multinomial logistic…

  1. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  2. Postprandial ghrelin is elevated in black compared with white women.

    PubMed

    Brownley, Kimberly A; Light, Kathleen C; Grewen, Karen M; Bragdon, Edith E; Hinderliter, Alan L; West, Sheila G

    2004-09-01

    Ghrelin, a gut-brain peptide that signals hunger, is normally suppressed after meals. Subnormal suppression of postprandial ghrelin, previously noted in obese, insulin-resistant individuals, may contribute to increased food intake. Given the ethnic disparities in obesity and obesity-related cardiovascular morbidity in the United States, the present study compared a single postprandial ghrelin measure in 43 women (22 white, 21 black). Each completed a rigorously controlled 4-d dietary intervention designed to maintain weight and constant daily sodium and potassium intake (220 mEq Na, 40 mEq K). Two hours after consuming a test meal of identical content, blood samples were drawn to assess postprandial ghrelin, leptin, and norepinephrine; resting cardiovascular function was measured; and a 24-h urinary cortisol sample was obtained. Independent of body mass index, postprandial ghrelin was significantly higher in black vs. white women, and higher ghrelin was associated with higher cortisol in blacks, who failed to show the expected inverse relation between ghrelin and central obesity seen in whites. Higher ghrelin was correlated with higher blood pressure but lower norepinephrine in obese women. These findings suggest subnormal postprandial ghrelin suppression (or faster ghrelin rebound) in black women, especially the obese, that might play a role in their increased prevalence of obesity and cardiovascular disorders.

  3. Early Family Formation among White, Black, and Mexican American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landale, Nancy S.; Schoen, Robert; Daniels, Kimberly

    2010-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, this study examines early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) are estimated using discrete-time multinomial logistic…

  4. Black Women Who Head Families: Economic Needs and Economic Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawhill, Isabel V.

    Black women bear a heavy burden of family responsibilities, yet their economic position is marginal relative to other groups in American society. It is this imbalance between economic needs and economic resources which poses the greatest challenge to public policy. This paper examines some aspects of this imbalance. It describes the demographic…

  5. The Experiences and Development of Undergraduate Adult Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Joni Denise Dent

    2012-01-01

    Just as there are reasons why Black American women decide not to attend college or to dropout of college when they are young, there are reasons why they choose to enter or reenter college as adults. Among those reasons are self-fulfillment, career aspirations, financial incentives offered by employers, and military benefits (Parr, 2000; Richardson…

  6. The Experiences and Development of Undergraduate Adult Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Joni Denise Dent

    2012-01-01

    Just as there are reasons why Black American women decide not to attend college or to dropout of college when they are young, there are reasons why they choose to enter or reenter college as adults. Among those reasons are self-fulfillment, career aspirations, financial incentives offered by employers, and military benefits (Parr, 2000; Richardson…

  7. Academe as Extreme Sport: Black Women, Faculty Development, and Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Chaney, Cassandra; Edwards, LaWanda; Thompson-Rogers, G. Kaye; Gines, Kathryn T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe the experiences of Black women academics who participated in one or more of the following programs geared towards supporting the research and professional development of faculty: (a) the Sisters of the Academy's (SOTA) Research Boot Camp; (b) the National Center for Faculty Development and Diversity's Faculty Success…

  8. Academe as Extreme Sport: Black Women, Faculty Development, and Networking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dannielle Joy; Chaney, Cassandra; Edwards, LaWanda; Thompson-Rogers, G. Kaye; Gines, Kathryn T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we describe the experiences of Black women academics who participated in one or more of the following programs geared towards supporting the research and professional development of faculty: (a) the Sisters of the Academy's (SOTA) Research Boot Camp; (b) the National Center for Faculty Development and Diversity's Faculty Success…

  9. Diversity and the Marginalisation of Black Women's Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawley, Rosemary

    2006-01-01

    This article describes and evaluates information gained from a programme of workshops that took place during the late 1990s for approximately one hundred black women who originated from the African diaspora and worked in the social housing sector. The programme was designed to utilise group working in order to promote feminist thinking and…

  10. Women and Blacks on Prime-Time Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemon, Judith

    1977-01-01

    Reports on study of intersex and interrace dominance patterns in prime time television focusing on two-person interactions between men and women, Blacks and Whites, to determine if one person dominates or if two parties interact as equals. Relates sex and race dominance patterns to several program and character variables. (JMF)

  11. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  12. Black Women in Nursing Education Completion Programs: Issues Affecting Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aiken, Lolita Chappel; Cervero, Ronald M.; Johnson-Bailey, Juanita

    2001-01-01

    Interviews with 10 black women enrolled in or graduated from baccalaureate nursing programs identified intrapersonal and cultural factors encouraging their participation. Hindrances were classified as the experience of being the "other" and the culture of racism. Findings show that individual and institutional racism is a barrier in registered…

  13. Educating in a "Regressive Era": Exploring the Race-Full Ideological Standpoint of Black Women Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Wanda

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this 2-year phenomenological study was to build on the legacy of Black women educators before and after "Brown v. Board of Education" and examine the ideological standpoint of early career Black women educators from the millennial generation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with three Black women educators…

  14. Black Professional Women's (Teachers and Airline Stewardesses) Attitudes Toward Marriage and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Priscilla D.

    At present, only incomplete data exist on how black professional women view marriage; more complete information could provide insights into the causes of the increased number of single and divorced black women. To determine the attitudes of middle-class black women, respondents in Detroit and Chicago were administered a questionnaire designed to…

  15. Black Professional Women's (Teachers and Airline Stewardesses) Attitudes Toward Marriage and Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Priscilla D.

    At present, only incomplete data exist on how black professional women view marriage; more complete information could provide insights into the causes of the increased number of single and divorced black women. To determine the attitudes of middle-class black women, respondents in Detroit and Chicago were administered a questionnaire designed to…

  16. The Black Woman Worker: A Minority Group Perspective on Women at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene

    1986-01-01

    Being black and female is a double disadvantage in the labor market. Black women work in higher proportions than other women, but their wages are less and many have undesirable jobs. Some black women are experiencing more employment success, but as racial discrimination lessens, they face sexism. (VM)

  17. A Novel Approach: Using Fiction by African American Women To Teach Black Women's History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunch-Lyons, Beverly A.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of novels and other works written by African American women as tools for teaching the history of black women in the United States in an undergraduate course. Focuses on specific works used in the course, such as Octavia Butler's "Kindred" and Terry McMillan's "Waiting to Exhale." (CMK)

  18. Centering Perspectives on Black Women, Hair Politics, and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Versey, H. Shellae

    2014-01-01

    As researchers categorize issues facing Black women’s health, obesity and physical exercise continue to be significant topics of debate. General interventions targeted toward Black women to address obesity and increase physical exercise have been largely ineffective. In this article, I situate the current public health discourse on obesity and related interventions within a sociocultural context of body appearance, with a specific focus on hair. Why do some African American women feel such strong ties to their hair that they will avoid exercise? What can be done to understand this phenomenon and address alternatives that may make both hair maintenance and regular exercise feasible? I map a theoretical argument for why hair matters for some women, and discuss how physical activity intervention strategies might be improved by considering such complexities. PMID:24625146

  19. Determinants of Black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine; Wiens, Juliana; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Clow, Barbara

    2007-09-01

    The On the Margins project investigated health status, health-care delivery, and use of health services among African-Canadian women residing in rural and remote regions of the province of Nova Scotia. A participatory action research approach provided a framework for the study. Triangulation of data-collection methods--interviews, focus groups, and questionnaires--formed the basis of data generation. A total of 237 in-depth one-on-one interviews were conducted and coded verbatim. Atlas-ti data-management software was used to facilitate coding and analysis. Six themes emerged from the data: Black women's multiple roles, perceptions of health, experiences with the health-care system, factors affecting health, strategies for managing health, and envisioning solutions. The authors focus on 1 of these themes, factors affecting Black women's health, and discuss 3 subthemes: race and racism, poverty and unemployment, and access to health care.

  20. Black Girls Rock: The Impact of Integration and Involvement on the Success of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Edna Jones

    2017-01-01

    Given that individual and institutional characteristics are suggested to work collectively in promoting optimal student success, the purpose of this quantitative study was to understand factors that contribute to the success of Black college women at predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Of particular interest was the relationship between…

  1. Things Are Not as Rosy as They Seem: Psychosocial Issues of Contemporary Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.; Butler, Dyonne M.; West, Nicole M.

    2012-01-01

    Black women's participation in postsecondary education appears to have improved drastically because they are outpacing many other minority cultural groups (i.e., Black men, Hispanic men and women, Asian men and women, etc.) in terms of college enrollment and completion rates. However, when compared to White men and women, it is obvious that there…

  2. What Makes the Difference? Black Women's Undergraduate and Graduate Experiences in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borum, Viveka; Walker, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Despite the increase of women earning degrees in STEM fields, there continues to remain a dearth in the number of women pursuing terminal degrees in mathematics. Additionally, Black women are nearly invisible in the field. This qualitative study examined the undergraduate and graduate experiences of twelve Black women mathematicians. A Black…

  3. Black/white differences in perceived weight and attractiveness among overweight women.

    PubMed

    Chithambo, Taona P; Huey, Stanley J

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body mass index (BMI) and perceived attractiveness among overweight and obese women. Participants were 1,694 respondents of Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (M = 28.89 years). Black (n = 531) or White (n = 1163) obese or overweight women were included in the current study. As expected, Black women reported lower perceived weight and higher attractiveness than White women, despite higher body mass for Black women. Furthermore, race moderated the relationship between BMI and perceived attractiveness; for White women, a negative relationship existed between BMI and attractiveness, whereas for Black women, BMI and attractiveness were not related. The study findings provide further support for the buffering hypothesis, indicating that despite higher body mass, overweight Black women are less susceptible to thin body ideals than White women.

  4. Black/White Differences in Perceived Weight and Attractiveness among Overweight Women

    PubMed Central

    Chithambo, Taona P.; Huey, Stanley J.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported that Black women are more satisfied with their bodies than White women. The buffering hypothesis suggests that aspects of Black culture protect Black women against media ideals that promote a slender female body type; therefore, Black women are expected to exhibit higher body esteem than White women. To test this hypothesis, the current study aimed to assess the influence of race on weight perception, perceived attractiveness, and the interrelations between body mass index (BMI) and perceived attractiveness among overweight and obese women. Participants were 1,694 respondents of Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health (M = 28.89 years). Black (n = 531) or White (n = 1163) obese or overweight women were included in the current study. As expected, Black women reported lower perceived weight and higher attractiveness than White women, despite higher body mass for Black women. Furthermore, race moderated the relationship between BMI and perceived attractiveness; for White women, a negative relationship existed between BMI and attractiveness, whereas for Black women, BMI and attractiveness were not related. The study findings provide further support for the buffering hypothesis, indicating that despite higher body mass, overweight Black women are less susceptible to thin body ideals than White women. PMID:23533721

  5. Overweight and obesity among low-income Muslim Uyghur women in far western China: correlations of body mass index with blood lipids and implications in preventive public health.

    PubMed

    Cong, Li; Zhan, Jin Qiong; Yang, Lan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Shu Gang; Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Hong Yan; Ma, Zhi Ping; Hao, Xiao Ling; Simayi, Dilixia; Tao, Lin; Zhao, Jin; Amanguli, A; Mohemaiti, Meiliguli; Jing, Ming Xia; Wang, Wei; Saimaiti, Abudukeyoumu; Zou, Xiao Guang; Gu, Yan; Li, Li; Wang, Ying Hong; Li, Feng; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2014-01-01

    The pandemic of obesity is a global public health concern. Most studies on obesity are skewed toward high-income and urban settings and few covers low-income populations. This study focused on the prevalence of overweight and obesity and their correlations with blood lipids/metabolites/enzymes (bio-indicators) in a rural community typical of low-income in remote western China. This study was performed in a Muslim ethnic Uyghur rural community in Kashi Prefecture of Xinjiang, about 4,407 km (2,739 miles) away from Beijing. Body mass index (BMI) and major blood bio-indicators (25 total items) were measured and demographic information was collected from 1,733 eligible healthy women aged 21 to 71 yrs, of whom 1,452 had complete data for analysis. More than 92% of the women lived on US$1.00/day or less. According to the Chinese criteria, overweight and obesity were defined as BMI at 24 to <28 kg/m(2) and at ≥ 28 kg/m(2), respectively. The average BMI among these low-income women was 24.0 ± 4.0 (95% CI, 17.5-33.7) kg/m(2). The prevalence of obesity and overweight was high at 15.1% and 28.9%, respectively. Among 25 bio-indicators, BMI correlated positively with the levels of 11 bio-indicators including triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TCHOL), glucose (GLU), and uric acid (UA); but negatively with the levels of 5 bio-indicators including high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A/B (APO A/B). This is the first investigation reporting overweight and obesity being common in low-income Muslim Uyghur women, whose BMI correlates with several important blood bio-indicators which are risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may help make preventive public health policies in Uyghur communities. To prevent diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in low-income settings, we therefore propose a cost-effective, two-step strategy first to screen for obesity and then to screen persons

  6. Gender roles, sociosexuality, and sexual behavior among US Black women.

    PubMed

    Hall, Naomi M; Pichon, Latrice C

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sociosexuality (an individual difference variable describing attitudes about sexual permissiveness and promiscuity), and their predictive pattern of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A geographically diverse sample of 275 adult, heterosexual Black women (mean age = 33.60 years), participated in a self-administered survey. Significant relationships were found between feminine traits and sociosexuality, and between sociosexuality and four of the five risky sexual behavior variables. Neither masculine nor feminine gender roles were related to any risky sexual behavior variables. Sociosexuality emerged as an important correlate that requires further exploration of its relationship to the attitudes and behaviors of Black women, and its potential relationship to HIV risk-related sexual behavior. The need for more attention to psychosocial variables, and consideration of context, cultural norms, and values is discussed as an important undertaking in order to garner an accurate picture of sexual risk behavior.

  7. Gender roles, sociosexuality, and sexual behavior among US Black women

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Naomi M.; Pichon, Latrice C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between gender roles and sociosexuality (an individual difference variable describing attitudes about sexual permissiveness and promiscuity), and their predictive pattern of HIV-related sexual risk behaviors. A geographically diverse sample of 275 adult, heterosexual Black women (mean age = 33.60 years), participated in a self-administered survey. Significant relationships were found between feminine traits and sociosexuality, and between sociosexuality and four of the five risky sexual behavior variables. Neither masculine nor feminine gender roles were related to any risky sexual behavior variables. Sociosexuality emerged as an important correlate that requires further exploration of its relationship to the attitudes and behaviors of Black women, and its potential relationship to HIV risk-related sexual behavior. The need for more attention to psychosocial variables, and consideration of context, cultural norms, and values is discussed as an important undertaking in order to garner an accurate picture of sexual risk behavior. PMID:25614852

  8. Predictors of biospecimen donation in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Dash, Chiranjeev; Palmer, Julie R; Wiedemeier, Manuela V; Russell, Cordelia W; Rosenberg, Lynn; Cozier, Yvette C

    2016-06-01

    Although African-Americans experience higher cancer morbidity and mortality rates compared to their White counterparts, their participation in biospecimen research is lower than that of their white peers. This study investigated the prevalence and predictors of biospecimen donation in a large, cohort study of Black women. The BWHS is a follow-up study of U.S. Black women aged 21-69 years enrolled through postal health questionnaires. Between January 2004 and December 2007, participants were sent a consent form with a postage-paid return envelope, and a mouthwash collection kit. Univariate and age- and educational status-adjusted logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of socio-demographic, lifestyle and medical factors with donation of biospecimens. Buccal cells with consent forms were obtained from 26,790 women, for a response rate of 51 %. The strongest predictors of biospecimen donation were age: response increased from 48.6 % among those aged <40 to 63.1 % among those aged 60 and older [RR 1.30 (95 % CI 1.27, 1.34)]; multivitamin use [RR (95 % CI) 1.32 (1.30, 1.34)]; physician visit in the previous 2 years [RR (95 % CI) 1.61 (1.58, 1.65)], and a history of breast [RR (95 % CI) 1.59 (1.56, 1.63)], colon [RR (95 % CI) 1.18 (1.16, 1.20)], and cervical [RR (95 % CI) 1.63 (1.60, 1.67)] cancer screening. We found that 51 % of women in the geographically-dispersed Black Women's Health Study cohort were willing to provide mouthwash samples to be used for genetic analyses. The response in this study is encouraging given published findings of low overall participation rates of African-Americans in genetic studies.

  9. Droppin' Knowledge: Black Women's Communication and Informal Learning in an Online Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steptoe, Leslye Carynn

    2011-01-01

    The experiences of black women offer a unique perspective on how life is lived at the juncture of race and gender in the United States. This case study of an online community for black women centers on the site's potentiality as an online learning community as well as a uniquely black woman's space. It also explores interrelated aspects of…

  10. Medical and surgical therapies for alopecias in black women.

    PubMed

    Callender, Valerie D; McMichael, Amy J; Cohen, George F

    2004-01-01

    Hair loss is a common problem that challenges the patient and clinician with a host of cosmetic, psychological and medical issues. Alopecia occurs in both men and women, and in all racial and ethnic populations, but the etiology varies considerably from group to group. In black women, many forms of alopecia are associated with hair-care practices (e.g., traction alopecia, trichorrhexis nodosa, and central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia). The use of thermal or chemical hair straightening, and hair braiding or weaving are examples of styling techniques that place African American women at high risk for various "traumatic" alopecias. Although the exact cause of these alopecias is unknown, a multifactorial etiology including both genetic and environmental factors is suspected. A careful history and physical examination, together with an acute sensitivity to the patient's perceptions (e.g., self-esteem and social problems), are critical in determining the best therapy course. Therapeutic options for these patients range from alteration of current hair grooming practices or products, to use of specific medical treatments, to hair replacement surgery. Since early intervention is often a key to preventing irreversible alopecia, the purpose of the present article is to educate the dermatologist on all aspects of therapy for hair loss in black women--including not only a discussion of the main medical and surgical therapies but also an overview of ethnic hair cosmetics, specific suggestions for alterations of hair-care practices, and recommendations for patient education and compliance.

  11. Staying in the Hood: Black Lesbian and Transgender Women and Identity Management in North Philadelphia.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Siobhan

    2016-12-01

    The concept Don't Ask, Don't Tell regarding Black LGBT sexuality in Black communities has been an acceptable form of identity management for Black LGBT people. In other words, Black LGBT people are accepted as long as they are not vocal about their sexuality. However, this is changing with the issue of gay marriage, which is creating a space where Black LGBT people are more open about their gender identity and sexuality in heterosexual Black spaces. This new form of openness allows Black LGBT people to "stay in" their communities, as opposed to coming out. In this article I examine how Black LGBT women in North Philadelphia stay in their communities: being politically active regarding LGBT issues, disengaging from LGBT issues, passing, and educating straight Black people about issues affecting the Black LGBT community. I conclude with implications of staying in and intersectionality among Black heterosexual and LGBT women fighting for social change.

  12. Mortality Risk Among Black and White Working Women: The Role of Perceived Work Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Shippee, Tetyana P.; Rinaldo, Lindsay; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors examine the relationship between perceived work trajectories and mortality risk among Black and White women over 36 years. Method Panel data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women (1967-2003) are used to evaluate how objective and subjective elements of work shape mortality risk for Black and White women born between 1923 and 1937. Results Estimates from Cox proportional hazards models reveal that Black working women manifest higher mortality risk than White working women even after accounting for occupation, personal income, and household wealth. Perceived work trajectories were also associated with mortality risk for Black women but not for White women. Discussion The findings reveal the imprint of women’s work life on mortality, especially for Black women, and illustrate the importance of considering personal meanings associated with objective work characteristics. PMID:21956101

  13. Tough or Tender: (Dis)Similarities in White College Students' Perceptions of Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Roxanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Although intersectional theory and empirical evidence suggest that race impacts how women are perceived, there is a dearth of research on how the dominant culture stereotypes Black women compared to White women. The current study addresses this gap using an intersectional framework to investigate White college students' stereotypes of Black and…

  14. Holland's Theory and College-Degreed Working Black and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, W. Bruce; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Investigated differences between Black and White women employed in traditional male occupations who took the Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and the Self-Directed Search (SDS). Findings indicate that White women when compared to Black women in the same occupation tend to report similar mean raw scores. (Author)

  15. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  16. Tough or Tender: (Dis)Similarities in White College Students' Perceptions of Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Roxanne A.

    2011-01-01

    Although intersectional theory and empirical evidence suggest that race impacts how women are perceived, there is a dearth of research on how the dominant culture stereotypes Black women compared to White women. The current study addresses this gap using an intersectional framework to investigate White college students' stereotypes of Black and…

  17. Sassin' through Sadhana: Learned Leadership Journeys of Black Women in Holistic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panton, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Women of color, especially Black women, are underrepresented in the extant literature and research of adult development and mind, body, spirit leadership. This in-depth qualitative portraiture study explored the lives of three Black women who have been leading their communities as adult educators of mind, body, spirit practices. This examination…

  18. The Voices of Black and White Rural Battered Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Few, April L.

    2005-01-01

    Very little research has examined the experiences of Black and White rural battered women. In this exploratory study of 88 participants, 30 rural battered women who sought assistance from domestic violence shelters in southwest Virginia were interviewed. Black and White rural women's experiences in the shelters, helpseeking, and perceived social…

  19. Sassin' through Sadhana: Learned Leadership Journeys of Black Women in Holistic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panton, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Women of color, especially Black women, are underrepresented in the extant literature and research of adult development and mind, body, spirit leadership. This in-depth qualitative portraiture study explored the lives of three Black women who have been leading their communities as adult educators of mind, body, spirit practices. This examination…

  20. Nutritional status, fertility and factors associated with anaemia: a cross sectional study among a rural population of Muslim women in Assam, India.

    PubMed

    Haloi, Anjali; Limbu, Dhruba Kumar

    2013-01-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to report on the nutritional status of the Assamese Muslim women of Dadara and Agyathuri villages of the Kamrup district in Assam, India on their basis of body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin (hb) content. Cross sectional data on 1034 women belonging to the age group of 19 years and above were collected following internationally accepted standards. The fertility of mothers by BMI range was found to be highest (6.50 (mean) +/- 0.14 (SE) and range being 1-11) amongst underweight mothers. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test of BMI and fertility shows significant relation between different BMI groups withp < 0.01. Highest haemoglobin levels were recorded in the age group of < or = 23 years with a mean of 11.61 +/- 0.06 g/dl, the range being 9.8-13.9 g/dl. Whereas lowest levels of haemoglobin were found in the age groups of 44+ years having a mean value of 10.26 +/- 0.04 g/dl and a range of 9.2-11.8 g/dl. The ANOVA analysis for haemoglobin content and corresponding fertility rates show significant difference between different hemoglobin levels with their live births at p < 0.01. The summary of ANOVA analysis for haemoglobin and BMI range shows the significant difference between groups i.e., normal, overweight and underweight. The t-value and F-ratio is 118.61 and 14068.42, respectively, which is significant at 1% probability. The authors conclude a general trend in the study population of women with high fertility having poor nutritional status. These findings might be important in formulating responsive health policies in an underdeveloped region.

  1. Black women's hair: the main scalp dermatoses and aesthetic practices in women of African ethnicity *

    PubMed Central

    Tanus, Aline; Oliveira, Camila Caberlon Cruz; Villarreal, Delky Johanna Villarreal; Sanchez, Fernando Andres Vargas; Dias, Maria Fernanda Reis Gavazzoni

    2015-01-01

    Afro-ethnic hair is different from Caucasian and Asian hair and has unique features. Ethnic hair is more prone to certain conditions or diseases. Such diseases are not only related to the fragile inner structure of the hair, but also to the cultural habits of hairstyles that often exert traction forces upon the pilosebaceous follicle. Women with African hair subject their hair to chemical treatments such as hair straightening and relaxing, and thus modify the structure of their hair shaft, making it more susceptible to damage. For this reason, hair complaints are common among black women and represent a diagnostic challenge to the dermatologist, requiring a thorough clinical examination of the hair and scalp, and a detailed medical history of the patient. The purpose of this review is to warn of the potential side effects and sequelae related to hairstyles and hair treatments used by black women, and to highlight the major diseases that affect this ethnicity. PMID:26375213

  2. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women.

    PubMed

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-06-01

    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes.

  3. The Effects of Western Feminist Ideology on Muslim Feminists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-01

    1 II. FEMINIST AND GENDER IDEOLOGIES ........................................................ 7 A . IN TR O D U C TIO N...implications in contemporary Muslim gender politics. This relationship is further complicated by the imposition of western feminist ideals and ideology...II. FEMINIST AND GENDER IDEOLOGIES A. INTRODUCTION The late twentieth century marked a turning point in Muslim women’s intellectual engagement with

  4. Early Family Formation among White, Black and Mexican American Women

    PubMed Central

    Landale, Nancy S.; Schoen, Robert; Daniels, Kimberly

    2008-01-01

    Using data from Waves I and III of Add Health, we examine early family formation among 6,144 White, Black, and Mexican American women. Drawing on cultural and structural perspectives, we estimate models of the first and second family transitions (cohabitation, marriage, or childbearing) using discrete time multinomial logistic regression. Complex differences by race/ethnicity and generation are partially explained by differences in attitudes and values in adolescence and family SES; marriage values are especially important in first-generation Mexican women's early entry into marriage. Examination of sequential family transitions sheds light on race/ethnic differences in the meaning and consequences of early cohabitation and pre-union births. PMID:20368754

  5. US Black Women and HIV Prevention: Time for New Approaches to Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Adaora A, Adimora; Cole, Stephen R; Eron, Joseph J

    2017-04-05

    Black women bear the highest burden of HIV infection among US women. Tenofovir/emtricitabine HIV prevention trials among women in Africa have yielded varying results. Ideally, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) among US women would provide data for guidelines for US women's HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis use. However, even among US Black women at high risk for HIV infection, sample size requirements for an RCT with HIV incidence as its outcome are prohibitively high. We propose to circumvent this large sample size requirement by evaluating relationships between HIV incidence and drug concentrations measured among participants in traditional phase 3 trials in high incidence settings - and then applying these observations to drug concentrations measured among at risk individuals in lower incidence settings, such as US Black women. This strategy could strengthen the evidence base to enable Black women to fully benefit from prevention research advances and decrease racial disparities in HIV rates.

  6. Explaining racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes: unique sources of stress for Black American women.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Lisa; Lobel, Marci

    2011-03-01

    The infant mortality rate for Black Americans in the US is more than twice the rate for White Americans, with similar racial disparities existing in rates of low birthweight and preterm delivery. Survivors of these adverse birth outcomes have poorer development and health in infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Increasingly, evidence suggests that maternal stress is an important risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. We offer a novel perspective on racial disparities in birth outcomes suggesting that Black American women are subject to unique sources of stress throughout their lives and particularly during pregnancy based on their multiple identities as women, Black, and pregnant. We draw on interdisciplinary work to examine three unique sources of stress for Black American women that elevate their risk for adverse birth outcomes: 1) abuses of Black American women by the medical system and issues of power in obstetrics that disadvantage Black American women; 2) contradictory societal pressures exerted on Black American women about whether they should have children; and 3) historical and contemporary stereotypes about Black American women related to sexuality and motherhood. We discuss implications of this analysis, including applications to research and intervention. Developing a better understanding of the experience of Black American women during pregnancy and throughout their lives offers insight into ways to reduce racial disparities in adverse birth outcomes and their lifelong consequences. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breast cancer statistics, 2015: Convergence of incidence rates between black and white women.

    PubMed

    DeSantis, Carol E; Fedewa, Stacey A; Goding Sauer, Ann; Kramer, Joan L; Smith, Robert A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the American Cancer Society provides an overview of female breast cancer statistics in the United States, including data on incidence, mortality, survival, and screening. Approximately 231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast cancer deaths are expected to occur among US women in 2015. Breast cancer incidence rates increased among non-Hispanic black (black) and Asian/Pacific Islander women and were stable among non-Hispanic white (white), Hispanic, and American Indian/Alaska Native women from 2008 to 2012. Although white women have historically had higher incidence rates than black women, in 2012, the rates converged. Notably, during 2008 through 2012, incidence rates were significantly higher in black women compared with white women in 7 states, primarily located in the South. From 1989 to 2012, breast cancer death rates decreased by 36%, which translates to 249,000 breast cancer deaths averted in the United States over this period. This decrease in death rates was evident in all racial/ethnic groups except American Indians/Alaska Natives. However, the mortality disparity between black and white women nationwide has continued to widen; and, by 2012, death rates were 42% higher in black women than in white women. During 2003 through 2012, breast cancer death rates declined for white women in all 50 states; but, for black women, declines occurred in 27 of 30 states that had sufficient data to analyze trends. In 3 states (Mississippi, Oklahoma, and Wisconsin), breast cancer death rates in black women were stable during 2003 through 2012. Widening racial disparities in breast cancer mortality are likely to continue, at least in the short term, in view of the increasing trends in breast cancer incidence rates in black women.

  8. The Measured Black-White Wage Gap among Women Is Too Small.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neal, Derek

    2004-01-01

    Existing work suggests that black-white gaps in potential wages are much larger among men than women and further that black-white differences in patterns of female labor supply are unimportant. However, panel data on wages and income sources demonstrate that the modal young black woman who does not engage in market work is a single mother…

  9. The Psychological Effects of Apartheid on the Mental Health of Black South African Women Domestics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohutsioa-Makhudu, Yvonne Nono K.

    1989-01-01

    Claims ideology of apartheid creates circumstances for feelings of incompleteness and inferiority among Black domestics in South Africa. Contends that apartheid has been created by the White racist minority to oppress and psychologically devastate the mental health of Black South Africans, particularly Black women domestics. (ABL)

  10. Black Women and Homeownership: The Financial Challenge of the '80s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Better, Shirley

    1979-01-01

    States that changes in the economy, employment, family composition, and social attitudes now compel more Black women into howeownership. Reports that homeownership by Blacks prevents urban blight and gives Blacks more political power. Provides sources of information on mortgage credit and redress for discrimination. (Author/WP)

  11. Black Women and the Philosophy of "Race Uplift" Prior to Emancipation. Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Linda M.

    The pre-emancipation (1830-1865) black woman reformer was concerned with race "uplift," a sense of duty and obligation to her race. Black women in the North formed mutual aid societies for the economic survival of the destitute. Regardless of economic status, free blacks consistently sought to aid slaves in the South; the poor often saved for…

  12. Challenges in Theorising "Black Middle-Class" Women: Education, Experience and Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maylor, Uvanney; Williams, Katya

    2011-01-01

    This viewpoint draws on discussions at two seminars to consider ambivalent attitudes amongst a group of Black women towards considering themselves and/or other Black people as "middle class". The first seminar highlighted the experiences of a group of Black "middle-class" parents and the second, which was organised as a result of the reaction the…

  13. Black and white differences in the effect of women's educational attainment on age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C D; Houseknecht, S K

    1998-03-01

    "This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."

  14. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Design In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. Participants 94 women aged 33–91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Setting Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012–2013. Results There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Conclusions Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma

  15. Neighborhood Racial Composition and Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: Evidence from the Black Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Matthew O.; Wise, Lauren A.; Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Cozier, Yvette C.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of social context or "place" factors (e.g., characteristics of local populations) on African Americans' perceptions and experiences of racism. Using data from 42,445 U.S. black women collected during the 1997 follow-up wave of the Black Women's Health Study, we investigated the association between neighborhood…

  16. Through the Lens of Race: Black and White Women's Perceptions of Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Isis H.; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection of race and gender may create unique experiences for Black and White women in terms of work, family, domestic roles, and interpersonal relationships. Dissimilar gender-role norms may foster different perceptions of gender for these two groups of women. In the current study, we examined similarities and differences in Black and…

  17. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  18. Black Women's Faculty Voices in New Mexico: Invisible Assets Silent No More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Xeturah Monique

    2014-01-01

    There continues to exist a lack of Black women faculty at institutions of higher education (Moses, 1989; Collins, 1991; Gregory, 2001). Although we can see an increase in the number of research projects focused on Black women faculty there still remains a significant gap in the research (Glover, 2006; Foster-Williamson, 2002; Thomas &…

  19. Black Women's Leadership and Learning: From Politics to Afritics in the Context of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLany, Janet; Rogers, Elice

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the academy of higher education did not perceive that the leadership of black women merited scholarly analysis. Thus, the knowledge about how black women in the United States learned to lead and the political forces driving such learning remained primarily oral or described in private correspondence (White, 1999). Those studies…

  20. An Exploration of Personal Financial Behavior of College-Educated Black Women in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Jacqueline D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative inquire examined the financial behavior of six college educated Black women located in the Midwest. Utilizing Black feminism as a theoretical framework for analysis, a depiction was prepared on the adeptness of the women at managing their finances; the influence of parental teaching on personal finances; and their behavior toward…

  1. Black Women's Leadership and Learning: From Politics to Afritics in the Context of Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLany, Janet; Rogers, Elice

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, the academy of higher education did not perceive that the leadership of black women merited scholarly analysis. Thus, the knowledge about how black women in the United States learned to lead and the political forces driving such learning remained primarily oral or described in private correspondence (White, 1999). Those studies…

  2. Black Women's Faculty Voices in New Mexico: Invisible Assets Silent No More

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodley, Xeturah Monique

    2014-01-01

    There continues to exist a lack of Black women faculty at institutions of higher education (Moses, 1989; Collins, 1991; Gregory, 2001). Although we can see an increase in the number of research projects focused on Black women faculty there still remains a significant gap in the research (Glover, 2006; Foster-Williamson, 2002; Thomas &…

  3. An Exploration of Personal Financial Behavior of College-Educated Black Women in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pryor, Jacqueline D.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative inquire examined the financial behavior of six college educated Black women located in the Midwest. Utilizing Black feminism as a theoretical framework for analysis, a depiction was prepared on the adeptness of the women at managing their finances; the influence of parental teaching on personal finances; and their behavior toward…

  4. Like Canaries in the Mines: Black Women's Studies at the Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rooks, Noliwe M.

    2000-01-01

    The health of black women's studies parallels that of larger academic fields. Reviews the circulation of ideas, scholarship, and theoretical paradigms in today's black women's studies, concluding that scholarly space is shrinking, and conversation in the field is limited. Notes the shrinking space among African Americanists and feminists sharply…

  5. Underprivilege and Unrest among Women and Black Social Scientists in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Record, Wilson

    This review of research examines responses of women and black social scientists to discrimination within their disciplines. The attitudes of male social scientists toward these two groups are also examined. Although the difficulties experienced by women and blacks in the social sciences have been reduced in recent years, in actuality only a few…

  6. The Effects of HIV/AIDS on the Retention of Black Women in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2013-01-01

    Although only contributing approximately 12% to the United States population, Black Americans account for the majority (51%) of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses in this country. Black women in college between the ages of 18 and 24 fall directly in the center of these alarming statistics. These young women are faced with the psychosocial manifestations of…

  7. My Rock: Black Women Attending Graduate School at a Southern Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Participants in this phenomenological study were 11 Black women who received an undergraduate degree from a historically Black college or university and were currently attending graduate school at a southern predominantly White university. This study investigated the adjustment experiences of these women to life on a southern predominantly White…

  8. Teaching and Learning about Black Women: The Anatomy of a Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Barbara J.; Johnson, Audreye E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course, "The Psychology of Black Women," first taught at Fayetteville State University in 1987, designed to impart the experiences and character of Black women before, during, and after slavery. Discusses student reaction to the course and expected changes in the syllabus. (DM)

  9. Black Undergraduate Women and Their Sense of Belonging in STEM at Predominantly White Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dortch, Deniece; Patel, Chirag

    2017-01-01

    Because little work exists on the sense of belonging focusing on just Black undergraduate women in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM), especially at highly selective predominantly white institutions (PWIs), this study takes a phenomenological approach to understand the lived experiences of Black undergraduate women in STEM by…

  10. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  11. My Rock: Black Women Attending Graduate School at a Southern Predominantly White University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Quentin R.; Bodenhorn, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Participants in this phenomenological study were 11 Black women who received an undergraduate degree from a historically Black college or university and were currently attending graduate school at a southern predominantly White university. This study investigated the adjustment experiences of these women to life on a southern predominantly White…

  12. Cultural Parallax and Content Analysis: Images of Black Women in High School History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woyshner, Christine; Schocker, Jessica B.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the representation of Black women in high school history textbooks. To examine the extent to which Black women are represented visually and to explore how they are portrayed, the authors use a mixed-methods approach that draws on analytical techniques in content analysis and from visual culture studies. Their findings…

  13. Neighborhood Racial Composition and Perceptions of Racial Discrimination: Evidence from the Black Women's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Matthew O.; Wise, Lauren A.; Jipguep, Marie-Claude; Cozier, Yvette C.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of social context or "place" factors (e.g., characteristics of local populations) on African Americans' perceptions and experiences of racism. Using data from 42,445 U.S. black women collected during the 1997 follow-up wave of the Black Women's Health Study, we investigated the association between neighborhood…

  14. Teaching and Learning about Black Women: The Anatomy of a Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haile, Barbara J.; Johnson, Audreye E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a course, "The Psychology of Black Women," first taught at Fayetteville State University in 1987, designed to impart the experiences and character of Black women before, during, and after slavery. Discusses student reaction to the course and expected changes in the syllabus. (DM)

  15. Invited Reaction: Black and White Women Managers--Access to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higginbotham, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    In a survey of Black and White women managers, Linda M. Hite identifies differences in the managers' perceptions of opportunities available to different race and gender groups. Her findings reveal divergent beliefs about the opportunities for people of color; there is more similarity in Black and White women's views when comparing opportunities…

  16. Through the Lens of Race: Black and White Women's Perceptions of Womanhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Settles, Isis H.; Pratt-Hyatt, Jennifer S.; Buchanan, NiCole T.

    2008-01-01

    The intersection of race and gender may create unique experiences for Black and White women in terms of work, family, domestic roles, and interpersonal relationships. Dissimilar gender-role norms may foster different perceptions of gender for these two groups of women. In the current study, we examined similarities and differences in Black and…

  17. Stereotype Threat Among Black and White Women in Health Care Settings

    PubMed Central

    Abdou, Cleopatra M.; Fingerhut, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat—the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes—to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one’s ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women. PMID:25045944

  18. Stereotype threat among black and white women in health care settings.

    PubMed

    Abdou, Cleopatra M; Fingerhut, Adam W

    2014-07-01

    The first of its kind, the present experiment applied stereotype threat-the threat of being judged by or confirming negative group-based stereotypes-to the health sciences. Black and White women (N = 162) engaged in a virtual health care situation. In the experimental condition, one's ethnic identity and negative stereotypes of Black women specifically were made salient. As predicted, Black women in the stereotype threat condition who were strongly identified as Black (in terms of having explored what their ethnic identity means to them and the role it plays in their lives) reported significantly greater anxiety while waiting to see the doctor in the virtual health care setting than all other women. It is hypothesized that stereotype threat experienced in health care settings is one overlooked social barrier contributing to disparities in health care utilization and broader health disparities among Black women.

  19. Socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural determinants of obesity in black South African women

    PubMed Central

    Micklesfield, Lisa K; Lambert, Estelle V; Hume, David John; Chantler, Sarah; Pienaar, Paula R; Dickie, Kasha; Goedecke, Julia H; Puoane, Thandi

    2013-01-01

    Summary Abstract South Africa (SA) is undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition and has the highest prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with black women being the most affected (obesity prevalence 31.8%). Although genetic factors are important, socio-cultural, environmental and behavioural factors, as well as the influence of socio-economic status, more likely explain the high prevalence of obesity in black SA women. This review examines these determinants in black SA women, and compares them to their white counterparts, black SA men, and where appropriate, to women from SSA. Specifically this review focuses on environmental factors influencing obesity, the influence of urbanisation, as well as the interaction with socio-cultural and socio-economic factors. In addition, the role of maternal and early life factors and cultural aspects relating to body image are discussed. This information can be used to guide public health interventions aimed at reducing obesity in black SA women. PMID:24051701

  20. Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS among non-Hispanic black women in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, Suzanne K.; Satcher, Anna J.; Hu, Sherry

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HIV/AIDS has emerged as a persistent health threat to black women in the United States. For the past decade, HIV disease has been among the top 10 leading causes of death for this population. METHODS: We analyzed national HIV surveillance data from 29 states with confidential name-based HIV infection reporting that have conducted integrated HIV/AIDS surveillance since at least 1998. We also analyzed AIDS surveillance data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia. RESULTS: In 2002, black women represented 14% of all women in the 29 states whose HIV data were analyzed but 72.3% of annual HIV infection diagnoses among women. In that same year, black women were diagnosed with HIV infection at a rate of 68.7 per 100,000, approximately 23 times the rate for white women (three per 100,000) and four times that for Hispanic women (17.2 per 100,000). Likewise, in 2002, black women represented 13% of all women in the 50 states and the District of Columbia but an estimated 67.8% of new AIDS diagnoses among women. In that same year, black women were diagnosed with AIDS at a rate of 48 per 100,000, approximately 23 times the rate for white women (2.1 per 100,000) and more than four times that for Hispanic women (10.6 per 100,000), CONCLUSIONS: Because black women are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS, effective strategies are needed to prevent new HIV infections, to detect HIV infections early and to assure adequate treatment for black women who are infected with HIV. PMID:16080453

  1. Black Women's and Girls' Persistence in the P-20 Mathematics Pipeline: Two Decades of Children, Youth, and Adult Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Nicole M.; Hailu, Meseret; Boston, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Like other women and girls of color in the U.S. education system, Black women and girls negotiate and integrate multiple marginalized identities in mathematics. As such, this integrative review used critical race theory (CRT) and Black feminism as interpretive frames to explore factors that contribute to Black women's and girls' persistence in the…

  2. Urinary Incontinence and Health-Seeking Behavior Among White, Black, and Latina Women.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nazema Y; Ammarell, Natalie; Wu, Jennifer M; Sandoval, Juan S; Bosworth, Hayden B

    2016-01-01

    Fewer than half of women with urinary incontinence (UI) seek care for their condition. Our objective was to qualitatively assess the themes surrounding treatment-seeking behaviors. We conducted 12 focus groups with women and, using purposive sampling, we stratified by racial or ethnic group (white, black, Latina) and by UI frequency. All sessions were transcribed and coded for common themes. Comparative thematic analysis was used to describe similarities and differences among groups. In total, 113 (39 white, 41 black, and 33 Latina) community-dwelling women participated in focus groups. There were no differences in treatment-seeking themes between groups with different UI frequency. However, certain themes emerged when comparing racial/ethnic groups. Women from all groups shared experiences of embarrassment and isolation because of UI, which were impediments to care seeking. White and black women described discussions with close friends or family that led to normalization of symptoms and prevented care seeking. Latina women maintained more secrecy about UI and reported the longest delays in seeking care. Women articulated a higher likelihood of seeking care if they had knowledge of treatment options, but white women were more likely to seek UI-related knowledge compared with black or Latina women. Physician communication barriers were identified in all groups. Despite similar experiences, there are different perceptions about care seeking among white, black, and Latina women. Culturally relevant educational resources that focus on a range of treatment options may improve knowledge and thus improve care-seeking behaviors in women with UI.

  3. Thinness expectancies and restraint in Black and White college women: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stojek, Monika M K; Fischer, Sarah

    2013-08-01

    Despite stereotypes to the contrary, women of diverse racial backgrounds, including Black women, experience disordered eating symptoms. While there has been an increase in research comparing disordered eating symptoms across ethnic groups, there remains a dearth of research on the mechanisms of action underlying the development of these symptoms in non-White populations. Thinness expectancies prospectively predict disordered eating symptoms in adolescent girls, but the majority of research on expectancies has been conducted with White samples. Restraint, or self-initiated attempts to restrict food intake, may be precipitated by cognitive factors such as thinness expectancies. In the current study, we followed a sample of Black and White women over one semester of college to assess the influence of thinness expectancies and ethnic identity on restraint. Our sample consisted of 193 college women (93 Black women). We found that White women experienced restraint at higher levels than Black women, but both Black and White women experienced an increase in restraint across the first semester in college. The endorsement of thinness expectancies added significant incremental variance to the prediction of restraint over time, when baseline restraint was included in the model. These effects were not moderated by ethnicity nor ethnic identity. This study adds to the scarce literature on phenomenology of disordered eating in Black women.

  4. A High Frequency of BRCA Mutations in Young Black Women with Breast Cancer from Florida

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Tuya; Bonner, Devon; Cragun, Deborah; Monteiro, Alvaro N.A.; Phelan, Catherine; Servais, Lily; Kim, Jongphil; Narod, Steven A.; Akbari, Mohammad R.; Vadaparampil, Susan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Black women are disproportionately affected with triple negative breast cancer and have relatively poor survival. It is not known to what extent differences in clinical presentation of breast cancer in Non-Hispanic White (NHW) women and Black women can be accounted for by the presence of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA) genes. We sought to evaluate the frequency of BRCA pathogenic variants in a population-based sample of young Black women with breast cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS Black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at or before age 50 from 2009 to 2012 were recruited to the study through the Florida Cancer Registry. Participants underwent genetic counseling, completed a study questionnaire and consented to release of their medical records. Saliva specimens were collected for BRCA sequencing and large rearrangement testing through MLPA. RESULTS A DNA sample was evaluated for 396 women of whom 49 (12.4%) had a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Eight recurrent mutations accounted for 49% of all pathogenic variants. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of BRCA mutations among our Florida-based sample of young Black women with breast cancer exceeds that previously reported for NHW women. It is appropriate to recommend BRCA testing in all young Black women with invasive breast cancer. PMID:26287763

  5. A high frequency of BRCA mutations in young black women with breast cancer residing in Florida.

    PubMed

    Pal, Tuya; Bonner, Devon; Cragun, Deborah; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Phelan, Catherine; Servais, Lily; Kim, Jongphil; Narod, Steven A; Akbari, Mohammad R; Vadaparampil, Susan T

    2015-12-01

    Black women are disproportionately affected with triple-negative breast cancer and have relatively poor survival. To the authors' knowledge, it is not known to what extent differences in the clinical presentation of breast cancer between non-Hispanic white women and black women can be accounted for by the presence of mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes. The authors sought to evaluate the frequency of BRCA pathogenic variants in a population-based sample of young black women with breast cancer. Black women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer at age ≤50 years from 2009 to 2012 were recruited to the study through the Florida Cancer Registry. Participants underwent genetic counseling, completed a study questionnaire, and consented to release of their medical records. Saliva specimens were collected for BRCA sequencing and large rearrangement testing through multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. A DNA sample was evaluated for 396 women, 49 of whom (12.4%) had a mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Eight recurrent mutations accounted for 49% of all pathogenic variants. To the authors' knowledge, the prevalence of BRCA mutations among the Florida-based sample of young black women with breast cancer in the current study exceeds that previously reported for non-Hispanic white women. It is appropriate to recommend BRCA testing in all young black women with invasive breast cancer. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  6. A voice for Muslims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Muhammad Abdul

    2008-06-01

    The Islamic and Western worlds have rarely been at ease with one another. In the Middle Ages, Christians travelled from Europe to the Middle East to wrestle the holy lands from Muslim control. Muslims, meanwhile, conquered much of Spain and in 1683 were knocking on the door of Vienna. Throughout history there has been mistrust between the Western and Islamic worlds - a situation made much worse in recent years by the invasion of Iraq and terrorist attacks on New York, London and elsewhere.

  7. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy Among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Barber, Jennifer S; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status (SES), adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current SES. Compared with white women, black women generally have less positive attitudes toward young nonmarital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because black women are more religious than white women and partly because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, black women had higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence and partly because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained; net of all potential mediators in our models, black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but they are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry and they expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires.

  8. Black-White Differences in Attitudes Related to Pregnancy among Young Women1

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Jennifer S.; Yarger, Jennifer Eckerman; Gatny, Heather H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use newly available data from the Relationship Dynamics and Social Life (RDSL) study to compare a wide range of attitudes related to pregnancy for 961 Black and white young women. We also investigate the extent to which race differences are mediated by, or net of, family background, childhood socioeconomic status, adolescent experiences related to pregnancy, and current socioeconomic status. Black women are less positive, in general, than white women, toward young non-marital sex, contraception, and childbearing, and have less desire for sex in the upcoming year. This is largely because Black women are more religious than white women, and in part because they are more socioeconomically disadvantaged in young adulthood. However, in spite of these less positive attitudes, Black women are more likely to expect sex without contraception in the next year, and to expect more positive consequences if they were to become pregnant, relative to white women. This is largely because, relative to white women, Black women have higher rates of sex without contraception in adolescence, and in part because they are more likely to have grown up with a single parent. It is unclear whether attitudes toward contraception and pregnancy preceded or are a consequence of adolescent sex without contraception. Some race differences remain unexplained – net of all potential mediators in our models, Black women have less desire for sex in the upcoming year, but are less willing to refuse to have sex with a partner if they think it would make him angry, and expect more positive personal consequences of a pregnancy, relative to white women. In spite of these differences, Black women's desires to achieve and to prevent pregnancy are very similar to white women's desires. PMID:25962867

  9. Married Black Men’s Opinions as to Why Black Women Are Disproportionately Single: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Hurt, Tera R.; McElroy, Stacey E.; Sheats, Kameron J.; Landor, Antoinette M.; Bryant, Chalandra M.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s purpose was to explore the reasons Black women are disproportionately single according to the unique viewpoint of married Black men. The sample comprised 52 married Black men who resided in northeast Georgia (mean age = 43). Qualitative interviews were conducted in 2010 as part of the Pathways to Marriage study. The authors analyzed the data in a collaborative fashion and utilized content analyses to explore the relationships in the data which were derived from qualitative interviews with the men. Findings on the reasons for the disproportionality of singlehood among Black women reflected these four themes: gender relations, marriage education and socialization, individual development, and a preference for gay/lesbian relationships. Recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26082674

  10. Attitudes toward body size and dieting: differences between elderly black and white women.

    PubMed

    Stevens, J; Kumanyika, S K; Keil, J E

    1994-08-01

    Eating restraint and body size perceptions of 404 White and African-American women 66 to 105 years of age (mean age = 73 years) were assessed by questionnaire. Compared with overweight White women, overweight Black women were 0.6 times as likely to feel guilty after overeating, 0.4 times as likely to diet, 2.5 times as likely to be satisfied with their weight, and 2.7 times as likely to consider themselves attractive. Among those who were not overweight, Black women were half as likely as White women to consider themselves overweight. Compared with Black women, White women perceived themselves to be larger and reported a lower ideal body weight.

  11. Black women's health: the effect of perceived racism and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Waltermaurer, Eve; Watson, Carole-Ann; McNutt, Louise-Anne

    2006-12-01

    This study provides preliminary evidence of the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and intimate partner violence (IPV) and how these exposures interact to affect the mental and physical health of Black women. The exposures of lifetime perceived racial discrimination and IPV were found to be highly associated. Furthermore, women who reported both exposures showed a notably higher prevalence of anxiety and nonspecific physical health symptoms compared with women who reported either or neither exposure. To appropriately respond to the health needs of Black women, it is essential that women's many stressors be considered simultaneously.

  12. What Black Women Should Know about Lupus: Ideas for Community Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    Lupus is a serious health problem that mainly affects young women between the ages of 15 and 44. Although people of all races may get lupus, black women have three times higher rates of incidence, prevalence, and mortality than white women. With early detection and proper treatment, most people with lupus can lead a normal life. This kit is…

  13. Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

  14. Dean of Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: A Story Left Untold

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herdlein, Richard; Cali, Christine Frezza; Dina, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    There is a paucity of historical discourse on the distinct contributions of African American women serving as deans of women at historically Black colleges and universities. Using historical research and the case study approach, the analysis focused on three deans of women: Lucy Diggs Slowe--Howard University, Owena Hunter Davis--Johnson C. Smith…

  15. Employment gains and wage declines: the erosion of black women's relative wages since 1980.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Becky; Ewert, Stephanie

    2009-08-01

    Public policy initiatives in the 1950s and 1960s, including Affirmative Action and Equal Employment Opportunity law, helped mitigate explicit discrimination in pay, and the expansion of higher education and training programs have advanced the employment fortunes of many American women. By the early 1980s, some scholars proclaimed near equity in pay between black and white women, particularly among young and highly skilled workers. More recent policy initiatives and labor market conditions have been arguably less progressive for black women's employment and earnings: through the 1980s, 1990s, and the first half of the 2000s, the wage gap between black and white women widened considerably. Using data from the Current Population Survey Merged Outgoing Rotation Group (CPS-MORG), this article documents the racial wage gap among women in the United States from 1979 to 2005. We investigate how demographic and labor market conditions influence employment and wage inequality among black and white women over the period. Although shifts in labor supply influence the magnitude of the black-white wage gap among women, structural disadvantages faced by black women help explain the growth in the racial wage gap.

  16. Cultural beliefs and attitudes of Black and Hispanic college-age women toward exercise.

    PubMed

    D'Alonzo, Karen T; Fischetti, Natalie

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cultural knowledge that informs exercise behaviors among Black and Hispanic college-age women. Focus groups were conducted among 26 Black or Hispanic female college students. Questions were based on constructs from social cognitive theory. Data were analyzed using content analysis. Latinas were found to be more likely to view vigorous exercise as "unfeminine" and cited family responsibilities as barriers. Black women enjoyed the competition and camaraderie of exercise, but felt pressure to conform to White standards of beauty. There appear to be distinct differences in the cultural beliefs that inform exercise behaviors among these women.

  17. Health advantage for black women: patterns in pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder

    PubMed Central

    Pilver, C. E.; Kasl, S.; Desai, R.; Levy, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is commonly studied in white women; consequently, it is unclear whether the prevalence of PMDD varies by race. Although a substantial proportion of black women report symptoms of PMDD, the Biocultural Model of Women’s Health and research on other psychiatric disorders suggest that black women may be less likely than white women to experience PMDD in their lifetimes. Method Multivariate multinomial logistic regression modeling was used with a sample of 2590 English-speaking, pre-menopausal American women (aged 18–40 years) who participated in the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys in 2001–2003. The sample consisted of 1672 black women and 918 white women. The measure of PMDD yields a provisional diagnosis of PMDD consistent with DSM-IV criteria. Results Black women were significantly less likely than white women to experience PMDD [odds ratio (OR) 0.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25–0.79] and pre-menstrual symptoms (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.47–0.88) in their lifetimes, independently of marital status, employment status, educational attainment, smoking status, body mass index, history of oral contraceptive use, current age, income, history of past-month mood disorder, and a measure of social desirability. The prevalence of PMDD was 2.9% among black women and 4.4% among white women. Conclusions This study showed for the first time that black women were less likely than white women to experience PMDD and pre-menstrual symptoms, independently of relevant biological, social-contextual and psychological risk factors. This suggests that PMDD may be an exception to the usual direction of racial disparities in health. Further research is needed to determine the mechanisms that explain this health advantage. PMID:21108869

  18. Muslim traditions and attitudes to female education.

    PubMed

    Siann, G; Khalid, R

    1984-06-01

    It has been suggested that girls and women coming from a Muslim background in the Asian sub-continent are disadvantaged in the educational sphere. In this study two particular aspects of this suggested disadvantage are investigated. First, the importance of educating males rather than females and secondly, the issue of parental and husband's control over the rights of women to education and work. Twenty-six Muslim females living in a large Scottish town but of a Pakistani Punjabi background were interviewed in depth. The findings, that these women considered that it is as important to educate girls as it is to educate boys, and that they acquiesced in parental and husband's control over the rights of females to be educated and work, are discussed within a cross-cultural perspective. It is concluded that such issues cannot be isolated from traditional values about the importance of upholding family honour.

  19. The Muslim Problematic: Muslims, State Schools and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miah, Shamim

    2016-01-01

    Muslims are folk-devils that mark the ubiquitous moral panic. For some, the idea of the "Muslim problematic" signifies a long and worrying trend of creeping "Islamification" of state schools. For others, the discourse of the "Muslim problematic" reflects the ongoing racial patholigisation of Britain's minoritised…

  20. Family planning: Muslim style.

    PubMed

    Virina, I

    1979-01-01

    Early birth control methods practiced by Muslims included a version of rhythm called takwim. Instead of using a thermometer to determine the safe period, the woman pressed her navel hard. If she felt magnetic sensations she was not in the safe period. Withdrawal, called piil, was also used. Old folks prepared juices extracted from roots like safran, pitawali, and when drunk they contracted the uterus and prevented pregnancy. New methods and programs have not gained popularity because of traditional medicines. Some early methods are still used today. To some Muslims sex is sacred and should not be talked about in polite conversation. If a Muslim discusses sex in front of others he has no delicadeza. Muslims must voluntarily accept family planning. If they are forced they reject the idea entirely. Extensive radio drama series have been broadcast since the establishment of the Provincial Population Office in Jolo in 1977. Muslims still believe in having many children as security in cases of tribal or interfamily feuds. Family planning workers in Stanvac, Zamboanga use the economic approach for motivating people. The financial burden of raising a big family is emphasized.

  1. Discrimination against Muslim American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Aroian, Karen J

    2012-06-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This descriptive qualitative study complements the few existing studies on Muslim American adolescents by obtaining in-depth description of the discrimination they encounter. The sample was 14 Muslim American adolescents who participated in one of two gender-specific focus groups about their discrimination experiences. Findings identified school settings as rife with discrimination toward Muslims, portrayed Muslim girls as at risk for harassment by strangers in public places, and illustrated how Muslim youth cope with discrimination. The study findings sensitize school nurses to the nature of the problem and provide direction for intervention.

  2. Concurrent Validity of Holland's Theory for College-Degreed Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Rosie P.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1978-01-01

    This study, using the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self-Directed Search, explored the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for employed college-degreed Black women. The findings support the validity of Holland's theory for this population. (Author)

  3. The Portrayal of Black Women in the Ads of Popular Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shepherd, Juanita M.

    1980-01-01

    Black women are underrepresented and stereotyped in advertising in the popular press. Both their physical characteristics, which run counter to the American ideals of beauty, and their relatively limited buying power are factors in this underrepresentation and misrepresentation. (GC)

  4. Psychosocial Determinants of Health among Incarcerated Black Women: A Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Mahaffey, Carlos; Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'

    2016-01-01

    Black women are disproportionately incarcerated and experience greater health outcomes compared to White and Hispanic women. This systematic literature review aims to identify the major psychosocial determinants of health and service utilization among incarcerated Black women. The ecological model for health behavior was used to frame the literature presented and explain how individual, interpersonal, and societal level factors impact health. Nineteen articles met inclusion criteria for this review. Psychosocial factors were identified at each level such as: mental health problems (individual); sexual behavior (interpersonal); and dysfunctional/negative relationships (community). The factors form a dynamic relationship that influences the health and service utilization of Black women and do not exist independently. Future research should examine within-group differences to highlight the unique needs and culture within the Black community in the context of psychosocial determinants. This synthesis of relevant studies can serve to inform change in correctional policies, practices, and reduce health disparities. PMID:27133512

  5. Concurrent Validity of Holland's Theory for College-Degreed Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Rosie P.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1978-01-01

    This study, using the Vocational Preference Inventory and the Self-Directed Search, explored the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for employed college-degreed Black women. The findings support the validity of Holland's theory for this population. (Author)

  6. Muslim customs surrounding death, bereavement, postmortem examinations, and organ transplants.

    PubMed

    Gatrad, A R

    Muslims are always buried, never cremated. It is a religious requirement that the body be ritually washed and draped before burial, which should be as soon as possible after death. Those carrying out this duty should be immunised against hepatitis B and be aware of the hazards of AIDS. Muslim women never attend burials and it is rare for funeral directors to be involved. Muslim jurists from the Arab world can justify organ transplantation, but those from the Indian subcontinent are against it. They are united in the belief of the sacredness of the human body and thus deplore postmortem examinations.

  7. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  8. Black Women as Scholars and Social Agents: Standing in the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherri L.; Moore, Sharon E.; Curtis, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of Black women in the academy is small. Further, that number decreases as the academic and administrative ranks increase. Yet, these scholars and social agents play roles vital to education. This reflective essay describes the experiences of three Black female scholars at Predominately White Institutions. Using personal narratives as an…

  9. Black Women as Scholars and Social Agents: Standing in the Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Sherri L.; Moore, Sharon E.; Curtis, Carla M.

    2014-01-01

    The number of Black women in the academy is small. Further, that number decreases as the academic and administrative ranks increase. Yet, these scholars and social agents play roles vital to education. This reflective essay describes the experiences of three Black female scholars at Predominately White Institutions. Using personal narratives as an…

  10. Who Should Mentor Me? Giving a Voice to Black Women Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…

  11. Modeling Malignant Breast Cancer Occurrence and Survival in Black and White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer (BC), the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States, is a heterogeneous disease in which age-specific incidence rates (ASIRs) differ by race and mortality rates are higher in blacks than whites. Goals: (i) understand the reasons for the black-to-white ethnic crossover in the ASIRs; (ii) formulate a…

  12. Some Thoughts on Black Women's Leadership Training. Working Paper No. 90.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Patricia Bell

    Since leadership studies tend to deal with powerful public personalities, and since leadership in the U.S. is biased in terms of race, class, and sex privileges, it is not surprising that the contributions of black women leaders go largely unrecognized and that studies on black female leadership are scant and present an incomplete picture. To…

  13. Who Should Mentor Me? Giving a Voice to Black Women Athletic Training Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siple, Bonnie J.; Hopson, Rodney K.; Sobehart, Helen C.; Turocy, Paula S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Black women are dramatically underrepresented in the health care profession of athletic training. It may be theorized that one of the reasons more black female students are not entering into the profession of athletic training is that they do not have adequate mentors to successfully guide them. Objective: The purpose of our qualitative…

  14. Perceptions of Power and Faith among Black Women Faculty: Re-Thinking Institutional Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Kirsten T.

    2015-01-01

    In this article I report on the perceptions and attitudes of Christian Black women faculty members in regards to religious difference at both historically Black colleges and universities [HBCUs] and predominantly White institutions [PWIs]. By taking a focused look at "uncomplicated Christian privilege" at HBCUs, the study asked what…

  15. Strategies for Teaching Black Women's Literature in a White Cultural Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    Describes strategies used in teaching Black women's studies courses to predominantly White classes at Denison University. Provides suggestions on the selection and sequence of texts, especially novels, that merge Black and female concerns and promote exploration of the issues of race, gender, and class. (DM)

  16. Black Women in Corporate America: Playing the Game to Move Up.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Karla L.

    1988-01-01

    Interviews were conducted with five Black women who work for corporations to ascertain how they "play the game." They agreed that flexibility and restraint are needed to progress and be successful in the corporate world. Also, Black businesswomen should not lose sight of themselves and where they came from. (VM)

  17. Higher Education for Palestinian Muslim Female Students in Israel and Jordan: Migration and Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Masry-Harzalla, Asmahan; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the migration of Palestinian Muslim women, citizens of Israel, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem or to Jordanian universities for academic studies, and the influence of this migration on their norms, behavior and identity. Narrative interviews were conducted with Palestinian Muslim women graduates: eight from the…

  18. Unveiled Sentiments: Gendered Islamophobia and Experiences of Veiling among Muslim Girls in a Canadian Islamic School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zine, Jasmin

    2006-01-01

    The practice of veiling has made Muslim women subject to dual oppressions--racism and Islamophobia--in society at large and patriarchal oppression and sexism from within their communities. Based on a narrative analysis of the politics of veiling in schools and society, the voices of young Muslim women attending a Canadian Islamic school speak to…

  19. Higher Education for Palestinian Muslim Female Students in Israel and Jordan: Migration and Identity Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arar, Khalid; Masry-Harzalla, Asmahan; Haj-Yehia, Kussai

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the migration of Palestinian Muslim women, citizens of Israel, to the Hebrew University in Jerusalem or to Jordanian universities for academic studies, and the influence of this migration on their norms, behavior and identity. Narrative interviews were conducted with Palestinian Muslim women graduates: eight from the…

  20. Combating Anti-Muslim Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1% of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Many Muslim students face discrimination and some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. Muslim groups have reported widespread bias as well. For many Muslim…

  1. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  2. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  3. Moderate Muslims Myth or Reality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-30

    TERMS: Terrorism, Modernity, Religion, Islamic Fundamentalism CLASSIFICATION: Unclassified Radical Muslims kill randomly and justify their...despicable actions by quoting the Qur’an. Non- radical Muslims, through their silence, seem to condone inflammatory rhetoric and acts of terrorism...people who adhere to Islam) have not accepted this 21st Century multi-cultural globalization. Radical Muslims kill randomly and justify their

  4. Combating Anti-Muslim Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1% of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Many Muslim students face discrimination and some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of Education's Office of Civil Rights. Muslim groups have reported widespread bias as well. For many Muslim…

  5. Severe physical violence and Black women's health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-04-01

    We evaluated the association between intimate partner violence and the mental and physical health status of US Caribbean Black and African American women. We used 2001 to 2003 cross-sectional data from the National Survey of American Life-the most detailed study to date of physical and mental health disorders of Americans of African descent. We assessed participants' health conditions by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (Washington, DC; American Psychological Association) Composite International Diagnostic Interview. We found differences in health conditions between abused African American and Caribbean Black women. There were increased risks for lifetime dysthymia, alcohol dependence, drug abuse, and poor perceived health for African American victims of partner abuse, and binge eating disorder was associated with partner violence among Caribbean Black women. Severe intimate partner violence was associated with negative mental and physical health outcomes for US Black women, with different patterns between African American and Caribbean Blacks. Understanding intimate partner violence experiences of US Black women requires recognition of key intragroup differences, including nativity and immigrant status, and their differential relationships to women's health.

  6. Maternal obesity and breast-feeding practices among white and black women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jihong; Smith, Michael G; Dobre, Mirela A; Ferguson, James E

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increase in obesity among women of reproductive ages, few studies have considered maternal obesity as a risk factor for breast-feeding success. We tested the hypothesis that women who are obese (BMI = 30-34.9) and very obese (BMI >or=35) before pregnancy are less likely to initiate and maintain breast-feeding than are their normal-weight counterparts (BMI = 18.5-24.9) among white and black women. Data from 2000 to 2005 South Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) were used. The overall response rate was 71.0%; there were 3,517 white and 2,846 black respondents. Black women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding and breast-fed their babies for a shorter duration than white women. Compared to normal-weight white women, very obese white women were less likely to initiate breast-feeding (odds ratio: 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.42, 0.94) and more likely to discontinue breast-feeding within the first 6 months (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.89; 95% CI: 1.39, 2.58). Among black women, prepregnancy BMI was neither associated with breast-feeding initiation nor with breast-feeding continuation within the first 6 months. Because very obese white women are less likely to initiate or continue breast-feeding than other white women, health professionals should be aware that very obese white women need additional breast-feeding support. Lower rates of breast-feeding among black women suggest that they should continue to be the focus of the programs and policies aimed at breast-feeding promotion in the United States.

  7. Black-White Differences in Sex and Contraceptive Use Among Young Women.

    PubMed

    Kusunoki, Yasamin; Barber, Jennifer S; Ela, Elizabeth J; Bucek, Amelia

    2016-10-01

    This study examines black-white and other sociodemographic differences in young women's sexual and contraceptive behaviors, using new longitudinal data from a weekly journal-based study of 1,003 18- to 19-year-old women spanning 2.5 years. We investigate hypotheses about dynamic processes in these behaviors during early adulthood in order to shed light on persisting racial differences in rates of unintended pregnancies in the United States. We find that net of other sociodemographic characteristics and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, black women spent less time in relationships and had sex less frequently in their relationships than white women, but did not differ in the number of relationships they formed or in their frequency or consistency of contraceptive use within relationships. Black women were more likely to use less effective methods for pregnancy prevention (e.g., condoms) than white women, who tended to use more effective methods (e.g., oral contraceptives). And although the most effective method for pregnancy prevention-long-acting reversible contraception (LARC)-was used more often by black women than white women, LARC use was low in both groups. In addition, black women did not differ from white women in their number of discontinuations or different methods used and had fewer contraceptive method switches. Further, we find that net of race and adolescent experiences with sex and pregnancy, women from more-disadvantaged backgrounds had fewer and longer (and thus potentially more serious) relationships, used contraception less frequently (but not less consistently), and used less effective methods (condoms) than women from more-advantaged backgrounds.

  8. Muslim patients' expectations and attitudes about Ramadan fasting during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lou, Alina; Hammoud, Maya

    2016-03-01

    To investigate Muslim women's attitudes concerning Ramadan fasting during pregnancy and determine how healthcare providers can better serve this population. A cross-sectional study targeted Muslim patients with active obstetric records within the University of Michigan Health System who received care at clinics in metro Detroit (MI, USA) during Ramadan in 2013. Patients aged 18-50 years were approached between July 7 and August 15, and asked to complete a written survey on perceptions of fasting, influences on decision making, and healthcare expectations. Among the 37 women who completed the survey, 26 (70%) did not fast in their current or most recent pregnancy during Ramadan. Overall, 23 (62%) women believed that fasting was harmful to themselves, their fetus, or both. Seven (19%) women reported consulting others about fasting during pregnancy, with the most influential individuals being Muslim scholars, followed by family/relatives and healthcare providers. The most important characteristics desired in a physician included being respectful of Islamic beliefs and possessing knowledge about Ramadan. Most women chose not to fast during pregnancy. Although few consulted healthcare providers, pregnant Muslim women valued their opinions. Healthcare providers need to educate themselves about which topics to discuss with Muslim patients to provide care on an individual basis. Copyright © 2015 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Primary sclerosing cholangitis, Crohn's disease and HLA-B27 in black South African women.

    PubMed

    Buchel, O C; Bosch, F J; Janse van Rensburg, J; Bezuidenhout, E; de Vries, C S; van Zyl, J H; Middlecote, B D; de K Grundling, H; Fevery, J

    2012-12-01

    Crohn's disease is rare in South African black people and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is also rare in black patients with IBD, from South Africa. The presence of HLA-B27 is generally associated with seronegative spondylo-arthropathies and correlates with the occurrence of ankylosing spondylitis, recurrent mouth ulcers and uveitis, in patients with IBD. We describe two women with the combination of Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 from our cohort of the last 5 years of three black patients with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, PSC and HLA-B27 respectively, occur rarely in black South Africans and their concurrent presence in two black women suggests a pathogenetic link of HLA-B27 between Crohn's disease and PSC in this population. Female gender might be an additional determinant in this setting.

  10. Barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer: a qualitative study of Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women living in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jones, Claire E L; Maben, Jill; Lucas, Grace; Davies, Elizabeth A; Jack, Ruth H; Ream, Emma

    2015-03-13

    Understanding barriers to early diagnosis of symptomatic breast cancer among Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. In-depth qualitative interviews using grounded theory methods to identify themes. Findings validated through focus groups. 94 women aged 33-91 years; 20 Black African, 20 Black Caribbean and 20 White British women diagnosed with symptomatic breast cancer were interviewed. Fourteen Black African and 20 Black Caribbean women with (n=19) and without (n=15) breast cancer participated in six focus groups. Eight cancer centres/hospital trusts in London (n=5), Somerset (n=1), West Midlands (n=1) and Greater Manchester (n=1) during 2012-2013. There are important differences and similarities in barriers to early diagnosis of breast cancer between Black African, Black Caribbean and White British women in the UK. Differences were influenced by country of birth, time spent in UK and age. First generation Black African women experienced most barriers and longest delays. Second generation Black Caribbean and White British women were similar and experienced fewest barriers. Absence of pain was a barrier for Black African and Black Caribbean women. Older White British women (≥70 years) and first generation Black African and Black Caribbean women shared conservative attitudes and taboos about breast awareness. All women viewed themselves at low risk of the disease, and voiced uncertainty over breast awareness and appraising non-lump symptoms. Focus group findings validated and expanded themes identified in interviews. Findings challenged reporting of Black women homogenously in breast cancer research. This can mask distinctions within and between ethnic groups. Current media and health promotion messages need reframing to promote early presentation with breast symptoms. Working with communities and developing culturally appropriate materials may lessen taboos and stigma, raise awareness, increase discussion of breast cancer and promote

  11. Black cohosh improves objective sleep in postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, K; Jin, Y; Huang, L; Feng, S; Hou, X; Du, B; Zheng, J; Li, L

    2015-01-01

    Sleep problems are prominent after menopause. The aim of our study was to look into the effect of black cohosh on both objective and subjective sleep in early postmenopausal women with sleep complaints. We performed a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled research during a 6-month period. Forty-eight postmenopausal women aged 45-60 years with sleep disturbance were enrolled and received daily administration of either black cohosh or placebo. Polysomnography and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were performed at the initiation and termination of the study, as well as the Menopause-specific Quality of Life questionnaire and estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone tests. Liver and renal functions and breast and pelvic ultrasound were set as safety measures, carried out every 3 months. Seventy-six women were interviewed, of whom 42 women completed the whole trial. Compared with placebo, black cohosh treatment led to significant polysomnographic changes, including increased sleep efficiency and decreased wake after sleep onset (WASO) duration, and tended to improve PSQI with a medium effect size. On average, 15.8% of WASO duration was reduced in the black cohosh group. Vasomotor and physical domains of life quality were improved compared with placebo. Safety measures did not yield any adverse event assigned to black cohosh. In early postmenopausal women with a major sleep complaint, black cohosh effectively improved sleep and might be a safe measure in managing menopausal sleep disturbance.

  12. Peptide-YY levels after a fat load in black and white women.

    PubMed

    Davis, Julianne; Hickner, Robert C; Tanenberg, Robert J; Barakat, Hisham

    2005-12-01

    To determine whether basal plasma peptide-YY (PYY) levels in overweight, middle-aged black women are different from those of white women of similar BMI and age and ascertain whether there is a difference between the two groups in plasma PYY levels in response to a liquid high fat load. Using a commercial radioimmunoassay kit, the concentration of PYY was measured at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours after ingesting a fatty liquid meal (86.5% of the calories from fat) in 12 black and 12 white women who were matched for age and BMI. PYY levels (picograms per milliliter) at baseline and at every other time-point of the test meal were significantly lower in the black than in the white group. In addition, the change in PYY concentration from baseline was lower in the black than in the white group only at 8 hours after the meal. The lower baseline level and the blunted PYY response of the black women to the fat load indicated that this signal for appetite suppression was reduced, which, in turn, might contribute to the enhanced obesity of the black women.

  13. Differences in hypertension prevalence among U.S. black and white women of childbearing age.

    PubMed Central

    Geronimus, A T; Andersen, H F; Bound, J

    1991-01-01

    Hypertension and its sequelae complicate pregnancy and can result in poor perinatal outcomes. Overall, U.S. blacks are more likely to be hypertensive than whites, but the degree to which this is true among women of childbearing age (including teenagers) is unknown. Using data from the second National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES II), the authors describe hypertension prevalence rates for 422 black and 2,700 white reproductive-age women. The authors present observed data and also predicted prevalence rates derived by modeling the odds of hypertension using logistic regression statistical techniques. They find that black-white differences in hypertension prevalence are negligible among teenagers, but they are pronounced in the older reproductive ages. They estimate that twice the proportion of black women relative to white are hypertensive during pregnancy. Their results suggest that differential rates of hypertension between black and white women may contribute to the persistent excess infant mortality among blacks, but conclusive results cannot be determined from these data. These data are also valuable for the design and evaluation of screening, intervention, and followup programs for hypertensive disease among young women. PMID:1908590

  14. Lost in the categorical shuffle: evidence for the social non-prototypicality of black women.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Erin L; Dovidio, John F; West, Tessa V

    2014-07-01

    The white male norm hypothesis (Zárate & Smith, 1990) posits that White men's race and gender go overlooked as a result of their prototypical social statuses. In contrast, the intersectional invisibility hypothesis (Purdie-Vaughns & Eibach, 2008) posits that people with membership in multiple subordinate social groups experience social invisibility as a result of their non-prototypical social statuses. The present research reconciles these contradictory theories and provides empirical support for the core assumption of the intersectional invisibility hypothesis-that intersectional targets are non-prototypical within their race and gender ingroups. In a speeded categorization task, participants were slower to associate Black women versus Black men with the category "Black" and slower to associate Black women versus White women with the category "woman." We discuss the implications of this work for social categorical theory development and future intersectionality research.

  15. Muslim Children's Other School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  16. Muslim Children's Other School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Leslie C.

    2012-01-01

    Millions of Muslim children around the world participate in Qur'anic schooling. For some, this is their only formal schooling experience; others attend both Qur'anic school and secular school. Qur'anic schooling emphasizes memorization and reproduction (recitation, reading, and transcription) of Qur'anic texts without comprehension of their…

  17. HINDU-MUSLIM FERTILITY DIFFERENTIAL IN INDIA: A COHORT APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Pasupuleti, Samba Siva Rao; Pathak, Prasanta; Jatrana, Santosh

    2017-03-01

    Hindus and Muslims together account for 94% of the population of India. The fertility differential between these two religious groups is a sensitive and hotly debated issue in political and academic circles. However, the debate is mostly based on a period approach to fertility change, and there have been some problems with the reliability of period fertility data. This study investigated cohort fertility patterns among Hindus and Muslims and the causes of the relatively higher level of fertility among Muslims. Data from the three National Family Health Surveys conducted in India since the early 1990s were analysed using a six-parameter special form of the Gompertz model and multiple linear regression models. The results show a gap of more than 1.3 children per woman between those Muslim and Hindu women who ended/will end their reproductive period in the calendar years 1993 to 2025. The socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of Muslims explain 31.2% of the gap in fertility between Muslims and Hindus, while the desire for more children among Muslims explains an additional 18.2% of the gap in fertility.

  18. Earning Autonomy While Maintaining Family Ties: Black Women's Reflections on the Transition into College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sheena; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    African American women have made great strides in their college enrollment and graduation rates despite social and economic barriers. This study explores Black women's reflections on their college adjustment processes during their sophomore year at a predominantly White university. The findings indicated that the way participants coped with the…

  19. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  20. Meanings of Ebony: Politics and Black Self-Identification among College Women on Predominately White Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPherson, Tehmekah Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates how female student members in campus organizations for women of color discuss black self-identification and their understandings of race, ethnicity, and gender. Through qualitative research and a framework that employs postpositivist realism and intersectionality, the study examines how the women's interpretations of their…

  1. From Mammy to Superwoman: Images that Hinder Black Women's Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds-Dobbs, Wendy; Thomas, Kecia M.; Harrison, Matthew S.

    2008-01-01

    Black women, like other women of color, find themselves at the intersection of both racism and sexism in the workplace. Due to their unique dual status as racial and gender minorities, they encounter unique and unexplored barriers that inhibit their career as well as leadership development. The goal of this article is to highlight the emerging…

  2. Having Their Lives Narrowed Down? The State of Black Women's College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory trends emerge relative to Black women's college success: They have doubled their enrollment rates in thirty years but their graduation rates remain behind those of White and Asian women. This integrative, interdisciplinary review of both student- and institutional-level factors explores the role of individual characteristics and…

  3. Branching out and Coming Back Together: Exploring the Undergraduate Experiences of Young Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2010, "Harvard Educational Review" editor Chantal Francois sat down at a Manhattan diner with three young black women, two of whom were her former students at a New York City high school. Chantal invited the women to come together and share their experiences as freshmen at predominantly white institutions along the East…

  4. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  5. Invisible Woman? Narratives of Black Women Leaders in Southeastern Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Shelia Antley

    2012-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the experiences of two Black women executive-level leaders who started their careers within higher education, including two-year technical colleges located in the Southeast during the pivotal sociopolitical moments that occurred during the 1960s to the 1980s. The stories of these women revealed their…

  6. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  7. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Rosa, Katemari Diogo

    2013-01-01

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the…

  8. Occupational Mobility of Black Women, 1958-1981: The Impact of Post-1964 Antidiscrimination Measures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosu, Augustin Kwasi

    1992-01-01

    Analysis of economywide data found that, between 1965 and 1981, black women's occupational mobility rose relative to that of white women by 20 percent and white men by 24 percent . The pattern was thought to reflect the effects of Title VII of the 1964 Civil Rights Act and affirmative action laws. (SK)

  9. Earning Autonomy While Maintaining Family Ties: Black Women's Reflections on the Transition into College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Sheena; Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2014-01-01

    African American women have made great strides in their college enrollment and graduation rates despite social and economic barriers. This study explores Black women's reflections on their college adjustment processes during their sophomore year at a predominantly White university. The findings indicated that the way participants coped with the…

  10. Equity Issues and Black-White Differences in Women's ERA Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Susan E.

    1990-01-01

    Using data from 1982 National Opinion Research (NORC) General Social Survey, examines women's support for the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA) by analyzing attitudes about gender and racial equality, and socioeconomic status. Explains Black women's higher ERA approval as deriving from gender-role attitudes, but more important, from experience with,…

  11. Toward the Development of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…

  12. Toward the Development of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anita Jones; Witherspoon, Karen McCurtis; Speight, Suzette L.

    2004-01-01

    Preliminary findings on the validation of the Stereotypic Roles for Black Women Scale (SRBWS) are presented. A sample of 186 African American women took the SRBWS along with the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Racial Identity Attitude Scale-B. A confirmatory factor analysis supported a four-factor structure of the scale, and moderate…

  13. The Effects of Sexual Assault on the Identity Development of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2009-01-01

    Sexual assault victims face more social criticism than victims of any other crime. It is uncertain whether women of color are more at risk for sexual assault than White women during their college years. However, studies suggest that Black female sexual assault victims are more likely than White female victims to be blamed for their attacks and…

  14. Branching out and Coming Back Together: Exploring the Undergraduate Experiences of Young Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Educational Review, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2010, "Harvard Educational Review" editor Chantal Francois sat down at a Manhattan diner with three young black women, two of whom were her former students at a New York City high school. Chantal invited the women to come together and share their experiences as freshmen at predominantly white institutions along the East…

  15. Stress among Black Women in a South African Township: The Protective Role of Religion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea

    2006-01-01

    Communities that have been exposed to high levels of stress and where religiosity is salient are ideal contexts in which to examine the role of religion in stress processes. The present study examines the protective function of religiosity among Black women in a South African township. The women (N = 172) were interviewed about sources of stress,…

  16. The Sexual Assault of Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Christopher P.; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-01-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate…

  17. "A Layin' on of Hands": Organizational Efforts among Black American Women, 1790-1930.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Farah Jasmine

    1988-01-01

    Organizational efforts of Black women from the post- revolutionary period to the depression are examined. Informal community organizations of slaves led to benevolent and self-improvement organizations among free women. Major concerns were the family and the uplifting of the race. (VM)

  18. Invisible Woman? Narratives of Black Women Leaders in Southeastern Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Counts, Shelia Antley

    2012-01-01

    This narrative research study explored the experiences of two Black women executive-level leaders who started their careers within higher education, including two-year technical colleges located in the Southeast during the pivotal sociopolitical moments that occurred during the 1960s to the 1980s. The stories of these women revealed their…

  19. Having Their Lives Narrowed Down? The State of Black Women's College Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2015-01-01

    Contradictory trends emerge relative to Black women's college success: They have doubled their enrollment rates in thirty years but their graduation rates remain behind those of White and Asian women. This integrative, interdisciplinary review of both student- and institutional-level factors explores the role of individual characteristics and…

  20. Denying Diversity: Perceptions of Beauty and Social Comparison Processes among Latina, Black, and White Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poran, Maya A.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated Hispanic, black, and white women's conceptions of beauty and perceptions of cultural standards of beauty, noting whether they were engaged in similar social comparison processes (denial of personal disadvantage). Surveys of female college students highlighted major differences in the women's relationships with their bodies and their…

  1. Maternal Micronutrient Status and Preterm Versus Term Birth for Black and White US Women

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Robert N.; Tangpricha, Vin; Fortunato, Stephen; Menon, Ramkumar

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Micronutrient deficiencies are hypothesized to play a role in spontaneous preterm birth (PTB; <37 weeks of gestation) and possibly the racial disparity in rates of PTB between black and white women. Yet relatively few studies have addressed the role of micronutrient deficiencies in spontaneous PTB among black and white women in the United States. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D), folate, and omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid status are associated with spontaneous PTB among black and white women in the United States. Methods. Biospecimens and medical record data for this study were derived from a subsample of the 1547 women enrolled into the Nashville Birth Cohort during 2003-2006. We randomly selected 80 nulliparous and primiparous women for whom stored plasma samples from the delivery admission were available and analyzed the stored plasma for 25-OH-D, folate, and total omega-6/omega-3 fatty acids. We used multivariate logistic regression to assess the odds of spontaneous PTB among women with 25-OH-D <20 ng/mL, folate <5 ug/L, and omega-6/omega-3 >15. Results. An omega-6/omega-3 ratio >15 was significantly associated with spontaneous PTB for white (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-14.49) but not black women (aOR 1.90, 95% CI: 0.69-5.40), whereas no significant relationships were observed for folate and 25-OH-D status and PTB for black or white women. Conclusion. Maternal plasma total omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio >15 at delivery was significantly associated with spontaneous PTB for white, but not black, women. PMID:22527984

  2. Factors Influencing Persistence/Achievement in the Sciences and Health Professions by Black High School and College Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Henrie M.; And Others

    This paper reports on a study which investigated socioeconomic, academic, and psychosocial factors that might affect enrollment and persistence rates of black women in science and health careers. An overview is presented of women in science, black women's status in science, role models and support groups, other factors affecting persistence, and…

  3. Jump at the Sun: Perspectives of Black Women Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern Virginia Community Coll., Annandale.

    Four community college administrators, including a president, provost, director of learning resources, and dean of student services, offer their perspectives on what it means to be a black woman administrator in higher education today. First, "Jump at the Sun," by Bernadine Coleman Thomas, contends that a black woman administrator can be…

  4. Are there differences in the first stage of labor between Black and White women?

    PubMed

    Tuuli, Methodius G; Odibo, Anthony O; Caughey, Aaron B; Roehl, Kimberly; Macones, George A; Cahill, Alison G

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether the duration and progress of the first stage of labor are different in black compared with white women. Retrospective cohort study of labor progress among consecutive black (n = 3,924) and white (n = 921) women with singleton term pregnancies (≥ 37 weeks) who completed the first stage of labor. Duration of labor and progression from 1 cm to the next was estimated using interval-censored regression. Labor duration and progress among black and white women in the entire cohort, and stratified by parity, were compared in multivariable interval-censored regression models. Repeated-measures analysis with 9th-degree polynomial modeling was used to construct average labor curves. There were no significant differences in duration of the first stage of labor in black compared with white women (median, 4-10 cm: 5.1 vs. 4.9 hours [p = 0.43] for nulliparous and 3.5 vs. 3.9 hours [p = 0.84] for multiparous women). Similarly, there were no significant differences in progression in increments of 1 cm. Average labor curves were also not significantly different. Duration and progress of the first stage of labor are identical in black and white women. This suggests similar standards may be applied in the first stage of labor. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  6. Energy-Related Indicators and Breast Cancer Risk among White and Black Women.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Maureen; Lipworth, Loren; Shen-Miller, David; Nechuta, Sarah; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Shrubsole, Martha J; Zheng, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Energy-related indicators, including physical activity, energy intake, body mass index (BMI) and adult weight change, have been linked to breast cancer risk. Very few studies of these associations have been conducted among black women, therefore we used the Nashville Breast Health Study (NBHS) to determine whether similar effects were seen in black and white women. The NBHS is a population-based case-control study of breast cancer among women age 25 to 75 years conducted between 2001 and 2010 in and around the Nashville Metropolitan area. Telephone interviews and self-administered food frequency questionnaires were completed with 2,614 incident breast cancer cases ascertained through hospitals and the statewide cancer registry, and 2,306 controls selected using random digit dialing. Among premenopausal white and black women, there was little effect of adult exercise or other energy-related indicators on breast cancer risk, regardless of tumor estrogen receptor (ER) status. The beneficial effect of adult exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer appeared to be comparable between white and black women (highest tertile relative to none - white odds ratio [OR] 0.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.6-1.0, p for trend=0.05; black OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1, p for trend=0.07); however, among black women the reduction was limited to those with ER-positive disease. White and black women should be encouraged to engage in more physical activity to reduce their risk of postmenopausal breast cancer.

  7. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Severe Physical Intimate Partner Violence Among U.S. Black Women: A Comparison of African American and Caribbean Blacks.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Krim K; West, Carolyn M; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2016-05-01

    This study explored prevalence rates and factors associated with lifetime severe physical intimate partner violence among U.S. Black women. Data from the National Survey of American Life were examined. Rates of severe physical intimate partner violence were higher among African American women compared with U.S. Caribbean Black women. Risk factors associated with reported abuse were similar to those found in earlier studies but differed by ethnic backgrounds. Demographic, resource, and situational factors were associated with severe physical intimate partner violence among U.S. Black women in general but made unique contributions by ethnic group. Implications and suggestions for future studies were discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging?

    PubMed Central

    Hicken, Margaret T.; Pearson, Jay A.; Seashols, Sarah J.; Brown, Kelly L.; Cruz, Tracey Dawson

    2010-01-01

    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at ages 49–55, black women are 7.5 years biologically “older” than white women. Indicators of perceived stress and poverty account for 27% of this difference. Data limitations preclude assessing objective stressors and also result in imprecise estimates, limiting our ability to draw firm inferences. Further investigation of black-white differences in telomere length using large-population-based samples of broad age range and with detailed measures of environmental stressors is merited. PMID:20436780

  9. Educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari; Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This is an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in critical race theory, the paper examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists and addresses obstacles faced in their career paths and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semistructured interviews and coded for emergent themes. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose physics over other STEM fields. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in STEM, particularly by exclusion of study groups. We suggest physics departments provide a more inclusive environment to support Black women in science.

  10. Intimate partner violence victimization among undergraduate women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P; Lindquist, Christine H

    2013-08-01

    Despite the evidence that young and minority women may be particularly vulnerable to intimate partner violence (IPV), there is little research on the IPV experiences of minority undergraduate women. This study addresses this gap by estimating the prevalence of IPV and examining factors associated with experiencing IPV among undergraduate women attending Historically Black Colleges or Universities (HBCUs). Findings suggest alarmingly high victimization rates; however, factors associated with IPV among HBCU women are similar to those found in prior research with women in the general population. The results also suggest that some risk factors are differentially associated with experiencing specific types of IPV.

  11. Performance of digital screening mammography in a population-based cohort of black and white women.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Louise M; Benefield, Thad; Nyante, Sarah J; Marsh, Mary W; Greenwood-Hickman, Mikael Anne; Schroeder, Bruce F

    2015-10-01

    There is scarce information on whether digital screening mammography performance differs between black and white women. We examined 256,470 digital screening mammograms performed from 2005 to 2010 among 31,654 black and 133,152 white Carolina Mammography Registry participants aged ≥40 years. We compared recall rate, sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV1) between black and white women, adjusting for potential confounders using random effects logistic regression. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 276 black and 1,095 white women. Recall rates were similar for blacks and whites (8.6 vs. 8.5 %), as were sensitivity (83.7 vs. 82.4 %), specificity (91.8 vs. 91.9 %), and PPV1 (4.8 vs. 5.3 %) (all p values >0.05). Stratified and adjusted models showed similar results. Despite comparable mammography performance, tumors diagnosed in black women were more commonly poorly differentiated and hormone receptor negative. Equivalent performance of digital screening mammography by race suggests that efforts to understand tumor disparities should focus on etiologic factors that influence tumor biology.

  12. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Louis, Girardin; Magai, Carol; Consedine, Nathan S; Pierre-Louis, Jessy; Zizi, Ferdinand; Casimir, Georges J; Belzie, Louis

    2007-01-01

    Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years) participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p < 0.0001]. Black women scored higher on the repressive coping scale than did White women [Black = 37.52 ± 6.99, White = 29.78 ± 7.38, F1,1272 = 304.75, p < 0.0001]. We observed stronger correlations between repressive coping and insomnia symptoms for Black [rs = -0.43, p < 0.0001] than for White women [rs = -0.18, p < 0.0001]. Controlling for variation in repressive coping, the magnitude of the correlation between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms was substantially reduced. Multivariate adjustment for differences in sociodemographics, health risk factors, physical health, and health beliefs and attitudes had little effect on the relationships. Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes. PMID:17261187

  13. White Women Speak, Black Women Write: The Politics of Locution and Location in the Other Researching the Not Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Venitha

    2011-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes a rare methodological moment when I found myself, an unseasoned black woman scholar, researching the lives of three white women. In this reflective process, I make a single point: that the locution of race is limiting if it persists in being a point of struggle for marginalized scholars. In so doing, I distinguish between…

  14. White Women Speak, Black Women Write: The Politics of Locution and Location in the Other Researching the Not Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Venitha

    2011-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes a rare methodological moment when I found myself, an unseasoned black woman scholar, researching the lives of three white women. In this reflective process, I make a single point: that the locution of race is limiting if it persists in being a point of struggle for marginalized scholars. In so doing, I distinguish between…

  15. Sex-for-crack-cocaine exchange, poor black women, and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, T T

    2001-09-01

    A sample of 34 poor Black women who exchanged sex for crack was screened to discover if sex-for-crack exchanges resulted in pregnancies. Ethnographic interviews were conducted with women who became pregnant this way. Out of the 34 women, 18 reported sex-for-crack pregnancies, and more than half of that number became pregnant this way more than once. Twenty-nine pregnancies were reported. Only 2 women chose to have abortions. Interview transcripts were analyzed using qualitative data analytical procedures. The following three issues shaped the women's responses to sex-for-crack pregnancies: (a) severity of crack use, (b) religious beliefs, and (c) social organization patterns within poor Black communities. The findings have implications for drug treatment and child welfare policy.

  16. Perceived racism in relation to weight change in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cozier, Yvette C; Wise, Lauren A; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-06-01

    Obesity is more common in black women than in white women. Racial discrimination is a form of chronic stress that may influence weight. We assessed the association of perceived racism with weight change between 1997 and 2005 in 43,103 women from the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective follow-up of U.S. black women aged 21-69 years at entry in 1995. Eight questions about perceptions and experiences of racism were asked in 1997 from which two summary variables were created: everyday racism (e.g., how often do people act "as if you are not intelligent?"), and lifetime racism (e.g., unfair treatment due to race "on the job"). Mixed linear regression models were used to calculate the multivariate adjusted means for changes in body weight across categories of perceived racism. Weight gain increased as levels of everyday and lifetime racism increased. The mean multivariable-adjusted difference in weight change between the highest and the lowest quartile of everyday racism was 0.56 kg. The mean difference comparing the highest category of lifetime racism to the lowest was 0.48 kg. These prospective data suggest that experiences of racism may contribute to the excess burden of obesity in U.S. black women.

  17. Breast Cancer Risk Perception and Lifestyle Behaviors among White and Black Women with a Family History

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Denise; Mishel, Merle; Skinner, Celette Sugg; DeRoo, Lisa A.; VanRiper, Marcia; Sandler, Dale P.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about relationships between a positive family history of breast cancer, perception of risk, and lifestyle behaviors. This qualitative study explored factors involved in formulation of perceived breast cancer risk and the association between risk perception and lifestyle behaviors in white and black women with a family history of breast cancer. Eligible participants were North Carolina residents in the Sister Study, a nationwide study of environmental and genetic risk factors for breast cancer among women aged 35 to 74 who have at least one sister diagnosed with breast cancer. Personal interviews were conducted with thirty-two women, twenty white and twelve black. While many had a heightened sense of risk and perceived family history as a main risk factor, 16% considered themselves at low or average risk for breast cancer and Gail risk scores did not correspond to perceived risk. Many women were unaware of associations between lifestyle behaviors and breast cancer risk. Eleven women, six black and five white, reported making healthy lifestyle changes because of family history; dietary change was most frequently reported. These findings may be important for future developers of breast cancer education programs for both white and black women with a family history of breast cancer. PMID:19444084

  18. Arab Muslim Anti-Americanism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-14

    explanations but few have identified the basis for this growing anti-American sentiment throughout the Arab Muslim world. This thesis investigates...Palestinian conflict? This thesis utilized quantitative survey data to investigate the degree of anti-American sentiment among Arab Muslims while using...Arab Muslim anti-American sentiment . Finally, this thesis provides suggestions for dealing with this growing anti-American phenomenon and

  19. Muslim Insurgency in Mindanao, Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    Filipinos in general but among the outstanding and more comprehensive ones are Cesar Adib Majul’s Muslim in the Philippines (1973); Peter Gowings...24Ibid. 25“GRP-MILF Peace Talks Advance with Ceasefire Operating Pact,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, 7 October 2001. 26Marichu Villanueva , “Government...and the Dilemna of Muslim Autonomy Movement. Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press, 1986. Majul, Cesar . Muslims in the Philippines

  20. Dimensions of oppression in the lives of impoverished black women who use drugs.

    PubMed

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    Oppression against Black women continues to be a significant problem in the United States. The purpose of this study is to use grounded theory to identify multiple dimensions of oppression experienced by impoverished Black women who use drugs by examining several settings in which participants experience oppression. Three case studies of drug using, impoverished Black women were randomly selected from two large scale consecutive ethnographic studies conducted in New York City from 1998 to 2005. Analysis revealed five dimensions of oppression occurring within eight distinct settings. While dimensions constitute different manifestations of oppression, settings represented areas within participants' lives or institutions with which participants interact. Dimensions of oppression included classism, sexism, familism, racism, and drugism. Settings included the school system, correction system, welfare system, housing and neighborhood, relationship with men, family, experiences with drug use, and employment. Findings have important implications for social justice, welfare, drug, and justice system policy.

  1. Black women queering the mic: Missy Elliott disturbing the boundaries of racialized sexuality and gender.

    PubMed

    Lane, Nikki

    2011-01-01

    Though there were and always have been djs, dancers, graffiti artists, and rappers who were Black women, they are placed on the periphery of hip-hop culture; their voices, along with "gay rappers" and "white rappers" devalued and their contribution to the global rise of hip-hop either forgotten or eschewed. This article is an attempt to articulate the existence of Black women who work outside of the paradigms of the "silence, secrecy, and a partially self-chosen invisibility" that Evelynn Hammonds describes. At the center of this article lies an attempt to locate a new configuration and expression of desire and sexuality, opening a door, wide open, to gain a different view of Black women, their sexuality, their expression of it, and the complexities that arise when they attempt to express it in hip hop nation language.

  2. US Black college women's sexual health in hookup culture: intersections of race and gender.

    PubMed

    Jenkins Hall, Wendasha; Tanner, Amanda E

    2016-11-01

    Approximately 60-80% of college students in the USA report a hookup experience in the form of a casual sexual encounter between individuals without the expectation of a dating or romantic relationship. Given the potential health risk posed by these sexual encounters, the need exists to critically examine this cultural phenomenon on college campuses. Yet, the existing hookup literature is overwhelming White and often exclusive of historically marginalised populations such as Black women. Accordingly, this paper examines the role of the intersecting identities of race and gender and other social factors that influence the sexual health and wellbeing of Black women on US college campuses. Specifically, we explore issues related to the gender ratio disparities present on college campuses, relationship power imbalances, inconsistent condom use and low sexual-risk perception. Moving forward, hookup research needs to utilise an intersectional approach; we offer specific suggestions for the important inclusion of Black women in the broader hookup discourse and future research.

  3. Antioxidant effect of garlic (Allium sativum) and black seeds (Nigella sativa) in healthy postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Randa M; Moustafa, Yasser M; Mirghani, Zien; AlKusayer, Ghader M; Moustafa, Kareem M

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the antioxidant effects of garlic extract and crude black seeds' consumption on blood oxidant/antioxidant levels in healthy postmenopausal women. In total, 30 healthy postmenopausal women (mean age = 50.31 ± 4.23 years) participated. They ingested two garlic soft gels per day (each is equivalent to 1000 mg of fresh garlic bulb) and crude black seed grounded to powder in a dose of 3 g/day for 8 weeks. Oxidant (malondialdehyde) activity in plasma and antioxidants superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in erythrocytes were studied. Significant low levels of plasma malondialdehyde with increased erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities. Menopause is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in some antioxidant parameters. Consumption of garlic extracts and crude black seeds may have a beneficial effect on improved balance between blood oxidants and antioxidants in healthy postmenopausal women.

  4. Dimensions of Oppression in the Lives of Impoverished Black Women Who Use Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Windsor, Liliane Cambraia; Benoit, Ellen; Dunlap, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    Oppression against Black women continues to be a significant problem in the United States. The purpose of this study is to use grounded theory to identify multiple dimensions of oppression experienced by impoverished Black women who use drugs by examining several settings in which participants experience oppression. Three case studies of drug using, impoverished Black women were randomly selected from two large scale consecutive ethnographic studies conducted in New York City from 1998 to 2005. Analysis revealed five dimensions of oppression occurring within eight distinct settings. While dimensions constitute different manifestations of oppression, settings represented areas within participants’ lives or institutions with which participants interact. Dimensions of oppression included classism, sexism, familism, racism, and drugism. Settings included the school system, correction system, welfare system, housing and neighborhood, relationship with men, family, experiences with drug use, and employment. Findings have important implications for social justice, welfare, drug, and justice system policy. PMID:21113410

  5. Coupling Processes and Experiences of Never Married Heterosexual Black Men and Women: A Phenomenological Study.

    PubMed

    Awosan, Christiana I; Hardy, Kenneth V

    2017-02-16

    Over the past decades, the decline in Black marriages and the upsurge of never-married Blacks have stimulated much theoretical focus, but researchers conducted few studies on never-married heterosexual Black adults' coupling unions. Guided by an integrated framework of Africana womanism and symbolic interactionism, this qualitative hermeneutic phenomenological study used comprehensive individual interviews to explore the experiences of 26 never-married heterosexual Black men and women between the ages 25 and 35 about their attempts to cultivate and maintain intimate romantic relationships as well as their desire for marriage. Findings revealed mixed emotions from participants' lived experiences in developing and sustaining romantic relationships. Clinical implications highlighted the need to effectively attend to Black romantic relationships and experiences in their sociohistorical and sociocultural contexts.

  6. I'm a Jesus girl: coping stories of Black American women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Gregg, Godfrey

    2011-12-01

    Breast cancer continues to be the most diagnosed cancer for all women, excluding non-melanoma skin cancer, in the United States. Incidence rates are 1 in 8 for an American woman being diagnosed. Moreover, statistics indicate that every 13 min an American woman dies from complications related to breast cancer. Despite all the gains made in the area of cancer research, Black American women continue to have a 67% higher mortality rate than their White counterparts. There is no preparation for a diagnosis of breast cancer. Upon hearing the words: you have breast cancer, a woman's life is forever altered. The woman's initial reactions of denial and/or anger yield to strategic responses. These responses may strengthen the woman's resiliency both during and following treatments. Research indicates that Black Americans, specifically Black American women, exhibit greater religiosity/spirituality than do other racial/ethnic groups. In addition, the use of religiosity/spirituality by Black Americans increases during a crisis. This qualitative study examines how religiosity/spirituality was utilized as a coping mechanism by a group of Black American women following their diagnoses of breast cancer.

  7. TRAIT ANXIETY AND GLUCOSE METABOLISM IN PEOPLE WITHOUT DIABETES: VULNERABILITIES AMONG BLACK WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Tsenkova, Vera K.; Albert, Michelle A.; Georgiades, Anastasia; Ryff, Carol D.

    2012-01-01

    Aims We examined whether the relationship between anxiety and indicators of glucose metabolism in people without diabetes varies by race and gender. Methods Participants were 914 adults (777 white, 137 black) without diabetes in the MIDUS II study. Glucose metabolism was characterized by fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and HbA1c. Hierarchical linear regressions stratified by race and gender examined whether anxiety was associated with glucose metabolism. Results After adjustment for potential confounders, positive relationships between anxiety and fasting glucose (p=.04), insulin (p=.01), and HOMA-IR (p=.02) but not HbA1c, were observed in black women only. Conclusions Our findings extend prior evidence about the links between psychosocial vulnerabilities and impaired glucose metabolism in black women, by documenting significant associations between anxiety and clinical indicators of glycemic control among black women without diabetes. Thus, anxiety might constitute an intervention target in black women, a subgroup disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes, its complications, and premature mortality. PMID:22587407

  8. On the politics and practice of Muslim fertility: comparative evidence from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Hanks, Jennifer

    2006-03-01

    Recent popular works have represented Muslim fertility as dangerously high, both a cause and consequence of religious fundamentalism. This article uses comparative, statistical methods to show that this representation is empirically wrong, at least in West Africa. Although religion strongly inflects reproductive practice, its effects are not constant across different communities. In West African countries with Muslim majorities, Muslim fertility is lower than that of their non-Muslim conationals; in countries where Muslims are in the minority, their apparently higher reproductive rates converge to those of the majority when levels of education and urban residence are taken into account. A similar pattern holds for infant mortality. By contrast, in all seven countries, Muslim women are more likely to report that their most recent child was wanted. The article concludes with a discussion of the relationship between autonomy and fertility desires.

  9. Beyond the Veil: Learning to Teach Fine Arts in a Muslim Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences and challenges in teaching university-level studio art classes for Muslim women in Kuwait. In Kuwait, popular interpretations of the "Quran" (the Koran), the Muslim holy book, prohibit the use of nude models. The author describes how she had to find alternatives to Western tried and true…

  10. Beyond the Veil: Learning to Teach Fine Arts in a Muslim Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepin-Wakefield, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author shares her experiences and challenges in teaching university-level studio art classes for Muslim women in Kuwait. In Kuwait, popular interpretations of the "Quran" (the Koran), the Muslim holy book, prohibit the use of nude models. The author describes how she had to find alternatives to Western tried and true…

  11. An analysis of dietary micronutrient intakes in two age groups of black South African women.

    PubMed

    Hattingh, Z; Walsh, C M; Bester, C J; Oguntibeju, O O

    2008-11-01

    To assess micronutrient intake of black women living in Mangaung, South Africa. A sample of 500 pre-menopausal black South African women (496 qualified to participate) from two age groups (25-34 and 35-44 years) were selected randomly in Mangaung, the black residential area of Bloemfontein. A validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ) was used to determine dietary intake of participants. Data were categorized into the two age groups. Median micronutrient intakes were compared to the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and Adequate Intake (AI). The prevalence of women with intakes < or = 67% of the RDA was calculated. Median calcium and vitamin D intakes were lower than the AI. Of all women, 46.2% to 62.2% consumed < or = 67% of the RDA for total iron, selenium, folate and vitamin C, and more than 94% consumed < or = 67% of the RDA for selenium. At least 25% of all women consumed < or = 67% of the RDA for vitamin A and E. The vitamin B6 intake of older women was inadequate and a fairly large percentage of the total sample consumed < or = 67% of the RDA. Generally, micronutrient intakes were adequate in this population. Attention should be given to those micronutrients where median intakes were < or = 67% of the RDA and those that were not at or above the respective AI in these groups of women.

  12. Intimate partner violence, depression, PTSD, and use of mental health resources among ethnically diverse black women.

    PubMed

    Sabri, Bushra; Bolyard, Richelle; McFadgion, Akosoa L; Stockman, Jamila K; Lucea, Marguerite B; Callwood, Gloria B; Coverston, Catherine R; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n = 431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the United States and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African-American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs.

  13. Intimate Partner Violence, Depression, PTSD and Use of Mental Health Resources among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    SABRI, BUSHRA; BOLYARD, RICHELLE; MCFADGION, AKOSOA L.; STOCKMAN, JAMILA K.; LUCEA, MARGUERITE B.; CALLWOOD, GLORIA B.; COVERSTON, CATHERINE R.; CAMPBELL, JACQUELYN C.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined exposure to violence and risk for lethality in intimate partner relationships as factors related to co-occurring MH problems and use of mental health (MH) resources among women of African descent. Methods Black women with intimate partner violence (IPV) experiences (n=431) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in the US and the US Virgin Islands. Results Severity of IPV was significantly associated with co-occurring MH problems, but was not associated with the use of MH resources among African American women. Risk for lethality and co-occurring problems were also not significantly related to the use of resources. African Caribbean women with severe physical abuse experiences were significantly less likely to use resources. In contrast, severity of physical abuse was positively associated with the use of resources among Black women with mixed ethnicity. Conclusions Severe IPV experiences are risk factors for co-occurring MH problems, which in turn, increases the need for MH services. However, Black women may not seek help for MH problems. Thus, social work practitioners in health care settings must thoroughly assess women for their IPV experiences and develop tailored treatment plans that address their abuse histories and MH needs. PMID:23581838

  14. Adaptation of the inflammatory immune response across pregnancy and postpartum in Black and White women.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Porter, Kyle; Christian, Lisa M

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy is a period of considerable physiological adaption in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, as well as immune function. Understanding of typical changes in inflammatory immune responses during healthy pregnancy is incomplete. In addition, despite considerable racial difference in adverse pregnancy outcomes, data are lacking on potential racial differences in such adaptation. This repeated measures prospective cohort study included 37 Black and 39 White women who provided blood samples during early, mid-, and late pregnancy and 8-10 weeks postpartum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h and supernatants assayed by electrochemiluminescence to quantify interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 production. While no changes were observed in IL-8 production over time, significant increases in IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β production were observed from early to late pregnancy, with subsequent declines approaching early pregnancy values at postpartum (ps<0.05). Overall, inflammatory response patterns were highly similar among Black versus White women. However, Black women had greater TNF-α production during mid-pregnancy (p=0.002) and marginally lower IL-1β production at postpartum (p=0.054). These data show a clear trajectory of change in the inflammatory immune response across pregnancy and postpartum. In this cohort of generally healthy women, Black and White women exhibited minimal differences in LPS-stimulated cytokine production across the perinatal period. Future prospective studies in Black and White women with healthy versus adverse outcomes (e.g., preeclampsia, preterm birth) would inform our understanding of the potential role of immune dysregulation in pregnant women and in relation to racial disparities in perinatal health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adaptation of the inflammatory immune response across pregnancy and postpartum in Black and White women

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Shannon L.; Porter, Kyle; Christian, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy is a period of considerable physiological adaption in neuroendocrine, cardiovascular, as well as immune function. Understanding of typical changes in inflammatory immune responses during healthy pregnancy is incomplete. In addition, despite considerable racial difference in adverse pregnancy outcomes, data are lacking on potential racial differences in such adaptation. This repeated measures prospective cohort study included 37 Black and 39 White women who provided blood samples during early, mid-, and late pregnancy and 8–10 weeks postpartum. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24 hours and supernatants assayed by electrochemiluminescence to quantify interleukin(IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor(TNF)-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 production. While no changes were observed in IL-8 production over time, significant increases in IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β production were observed from early to late pregnancy, with subsequent declines approaching early pregnancy values at postpartum (ps<.05). Overall, inflammatory response patterns were highly similar among Black versus White women. However, Black women had greater TNF-α production during mid-pregnancy (p=.002) and marginally lower IL-1β production at postpartum (p=.054). These data show a clear trajectory of change in the inflammatory immune response across pregnancy and postpartum. In this cohort of generally healthy women, Black and White women exhibited minimal differences in LPS-stimulated cytokine production across the perinatal period. Future prospective studies in Black and White women with healthy versus adverse outcomes (e.g., preeclampsia, preterm birth) would inform our understanding of the potential role of immune dysregulation in pregnant women and in relation to racial disparities in perinatal health. PMID:26895093

  16. The incidence of urinary incontinence across Asian, black, and white women in the United States

    PubMed Central

    TOWNSEND, Mary K.; CURHAN, Gary C.; RESNICK, Neil M.; GRODSTEIN, Francine

    2009-01-01

    Objective We calculated incidence rates of urinary incontinence by incontinence frequency and type over 4 years in Asian, black, and white women in the United States. Study Design Prospective analyses included 76,724 participants aged 37–79 years in the Nurses’ Health Study cohorts with no incontinence at baseline. Results The 4-year incidence of incontinence at least monthly was higher in white women (7.3/100 person-years) compared with Asian (5.7/100 person-years, p=0.003) and black women (4.8/100 person-years, p<0.001). The incidence of at least weekly stress incontinence was significantly lower in black compared with white women (0.1 versus 0.8 per 100 person-years, p<0.001). The difference between black and white women in the incidence of any incontinence and stress incontinence remained significant after adjusting for known risk factors (p<0.001 for both). Conclusions Urinary incontinence incidence differs by race. Studies to confirm these results and better understand underlying mechanisms are needed. PMID:20042169

  17. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…

  18. We Walk by Faith, Not by Sight: An Inquiry of Spirituality and Career Development of Black Women Leaders in Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown McManus, Kecia Chivonne

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore, with eleven Black women leaders in higher education, their perception of spirituality and its impact on their career development. A purposive sample of Black women leaders at research-intensive institutions along the Eastern seaboard was examined in order to understand: (1) How do participants define…

  19. Feminism and the Subtext of Whiteness: Black Women's Experiences as a Site of Identity Formation and Contestation of Whiteness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancy, George

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes how the structure of whiteness has shaped the feminist movement, marginalizing the voices of black women. Shows how racism forms the core ideology of feminism, suggesting that the hegemonic racial epistemological standpoint of feminism is limited. Argues that black women's standpoint must be understood within the framework of their unique…

  20. Dietary Behaviors and Portion Sizes of Black Women Who Enrolled in "SisterTalk" and Variation by Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the dietary behaviors of black women who enrolled in the SisterTalk weight control study. Design: Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting: Boston, Massachusetts and surrounding areas. Participants: 461 black women completed the baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measures: Measured height…

  1. Dietary Behaviors and Portion Sizes of Black Women Who Enrolled in "SisterTalk" and Variation by Demographic Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gans, Kim M.; Risica, Patricia Markham; Kirtania, Usree; Jennings, Alishia; Strolla, Leslie O.; Steiner-Asiedu, Matilda; Hardy, Norma; Lasater, Thomas M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To describe the dietary behaviors of black women who enrolled in the SisterTalk weight control study. Design: Baseline data collected via telephone survey and in-person screening. Setting: Boston, Massachusetts and surrounding areas. Participants: 461 black women completed the baseline assessments. Main Outcome Measures: Measured height…

  2. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  3. The Use of Lifestyle and Behavioral Modification Approaches in Obesity Interventions for Black Women: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Renee E.; Gordon, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    The alarming obesity prevalence in Black women is well documented yet poorly understood. Obesity interventions for Black women have failed to produce long-term reductions in weight. Recommendations to incorporate a lifestyle and behavioral modification approach have been made to address obesity in this population. The purpose of this article was…

  4. Hip-Hop Feminism: A Standpoint to Enhance the Positive Self-Identity of Black College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Wilma J.

    2010-01-01

    The popularity of hip-hop among young Black college women, coupled with the deluge of negative and positive messages in this culture regarding these women's identity, signals an opportunity for the arrival of a contemporary, culturally relevant epistemology--hip-hop feminism. Through the lens of Black feminist theory, this article explores hip-hop…

  5. Participatory action research (PAR): an approach for improving black women's health in rural and remote communities.

    PubMed

    Etowa, Josephine B; Bernard, Wanda Thomas; Oyinsan, Bunmi; Clow, Barbara

    2007-10-01

    Women are among the most disadvantaged members of any community, and they tend to be at greatest risk of illness. Black women are particularly vulnerable and more prone than White women to illnesses associated with social and economic deprivation, including heart disease and diabetes. They utilize preventive health services less often, and when they fall ill, the health of their families and communities typically suffers as well. This article discusses the process of doing innovative participatory action research (PAR) in southwest Nova Scotia Black communities. The effort resulted in the generation of a database, community action, and interdisciplinary analysis of the intersecting inequities that compromise the health and health care of African Canadian women, their families, and their communities. This particular research effort serves as a case study for explicating the key tenets of PAR and the barriers to and contradictions in implementing PAR in a community-academic collaborative research project.

  6. INSIGHT potentially prevents and treats depressive and anxiety symptoms in black women caring for chronic hemodialysis recipients.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Mona N; Bolden, Lois; Mynatt, Sarah; Rice, Muriel Curry; Acchiardo, Sergio R

    2007-01-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) unduly affects black families in the U.S., including black women who are the family caregivers of affected patients. Nephrology nurses who support chronic hemodialysis recipients may be the first to recognize depressive and anxiety symptoms in this understudied caregiver population. This article describes the risk factors for depression in black women who care for persons receiving chronic hemodialysis therapy and INSIGHT therapy as a potential intervention to reduce depressive symptoms.

  7. Gender, Ethnicity, and Physics Education: Understanding How Black Women Build Their Identities as Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari Diogo da

    This research focuses on the underrepresentation of minoritized groups in scientific careers. The study is an analysis of the relationships between race, gender, and those with careers in the sciences, focusing on the lived experiences of Black women physicists, as viewed through the lens of women scientists in the United States. Although the research is geographically localized, the base-line question is clear and mirrors in the researcher's own intellectual development: "How do Black women physicists describe their experiences towards the construction of a scientific identity and the pursuit of a career in physics?" Grounded on a critical race theory perspective, the study uses storytelling to analyze how these women build their identities as scientists and how they have negotiate their multiple identities within different communities in society. Findings show that social integration is a key element for Black women physicists to enter study groups, which enables access to important resources for academic success in STEM. The study has implications for physics education and policymakers. The study reveals the role of the different communities that these women are part of, and the importance of public policies targeted to increase the participation of underrepresented groups in science, especially through after-school programs and financial support through higher education.

  8. Combating Anti-Muslim Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1 percent of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Anecdotally, educators know that many Muslim students face discrimination. Unfortunately, no group or government agency keeps statistics on the subject. But some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of…

  9. Muslim American Identities and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Ilhan

    2007-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first part provides an overview of Muslim Americans and the role of Islam in their lives. The second part of the article includes a classroom exercise about how to teach Islam and Muslim Americans. The main vehicle for this exercise is a PBS documentary titled "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet." The exercise…

  10. Combating Anti-Muslim Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Nirvi

    2011-01-01

    America's 2.5 million Muslims make up less than 1 percent of the U.S. population, according to the Pew Research Center. Anecdotally, educators know that many Muslim students face discrimination. Unfortunately, no group or government agency keeps statistics on the subject. But some cases have warranted investigation by the U.S. Department of…

  11. Muslim American Identities and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaya, Ilhan

    2007-01-01

    This article consists of two parts. The first part provides an overview of Muslim Americans and the role of Islam in their lives. The second part of the article includes a classroom exercise about how to teach Islam and Muslim Americans. The main vehicle for this exercise is a PBS documentary titled "Muhammad: Legacy of a Prophet." The exercise…

  12. Depressed mood and self-esteem in young Asian, black, and white women in America.

    PubMed

    Woods, N F; Lentz, M; Mitchell, E; Oakley, L D

    1994-01-01

    During the last two decades, investigators have explored the relationship between women's life conditions and their mental health. Some have related women's socially disadvantaged status, or their socialization to a traditional feminine role, to depression and low self-esteem. Others have emphasized the consequences of women's roles, or the balance of social demands and resources, on their well-being. More recently, feminist scholars have proposed a developmental account of depression. We tested a model comparing the effects of personal resources, social demands and resources, socialization, and women's roles, on self-esteem and depressed mood in young adult Asian, Black, and White women in America. Women who resided in middle-income and racially mixed neighborhoods were interviewed in their homes. Personal resources were indicated by education and income and social resources by unconflicted network size as measured by Barrera's (1981) Arizona Social Support Interview Schedule. Social demands were assessed by conflicted network size as measured by the Barrera scale and by the Positive Life Events and Negative Life Events scales from Norbeck's (1984) revision of the Sarason Life Events Scale. Women's roles included employment, parenting, and partnership with an adult (e.g., marriage). Self-esteem was assessed with the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and depressed mood with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (Radloff, 1977). Although models for Asian, Black, and White women differed, social network and social demands as well as personal resources were common to each group as predictors of self-esteem and depression.

  13. Thoughts on Black Women in the Workplace: A Space Not Intended for Us.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Uses five entries from the journal of a female African American teacher to explore issues that are found in the theoretical literature and in the everyday work lives of black women. Focuses on the systems of domination that interfere with the capacity to exercise self-determination. (SLD)

  14. Market Movements and the Dispossessed: Race, Identity, and Subaltern Agency among Black Women Voucher Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical educational researchers in the United States and elsewhere are missing something essential in their inattention to considerable support among Black urban women for market-based educational reforms, including vouchers. While the educational left has engaged in important empirical and theoretical work demonstrating the particularly negative…

  15. Care-Sickness: Black Women Educators, Care Theory, and a Hermeneutic of Suspicion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roseboro, Donyell L.; Ross, Sabrina N.

    2009-01-01

    This article builds upon earlier work exploring the implications of care theory for Black women educators by exploring the issue of colorblindness more broadly, as it relates to libratory education. Using the work of Freire (1970, 1998a, 1998b) and Noddings (1992a, 1995, 2001, 2005b), the authors revisit the relationship between libratory…

  16. Revealing a Hidden Curriculum of Black Women's Erasure in Sexual Violence Prevention Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, Sara Carrigan

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to challenge the framework by which rape and sexual assault prevention in higher education are being constituted by centring Black women's experiences of sexual violence within a prevention and response policy framework. Numerous research studies exist in the literature regarding the specific experience of sexual violence for…

  17. Candid Reflections on the Departure of Black Women Faculty from Academe in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Crystal Renee

    2012-01-01

    Critical content analysis is used to identify content within blogs, exposing views within academe that reinforce and normalize racist, sexist, and interactively racist and sexist perspectives. The two themes explored here are unfairness and subjectivities within personnel processes and the qualifications of Black women faculty, as raised through a…

  18. Concurrent Validity of Holland's Theory for Non-College-Degreed Black Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Connie M.; Walsh, W. Bruce

    1981-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) and the Self-Directed Search (SDS) were administered to 102 Black women workers in occupational environments consistent with Holland's six vocational environments. Four scales in each test successfully differentiated the occupational groups, supporting the concurrent validity of Holland's theory for…

  19. The Spirit Bears Witness: Reflections of Two Black Women's Journey in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Generett, Gretchen Givens; Cozart, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes our evolution as two Black American women academics who, after years of dealing with our community's marginalization and our own marginalization in the academy, began to employ research as a way of surviving. To share the significance of this experience, we first reflect on our understandings of our positionality within the…

  20. Left Behind: The Status of Black Women in Higher Education Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the current status of Black women higher education administrators in comparison to other higher education administrators of another race and/or gender. Specifically, years of service, social support, highest degree attained, income level, and current title held was analyzed to evaluate the actual levels of…

  1. This Bridge Called My Leadership: An Essay on Black Women as Bridge Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to contextualize the existing research literature on leadership for diversity, equity, and social justice in education with "bridge leadership" as historically practiced by Black women leaders in the USA. Its primary aim is to demonstrate how the intersection of race and gender as experienced by the Black…

  2. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  3. Left Behind: The Status of Black Women in Higher Education Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study examines the current status of Black women higher education administrators in comparison to other higher education administrators of another race and/or gender. Specifically, years of service, social support, highest degree attained, income level, and current title held was analyzed to evaluate the actual levels of…

  4. Education, Labor Market Experiences, and Current Expectancies of Black and White Men and Women. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurin, Patricia; Morrison, Betty Mae

    The research reported here examines the role of psychological expectancies as labor market supply characteristics of black and white men and women. Secondary analyses are carried out on data provided by the Survey Research Center 1972 national probability sample of adults 18 years and older drawn for the presidential election study. The report…

  5. Educational Pathways of Black Women Physicists: Stories of Experiencing and Overcoming Obstacles in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Katemari; Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2016-01-01

    This is an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in critical race theory, the paper examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists and addresses obstacles faced in their career paths and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through…

  6. Pedagogy of Respect: The Inter-Generational Influence of Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasching-Varner, Kenneth J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a large corpus of literature that not only speaks to the nature and qualities of Black women teachers, but that further disrupts the way these educators have been historically located at the margins of "education," by highlighting their political and culturally relevant/responsive approaches (Ladson-Billings, 1992/1994/2000; Gay, 2000;…

  7. Fire and Ice: The Wisdom of Black Women in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Joanne Kilgour

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the findings from a qualitative research project about a group of Black women scholars who discuss their experiences as academics in a predominantly White setting. The scholars represent fields including anthropology, education, Pan African studies, art education, and language studies. The themes found across the interviews…

  8. "I'm Learning the Trade": Mentoring Networks of Black Women Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dingus, Jeannine E.

    2008-01-01

    Teacher mentoring in the era of educational reform is used to address teacher retention, teacher professionalism, and teacher leadership, particularly among teachers of color. This qualitative study examines mentoring networks of Black women teachers. Informed by a womanist framework, study findings point to culturally based orientations of…

  9. Experiences of Black Women Who Persist to Graduation at Predominantly White Schools of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Francine Simms

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the experiences of Black women who attended predominantly White nursing schools. A phenomenological design was used to investigate eight nurses who persisted through to graduation from their nursing programs in the 21st century. The study examined persistence through the lens of academic involvement, alienation,…

  10. This Bridge Called My Leadership: An Essay on Black Women as Bridge Leaders in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horsford, Sonya Douglass

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this essay is to contextualize the existing research literature on leadership for diversity, equity, and social justice in education with "bridge leadership" as historically practiced by Black women leaders in the USA. Its primary aim is to demonstrate how the intersection of race and gender as experienced by the Black…

  11. The Spirit Bears Witness: Reflections of Two Black Women's Journey in the Academy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Generett, Gretchen Givens; Cozart, Sheryl

    2012-01-01

    This article describes our evolution as two Black American women academics who, after years of dealing with our community's marginalization and our own marginalization in the academy, began to employ research as a way of surviving. To share the significance of this experience, we first reflect on our understandings of our positionality within the…

  12. Candid Reflections on the Departure of Black Women Faculty from Academe in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Crystal Renee

    2012-01-01

    Critical content analysis is used to identify content within blogs, exposing views within academe that reinforce and normalize racist, sexist, and interactively racist and sexist perspectives. The two themes explored here are unfairness and subjectivities within personnel processes and the qualifications of Black women faculty, as raised through a…

  13. Educational Pathways of Black Women Physicists: Stories of Experiencing and Overcoming Obstacles in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Katemari; Mensah, Felicia Moore

    2016-01-01

    This is an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in critical race theory, the paper examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists and addresses obstacles faced in their career paths and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through…

  14. Market Movements and the Dispossessed: Race, Identity, and Subaltern Agency among Black Women Voucher Advocates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedroni, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Critical educational researchers in the United States and elsewhere are missing something essential in their inattention to considerable support among Black urban women for market-based educational reforms, including vouchers. While the educational left has engaged in important empirical and theoretical work demonstrating the particularly negative…

  15. Racism-Related Stress, General Life Stress, and Psychological Functioning among Black American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Alex L.; Carter, Robert T.; Ray, Kilynda V.

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between general life stress, perceived racism, and psychological functioning was explored in a sample of 118 Black American women. Findings indicate that racism-related stress was not a significant predictor of psychological functioning when controlling for general life stress. Perceived racism was positively associated with…

  16. Strategies for Racial Identity Development: Narratives of Black and White Women in Interracial Partner Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Miriam R.; Thomas, Volker

    2000-01-01

    Reports on exploratory study that used individual interviews and a focus group to investigate how women in Black-White heterosexual relationships describe their racial identity development over the course of the relationship. Participants described a process of restorying constraining narratives of racial identity into empowering racial identities…

  17. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  18. Who's that Girl: Television's Role in the Body Image Development of Young White and Black Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schooler, Deborah; Ward, L. Monique; Merriwether, Ann; Caruthers, Allison

    2004-01-01

    Although findings indicate a connection between frequent media use and greater body dissatisfaction, little attention has focused on the role of race. Accordingly, this study investigates the relation between television viewing and body image among 87 Black and 584 White women. Participants reported monthly viewing amounts of mainstream and…

  19. Disclosure of Sexual Assault Experiences among Undergraduate Women at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Christine H.; Crosby, Carmen M.; Barrick, Kelle; Krebs, Christopher P.; Settles-Reaves, Beverlyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To document the sexual assault disclosure experiences of historically black college or university (HBCU) students. Participants: A total of 3,951 female, undergraduate students at 4 HBCUs. Methods: All women at the participating schools were recruited in November 2008 to participate in a Web-based survey including both closed- and…

  20. Black Women Resident Assistants: Seeking and Serving as Bridges, Mentors, Advisors, Filters, and Community Builders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Ericka; Agosto, Vonzell

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a phenomenographic study of Black women undergraduates who were resident assistants in a predominantly White institution (PWI) of higher education. Critical race feminism, namely intersectionality, was used to explore how they navigated the responsibilities of their position and social identities. Findings are that…

  1. Experiences of Black Women Who Persist to Graduation at Predominantly White Schools of Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Francine Simms

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to explore the experiences of Black women who attended predominantly White nursing schools. A phenomenological design was used to investigate eight nurses who persisted through to graduation from their nursing programs in the 21st century. The study examined persistence through the lens of academic involvement, alienation,…

  2. Smoking cessation, obesity and weight concerns in black women: a call to action for culturally competent interventions.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Johnsen, Lisa A. P.

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 20.8% of black women and 23.1% of white women smoke, and significantly more blacks (37.4%) than whites (22.4%) are obese. Although the average amount of weight gain after quitting smoking is 6-8 lbs for women, blacks tend to gain substantially more weight. This large increase in postcessation weight gain in blacks may further augment the health risks that blacks face in conjunction with obesity. Interventions that promote smoking cessation, while simultaneously reducing weight concerns or weight gain has been proposed as a strategy to help weight-concerned women quit smoking. However, these studies have included primarily white samples and no studies have examined the feasibility or effectiveness of smoking-cessation and weight-control interventions for black women smokers. This review describes the literature on smoking, obesity/weight control and weight concerns in smokers, with a particular attention to black women smokers. A call to action to develop comprehensive and culturally competent smoking-cessation and obesity/weight-control interventions for black women is emphasized due to their high rates of smoking, obesity and postcessation weight gain. PMID:16396055

  3. Health status among black African-born women in Kansas City: a preliminary assessment.

    PubMed

    Ndikum-Moffor, Florence M; Faseru, Babalola; Filippi, Melissa K; Wei, Hou; Engelman, Kimberly K

    2015-10-05

    Health information and statistics for Black foreign-born women in the United States are under-reported or not available. Black foreign-born women typically are classified under the general category of African American, ignoring the heterogeneity that exists in the United States Black population. It is important to identify health issues and behaviors of African-born women to effectively address health disparities. Black African-born women (N = 29), 20 years or older completed a survey about general and women's health, health history, acculturation, lifestyle, social and health challenges, beliefs about breast cancer. Data were analyzed using SPSS 14.0 software. Categorical variables were summarized with frequencies and percentages and continuous variables were summarized with means and standard variation. A Likert scale (strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree) was used to assess beliefs about breast cancer. Most (71.4%) participants had a high school education or more, 70% were employed, and 50% had health insurance. Two-thirds received health care from primary care doctors, 20.7% from health departments, and 39.3% got annual checkups. Lack of jobs, healthcare cost, language barrier, discrimination, and child care were the top social issues faced by participants. High blood pressure, obesity, oral health, HIV/AIDS, and diabetes were indicated as the most common health problems. The percent of participants (60%) that had not had a mammogram within the previous 2 years was more than the state average (24%) for women 40 years and older reported by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment. The percent of participants (40%) that had a mammogram within the previous 2 years was lower than the national average (73.2%) for African American women. Study provides a snapshot of social concerns and health issues in an African population residing in Midwestern United States. Understanding the socio-cultural characteristics of this population is necessary

  4. Construction and initial validation of the Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale for Black women.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jioni A; Neville, Helen A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a measure of gendered racial microaggressions (i.e., subtle and everyday verbal, behavioral, and environmental expressions of oppression based on the intersection of one's race and gender) experienced by Black women by applying an intersectionality framework to Essed's (1991) theory of gendered racism and Sue, Capodilupo, et al.'s (2007) model of racial microaggressions. The Gendered Racial Microaggressions Scale (GRMS), was developed to assess both frequency and stress appraisal of microaggressions, in 2 separate studies. After the initial pool of GRMS items was developed, we received input from a community-based focus group of Black women and an expert panel. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis using a sample of 259 Black women resulted in a multidimensional scale with 4 factors as follows: (a) Assumptions of Beauty and Sexual Objectification, (b) Silenced and Marginalized, (c) Strong Black Woman Stereotype, and (d) Angry Black Woman Stereotype. In Study 2, results of confirmatory factor analyses using an independent sample of 210 Black women suggested that the 4-factor model was a good fit of the data for both the frequency and stress appraisal scales. Supporting construct validity, the GRMS was positively related to the Racial and Ethnic Microaggressions Scale (Nadal, 2011) and the Schedule of Sexist Events (Klonoff & Landrine, 1995). In addition, the GRMS was significantly related to psychological distress, such that greater perceived gendered racial microaggressions were related to greater levels of reported psychological distress. Implications for future research and practice are discussed. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Racial Discrimination in Health Care Is Associated with Worse Glycemic Control among Black Men but Not Black Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Assari, Shervin; Lee, Daniel B; Nicklett, Emily Joy; Moghani Lankarani, Maryam; Piette, John D; Aikens, James E

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that racial discrimination may affect the health of Black men and Black women differently. This study examined Black patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) in order to test gender differences in (1) levels of perceived racial discrimination in health care and (2) how perceived discrimination relates to glycemic control. A total of 163 Black patients with type 2 DM (78 women and 85 men) provided data on demographics (age and gender), socioeconomic status, perceived racial discrimination in health care, self-rated health, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Data were analyzed using linear regression. Black men reported more racial discrimination in health care than Black women. Although racial discrimination in health care was not significantly associated with HbA1c in the pooled sample (b = 0.20, 95% CI = -0.41 -0.80), gender-stratified analysis indicated an association between perceived discrimination and higher HbA1c levels for Black men (b = 0.86, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 0.01-1.73) but not Black women (b = -0.31, 95% CI = -1.17 to -0.54). Perceived racial discrimination in diabetes care may be more salient for glycemic control of Black men than Black women. Scholars and clinicians should take gender into account when considering the impacts of race-related discrimination experiences on health outcomes. Policies should reduce racial discrimination in the health care.

  6. Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification in Black and White Women: Do the Stresses and Rewards of Multiple Roles Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H.; Jasielec, Mateusz S.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hollenberg, Steven M.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Everson-Rose, Susan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Black women experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white women, though evidence for racial differences in subclinical CVD is mixed. Few studies have examined multiple roles (number, perceived stress, and/or reward) in relation to subclinical CVD, or whether those effects differ by race. Purpose To investigate the effects of multiple roles on 2-year progression of coronary artery calcification (CAC). Methods Subjects were 104 black and 232 white women (mean age 50.8 years). Stress and reward from four roles (spouse, parent, employee, caregiver) were assessed on 5-point scales. CAC progression was defined as an increase of ≥10 Agatston units. Results White women reported higher rewards from their multiple roles than black women, yet black women showed cardiovascular benefits from role rewards. Among black women only, higher role rewards were related significantly to lower CAC progression, adjusting for BMI, blood pressure, and other known CVD risk factors. Blacks reported fewer roles but similar role stress as whites; role number and stress were unrelated to CAC progression. Conclusion Rewarding roles may be a novel protective psychosocial factor for progression of coronary calcium among black women. PMID:21901270

  7. Progression of coronary artery calcification in black and white women: do the stresses and rewards of multiple roles matter?

    PubMed

    Janssen, Imke; Powell, Lynda H; Jasielec, Mateusz S; Matthews, Karen A; Hollenberg, Steven M; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2012-02-01

    Black women experience higher rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than white women, though evidence for racial differences in subclinical CVD is mixed. Few studies have examined multiple roles (number, perceived stress, and/or reward) in relation to subclinical CVD, or whether those effects differ by race. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of multiple roles on 2-year progression of coronary artery calcium. Subjects were 104 black and 232 white women (mean age 50.8 years). Stress and reward from four roles (spouse, parent, employee, caregiver) were assessed on five-point scales. Coronary artery calcium progression was defined as an increase of ≥10 Agatston units. White women reported higher rewards from their multiple roles than black women, yet black women showed cardiovascular benefits from role rewards. Among black women only, higher role rewards were related significantly to lower progression of coronary artery calcium, adjusting for body mass index, blood pressure, and other known CVD risk factors. Blacks reported fewer roles but similar role stress as whites; role number and stress were unrelated to coronary artery calcium progression. Rewarding roles may be a novel protective psychosocial factor for progression of coronary calcium among black women.

  8. Sensitization and allergic histories differ between black and white pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Joseph, Christine L M; Havstad, Suzanne; Zoratti, Edward; Ownby, Dennis; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2012-09-01

    Racial differences in allergic diseases have been reported, with black subjects suffering disproportionately compared with white subjects, although such studies have been more commonly done in pediatric populations. We sought to determine whether there are differences in rates of allergic sensitization or prior diagnoses of asthma, hay fever, or eczema in black and white pregnant women. Women were recruited during pregnancy (regardless of allergic history) as part of a birth cohort study in the Detroit metropolitan area and were interviewed about prior doctors' diagnoses of asthma, hay fever/nasal allergies/allergic rhinitis, and eczema. Blood samples were collected, total IgE levels were determined, and specific IgE levels were measured for Alternaria alternata, cat, cockroach, dog, Dermatophagoides farinae, short ragweed, timothy grass, and egg. Black women (n = 563) were more likely than white women (n = 219) to have had at least 1 specific IgE level of 0.35 IU/mL or greater (62.5% vs 40.2%, P < .001). Black women had higher total IgE levels (geometric mean, 47.8 IU/mL [95% CI, 42.5-53.8 IU/mL] vs 20.0 IU/mL [95% CI, 16.2-24.6 IU/mL]; P < .001, Wilcoxon rank sum test). Black women were more likely to have had a prior doctor's diagnosis of asthma (22.7% vs 16.0%, P = .04) and eczema (21.9% vs 14.8%) but not hay fever (white women: 17.5% vs black women: 15.7%, P = .55). Associations persisted for total IgE levels, having 1 or more positive allergen-specific IgE levels, and eczema after adjusting for common socioeconomic or environmental variables. Racial differences in allergic sensitization and diagnoses were present, even after controlling for various factors. Future research should focus on prevention to ameliorate these disparities. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Examining the Association Between Body Mass Index and Weight Related Quality of Life in Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Ard, Jamy D.; Beasley, T. Mark; Fernandez, Jose R.; Howard, Virginia J.; Kolotkin, Ronnete L.; Crosby, Ross D.; Affuso, Olivia

    2017-01-01

    Obesity not only increases risk for morbidity/mortality, but also impacts the quality of life of obese individuals. In the United States, black women have the highest prevalence of obesity of any other group with approximately 80% of black women over age 20 having a body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2. We aimed to examine the association between BMI and quality of life in this high risk population compared to this association in white women, using the Impact of Weight on Quality of Life (IWQOL)-Lite questionnaire. Data from 172 black women (mean BMI= 35.7; age=40.5) and 171 white women (mean BMI= 35.5; age=40.4) were collected between 2000 and 2010 analyzed in 2010. The mean IWQOL-Lite total score was 81.6 for black women compared to 66.9 for white women, a statistically significant difference. Hierarchical linear regression models revealed a significant BMI-by-race interaction indicating that the relationship between BMI and IWQOL-Lite score was moderated by race. Our findings suggest notable differences in weight-related quality of life in black and white women. At similar BMIs, black women consistently reported better quality of life than white women on all IWQOL-Lite subscales. The greatest difference in IWQOL-Lite scores between black and white women was seen in the self-esteem subscale. Additional research is needed to understand how to incorporate the weight perspectives of black women into weight management messages and interventions.

  10. Educational pathways of Black women physicists: Stories of experiencing and overcoming obstacles in life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosa, Katemari

    2017-01-01

    This talk presents an empirical study on the underrepresentation of people of color in scientific careers. Grounded in Critical Race Theory, the presentation examines the lived experiences of six Black women physicists in the United States, addresses obstacles faced in their career paths, and strategies used to overcome these obstacles. Data for this study were collected through semi-structured interviews and coded for emergent themes, which are invitation to engage in science, communities of science practices, and isolation in the academy. The findings reveal that college recruitment and funding were fundamental for these women to choose Physics over other STEM fields. The analysis shows Physics can be a hostile environment for these women. In addition, Black women experience unique challenges of socialization in Physics, particularly by exclusion of study groups. In this talk, suggestions will be presented to make Physics departments a more inclusive space to support Black women in science. This presentation is based on work supported by the Brazilian government through CAPES (BEX1907-07-7), the Fulbright Program, Comissño Fulbright Brasil, and the Office of Diversity at Teachers College, Columbia University.

  11. Insulin-receptor activity in nondiabetic and diabetic urbanized South African black women.

    PubMed

    Panz, V R; Joffe, B I; Wing, J R; Raal, F J; Seftel, H C

    1992-02-01

    To evaluate insulin receptor binding characteristics of urbanized South African black women with normal glucose tolerance and of patients with newly diagnosed untreated non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Four groups of 10 subjects each were selected by the following criteria: group A, young (20-39 yr) nonobese (body mass index [BMI] 19.0-24.9 kg/m2) nondiabetic women; group B, middle-aged (40-60 yr) nonobese nondiabetic women; group C, middle-aged obese (BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2) nondiabetic women; and group D, middle-aged obese newly diagnosed but untreated female patients with NIDDM. Insulin binding to monocyte receptors was determined by radioreceptor assay. Fasting plasma samples were analyzed for glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and nonesterified fatty acids. In the four groups studied, maximum specific binding and receptor concentration were highest in group A, with a progressive and significant decrease in values through groups B and C to group D. Significant inverse correlations were obtained between maximum specific binding, 50% inhibition dose, and total receptor concentration on the one hand and glucose, insulin, and NEFA on the other. Our study of urban South African black women showed decreasing insulin-receptor activity with obesity and glucose intolerance. In patients with NIDDM, hyperglycemia and beta-cell dysfunction were associated with a reduction in receptor concentration. In this regard, our findings in South African blacks are consistent with results of similar studies of NIDDM in other communities.

  12. Cervical cancer prevention project for inner city black and Latina women.

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, A; Kahan, V; Bordeu, M

    1993-01-01

    Early detection, appropriate intervention, and adequate followup treatment make cervical cancer one of the most preventable of all diseases. The authors propose a project designed to increase knowledge and awareness of cervical cancer and its prevention and ultimately to decrease morbidity and mortality rates for cervical cancer in black and Latino inner-city communities of Boston. During a 3-year project the authors hope to reach about 500 high-risk women who currently do not have access to health care services. The interventions would be based in the Boston, MA, community areas of Roxbury and Jamaica Plain, specifically in those neighborhoods served by a designated community health center. High rates of cervical cancer are found in inner-city communities, where black and Latina women usually are overrepresented. About 80 percent of the women served by the designated community health center are either black or Latina. The proposed intervention has three objectives: (a) to increase the use of health services by so-called hard-to-reach women in those communities; (b) to reduce the numbers of women who, after learning of their abnormal Papanicolaou test results, do not return for followup; and (c) to increase sensitivities toward the problem and to encourage participation in such a project among health care providers at the community health center. PMID:8464972

  13. Impact of perceived racial discrimination on health screening in black women.

    PubMed

    Mouton, Charles P; Carter-Nolan, Pamela L; Makambi, Kepher H; Taylor, Teletia R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2010-02-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be related to health screening behavior. The present study examines the effect of discrimination on cancer screening among women in the Black Women's Health Study. Five self-report items measured discrimination in everyday life and three items measured experiences of major discrimination. Logistic regression was used to test associations of discrimination with Pap smear, mammography, or colonoscopy utilization. At the start of follow-up, 88.8% had a Pap smear in the previous year, 52.7% had a mammogram, and 20.0% had received a colonoscopy. Both everyday and major discrimination were associated with not having received a Pap smear, even after adjusting for other variables. Discrimination was not associated with mammography or colonoscopy utilization. In conclusion, perceived everyday and major discrimination is associated with poorer utilization of Pap smears for cervical cancer screening among Black women.

  14. Prevalence of clinical gallbladder disease in Mexican-American, Anglo, and black women.

    PubMed

    Diehl, A K; Stern, M P; Ostrower, V S; Friedman, P C

    1980-04-01

    Clinical observations have suggested that gallstones are increased in frequency in Mexican-Americans compared to other ethnic groups. Past autopsy surveys have demonstrated a low prevalence in blacks compared to whites. We retrospectively reviewed 1,018 charts to study the prevalence of cholelithiasis in ambulatory women of these three racial/ethnic backgrounds. Mexican-American women were found to have a prevalence of gallbladder disease approximately three times that of black women, with Anglo prevalences falling in an intermediate range. The prevalence of cholelithiasis was also positively associated with increasing age and diabetes, but not with serum cholesterol, use of oral contraceptives or conjugated estrogens, parity, hypertension, menstrual status, or smoking. An association with obesity was shown but could not be shown to be independent of other risk factors.

  15. Physiological and behavioral factors related to physical activity in black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Allen, Nancy A; Melkus, Gail D; Chyun, Deborah A

    2011-10-01

    To describe relationships among physical activity (PA), physiological factors, and psychological factors in Black women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-sectional design was used (N = 109). Data were collected on PA(activity/inactivity, TV hours, bed confinement), physiology (blood pressure, lipids, hemoglobin A1c), psychology (anxiety,emotional distress, physical functioning, bodily pain, vitality), and health care provider (HCP) support. Walking was the preferred PA; TV viewing averaged 3.7 hours/day, and 24% reported confinement to bed >1 week in the last year. Inactive women had greater physiological and psychological problems than active women. Women watching TV >2 hours/day had more physiological problems than women watching TV <2 hours/day. Women reporting >1 week of confinement to bed in the last year had more physiological and psychological problems than those confined to bed <1 week. PA interventions in Black women with T2DM should promote walking, address TV viewing time, incorporate HCP’s role of PA counseling/support,and address several psychological factors.

  16. Partnerships between Black Women and Behaviorally Bisexual Men: Implications for HIV Risk and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Obregon, Nora B.; McCuller, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Although an estimated 87% of new HIV infections in Black/African American women are attributed to sex with men, many women are unaware of their male partners’ HIV risk factors. Research on women who are aware of a high-risk male partner may inform HIV prevention. We analyzed transcripts from semi-structured interviews with 20 Black women who reported sex with at least one man who had sex with men and women (MSMW) in the prior 5 years. We applied Choice and Sexual Network theories to the interpretation. The majority described their partnerships as committed and involving emotional or instrumental support. Substance abuse was a common component of the relationships and very few involved consistent condom use. Although nearly all respondents described it as alarming to learn of their partners’ involvement with other men and several ended the relationships, many continued the relationships without protective changes in their sex behavior. These narratives indicate that although many leave, many other women remain in relationships after learning of a male partners’ high-risk activity. Substance abuse, financial instability, and a desire to remain in intimate partnerships may discourage preventive actions in these women. PMID:25422580

  17. Prospective Study of Urban Form and Physical Activity in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Coogan, Patricia F.; White, Laura F.; Adler, Thomas J.; Hathaway, Kevin M.; Palmer, Julie R.; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-01-01

    The authors used data from the Black Women's Health Study to assess the association between neighborhood urban form and physical activity. Women reported hours/week of utilitarian and exercise walking and of vigorous activity in 1995 and on biennial follow-up questionnaires through 2001. Housing density, road networks, availability of public transit, sidewalks, and parks were characterized for the residential neighborhoods of 20,354 Black Women's Health Study participants living in New York, New York; Chicago, Illinois; and Los Angeles, California. The authors quantified the associations between features of the environment and physical activity using odds ratios for ≥5 relative to <5 hours/week of physical activity. For all women, housing density had the strongest association with utilitarian walking (odds ratio for the most- compared with the least-dense quintile = 2.72, 95% confidence interval: 2.22, 3.31), followed by availability of public transit. Women who moved during follow-up to neighborhoods of lower density were 36% more likely to decrease their levels of utilitarian walking, and those who moved to neighborhoods of higher density were 23% more likely to increase their levels of utilitarian walking, relative to women who moved to neighborhoods of similar density. These data suggest that increases in housing density may lead to increases in utilitarian walking among African-American women. PMID:19808635

  18. Prospective study of urban form and physical activity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Coogan, Patricia F; White, Laura F; Adler, Thomas J; Hathaway, Kevin M; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2009-11-01

    The authors used data from the Black Women's Health Study to assess the association between neighborhood urban form and physical activity. Women reported hours/week of utilitarian and exercise walking and of vigorous activity in 1995 and on biennial follow-up questionnaires through 2001. Housing density, road networks, availability of public transit, sidewalks, and parks were characterized for the residential neighborhoods of 20,354 Black Women's Health Study participants living in New York, New York; Chicago, Illinois; and Los Angeles, California. The authors quantified the associations between features of the environment and physical activity using odds ratios for >or=5 relative to <5 hours/week of physical activity. For all women, housing density had the strongest association with utilitarian walking (odds ratio for the most- compared with the least-dense quintile = 2.72, 95% confidence interval: 2.22, 3.31), followed by availability of public transit. Women who moved during follow-up to neighborhoods of lower density were 36% more likely to decrease their levels of utilitarian walking, and those who moved to neighborhoods of higher density were 23% more likely to increase their levels of utilitarian walking, relative to women who moved to neighborhoods of similar density. These data suggest that increases in housing density may lead to increases in utilitarian walking among African-American women.

  19. Biology and Gender: False Theories about Women and Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that it is irrational that the ideas of genetics should be used by some scientists to support the ideologies of racism and sexism. Whether the boundaries of women's "place in society" were erected with the "bricks of theology or the cement of genetic determinism," the intention is that the barriers shall remain strong. (Author/JM)

  20. Biology and Gender: False Theories about Women and Blacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Dorothy

    1977-01-01

    Asserts that it is irrational that the ideas of genetics should be used by some scientists to support the ideologies of racism and sexism. Whether the boundaries of women's "place in society" were erected with the "bricks of theology or the cement of genetic determinism," the intention is that the barriers shall remain strong. (Author/JM)

  1. Black Women's Intersectional Complexities: The Impact on Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Sharon

    2017-01-01

    Recent educational literature has produced a plethora of gendered experiences encountered by women working towards leadership positions in education. Gender plays a complex role that shapes the relationship between perceived ideals of womanhood and leadership. This paper focuses on the variations in leadership and management distributed in the…

  2. Enigma of maternal race and infant birth weight: a population-based study of US-born Black and Caribbean-born Black women.

    PubMed

    Pallotto, E K; Collins, J W; David, R J

    2000-06-01

    The authors used 1985-1990 Illinois' vital records to determine the low birth weight components of infants delivered to US-born Black women, Caribbean-born Black women, and US-born White women. The moderately low birth weight rate (1,500-2,499 g) was 10% for infants with US-born Black mothers (n = 67,357) and 6% for infants with Caribbean-born mothers (n = 2,265) compared with 4% for infants with US-born White mothers (n = 34,124); the relative risk equaled 2.7 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.5, 2.8) and 1.7 (95% CI: 1.4, 2.0), respectively. The very low birth weight rate (<1,500 g) was 2.6% for infants delivered to US-born Black women and 2.4% for infants to Caribbean-born women compared with 0.7% for infants to US-born White women; the relative risk equaled 3.6 (95% CI: 3.1, 4.1) and 3.3 (95% CI: 2.5, 4.4), respectively. Among the lowest risk mothers, the relative risk of moderately low birth weight for infants with US-born Black mothers and Caribbean-born mothers (compared with US-born White mothers) was 2.7 (95% CI: 2.1, 3.4) and 1.2 (95% CI: 0.4, 3.1), respectively; the relative risk of very low birth weight for infants with US-born Black mothers and Caribbean-born mothers was 6.7 (95% CI: 3.8, 12) and 4.2 (95% CI: 1.0, 18), respectively. The authors conclude that Caribbean-born women and US-born Black women have disparate moderate rates but equivalent very low birth weight rates.

  3. Reproductive factors and incidence of endometrial cancer in U.S. black women.

    PubMed

    Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Wise, Lauren A

    2017-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that reproductive history is a strong determinant of endometrial cancer risk among white women. Less is known about how reproductive history affects endometrial cancer risk among black women, whose incidence and mortality differ from white women. We investigated the associations of age at menarche, parity, timing of births, and menopausal age with endometrial cancer in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective cohort study. Every 2 years from 1995 to 2013, 47,555 participants with intact uteri at baseline in 1995 completed questionnaires on reproductive and medical history, and lifestyle factors. Self-reported cases of endometrial cancer were confirmed by medical record, cancer registry, or death certificate when available. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During 689,501 person-years of follow-up, we identified 300 incident cases of endometrial cancer. The strongest associations with endometrial cancer were found for early age at menarche (<11 vs. 12-13 years: IRR 1.82, 95% CI 1.31, 2.52), and later age at first birth (≥30 vs. <20 years: IRR 0.26, 95% CI 0.13, 0.50). Parous women were less likely than nulliparous women to develop endometrial cancer (IRR 0.77, 95% CI 0.57, 1.05), but there was little evidence of a dose-response relationship for number of births. Associations between reproductive factors and endometrial cancer among black women were generally consistent with those in studies of white women.

  4. Adverse Trends in Ischemic Heart Disease Mortality among Young New Yorkers, Particularly Young Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Smilowitz, Nathaniel R.; Maduro, Gil A.; Lobach, Iryna V.; Chen, Yu; Reynolds, Harmony R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality has been on the decline in the United States for decades. However, declines in IHD mortality have been slower in certain groups, including young women and black individuals. Hypothesis Trends in IHD vary by age, sex, and race in New York City (NYC). Young female minorities are a vulnerable group that may warrant renewed efforts to reduce IHD. Methods IHD mortality trends were assessed in NYC 1980–2008. NYC Vital Statistics data were obtained for analysis. Age-specific IHD mortality rates and confidence bounds were estimated. Trends in IHD mortality were compared by age and race/ethnicity using linear regression of log-transformed mortality rates. Rates and trends in IHD mortality rates were compared between subgroups defined by age, sex and race/ethnicity. Results The decline in IHD mortality rates slowed in 1999 among individuals aged 35–54 years but not ≥55. IHD mortality rates were higher among young men than women age 35–54, but annual declines in IHD mortality were slower for women. Black women age 35–54 had higher IHD mortality rates and slower declines in IHD mortality than women of other race/ethnicity groups. IHD mortality trends were similar in black and white men age 35–54. Conclusions The decline in IHD mortality rates has slowed in recent years among younger, but not older, individuals in NYC. There was an association between sex and race/ethnicity on IHD mortality rates and trends. Young black women may benefit from targeted medical and public health interventions to reduce IHD mortality. PMID:26882207

  5. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  6. Student Teaching at Ground Zero: One Muslim Woman's Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiyat, Zareen Niazi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…

  7. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  8. Death and Dying Anxiety among Elderly Arab Muslims in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azaiza, Faisal; Ron, Pnina; Shoham, Meyrav; Gigini, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    Death and dying anxiety were examined among elderly Arab Muslims in Israel. A total of 145 people aged 60 and over were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. Nursing home residents reported higher death anxiety than others; women and uneducated participants reported greater levels of fear of death and dying than others. There were no…

  9. Student Teaching at Ground Zero: One Muslim Woman's Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atiyat, Zareen Niazi

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author, who is a Muslim English teacher shares her teaching experiences after the events of September 11, 2001 and shares her views on Islam. She points out that her appearance and clothing do not represent oppression and restriction but the liberation of her body from the unwanted gazes of those who reduce women from people…

  10. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Sarah K.; Meyer, Ilan H.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2015-01-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination—frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)—and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context. PMID:26424904

  11. Exploring Discrimination and Mental Health Disparities Faced By Black Sexual Minority Women Using a Minority Stress Framework.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Meyer, Ilan H; Overstreet, Nicole M; Haile, Rahwa; Hansen, Nathan B

    2015-09-01

    Black sexual minority women are triply marginalized due to their race, gender, and sexual orientation. We compared three dimensions of discrimination-frequency (regularity of occurrences), scope (number of types of discriminatory acts experienced), and number of bases (number of social statuses to which discrimination was attributed)-and self-reported mental health (depressive symptoms, psychological well-being, and social well-being) between 64 Black sexual minority women and each of two groups sharing two of three marginalized statuses: (a) 67 White sexual minority women and (b) 67 Black sexual minority men. Black sexual minority women reported greater discrimination frequency, scope, and number of bases and poorer psychological and social well-being than White sexual minority women and more discrimination bases, a higher level of depressive symptoms, and poorer social well-being than Black sexual minority men. We then tested and contrasted dimensions of discrimination as mediators between social status (race or gender) and mental health outcomes. Discrimination frequency and scope mediated the association between race and mental health, with a stronger effect via frequency among sexual minority women. Number of discrimination bases mediated the association between gender and mental health among Black sexual minorities. Future research and clinical practice would benefit from considering Black sexual minority women's mental health in a multidimensional minority stress context.

  12. Results of a faith-based weight loss intervention for black women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Ganschow, Pamela; Schiffer, Linda; Wells, Anita; Simon, Nolanna; Dyer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. Although weight loss may reduce these risks, weight loss programs designed for black women have yielded mixed results. Studies suggest that religion/spirituality is a prominent component of black culture. Given this, the inclusion of religion/spirituality as an active component of a weight loss program may enhance the benefits of the program. The role of religion/spirituality, however, has not been specifically tested as a mechanism that enhances the weight loss process. This paper presents the results of "Faith on the Move," a randomized pilot study of a faith-based weight loss program for black women. The goals of the study were to estimate the effects of a 12-week culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention on weight loss, dietary fat consumption and physical activity. The culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention was compared to a culturally tailored weight loss intervention with no active faith component. Fifty-nine overweight/obese black women were randomized to one of the two interventions. Although the results were not statistically significant, the effect size suggests that the addition of the faith component improved results. These promising preliminary results will need to be tested in an adequately powered trial. PMID:16355489

  13. Prospective Approach to Breast Cancer Risk Prediction in African American Women: The Black Women's Health Study Model

    PubMed Central

    Boggs, Deborah A.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L.; Palmer, Julie R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Breast cancer risk prediction models have underestimated risk for African American women, contributing to lower recruitment rates in prevention trials. A model previously developed for African American women was found to underestimate risk in the Black Women's Health Study (BWHS). Methods We developed a breast cancer risk model for African American women using relative risks derived from 10 years of follow-up of BWHS participants age 30 to 69 years at baseline. Using the subsequent 5 years of follow-up data, we evaluated calibration as the ratio of expected to observed number of breast cancers and assessed discriminatory accuracy using the concordance statistic. Results The BWHS model included family history, previous biopsy, body mass index at age 18 years, age at menarche, age at first birth, oral contraceptive use, bilateral oophorectomy, estrogen plus progestin use, and height. There was good agreement between predicted and observed number of breast cancers overall (expected-to-observed ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.05) and in most risk factor categories. Discriminatory accuracy was higher for women younger than age 50 years (area under the curve [AUC], 0.62; 95% CI, 0.58 to 0.65) than for women age ≥ 50 years (AUC, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.53 to 0.59). Using a 5-year predicted risk of 1.66% or greater as a cut point, 2.8% of women younger than 50 years old and 32.2% of women ≥ 50 years old were classified as being at elevated risk of invasive breast cancer. Conclusion The BWHS model was well calibrated overall, and the predictive ability was best for younger women. The proportion of women predicted to meet the 1.66% cut point commonly used to determine eligibility for breast cancer prevention trials was greatly increased relative to previous models. PMID:25624428

  14. Obesity and survival among black women and white women 35 to 64 years of age at diagnosis with invasive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yani; Ma, Huiyan; Malone, Kathleen E; Norman, Sandra A; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Strom, Brian L; Marchbanks, Polly A; Spirtas, Robert; Burkman, Ronald T; Deapen, Dennis; Folger, Suzanne G; Simon, Michael S; Press, Michael F; McDonald, Jill A; Bernstein, Leslie

    2011-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of obesity on survival among black women and white women with invasive breast cancer and to determine whether obesity explains the poorer survival of black women relative to white women. We observed 4,538 (1,604 black, 2,934 white) women who were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI, in kilograms per square meter) 5 years before diagnosis on risk of death from any cause and from breast cancer. During a median of 8.6 years of follow-up, 1,053 women died (519 black, 534 white), 828 as a result of breast cancer (412 black, 416 white). Black women were more likely to die than white women (multivariate-adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.53). Compared with women with BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m(2), those who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) had a greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.47) and breast cancer-specific mortality (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.46). These associations were observed among white women (all-cause RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.96; breast cancer RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.92), but not among black women (all-cause RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.29; breast cancer RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.33). Obesity may play an important role in mortality among white but not black patients with breast cancer. It is unlikely that differences in obesity distributions between black women and white women account for the poorer survival of black women.

  15. Obesity and Survival Among Black Women and White Women 35 to 64 Years of Age at Diagnosis With Invasive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yani; Ma, Huiyan; Malone, Kathleen E.; Norman, Sandra A.; Sullivan-Halley, Jane; Strom, Brian L.; Marchbanks, Polly A.; Spirtas, Robert; Burkman, Ronald T.; Deapen, Dennis; Folger, Suzanne G.; Simon, Michael S.; Press, Michael F.; McDonald, Jill A.; Bernstein, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of obesity on survival among black women and white women with invasive breast cancer and to determine whether obesity explains the poorer survival of black women relative to white women. Patients and Methods We observed 4,538 (1,604 black, 2,934 white) women who were 35 to 64 years of age when diagnosed with incident invasive breast cancer between 1994 and 1998. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to examine the effect of body mass index (BMI, in kilograms per square meter) 5 years before diagnosis on risk of death from any cause and from breast cancer. Results During a median of 8.6 years of follow-up, 1,053 women died (519 black, 534 white), 828 as a result of breast cancer (412 black, 416 white). Black women were more likely to die than white women (multivariate-adjusted relative risk [RR], 1.33; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.53). Compared with women with BMI of 20 to 24.9 kg/m2, those who were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) had a greater risk of all-cause mortality (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.04 to 1.47) and breast cancer–specific mortality (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 0.99 to 1.46). These associations were observed among white women (all-cause RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.96; breast cancer RR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.92), but not among black women (all-cause RR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.29; breast cancer RR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.33). Conclusion Obesity may play an important role in mortality among white but not black patients with breast cancer. It is unlikely that differences in obesity distributions between black women and white women account for the poorer survival of black women. PMID:21788570

  16. Volume and composition of hand sweat of White and Black men and women in desert walks.

    PubMed

    Dill, D B; Yousef, M K; Goldman, A; Hillyard, S D; Davis, T P

    1983-05-01

    Many investigators have sought, but failed to find, ethnic differences in the number and regional distribution of active sweat glands. In this study measurements have been made of sweat secreted on one hand and also on the whole body of Whites and Blacks walking in desert heat. Whites numbered 31 men and 27 women, ages 30 to 88 years; there were 21 Black men and 31 Black women, ages 16 to 61 years. Each walked on three occasions for 1 hour at a rate that required an oxygen consumption of about 40% of aerobic capacity. Ambient temperature ranged from 32 to 44 degrees C in 1979 and 1980; means were 38.4 degrees C in 1979 and 36.7 degrees C in 1980. There was no sweat in the gloves of many Blacks; this was true of only a few Whites. Volume of body sweat increased in both races with rate of walking; volume of hand sweat increased more in Whites than in Blacks. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that volumes of hand sweat were significantly greater for Whites than for Blacks. It was concluded that in desert walks most Whites and few Blacks sweat freely on their hands. In samples of hand sweat, Na+, K+, and Cl- were determined. Concentrations of each ion varied widely in both races, and were unrelated to race. Concentrations of Na+ and Cl- generally are somewhat higher in hand sweat than in body sweat; concentrations of K+ are much higher. It follows that the values for concentration of Na+ and Cl- reported in Table 3 probably are somewhat higher than would have been found in body sweat, and concentrations of K+ are probably much higher.

  17. Differences in the self-reported racism experiences of US-born and foreign-born Black pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Tyan Parker; Strong, Emily Ficklin; Krieger, Nancy; Gillman, Matthew W; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2009-07-01

    Differential exposure to minority status stressors may help explain differences in United States (US)-born and foreign-born Black women's birth outcomes. We explored self-reports of racism recorded in a survey of 185 US-born and 114 foreign-born Black pregnant women enrolled in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study of pregnant women in Boston, Massachusetts, USA. Self-reported prevalence of personal racism and group racism was significantly higher among US-born than foreign-born Black pregnant women, with US-born women having 4.1 and 7.8 times the odds, respectively, of childhood exposure. In multivariate analyses, US-born women's personal and group racism exposure also was more pervasive across the eight life domains we queried. Examined by immigrant subgroups, US-born women were more similar in their self-reports of racism to foreign-born women who moved to the US before age 18 than to women who immigrated after age 18. Moreover, US-born women more closely resembled foreign-born women from the Caribbean than those from Africa. Differential exposure to self-reported racism over the life course may be a critically important factor that distinguishes US-born Black women from their foreign-born counterparts.

  18. Discrimination and Excessive Weight Gain During Pregnancy Among Black and Latina Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Allecia E.; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A.; Lewis, Tené T.; Lewis, Jessica B.; Stasko, Emily C.; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. Objective We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Method Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Results Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Conclusion Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. PMID:27038321

  19. Discrimination and excessive weight gain during pregnancy among Black and Latina young women.

    PubMed

    Reid, Allecia E; Rosenthal, Lisa; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Lewis, Tené T; Lewis, Jessica B; Stasko, Emily C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-05-01

    Excessive weight gain during pregnancy is a major determinant of later life obesity among both Black and Latina women and their offspring. However, psychosocial determinants of this risk, including everyday discrimination, and potential moderators of such effects remain unexplored. We examined the influence of discrimination, a culturally relevant stressor, on odds of gaining weight beyond Institute of Medicine recommendations during pregnancy. Whether the effect was moderated by race/ethnicity, age, or depressive symptoms was also examined. Participants were 413 Black and Latina pregnant young women, ages 14-21 years. Experience with discrimination and all moderators were assessed in the second trimester. Last weight recorded in the third trimester was abstracted from medical records and used to determine excessive weight gain. Ever experiencing discrimination was associated with a 71% increase in the odds of excessive weight gain. The effect of discrimination was primarily present among women who attributed this treatment to membership in a historically oppressed group (e.g., ethnic minority, female) or to membership in other stigmatized groups (e.g., overweight). The effect of ever experiencing discrimination was not moderated by race/ethnicity or age but was moderated by depressive symptoms. Supporting the perspective of the environmental affordances model, discrimination strongly predicted excessive weight gain when women were low in depressive symptoms but had no effect when women were high in depressive symptoms. The moderating role of depressive symptoms was equivalent for Black and Latina women. Results highlight the role of discrimination in perpetuating weight-related health disparities and suggest opportunities for improving health outcomes among young pregnant women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Euthanasia in Muslim law].

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mahmoud

    2007-09-01

    If a physician accepts to conduct an act of euthanasia or assisted suicide, would it be possible for him to be charged with homicide or even, is patient consent or motivation of the physician, susceptible to change the nature of the criminal act? Since the 1990s, a transformation has occurred in the way of dealing with these questions and figures from the world of philosophy, ethics and law can now be found in favor of euthanasia and assisted suicide. In certain countries, legislation has even been modified to follow this pattern. In consequence, besides the philosophical and ethical dimensions of this issue, it has become necessary to reexamine, even to revise, the notion of responsibility concerning euthanasia in Muslim law from new bases constituted by the doctrine of the Ulemas.

  1. Racism, segregation, and risk of obesity in the Black Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Cozier, Yvette C; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F; Bethea, Traci N; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of "everyday" racism (e.g., "people act as if you are dishonest") and of "lifetime" racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women.

  2. Racism, Segregation, and Risk of Obesity in the Black Women's Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Cozier, Yvette C.; Yu, Jeffrey; Coogan, Patricia F.; Bethea, Traci N.; Rosenberg, Lynn; Palmer, Julie R.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the relation of experiences of racism to the incidence of obesity and the modifying impact of residential racial segregation in the Black Women's Health Study, a follow-up study of US black women. Racism scores were created from 8 questions asked in 1997 and 2009 about the frequency of “everyday” racism (e.g., “people act as if you are dishonest”) and of “lifetime” racism (e.g., unfair treatment on the job). Residential segregation was measured by linking participant addresses to 2000 and 2010 US Census block group data on the percent of black residents. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Based on 4,315 incident cases of obesity identified from 1997 through 2009, both everyday racism and lifetime racism were positively associated with increased incidence. The incidence rate ratios for women who were in the highest category of everyday racism or lifetime racism in both 1997 and 2009, relative to those in the lowest category, were 1.69 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 1.96; Ptrend < 0.01) and 1.38 (95% confidence interval: 1.15, 1.66; Ptrend < 0.01), respectively. These associations were not modified by residential segregation. These results suggest that racism contributes to the higher incidence of obesity among African American women. PMID:24585257

  3. Systematic review of stigma reducing interventions for African/Black diasporic women

    PubMed Central

    Loutfy, Mona; Tharao, Wangari; Logie, Carmen; Aden, Muna A; Chambers, Lori A; Wu, Wei; Abdelmaseh, Marym; Calzavara, Liviana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Literature indicates that racism, sexism, homophobia and HIV-related stigma have adverse impacts on health, well-being, and quality of life among HIV-positive women of African descent (African/Black diaspora). However, limited evidence exists on the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma tailored for these women. This study systematically reviewed randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized observational and quasi-experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing stigma experienced by this population. Methods The Cochrane methodology was used to develop a search strategy in consultation with a librarian scientist. Databases searched included the Cochrane Library, Ovid EMBASE, PsycInfo, and 10 others. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies for potential relevance and conducted the Cochrane grading of RCTs to assess risk of bias and the Newcastle–Ottawa scale to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Eligible papers were selected if they employed an intervention design with African/Black diasporic women living with HIV as the target population and had a primary outcome of stigma reduction. Results Of the five studies that met all of the eligibility criteria, four demonstrated the effectiveness of interventions in reducing HIV-related stigma. Only two of the five studies were designed specifically for HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. Limitations included the absence of interventions addressing other forms of stigma and discrimination (e.g. gender discrimination, racism, heterosexism). Conclusions Our findings suggest that there are limited interventions designed to address multiple forms of stigma, including gender and racial discrimination, experienced by HIV-positive African/Black diasporic women. PMID:25862565

  4. The sexual assault of undergraduate women at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs).

    PubMed

    Krebs, Christopher P; Barrick, Kelle; Lindquist, Christine H; Crosby, Carmen M; Boyd, Chimi; Bogan, Yolanda

    2011-12-01

    Although research has shown that undergraduate women are at high risk for experiencing sexual assault, little research has been conducted with undergraduate women who are attending a historically Black college or university (HBCU). The purpose of this research is to document the prevalence of different types of sexual assault among undergraduate women at HBCUs and make comparisons to data collected from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs. Data on sexual assault victimization were collected from 3,951 undergraduate women at HBCUs using a cross-sectional, web-based survey. These data are compared to data collected from 5,446 undergraduate women at non-HBCUs using the same research methods. Findings indicate that approximately 9.7% of undergraduate women at HBCUs report experiencing a completed sexual assault since entering college. This rate is considerably lower than the comparable rate obtained from undergraduate women at non-HBCUs (13.7%). This difference seems to be associated with differences in alcohol-use frequency. Perhaps undergraduate women at HBCUs drink alcohol much less frequently and are thus less likely to be sexually assaulted when they are incapacitated and unable to provide consent. Alcohol use frequency, while controlling for other factors, seems to have an independent association with the likelihood of an undergraduate woman being sexually assaulted. Implications for the creation and delivery of sexual assault risk reduction and prevention policies and programs are discussed.

  5. Anginal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Disease, and Adverse Outcomes in Black and White Women: The NHLBI-Sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B. Delia; Rutledge, Thomas; Bittner, Vera; Whittaker, Kerry S.; Krantz, David S.; Cornell, Carol E.; Eteiba, Wafia; Handberg, Eileen; Vido, Diane; Bairey Merz, C. Noel

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Black women are less likely to be evaluated and treated for anginal symptoms, despite a higher premature cardiac mortality rate compared to white women. Our objective was to compare angina symptoms in black versus white women regarding (1) angina symptoms characterization; (2) relationship with obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD); and (3) relationship with subsequent mortality. Methods A cohort of 466 women (69 black and 397 white) undergoing coronary angiography for suspected ischemia and without prior history of CAD completed symptom checklists. Four symptom clusters (CHEST, UPPER, STOMACH, and TYPICAL TRIGGERS) were derived by factor analysis. All angiograms were analyzed by core lab. Mortality data over 10 years were obtained from National Death Index. Results (1) Black women had lower mean CHEST cluster scores (0.60±0.30 vs. 0.73±30, p=0.002), but higher STOMACH scores (0.41±0.25 vs. 0.30±0.25, p=0.011) than white women. (2) Prevalence and severity of CAD did not differ in black and white women and was not predicted by symptom cluster scores. (3) All-cause mortality rates were 24.9% in blacks versus 14.5% in whites, p=0.007; and cardiovascular mortality 22.5% vs.8.8%, p=0.001. Symptom clusters were not predictive of adverse events in white women. However, black women with a low TYPICAL score had significantly higher mortality compared to those with a high TYPICAL score (43% vs. 10%, p=0.006). Conclusions Among women undergoing coronary angiography, black women report fewer chest-related and more stomach-related symptoms, regardless of presence or severity of CAD, and these racial symptom presentation differences are linked with the more adverse prognosis observed in the black women. Atypical symptom presentation may be a barrier to appropriate and timely diagnosis and treatment and contribute to poorer outcomes for black women. PMID:23992103

  6. Vitamin D at term of pregnancy and during lactation in white and black women living in Northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Gaggero, M; Mariani, L; Guarino, R; Patrucco, G; Ballardini, G; Boscardini, L; Barbaglia, M; Bello, L; Guala, A

    2010-04-01

    Evaluate the vitamin D serum status in a population of white and black mothers who live in the same geographic area of northern Italy (45 degrees 8' N of latitude) and its correlation with vitamin D serum concentrations of the respective newborns at birth, at 2 and 12 months. Twelve white woman-infant pairs and 12 black woman-infant pairs were recruited from January through March 2006. The study population had no pre-existing disease and delivered at term of pregnancy (37-41 weeks of gestational age). Only black infants were given vitamin D supplementation from birth to 1 year of age. Eleven black and 12 white women had low vitamin D serum levels at term of pregnancy. Similarly, black and white newborns were both vitamin D deficient at birth. After 12 months white women re-gained physiological vitamin D serum levels, whereas black women maintained a status of vitamin D deficiency. Black newborns who were given supplementation showed lower vitamin D serum concentrations as compared with white newborns at 1 year of age. These data showed that all the women living in the same region of northern Italy without any supplementation are equally vitamin D deficient at term of pregnancy regardless of their skin pigmentation. Consequently, every woman should be supplied with additional vitamin D during pregnancy and lactation, though such supplementation seems to exert the most beneficial effects in black women.

  7. Technology in Muslim Moral Philosophy.

    PubMed

    Moosa, Ebrahim

    2016-04-01

    The article explores the place, role and status of technology in Muslim moral philosophy. Invoking early Muslim encounters with technology the author makes the case why technology is already deeply embedded in contemporary Muslim bioethical thinking. Due to an absence of the philosophical grounding there remains some ambivalence as to why technology is essential to Muslim ethical thinking. Countering the techno-pessimists, the author makes a case in favor of compositional thinking, namely that our thinking itself is altered by our tools and our environment. Compositional thinking opposes the representational mode of thinking that creates a dichotomy between nature versus culture, and technology versus nature. One should, however, anticipate an environment in which technology would be beneficial and not be viewed as potentially harmful.

  8. "Outstanding Services to Negro Health": Dr. Dorothy Boulding Ferebee, Dr. Virginia M. Alexander, and Black Women Physicians' Public Health Activism.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2016-08-01

    An examination of the lives and careers of physician-activists Dorothy Boulding Ferebee (1898-1972) and Virginia M. Alexander (1899-1949) demonstrates how Black physicians in the first half of the 20th century used public health to improve the health of Black Americans and provides insights into the experiences of Black women physicians. I discuss their professional and personal backgrounds and analyze their divergent strategies to address health inequities. Ferebee used her leadership in Black women's organizations to develop public health programs and become a national advocate for Black health. Alexander, a Quaker, used her religious connections to urge Whites to combat racism in medicine. She also conducted public health research and connected it to health activism. Both were passionate advocates of health equity long before it gained prominence as a major public health issue. An analysis of their work illuminates past efforts to improve the health of Black Americans.

  9. Evaluation of a socio-cultural intervention to reduce unprotected sex for HIV among African American/Black women.

    PubMed

    Boekeloo, B; Geiger, T; Wang, M; Ishman, N; Quinton, S; Allen, G; Ali, B; Snow, D

    2015-10-01

    African American/Black (Black) women suffer disproportionately to other women from HIV. An HIV prevention intervention combining two previous evidenced-based intervention programs; "Coping with Work and Family Stress" and "Hip Hop 2 Prevent Substance Abuse and HIV", was evaluated in a diverse sample of Black women (n = 205). Study participants at ten recruitment sites were assigned non-randomly to either the intervention or comparison group and then surveyed at baseline, immediate posttest, and 6-month follow-up. General Estimating Equation modeling revealed that participants in the comparison group reported less unprotected sex at immediate post-test and the intervention group less unprotected sex at 6-month follow-up. Despite the initial drop in reported unprotected sex in the comparison group, this study suggests that an HIV risk reduction intervention tailored to address Black women's socio-cultural stress and enhance their coping may reduce their unprotected sex at 6-months.

  10. Unique variation in genetic selection among Black North American women and its potential influence on pregnancy outcome.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Shirlee; Normand, Neil; Jayaram, Aswathi; Orfanelli, Theofano; Doulaveris, Georgios; Passos, Mariana; Kanninen, Tomi T; Bongiovanni, Ann Marie; Linhares, Iara M; Witkin, Steven S

    2013-11-01

    We hypothesize that variations in the frequency of genetic polymorphisms, reflecting ancestral differences in living conditions and exposure to microorganisms, increase susceptibility to adverse pregnancy outcome among present day Black North American women. Striking differences were observed in the frequency of genetic variants between Black and White or Hispanic women in 5 genes (IL1RN, MBL2, PPARA, ATG16L1, CIAS1) associated with inflammation and anti-microbial immunity. The CIAS1 and IL1RN polymorphisms were associated with altered interleukin-1β serum levels; the MBL2 polymorphism resulted in a decreased serum mannose-binding lectin concentration. Gene polymorphisms associated with an alteration in innate immunity were most frequent in Black women. This may reflect an evolutionary selection in response to an ancient environment containing a high multitude of microorganisms, and may increase susceptibility of Black women to infection-associated preterm birth in the current North American environment.

  11. To Address Suffering That the Majority Can't See: Lessons from Black Women's Leadership in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how both historically and in contemporary times of escalating violence against our bodies, minds, and spirits worldwide, Black women lead, love, and live within contexts of suffering.

  12. To Address Suffering That the Majority Can't See: Lessons from Black Women's Leadership in the Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter explores how both historically and in contemporary times of escalating violence against our bodies, minds, and spirits worldwide, Black women lead, love, and live within contexts of suffering.

  13. Factors Associated with Increased Risk for Lethal Violence in Intimate Partner Relationships among Ethnically Diverse Black Women

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Bushra; Stockman, Jamila K.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; O’Brien, Sharon; Campbell, Doris; Callwood, Gloria B.; Bertrand, Desiree; Sutton, Lorna W.; Hart-Hyndman, Greta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with increased risk for lethal violence among ethnically diverse Black women in Baltimore, Maryland (MD) and the US Virgin Islands (USVI). Women with abuse experiences (n=456) were recruited from primary care, prenatal or family planning clinics in Baltimore, MD and St. Thomas and St. Croix, USVI. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with the risk for lethal violence among abused women. Factors independently related to increased risk of lethal violence included fear of abusive partners, PTSD symptoms, and use of legal resources. These factors must be considered in assessing safety needs of Black women in abusive relationships. PMID:25429191

  14. Pap screening goals and perceptions of pain among black, Latina, and Arab women: steps toward breaking down psychological barriers.

    PubMed

    Gauss, Julie W; Mabiso, Athur; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2013-06-01

    Understanding women's psychological barriers to getting Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has potential to impact cancer disparities. This study examined pain perceptions of Pap testing among black, Latina, and Arab women and goal setting to receive Pap tests. Data on 420 women, in a longitudinal study, were analyzed using Chi-square tests of differences and generalized linear mixed models. At baseline, 30.3 % of black and 35.5 % of Latina women perceived Pap tests to be very painful compared to 24.2 % of Arab women. Perceptions of pain influenced goal settings, such as scheduling a first ever Pap test (odds ratio=0.58, 95 % confidence interval 0.14-0.94). Immediately following the intervention, women's perception that Pap tests are very painful significantly declined (P value <0.001) with Arab and black women registering the greatest improvements (20.3 and 17.3 % reduction, respectively, compared to 8.4 % for Latina). Having the perception that the Pap test is very painful significantly reduces the likelihood of black, Latina, and Arab women setting the goal to schedule their first ever Pap test. Latina women are the least likely to improve their perception that the Pap test is very painful, though national statistics show they have the highest rates of morbidity and mortality from cervical cancer. These findings are instructive for designing tailored interventions to break down psychological barriers to Pap screening among underserved women.

  15. Trailblazers: An Examination of Community College Black Women in Senior Level Administrator Roles--Their Stories through Their Eyes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams-Bruce, Tameka Lazette

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how Black women who work in senior level administrative positions at community colleges were able to establish successful career paths. The literature review draws from the theoretical framework of critical race theory, the Black feminist thought, and critical race feminism. The use of counter-stories establishes a platform for…

  16. Hope and Despair: Southern Black Women Educators across Pre- and Post-Civil Rights Cohorts Theorize about Their Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2012-01-01

    Framed by theoretical perspectives on Black Feminist Thought, the life course, and the Generation X/Hip-Hop generation, I present findings from a subset of 10 Black women educators in Birmingham, Alabama who participated in a larger life story project. The participants, who came of age professionally across the pre- and post-civil rights movement…

  17. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  18. Fit and Phat: Black College Women and Their Relationship with Physical Activity, Obesity and Campus Recreation Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter-Francique, Akilah R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to recognize factors that contribute to Black female college students adoption of physically active behaviors. In addition, this paper acknowledges the prevalence of obesity in the United States for Black women, and examines the relationship between body mass index, physical activity and use of campus recreation…

  19. Hope and Despair: Southern Black Women Educators across Pre- and Post-Civil Rights Cohorts Theorize about Their Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder-Jackson, Tondra L.

    2012-01-01

    Framed by theoretical perspectives on Black Feminist Thought, the life course, and the Generation X/Hip-Hop generation, I present findings from a subset of 10 Black women educators in Birmingham, Alabama who participated in a larger life story project. The participants, who came of age professionally across the pre- and post-civil rights movement…

  20. Variation in birth outcomes by mother's country of birth among non-Hispanic black women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Elo, Irma T; Vang, Zoua; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2014-12-01

    Rates of prematurity (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) were compared between US-born and foreign-born non-Hispanic black women. Comparisons were also made between Sub-Saharan African-born and Caribbean-born black women and by maternal country of birth within the two regions. Comparisons were adjusted for sociodemographic, health behavioral and medical risk factors available on the birth record. Birth record data (2008) from all states (n = 27) where mother's country of birth was recorded were used. These data comprised 58 % of all singleton births to non-Hispanic black women in that year. Pearson Chi square and logistic regression were used to investigate variation in the rates of PTB and SGA by maternal nativity. Foreign-born non-Hispanic black women had significantly lower rates of PTB (OR 0.727; CI 0. 726, 0.727) and SGA (OR 0.742; CI 0.739-0.745) compared to US-born non-Hispanic black women in a fully adjusted model. Sub-Saharan African-born black women compared to Caribbean-born black women had significantly lower rates of PTB and SGA. Within each region, the rates of PTB and SGA varied by mother's country of birth. These differences could not be explained by adjustment for known risk factors obtained from vital records. Considerable heterogeneity in rates of PTB and SGA among non-Hispanic black women in the US by maternal nativity was documented and remained unexplained after adjustment for known risk factors.

  1. Patterns, levels and correlates of self-reported physical activity in urban black Soweto women.

    PubMed

    Gradidge, Philippe Jean-Luc; Crowther, Nigel J; Chirwa, Esnat D; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K

    2014-09-08

    Urban black South African women have a high prevalence of non-communicable diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the physical activity patterns of a cohort of middle-aged urban-dwelling black African women and to determine if physical activity is associated with anthropometric measures and metabolic outcomes in this population. Physical activity and sitting time were assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) in a cross-sectional study of 977 black African women (mean age 41.0 ± 7.84 years) from the Birth to Twenty study based in Soweto, Johannesburg. Anthropometric outcomes were measured and fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile were analysed to determine metabolic disease risk and prevalence. Sixty-seven percent of the population were classified as active according to GPAQ criteria, and the domain that contributed most to overall weekly physical activity was walking for travel. Only 45.0% of women participated in leisure time activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in this sample was 40.0%, and the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 29.2% and 48.0%, respectively. Women who reported owning a motor vehicle walked for travel less, and participated in more leisure-time activity (both p < 0.01), while women who owned a television reported significantly lower moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and walking for travel (both p < 0.01). Sitting time (mins/wk) was not different between the activity groups, but was associated with triglycerides and diastolic blood pressure. Total physical activity was inversely associated with fasting insulin, and physical activity in the work domain was associated with fat free soft tissue mass. The findings of this study show that the majority of urban dwelling black South African women are classified as physically active despite a high prevalence of obesity and metabolic disease risk factors. Sitting time had detrimental

  2. Cumulative Stress and Cortisol Disruption among Black and Hispanic Pregnant Women in an Urban Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Suglia, Shakira Franco; Staudenmayer, John; Cohen, Sheldon; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    While adult hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis functioning is thought to be altered by traumatic experiences, little data exist on the effects of cumulative stress on HPA functioning among pregnant women or among specific racial and ethnic groups. Individuals may be increasingly vulnerable to physiological alterations when experiencing cumulative effects of multiple stressors. These effects may be particularly relevant in urban poor communities where exposure to multiple stressors is more prevalent. The goal of this study was to explore the effects of multiple social stressors on HPA axis functioning in a sample of urban Black (n = 68) and Hispanic (n = 132) pregnant women enrolled in the Asthma Coalition on Community, Environment, and Social Stress (ACCESS). Pregnant women were administered the Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (R-CTS) survey to assess interpersonal violence, the Experiences of Discrimination (EOD) survey, the Crisis in Family Systems-Revised (CRISYS-R) negative life events survey, and the My Exposure to Violence (ETV) survey, which ascertains exposure to community violence. A cumulative stress measure was derived from these instruments. Salivary cortisol samples were collected five times per day over three days to assess area under the curve (AUC), morning change, and basal awakening response in order to characterize diurnal salivary cortisol patterns. Repeated measures mixed models, stratified by race/ethnicity, were performed adjusting for education level, age, smoking status, body mass index and weeks pregnant at time of cortisol sampling. The majority of Hispanic participants (57%) had low cumulative stress exposure, while the majority of Black participants had intermediate (35%) or high (41%) cumulative stress exposure. Results showed that among Black but not Hispanic women, cumulative stress was associated with lower morning cortisol levels, including a flatter waking to bedtime rhythm. These analyses suggest that the combined

  3. Hemodynamic responses to stress among black women: fitness and parental hypertension.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Erica M; Dishman, Rod K

    2002-07-01

    We compared hemodynamic aspects of the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and blood pressure changes during and after laboratory stress in young black women with or without parental history of hypertension. Participants were 30 normotensive, black American women having low to moderate fitness levels (i.e., VO2peak) assessed by cycle ergometry who performed standard active and passive coping laboratory stressors. Blood pressure, heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac output, total peripheral resistance (TPR), calf blood flow (CBF), and calf vascular resistance (CVR) were assessed during exposure to forehead and hand cold pressors, and mental arithmetic, as well as during recovery after the tasks. Fitness was positively related to increases in either TPR or CVR during each stressor. In contrast, fitness was positively related to blunted blood pressure during or after passive stress (i.e., hand or forehead cold) and enhanced recovery of blood pressure and TPR after the active stressor (i.e., mental arithmetic); effects of fitness on the vascular responses during and after mental arithmetic were stronger among women having a negative history of parental hypertension. The findings confirm our previous report that fitness blunts systolic blood pressure response during the hand cold pressor in young women. They also suggest that future studies of fitness and blood pressure reactivity during stress should focus on the regulation of vascular responses and their recovery after stress. Weaker effects of VO2peak after mental arithmetic in the positive history group indicate that the level of fitness required to modify recovery from mental stress among black American women may differ according to parental history of hypertension.

  4. A Qualitative Study of Survival Strategies Used by Low-Income Black Women Who Experience Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    St Vil, Noelle M; Sabri, Bushra; Nwokolo, Vania; Alexander, Kamila A; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2017-01-01

    Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) are often portrayed as helpless victims. Yet many women who experience IPV implement strategies to help them survive the abuse. This qualitative study sought to explore the survivor strategies used by low-income black women who experience IPV. Authors used a semistructured interview guide to survey 26 survivors who reported being in an IPV relationship in the past two years. Thematic analysis revealed three types of survivor strategies used by low-income black women: (1) internal (use of religion and becoming self-reliant), (2) interpersonal (leave the abuser or fight back), and (3) external (reliance on informal, formal, or both kinds of sources of support). This article informs social work practitioners of the strategies used by low-income black women in surviving IPV so that practitioners can develop interventions that support these strategies. © 2016 National Association of Social Workers.

  5. The differential impact of discrimination on health among Black and White women.

    PubMed

    Versey, H Shellae; Curtin, Nicola

    2016-05-01

    Despite a large body of research examining the impact of discrimination on health, the ways in which perceived discrimination may lead to disparate health outcomes through a sense of self and system consciousness is less understood. The current paper is concerned with both mental and physical health consequences of discrimination, as well as mediating pathways among African American and White women. Indirect effects analyses examine mediating paths from discrimination to health outcomes via structural awareness and self-esteem, using data from the Women's Life Path Study (N = 237). Our findings suggest that discrimination is both directly and indirectly associated with health outcomes for both Black and White women, mediated by individual (self-esteem) and group-level (structural awareness) processes. Evidence from this study indicates that discrimination is associated with heightened structural awareness, as well as lower self-esteem - both of which are related to poorer health. Discrimination negatively affected health across three domains, although the mechanisms varied somewhat for Black and White women. Broad implications of this research for interdisciplinary scholarship on the effects of discrimination on health and health disparities are discussed.

  6. Investigation of breast cancer sub-populations in black and white women in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dickens, Caroline; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Anderson, William F; Duarte, Raquel; Kellett, Patricia; Schüz, Joachim; Kielkowski, Danuta; McCormack, Valerie A

    2016-12-01

    Bimodal age distributions at diagnosis have been widely observed among US and European female breast cancer populations. To determine whether bimodal breast cancer distributions are also present in a sub-Saharan African population, we investigated female breast cancer in South Africa. Using the South African National Cancer Registry data, we examined age-at-diagnosis frequency distributions (density plots) for breast cancer overall and by their receptor (oestrogen, progesterone and HER2) determinants among black and white women diagnosed during 2009-2011 in the public healthcare sector. For comparison, we also analysed corresponding 2010-2011 US SEER data. We investigated density plots using flexible mixture models, allowing early/late-onset membership to depend on receptor status. We included 8857 women from South Africa, 7176 (81 %) with known oestrogen receptor status, and 95064 US women. Bimodality was present in all races, with an early-onset mode between ages 40-50 years and a late-onset mode among ages 60-70 years. The early-onset mode was younger in South African black women (age 38), compared to other groups (45-54 years). Consistent patterns of bimodality and of its receptor determinants were present across breast cancer patient populations in South Africa and the US. Although the clinical spectrum of breast cancer is well acknowledged as heterogeneous, universal early- and late-onset age distributions at diagnosis suggest that breast cancer etiology consists of a mixture two main types.

  7. The Power of Femininity: Exploring the Gender and Ethnic Experiences of Muslim Women Who Accessed Supervisory Roles in a Bedouin Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quader, Sarab Abu-Rabia; Oplatka, Izhar

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The current paper aims to tell the stories of six female supervisors who have successfully managed to access this high-level position in the Bedouin educational system, putting forward some implications for understanding and exploring the lives and career of women in patriarchal, minority groups. Design/methodology/approach: Six female…

  8. Scarves of Many Colors: Muslim Women and the Veil. A Memorial Curriculum in Honor of the Life and Work of Joan Hawkinson Bohorfoush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Bill; Childs, Sandra; Diamond, Norm; Dickerson, Diana; Haaken, Jan

    The curriculum delineated in this guide is aimed at multiple settings, outlining units on current affairs, globalization, religious and cultural identities, women and gender roles, social theory and social analysis, discrimination, and resistance to commodification. It is adaptable for age groups ranging from middle school through college. The…

  9. Motherhood, Psychological Risks, and Resources in Relation to Alcohol Use Disorder: Are There Differences between Black and White Women?

    PubMed

    Balan, Sundari; Widner, Gregory; Chen, Hsing-Jung; Hudson, Darrell; Gehlert, Sarah; Price, Rumi Kato

    2014-04-20

    Rates of alcohol use disorders (AUD) are generally low among women who have ever had children (mothers) compared to women who have never had children (nonmothers), presenting a motherhood advantage. It is unclear if this advantage accrues to "Black" and "White" women alike. Using National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) wave 2 cross-sectional data that is rich in alcohol use and psychological measures, we examined the following: (a) if motherhood is protective for past-year AUD among Black (N = 4, 133) and White women (N = 11, 017); (b) potential explanatory psychological mechanisms; and (c) the role of race. Prevalence of a past-year DSM-IV AUD was lower among White mothers compared to White nonmothers, but this same advantage was not observed for Black women. Perceived stress was a risk for all women, but race-ethnic segregated social networks and perceived discrimination predicted current AUD for Black mothers. Unlike White mothers, current psychological factors but not family history of alcohol problems predicted AUD for Black mothers. Future prospective studies should address the mechanisms by which race, motherhood, and psychological factors interactively affect AUD in women.

  10. A Threat Enfleshed: Muslim College Students Situate Their Identities amidst Portrayals of Muslim Violence and Terror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Arshad Imtiaz

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the raced representations of the "Muslim Other" and how these representations engaged the lived realities and found footing in how Muslim youth understood their identities. Utilizing qualitative life history interviews with 24 Muslim undergraduates, I examine student talk addressing the construction of the Muslim in…

  11. A Threat Enfleshed: Muslim College Students Situate Their Identities amidst Portrayals of Muslim Violence and Terror

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Arshad Imtiaz

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the raced representations of the "Muslim Other" and how these representations engaged the lived realities and found footing in how Muslim youth understood their identities. Utilizing qualitative life history interviews with 24 Muslim undergraduates, I examine student talk addressing the construction of the Muslim in…

  12. Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women.

    PubMed

    DeMaria, Andrea L; Berenson, Abbey B

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe pubic hair grooming behaviors (shaving, waxing, trimming or dyeing) and the extent to which grooming was related to demographic characteristics and sexual history among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Data were collected from 1677 women aged 16-40 years between July 2010 and August 2011 as part of a larger study. Participants completed a cross-sectional written survey. Multivariable analyses were used to identify correlates of pubic hair grooming. Being a current groomer was associated with being White, a younger age, under or normal weight, having a yearly household income >$30,000, and having 5 or more lifetime sexual partners. Overall, we discovered pubic hair grooming was extremely common among women of varying demographics. It is important for health and research professionals to understand pubic hair grooming practices so they can address behavioral and clinical concerns.

  13. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  14. Health literacy and online health discussions of North American Black women.

    PubMed

    Donelle, L; Hoffman-Goetz, L

    2008-01-01

    Women increasingly use the Internet for healthcare information. This pilot study examined the use of online chat rooms as a potential health promotion resource for women of color. A directed qualitative content analysis assessed discussions (2002/2003 and 2004/2005) from two Internet chat rooms targeted to North American, English-speaking Black women. Verbatim transcripts were assessed using Nutbeam's (2001) model of health literacy. Chat 1 and Chat 2 had 18 and 54 messages, respectively. Transcript readability was below grade 8 level. Discussions provided information on healthy behaviors, social support, and provocation for political action. The chat rooms provided health promotion information and social support at recommended readability levels and are illustrative of contemporary reorientation of health promotion services.

  15. Evaluating a DVD promoting breast cancer awareness among black women aged 25-50 years in East London.

    PubMed

    Greenhough, Beth; Dembinsky, Melanie; Dyck, Isabel; Brown, Tim; Robson, John; Homer, Kate; Sajani, Cynthia; Carter, Lucy; Duffy, Stephen W; Ornstein, Mark

    2016-07-01

    The mean age of presentation for breast cancer among black women is substantially earlier than their white counterparts. Black women also present with adverse prognostic factors that have major clinical implications, including lower survival. To pilot the use of a 6 min DVD on breast cancer in young (under 50 years) black women, to raise awareness and examine the impact of the DVD on increased consultation and referral rates among these women. Two general practices (intervention practices) in the Hackney area were randomised to have the DVD mailed to all black women aged 25-50 years registered with the practices, and two practices to no intervention (control practices). EMIS data was used to compare consultation rates preintervention and postintervention, in the intervention as well as control practices. Interviews with practice staff and focus groups with patients in participating practices provided qualitative data on the study context and DVD effectiveness. A trend of declining consultations for breast symptoms was observed (-22% and -31% among non-black women in the control and intervention practices, and -23% among black women in the control practice) except among the target population of black women aged 25-50 years for the DVD in the intervention practices, which saw an increase of 28% in consultations. The qualitative data indicated that the DVD was well received in the target population, and suggested further ways of disseminating awareness messages and overcoming barriers to help-seeking. Pilot results suggest that the strategy of distributing the DVD may increase consultations for breast problems. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  16. Ethnicity and sampling bias in binge eating disorder: Black women who seek treatment have different characteristics than those who do not.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Carlos M; Lozano, Christine; Masheb, Robin M

    2005-11-01

    The current study investigated sampling bias as it affects recruited clinic samples of Black and White women with binge eating disorder (BED). Clinical characteristics of a recruited clinic sample (35 Black and 302 White consecutively evaluated women) with BED were compared with a community sample of Black and White women with BED drawn from the New England Women's Health Project. The clinic and community groups met the same definition of BED and were assessed with identical methods. Among White women, the clinic and community samples differed on some features (higher body mass index [BMI], and greater eating concerns and shape concerns in the clinic sample) but these differences reflected small to moderate effects sizes. In contrast, among Black women, the clinic sample had substantially higher levels (large effect sizes) of several features of eating disorders (eating concerns, dietary restraint, and shape concern), higher (moderate effect size) BMI, but lower frequency of binge eating (moderate effect size) than the community sample. A comparison of Black and White women within the clinic sample revealed little difference in clinical presentation, except for the significantly higher BMI among Black women. A sampling bias appears to exist between both White and Black recruited clinic samples of women with BED, although the bias appears to be substantially greater for Black women. Black women with BED who seek treatment have significantly different characteristics than those who do not.

  17. Latina and Black Women's Perceptions of the Dietetics Major and Profession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Megan

    Racial and ethnic groups remain underrepresented in undergraduate health profession education programs and careers, such as nutrition and dietetics (Sullivan, 2004). Overwhelmingly, 82 percent of dietitians are White, three percent are Latino/Latina, and less than three percent are Black (Commission on Dietetic Registration, 2016). While the calls to increase recruitment of underrepresented minorities are plentiful and federal dollars are allotted to the effort, a critical lens is necessary to investigate the complexity of factors that impact the decision to pursue a career within dietetics. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to investigate how Latina and Black women enrolled in an undergraduate Health Career Opportunity Program (HCOP) narrated and reflected upon the dietetics profession. Through the lens of Critical Race Theory and situated learning, I sought to understand the sociocultural and historical underpinnings that hinder or promote career selection. Data collection methods included participant observation, interviews, artifacts, and reflexive journaling. Data were analyzed using inductive coding techniques. My findings revealed the ways in which Latina and Black women believed dietitians must match the socially constructed role model for body image, physical fitness, and healthy eating to be effective in practice. Using a critical media analysis to confront the stereotypical images of dietitians, the women used cliche messages as a selected discourse to mask perceptions of barriers to the dietetics field. Finally, the women believed a dietitian's professional role was to give diet advice which presented a barrier to the profession. Based on my findings I support early introduction to nutrition science as a means to empower individuals to support their health and the health of their community. Recruitment efforts must explicitly address the culture of dietetics which has embraced the stereotypical image. Collectively, the dietetics field must

  18. A systematic review of barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Claire EL; Maben, Jill; Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Forbes, Lindsay JL; Lucas, Grace; Ream, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women. Design Systematic review. Methods We searched multiple bibliographic databases (January 1991–February 2013) for primary research, published in English, conducted in developed countries and investigating barriers to early presentation and diagnosis with symptomatic breast cancer among black women (≥18 years). Studies were excluded if they did not report separate findings by ethnic group or gender, only reported differences in time to presentation/diagnosis, or reported on interventions and barriers to cancer screening. We followed Cochrane and PRISMA guidance to identify relevant research. Findings were integrated through thematic synthesis. Designs of quantitative studies made meta-analysis impossible. Results We identified 18 studies (6183 participants). Delay was multifactorial, individual and complex. Factors contributing to delay included: poor symptom and risk factor knowledge; fear of detecting breast abnormality; fear of cancer treatments; fear of partner abandonment; embarrassment disclosing symptoms to healthcare professionals; taboo and stigmatism. Presentation appears quicker following disclosure. Influence of fatalism and religiosity on delay is unclear from evidence in these studies. We compared older studies (≥10 years) with newer ones (<10 years) to determine changes over time. In older studies, delaying factors included: inaccessibility of healthcare services; competing priorities and concerns about partner abandonment. Partner abandonment was studied in older studies but not in newer ones. Comparisons of healthy women and cancer populations revealed differences between how people perceive they would behave, and actually behave, on finding breast abnormality. Conclusions Strategies to improve early presentation and diagnosis with breast cancer among black women need to address symptom recognition and interpretation of risk, as well as

  19. Body Size, Metabolic Factors, and Risk of Endometrial Cancer in Black Women.

    PubMed

    Sponholtz, Todd R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Wise, Lauren A

    2016-02-15

    Total and abdominal obesity, as well as metabolic factors such as type 2 diabetes, have been associated with a higher risk of endometrial cancer in white women. It remains unclear to what extent these factors influence the risk of endometrial cancer in black women. We followed 47,557 participants from the Black Women's Health Study for incident endometrial cancer from 1995 through 2013 (n = 274). We used Cox regression models to estimate incidence rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals while accounting for potential confounders. Incidence rate ratios for body mass indices (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) of 25.0-29.9, 30.0-34.9, 35.0-39.9, and ≥40.0 versus those <25.0 were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67, 1.48), 1.49 (95% CI: 0.97, 2.30), 2.16 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.49), and 3.60 (95% CI: 2.24, 5.78), respectively (Ptrend <0.0001). A high weight-to-height ratio was also associated with a higher risk (for the highest quartile vs. the lowest, incidence rate ratio = 2.83, 95% CI: 1.77, 4.53), as was type 2 diabetes mellitus (incidence rate ratio = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.04, 2.21). Positive associations with measures of central adiposity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio) and hypertension were attenuated after we controlled for body mass index. Total adiposity was an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer among black women and appeared to explain most of the associations seen with other adiposity measures and metabolic factors. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. History of uterine leiomyoma and risk of endometrial cancer in black women.

    PubMed

    Wise, Lauren A; Sponholtz, Todd R; Rosenberg, Lynn; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L; Kuohung, Wendy; LaValley, Michael P; Palmer, Julie R

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies have found an association between uterine leiomyomata (UL) and uterine malignancies. This relation has not been studied in black women, who are disproportionately affected by UL. We investigated prospectively the association between self-reported physician-diagnosed UL and endometrial cancer in the Black Women's Health Study. During 1995-2013, 47,267 participants with intact uteri completed biennial health questionnaires. Reports of endometrial cancer were confirmed by pathology data from medical records and cancer registries. Cox regression was used to derive incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). There were 300 incident endometrial cancer cases during 689,546 person-years of follow-up. In multivariable models, UL history was associated with a 42% greater incidence of endometrial cancer compared with no such history (95% CI 1.12-1.80). IRRs for cancer diagnosed 0-2, 3-9, and ≥10 years after UL diagnosis were 3.20 (95% CI 2.06-4.98), 0.95 (95% CI 0.60-1.52), and 1.35 (95% CI 1.03-1.77), respectively. Stronger overall associations between UL history and endometrial cancer were observed for later stages at cancer diagnosis (IRR = 2.25, 95% CI 1.09-4.63) and type II/III cancers (IRR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.64-5.99). In this large cohort of black women, a history of UL was positively associated with endometrial cancer, particularly type II/III tumors. The strongest association was observed for cancer diagnosed within 2 years of UL diagnosis, a finding that might be explained by greater surveillance of women with UL or misdiagnosis of cancer as UL. However, an association was also observed for cancer reported ≥10 years after UL diagnosis.